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Sample records for organic load substrates

  1. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  2. Load transfer of nanocomposite film on aluminum substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Chien, Pao-Chu

    2018-01-01

    Nanocomposite films have attracted much attention in recent years. Depending on the composition of the film and fabrication method, a large range of applications has been employed for nanocomposite films. In this study, nanocomposite films reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited on the aluminum substrate through hot press processing. A shear lag model and Euler beam theory were employed to evaluate the stress distribution and load carrying capability of the nanocomposite film subjected to tensile load and bending moment. The influence of MWCNT on the Young's modulus and load carrying capability of the nanocomposite film was investigated through a parametric study. The theoretical predictions were verified by comparison with experimental tests. A close agreement with difference less than 6% was achieved between the theoretical prediction and experimental measurements. The Young's modulus and load transfer of the nanocomposite film reinforced with MWCNTs increases with the increase of the MWCNT loading. Compared to the neat epoxy film, nanocomposite film with 1 wt % of MWCNT exhibits an increase of 20% in both the Young's modulus and load carrying capability.

  3. Organism-substrate relationships in lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A field and laboratory study on the microdistribution of bottom dwelling macroinvertebrates to investigate the role of the stream substrate In the development and preservation of the macroinvertebrate communities in natural, undisturbed lowland streams is described. Field data on bottom substrates

  4. Biochemicalmethane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, F.; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; de la Rubia, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, all experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experim...... significantly according to the experimental approaches....

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Agronomic behavior of gladiolus in organic substrates with wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Dourado Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the technical feasibility of effluent reuse and recycling of organic substrates in the production of gladiolus. We adopted a completely randomized design in a split-plot, and the plots three qualities water (river water with Hoagland’s solution; treated effluent in stabilization pond; treated effluent in stabilization pond and disinfected and the subplots organic substrates (pine bark, coir, bagasse, repeated five times. Were characterized physico-chemical water and each substrate, the beginning and end of two growing seasons. The variables evaluated were: number of tillers, plant height, total production; flower stem length, number of flowers, time to first harvest, total cycle time, fresh and dry mass of the area. The reuse of effluent resulted in agronomic performance equal or superior to that obtained by the use of nutrient solution and the substrate base bagasse promoted agronomic performance inferior to the other substrates evaluated.

  7. Fabricating an organic complementary inverter by integrating two transistors on a single substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Wei Bin; Zhang Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Organic complementary inverters were fabricated by integrating two transistors of different electric type on a single substrate. One is a p-type organic heterojunction transistor with a depletion–accumulation mode that acts as a load element. The other is an n-type transistor with an accumulation mode that acts as a drive element. Typical inverter characteristics with a voltage gain of 12 were obtained. Compared with conventional devices, our organic complementary inverter used only one-step patterning of an organic semiconductor, and simultaneously suppressed the leakage current between supply voltage and ground. Therefore, current studies provide a simpler path to fabrication of organic complementary circuits

  8. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  9. Quality improvement of organic thin films deposited on vibrating substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Y.A.; Caldas, P.G.; Prioli, R.; Cremona, M., E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.br

    2011-12-30

    Most of the Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) have a multilayered structure composed of functional organic layers sandwiched between two electrodes. Thin films of small molecules are generally deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass or other rigid or flexible substrates. The interface state between two organic layers in OLED device depends on the surface morphology of the layers and affects deeply the OLED performance. The morphology of organic thin films depends mostly on substrate temperature and deposition rate. Generally, the control of the substrate temperature allows improving the quality of the deposited films. For organic compounds substrate temperature cannot be increased too much due to their poor thermal stability. However, studies in inorganic thin films indicate that it is possible to modify the morphology of a film by using substrate vibration without increasing the substrate temperature. In this work, the effect of the resonance vibration of glass and silicon substrates during thermal deposition in high vacuum environment of tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum(III) (Alq{sub 3}) and N,N Prime -Bis(naphthalene-2-yl)-N,N Prime -bis(phenyl)-benzidine ({beta}-NPB) organic thin films with different deposition rates was investigated. The vibration used was in the range of hundreds of Hz and the substrates were kept at room temperature during the process. The nucleation and subsequent growth of the organic films on the substrates have been studied by atomic force microscopy technique. For Alq{sub 3} and {beta}-NPB films grown with 0.1 nm/s as deposition rate and using a frequency of 100 Hz with oscillation amplitude of some micrometers, the results indicate a reduction of cluster density and a roughness decreasing. Moreover, OLEDs fabricated with organic films deposited under these conditions improved their power efficiency, driven at 4 mA/cm{sup 2}, passing from 0.11 lm/W to 0.24 lm/W with an increase in their luminance of about 352 cd/m{sup 2

  10. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom H. J. A. Sleutels

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE. To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future.

  11. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutels, Tom H. J. A.; Molenaar, Sam D.; Heijne, Annemiek Ter; Buisman, Cees J. N.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE). To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future. PMID:27681899

  12. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutels, Tom H J A; Molenaar, Sam D; Heijne, Annemiek Ter; Buisman, Cees J N

    2016-01-05

    A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE). To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future.

  13. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  14. Recyclable organic solar cells on cellulose nanocrystal substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yinhua; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Khan, Talha M; Liu, Jen-Chieh; Hsu, James; Shim, Jae Won; Dindar, Amir; Youngblood, Jeffrey P; Moon, Robert J; Kippelen, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is potentially the largest source of renewable energy at our disposal, but significant advances are required to make photovoltaic technologies economically viable and, from a life-cycle perspective, environmentally friendly, and consequently scalable. Cellulose nanomaterials are emerging high-value nanoparticles extracted from plants that are abundant, renewable, and sustainable. Here, we report on the first demonstration of efficient polymer solar cells fabricated on optically transparent cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) substrates. The solar cells fabricated on the CNC substrates display good rectification in the dark and reach a power conversion efficiency of 2.7%. In addition, we demonstrate that these solar cells can be easily separated and recycled into their major components using low-energy processes at room temperature, opening the door for a truly recyclable solar cell technology. Efficient and easily recyclable organic solar cells on CNC substrates are expected to be an attractive technology for sustainable, scalable, and environmentally-friendly energy production.

  15. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  16. Substrate specificity and copper loading of the manganese-oxidizing multicopper oxidase Mnx from Bacillus sp. PL-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Cristina N; Tebo, Bradley M

    2017-02-22

    Manganese(ii) oxidation in the environment is thought to be driven by bacteria because enzymatic catalysis is many orders of magnitude faster than the abiotic processes. The heterologously purified Mn oxidase (Mnx) from marine Bacillus sp. PL-12 is made up of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) MnxG and two small Cu and heme-binding proteins of unknown function, MnxE and MnxF. Mnx binds Cu and oxidizes both Mn(ii) and Mn(iii), generating Mn(iv) oxide minerals that resemble those found on the Bacillus spore surface. Spectroscopic techniques have illuminated details about the metallo-cofactors of Mnx, but very little is known about their requirement for catalytic activity, and even less is known about the substrate specificity of Mnx. Here we quantify the canonical MCO Cu and persistent peripheral Cu bound to Mnx, and test Mnx oxidizing ability toward different substrates at varying pH. Mn(ii) appears to be the best substrate in terms of k cat , but its oxidation does not follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, instead showing a sigmoidal cooperative behavior. Mnx also oxidizes Fe(ii) substrate, but in a Michaelis-Menten manner and with a decreased activity, as well as organic substrates. The reduced metals are more rapidly consumed than the larger organic substrates, suggesting the hypothesis that the Mnx substrate site is small and tuned for metal oxidation. Of biological relevance is the result that Mnx has the highest catalytic efficiency for Mn(ii) at the pH of sea water, especially when the protein is loaded with greater than the requisite four MCO copper atoms, suggesting that the protein has evolved specifically for Mn oxidation.

  17. Fabrication of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Gabriel; Merced-Sanabria, Milzaida; Carradero-Santiago, Carolyn; Vedrine-Pauléus, Josee

    2015-03-01

    The active layer for the organic solar cells fabricated is composed of P3HT:PCBM, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as electron donor and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester(PCBM) as electron acceptor. These polymers were used due to their promising characteristics for devices such as bulk heterojunction solar devices. We used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a highly flexible plastic, with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent conducting anode for the device, and UV lithography technique to pattern the ITO; this is to facilitate multiple devices on a single substrate. The fabrication process for pattern transfer incorporates developing and etching processes. We diluted the HCl and DI water to etch out the ITO. PEDOT:PSS and active layer of P3HT:PCBM were deposited on (3.0 sq-cm) patterned of ITO/PET by spin coating method. The cathode was thermally evaporated with Al. We characterized the device using a sourcemeter. We also simulated portions of the device using PET on graphene as the substrate.

  18. Organic against inorganic electrodes grown onto polymer substrates for flexible organic electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logothetidis, S.; Laskarakis, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging topics in the area of organic electronic devices is the growth of transparent electrodes onto flexible polymeric substrates that will be characterized by enhanced conductivity in combination with high optical transparency. An essential aspect for these materials is their synthesis and/or microstructure which define the transparency, the stability and the interfacial chemistry which in turn determine the performance and stability of the organic electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaics, etc. In this work, we will discuss the latest advances in the growth of organic (e.g. PEDOT:PSS) and inorganic (e.g. zinc oxide-ZnO, indium tin oxide-ITO) conductive materials and their deposition onto flexible polymeric substrates. We will compare the optical, structural, nano-mechanical and nano-topographical properties of the inorganic and organic materials and we investigate the effect of their structure on their properties and functionality. In the case of the organic conductive materials, we will discuss the effects of PEDOT:PSS weight ratios and the various spin speeds on their optical and electrical properties. Furthermore, in the case of ZnO the growth mechanisms, interface phenomena, crystallinity and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown onto polymer and hybrid (inorganic-organic) flexible substrates will be also discussed.

  19. Nanoscale contacts to organic molecules based on layered semiconductor substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, Sebastian

    2009-06-15

    This work reports on the integration of organic molecules as nanoelectronic device units on semiconductor substrates. Two novel preparation methods for sub-10-nm separated metal electrodes are presented using current microelectronics process technology. The first method utilises AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as mold to create planar metal electrodes employing a newly developed, high resolution nanotransfer printing (nTP) process. The second method uses commercially available Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates as base material for the fabrication of nanogap electrode devices. This sandwich-like material stack consists of a silicon substrate, a thin silicon oxide layer, and a capping silicon layer on top. Electronic transport measurements verified their excellent electrical properties at liquid helium temperatures. Specifically tailored nanogap devices featured an electrode insulation in the GW range even up to room temperature as well as within aqueous electrolyte solution. Finally, the well defined layer architecture facilitated the fabrication of electrodes with gap separations below-10-nm to be directly bridged by molecules. Approximately 12-nm-long conjugated molecules with extended -electron system were assembled onto the devices from solution. A large conductance gap was observed with a steep increase in current at a bias voltage of V{sub T}{approx}{+-}1.5 V. Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism confirmed the measured non-linear IV-characteristics qualitatively and lead to the conclusion that the conductance gap mainly originates from the oxygen containing linker. Temperature dependent investigations of the conductance indicated a hopping charge transport mechanism through the central part of the molecule for bias voltages near but below V{sub T}. (orig.)

  20. Organic heterostructures deposited by MAPLE on AZO substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Stanculescu, A.; Breazu, C.; Florica, C.; Stanculescu, F.; Iftimie, S.; Girtan, M.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Socol, G.

    2017-09-01

    Organic heterostructures based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene (C60) as blends or multilayer were deposited on Al:ZnO (AZO) by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The AZO layers were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on glass substrate, the high quality of the films being reflected by the calculated figure of merit. The organic heterostructures were investigated from morphological, optical and electrical point of view by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements, respectively. The increase of the C60 content in the blend heterostructure has as result a high roughness. Compared with the multilayer heterostructure, those based on blends present an improvement in the electrical properties. Under illumination, the highest current value was recorded for the heterostructure based on the blend with the higher C60 amount. The obtained results showed that MAPLE is a useful technique for the deposition of the organic heterostructures on AZO as transparent conductor electrode.

  1. Uranium bioprecipitation mediated by yeasts utilizing organic phosphorus substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinjin; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2016-06-01

    In this research, we have demonstrated the ability of several yeast species to mediate U(VI) biomineralization through uranium phosphate biomineral formation when utilizing an organic source of phosphorus (glycerol 2-phosphate disodium salt hydrate (C3H7Na2O6P·xH2O (G2P)) or phytic acid sodium salt hydrate (C6H18O24P6·xNa(+)·yH2O (PyA))) in the presence of soluble UO2(NO3)2. The formation of meta-ankoleite (K2(UO2)2(PO4)2·6(H2O)), chernikovite ((H3O)2(UO2)2(PO4)2·6(H2O)), bassetite (Fe(++)(UO2)2(PO4)2·8(H2O)), and uramphite ((NH4)(UO2)(PO4)·3(H2O)) on cell surfaces was confirmed by X-ray diffraction in yeasts grown in a defined liquid medium amended with uranium and an organic phosphorus source, as well as in yeasts pre-grown in organic phosphorus-containing media and then subsequently exposed to UO2(NO3)2. The resulting minerals depended on the yeast species as well as physico-chemical conditions. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that phosphatase-mediated uranium biomineralization can occur in yeasts supplied with an organic phosphate substrate as sole source of phosphorus. Further understanding of yeast interactions with uranium may be relevant to development of potential treatment methods for uranium waste and utilization of organic phosphate sources and for prediction of microbial impacts on the fate of uranium in the environment.

  2. Enhancement of methyl tert-butyl ether degradation by the addition of readily metabolizable organic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongzhi; Chen Jianmeng; Zhong Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Supplements with readily metabolizable organic substrates were investigated to increase the biomass and enhance degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) due to the low biomass yield of MTBE which has been one of the factors for low-rate MTBE degradation. The influence of various organic substrates on the rate of aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 was investigated, and only yeast extract (YE), beef extract and tryptone exhibited stimulatory effect. With the concentration of each substrate being 100 mg/L, the average MTBE removal rate could increase to 1.29, 1.20 and 1.04 mg/(L h), respectively, in comparison with 0.71 mg/(L h) when carried out in medium without addition. The stimulatory effects of YE addition, as well as induction period required by MTBE degradation, varied dramatically with the storage conditions, pre-culture medium and concentrations of the inoculums. The extent of stimulatory effects of YE might be closely related to the proportion of induction period in the total time of MTBE-degradation. The removal efficiency increased from about 50% to 90.5% with the addition of YE in a packed-bed reactor loaded with calcium alginate immobilized cells.

  3. Array of organic thin film transistors integrated with organic light emitting diodes on a plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Gi-Seong; Choe, Ki-Beom; Song, Chung-Kun

    2006-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible application of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) to a flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED) an array of 64 x 64 pixels was fabricated on a 4-in. size poly-ethylene-terephehalate substrate. Each pixel was composed of one OTFT integrated with one OLED. OTFTs successfully drove OLEDs by varying current in a wide range and some images were displayed on the array by emitting green light. The OTFTs used poly(4-vinylphenol) for the gate and pentacene for the semiconductor taking account compatibility with the PET substrate. The average mobility in the array was 0.2 cm 2 /V.s, which was reduced from 1.0 cm 2 /V.s in a single OTFT, and its variation over the entire substrate was 10%

  4. Experimental study on surface wrinkling of silicon monoxide film on compliant substrate under thermally induced loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Kong, Yingxiao; Jiang, Wenchong; Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin

    2017-06-01

    The wrinkling of a silicon monoxide thin film on a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate structure was experimentally investigated in this study. The self-expansion effect of PDMS during film deposition was utilized to impose a pretensile strain on the structure through a specially made fixture. A laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) system with an in situ heating stage was employed for the real-time measurement. The Young’s modulus of the silicon monoxide thin film as well as the PDMS substrate was measured on the basis of the elasticity theory. Moreover, the effects of temperature variations on geometric parameters in the postbuckling state, such as wavelength and amplitude, were analyzed. It was proved that wavelength is relatively immune to thermal loads, while amplitude is much more sensitive.

  5. Fully solution-processed organic solar cells on metal foil substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate fully solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells on metal foil substrates with power conversion efficiencies similar to those obtained in devices on transparent substrates. The cells are based on the regioregular poly- (3

  6. IZO deposited by PLD on flexible substrate for organic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Stanculescu, A.; Breazu, C.; Florica, C.; Rasoga, O.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.

    2017-05-01

    In:ZnO (IZO) thin films were deposited on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The obtained layers present adequate optical and electrical properties competitive with those based on indium tin oxide (ITO). The figure of merit (9 × 10-3 Ω-1) calculated for IZO layers demonstrates that high quality coatings can be prepared by this deposition technique. A thermal annealing (150 °C for 1 h) or an oxygen plasma etching (6 mbar for 10 min.) were applied to the IZO layers to evaluate the influence of these treatments on the properties of the transparent coatings. Using vacuum evaporation, organic heterostructures based on cooper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) were deposited on the untreated and treated IZO layers. The optical and electrical properties of the heterostructures were investigated by UV-Vis, FTIR and current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. For the heterostructure fabricated on IZO treated in oxygen plasma, an improvement in the current value with at least one order of magnitude was evidenced in the I- V characteristics recorded in dark conditions. Also, an increase in the current value for the heterostructure deposited on untreated IZO layer can be achieved by adding an organic layer such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3).

  7. Cellulose accessibility limits the effectiveness of minimum cellulase loading on the efficient hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddler Jack N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A range of lignocellulosic feedstocks (including agricultural, softwood and hardwood substrates were pretreated with either sulfur dioxide-catalyzed steam or an ethanol organosolv procedure to try to establish a reliable assessment of the factors governing the minimum protein loading that could be used to achieve efficient hydrolysis. A statistical design approach was first used to define what might constitute the minimum protein loading (cellulases and β-glucosidase that could be used to achieve efficient saccharification (defined as at least 70% glucan conversion of the pretreated substrates after 72 hours of hydrolysis. The likely substrate factors that limit cellulose availability/accessibility were assessed, and then compared with the optimized minimum amounts of protein used to obtain effective hydrolysis. The optimized minimum protein loadings to achieve efficient hydrolysis of seven pretreated substrates ranged between 18 and 63 mg protein per gram of glucan. Within the similarly pretreated group of lignocellulosic feedstocks, the agricultural residues (corn stover and corn fiber required significantly lower protein loadings to achieve efficient hydrolysis than did the pretreated woody biomass (poplar, douglas fir and lodgepole pine. Regardless of the substantial differences in the source, structure and chemical composition of the feedstocks, and the difference in the pretreatment technology used, the protein loading required to achieve efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates was strongly dependent on the accessibility of the cellulosic component of each of the substrates. We found that cellulose-rich substrates with highly accessible cellulose, as assessed by the Simons' stain method, required a lower protein loading per gram of glucan to obtain efficient hydrolysis compared with substrates containing less accessible cellulose. These results suggest that the rate-limiting step during hydrolysis is not the catalytic

  8. Reduced bacteria adhesion on octenidine loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles coating on titanium substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaoqiang; Shen, Xinkun; Dai, Liangliang; Ran, Qichun; Ma, Pingping; Cai, Kaiyong

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infection is one of the most severe postoperative complications leading to implantation failure. The early bacterial stage (4-6h) was proved to be the "decisive period" for long-term bacteria-related infection. Thus, to endow potential early antibacterial capacity for a titanium (Ti) based implant, an effective antiseptic agent of octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) was effectively loaded on the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)-incorporated titania coating which was fabricated by an electrophoretic-enhanced micro-arc oxidation technique. The surface characteristic of the coatings were characterized by various methods (SEM, AFM, XPS, XRD, etc.), and its corrosion resistance was also examined by the potentiodynamic polarization curves. The composite coating without OCT loading not only displayed good cytocompatibility but also exhibited certain anti-bacterial property. After loading with OCT, its antibacterial efficiency of the titanium substrates with composite coating was greatly enhanced without compromising their cytocompatibility. The study provides an approach for the fabrication of anti-bacterial Ti implant for potential orthopedic application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple method to prepare self-assembled organic-organic heterobilayers on metal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a self-assembly based simple method to prepare organic-organic heterobilayers on a metal substrate. By either sequential- or co-deposition of para-sexiphenyl (p-6P and pentacene molecules onto the Cu(110 surface in ultrahigh vacuum, p-6P/pentacene/Cu(110 heterobilayer is synthesized at room temperature. The layer sequence of the heterostructure is independent of the growth scenario indicating the p-6P/pentacene/Cu(110 is a self-assembled structure with lowest energy. Besides, the bilayer shows a very high orientational ordering and is thermally stable up to 430K.

  10. The performance of a three-phase fluidized bed reactor in treatment of wastewater with high organic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out aiming to evaluate the performance of a three-phase fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR used to treat milk wastewater. In this study three different concentrations of milk wastewater substrate (462, 825 and 1473 mg O2/L were tested. Using the same number of support particles, the results demonstrate that the average efficiency of COD removal decreased as the concentration of organic load in the substrate was increased. The growth of microorganism in the FBBR was followed by a count of viable cells in both liquid phase and the biofilms attached to the support. An increased number of viable cells were observed inside the reactor when it was used to degrade higher organic loads, with most of the cells on the support. The higher concentration of active biomass was responsible for achieving a relatively high absolute degradation of the wastewater containing the high organic load.

  11. Impact on vehicle fuel economy of the soot loading on diesel particulate filters made of different substrate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millo, Federico; Andreata, Maurizio; Rafigh, Mahsa; Mercuri, Davide; Pozzi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Wall flow DPFs (Diesel Particulate Filters) are nowadays universally adopted for all European passenger cars. Since the properties of the filter substrate material play a fundamental role in determining the optimal soot loading level to be reached before DPF regeneration, three different filter material substrates (Silicon Carbide, Aluminum Titanate and Cordierite) were investigated in this work, considering different driving conditions, after treatment layouts and regeneration strategies. In the first step of the research, an experimental investigation on the three different substrates over the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) was performed. The data obtained from experiments were then used for the calibration and the validation of a one dimensional fluid-dynamic engine and after treatment simulation model. Afterward, the model was used to predict the vehicle fuel consumption increments as a function of the exhaust back pressure due to the soot loading for different driving cycles. The results showed that appreciable fuel consumption increments could be noticed only in particular driving conditions, and, as a consequence, in most of the cases the optimal filter regeneration strategy corresponds to reach the highest soot loading that still ensures the component safety even in case of uncontrolled regeneration events. - Highlights: • Three different substrate materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter were investigated. • Fuel consumption increases due to DPF soot loading were generally not appreciable. • Optimal soot loading before regeneration was the highest safeguarding DPF integrity. • SiC substrate showed highest soot load limit and lowest fuel consumption penalties. • AT and Cd substrate properties lead to lower soot load limits than SiC

  12. Acclimatization and growth of ornamental pineapple seedlings under organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation techniques are commonly used to produce ornamental pineapple seedlings in commercial scale, aiming to attend the growers with genetic and sanitary quality seedlings. However, the choice of the ideal substrate is essential for the acclimatization and growth stage of the seedlings propagated by this technique, since some substrates can increase the seedling mortality and/or limit the seedling growth due to its physical and chemical characteristics. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the acclimatization of ornamental pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. var. ananassoides (Baker Coppens & Leal] on different substrates. Seedlings with approximately seven centimeters, obtained from in vitro culture, were transplanted into styrofoam trays filled with the following substrates: sphagnum; semi-composed pine bark; carbonized rice husk; sphagnum + semicomposed pine bark; sphagnum + carbonized rice husk; and semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk. Each treatment was replicated five times using 10 plants. At 180 days, there were evaluated the following variables: survival percentage, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, largest root length, and shoot and root dry matter. The substrate semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk presented the lowest mean (62% for survival percentage. The semi-composed pine bark and semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk treatments presented significant increments in some evaluated biometric characteristics. The semi-composed pine bark is the most favorable substrate for the A. comosus var. ananassoids acclimatization.

  13. Effect of continuous addition of an organic substrate to the anoxic phase on biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhold, Jens; Pedersen, Heinz; Arnold, Eva

    1998-01-01

    The continuous introduction of a biological phosphorus removal (BPR) promoting organic substrate to the denitrifying reactor of a BPR process is examined through a series of batch experiments using acetate as model organic substrate. Several observations are made regarding the influence of substr...

  14. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles-Loaded Poly(ɛ-caprolactone Nanofiber as Substrate for ARPE-19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Henrique Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass nanoparticles-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone nanofibers (BIOG PCL nanofibers were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for ocular cells (ARPE-19. BIOG PCL nanofibers were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and DSC, and the in vitro degradation profile was also investigated. The in vitro ocular biocompatibility of nanofibers was exploited in Müller glial cells (MIO-M1 cells and in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM; and the proliferative capacity, cytotoxicity, and functionality were evaluated. Finally, ARPE-19 cells were seeded onto BIOG PCL nanofibers and they were investigated as supports for in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation. SEM images revealed the incorporation of BIOG nanoparticles into PCL nanofibers. Nanoparticles did not induce modifications in the chemical structure and semicrystalline nature of PCL in the nanofiber, as shown by FTIR and DSC. MIO-M1 cells exposed to BIOG PCL nanofibers showed viability, and they were able to proliferate and to express GFAP, indicating cellular functionality. Moreover, nanofibers were well tolerated by CAM. These findings suggested the in vitro ocular biocompatibility and absence of toxicity of these nanofibers. Finally, the BIOG nanoparticles modulated the protein adsorption, and, subsequently, ARPE-19 cells adhered and proliferated onto the nanostructured supports, establishing cell-substrate interactions. In conclusion, the biodegradable and biocompatible BIOG PCL nanofibers supported the ARPE-19 cells.

  15. Evaluation of Pollutant Loads: Organic and Inorganic in River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the organic and inorganic pollutant loads in River Ukoghor of the Lower Benue Basin. Grab water samples were collected from the outlet of the River into River Benue, twice a month in three replications for a period of eight months (April November, 2002) using sterilized one-litre ...

  16. Vacuum-based surface modification of organic and metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jessica

    Surface physico-chemical properties play an important role in the development and performance of materials in different applications. Consequently, understanding the chemical and physical processes involved during surface modification strategies is of great scientific and technological importance. This dissertation presents results from the surface modification of polymers, organic films and metallic substrates with reactive species, with the intent of simulating important modification processes and elucidating surface property changes of materials under different environments. The reactions of thermally evaporated copper and titanium with halogenated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are used to contrast the interaction of metals with polymers. Results indicate that reactive metallization is thermodynamically favored when the metal-halogen bond strength is greater than the carbon-halogen bond strength. X-ray post-metallization treatment results in an increase in metal-halide bond formation due to the production of volatile halogen species in the polymer that react with the metallic overlayer. The reactions of atomic oxygen (AO) and atomic chlorine with polyethylene (PE) and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) films were followed to ascertain the role of radical species during plasma-induced polymer surface modification. The reactions of AO with X-ray modified SAMs are initially the dominated by the incorporation of new oxygen containing functionality at the vacuum/film interface, leading to the production of volatile carbon containing species such as CO2 that erodes the hydrocarbon film. The reaction of atomic chlorine species with hydrocarbon SAMs, reveals that chlorination introduces C-Cl and C-Cl2 functionalities without erosion. A comparison of the reactions of AO and atomic chlorine with PE reveal a maximum incorporation of the corresponding C-O and C-Cl functionalities at the polymer surface. A novel method to prepare phosphorous

  17. Stress development in thin yttrium films on hard substrates during hydrogen loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornheim, M.; Pundt, A.; Kirchheim, R.; Molen, S. J. v. d.; Kooij, E. S.; Kerssemakers, J.; Griessen, R.; Harms, H.; Geyer, U.

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline (0002)-textured yttrium (Y) films of 50-500 nm thickness on sapphire substrates were loaded electrolytically with hydrogen (H). The stresses which build up in these films were measured in situ using curvature measurements. The results are compared to the behavior of bulk Y-H. A linear elastic model is used to predict the behavior of clamped thin films. Basic properties of the bulk Y-H phase diagram and elastic constants resemble the measured values of the thin films. Compressive stress builds up during H-loading in the α-Y phase and in the (α-Y+β-YH 2 ) two-phase field, showing an initial stress increase of -1.3 GPa per hydrogen concentration X H (compressive stress). While bulk Y-H samples are known to show a contraction in the β-YH 2 phase during H loading, thin films show no evidence for such a contraction during the first loading cycle of the film. The stress remains constant in the bulk β-phase concentration range (ΔX H =0.1 H/Y). This is attributed to the narrow β-phase field (ΔX H =0.02 H/Y) of the thin film during the first loading. Only samples which have been kept at a hydrogen concentration of about 1.5 H/Y for weeks show tensile stress in the concentration range of the bulk β phase. Amazingly a stress increase of about +0.5 GPa/X H (tensile stress) is measured in the β+γ two-phase field. This is attributed to the smaller in-plane nearest-neighbor distance in the γ phase compared to the β phase. In the γ-phase field compressive stress is built up again, compensating the tensile stress. It increases by -1.3 GPa/X H . In total, the net stress in Y-H films remains comparably small. This could be a reason for the good mechanical stability of such Y-H switchable mirrors during H cycling

  18. The role of organic load and ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of tannery fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Polizzi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, batch tests on anaerobic digestion of tannery fleshing (skin-residue waste from hides’ tanning process, as sole substrate, have been performed with the purpose of assessing the effects of high substrate concentration and consequent ammonia inhibition on the process. Co-digestion with tannery primary sludge was also evaluated. According to the results, no inhibition occurred at initial organic load up to 5 gVS/l; an inhibited steady state was observed at 10 gVS/l, and system failure and instability was showed at the highest load of 20 gVS/l. Co-digestion with tannery primary sludge proved feasible, probably due to dilution effect. The observed ammonia and VFA accumulation over the experimental time-lapse is also discussed. Results are intended to increase knowledge on the technological application of anaerobic digestion of sole tannery fleshing, in the perspective of its application as on-site treatment solution for decentralised tanneries. Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, Tannery waste, Ammonia inhibition, Organic load

  19. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  20. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS -1 ), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS -1 ) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  2. Room temperature deposition of magnetite thin films on organic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Cavallini, M.; Murgia, M.; Riminucci, A.; Ruani, G.; Dediu, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the growth of magnetite films directly on thin layers of organic semiconductors by means of an electron beam ablation method. The deposition was performed at room temperature in a reactive plasma atmosphere. Thin films show ferromagnetic (FM) hysteresis loops and coercive fields of hundreds of Oersted. Micro Raman analysis indicates no presence of spurious phases. The morphology of the magnetite film is strongly influenced by the morphology of the underlayer of the organic semiconductor. These results open the way for the application of magnetite thin films in the field of organic spintronics

  3. Vacuum Deposited Organic Light Emitting Devices on Flexible Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forrest, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this eight year program was to demonstrate both passive and active matrix, flexible, small scale displays based on small molecular weight organic light emitting device (OLED) technology...

  4. Growth and yield of Dutch cucumber grown in a protected environment and with alternative organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Meneses Fernández

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of imported substrates by local materials is a trend in severaltechnifiedproduction systems, given the cost reduction and the importance of agricultural by-products, formerly considered to be waste. The main objective of this work was to validate the effect of different substrates on the growth and productivity of Dutch cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions. The study took place from October 2012 to January 2013, at the Agricultural Experiment Station Fabio Baudrit, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Variety Fuerte was used and four mixed substrates (volume ratio made of local raw materials as coconut fiber (FC, oil palm leaf fiber (FP, organic compost (ABO, and sawdust (AS as well as a commercial treatment (control constituted by coco coir slabs were analyzed. Substrate water content, plant growth (vegetative phase, and yield were evaluated according to commercial size (S, M, L, XL, and rejected. The growth of Dutch cucumber plants, variety Fuerte, was higher on substrates with coconut fiber 40% + oil palm leaf fiber 40% + organic compost 20%, and coconut fiber 70% + organic compost 30%, while yield of the same two substrates was 15.57 and 15.44 kg/m2, respectively. Both treatments were statistically equal to the commercial coco coir substrate slabs with a yield of 14.77 kg/m2. Result attributed to the nutritional contribution of the organic compost (high K, Ca, and Mg along with and to the effects of aeration and water retention of fibers.

  5. Effect of different substrates for organic agriculture in seedling development of traditional species of Solanaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaria, M.; Nebot, J.F.; Molina, H.; Troncho, P.; Lapeña, P.; Llorens, E.

    2016-11-01

    Sowing of seedlings is one of the most critical processes on the establishment of a crop, since the future development of the plant depends largely on its health when is planted on the field. Moreover, organic agriculture has to deal with the low application of fertilizers and pesticides, which hinder the growth of seedlings. In this work, we studied the big influence of different mixtures of substrates suitable for organic agriculture based on peat, coconut husk and vermicompost in traditional varieties of tomato, pepper and eggplant. Our results indicate that the use of coconut husk based substrates in organic agriculture can reduce the growth of seedlings between 20 and 30% compared with peat-based substrates. Moreover, the plants growth in this substrate showed lower levels of chlorophyll and lower weight, but the results are strongly dependent on the species tested. Comparison between traditional plants demonstrates that traditional varieties are strongly influenced by the substrate, whereas the growth of a commercial variety of tomato barely differs when different substrates are used. The election of the substrate in organic agriculture is critical to the correct development of the plant, especially when traditional plant varieties are used. (Author)

  6. Effect of different substrates for organic agriculture in seedling development of traditional species of Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Molina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sowing of seedlings is one of the most critical processes on the establishment of a crop, since the future development of the plant depends largely on its health when is planted on the field. Moreover, organic agriculture has to deal with the low application of fertilizers and pesticides, which hinder the growth of seedlings. In this work, we studied the big influence of different mixtures of substrates suitable for organic agriculture based on peat, coconut husk and vermicompost in traditional varieties of tomato, pepper and eggplant. Our results indicate that the use of coconut husk based substrates in organic agriculture can reduce the growth of seedlings between 20 and 30% compared with peat-based substrates. Moreover, the plants growth in this substrate showed lower levels of chlorophyll and lower weight, but the results are strongly dependent on the species tested. Comparison between traditional plants demonstrates that traditional varieties are strongly influenced by the substrate, whereas the growth of a commercial variety of tomato barely differs when different substrates are used. The election of the substrate in organic agriculture is critical to the correct development of the plant, especially when traditional plant varieties are used.

  7. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  8. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Maldonado, Emilio Raymundo; Casanova-Lugo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion and their response in plant were reviewed. Agricultural wastes are considered a pollutant reservoir in Mexico; however, for another perspective this represent an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. The production of compost and vermicompost is an option that minimize the risk of contamination and improve quality. Both processes are an alternative for organic production. The efficiency of irrigation and fertilization are affected for the reducing the volumen of an organic material incresase compaction and compression of roots. The mixtures with inorganic materials are used in the development of a new material to obtain better growing conditions for the plant. (author) [es

  9. Circularly organized quantum dot nanostructures of Ge on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qijia; Chen, Peixuan; Zhong, Zhenyang; Jiang, Zuimin; Lu, Fang; An, Zhenghua

    2009-01-01

    A novel circularly arranged structure of germanium quantum dots has been fabricated by combining techniques including electron beam lithography, wet etching and molecular beam epitaxy. It was observed that both pattern and growth parameters affect the morphology of the quantum dot molecules. Meanwhile, the oxidation mask plays a vital role in the formation of circularly organized quantum dots. The experimental results demonstrate the possibilities of investigating the properties of quantum dot molecules as well as single quantum dots

  10. Non-equibiaxial deformation of W/Cu nanocomposite thin films on stretchable substrate: Effect of loading path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, Pierre-Olivier, E-mail: pierre.olivier.renault@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS-Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Le Bourhis, Eric; Goudeau, Philippe [Institut Pprime, CNRS-Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Thiaudière, Dominique [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Faurie, Damien [LSPM, CNRS-Université Paris13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2013-12-31

    In situ biaxial tensile tests were carried out on W/Cu nanocomposite thin films deposited on a polyimide cruciform substrate. A biaxial testing machine developed on the DiffAbs beamline at the French SOLEIL synchrotron allows for scrutinizing the mechanical behaviour of crystalline thin films at the micro-scale and the macro-scale using simultaneously synchrotron X-ray diffraction and digital image correlation techniques. Both strain analyses have been performed for two controlled non-equibiaxial loading paths: loading ratios of 0.8 and 0.33. The mechanical response is analysed and compared for the two loading ratios. - Highlights: • Non-equibiaxial tensile tests are performed on metallic film-substrate composite. • Two different loading paths have been performed. • Applied strains are measured in situ by X-ray diffraction and image correlation. • Lattice strain and elastic stress–true strain curves are plotted. • The different mechanical behaviours in the two directions of applied load are revealed.

  11. Top-Emission Organic Light Emitting Diode Fabrication Using High Dissipation Graphite Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a synthetic graphite fiber as the heat dissipation substrate for top-emission organic light emitting diode (TEOLED to reduce the impact from joule heat. UV glue (YCD91 was spin coated onto the substrate as the insulation layer. The TEOLED structure is (glass; copper; graphite substrate/YCD91 glue/Al/Au/EHI608/TAPC/Alq3/LiF/Al/Ag. The proposed graphite fiber substrate presents better luminous performance compared with glass and copper substrate devices with luminance of 3055 cd/m2 and current efficiency of 6.11 cd/A at 50 mA/cm2. When lighting period of different substrates TEOLED, the substrate case back temperature was observed using different lighting periods. A glass substrate element operating from 5 to 25 seconds at 3000 cd/m2 luminance produced a temperature rate of 1.207°C/sec. Under 4000 cd/m2 luminance the copper and graphite substrate temperature rates were 0.125°C/sec and 0.088°C/sec. Graphite component lifetime was determined to be 1.875 times higher than the glass components and 1.125 times higher than that of copper.

  12. Substrate morphology induced self-organization into carbon nanotube arrays, ropes, and agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Guang-Hui; Qian, Wei-Zhong; Wei, Fei

    2008-10-29

    In this paper, hydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, ropes, and agglomerates were synthesized through self-organization on quartz substrates with different micro-structures under the same growth condition. On a flat substrate, a uniform woven structure was formed which resulted in a synchronous growth into an array. When the substrate with 10 µm round concaves distributed on the surface was adopted, the woven structure was sporadic and a CNT cluster was grown in the concave. With further growth, CNT ropes were self-organized. Subsequently, when the substrate consisting of irregular ∼100 nm gaps was used, the initial woven structure was high density, thus resulting in the formation of CNT agglomerates. Study results showed that CNT arrays grown on the flat substrate were of the highest purity and had a contact angle of 153.8 ± 0.9°. Thus, the self-organization behavior among CNTs was in situ modulated by different substrate morphology without further treatments. This provides us with an additional understanding of the self-organization of CNTs during growth, as well as strategies for the controllable synthesis of CNTs with fixed properties.

  13. Substrate morphology induced self-organization into carbon nanotube arrays, ropes, and agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiaqi; Zhang Qiang; Xu Guanghui; Qian Weizhong; Wei Fei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, hydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, ropes, and agglomerates were synthesized through self-organization on quartz substrates with different micro-structures under the same growth condition. On a flat substrate, a uniform woven structure was formed which resulted in a synchronous growth into an array. When the substrate with 10 μm round concaves distributed on the surface was adopted, the woven structure was sporadic and a CNT cluster was grown in the concave. With further growth, CNT ropes were self-organized. Subsequently, when the substrate consisting of irregular ∼100 nm gaps was used, the initial woven structure was high density, thus resulting in the formation of CNT agglomerates. Study results showed that CNT arrays grown on the flat substrate were of the highest purity and had a contact angle of 153.8 ± 0.9 0 . Thus, the self-organization behavior among CNTs was in situ modulated by different substrate morphology without further treatments. This provides us with an additional understanding of the self-organization of CNTs during growth, as well as strategies for the controllable synthesis of CNTs with fixed properties.

  14. Mechanical integrity of thin inorganic coatings on polymer substrates under quasi-static, thermal and fatigue loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leterrier, Y.; Mottet, A.; Bouquet, N.; Gillieron, D.; Dumont, P.; Pinyol, A.; Lalande, L.; Waller, J.H.; Manson, J.-A.E.

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between residual stress state, cohesive and adhesive properties of coatings on substrates is reviewed in this article. Attention is paid to thin inorganic coatings on polymers, characterized by a very high hygro-thermo-mechanical contrast between the brittle and stiff coating and the compliant and soft substrate. An approach to determine the intrinsic, thermal and hygroscopic contributions to the coating residual stress is detailed. The critical strain for coating failure, coating toughness and coating/substrate interface shear strength are derived from the analysis of progressive coating cracking under strain. Electro-fragmentation and electro-fatigue tests in situ in a microscope are described. These methods enable reproducing the thermo-mechanical loads present during processing and service life, hence identifying and modeling the critical conditions for failure. Several case studies relevant to food and pharmaceutical packaging, flexible electronics and thin film photovoltaic devices are discussed to illustrate the benefits and limits of the present methods and models.

  15. Production of camu camu plants with different organic substrates in conventional nursery bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to verify the initial development of camu camu plants with different organic substrates in conventional nursery bedding microsprinkler irrigation and shade management Chromatine® mesh with 50% red light. We used genetic material from mother plants Germplasm Bank of INIA-camu camu Iquitos, seeds were germinated in decomposed sawdust and kept for a period of 40 days after subculturing was performed with 10 cm in height in different substrates according treatments in nursery beds with dimensions of 1.20 m wide x 10 m long with a depth of 30 cm. After conducting assessments of height (cm and basal diameter (mm for a period of 120 days, it was found that the substrate manure has become the substrate for greater efficiency in plant development camu camu substrate followed by humus worm.

  16. Mathematical model of organic substrate degradation in solid waste windrow composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Hadibarata, Tony; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Organic solid waste composting is a complex process that involves many coupled physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. To understand this complexity and to ease in planning, design and management of the composting plant, mathematical model for simulation is usually applied. The aim of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of organic substrate degradation and its performance evaluation in solid waste windrow composting system. The present model is a biomass-dependent model, considering biological growth processes under the limitation of moisture, oxygen and substrate contents, and temperature. The main output of this model is substrate content which was divided into two categories: slowly and rapidly degradable substrates. To validate the model, it was applied to a laboratory scale windrow composting of a mixture of wood chips and dog food. The wastes were filled into a cylindrical reactor of 6 cm diameter and 1 m height. The simulation program was run for 3 weeks with 1 s stepwise. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. The MC and temperature of model simulation were found to be matched with those of experiment, but limited for rapidly degradable substrates. Under anaerobic zone, the degradation of rapidly degradable substrate needs to be incorporated into the model to achieve full simulation of a long period static pile composting. This model is a useful tool to estimate the changes of substrate content during composting period, and acts as a basic model for further development of a sophisticated model.

  17. Flexible organic light emitting diodes fabricated on biocompatible silk fibroin substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiang; Xie, Yuemin; Liu, Yuan; Song, Tao; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Liao, Liangsheng; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-10-01

    Flexible and biodegradable electronics are currently under extensive investigation for biocompatible and environmentally-friendly applications. Synthetic plastic foils are widely used as substrates for flexible electronics. But typical plastic substrates such as polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) could not be degraded in a natural bio-environment. A great demand still exists for a next-generation biocompatible and biodegradable substrate for future application. For example, electronic devices can be potentially integrated into the human body. In this work, we demonstrate that the biocompatible and biodegradable natural silk fibroin (SF) films embedded with silver nanowires (AgNWs) mesh could be employed as conductive transparent substrates to fabricate flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Compared with commercial PEN substrates coated with indium tin oxide, the AgNWs/SF composite substrates exhibit a similar sheet resistance of 12 Ω sq-1, a lower surface roughness, as well as a broader light transmission range. Flexible OLEDs based on AgNWs/SF substrates achieve a current efficiency of 19 cd A-1, demonstrating the potential of the flexible AgNWs/SF films as conductive and transparent substrates for next-generation biodegradable devices.

  18. Flexible organic light emitting diodes fabricated on biocompatible silk fibroin substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuqiang; Xie, Yuemin; Liu, Yuan; Song, Tao; Liao, Liangsheng; Sun, Baoquan; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Flexible and biodegradable electronics are currently under extensive investigation for biocompatible and environmentally-friendly applications. Synthetic plastic foils are widely used as substrates for flexible electronics. But typical plastic substrates such as polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) could not be degraded in a natural bio-environment. A great demand still exists for a next-generation biocompatible and biodegradable substrate for future application. For example, electronic devices can be potentially integrated into the human body. In this work, we demonstrate that the biocompatible and biodegradable natural silk fibroin (SF) films embedded with silver nanowires (AgNWs) mesh could be employed as conductive transparent substrates to fabricate flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Compared with commercial PEN substrates coated with indium tin oxide, the AgNWs/SF composite substrates exhibit a similar sheet resistance of 12 Ω sq −1 , a lower surface roughness, as well as a broader light transmission range. Flexible OLEDs based on AgNWs/SF substrates achieve a current efficiency of 19 cd A −1 , demonstrating the potential of the flexible AgNWs/SF films as conductive and transparent substrates for next-generation biodegradable devices. (paper)

  19. Broad Substrate Specificity of the Loading Didomain of the Lipomycin Polyketide Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzawa, S; Eng, CH; Katz, L; Keasling, JD

    2013-06-04

    LipPks1, a polyketide synthase subunit of the lipomycin synthase, is believed to catalyze the polyketide chain initiation reaction using isobutyryl-CoA as a substrate, followed by an elongation reaction with methylmalonyl-CoA to start the biosynthesis of antibiotic alpha-lipomycin in Streptomyces aureofaciens Tu117. Recombinant LipPks1, containing the thioesterase domain from the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase, was produced in Escherichia coli, and its substrate specificity was investigated in vitro. Surprisingly, several different acyl-CoAs, including isobutyryl-CoA, were accepted as the starter substrates, while no product was observed with acetyl-CoA. These results demonstrate the broad substrate specificity of LipPks1 and may be applied to producing new antibiotics.

  20. Waste Load Allocation for Conservative Substances to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    A waste load allocation process is developed to determine the maximum effluent concentration of a conservative substance that will not harm fish and wildlife propagation. If this concentration is not exceeded in the effluent, the acute toxicity criterion will not be violated in the receiving stream, and the chronic criterion will not be exceeded in the zone of passage, defined in many state water quality standards to allow the movement of aquatic organisms past a discharge. Considerable simplification of the concentration equation, which is the heart of any waste load allocation, is achieved because it is based on the concentration in the receiving stream when the concentration gradient on the zone of passage boundary is zero. Consequently, the expression obtained for effluent concentration is independent of source location or stream morphology. Only five independent variables, which are routinely available to regulatory agencies, are required to perform this allocation. It aids in developing permit limits which are protective without being unduly restrictive or requiring large expenditures of money and manpower on field investigations.

  1. Role of microbes associated with organic and inorganic substrates in phosphorus spiralling in a woodland stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwood, J.W.; Newbold, J.D.; O'Neill, R.V.; Stark, R.W.; Singley, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine if nutrient spiralling is primarily a biological process. The experiments were conducted to examine the role of microbial uptake and abiotic sorption onto organic and inorganic substrates in the uptake of PO 4 -P in Walker Branch, a small, first-order woodland stream in east Tennessee, to estimate the total, microbial, and adsorptive pool sizes of exchangeable phosphorus associated with five particulate organic matter from this stream, and to measure the turnover rate of PO 4 -P by live and sterile inorganic substrates in Walker Branch

  2. A novel biological hydrogen production system. Impact of organic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Western Ontario Univ. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. Two biohydrogenators were operated for 220 days at 37 C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranged from 1.4 to 2 days under four different glucose concentrations of 2, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 64 g/L, corresponding to organic loading rates of 6.5-206 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, and started up using anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Marys wastewater treatment plant (St.Mary, Ontario, Canada) as the seed. The system steadily produced hydrogen with no methane. A maximum hydrogen yield of 3.1 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose was achieved in the system for all the organic loading rates with an average of 2.8mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose. Acetate and butyrate were the main effluent liquid products at concentrations ranging from 640-7400 mg/L and 400-4600 mg/l, respectively, with no lactate detection. Microbial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) confirmed the absence of lactate producing bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum and other non-hydrogen producing species, and the predominance of various Clostridium species. Biomass concentrations in the biohydrogenators were steady, during the runs, varying form 1500 mg/L at the OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d to 14000 mg/L at the 104 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, thus emphasizing the potential of this novel system for sustained stable hydrogen production and prevention of biomass washout. (orig.)

  3. Chemical characterisation of natural organic substrates for biological mitigation of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Oriol; de Pablo, Joan; Luis Cortina, José; Ayora, Carlos

    2004-11-01

    The current approach of the biological treatment of acid mine drainage by means of a passive remediation system involves the choice of an appropriate organic substrate as electron donor for sulphate reducers. Nowadays this selection is one of the critical steps in the performance of such treatment, as this depends to a great extent on the degradability of the organic substrate. Thus, a prior characterisation of the organic substrate predicting its biodegradability would be desirable before embarking on an extensive large-scale application. The aim of this study was to correlate the chemical composition (lignin content) of four different natural organic substrates (compost, sheep and poultry manures, oak leaf) and their capacity to sustain bacterial activity in an attempt to predict biodegradation from chemical characterisation. The results showed that the lower the content of lignin in the organic substrate, the higher its biodegradability and capacity for developing bacterial activity. Of the four organic materials, sheep and poultry manures and oak leaf evolved reducing conditions and sustained active sulphidogenesis, which coupled with the decrease in sulphate concentration indicated bacterial activity. Sheep manure was clearly the most successful organic material as electron donor (sulphate removal >99%), followed by poultry manure and oak leaf (sulphate removal of 80%). Compost appeared to be too poor in carbon to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria activity by itself. Column experiments emphasised the importance of considering the residence time as a key factor in the performance of continuous systems. With a residence time of 0.73 days, sheep manure did not promote sulphidogenesis. However, extending residence time to 2.4 and 9.0 days resulted in an increase in the sulphate removal to 18% and 27%, respectively.

  4. High performance low voltage organic field effect transistors on plastic substrate for amplifier circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houin, G.J.R.; Duez, F.; Garcia, L.; Cantatore, E.; Torricelli, F.; Hirsch, L.; Belot, D.; Pellet, C.; Abbas, M.

    2016-01-01

    The high performance air stable organic semiconductor small molecule dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) was chosen as active layer for field effect transistors built to realize flexible amplifier circuits. Initial device on rigid Si/SiO2 substrate showed appreciable performance

  5. Reduced substrate supply limits the temperature response of soil organic carbon decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka

    2013-01-01

    Controls on the decomposition rate of soil organic carbon (SOC), especially the more stable fraction of SOC, remain poorly understood, with implications for confidence in efforts to model terrestrial C balance under future climate. We investigated the role of substrate supply in the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in laboratory incubations of coarse-...

  6. Optimization of the production of mycorrhizal inoculum on substrate with organic fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda R Coelho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The system for production of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF using sand and vermiculite irrigated with nutrient solution is promising. However, organic amendments added to the substrate can stimulate sporulation of AMF and replace the nutrient solution. The aim of this study was to maximize the production of AMF (Acaulospora longula, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama and Gigaspora albida using selected organic substrates (vermicompost, coir dust and Tropstrato together with sand and vermiculite. The production of spores varied among the tested AMF and according to the organic source added to the substrate. The vermicompost promoted higher sporulation of A. longula in relation to the other AMF and substrates. The Tropstrato® inhibited the sporulation of D. heterogama while the reproduction of C. etunicatum was not affected by the organic compounds. The inoculum of A. longula also showed a high number of infective propagules and promoted biomass accumulation in maize plants. The system of inoculum production using sand and vermiculite + 10% vermicompost favors the production of infective inoculum of A. longula with the fungus benefiting growth of corn plants.

  7. Marangoni Convection in Evaporating Organic Liquid Droplets on a Nonwetting Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Aditya; Dash, Susmita; Weibel, Justin A; Chen, Xuemei; Garimella, Suresh V

    2016-05-17

    We quantitatively characterize the flow field inside organic liquid droplets evaporating on a nonwetting substrate. A mushroom-structured surface yields the desired nonwetting behavior with methanol droplets, while use of a cooled substrate (5-15 °C) slows the rate of evaporation to allow quasi-static particle image velocimetry. Visualization reveals a toroidal vortex within the droplet that is characteristic of surface tension-driven flow; we demonstrate by means of a scaling analysis that this recirculating flow is Marangoni convection. The velocities in the droplet are on the order of 10-45 mm/s. Thus, unlike in the case of evaporation on wetting substrates where Marangoni convection can be ignored for the purpose of estimating the evaporation rate, advection due to the surface tension-driven flow plays a dominant role in the heat transfer within an evaporating droplet on a nonwetting substrate because of the large height-to-radius aspect ratio of the droplet. We formulate a reduced-order model that includes advective transport within the droplet for prediction of organic liquid droplet evaporation on a nonwetting substrate and confirm that the predicted temperature differential across the height of the droplet matches experiments.

  8. The variation of power generation with organic substrates in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Yogesh; Li, Baikun

    2010-03-01

    The wastewaters consist of diverse types of organic substrates that can be used as the carbon sources for power generation. To explore the utilization of some of these organics, the electricity generation from three substrates (acetate, ethanol, and glucose) was examined over a concentration range of 0.5-35 mM in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs). The power density generated from glucose was the highest at 401 mW/m(2) followed by acetate and ethanol at 368 mW/m(2) and 302 mW/m(2), respectively. The voltage increased with substrate concentration of 0.5-20mM, but significantly decreased at high substrate concentrations of 20-35 mM. Kinetic analysis indicated that the inhibition in the ethanol-fed MFCs was the highest at the concentration of 35 mM, while inhibition in glucose-fed MFCs was the lowest at the concentration of 20mM. These were in accordance with the extents of voltage decrease at high substrate concentration. Moreover, the effect of the distance between anode and cathode on voltage generation was also investigated. The reduction of the electrode distance by 33% in the glucose-fed MFCs reduced the internal resistance by 73% and led to 20% increase in voltage generation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Substrate potential of last interglacial to Holocene permafrost organic matter for future microbial greenhouse gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapel, Janina G.; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Horsfield, Brian; Mangelsdorf, Kai

    2018-04-01

    In this study the organic matter (OM) in several permafrost cores from Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island in NE Siberia was investigated. In the context of the observed global warming the aim was to evaluate the potential of freeze-locked OM from different depositional ages to act as a substrate provider for microbial production of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost. To assess this potential, the concentrations of free and bound acetate, which form an appropriate substrate for methanogenesis, were determined. The largest free-acetate (in pore water) and bound-acetate (organic-matrix-linked) substrate pools were present in interstadial marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 and stadial MIS 4 Yedoma permafrost deposits. In contrast, deposits from the last interglacial MIS 5e (Eemian) contained only a small pool of substrates. The Holocene (MIS 1) deposits revealed a significant bound-acetate pool, representing a future substrate potential upon release during OM degradation. Additionally, pyrolysis experiments on the OM allocated an increased aliphatic character to the MIS 3 and 4 Late Pleistocene deposits, which might indicate less decomposed and presumably more easily degradable OM. Biomarkers for past microbial communities, including those for methanogenic archaea, also showed the highest abundance during MIS 3 and 4, which indicated OM-stimulated microbial degradation and presumably greenhouse gas production during time of deposition. On a broader perspective, Arctic warming will increase and deepen permafrost thaw and favor substrate availability from older freeze-locked permafrost deposits. Thus, the Yedoma deposits especially showed a high potential for providing substrates relevant for microbial greenhouse gas production.

  10. Effects of organic loading rate on biogas production from macroalgae: Performance and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng-Ting; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Xian; Fu, Shan-Fei; He, Shuai; Manasa, M R K; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-07-01

    Macroalgae biomass has been considered as a promising feedstock for biogas production. In order to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae, semi-continuous fermentation was conducted to examine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on biogas production from Macrocystis pyrifer. Results showed that, under OLRs of 1.37, 2.74, 4.12 and 6.85kgVS substrate /(m 3 ·d), the average unit biogas yields were 438.9, 477.3, 480.1 and 188.7mL/(gVS substrate d), respectively. It indicated that biogas production was promoted by the increased OLR in an appropriate range while inhibited by the OLR beyond the appropriate range. The investigation on physical-chemical parameters revealed that unfavorable VFAs concentration, pH and salinity might be the main causes for system failure due to the overrange OLR, while the total phenols failed to reach the inhibitory concentration. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that several bacterial and archaeal phyla altered with increase in OLR apparently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanostructured Silver Substrates With Stable and Universal SERS Properties: Application to Organic Molecules and Semiconductor Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waurisch C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanostructured silver films have been prepared by thermal deposition on silicon, and their properties as SERS substrates investigated. The optimal conditions of the post-growth annealing of the substrates were established. Atomic force microscopy study revealed that the silver films with relatively dense and homogeneous arrays of 60–80-nm high pyramidal nanoislands are the most efficient for SERS of both organic dye and inorganic nanoparticles analytes. The noticeable enhancement of the Raman signal from colloidal nanoparticles with the help of silver island films is reported for the first time.

  12. Loading Rates and Impacts of Substrate Delivery for Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Molasses, High Fructose Corn Syrup Food service companies Viscous fluid at 60 to 80 percent by weight Dissolved in water . Slow-Release Substrate...HFCS comprises a group of corn syrups that have undergone enzymatic processing to convert its glucose into fructose , and has then been mixed... fructose corn syrup are: HFCS 55 (mostly used in soft drinks), approximately 55% fructose and 45% glucose ; and HFCS 42 (used in many foods and baked

  13. Sudden cardiac death: the pro-arrhythmic interaction of an acute loading with an underlying substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, George R

    2017-10-21

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a complex phenomenon, occurring either in apparently normal individuals or in those where there is a recognized underlying cardiac abnormality. In both groups, the lethal arrhythmia has frequently been related to the physiologic trigger of either exercise or stress. Prior research into SCD has focused mainly on a combination of identifying either vulnerable myocardial substrates; pharmacological approaches to altering electrical activation/repolarisation in substrates; or the suppression of induced lethal arrhythmias with implantable defibrillators. However, it has been suggested that in a significant number of cases, the interaction of a transient induced trigger with a pre-existing electrical or mechanical substrate is the basis for the induction of the sustained lethal arrhythmia. In this manuscript we will discuss the precise mechanisms whereby one of such potential physiologic trigger: an acute change in systolic blood pressure, can induce a sequence of alterations in global and local cardiac mechanics which in turn result in regional left ventricular post-systolic deformation which, mediated (through stretch-induced changes in local mechano-electrical coupling) provokes local electrical after-depolarisations which can spill over into complex runs of premature ventricular beats. These local acute pressure/stretch induced runs of ventricular ectopy originate in either basal or apical normal myocardium and, in combination with a co-existing distal pro-arrhymic substrate, can interact to induce a lethal arrhythmia. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of organic substrates on available elemental contents in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Y.S.; Sun, M.; Li, Y.Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School for Agriculture & Biology

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the changes of available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts of organic substrates (peat moss, charred rice husk, chicken manure, sawdust, turfgrass clipping and weathered coal) were studied and compared with that in the water extracts. Results showed that available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts are significantly different between organic substrates, whereas ionic concentrations are basically under steady condition after treatment for 36-108 h. Ionic contents in the nutrient solution extracts are not equal to the value of adding ionic concentrations in the supplied nutrient solution to that in the water extract. Thus, a mathematical model was proposed for adjusting the composition of supplied nutrient solution to match plant requirements in the organic soilless culture system.

  15. Evaluation of rapid methods for in-situ characterization of organic contaminant load and biodegradation rates in winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, M J; Vargas, I; Vega, A; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

    2007-01-01

    Rapid methods for the in-situ evaluation of the organic load have recently been developed and successfully implemented in municipal wastewater treatment systems. Their direct application to winery wastewater treatment is questionable due to substantial differences between municipal and winery wastewater. We critically evaluate the use of UV-VIS spectrometry, buffer capacity testing (BCT), and respirometry as rapid methods to determine organic load and biodegradation rates of winery wastewater. We tested three types of samples: actual and treated winery wastewater, synthetic winery wastewater, and samples from a biological batch reactor. Not surprisingly, respirometry gave a good estimation of biodegradation rates for substrate of different complexities, whereas UV-VIS and BCT did not provide a quantitative measure of the easily degradable sugars and ethanol, typically the main components of the COD in the influent. However, our results strongly suggest that UV-VIS and BCT can be used to identify and estimate the concentration of complex substrates in the influent and soluble microbial products (SMP) in biological reactors and their effluent. Furthermore, the integration of UV-VIS spectrometry, BCT, and mathematical modeling was able to differentiate between the two components of SMPs: substrate utilization associated products (UAP) and biomass associated products (BAP). Since the effluent COD in biologically treated wastewaters is composed primarily by SMPs, the quantitative information given by these techniques may be used for plant control and optimization.

  16. Fully solution-processed organic solar cells on metal foil substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2009-08-19

    We demonstrate fully solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells on metal foil substrates with power conversion efficiencies similar to those obtained in devices on transparent substrates. The cells are based on the regioregular poly- (3-hexylthiophene) and C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction system. The bottom electrode is a silver film whose workfunction is lowered by Cs2CO3 using spin-coating to serve as a cathode. The transparent top anode consists of a conductive polymer in combination with a solution-processed silver nanowire mesh that is laminated onto the devices. Each layer of the device, including the transparent electrode, is fabricated from solution, giving rise to the possibility of completely printed solar cells on low-cost substrates.

  17. Substrate dependence of energy level alignment at the donor-acceptor interface in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.C.; Liu, Z.T.; Tang, J.X.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    The interface energy level alignment between copper phthalocyanine (CuPC) and fullerene (C60), the widely studied donor-acceptor pair in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), on indium-tin oxide (ITO) and Mg substrate was investigated. The CuPC/C60 interface formed on ITO shows a nearly common vacuum level, but a dipole and band bending exist, resulting in a 0.8 eV band offset at the same interface on Mg. This observation indicates that the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPC and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C60, which dictates the open circuit voltage of the CuPC/C60 OPV, can be tuned by the work function of the substrate. Furthermore, the substrate effect on the energy alignment at the donor/acceptor interface can satisfactorily explain that a device with an anode of a smaller work function can provide a higher open circuit voltage.

  18. Effect of substrate temperature on orientation of subphthalocyanine molecule in organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Chi-Ta; Tang, Wei-Li; Tai, Yian; Lin, Chien-Hung; Liu, Chin-Hsin J.; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of substrate temperature (T s ) on the boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) thin film and its power conversion efficiency in SubPc/C 60 heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The orientations of SubPc molecules in thin films determined by X-ray diffraction is strongly correlated with the electronic properties of the organic thin films, and can be controlled by the substrate temperature during the vapor deposition. An optimal substrate temperature of 120 °C has been concluded to induced (221) molecular orientation over the (122) orientation and significantly improve the carrier transport of the SubPc thin film. A SubPc/C 60 heterojunction photovoltaic cells thus fabricated shows higher open-circuit voltage and up to 1.55% conversion efficiency has been achieved, which is attributed to preferential (221) orientation of the SubPc deposited at the elevated temperature.

  19. Investigating substrate use efficiency across different microbial physiologies in soil-extracted, solubilized organic matter (SESOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle, K. T.; Martinez, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Recent experimental work has elevated the importance of microbial processing for the stabilization of fresh carbon inputs within the soil mineral matrix. Enhancing our understanding of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics therefore requires a better understanding of how efficiently microbial metabolism can process low molecular weight carbon substrates (carbon use efficiency, CUE) under environmentally relevant conditions. One approach to better understanding microbial uptake rates and CUE is the ecophysiological study of soil isolates in liquid media culture consisting of soil-extracted solubilized organic matter (SESOM). We are using SESOM from an Oa horizon under hemlock hardwood vegetation in upstate New York as liquid media for the growth of 12 isolates from the Oa and B horizon of the same site. Here we seek to test the uptake rates as well as CUE of 5 different low molecular weight substrates spanning compound class and nominal oxidation state (glucose, acetate, formate, glycine, valine) by isolates differing in phylogeny and physiology. The use of a spike of each of the 13C-labeled substrates into SESOM, along with a 0.2 μm filtration step, allows accurate partitioning of labeled carbon between biomass, gaseous CO2 as well as the exometabolome. Coupled UHPLC-MS measurements are being used to identify and determine uptake rates of over 80 potential C substrates present in the extract as well as our labeled substrate of interest along the course of the isolate growth curve. This work seeks to utilize a gradient in substrate class as well as microbial physiologies to inform our understanding of C and N cycling under relevant soil solution conditions. Future experiments may also use labeled biomass from stationary phase to investigate the stabilization potential of anabolic products formed from each substrate with a clay fraction isolated from the same site.

  20. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; De Clercq, Patrick; De Smet, Stefaan

    2017-06-01

    Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg -1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg -1 DM, respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg -1 DM, respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg -1 DM, respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg -1 DM, respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments. Since protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, black soldier fly could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Growth and sporulation of Trichoderma polysporum on organic substrates by addition of carbon and nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.Q.; Shahzad, S.

    2015-01-01

    During the present study nine different organic substrates viz., rice grains, sorghum grains, wheat grains, millet grains, wheat straw, rice husk, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were used for mass multiplication of Trichoderma polysporum. Grains, especially sorghum grains were found to be the best substrate for T. polysporum. Wheat straw and rice husk were less suitable, whereas, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were not suitable for growth of the fungus. Sucrose at the rate of 30,000 ppm and ammonium nitrate at the rate of 3,000 ppm were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and sporulation of T. polysporum. Amendment of the selected C and N sources to wheat straw, rice husk and millet grains resulted in significantly higher growth and conidia production by T. polysporum as compared to un-amended substrates. Sorghum and rice grains showed suppression in growth and sporulation of T. polysporum when amended with C and N sources. During studies on shelf life, populations of T. polysporum attained the peck at 60-135 days intervals on different substrates and declined gradually thereafter. However, even after 330 days, the populations were greater than the population at 0-day. At 345-360 days interval, populations were less than the initial populations at 0- days. Shelf life on C+N amended wheat straw and rice husk were more as compared to un-amended substrates. (author)

  2. Bacterial cellulose membrane as flexible substrate for organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Vilani, C.; Calil, V.L.; Barud, H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Achete, C.A.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Cremona, M.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes produced by gram-negative, acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter xylinus), were used as flexible substrates for the fabrication of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). In order to achieve the necessary conductive properties indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto the membrane at room temperature using radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering with an r.f. power of 30 W, at pressure of 8 mPa in Ar atmosphere without any subsequent thermal treatment. Visible light transmittance of about 40% was observed. Resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration of deposited ITO films were 4.90 x 10 -4 Ohm cm, 8.08 cm 2 /V-s and - 1.5 x 10 21 cm -3 , respectively, comparable with commercial ITO substrates. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of devices based on BC membranes three OLEDs with different substrates were produced: a reference one with commercial ITO on glass, a second one with a SiO 2 thin film interlayer between the BC membrane and the ITO layer and a third one just with ITO deposited directly on the BC membrane. The observed OLED luminance ratio was: 1; 0.5; 0.25 respectively, with 2400 cd/m 2 as the value for the reference OLED. These preliminary results show clearly that the functionalized biopolymer, biodegradable, biocompatible bacterial cellulose membranes can be successfully used as substrate in flexible organic optoelectronic devices

  3. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  4. Effect of organic loading on a novel hydrogen bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; El Naggar, M. Hesham; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Nakhla, George [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Baghchehsaraee, Bita [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated the impact of six organic loading rates (OLR) ranging from 6.5 gCOD/L-d to 206 gCOD/L-d on the performance of a novel integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier systems (IBRCSs) comprised a continuously stirred reactor (CSTR) for biological hydrogen production, followed by an uncovered gravity settler for decoupling of solids retention time (SRT) from hydraulic retention time (HRT). The system was able to maintain a high molar hydrogen yield of 2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose at OLR ranging from 6.5 to 103 gCOD/L-d, but dropped precipitously to approximately 1.2 and 1.1 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose for the OLRs of 154 and 206 gCOD/L-d, respectively. The optimum OLR at HRT of 8 h for maximizing both hydrogen molar yield and volumetric hydrogen production was 103 gCOD/L-d. A positive statistical correlation was observed between the molar hydrogen production and the molar acetate-to-butyrate ratio. Biomass yield correlated negatively with hydrogen yield, although not linearly. Analyzing the food-to-microorganisms (F/M) data in this study and others revealed that, both molar hydrogen yields and biomass specific hydrogen rates peaked at 2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and 2.3 L/gVSS-d at F/M ratios ranging from 4.4 to 6.4 gCOD/gVSS-d. Microbial community analysis for OLRs of 6.5 and 25.7 gCOD/L-d showed the predominance of hydrogen producers such as Clostridium acetobutyricum, Klebsiella pneumonia, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium pasteurianum. While at extremely high OLRs of 154 and 206 gCOD/L-d, a microbial shift was clearly evident due to the coexistence of the non-hydrogen producers such as Lactococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. (author)

  5. Van Der Waals Heterostructures between Small Organic Molecules and Layered Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional atomic crystals, like grapheme (G and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, exhibit great interest in electronic and optoelectronic applications. The excellent physical properties, such as transparency, semiconductivity, and flexibility, make them compatible with current organic electronics. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of the interfaces of van der Waals (vdW heterostructures between small organic molecules (pentacene, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc, perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA, and dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT and layered substrates (G, MoS2 and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN. The influences of the underlying layered substrates on the molecular arrangement, electronic and vibrational properties will be addressed.

  6. TAX LOADING AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nailya D. Zaripova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the mechanism of calculation of tax loading, its value and influence on activity of the organizations reveals. Differentiation of concepts tax loading, tax burden, weight of the taxation is given. Other indicators characterizing the taxation of the organization are considered.

  7. Screen Printing of Highly Loaded Silver Inks on Plastic Substrates Using Silicon Stencils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Woo Jin; Lim, Sooman; Ahn, Bok Yeop; Lewis, Jennifer A; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F

    2015-06-17

    Screen printing is a potential technique for mass-production of printed electronics; however, improvement in printing resolution is needed for high integration and performance. In this study, screen printing of highly loaded silver ink (77 wt %) on polyimide films is studied using fine-scale silicon stencils with openings ranging from 5 to 50 μm wide. This approach enables printing of high-resolution silver lines with widths as small as 22 μm. The printed silver lines on polyimide exhibit good electrical properties with a resistivity of 5.5×10(-6) Ω cm and excellent bending tolerance for bending radii greater than 5 mm (tensile strains less than 0.75%).

  8. Improvement of organic solar cells by flexible substrate and ITO surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yuang-Tung; Ho, Jyh-Jier; Wang, Chien-Kun; Lee, William; Lu, Chih-Chiang; Yau, Bao-Shun; Nain, Jhen-Liang; Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Chang, Chiu-Cheng; Wang, Kang L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, surface treatments on polyethylene terephthalate with polymeric hard coating (PET-HC) substrates are described. The effect of the contact angle on the treatment is first investigated. It has been observed that detergent is quite effective in removing organic contamination on the flexible PET-HC substrates. Next, using a DC-reactive magnetron sputter, indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films of 90 nm are grown on a substrate treated by detergent. Then, various ITO surface treatments are made for improving the performance of the finally developed organic solar cells with structure Al/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/PET. It is found that the parameters of the ITO including resistivity, carrier concentration, transmittance, surface morphology, and work function depended on the surface treatments and significantly influence the solar cell performance. With the optimal conditions for detergent treatment on flexible PET substrates, the ITO film with a resistivity of 5.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm and average optical transmittance of 84.1% in the visible region are obtained. The optimal ITO surface treated by detergent for 5 min and then by UV ozone for 20 min exhibits the best WF value of 5.22 eV. This improves about 8.30% in the WF compared with that of the untreated ITO film. In the case of optimal treatment with the organic photovoltaic device, meanwhile, 36.6% enhancement in short circuit current density (J sc ) and 92.7% enhancement in conversion efficiency (η) over the untreated solar cell are obtained.

  9. Electrochemically Driven Fermentation of Organic Substrates with Undefined Mixed Microbial Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Marianna; Paiano, Paola; Palma, Enza; Miccheli, Alfredo; Majone, Mauro

    2017-08-10

    Growing scientific interest in mixed microbial culture-based anaerobic biotechnologies for the production of value-added chemicals and fuels from organic waste residues requires a parallel focus on the development and implementation of strategies to control the distribution of products. This study examined the feasibility of an electrofermentation approach, based on the introduction of a polarized (-700 mV vs. the standard hydrogen electrode) graphite electrode in the fermentation medium, to steer the product distribution during the conversion of organic substrates (glucose, ethanol, and acetate supplied as single compounds or in mixtures) by undefined mixed microbial cultures. In batch experiments, the polarized electrode triggered a nearly 20-fold increase (relative to open circuit controls) in the yield of isobutyrate production (0.43±0.01 vs. 0.02±0.02 mol mol -1 glucose) during the anaerobic fermentation of the ternary mixture of substrates, without adversely affecting the rate of substrate bioconversion. The observed change in the fermentative metabolism was most likely triggered by the (potentiostatic) regulation of the oxidation-reduction potential of the reaction medium rather than by the electrode serving as an electron donor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High performance organic transistor active-matrix driver developed on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Boyu; Ren, Xiaochen; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Roberts, Robert C.; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication of electronic circuits on unconventional substrates largely broadens their application areas. For example, green electronics achieved through utilization of biodegradable or recyclable substrates, can mitigate the solid waste problems that arise at the end of their lifespan. Here, we combine screen-printing, high precision laser drilling and thermal evaporation, to fabricate organic field effect transistor (OFET) active-matrix (AM) arrays onto standard printer paper. The devices show a mobility and on/off ratio as high as 0.56 cm2V-1s-1 and 109 respectively. Small electrode overlap gives rise to a cut-off frequency of 39 kHz, which supports that our AM array is suitable for novel practical applications. We demonstrate an 8 × 8 AM light emitting diode (LED) driver with programmable scanning and information display functions. The AM array structure has excellent potential for scaling up.

  11. Substrate mediated growth of organic semiconducting thin films; Templateffekte bei der Strukturierung organischer Halbleiterfilme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzen, Jan

    2010-09-17

    Since electronic properties of molecular materials are closely related to their structural order a precise control of the molecular packing and crystalline orientation of thin films is of vital interest for an optimization of organic electronic devices. Of particular interest in this respect is the initial stage of film formation which is largely governed by the interplay of intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions. One approach to control the molecular film structure is based on substrate mediated growth. In this respect we have studied structural properties of thin films of pentacene, pentacene- 5,7,12,14-tetrone and perfluoro-pentacene which were grown onto various substrates including metals, metal oxides and graphite. On metal surfaces the molecules initially form a chemisorbed monolayer where molecules even can be uniformly aligned when using appropriate substrates with twofold symmetry. Further deposition, however, is accompanied by a pronounced dewetting and formation of disjoined islands which results from a large structural mismatch between the molecular arrangement in the monolayer and the crystalline phase. In some cases it is possible to orient such islands by utilizing step mediated nucleation and decoration of step bunches which allows the preparation of azimuthally well oriented elongated islands. On single crystalline oxides the growth parallels the situation found before for SiO{sub 2} where islands of upright oriented molecules are formed. The growth on graphite is somewhat particular since the lattice provides a natural template for acenes yielding epitaxially ordered monolayer films with planar adsorption geometry like in case of metals. Interestingly, however, no dewetting occurs upon further growth and instead rather smooth films are formed. The detailed analysis for the case of pentacene showed that the substrate-molecule interaction actually is weaker than the intermolecular interaction so that multilayer films can lift the

  12. Implantation of organic matter through water onto solid substrates by a laser induced molecular jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Organic molecular dots were successfully produced by means of a nano second pulsed dye laser on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, with sizes of several hundred nanometres. The method involves the transfer of organic molecules from the source Coumarin 6 (C6) and poly [2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-venylene] (MEH-PPV) films onto a target material through a water filled space-gap using a laser induced molecular jet (LIMJ). In this way, the organic dots of Coumarin 6 and MEH-PPV molecules were successfully implanted onto the glass and ITO targets. The present results demonstrate the possibility to significantly improve photo electronic or photoelectric devices such as novel photonic crystal and molecular device sensors, and so on

  13. Effect of moisture on disintegration kinetics during anaerobic digestion of complex organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The role of the moisture content and particle size (PS) on the disintegration of complex organic matter during the wet anaerobic digestion (AD) process was investigated. A range of total solids (TS) from 5% to 11.3% and PS from 0.25 to 15 mm was evaluated using carrot waste as model complex organic matter. The experimental results showed that the methane production rate decreased with higher TS and PS. A modified version of the AD model no.1 for complex organic substrates was used to model the experimental data. The simulations showed a decrease of the disintegration rate constants with increasing TS and PS. The results of the biomethanation tests were used to calibrate and validate the applied model. In particular, the values of the disintegration constant for various TS and PS were determined. The simulations showed good agreement between the numerical and observed data.

  14. Effects of Gold Substrates on the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Activity of High-Loading Nickel-Based Oxyhydroxide Oxygen Evolution Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakthranont, Pongkarn; Kibsgaard, Jakob; Gallo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of Au substrates on the oxygen evolution activities of cathodically electrodeposited nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), nickel–iron oxyhydroxide (NiFeOOH), and nickel–cerium oxyhydroxide (NiCeOOH) at varying loadings from 0 to 2000 nmol of metal/cm2. We determi...... high geometric current densities on flat substrates. By investigating the mass and site specific activities as a function of loading, we bridge the practical geometric activity to the fundamental intrinsic activity....

  15. Anaerobic digestion of grain stillage at high organic loading rates in three different reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Pröter, Jürgen; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study the anaerobic digestion of grain stillage in three different reactor systems (continuous stirred tank reactor, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, fixed bed reactor) with and without immobilization of microorganisms was investigated to evaluate the performance during increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from 1 to 10 g of volatile solids (VS) per liter reactor volume and day and decrease of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 40 to 6 days. No significant differences have been observed between the performances of the three examined reactor systems. The changes in OLR and HRT caused a reduction of the specific biogas production (SBP) of about 25% from about 650 to 550 L kg −1 of VS but would also diminish the necessary digester volume and investment costs of about 75% compared to the state of the art. -- Highlights: ► It was shown that without immobilization of microorganisms low HRT's are possible. ► No significant differences have been observed between different digester designs. ► Trace element supplementation is obligatory with grain stillage as substrate

  16. Electronic, structural, and substrate effect properties of single-layer covalent organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Liangbo; Zhu, Pan; Meunier, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Recently synthesized two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (COFs) exhibit high surface area, large pore size, and unique structural architectures, making them promising materials for various energy applications. Here, a total of nine COFs structures, including two deposited on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate, are investigated using density functional theory, quasi-particle many-body theory within the GW approximation, and an image charge model. The structures considered belong to two major families (thiophene-based COF-n (T-COF-n) and tetrakis (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin-x (TAPP-x)) differing from the presence of B—O or C=N linkers. While T-COF-n structures are shown to constitute planar networks, TAPP-x systems can display non-negligible corrugation due to the out-of-plane rotation of phenyl rings. We find that the electronic properties do not differ significantly when altering the chain molecules within each family. Many-body effects are shown to lead to large band-gap increase while the presence of the substrate yields appreciable reductions of the gaps, due to substrate polarization effects

  17. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%.

  18. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil

  19. Ultrahigh Density Array of Vertically Aligned Small-molecular Organic Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    and spintronics. Recently we have been able to address the above-mentioned issue by employing a novel "centrifugation-assisted" approach. This method therefore broadens the spectrum of organic materials that can be patterned in a vertically ordered nanowire array. Due to the technological importance of Alq3, rubrene and methanofullerenes, our method can be used to explore how the nanostructuring of these materials affects the performance of aforementioned organic devices. The purpose of this article is to describe the technical details of the above-mentioned protocol, demonstrate how this process can be extended to grow small-molecular organic nanowires on arbitrary substrates and finally, to discuss the critical steps, limitations, possible modifications, trouble-shooting and future applications. PMID:23852129

  20. Influence of organic substrates on the kinetics of bacterial As(III) oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescure, T.; Joulian, C.; Bauda, P.; Hénault, C.; Battaglia-Brunet, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil microflora plays a major role on the behavior of metals and metalloids. Arsenic speciation, in particular, is related to the activity of bacteria able to oxidize, reduce or methylate this element, and determines mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of As. Arsenite (AsIII) is more toxic and more mobile than arsenate (AsV). Bacterial As(III)-oxidation tends to reduce the toxicity of arsenic in soils and the risk of transfer toward underlying aquifers, that would affect the quality of water resources. Previous results suggest that organic matter may affect kinetics or efficiency of bacterial As(III)-oxidation in presence of oxygen, thus in conventional physico-chemical conditions of a surface soil. Different hypothesis can be proposed to explain the influence of organic matter on As(III) oxidation. Arsenic is a potential energy source for bacteria. The presence of easily biodegradable organic matter may inhibit the As(III) oxidation process because bacteria would first metabolize these more energetic substrates. A second hypothesis would be that, in presence of organic matter, the Ars system involved in bacterial resistance to arsenic would be more active and would compete with the Aio system of arsenite oxidation, decreasing the global As(III) oxidation rate. In addition, organic matter influences the solubility of iron oxides which often act as the main pitfalls of arsenic in soils. The concentration and nature of organic matter could therefore have a significant influence on the bioavailability of arsenic and hence on its environmental impact. The influence of organic matter on biological As(III) oxidation has not yet been determined in natural soils. In this context, soil amendment with organic matter during operations of phytostabilization or, considering diffuse pollutions, through agricultural practices, may affect the mobility and bio-availability of the toxic metalloid. The objective of the present project is to quantify the influence of organic matter

  1. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Optimization of wetland substrates and hydraulic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Su, Hao-Chang; Hu, Li-Xin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-09-15

    This study aimed to assess removal potential of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted Cyperus alternifolius L. with different design parameters. Twelve CWs with three hydraulic loading rates (HLR 10, 20 and 30cm/day) and four substrates (oyster shell, zeolite, medical stone and ceramic) were set up in order to select the best optimized wetland. The result showed that 7 target antibiotics compounds including erythromycin-H2O, lincomycin, monensin, ofloxacin, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and novobiocin were detected, and all selected 18 genes (three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), three quinolone resistance genes (qnrB, qnrD and qnrS) and four chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, fexA, fexB and floR)) and two integrase genes (int1 and int2) were positively detected in the domestic wastewaters. The aqueous removal rates of the total antibiotics ranged from17.9 to 98.5%, while those for the total ARGs varied between 50.0 and 85.8% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. After considering their aqueous removal rates in combination with their mass removals, the CW with zeolite as the substrate and HLR of 20cm/day was selected as the best choice. Combined chemical and biological analyses indicate that both microbial degradation and physical sorption processes were responsible for the fate of antibiotics and ARGs in the wetlands. The findings from this study suggest constructed wetlands could be a promising technology for the removal of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics and ARGs in domestic wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    , as the extracellular acid-base status would be expected to be the key physiological trigger for renal NAE. The object of this study was to investigate the renal response to acute non-carbonic acid loading using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h NH4Cl loading studies were...

  3. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  4. Diel changes in stream periphyton extracellular enzyme activity throughout community development on inert and organic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, S. T.; Francoeur, S. N.; Kuehn, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that algal photosynthesis in stream periphyton communities would influence the activities of extracellular enzymes produced by associated heterotrophic bacteria and fungi to acquire organic compounds and inorganic nutrients. We approached this question by looking for diurnal variation in activities of four extracellular enzymes in periphyton communities that were grown on either inert (glass fiber filters) or organic (leaves) substrata that there were incubated in stream-side channels that were either open to full sun or shaded. Substrata were subsampled for β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphotase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phenol oxidase activities at 3-5 hr. intervals over two consecutive diurnal cycles that were repeated at an early and later stage of periphyton community development. Activities of all enzymes displayed diurnal periodicity but the strength of the diurnal effects depended largely on the substrate type and stage of community development. The most consistent diurnal change was observed with phenol oxidase activity with significantly greater (p<0.05) activities being observed in during the day for both stages of community development and for both substrate types. It is likely that oxygen produced by algal photosynthesis is driving the activity of this oxidative enzyme and that algae might indirectly influence the decomposition of phenolic compounds.

  5. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  6. Organic field-effect transistors with surface modification by using a PVK buffer layer on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Lee, Dong Hyung; Koo, Ja Ryong; Kim, Young Kwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hoon [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We have fabricated pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a gate dielectric such as crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (c-PVA), with poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) buffer layer on a polyethersulfone (PES) flexible substrate, and with substrate heating at a temperature below 120 .deg. C, and we demonstrated the possibility of using an organic gate dielectric layer as a potential pentacene TFT with a PVK buffer layer for low-voltage operation on a plastic substrate. We report the excellent electrical properties of organic TFTs with a PVK buffer layer. The PVK buffer layer improves the performance of the devices and reduces the operating voltage of the devices. Our pentacene TFTs can be fabricated with mobilities > 2.54 cm{sup 2}/Vs and on/off current ratios > 7.5E5 and with flexible organic dielectrics and substrates.

  7. Growth and nutrient balance of Enterolobium contortsiliquum seedlings with addition of organic substrates and wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel França Araújo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the strong generation of solid organic waste and wastewater, the use of these materials as a primary source of nutrients is an important practice in environmental management, especially in the production of seedlings with emphasis on degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and nutrient balance of “tamboril” (Enterolobium contortsiliquum (Vell. Morong seedlings grown on substrates with different formulations proportions of organic matter irrigated with wastewater. It was tested five ratios of organic composts and soil: 0:100; 20:80; 40:60; 60:40 and 80:20 v/v. Two procedences of irrigation water was tested: water supply and wastewater from swine farming, arranged in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme 5 x 2, with four replications. At 90 days, we evaluate seedlings morphological variables, the integrate diagnosis recommendation index and the nutrient balance index. The organic residue contributes to seedlings growth and nutritional balance. The proportion 80:20 proved to be the most suitable for “tamboril” seedlings production. Seedlings presented lower growth and nutritional balance when irrigate with swine farm wastewater.

  8. Thyroid Hormones Are Transport Substrates and Transcriptional Regulators of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Ferreira, Celio; Schaefer, Anima M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Seibert, Isabell; Hamburger, Matthias; Tirona, Rommel G

    2018-07-01

    Levothyroxine replacement therapy forms the cornerstone of hypothyroidism management. Variability in levothyroxine oral absorption may contribute to the well-recognized large interpatient differences in required dose. Moreover, levothyroxine-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are thought to be caused by altered oral bioavailability. Interestingly, little is known regarding the mechanisms contributing to levothyroxine absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we aimed to determine whether the intestinal drug uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) may be involved in facilitating intestinal absorption of thyroid hormones. We also explored whether thyroid hormones regulate OATP2B1 gene expression. In cultured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II/OATP2B1 cells and in OATP2B1-transfected Caco-2 cells, thyroid hormones were found to inhibit OATP2B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate. Competitive counter-flow experiments evaluating the influence on the cellular accumulation of estrone-3-sulfate in the steady state indicated that thyroid hormones were substrates of OATP2B1. Additional evidence that thyroid hormones were OATP2B1 substrates was provided by OATP2B1-dependent stimulation of thyroid hormone receptor activation in cell-based reporter assays. Bidirectional transport studies in intestinal Caco-2 cells showed net absorptive flux of thyroid hormones, which was attenuated by the presence of the OATP2B1 inhibitor, atorvastatin. In intestinal Caco-2 and LS180 cells, but not in liver Huh-7 or HepG2 cells, OATP2B1 expression was induced by treatment with thyroid hormones. Reporter gene assays revealed thyroid hormone receptor α -mediated transactivation of the SLCO2B1 1b and the SLCO2B1 1e promoters. We conclude that thyroid hormones are substrates and transcriptional regulators of OATP2B1. These insights provide a potential mechanistic basis for oral levothyroxine dose variability and drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 by The American

  9. Modified kinetic-hydraulic UASB reactor model for treatment of wastewater containing biodegradable organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seddik, Mostafa M; Galal, Mona M; Radwan, A G; Abdel-Halim, Hisham S

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a modified kinetic-hydraulic model for up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor aimed to treat wastewater of biodegradable organic substrates as acetic acid based on Van der Meer model incorporated with biological granules inclusion. This dynamic model illustrates the biomass kinetic reaction rate for both direct and indirect growth of microorganisms coupled with the amount of biogas produced by methanogenic bacteria in bed and blanket zones of reactor. Moreover, the pH value required for substrate degradation at the peak specific growth rate of bacteria is discussed for Andrews' kinetics. The sensitivity analyses of biomass concentration with respect to fraction of volume of reactor occupied by granules and up-flow velocity are also demonstrated. Furthermore, the modified mass balance equations of reactor are applied during steady state using Newton Raphson technique to obtain a suitable degree of freedom for the modified model matching with the measured results of UASB Sanhour wastewater treatment plant in Fayoum, Egypt.

  10. 2D Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Nanocarbon Arrays for Substrate Enhancement in Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ximeng; Guan, Cao; Hu, Yating; Zhang, Lei; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Wang, John

    2017-10-27

    Direct assembling of active materials on carbon cloth (CC) is a promising way to achieve flexible electrodes for energy storage. However, the overall surface area and electrical conductivity of such electrodes are usually limited. Herein, 2D metal-organic framework derived nanocarbon nanowall (MOFC) arrays are successfully developed on carbon cloth by a facile solution + carbonization process. Upon growth of the MOFC arrays, the sites for growth of the active materials are greatly increased, and the equivalent series resistance is decreased, which contribute to the enhancement of the bare CC substrate. After decorating ultrathin flakes of MnO 2 and Bi 2 O 3 on the flexible CC/MOFC substrate, the hierarchical electrode materials show an abrupt improvement of areal capacitances by around 50% and 100%, respectively, compared to those of the active materials on pristine carbon cloth. A flexible supercapacitor can be further assembled using two hierarchical electrodes, which demonstrates an energy density of 124.8 µWh cm -2 at the power density of 2.55 mW cm -2 . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The application of orthogonal photolithography to micro-scale organic field effect transistors and complementary inverters on flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jingon; Song, Younggul; Yoo, Daekyoung; Kim, Dongku; Lee, Hyungwoo; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Takhee; Oh, Hyuntaek; Lee, Jin-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Micro-scale pentacene organic field effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. By applying a highly fluorinated developing solvents and its compatible photoresist materials, it has become possible to make the micro-scale patterning for organic devices using standard photolithography without damaging the underlying polymer layers. The flexible pentacene OFETs with 3 μm-sized channel length exhibited stable electrical characteristics under bent configurations and under a large number of repetitive bending cycles. Furthermore, we demonstrated micro-scale organic complementary inverters on a flexible PET substrate using p-type pentacene and n-type copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine materials

  12. The application of orthogonal photolithography to micro-scale organic field effect transistors and complementary inverters on flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jingon; Song, Younggul; Yoo, Daekyoung; Kim, Dongku; Lee, Hyungwoo; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Takhee, E-mail: tlee@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyuntaek; Lee, Jin-Kyun, E-mail: jkl36@inha.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    Micro-scale pentacene organic field effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. By applying a highly fluorinated developing solvents and its compatible photoresist materials, it has become possible to make the micro-scale patterning for organic devices using standard photolithography without damaging the underlying polymer layers. The flexible pentacene OFETs with 3 μm-sized channel length exhibited stable electrical characteristics under bent configurations and under a large number of repetitive bending cycles. Furthermore, we demonstrated micro-scale organic complementary inverters on a flexible PET substrate using p-type pentacene and n-type copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine materials.

  13. X-ray imager using solution processed organic transistor arrays and bulk heterojunction photodiodes on thin, flexible plastic substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Kumar, A.; Moet, D.; Steen, J.L. van der; Shafique, U.; Malinowski, P.E.; Myny, K.; Rand, B.P.; Simon, M.; Rütten, W.; Douglas, A.; Jorritsma, J.; Heremans, P.L.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of large-area active-matrix X-ray/photodetector array of high quality using organic photodiodes and organic transistors. All layers with the exception of the electrodes are solution processed. Because it is processed on a very thin plastic substrate

  14. Increased cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol for atmospheric mass loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m−3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m−3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m−3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. A sensitivity analysis suggests that a drop in surface tension must be invoked to explain quantitatively the CCN observations at low SOA particle mass loadings. Other factors, such as decreased molecular weight, increased density, or increased van't Hoff factor, can contribute to the explanation but are quantitatively insufficient as the full explanation.

  15. Sensing element for detection of polar organic vapours on the base of polyaniline-composite - Effect of substrate surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejnik, Robert; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Slobodian, Petr; Matyas, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline hydrochloride as a source of aniline and ammonium persulfate as an oxidation agent. The polymerization process is relatively easy and cheap. The reaction was carried out in presence of polymer substrate, in our case polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a representative of smooth surface substrate and polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) nanofibers membrane as a representative of porous substrate. Both these substrates were covered by polyaniline (PANI) and used as a sensing element for organic vapors detection. The detection was made by measuring and the record of the change of resistivity during adsorption and desorption of saturated vapors. The result shows that sensitivity decreases with increasing polarity of chosen solvent in order N,N- Dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The PANI base sensing element on PVDF substrate improves sensitivity, selectivity and it also has good reversibility and repeatability. (paper)

  16. Patterning of metallic electrodes on flexible substrates for organic thin-film transistors using a laser thermal printing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kun-Tso; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Ho, Jeng-Rong; Chen, Chih-Kant; Liu, Sung-Ho; Liao, Jin-Long; Cheng, Hua-Chi

    2011-01-01

    We report on a laser thermal printing method for transferring patterned metallic thin films on flexible plastic substrates using a pulsed CO 2 laser. Aluminium and silver line patterns, with micrometre scale resolution on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates, are shown. The printed electrodes demonstrate good conductivity and fulfil the properties for bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors. In addition to providing the energy for transferring the film, the absorption of laser light results in a rise in the temperature of the film and the substrate. This also further anneals the film and softens the plastic substrate. Consequently, it is possible to obtain a film with better surface morphology and with its film thickness implanted in part into the plastic surface. This implantation reveals excellent characteristics in adhesion and flexure resistance. Being feasible to various substrates and executable at ambient temperatures renders this approach a potential alternative for patterning metallic electrodes.

  17. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of minocycline-loaded chitosan/alginate multilayer on titanium substrates to inhibit biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongbin; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Xiaoping; Cen, Lian; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation are primary causes of implant associated infection. The biofilm makes the bacteria highly resistant to the host defense and antimicrobial treatment. Antibacterial coatings on the surface of titanium implant can prevent biofilm formation effectively, but it is still a challenge to accomplish relatively long lasting antibacterial effects before wound healing or formation of biological seal. The purpose of our work was to construct antibacterial multilayer coatings loaded with minocycline on surface of Ti substrates using chitosan and alginate based on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. In this study, the surfaces of Ti substrates were first hydroxylated and then treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) to obtain amino-functionalized Ti substrates. Next, the precursor layer of chitosan was covalently conjugated to amino-functionalized Ti substrates. The following alternately coating alginate loaded with minocycline and chitosan onto the precursor layer of chitosan was carried out via LbL self-assembly technique to construct the multilayer coatings on Ti substrates. The multilayer coatings loaded more minocycline and improved sustainability of minocycline release to kill planktonic and adherent bacteria. Moreover, surface charge and hydrophilicity of the coatings and antibacterial ability of chitosan itself also played roles in the antibacterial performance, which can keep the antibacterial ability of the multilayer coatings after minocycline release ceases. In conclusion, LbL self-assembly method provides a promising strategy to fabricate long-term antibacterial surfaces, which is especially effective in preventing implant associated infections in the early stage. Loading minocycline on the surface of implants based on LbL self-assembly strategy can endow implants with sustained antibacterial property. This can inhabit the immediate colonization of bacteria onto the surface of implants in the

  18. Self-organized dynamics in local load-sharing fiber bundle models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2013-10-01

    We study the dynamics of a local load-sharing fiber bundle model in two dimensions under an external load (which increases with time at a fixed slow rate) applied at a single point. Due to the local load-sharing nature, the redistributed load remains localized along the boundary of the broken patch. The system then goes to a self-organized state with a stationary average value of load per fiber along the (increasing) boundary of the broken patch (damaged region) and a scale-free distribution of avalanche sizes and other related quantities are observed. In particular, when the load redistribution is only among nearest surviving fiber(s), the numerical estimates of the exponent values are comparable with those of the Manna model. When the load redistribution is uniform along the patch boundary, the model shows a simple mean-field limit of this self-organizing critical behavior, for which we give analytical estimates of the saturation load per fiber values and avalanche size distribution exponent. These are in good agreement with numerical simulation results.

  19. Impact of Organic Loading Rate on Psychrophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori M. Cata Saady

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the feed total solids to anaerobic digester improves the process economics and decreases the volume of liquid effluent from current wet anaerobic digestion. The objective of this study was to develop a novel psychrophilic (20 °C anaerobic digestion technology of undiluted cow feces (total solids of 11%–16%. Two sets of duplicate laboratory-scale sequence batch bioreactors have been operated at organic loading rates (OLR of 6.0 to 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD kg−1 inoculum day−1 (d−1 during 210 days. The results demonstrated that the process is feasible at treatment cycle length (TCL of 21 days; however, the quality of cow feces rather than the OLR had a direct influence on the specific methane yield (SMY. The SMY ranged between 124.5 ± 1.4 and 227.9 ± 4.8 normalized liter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS fed d−1. Substrate-to-inoculum mass ratio (SIR was 0.63 ± 0.05, 0.90 ± 0.09, and 1.06 ± 0.07 at OLR of 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 g TCOD kg−1 inoculum d−1, respectively. No volatile fatty acids (VFAs accumulation has been observed which indicated that hydrolysis was the rate limiting step and VFAs have been consumed immediately. Bioreactors performance consistency in terms of the level of SMYs, VFAs concentrations at end of the TCL, pH stability and volatile solids reduction indicates a stable and reproducible process during the entire operation.

  20. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  1. EFFECT OF SULFATE LOADING RATE AND ORGANIC LOADING RATE ON ANAEROBIC BAFFLED REACTORS USED FOR TREATMENT OF SANITARY LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Burbano-Figueroa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study investigated the effect of organic loading rate (OLR and sulfate loading rate (SLR on landfill leachate treatment by a lab-scale anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR. Landfill leachate contained a concentration of organic matter between 3966 and 5090 mg COD.L-1 and no detectable amounts of sulfate. Reactors were started-up by feeding them with iron-sulfate at a SLR of 0.05 g SO42-.L-1.day-1 (4 weeks. Factorial design and response surface techniques were used to evaluate and optimize the effects of these operating variables on COD removal. ABRs were operated at OLRs ranging from 0.30 up to 6.84 g COD.L-1.day-1 by changes in influent volumetric flow. SO42- was added to the influent at a SRL from 0.06 to 0.13 g SO42-.L-1.day-1. The highest value of COD removal (66% was reached at an OLR of 3.58 g COD.L-1.day-1 and SLR of 0.09 g SO4-2.L-1.day-1 with a COD/SO4-2 ratio of 40. Under these conditions sulfate is mainly used for molecular hydrogen consumption while organic matter is preferentially degraded via methanogesis.

  2. Organic soil production from urban soil, spent mushroom substrate, and other additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nhung Thi Ha

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is becoming the huge problem in environmental pollution issues from mushroom production. However, SMS is also a nutrient-rich ogranic material with available nutrients and high porosity. Therefore, the value of products made from SMS should be exploited to take full advantage of agricultural by-product, support organic agriculture development without environmental pollution. The research has built 5 experimental formulas (4 mixed formulas and 1 control formulas with only urban soil). The analysis results of soil samples from mixed formulas and the control formula witness a significant increase in moisture and OM of mixed formulas (moisture from 36-42%, OM from 5.5-6.9%) after 20 treatment days, and N-P-K contents are also improved remarkably. 60 days later, soil nutrients in mixed formulas continue to rise, with highest OM (8.679%) at CT1; N (0.154%) at CT4; K2O (0,698%) and P2O5 (0,172%) at CT3, in addition, heavy metal contents in all formulas are under standard limit. Synthetic assessment of all norms indicates that the best organic soil product comes from CT3. The pak choi planting experiments are performed show that the growth of plants cultivated on organic soil products made from mixed formulas are much better than plants are grown on initially soil, and they also have no pestilent insect. Specially, pak choi planted on organic soil from CT3 have sharp developing with excellent tolerance ability, quantity and area of leaves are high. Thus, CT3 is the most suitable formula to increase soil nutrients, to solve spent mushroom subtrate streament problems after harvest, and for sustainable agricultural development.

  3. Substrate-free ultra-flexible organic field-effect transistors and five-stage ring oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hanlin; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Yunlong; Hu, Wenping; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi

    2013-10-11

    Freestanding, substrate-free organic field-effect transistors and organic circuits with a nominal thickness of 320 nm are demonstrated by using a simple water-floatation method. The devices work well in freestanding status, attached on banknotes, or bent over the blade of a knife. The ultralight devices with extreme bending stability indicate a bright future for organic electronics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijetunga, Somasiri, E-mail: swije2001@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Li Xiufen [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Jian Chen, E-mail: jchen@sytu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ({approx}1000 mg/L, {approx}2000 mg/L, {approx}3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  5. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijetunga, Somasiri; Li Xiufen; Jian Chen

    2010-01-01

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels (∼1000 mg/L, ∼2000 mg/L, ∼3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  6. Various compositions containing organic substrates to produce Eugenia uniflora L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licielo Romero Vieira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of substrates formulated with agro-industrial residues, such as coconut shell fiber, sawdust, and carbonized rice husk, is among the sustainable alternatives to decrease the production costs of seedlings of plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the use of various substrates for obtaining high quality Eugenia uniflora L. seedlings. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA – Campus in São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by sowing directly into 200 cm3 polypropylene tubes, testing various substrates (50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% rice husk; commercial substrate Plantmax®; 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% coconut shell fiber; and 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% sawdust. Every 3 days, the number of emerged seedlings was evaluated and, after 180 days, the following morphological features were analyzed: shoot height, stem diameter, number of leaves, root and total fresh weight, shoot, root, and total dry weight, and Dickson’s quality index. The results indicate that all substrates were suitable for Eugenia uniflora emergence, but that containing 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% sawdust provided a delay in the emergence of this Myrtaceae; also, substrates containing 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% husk rice and 50% commercial substrate Plantmax® + 50% coconut shell fiber showed to be satisfactory for the growth of Eugenia uniflora seedlings.

  7. Potential pharmacokinetic role of organic cation transporters in modulating the transcorneal penetration of its substrates administered topically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, J; Singh, S B; Biswas, N R; Thavaraj, V; Azad, R V; Velpandian, T

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesize organic cation transporters (OCT) may have a potential role in determining the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of organic cation drugs applied topically. Hence, in the present in vivo study, we attempted to evaluate the role of OCT in modulating the transport of its substrates after topical application. Methods New Zealand albino rabbits of either sex were used. Transcorneal penetration of OCT substrates tetraethylammonium and metformin after single instillation was evaluated in the absence and presence of OCT blockers (quinidine and atropine). Aqueous humor (AH) samples were collected through paracentesis amounting to 70–100 μl under topical anesthesia at various time intervals. The samples were subjected for estimation of both substrate as well as blocker concentrations using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results Topical pre-treatment (30 min before substrate) of OCT blockers significantly decreased the transcorneal penetration of OCT substrates after single topical administration. The levels of blockers reaching AH in the presence of substrates were also modulated at 60 min after its administration as compared with its control. Conclusion OCT are functionally active in the uptake of their substrates from tear to AH. Therefore, OCT in the corneal epithelium may be positioned from apical to basolateral. When administering their substrates/blockers topically, both may be competing for OCT for their uptake across the cornea, thereby decreasing the corneal penetration. Hence OCT can have a potential pharmacokinetic role in modulating the ocular bioavailability of their substrates administered topically, which are used as ocular therapeutics. PMID:23846373

  8. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High‐Volume Processed, ITO‐Free Superstrates and Substrates for Roll‐to‐Roll Development of Organic Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Angmo, Dechan; Søndergaard, Roar R.

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of substrates and superstrates prepared by scalable roll-to-roll methods is reviewed. The substrates and superstrates that act as the flexible carrier for the processing of functional organic electronic devices are an essential component, and proposals are made about how the general...... availability of various forms of these materials is needed to accelerate the development of the field of organic electronics. The initial development of the replacement of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) for the flexible carrier materials is described and a description of how roll-to-roll processing development led...

  10. Metal-Organic Framework Modified Glass Substrate for Analysis of Highly Volatile Chemical Warfare Agents by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhummakupt, Elizabeth S; Carmany, Daniel O; Mach, Phillip M; Tovar, Trenton M; Ploskonka, Ann M; Demond, Paul S; DeCoste, Jared B; Glaros, Trevor

    2018-03-07

    Paper spray mass spectrometry has been shown to successfully analyze chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. However, due to the volatility differences between the simulants and real G-series (i.e., sarin, soman) CWAs, analysis from an untreated paper substrate proved difficult. To extend the analytical lifetime of these G-agents, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were successfully integrated onto the paper spray substrates to increase adsorption and desorption. In this study, several MOFs and nanoparticles were tested to extend the analytical lifetimes of sarin, soman, and cyclosarin on paper spray substrates. It was found that the addition of either UiO-66 or HKUST-1 to the paper substrate increased the analytical lifetime of the G-agents from less than 5 min detectability to at least 50 min.

  11. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the primary substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the primary substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the primary substrate. The composition and concentration of the primary substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the primary substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the primary substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the primary substrate on microbial community composition, diversity

  12. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the primary substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16 h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the primary substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the primary substrate. The composition and concentration of the primary substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the primary substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the primary substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the primary substrate on microbial community composition, diversity

  13. Different organic loading rates on the biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of rice straw: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yu, Qing; Yong, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xinxin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wei, Ping; Jia, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation of rice straw at different organic loading rates (OLRs) in a 300m 3 bioreactor. It was found that biogas production increased when the OLR was below 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). The average volumetric biogas production reached 0.86m 3 /(m 3 ·d) at an OLR of 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). Biogas production rate was 323m 3 /t dry rice straw over the whole process. The pH, chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acid, and NH 4 + -N concentrations were all in optimal range at different OLRs. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Fibrobacteres, and Spirochaetes predominated in straw samples. Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes were more abundant in the slurry. The hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main biochemical pathway of methanogenesis in the reactor. This study provides new information regarding the OLR and the differences in the spatial distribution of specific microbiota in a rice straw biogas plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Graphene and poly(methyl methacrylate) composite laminates on flexible substrates for volatile organic compound detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabut, Chanoknan; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Muangrat, Worawut; Bunjongpru, Win; Phonyiem, Mayuree; Song, Young Jae

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a gas sensor for volatile organic compound (VOC) detection based on graphene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (GR/PMMA) composite laminates fabricated using CVD-grown graphene. Graphene was transferred to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by PMMA-supported wet transfer process without PMMA removal in order to achieve the deposition of GR/PMMA composite laminates on PET. The GR/PMMA and graphene sensors show completely different sensitivities to VOC vapors. The GR/PMMA and graphene sensors showed the highest sensitivities to dichloromethane (DCM). The response of the GR/PMMA sensor to DCM was 3 times higher than that of the graphene sensor but the GR/PMMA sensor hardly responded to acetone, chloroform, or benzene. The sensing mechanism of the graphene sensor can be based on the dielectric constant of VOCs, the size of VOC molecule, and electron hopping effects on defect graphene, while that of the GR/PMMA sensor can be explained in terms of the polymer swelling owing to the Hansen solubility parameter.

  15. AnSBBR with circulation applied to biohydrogen production treating sucrose based wastewater: effects of organic loading, influent concentration and cycle length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR containing immobilized biomass and operating with recirculation of the liquid phase (total liquid volume 4.5 L; treated volume per cycle 1.9 L was used to treat sucrose-based wastewater at 30 ºC and produce biohydrogen. The influence of applied volumetric organic load was studied by varying the influent concentration at 3600 and 5400 mgCOD.L-1 and using cycle lengths of 4, 3 and 2 hours, obtaining in this manner volumetric organic loads of 9, 12, 13.5, 18 and 27 gCOD.L-1.d-1. Different performance indicators were used: productivity and yield of biohydrogen per applied and removed load, reactor stability and efficiency based on the applied and removed organic loads, both in terms of organic matter (measured as COD and carbohydrate (sucrose. The results revealed system stability (32-37% of H2 in biogas during biohydrogen production, as well as substrate consumption (12-19% COD; 97-99% sucrose. Conversion efficiencies decreased when the influent concentration was increased (at constant cycle length and when cycle lengths were reduced (at constant influent concentrations. The best yield was 4.16 mol-H2.kg-SUC-1 (sucrose load at 9 gCOD.L-1.d-1 (3600 mgCOD.L-1 and 4 h with H2 content in the biogas of 36% (64% CO2 and 0% CH4. However, the best specific molar productivity of hydrogen was 8.5 molH2.kgTVS-1.d-1 (32% H2; 68% CO2; 0% CH4, at 18 gCOD.L-1.d-1 (5400 mgCOD.L-1 and 3 h, indicating that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the "biochemical generation" of biogas, whereas the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter involves "biochemical consumption" of the substrate. The most significant metabolites were ethanol, acetic acid and butyric acid. Microbiological analyses revealed that the biomass contained bacilli and endospore filaments and showed no significant variations in morphology between

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection using plasmonic bimetallic nanogap substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chi Lok; Dinish, U. S.; Buddharaju, Kavitha Devi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection with bimetallic nanogap structure substrate. Deep UV photolithography at the wavelength of 250 nm is used to pattern circular shape nanostructures. The nanogap between adjacent cir......-based VOCs detection platform for point-of-care breath analysis, homeland security, chemical sensing and environmental monitoring....

  17. Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, a...

  18. The effect of increased loads of dissolved organic matter on estuarine microbial community composition and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects...

  19. Physiologically Distributed Loading Patterns Drive the Formation of Zonally Organized Collagen Structures in Tissue-Engineered Meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetzer, Jennifer L; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2016-07-01

    The meniscus is a dense fibrocartilage tissue that withstands the complex loads of the knee via a unique organization of collagen fibers. Attempts to condition engineered menisci with compression or tensile loading alone have failed to reproduce complex structure on the microscale or anatomic scale. Here we show that axial loading of anatomically shaped tissue-engineered meniscus constructs produced spatial distributions of local strain similar to those seen in the meniscus when the knee is loaded at full extension. Such loading drove formation of tissue with large organized collagen fibers, levels of mechanical anisotropy, and compressive moduli that match native tissue. Loading accelerated the development of native-sized and aligned circumferential and radial collagen fibers. These loading patterns contained both tensile and compressive components that enhanced the major biochemical and functional properties of the meniscus, with loading significantly improved glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation 200-250%, collagen accumulation 40-55%, equilibrium modulus 1000-1800%, and tensile moduli 500-1200% (radial and circumferential). Furthermore, this study demonstrates local changes in mechanical environment drive heterogeneous tissue development and organization within individual constructs, highlighting the importance of recapitulating native loading environments. Loaded menisci developed cartilage-like tissue with rounded cells, a dense collagen matrix, and increased GAG accumulation in the more compressively loaded horns, and fibrous collagen-rich tissue in the more tensile loaded outer 2/3, similar to native menisci. Loaded constructs reached a level of organization not seen in any previous engineered menisci and demonstrate great promise as meniscal replacements.

  20. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M; Zipperer, Wayne C; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet

    2018-05-22

    Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation. Unfortunately, these daily data are usually insufficient and/or unavailable for most watersheds due to a variety of reasons, such as budget and time constraints. A simple approach was developed here to calculate daily loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC in streams based on their seasonal loads. We concluded that the predictions from our approach adequately match field measurements based on statistical comparisons between model calculations and field measurements. Our approach demonstrates that an increase in stream discharge results in increased stream TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads, although high peak discharge did not necessarily result in high peaks of TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads. The approach developed herein is a useful tool to convert seasonal loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC into daily loads in the absence of measured daily load data.

  1. Effect of VS organic loads and buckwheat husk on methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge and wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Mahmoud; Andres, Yaves; Blel, Walid; Gad, Ali; Ahmed, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion of PS, WS, and BH was conducted to evaluate different VS organic loads for an optimal methane production. • Co-digestion of PS and WS was optimized using buckwheat husk as a new waste material. • Combination of PS, WS, and BH produced higher methane yields than the individual digestion of PS, WS, and BH. • The highest CMYs and VS removal rate were achieved at C/N ratios of 10 and 7.50 gVS/L, respectively. • The purification process increased the methane content from 58.91–63.05% to 92.46–95.30%. - Abstract: An environmentally acceptable disposal of sewage sludge and agro-wastes presents an urgent problem facing many countries. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a robust and suitable technique for producing renewable energy from wastes. This study aims to improve methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge (PS) and wheat straw (WS) depending on their volatile solids (VS) organic load and by adding a proposed waste material of buckwheat husk (BH) based on their carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Mesophilic anaerobic batch tests were carried out in 500-mL digesters. Individual and six mixtures of PS and WS at different VS organic loads were anaerobically digested to optimize VS load for the greatest gas production. The highest cumulative methane yield (CMYs) occurred with combined substrates at a VS load of 7.50 gVS/L. In general, the optimized organic loads that gave the highest cumulative biogas yield (CBYs) and CMYs were in the range of 6–8 gVS/L. In addition, AD of individual substrates of PS, WS, and BH and of their mixture at different C/N ratios was investigated regarding to the methane yields. Multi-component substrates produced the greatest CMY at a C/N ratio of 10.07. The CMYs was increased by 39.26% when the proposed waste material of buckwheat husk (BH) was added to the different mixtures of PS and WS compared to the co-digestion of PS and WS. Experimental results were approved using statistical

  2. Fabrication of single-phase ε-GaSe films on Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Zeng, Jia-Xian; Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Liao, Sen-Mao [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Ma, Wei-Yang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kuo-Jen [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, No.15, Shi Qi Zi, Gaoping Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-02

    Single-phase ε-gallium selenide (GaSe) films were fabricated on Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using dual-source precursors: triethylgallium (TEG) and hydrogen selenide (H{sub 2}Se) with the flow ratio of [H{sub 2}Se]/[TEG] being maintained at 1.2. In particular, an arsine (AsH{sub 3}) flow was introduced to the Si substrate before the film deposition to induce an arsenic (As)-passivation effect on the substrate. The crystalline structure of GaSe films prepared was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and the surface morphology of them was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the film quality could be improved by the As-passivation effect. The optical properties of the films were studied by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. PL spectra obtained with different distributions and intensities favored for resolving the superior material quality of the films produced on the substrate with As-passivation compared to those produced on the substrate without As-passivation. The former was dominated by the excitonic emissions for the whole temperature range of 20–300 K examined, while the latter was initially dominated by the defect-related emission at 1.907 eV for a low-temperature range ≦ 80 K and then became dominated by the weak excitonic emission band instead. The ε modification of GaSe films prepared was further recognized by the Raman scattering measurements conducted at room temperature. - Highlights: • Gallium selenide (GaSe) layered structures are fabricated on Si(100) substrate. • Metal–organic chemical vapor deposition is used for film fabrication. • Arsenic-passivation effects of Si substrate on the GaSe film quality are analyzed. • Photoluminescence measurements of GaSe polycrystals are reported.

  3. Development of semi-synthetic bread substrates for examination of bread spoilage organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enk, Michael; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    Shelf life studies of bread are highly irreproducible due to the very heterogenous structure of bread and the difficulties in obtaining sterile bread. We hypothesize that novel semi-synthetic bread substrates with chemical and microbial properties similar to those of bread can be developed....... The bread based substrates can prove valuable in predicting shelf life of bread and in the routine hygienic control of bread factories.Our objective was to develop substrates with properties, which both chemically and microbiologically resembles those of dark and white bread respectively.Nineteen dark (DB......) and 19 white (WB) bread based substrates were made based on a factorial design. Lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, ethanol and glucose were added in amounts found in different brand of bread by chemical analysis. Water activity was adjusted by polyethylene glycol. The substrates were evaluated...

  4. Effect of organic loading rate on fermentative hydrogen production from continuous stirred tank and membrane bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lihong [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A4 (Canada); Bagley, David M. [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Dept. 3295, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Liss, Steven N. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    The influence of organic loading rates (OLRs) on the performance of fermentative hydrogen-producing bioreactors operating in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) modes was examined. Five OLRs were examined, ranging from 4.0 to 30 g COD L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, with influent glucose concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 10 g COD L{sup -1}. At OLRs up to 13 g COD L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, all influent glucose was utilized and the H{sub 2} yield was not significantly influenced by OLR, although the yield in the CSTR mode was significantly higher than that in the MBR mode, 1.25 versus 0.97 mol H{sub 2} (mol Gluc. Conv.){sup -1}, respectively. At an OLR of 30 g COD L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, both reactor modes were overloaded with respect to glucose utilization and also had significantly higher H{sub 2} yields of 1.77 and 1.49 mol H{sub 2} (mol Gluc. Conv.){sup -1} for the CSTR and MBR modes, respectively, versus the underloaded operation. At the intermediate OLR of 22 g COD L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, the H{sub 2} yield was maximized at 1.78 mol H{sub 2} (mol Gluc. Conv.){sup -1} for both the CSTR and MBR operation. Overall H{sub 2} production was 50% higher in the MBR mode, 0.78 versus 0.51 moles d{sup -1}, because the CSTR mode was overloaded with respect to glucose utilization at this OLR. These results suggest that an optimum OLR that maximizes H{sub 2} yield and H{sub 2} production may be near the OLR that causes overload with respect to substrate utilization. Additionally, while the CSTR mode is easier to operate and provides higher H{sub 2} yields at underloaded and overloaded OLRs, the MBR mode may be preferable when operating near the optimum OLR. (author)

  5. Stabilisation of spent mushroom substrate for application as a plant growth-promoting organic amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Fabiana S; Tatti, Enrico; Abram, Florence; Wilson, Jude; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat. However, SMS is often regarded as not being stable and/or mature, which hampers its wide use for crop production. Here, we demonstrate the stabilisation of SMS and its subsequent use as organic fertiliser and partial peat replacement in horticulture. The stabilisation was performed in a laboratory-scale composting system, with controlled temperature and aeration. Physical and chemical parameters were monitored during composting and provided information on the progress of the process. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content was found to be the most reliable parameter to predict SMS stability. In situ oxygen consumption indicated the main composting phases, reflecting major changes in microbial activity. The structure of the bacterial community was also found to be a potential predictor of stability, as the compositional changes followed the composting progress. By contrast, the fungal community did not present clear successional process along the experiment. Maturity and quality of the stabilised SMS were assessed in a horticultural growing trial. When used as the sole fertiliser source, SMS was able to support Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) growth and significantly improved grass yield with a concentration-dependent response, increasing grass biomass up to 300%, when compared to the untreated control. In summary, the results indicated that the method employed was efficient in

  6. Seven-Segment Organic Polymer Based Light-Emitting Devices on Plastic Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanicki, Jerzy

    2001-01-01

    .../A; and maximum luminous efficiency = 0.1 lm/W. The extrapolated lifetime of unpackaged OPLEDs on flexible plastic substrate of about 1160 min for initial brightness of 100 cd/m(squared) has been obtained.

  7. Optimizing The Organic/Inorganic Barrier Structure For Flexible Plastic Substrate Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chiuan Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A multilayered barrier structure stacked with organosilicon and silicon oxide (SiOx films consecutively prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD was developed to encapsulate flexible plastic substrate. The evolution on the residual internal stress, structural quality of the organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure as well as its adhesion to the substrate were found to correlate closely with the thickness of the inset organosilicon layer. Due to the significant discrepancy in the thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate and SiOx film, the thickness of the organosilicon layer deposited onto the substrate and SiOx film thus was crucial to optimize the barrier property of the organosilicon/SiOx structure. The organosilicon/SiOx barrier structure possessed a lowest residual compressive stress and quality adhesion to the substrate was achieved from engineering the organosilicon layer thickness in the multilayered structure. The relaxation of the residual internal stress in the barrier structure led to a dense SiOx film as a consequence of the enhancement in the Si-O-Si networks and thereby resulted in the reduction of the water vapor permeation. Accordingly, a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR below 1 × 10-2 g/m2 /day being potential for the application on the flexible optoelectronic device packaging was achievable from the 3-pairs organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate.

  8. Experimental and Simulated Investigations of Thin Polymer Substrates with an Indium Tin Oxide Coating under Fatigue Bending Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong-Shiun Hsu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences of compressive and tensile stresses on the mechanical stability of an ITO film deposited on PET substrates. The sheet resistance of the ITO film, optical transmittance of the ITO-coated PET substrates, and failure scheme within the ITO film were measured to evaluate the mechanical stability of the concerned thin films. The results indicated that compressive and tensile stresses generated distinct failure schemes within an ITO film and both led to increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance. In addition, tensile stress increased the sheet resistance of an ITO film more easily than compressive stress did. However, the influences of both compressive and tensile stress on increased optical transmittance were demonstrated to be highly similar. Increasing the thickness of a PET substrate resulted in increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance regardless of the presence of compressive or tensile stress. Moreover, J-Integral, a method based on strain energy, was used to estimate the interfacial adhesion strength of the ITO-PET film through the simulation approach enabled by a finite element analysis.

  9. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer

  10. Processes Affecting Agricultural Drainwater Quality and Organic Carbon Loads in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Deverel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2000 to 2003 we quantified drain flow, drain-and ground-water chemistry and hydrogeologic conditions on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The primary objective was to quantify processes affecting organic carbon concentrations and loads in agricultural drainage water. We collected physical and chemical data in southern and northern areas: TN and TS, respectively. Corn grew in both areas during the spring and summer. The peat soils in the TN area are more decomposed than those in the TS area. Results elucidate processes affecting drain flow and concentrations under varying hydrologic conditions. During May through November, groundwater flows from the permanently saturated zone to drainage ditches, and the resulting average drainage-water quality and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration was similar to the groundwater; the median DOC loads in the TN and TS study areas ranged from 9 to 27 g C/ha-day. The major ion chemistry and stable isotope data confirmed that groundwater was the primary source of drainflow. In contrast, during December through April the drainwater is supplied from the shallow, variably saturated soil-zone. The DOC concentrations, major-ion chemistry, and stable isotope data indicate that the shallow-zone water is partially evaporated and oxidized. Higher flows and DOC concentrations during these months result in higher median DOC loads, which ranged from 84 to 280 g C/ha-day. During December through April, increasing groundwater levels in the shallow peat layers and mobilization of organic carbon result in high drain flow and increased trihalomethane precursor concentrations and loads. On a per mass DOC basis, drain water collected during high flow periods is less likely to form THMs than during low flow periods. However, the high flows and subsequent high concentrations contribute to substantially higher trihalomethane precursor and DOC loads.

  11. Miniaturized bandpass filter using a meandered stepped-impedance resonator with a meandered-line stub-load on a GaAs substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuluunbaatar, Z; Wang, C; Kim, N Y

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a compact bandpass filter with improved skirt selectivity using integrated passive device fabrication technology on a GaAs substrate. The structure of the filter consists of electromagnetically coupled meandered-line symmetric stepped-impedance resonators. The strength of the coupling between the resonators is enhanced by using a meandered-line stub-load inside the resonators to improve the selectivity and miniaturize the size of the filter. In addition, the center frequency of the filter can be flexibly controlled by varying degrees of the capacitive coupling between resonator and stub-load. To verify the proposed concept, a protocol bandpass filter with center frequency of 6.53 GHz was designed, fabricated, and measured, with a return loss and insertion loss of 39.1 dB and 1.63 dB.

  12. Miniaturized Bandpass Filter Using a Meandered Stepped-Impedance Resonator with a Meandered-Line Stub-Load on a GaAs Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chuluunbaatar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a compact bandpass filter with improved skirt selectivity using integrated passive device fabrication technology on a GaAs substrate. The structure of the filter consists of electromagnetically coupled meandered-line symmetric stepped-impedance resonators. The strength of the coupling between the resonators is enhanced by using a meandered-line stub-load inside the resonators to improve the selectivity and miniaturize the size of the filter. In addition, the center frequency of the filter can be flexibly controlled by varying degrees of the capacitive coupling between resonator and stub-load. To verify the proposed concept, a protocol bandpass filter with center frequency of 6.53 GHz was designed, fabricated, and measured, with a return loss and insertion loss of 39.1 dB and 1.63 dB.

  13. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-01-01

    concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m−1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence......The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87...... the prediction in wavelengths above 520nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC–CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44gCm−2yr−1, and 1...

  14. Synthesis of indium nanoclusters and formation of thin film contacts on plastic substrates for organic and flexible electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Frank F; Bulkowski, Michal; Hsieh, K C

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we described the processes of synthesizing free-standing indium nanoclusters using inverse micelles and microemulsions as well as synthesizing organic-encapsulated indium nanoclusters using alkanethiols as the organic encapsulants. The synthesized organic-encapsulated indium nanoclusters have demonstrated the feasibilities to be used as plastic compatible soft metal contacts for emerging organic devices. The homogeneously distributed indium nanoclusters with sizes of 10-30 nm have been fabricated on a few different plastic substrates. By changing the alkanethiol carbon chain length and the sizes of the indium nanoclusters, the annealing temperature required to form low-resistance indium thin film conductors has been reduced to 80-100 deg. C, which is acceptable for a variety of organic thin films

  15. Flexible organic light-emitting device based on magnetron sputtered indium-tin-oxide on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Tong, S.W.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    A radio-frequency sputtering deposition method was applied to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) on a plastic substrate, polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The correlation of deposition conditions and ITO film properties was systematically investigated and characterized. The optimal ITO films had a transmittance of over 90% in the visible range (400-700 nm) and a resistivity of 5.0x10 -4 Ω-cm. Sequentially α-napthylphenylbiphenyl diamine, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium, and magnesium-silver were thermally deposited on the ITO-coated PET substrate to fabricate flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). The fabricated devices had a maximum current efficiency of ∼4.1 cd/A and a luminance of nearly 4100 cd/m 2 at 100 mA/cm 2 . These values showed that the FOLEDs had comparable performance characteristics with the conventional organic light-emitting diodes made on ITO-coated glasses with the same device configuration

  16. The effect of increased loads of dissolved organic matter on estuarine microbial community composition and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ele...... supply to the Baltic Sea will be efficiently mineralized by microbes. This will have consequences for bacterioplankton and phytoplankton community composition and function, and significantly affect nutrient biogeochemistry....

  17. Photoswitchable nanoporous films by loading azobenzene in metal-organic frameworks of type HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai; Wadhwa, Jasmine; Singh Malhi, Jasleen; Schöttner, Ludger; Welle, Alexander; Schwartz, Heidi; Hermann, Daniela; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Heinke, Lars

    2017-07-13

    Photoswitchable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) enable the dynamic remote control of their key properties. Here, a readily producible approach is presented where photochromic molecules, i.e. azobenzene (AB) and o-tetrafluoroazobenzene (tfAB), are loaded in MOF films of type HKUST-1. These nanoporous films, which can be reversibly switched with UV/visible or only visible light, have remote-controllable guest uptake properties.

  18. Decomposition of Organic Substrates and their Effect on Mungbean Growth in Two Soils of the Mekong Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Becker

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land use in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam is dominated by intensive irrigated rice cropping systems on both alluvial and acid sulfate soils. A stagnating and occasionally declining productivity may be linked on the alluvial soils to low N use efficiency and low soil organic matter content while on acid sulfate soils to acidity, Al toxicity and P deficiency. For economic reasons, farmers increasingly diversify their cropping system by replacing the dry season rice by high-value horticultural crops grown under upland conditions. However, upland cropping is likely to further exacerbate the soil-related problems. Organic substrates from decentralized waste and waste water management are widely available and may help to alleviate the reported soil problems. During the dry season of 2003/2004, the effect of the application of various types and rates of locally available waste products on crop performance was evaluated at both an alluvial and an acid sulfate soil site. The C and N mineralization dynamics of nine organic substrates from waste and waste water treatment were determined by anaerobic (N and aerobic (C incubation in the laboratory. The response of 12 week-old mungbean (dry matter accumulation to substrate application (1.5 – 6.0 Mg ha−1 was evaluated on a degraded alluvial and on an acid sulfate soil. In the alluvial soil, largest mineralization rates were observed from anaerobic sludge. Biomass increases in 12 week-old mungbean ranged from 25-98% above the unfertilized control. In the acid sulfate soil, highest net-N release rates were observed from aerobic composts with high P content. Mungbean biomass was related to soil pH and exchangeable Al3+ and was highest with the application of aerobic composts. We conclude that the use of organic substrates in the rice-based systems of the Mekong Delta needs to be soil specific.

  19. Bioethanol in Biofuels Checked by an Amperometric Organic Phase Enzyme Electrode (OPEE Working in “Substrate Antagonism” Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tomassetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol content of two samples of biofuels was determined directly, after simple dilution in decane, by means of an amperometric catalase enzyme biosensor working in the organic phase, based on substrate antagonisms format. The results were good from the point of view of accuracy, and satisfactory for what concerns the recovery test by the standard addition method. Limit of detection (LOD was on the order of 2.5 × 10−5 M.

  20. Odor from anaerobic digestion of swine slurry: influence of pH, temperature and organic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ortiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm slurry management from storage and/or treatment is the main source of odors from swine production, which are determined by factors such as operational variations (organic loading, cleaning of facilities and animal diet (pH or environmental conditions (temperature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH, temperature and organic loading on odor generation during anaerobic digestion of swine slurry. The methodology employed batch experimental units under controlled pH (6.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 8.0 and temperature (20, 35 and 55 °C conditions. Additionally, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB system was operated under two Organic Loading Rate (OLR conditions as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (Phase I: 0.4 g L-1 d-1 of COD, Phase II: 1.1 g L-1 d-1 of COD. Odor (batch and UASB reactor was evaluated by detection and recognition threshold as Dilution Threshold (D-T. Acidic conditions (pH 6.0 and thermophilic temperatures (55 °C increased odors (1,358 D-T and acidified the system (Intermediate/Total Alkalinity ratio (IT/TA: 0.85 in batch experiments. Increasing OLR on UASB reactor reduced odors from 6.3 to 9.6 D-T d-1 due to an increase in the production of biogas (0.4 to 0.6 g g-1 COD removed of biogas.

  1. Self-organized nickel nanoparticles on nanostructured silicon substrate intermediated by a titanium oxynitride (TiNxOy) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M.; Droppa, R., Jr.; de Mello, S. R. S.; Figueroa, C. A.; Zanatta, A. R.; Alvarez, F.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report an experimental approach by combining in situ sequential top-down and bottom-up processes to induce the organization of nanosized nickel particles. The top-down process consists in xenon ion bombardment of a crystalline silicon substrate to generate a pattern, followed by depositing a ˜15 nm titanium oxynitride thin film to act as a metallic diffusion barrier. Then, metallic nanoparticles are deposited by argon ion sputtering a pure nickel target, and the sample is annealed to promote the organization of the nickel nanoparticles (a bottom-up process). According to the experimental results, the surface pattern and the substrate biaxial surface strain are the driving forces behind the alignment and organization of the nickel nanoparticles. Moreover, the ratio between the F of metallic atoms arriving at the substrate relative to its surface diffusion mobility determines the nucleation regime of the nickel nanoparticles. These features are presented and discussed considering the existing technical literature on the subject.

  2. Identification of locally available structural material as co-substrate for organic waste composting in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, C; Heldt, N

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the lack in structural strength while composting certain kinds of organic wastes, 11 co-substrates were tested that are generally locally available in rural areas of northern Tamil Nadu, India. In addition to the classical composting parameters such as carbon/nitrogen ratio, moisture content, dry matter and organic dry matter, a compression test was conducted to evaluate the structural strength and the suitability as bulking agent for composting processes. Additionally, with respect to the climatic conditions in India, the water holding capacity was also evaluated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Evaluation of organ-specific glucose metabolism by 18F-FDG in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) knockout mice as a model of insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao; Nakamura, Akinobu; Minamimoto, Ryogo; Shinoda, Kazuaki; Tateishi, Ukihide; Terauchi, Yasuo; Inoue, Tomio; Goto, Atsuhi; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a physiological condition in which the body produces insulin but does not result in a sufficient biological effect. Insulin resistance is usually asymptomatic but is associated with health problems and is a factor in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to clarify organ-specific insulin resistance in normal daily conditions using [ 18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([ 18 F]-FDG). The biodistribution of [ 18 F]-FDG was examined in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) knockout mice, an animal model of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, and C57BL/6J (wild-type) mice with and without insulin loading. Mice received 0.5 MBq of [ 18 F]-FDG injected into the tail vein, immediately followed by nothing (control cohorts) or an intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 mU/g body weight of human insulin as an insulin loading test. Blood glucose concentrations for all of the experimental animals were assessed at 0, 20, 40, and 60 min post-injection. The mice were subsequently killed, and tissue was collected for evaluation of [ 18 F]-FDG biodistribution. The radioactivity of each organ was measured using a gamma counter. In the absence of insulin, the blood glucose concentrations of wild-type mice (132±26 mg/dl) and IRS-1 knockout mice (134±18 mg/dl) were not significantly different. Blood glucose concentrations decreased following insulin administration, with lower concentrations in wild-type mice than in knockout mice at 20, 40, and 60 min. A statistically significant difference in [ 18 F]-FDG uptake between wild-type mice and IRS-1 knockout mice was confirmed in the heart, abdominal muscle, and femoral muscle. With insulin loading, [ 18 F]-FDG uptake in the heart, back muscle, and abdominal muscle was significantly increased compared to without insulin loading in both wild-type mice and knockout mice. Our results showed that IR significantly affected [ 18 F]-FDG uptake in the heart in normal daily conditions. IR was associated with

  4. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-27

    Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  5. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing. Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%. We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease. These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects. In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  6. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  7. The role of hydrology in annual organic carbon loads and terrestrial organic matter export from a midwestern agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Brent J.; Filley, Timothy R.; Harbor, Jon M.

    2007-03-01

    Defining the control that hydrology exerts on organic carbon (OC) export at the watershed scale is important for understanding how the source and quantity of OC in streams and rivers is influenced by climate change or by landscape drainage. To this end, molecular (lignin phenol), stable carbon isotope, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data were collected over a range of flow conditions to examine the influence of hydrology on annual OC export from an 850 km 2 Midwestern United States agricultural watershed located in west central Indiana. In years 2002 and 2003, modeled annual DOC loads were 19.5 and 14.1 kg ha -1yr -1, while 71% and 85%, respectively, of the total annual OC was exported in flow events occurring during less than 20% of that time. These results highlight the importance of short-duration, high-discharge events (common in smaller watersheds) in controlling annual OC export. Based on reported increases in annual stream discharge coupled with current estimates of DOC export, annual DOC loads in this watershed may have increased by up to 40% over the past 50 years. Molecular (lignin phenol) characterization of quantity and relative degradation state of terrestrial OC shows as much temporal variability of lignin parameters (in high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon) in this one watershed as that demonstrated in previously published studies of dissolved organic matter in the Mississippi and Amazon Rivers. These results suggest that hydrologic variability is at least as important in determining the nature and extent of OC export as geographic variability. Moreover, molecular and bulk stable carbon isotope data from high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon and colloidal organic carbon showed that increased stream flow from the study watershed was responsible for increased export of agriculturally derived OC. When considered in the context of results from other studies that show the importance of flood events and in-stream processing of

  8. GROWTH AND LEVELS OF N, P AND K IN ROOTSTOCKS OF TAMARIND TREES USING ORGANIC SUBSTRATES AND DOSES OF PHOSPHORUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO CASTRO PEREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different organic substrates and phosphorus doses on the growth and leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in rootstocks of Tamarindus indica L. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse nursery located on the campus of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, from March to October 2013. The treatments consisted of three organic sources at a concentration of 40% (v/v (bovine manure, goat manure and a commercial organic compound and four doses of simple superphosphate (0, 0 kg m-3, 2.5 kg m-3, 5.0 kg m-3 and 7.5 kg m-3. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design (RBD, with 12 treatments (substrates, four replications and 10 plants per plot, totaling 480 plants. The goat manure and the organic compound were the most suitable treatments for the production of rootstocks of the tamarind tree. The maximum dose of 7.5 g kg-1 of simple superphosphate caused the highest levels of phosphorus and potassium in the dry mass of shoots. The nutrients in the dry matter of shoots accumulated in the following order: N > K > P.

  9. Influence of organic loading rate on methane production in a CSTR from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escobar, Luis A; Martínez-Hernández, Sergio; Corte-Cano, Grisel; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) on methane production in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated. Total solid (TS) to obtain OLR of 1, 5, 10 and 15 g VS L(-1) day(-1), with hydraulic retention times of 29, 6, 6 and 4, respectively, were conditioned. The results showed a decrease in pH levels and an increase in the theoretical volatile fatty acids (VFA). While the yield of methane production decreased from 0.48 to 0.10 LCH4/g VSremoved, respectively, the OLR-10 managed on average 38% removal of volatile solids (VS) and a yield biogas production of 0.81 Lbiogas g(-1) VSremoved and 1.35 L day(-1). This suggests that the OLR increases in an anaerobic system from physicochemical sludge only inhibits the methanogenic metabolism, because there is still substrate consumption and biogas production.

  10. Removal of volatile organic compounds at extreme shock-loading using a scaled-up pilot rotating drum biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawvel, Russell A; Kim, Byung; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2008-11-01

    A pilot-scale rotating drum biofilter (RDB), which is a novel biofilter design that offers flexible flow-through configurations, was used to treat complex and variable volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, including shock loadings, emanating from paint drying operations at an Army ammunition plant. The RDB was seeded with municipal wastewater activated sludge. Removal efficiencies up to 86% and an elimination capacity of 5.3 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) hr(-1) were achieved at a filter-medium contact time of 60 sec. Efficiency increased at higher temperatures that promote higher biological activity, and decreased at lower pH, which dropped down to pH 5.5 possibly as a result of carbon dioxide and volatile fatty acid production and ammonia consumption during VOC degradation. In comparison, other studies have shown that a bench-scale RDB could achieve a removal efficiency of 95% and elimination capacity of 331 g COD m(-3) hr(-1). Sustainable performance of the pilot-scale RDB was challenged by the intermittent nature of painting operations, which typically resulted in 3-day long shutdown periods when bacteria were not fed. This challenge was overcome by adding sucrose (2 g/L weekly) as an auxiliary substrate to sustain metabolic activity during shutdown periods.

  11. Organic Matter Loading Modifies the Microbial Community Responsible for Nitrogen Loss in Estuarine Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbin, Andrew R; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine sediments, as locations of substantial fixed nitrogen loss, are very important to the nitrogen budget and to the primary productivity of the oceans. Coastal sediment systems are also highly dynamic and subject to periodic natural and anthropogenic organic substrate additions. The response to organic matter by the microbial community involved in nitrogen loss processes was evaluated using mesocosms of Chesapeake Bay sediments. Over the course of a 50-day incubation, rates of anammox and denitrification were measured weekly using (15)N tracer incubations, and samples were collected for genetic analysis. Rates of both nitrogen loss processes and gene abundances associated with them corresponded loosely, probably because heterogeneities in sediments obscured a clear relationship. The rates of denitrification were stimulated more, and the fraction of nitrogen loss attributed to anammox slightly reduced, by the higher organic matter addition. Furthermore, the large organic matter pulse drove a significant and rapid shift in the denitrifier community composition as determined using a nirS microarray, indicating that the diversity of these organisms plays an essential role in responding to anthropogenic inputs. We also suggest that the proportion of nitrogen loss due to anammox in these coastal estuarine sediments may be underestimated due to temporal dynamics as well as from methodological artifacts related to conventional sediment slurry incubation approaches.

  12. Study of reactivities of electro-catalytic oxidation of organic substrates with Ru(IV) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madurro, J.M.; Oliveira, S.M. de; Campos, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    An electrocatalytic procedure for the oxidation of olefines, ketones, heterocycles and ethers using the Ru IV oxidant RuO (bpy) (trpy) 2+ (bpy is 2,2 - bipyridine; trpy is 2,2', 2''' - terpyridine), is described. The relative reactivities of the substrates are determined by analysis of the exponential i x t curves, using simple linear and exponential least-square programme. Mechanistics considerations based on the observed relative reactivities are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  13. Improved high-frequency soft magnetic properties of FeCo films on organic ferroelectric PVDF substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Zhen; Han, Xuemeng; Li, Yue; Guo, Xiaobin; Zuo, Yalu; Xi, Li, E-mail: xili@lzu.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    FeCo films with various thicknesses were fabricated by direct-current magnetron sputtering on corning glass and organic ferroelectric PVDF substrates at the same time with 5 nm Ru seed layer and 5 nm Ta protective layer. The in-plane uniaxial anisotropy field of FeCo on glass substrate increases from 24 to 36 Oe with the increase of FeCo film thickness from 5 to 100 nm. However, a large in-plane anisotropy field of FeCo on PVDF substrate increases with FeCo thickness from 5 to 20 nm and gradually decreases with the FeCo thickness further increasing. Atomic force microscope images of FeCo on glass show quite smooth surface with root-mean-square roughness around 0.5 nm and have none visible granules on the surface for all samples. While, AFM images of FeCo on PVDF show quite rough surface with RMS roughness around 25 nm and have visible granules with the smallest granules appearing at the FeCo thickness of 20 nm. The permeability spectra show the typical ferromagnetic resonance phenomenon and can be well fitted by the LLG equation with the obtained experimental parameters. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency can reach 7.0 GHz for the 20 nm FeCo film on PVDF. Moreover, the quality factor of this sample can respectively reach 26, 12 and 7 at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 GHz, indicating the potential real 3G application for high-frequency devices. - Highlights: 1.Magnetic and morphological properties of FeCo films on PVDF substrates are studied. 2.The large anisotropy field of FeCo films on PVDF is obtained. 3.Improved high frequency properties of FeCo films on flexible substrates are obtained. 4.The origin of improved high frequency properties of FeCo films on PVDF is studied.

  14. Biological Aging and Life Span Based on Entropy Stress via Organ and Mitochondrial Metabolic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Annamalai

    2017-10-01

    mass over life time. The corresponding life time entropy stresses of organs are: 1.2; 60.5; 110.5; 110.5; 50.5; 3.5; 3.0 MJ/K per kg organ mass. Thus, among vital organs highest stress is for heart and kidney and lowest stress is for liver. The 5-organ model (BHKL and R5 also shows similar ranking. Based on mitochondrial volume and 5-organ model, the entropy stresses of organs expressed in kJ/K per cm3 of Mito volume are: 12,670; 5465; 2855; 4730 kJ/cm3 of Mito for BHKL indicating brain to be highly stressed and liver to be least stressed. Thus, the organ entropy stress ranking based on unit volume of mitochondria within an organ (kJ/(K cm3 of Mito of organ k differs from entropy stress based on unit mass of organ. Based on metabolic loading, the brains of athletes already under extreme mitochondrial stress and facing reduced metabolic efficiency under concussion are subjected to more increased stress. In the absence of non-intrusive measurements for estimating organ-based metabolic rates which can serve as metabolism-based biomarkers for biological aging (BA of whole body, alternate methods are suggested for estimating the biological aging rate.

  15. Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: seasonal occurrence and annual loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weixiao; Müller, Beat; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoit; Singer, Heinz; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Berg, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Twenty percent of the water run-off from China's land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage of approximately 400 million people out to sea. The lower stretch of the Yangtze therefore offers the opportunity to assess the pollutant discharge of a huge population. To establish a comprehensive assessment of micropollutants, river water samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 along a cross-section at the lowermost hydrological station of the Yangtze River not influenced by the tide (Datong Station, Anhui province). Following a prescreening of 268 target compounds, we examined the occurrence, seasonal variation, and annual loads of 117 organic micropollutants, including 51 pesticides, 43 pharmaceuticals, 7 household and industrial chemicals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the 14-month study, the maximum concentrations of particulate PAHs (1-5 μg/g), pesticides (11-284 ng/L), pharmaceuticals (5-224 ng/L), and household and industrial chemicals (4-430 ng/L) were generally lower than in other Chinese rivers due to the dilution caused of the Yangtze River's average water discharge of approximately 30,000 m(3)/s. The loads of most pesticides, anti-infectives, and PAHs were higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, which was attributed to the increased agricultural application of chemicals in the summer, an elevated water discharge through the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of high hydraulic loads and the related lower treatment efficiency, and seasonally increased deposition from the atmosphere and runoff from the catchment. The estimated annual load of PAHs in the river accounted for some 4% of the total emission of PAHs in the whole Yangtze Basin. Furthermore, by using sucralose as a tracer for domestic wastewater, we estimate a daily disposal of approximately 47 million m(3) of sewage into the river, corresponding to 1.8% of its average hydraulic load. In summary

  16. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  17. Cooperative loading of multisite receptors with lanthanide containers: an approach for organized luminescent metallopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Lucille; Guénée, Laure; Besnard, Céline; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Petoud, Stéphane; Piguet, Claude

    2018-01-14

    Metal-containing (bio)organic polymers are materials of continuously increasing importance for applications in energy storage and conversion, drug delivery, shape-memory items, supported catalysts, organic conductors and smart photonic devices. The embodiment of luminescent components provides a revolution in lighting and signaling with the ever-increasing development of polymeric light-emitting devices. Despite the unique properties expected from the introduction of optically and magnetically active lanthanides into organic polymers, the deficient control of the metal loading currently limits their design to empirical and poorly reproducible materials. We show here that the synthetic efforts required for producing soluble multi-site host systems L k are largely overcome by the virtue of reversible thermodynamics for mastering the metal loading with the help of only two parameters: (1) the affinity of the luminescent lanthanide container for a single binding site and (2) the cooperative effect which modulates the successive fixation of metallic units to adjacent sites. When unsymmetrical perfluorobenzene-trifluoroacetylacetonate co-ligands (pbta - ) are selected for balancing the charge of the trivalent lanthanide cations, Ln 3+ , in six-coordinate [Ln(pbta) 3 ] containers, the explored anti-cooperative complexation processes induce nearest-neighbor intermetallic interactions twice as large as thermal energy at room temperature ( RT = 2.5 kJ mol -1 ). These values have no precedent when using standard symmetrical containers and they pave the way for programming metal alternation in luminescent lanthanidopolymers.

  18. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  19. Performance of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Conductive Substrates as Supercapacitors Electrodes using Organic and Ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Turner, Ben; Zhang, X. F.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2012-02-01

    In this work we will present the use of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) directly grown on inconel substrates via chemical vapor deposition, as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The performance of the MWNT EDLC electrodes were investigated using two electrolytes, an organic electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC), and a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to obtain values for the capacitance and internal resistance of these devices will be presented and compared.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt ferrocyanides loaded on organic anion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)], E-mail: tpvalsala@yahoo.co.in; Joseph, Annie [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Shah, J.G. [Back End Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Raj, Kanwar [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Venugopal, V. [Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Transition metal ferrocyanides have important applications in the selective removal of radioactive caesium from low level and intermediate level radioactive liquid waste streams. The microcrystalline nature of these materials renders them useless for application in column mode operations. Special preparation procedures have been developed to prepare granular solids by in situ precipitation of metal ferrocyanides on organic anion exchangers, which is suitable for column mode operations. The elemental compositions of the metal ferrocyanides precipitated inside the pores of anion exchanger were determined by analysing the dissolved samples using ICP-AES system and flame photometer. From the XRD and EDX analyses and the elemental composition of the synthesized materials, the nature of the compound formed inside the anion exchanger was found to be cobalt ferrocyanide. From SEM analysis of the samples, the particle size of the cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated inside the anion exchanger was found to be much less than that of cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated outside. The efficiency of these materials for removal of Cs was evaluated by measuring the distribution coefficient (Kd), ion exchange capacity and kinetics of Cs uptake. The Kd of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was found to be of the order of 10{sup 5} ml/g. The Cs uptake kinetics of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was slower than that of precipitated materials. The ion exchange capacity of the cobalt ferrocyanide loaded on anion exchanger was found to be much higher than that of the precipitated cobalt ferrocyanide.

  1. Theoretical simulations of atomic and polyatomic bombardment of an organic overlayer on a metallic substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Krantzman, K D; Delcorte, A; Garrison, B J

    2003-01-01

    Our previous molecular dynamics simulations on initial test systems have laid the foundation for understanding some of the effects of polyatomic bombardment. In this paper, we describe simulations of the bombardment of a more realistic model system, an overlayer of sec-butyl-terminated polystyrene tetramers on a Ag left brace 1 1 1 right brace substrate. We have used this model system to study the bombardment with Xe and SF sub 5 projectiles at kinetic energies ranging from 0.50 to 5.0 keV. SF sub 5 sputters more molecules than Xe, but a higher percentage of these are damaged rather than ejected intact when the bombarding energy is greater than 0.50 keV. Therefore, at energies comparable to experimental values, the efficiency, measured as the yield-to-damage ratio, is greater with Xe than SF sub 5. Stable and intact molecules are generally produced by upward moving substrate atoms, while fragments are produced by the upward and lateral motion of reflected projectile atoms and fragments from the target molecul...

  2. Anisotropic MoS2 Nanosheets Grown on Self-Organized Nanopatterned Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Christian; Mennucci, Carlo; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Lamperti, Alessio; Cappelluti, Emmanuele; Buatier de Mongeot, Francesco; Molle, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Manipulating the anisotropy in 2D nanosheets is a promising way to tune or trigger functional properties at the nanoscale. Here, a novel approach is presented to introduce a one-directional anisotropy in MoS 2 nanosheets via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto rippled patterns prepared on ion-sputtered SiO 2 /Si substrates. The optoelectronic properties of MoS 2 are dramatically affected by the rippled MoS 2 morphology both at the macro- and the nanoscale. In particular, strongly anisotropic phonon modes are observed depending on the polarization orientation with respect to the ripple axis. Moreover, the rippled morphology induces localization of strain and charge doping at the nanoscale, thus causing substantial redshifts of the phonon mode frequencies and a topography-dependent modulation of the MoS 2 workfunction, respectively. This study paves the way to a controllable tuning of the anisotropy via substrate pattern engineering in CVD-grown 2D nanosheets. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nanofibrous poly(lactide-co-glycolide membranes loaded with diamond nanoparticles as promising substrates for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parizek M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Martin Parizek1, Timothy EL Douglas2, Katarina Novotna1, Alexander Kromka3, Mariea A Brady4, Andrea Renzing4, Eske Voss4, Marketa Jarosova3, Lukas Palatinus3, Pavel Tesarek5, Pavla Ryparova5, Vera Lisa1, Ana M dos Santos2, Lucie Bacakova11Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Group, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; 3Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany; 5Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Prague, Czech RepublicBackground: Nanofibrous scaffolds loaded with bioactive nanoparticles are promising materials for bone tissue engineering.Methods: In this study, composite nanofibrous membranes containing a copolymer of L-lactide and glycolide (PLGA and diamond nanoparticles were fabricated by an electrospinning technique. PLGA was dissolved in a mixture of methylene chloride and dimethyl formamide (2:3 at a concentration of 2.3 wt%, and nanodiamond (ND powder was added at a concentration of 0.7 wt% (about 23 wt% in dry PLGA.Results: In the composite scaffolds, the ND particles were either arranged like beads in the central part of the fibers or formed clusters protruding from the fibers. In the PLGA-ND membranes, the fibers were thicker (diameter 270 ± 9 nm than in pure PLGA meshes (diameter 218 ± 4 nm, but the areas of pores among these fibers were smaller than in pure PLGA samples (0.46 ± 0.02 µm2 versus 1.28 ± 0.09 µm2 in pure PLGA samples. The PLGA-ND membranes showed higher mechanical resistance, as demonstrated by rupture tests of load and deflection of rupture probe at failure. Both types of membranes enabled the attachment, spreading, and subsequent proliferation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells to a similar extent, although these

  4. Quenching measurements and modeling of a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, S.; Xu, J.; Shields, E.; Froborg, F.; Calaprice, F.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Back, H. O.; Casarella, C.; Fang, X.; Gupta, Y. K.; Lamere, E.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Smith, M.; Tan, W.

    2017-08-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in a wide variety of applications in experimental nuclear and particle physics. Boron-loaded scintillators are particularly useful for detecting neutron captures, due to the high thermal neutron capture cross section of $^{10}$B. These scintillators are commonly used in neutron detectors, including the DarkSide-50 neutron veto, where the neutron may produce a signal when it scatters off protons in the scintillator or when it captures on $^{10}$B. Reconstructing the energy of these recoils is complicated by scintillation quenching. Understanding how nuclear recoils are quenched in these scintillators is an important and difficult problem. In this article, we present a set of measurements of neutron-induced proton recoils in a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator at recoil energies ranging from 57--467 keV, and we compare these measurements to predictions from different quenching models. We find that a modified Birks' model whose denominator is quadratic in $dE/dx$ best describes the measurements, with $\\chi^2$/NDF$=1.6$. This result will help model nuclear recoil scintillation in similar detectors and can be used to improve their neutron tagging efficiency.

  5. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-10-01

    The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87 samples were collected from three estuarine transects which were studied in three seasons, covering a salinity range between 0 and 6.8, and DOC concentrations from 1572 μmol l-1 in freshwater to 222 μmol l-1 in coastal waters. CDOM absorption coefficient, aCDOM(375) values followed the trend in DOC concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m-1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence the prediction in wavelengths above 520 nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC-CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44 g C m-2 yr-1, and 1.67 to 11.5 aCDOM(375) yr-1, respectively.

  6. Quenching measurements and modeling of a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerdale, S.; Xu, J.; Shields, E.; Froborg, F.; Calaprice, F.; Alexander, T.; Back, H.O.; Aprahamian, A.; Casarella, C.; Fang, X.; Gupta, Y.K.; Lamere, E.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Smith, M.; Tan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in a wide variety of applications in experimental nuclear and particle physics. Boron-loaded scintillators are particularly useful for detecting neutron captures, due to the high thermal neutron capture cross section of 10 B. These scintillators are commonly used in neutron detectors, including the DarkSide-50 neutron veto, where the neutron may produce a signal when it scatters off protons in the scintillator or when it captures on 10 B. Reconstructing the energy of these recoils is complicated by scintillation quenching. Understanding how nuclear recoils are quenched in these scintillators is an important and difficult problem. In this article, we present a set of measurements of neutron-induced proton recoils in a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator at recoil energies ranging from 57–467 keV, and we compare these measurements to predictions from different quenching models. We find that a modified Birks' model whose denominator is quadratic in dE / dx best describes the measurements, with χ 2 /NDF=1.6. This result will help model nuclear recoil scintillation in similar detectors and can be used to improve their neutron tagging efficiency.

  7. Removal of Organic Load in Communal Wastewater by using the Six Stage Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilita Minarni Nur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of water quality in the urban drainage is a crucial problem to overcome because it can affect the health of community. This fact encouraged the researcher to conduct the research in efforts to increase the water quality in the drainage. One of the solutions to increase the water quality in the drainage is that the domestic wastewater must be treated at first before it is flown through the drainage. Furthermore, the wastewater treatment was conducted by employing the communal wastewater processor. The research was aimed at knowing the capability of Anaerobic Baffle Reactor with the six-stage design in communal wastewater processor in efforts to decrease the organic load. This research was conducted in a laboratory scale. Meanwhile, the sort of waste used was taken from the domestic wastewater of settlement by varying its discharge and waste concentration flowing into the waste processor. Finally, the research result showed that the reduction of organic load of COD was reaching up to 92%, N was 85% and Phosphate was 50%.

  8. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP): Optical Properties of Benthic Marine Organisms and Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    ...). The long-term objective of our research is to gain an understanding of the nature and significance of fluorescence and reflectance characteristics of benthic marine organisms in general, and coral...

  9. Effect of Organic Substrates on the Photocatalytic Reduction of Cr(VI by Porous Hollow Ga2O3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous hollow Ga2O3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a hydrolysis method followed by calcination. The prepared samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Raman spectrum. The porous structure of Ga2O3 nanoparticles can enhance the light harvesting efficiency, and provide lots of channels for the diffusion of Cr(VI and Cr(III. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI, with different initial pH and degradation of several organic substrates by porous hollow Ga2O3 nanoparticles in single system and binary system, were investigated in detail. The reduction rate of Cr(VI in the binary pollutant system is markedly faster than that in the single Cr(VI system, because Cr(VI mainly acts as photogenerated electron acceptor. In addition, the type and concentration of organic substrates have an important role in the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI.

  10. Effect of Organic Substrates on the Photocatalytic Reduction of Cr(VI) by Porous Hollow Ga2O3 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Gan, Huihui; Wu, Hongzhang; Zhang, Xinlei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Lili; Wang, Zhenling

    2018-01-01

    Porous hollow Ga2O3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a hydrolysis method followed by calcination. The prepared samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Raman spectrum. The porous structure of Ga2O3 nanoparticles can enhance the light harvesting efficiency, and provide lots of channels for the diffusion of Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), with different initial pH and degradation of several organic substrates by porous hollow Ga2O3 nanoparticles in single system and binary system, were investigated in detail. The reduction rate of Cr(VI) in the binary pollutant system is markedly faster than that in the single Cr(VI) system, because Cr(VI) mainly acts as photogenerated electron acceptor. In addition, the type and concentration of organic substrates have an important role in the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI). PMID:29690548

  11. The electrodeposition of multilayers on a polymeric substrate in flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Andre F. S.; Guedes, Vilmar P.; Souza, Monica L.; Tartari, Simone; Cunha, Idaulo J.

    2015-09-01

    Flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells have drawn intense attention due to their advantages over competing solar cell technologies. The method utilized to deposit as well as to integrate solutions and processed materials, manufacturing organic solar cells by the Electrodeposition System, has been presented in this research. In addition, we have demonstrated a successful integration of a process for manufacturing the flexible organic solar cell prototype and we have discussed on the factors that make this process possible. The maximum process temperature was 120°C, which corresponds to the baking of the active polymeric layer. Moreover, the new process of the Electrodeposition of complementary active layer is based on the application of voltage versus time in order to obtain a homogeneous layer with thin film. This thin film was not only obtained by the electrodeposition of PANI-X1 on P3HT/PCBM Blend, but also prepared in perchloric acid solution. Furthermore, these flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells presented power conversion efficiency of 12% and the inclusion of the PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation on these organic photovoltaic panels induced by solar irradiation. Thus, in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), these studies have revealed that the surface of PANI-X1 layers is strongly conditioned by the dielectric surface morphology.

  12. Monitoring organic loading to swimming pools by fluorescence excitation–emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seredynska-Sobecka, Bozena; Stedmon, Colin; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence Excitation–Emission Matrix spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis was employed to monitor water quality and organic contamination in swimming pools. The fluorescence signal of the swimming pool organic matter was low but increased slightly through the day. The analysis...... revealed that the organic matter fluorescence was characterised by five different components, one of which was unique to swimming pool organic matter and one which was specific to organic contamination. The latter component had emission peaks at 420nm and was found to be a sensitive indicator of organic...... loading in swimming pool water. The fluorescence at 420nm gradually increased during opening hours and represented material accumulating through the day....

  13. Characterization of the organic fraction of earthworm humus and composts taken place starting from different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgarejo, M.R.; Ballesteros, M.I.; Bendeck L, M.

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quality and the humification degree of different composted materials, the organic fraction of earthworm humus obtained from kitchen and farm residues, coffee pulp, biodegradable garbage and roses residues and of composts from roses and carnation residues were characterized chemically. Thus, determination and analysis of the C/N ratio, as well as the fractionation of the organic matter and the purification and characterization of the humic acids by C, H, N, 0 elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy were done and different humification parameters were found. The fractionation of the organic matter showed a low content of extracted carbon with respect to the normal content found in the soil humus. The elemental analysis data of the humic acids from the composts and the earthworm humus did not reveal important differences between these materials, while the E4/E6 ratio provided more evident changes. The results showed that the C/N ratio is not an absolute indicative of the Maturity State of the studied materials. The best parameters to estimate the maturity degree of the composts and the earthworm humus turned out to be the polymerization ratio, the humification index and the extracted carbon/non extracted carbon ratio. Among the evaluated materials, the earthworm of roses residues showed the best conditions with respect to content and quality of the organic matter to be added to a soil

  14. Use of organosilicate precursors for transparent coatings on organic substrates by plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasorsa, C; Versaci, R; Perillo, P

    2006-01-01

    This work discusses the production of transparent coatings of SiOxCy on substrates polycarbonated by PECVD at temperatures below 80 o C, with a gaseous mixture using different precursors with which, in similar processes produced the same results with respect to the coating obtained, with the same excellent quality and in accordance with international standards for optic coatings. Chlorinated precursors were excluded because they are highly corrosive as well as those with operating risks (toxic or explosive). The precursors used were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), tetramethylsilanete (TMS,) tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS), and methyltrimethoxysilane (Z6070), with the contribution of O 2 and methane as reactive gases. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used as well as X-ray generated photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA). The functional groups were studied together with the film elements and its mechanical properties, transparency and refraction index. Irregardless of the precursor used, by properly modifying the process variables (pressure of the gaseous mixture, radio frequency power, relationship of processing gases and their flow), similar coatings can be chemically obtained, having the same morphology and, therefore, with identical adherence, structural and optic properties. None of the works consulted refer to the possibility of the indistinct use of different precursors for obtaining the same coating. These results are relevant when considering the difference in costs and their market availability. The influence of the addition of methane was studied in two processing variants, a) with oxygen and methane and b) with oxygen alone. For all the precursors used and with identical processing conditions, the carbon contributed by the addition of methane increased the concentration of carbon compounds, considerably reducing the presence of silanol, which being absorbent produces structural instability and cracking of the

  15. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Supported g-C_3N_4 on AC catalysts with different loadings were prepared. • The metal free catalysts exhibited high efficiency for dyes degradation with PMS. • The catalyst presented a long-term stability for multiple runs. • The C=O groups played a key role in the oxidation process. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C_3N_4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C_3N_4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C_3N_4 to C=O was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C_3N_4/AC catalyst within 20 min with PMS, while g-C_3N_4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C_3N_4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO· and SO_4·"−) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The C=O groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)_3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  16. Dynamic model of a thin layer photobioreactor, used for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella sp. and bacteria in wastewater of high organic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gines Alfaro-Vives

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic mathematical model is presented to describe the symbiotic growth of the microalgae Chlorella sp. and bacteria in a photobioreactor thin film used in the wastewater treatment of high organic load. A good correlation is shown by the experimental results, since the variations of the process parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide and substrate concentration in the culture medium were compared with the experimental results and in 95 % of cases coincide with an error of + -3%. Furthermore, the influence of the operating parameters on the performance of algae obtained is evaluated, using the model, the total net productivity per unit area was obtained with a maximum error of + -2, 5 % with respect to the experimental values.

  17. Substrate dependent self-organization of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanowires with remarkable pseudocapacitance

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2012-05-09

    A scheme of current collector dependent self-organization of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanowires has been used to create unique supercapacitor electrodes, with each nanowire making direct contact with the current collector. The fabricated electrodes offer the desired properties of macroporosity to allow facile electrolyte flow, thereby reducing device resistance and nanoporosity with large surface area to allow faster reaction kinetics. Co 3O 4 nanowires grown on carbon fiber paper collectors self-organize into a brush-like morphology with the nanowires completely surrounding the carbon microfiber cores. In comparison, Co 3O 4 nanowires grown on planar graphitized carbon paper collectors self-organize into a flower-like morphology. In three electrode configuration, brush-like and flower-like morphologies exhibited specific capacitance values of 1525 and 1199 F/g, respectively, at a constant current density of 1 A/g. In two electrode configuration, the brush-like nanowire morphology resulted in a superior supercapacitor performance with high specific capacitances of 911 F/g at 0.25 A/g and 784 F/g at 40 A/g. In comparison, the flower-like morphology exhibited lower specific capacitance values of 620 F/g at 0.25 A/g and 423 F/g at 40 A/g. The Co 3O 4 nanowires with brush-like morphology exhibited high values of specific power (71 kW/kg) and specific energy (81 Wh/kg). Maximum energy and power densities calculated for Co 3O 4 nanowires with flower-like morphology were 55 Wh/kg and 37 kW/kg respectively. Both electrode designs exhibited excellent cycling stability by retaining ∼91-94% of their maximum capacitance after 5000 cycles of continuous charge-discharge. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Comparative reactivity of different types of stable cyclic and acyclic mono- and diamino carbenes with simple organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David; Canac, Yves; Lavallo, Vincent; Bertrand, Guy

    2014-04-02

    A series of stable carbenes, featuring a broad range of electronic properties, were reacted with simple organic substrates. The N,N-dimesityl imidazolylidene (NHC) does not react with isocyanides, whereas anti-Bredt di(amino)carbene (pyr-NHC), cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (CAAC), acyclic di(amino)carbene (ADAC), and acyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (AAAC) give rise to the corresponding ketenimines. NHCs are known to promote the benzoin condensation, and we found that the CAAC, pyr-NHC, and ADAC react with benzaldehyde to give the ketone tautomer of the Breslow intermediate, whereas the AAAC first gives the corresponding epoxide and ultimately the Breslow intermediate, which can be isolated. Addition of excess benzaldehyde to the latter does not lead to benzoin but to a stable 1,3-dioxolane. Depending on the electronic properties of carbenes, different products are also obtained with methyl acrylate as a substrate. The critical role of the carbene electrophilicity on the outcome of reactions is discussed.

  19. 3D TiO2 submicrostructures decorated by silver nanoparticles as SERS substrate for organic pollutants detection and degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Su, Huilan; You, Xueling; Gao, Jing; Lau, Woon Ming; Zhang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contrive a multifunctional SERS substrate with 3D sub-micrometer structure and multicomponent. • The blue wing of butterfly (Euploea mulciber) is used as template for Ag/TiO 2 nanocomposites. • The 3D submicrostructures Ag/TiO 2 presents superior SERS effect and photocatalytic activity. • Pave a facile route to prepare multifunctional material by utilizing smart structural designs in nature. - Abstract: The blue wing of butterfly Euploea mulciber is used as a template to generate Ag/TiO 2 nanocomposites. Thereinto, Ag nanoparticles are deposited uniformly onto TiO 2 substrate with three dimensional (3D) submicrometer structures. This unique 3D sub-micrometer structures featured with ridges, ribs and struts can provide a large number of active “hot spots” for enhanced Raman signal. Meanwhile, depositing Ag onto the TiO 2 surface can greatly boost its SERS effect and photocatalytic activity by bringing additional electrons into the molecules and inhibiting electrons–holes recombination. Thus, the as-prepared 3D Ag/TiO 2 submicrostructures can not only offer sensitive and reproducible SERS signals, but also present superior photocatalytic activity, which can be utilized to detect and eliminate organic pollutants

  20. An accessible method for the evaluation of the thermo-oxidative stability of organic substrates based on vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzyuba, Valeriy I.; Koval, Lyudmila I., E-mail: l_koval@ionc.kiev.ua; Pekhnyo, Vasyl I.

    2016-05-20

    Graphical abstract: Autooxidation of sunflower oil at 110 °C. - Highlights: • A novel method for the determination of the oxidation induction period is proposed. • All component parts of the device are widely used in laboratory practice. • The method is on a par with standardized methods in terms of repeatability. - Abstract: A novel cost-effective computerized method is proposed for the determination of the oxidation induction period (OIP) of organic substrates. All component parts of the device are factory-made (interchangeable) details, which are widely used in laboratory practice. A sample is charged into the reactor, the closed reactor-condenser-stopcock system is evacuated. Then the device is filled with oxygen. The reactor is warmed up to balance with atmospheric pressure. The device is sealed and stirring of the heating medium, substrate and digital data transfer from the pressure sensor to the computer is started. The monitoring of the autooxidation of the sample is terminated after the system pressure has decreased by 300 hPa. A test report is formed with the aid of a computer using Microsoft Excel; OIP is determined as the point of intersection of two tangent lines to the curve. The proposed method is on a par with standardized methods in terms of the repeatability of measurement results.

  1. Novel “Enhanced-Cognition” RFID Architectures on Organic/Paper Low-Cost Substrates Utilizing Inkjet Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of novel design and integration approaches for improved performance “enhanced-cognition” UHF passive and active radio frequency identification (RFID tags. Antenna design rules are explained for a variety of applications. A strategy that is currently under development for embedding power sources and integration of sensors and integrated circuits (ICs on low-cost organic substrates, such as liquid crystal polymer (LCP and paper, enabling the use of inkjet-printing capability for the UHF frequency band, is discussed in the paper. The proposed technologies could potentially revolutionize RFID tags allowing for integrated sensing capabilities for various applications such as security, military, logistics, automotion, and pharmaceutics.

  2. The inhibitory effects of five alkaloids on the substrate transport mediated through human organic anion and cation transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahiatul; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Zhou, Fanfan

    2018-02-01

    1. Human solute carrier transporters (SLCs) are important membrane proteins mediate the cellular transport of many endogenous and exogenous substances. Organic anion/cation transporters (OATs/OCTs) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are essential SLCs involved in drug influx. Drug-drug/herb interactions through competing for specific SLCs often lead to unsatisfied therapeutic outcomes and/or unwanted side effects. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the inhibitory effects of five clinically relevant alkaloids (dendrobine, matrine, oxymatrine, tryptanthrin and chelerythrine) on the substrate transport through several OATs/OCTs and OATPs. 2. We performed transport functional assay and kinetic analysis on the HEK-293 cells over-expressing each SLC gene. 3. Our data showed tryptanthrin significantly inhibited the transport activity of OAT3 (IC 50  = 0.93 ± 0.22 μM, K i  = 0.43 μM); chelerythrine acted as a potent inhibitor to the substrate transport mediated through OATP1A2 (IC 50  = 0.63 ± 0.43 μM, K i  = 0.60 μM), OCT1 (IC 50  = 13.60 ± 2.81 μM) and OCT2 (IC 50  =10.80 ± 1.16 μM). 4. Our study suggested tryptanthrin and chelerythrine could potently impact on the drug transport via specific OATs/OCTs. Therefore, the co-administration of these alkaloids with drugs could have clinical consequences due to drug-drug/herb interactions. Precautions should be warranted in the multi-drug therapies involving these alkaloids.

  3. Organic matter composition and substrate diversity under elevated CO2 in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Hess, N. J.; Koyama, A.; Evans, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about how rising atmospheric CO2 concentration will impact long-term plant biomass or the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) in arid ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the change in the molecular composition of SOM by high resolution mass spectrometry after 10 years exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. Samples were collected from soil profiles from 0 to 1m in 0.2m increments under the dominant evergreen shrub (Larrea tridentata). The differences in the composition of SOM were more evident in soils close to the surface and consistent with higher bulk soil organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) concentrations under elevated than ambient CO2, reflecting increased net productivity of shrubs under elevated CO2, which could be attributed to increased litter input from above-ground biomass and/or shallow roots, root exudation and/or microbial residues. This was further supported by the significant increase in the abundance of amino sugars-, protein- and carbohydrate-like compounds. These compounds are involved in diverse pathways ranging from sugars and amino-acid metabolism to lipid biosynthesis. This indicates increased activity and metabolism under elevated CO2 and suggests that elevated CO2 have altered microbial C use patterns, reflecting changes in the quality and quantity of soil C inputs. A significant increase in the mineral-bound soil organic C was also observed in the surface soils under elevated CO2. This was accompanied by increased microbial residues as identified by mass spectrometry that supports microbial lipid analysis, and reflecting accelerated microbial turnover under elevated CO2. Fungal neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFA) abundance doubled under elevated CO2. When provided with excess labile compounds, such as root exudates, and with limited supply of nutrients, fungi assimilate the excess labile C and store it as NLFA likely contributing to increased total N

  4. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organic substrates in soil depends on their carbon oxidation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Smith, Andrew; Jones, Davey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Removal of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), originating from plants and microorganisms, from soil solution is regulated by microbial uptake. In addition to the concentration of LMWOS in soil solution, the chemical properties of each substance (e.g. C oxidation state, number of C atoms, number of -COOH groups) can affect their uptake and subsequent partitioning of C within the soil microbial community. The aim of this study was to trace the initial fate of three dominant classes of LMWOS in soil (sugars, carboxylic and amino acids), including their removal from solution and utilization by microorganisms, and to reveal the effect of substance chemical properties on these processes. Soil solution, spiked at natural abundance levels with 14C-labelled glucose, fructose, malate, succinate, formate, alanine or glycine, was added to the soil and 14C was traced in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CO2, cytosol and soil organic carbon (SOC) over 24 hours. The half-life time of all LMWOS in the DOC (T1 /2-solution) varied between 0.6-5.0 min showing extremely fast initial uptake of LMWOS. The T1 /2-solution of substances was dependent on C oxidation state, indicating that less oxidized organic substances (with C oxidation state "0") were retained longer in soil solution than oxidized substances. The LMWOS-C T1 /2-fast, characterizing the half-life time of 14C in the fast mineralization pool, ranged between 30 and 80 min, with the T1 /2-fast of carboxylic acids (malic acid) being the fastest and the T1 /2-fast of amino acids (glycine) being the slowest. An absence of correlation between T1 /2-fast and either C oxidation state, number of C atoms, or number of -COOH groups suggests that intercellular metabolic pathways are more important for LMWOS transformation in soil than their basic chemical properties. The CO2 release during LMWOS mineralization accounted for 20-90% of 14C applied. Mineralization of LMWOS was the least for sugars and the greatest for

  5. Endogenous metabolites that are substrates of organic anion transporter's (OATs) predict methotrexate clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhrez, Kienana; Benz-de Bretagne, Isabelle; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie; Blasco, Hélène; Gyan, Emmanuel; Choquet, Sylvain; Montigny, Frédéric; Emond, Patrick; Barin-Le Guellec, Chantal

    2017-04-01

    Variable pharmacokinetics of high-dose-methotrexate (MTX) is responsible for severe toxicities. Unpredictable overexposure still occurs during some courses despite having controlled the main factors known to play a role in its elimination. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the urine metabolomic profile measured at the time of MTX administration is predictive of the drug's clearance and/or of treatment-related toxicity. We analyzed the urine content of endogenous metabolites before MTX administration in a cohort of adult patients treated for lymphoid malignancies. Individual MTX clearance (MTX CL ) was estimated from population pharmacokinetic analyses of therapeutic drug monitoring data. We determined the urine metabolite content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and applied Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis to assess the relationship between the urine metabolome and MTX CL . External validation was applied to evaluate the performances of the PLS model. We used orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to distinguish patients with normal or delayed elimination, and patients with or without toxicity. Sixty-two patients were studied. We obtained a very good prediction of individual MTX clearance using a set of 28 metabolites present in patient urine at baseline. The mean prediction error and precision were -0.36% and 21.4%, respectively, for patients not included in the model. The model included a set of endogenous organic anions, of which the tubular secretion depends on organic anion transporter (OAT) function. Our analyses did not allow us to discriminate between patients with or without delayed elimination or those who did or did not experience toxicity. Urinary metabolomics can be informative about an individual's ability to clear MTX. More broadly, it paves the way for the development of a biomarker of tubular secretion, easily measurable from endogenous substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Anodic behavior of stainless-steel substrate in organic electrolyte solutions containing different lithium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Egashira, Minato; Morita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated anodic behavior of stainless-steel in organic electrolytes for advanced capacitor. • Anion of the electrolyte affected the anodic stability of the alloy. • Anodic passivation occurs in LiPF 6 solution but pitting or active dissolution proceeds in other electrolyte solutions. • Fluoride source in the solution contributes to forming a stable surface layer on the stainless steel. - Abstract: The anodic behavior of austenitic stainless-steel, SUS304, as a current collector of positive electrode in lithium-ion battery/capacitor has been investigated in organic electrolyte solutions based on a mixed alkyl carbonate solvent with different lithium salts. Stable passivation characteristics were observed for the stainless-steel in the LiPF 6 solution, but pitting corrosion or active dissolution proceeded in the solutions containing other anions, BF 4 - , (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N - (TFSA - ) and ClO 4 - . The mass ratios of the dissolved metal species in the solutions of LiTFSA and LiClO 4 were equivalent to that of the alloy composition, which suggests that no preferential dissolution occurs during the anodic polarization in these electrolyte solutions. An HF component formed by decomposition of PF 6 - with the contaminate water will act as an F - source for the formation of a surface fluoride layer, that will contribute to the anodic stability of SUS304 in the LiPF 6 solution. The anodic corrosion in the LiTFSA solution was suppressed in part by mixing the PF 6 salt or adding HF in the electrolyte

  7. Fluorescence-based classification of Caribbean coral reef organisms and substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, David G.; Mazel, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse group of coral reef organisms, representing several phyla, possess fluorescent pigments. We investigated the potential of using the characteristic fluorescence emission spectra of these pigments to enable unsupervised, optical classification of coral reef habitats. We compiled a library of characteristic fluorescence spectra through in situ and laboratory measurements from a variety of specimens throughout the Caribbean. Because fluorescent pigments are not species-specific, the spectral library is organized in terms of 15 functional groups. We investigated the spectral separability of the functional groups in terms of the number of wavebands required to distinguish between them, using the similarity measures Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Information Divergence (SID), SID-SAM mixed measure, and Mahalanobis distance. This set of measures represents geometric, stochastic, joint geometric-stochastic, and statistical approaches to classifying spectra. Our hyperspectral fluorescence data were used to generate sets of 4-, 6-, and 8-waveband spectra, including random variations in relative signal amplitude, spectral peak shifts, and water-column attenuation. Each set consisted of 2 different band definitions: ‘optimally-picked’ and ‘evenly-spaced.’ The optimally-picked wavebands were chosen to coincide with as many peaks as possible in the functional group spectra. Reference libraries were formed from half of the spectra in each set and used for training purposes. Average classification accuracies ranged from 76.3% for SAM with 4 evenly-spaced wavebands to 93.8% for Mahalanobis distance with 8 evenly-spaced wavebands. The Mahalanobis distance consistently outperformed the other measures. In a second test, empirically-measured spectra were classified using the same reference libraries and the Mahalanobis distance for just the 8 evenly-spaced waveband case. Average classification accuracies were 84% and 87%, corresponding to the extremes in modeled

  8. The effect of the labile organic fraction in food waste and the substrate/inoculum ratio on anaerobic digestion for a reliable methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Minako; Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuaki; Niwa, Chiaki; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Toda, Tatsuki

    2014-04-01

    Influence of the labile organic fraction (LOF) on anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated in different S/I ratio of 0.33, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0g-VSsubstrate/g-VSinoculum. Two types of substrate, standard food waste (Substrate 1) and standard food waste with the supernatant (containing LOF) removed (Substrate 2) were used. Highest methane yield of 435ml-CH4g-VS(-1) in Substrate 1 was observed in the lowest S/I ratio, while the methane yield of the other S/I ratios were 38-73% lower than the highest yield due to acidification. The methane yields in Substrate 2 were relatively stable in all S/I conditions, although the maximum methane yield was low compared with Substrate 1. These results showed that LOF in food waste causes acidification, but also contributes to high methane yields, suggesting that low S/I ratio (food waste compared to other organic substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using copper substrate to enhance the thermal conductivity of top-emission organic light-emitting diodes for improving the luminance efficiency and lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Hsi; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Cheng, Chien-Lung; Liao, Teh-Chao

    2009-12-01

    The influence of heat dissipation on the performances of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is investigated by measuring junction temperature and by calculating the rate of heat flow. The calculated rate of heat flow reveals that the key factors include the thermal conductivity, the substrate thickness, and the UV glue. Moreover, the use of copper substrate can effectively dissipate the joule heat, which then reduces the temperature gradient. Finally, it is shown that the use of a high thermal conductivity thinner substrate can enhance the thermal conductivity of OLED and the luminance efficiency as well.

  10. Liberation of microbial substrates from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    The worldwide search for suitable underground storage formations for CO2 also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into coal seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the geochemical and microbiological effects of increased CO2 concentrations on organic matter rich formations are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced under acidic conditions. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for subsurface microbial life [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effects of highly CO2-saturated waters on the release of LMWOAs from coal, we developed an inexpensive high-pressure-high-temperature system that allows manipulating the concentration of dissolved gases up to 60 MPa and 120°C, respectively. The sample is placed in a flexible, gas-tight and inert PVDF sleeve, separating it from the pressure fluid and allowing for subsampling without loss of pressure. Lignite samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ and the Welzow-Süd open-cast mine, Niederlausitz, Germany, were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, with either pure water, CO2-saturated water, CO2/NO2 or CO2/SO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the 72 hrs. long extraction. Extraction of LMWOAs from coal samples with our pressurised system resulted in yields that were up to four times higher than those reported for Soxhlet extraction [2]. These higher yields may be explained by the fact that during Soxhlet extraction the sample only gets into contact with freshly distilled water, whereas in our system the extraction fluid is circulated, resulting in

  11. High-loading-substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of palm plantation waste followed by unsterilized-mixed-culture fermentation for bio-ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Winarni, Ina; Sukmana, Hadid

    2017-01-01

    It was desired to obtain a general formula for producing bio-ethanol from any part of lignocelluloses wastes that came from palm oil industries due to its abundance. Optimum condition that obtained by using RSM for conducting high-loading-substrate enzymatic hydrolysis of palm oil empty fruit bunch was applied to palm oil trunks and then followed by unsterilized fermentation for producing bio-ethanol. From several optimized conditions investigated, the resulted ethanol concentration could reach 7.92 %v by using 36.5 %w of palm oil trunks but the results were averagely 2.46 %v lower than palm oil empty fruit bunch. The results was statistically compared and showed best correlative coefficient at 0.808 (in scale 0-1) which support the conclusion that the optimum condition for empty fruit bunch and trunks are similar. Utilization of mixed-culture yeast was investigated to produce ethanol from unsterilized hydrolysis product but the improvement wasn't significant compares to single culture yeast.

  12. Influence of Heat-Treatment on the Adhesive Strength between a Micro-Sized Bonded Component and a Silicon Substrate under Bend and Shear Loading Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Chiemi

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive bend and shear tests of micro-sized bonded component have been performed to clarify the relationship between effects of heat-treatment on the adhesive strength and the bonded specimen shape using Weibull analysis. Multiple micro-sized SU-8 columns with four different diameters were fabricated on a Si substrate under the same fabrication condition. Heat-treatment can improve both of the adhesive bend and shear strength. The improvement rate of the adhesive shear strength is much larger than that of the adhesive bend strength, because the residual stress, which must change by heat-treatment, should effect more strongly on the shear loading. In case of bend type test, the adhesive bend strength in the smaller diameters (50 and 75 μm) widely vary, because the critical size of the natural defect (micro-crack) should vary more widely in the smaller diameters. In contrast, in case of shear type test, the adhesive shear strengths in each diameter of the columns little vary. This suggests that the size of the natural defects may not strongly influence on the adhesive shear strength. All the result suggests that both of the adhesive bend and shear strengths should be complicatedly affected by heat-treatment and the bonded columnar diameter

  13. Direct in Situ Conversion of Metals into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Strategy for the Rapid Growth of MOF Films on Metal Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hoon; Hwang, Sunhyun; Kim, Keonmok; Kim, CheolGi; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2016-11-30

    The fabrication of metal-organic framework (MOF) films on conducting substrates has demonstrated great potential in applications such as electronic conduction and sensing. For these applications, direct contact of the film to the conducting substrate without a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is a desired step that must be achieved prior to the use of MOF films. In this report, we propose an in situ strategy for the rapid one-step conversion of Cu metal into HKUST-1 films on conducting Cu substrates. The Cu substrate acts both as a conducting substrate and a source of Cu 2+ ions during the synthesis of HKUST-1. This synthesis is possible because of the simultaneous reaction of an oxidizing agent and a deprotonating agent, in which the former agent dissolves the metal substrate to form Cu 2+ ions while the latter agent deprotonates the ligand. Using this strategy, the HKUST-1 film could not only be rapidly synthesized within 5 min but also be directly attached to the Cu substrate. Based on microscopic studies, we propose a plausible mechanism for the growth reaction. Furthermore, we show the versatility of this in situ conversion methodology, applying it to ZIF-8, which comprises Zn 2+ ions and imidazole-based ligands. Using an I 2 -filled HKUST-1 film, we further demonstrate that the direct contact of the MOF film to the conducting substrate makes the material more suitable for use as a sensor or electronic conductor.

  14. Stability of an anaerobic single reactor filled with dolomitic limestone with increased organic load of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ribas Döll

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic single-stage reactor was evaluated to treat vinasse and to evaluate its stability. This bench reactor was filled with dolomitic limestone with a horizontal plug flow to simulate a drainage channel. The experiment lasted 129 days while the reactor was submitted to different applied organic concentrations (chronologically applied: 3.0; 5.0; 12.0; 9.0 and 7.5 g L-1 as COD, chemical oxygen demand. COD removals were 50% and 9% with 3.0 and 7.5 g L-1, respectively. With 12.0 g L-1, reactor efficiency increased to 33%, with an abrupt drop to 3% on the 84th day. Therefore, in order to avoid reactor collapse, a remedial measure was necessary. The system remained in batch without feeding for 19 days (from the 85th to the 104th day with 9.0 g L-1. Afterwards, it was observed that the performance of the system tended to stabilize, reaching 47% with 7.5 g L-1 in the 118th day. At the end of the experiment, the potassium content of the wastewater decreased from 800 mg L-1 to 594 mg L-1 (on an average 25% and calcium and magnesium increased within the reactor liquor. The dissolution of the limestone inside the liquor reactor probably caused this result. After the treatment with limestone, the average pH value of the effluent increased from 4.9 to over 6.0 in all organic concentrations. It could be concluded that the reactor filled with dolomitic limestone in these operational conditions assured a low efficiency in COD removal, potassium reduction, increasing values of pH, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium. The instability was observed when there was increase in organic load to 12 g L-1 with subsequent recovery.

  15. Organic ferroelectric memory devices with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj

    2013-05-01

    Drop-on-demand piezoelectric inkjet-printing technique has been used to fabricate a functional cross-bar array of all-organic ferroelectric memory devices. The polymer-ferroelectric-polymer device consists of a ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) film sandwiched between inkjet-patterned, continuous, orthogonal lines of PEDOT:PSS polymer as the bottom and top electrodes. These devices exhibit well-saturated hysteresis curves with a maximum remnant polarization (Pr) = 6.7 μC/cm2, coercive field (E c) = 55 MV/m and a peak capacitance density of 45 nF/cm2. Our polarization fatigue measurements show that these devices retain ∼100% and 45% of their initial Pr values after 103 and 10 5 stress cycles, respectively. The overall performance and polarization retention characteristics of these ferroelectric capacitors with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes are comparable to metal and spin-cast polymer electrodes suggesting their potential use in large-area flexible electronics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing the 137Cs-load in the organism of "Chernobyl" children with apple-pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, V B; Nesterenko, A V; Babenko, V I; Yerkovich, T V; Babenko, I V

    2004-01-10

    As a complement of standard radioprotective measures, apple-pectin preparations are given, especially in the Ukraine, to reduce the 137Cs uptake in the organism of children. The question has been raised: is oral pectin also useful when children receive radiologically clean food, or does this polysaccharide only act in binding 137Cs in the gut, blocking its intestinal absorption? In this case, pectin would be useless if radiologically clean food could be given. The study was a randomised, double blind placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a dry and milled apple-extract containing 15-16% pectin with a similar placebo-powder, in 64 children originating from the same group of contaminated villages of the Gomel oblast. The average 137Cs load was of about 30 Bq/kg bodyweight (BW). The trial was conducted during the simultaneous one-month stay in the sanatorium Silver Spring. In this clean radiological environment only radiologically "clean" food is given to the children. The average reduction of the 137Cs levels in children receiving oral pectin powder was 62.6%, the reduction with "clean" food and placebo was 13.9%, the difference being statistically significant (p <0.01). The reduction of the 137Cs load is medically relevant, as no child in the placebo group reached values below 20 Bq/kg BW (which is considered by Bandazhevsky as potentially associated with specific pathological tissue damages), with an average value of 25.8 +/- 0.8 Bq/kg. The highest value in the apple-pectin group was 15.4 Bq/kg, the average value being 11.3 +/- 0.6 Bq/kg BW.

  17. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun [School of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Fang, Jia [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Cai, Wenxuan [School of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Xiaoxia [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Xu, Aihua, E-mail: xahspinel@sina.com [School of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Engineering Research Center for Clean Production of Textile Dyeing and Printing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430073 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Supported g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on AC catalysts with different loadings were prepared. • The metal free catalysts exhibited high efficiency for dyes degradation with PMS. • The catalyst presented a long-term stability for multiple runs. • The C=O groups played a key role in the oxidation process. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} to C=O was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AC catalyst within 20 min with PMS, while g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO· and SO{sub 4}·{sup −}) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The C=O groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C){sub 3} group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  18. The effect of organic loading rate and retention time on hydrogen production from a methanogenic CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, O; Kaparaju, P; Rintala, J

    2011-10-01

    The possibility of shifting a methanogenic process for hydrogen production by changing the process parameters viz., organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) was evaluated. At first, two parallel semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were operated as methanogenic reactors (M1 and M2) for 78 days. Results showed that a methane yield of 198-218 L/kg volatile solids fed (VS(fed)) was obtained when fed with grass silage at an OLR of 2 kgVS/m³/d and HRT of 30 days. After 78 days of operation, hydrogen production was induced in M2 by increasing the OLR from 2 to 10 kgVS/m³/d and shortening the HRT from 30 to 6 days. The highest H₂ yield of 42 L/kgVS(fed) was obtained with a maximum H₂ content of 24%. The present results thus demonstrate that methanogenic process can be shifted towards hydrogen production by increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Organic Loading Rate on Milk WastewaterTreatment Using Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Hajiabadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs were operated under the same conditions for the treatment of milk wastewater at different organic loading rates (OLRs. Cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 56 days (including 21 days of acclimatization and 35 days of data gathering. Effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate, and sludge retention time (SRT of reactors were 5.5 L, 3.5 L/d, and 10 d, respectively. The average COD removal efficiency for the reactors R1, R2, R3, and R4 with influent OLRave values of 633, 929, 1915, and 3261 gCOD/m3d were 95, 96, 95, and 82 percent, respectively. The average effluent suspended solid (SS for all reactors was lower than 44 mg/L. Also, except for R4 with an average effluent turbidity of 270 NTU, other reactors met the Iranian wastewater emission standard (50 NTU. In addition, the average sludge volume index of reactors R1 to R3 was found to be lower than 67 mL/g. According to the results, the overall variation of COD removal efficiency versus influent OLR shows a decreasing rate with a correlation factor of 0.8 (R2.

  20. Manufacture of highly loaded silica-supported cobalt Fischer–Tropsch catalysts from a metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui

    2017-11-16

    The development of synthetic protocols for the preparation of highly loaded metal nanoparticle-supported catalysts has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades. Independently controlling metal loading, nanoparticle size, distribution, and accessibility has proven challenging because of the clear interdependence between these crucial performance parameters. Here we present a stepwise methodology that, making use of a cobalt-containing metal organic framework as hard template (ZIF-67), allows addressing this long-standing challenge. Condensation of silica in the Co-metal organic framework pore space followed by pyrolysis and subsequent calcination of these composites renders highly loaded cobalt nanocomposites (~ 50 wt.% Co), with cobalt oxide reducibility in the order of 80% and a good particle dispersion, that exhibit high activity, C5 + selectivity and stability in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  1. Toward Improved Lifetimes of Organic Solar Cells under Thermal Stress: Substrate-Dependent Morphological Stability of PCDTBT:PCBM Films and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Ho Chiu, Kar; Shahid Ashraf, Raja; Fearn, Sarah; Dattani, Rajeev; Cheng Wong, Him; Tan, Ching-Hong; Wu, Jiaying; Cabral, João T; Durrant, James R

    2015-10-15

    Morphological stability is a key requirement for outdoor operation of organic solar cells. We demonstrate that morphological stability and lifetime of polymer/fullerene based solar cells under thermal stress depend strongly on the substrate interface on which the active layer is deposited. In particular, we find that the stability of benchmark PCDTBT/PCBM solar cells under modest thermal stress is substantially increased in inverted solar cells employing a ZnO substrate compared to conventional devices employing a PSS substrate. This improved stability is observed to correlate with PCBM nucleation at the 50 nm scale, which is shown to be strongly influenced by different substrate interfaces. Employing this approach, we demonstrate remarkable thermal stability for inverted PCDTBT:PC70BM devices on ZnO substrates, with negligible (humidity exposure as widely reported previously, can also demonstrate enhanced morphological stability. As such we show that the choice of suitable substrate interfaces may be a key factor in achieving prolonged lifetimes for organic solar cells under thermal stress conditions.

  2. Scaffolding Writing Using Feedback in Students' Graphic Organizers--Novice Writers' Relevance of Ideas and Cognitive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien Ching; Tan, Seng Chee

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to find out two outcomes of feedback in the novice writers' graphic organizers, which are the novice writers' ability to align their ideas to their writing goal, and their perceived germane, metacognitive, extraneous and intrinsic cognitive loads when generating and revising ideas based on the feedback. Data was gathered from the…

  3. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  4. Oriented circular dichroism analysis of chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks grown by liquid-phase epitaxy and upon loading with chiral guest compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Zhigang

    2014-06-17

    Oriented circular dichroism (OCD) is explored and successfully applied to investigate chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) based on camphoric acid (D- and Lcam) with the composition [Cu2(Dcam) 2x(Lcam)2-2x(dabco)]n (dabco=1,4-diazabicyclo- [2.2.2]-octane). The three-dimensional chiral SURMOFs with high-quality orientation were grown on quartz glass plates by using a layer-by-layer liquid-phase epitaxy method. The growth orientation, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), could be switched between the [001] and [110] direction by using either OH- or COOH-terminated substrates. These SURMOFs were characterized by using OCD, which confirmed the ratio as well as the orientation of the enantiomeric linker molecules. Theoretical computations demonstrate that the OCD band intensities of the enantiopure [Cu2(Dcam)2(dabco)] n grown in different orientations are a direct result of the anisotropic nature of the chiral SURMOFs. Finally, the enantiopure [Cu 2(Dcam)2(dabco)]n and [Cu2(Lcam) 2(dabco)]n SURMOFs were loaded with the two chiral forms of ethyl lactate [(+)-ethyl-D-lactate and (-)-ethyl-L-lactate)]. An enantioselective enrichment of >60 % was observed by OCD when the chiral host scaffold was loaded from the racemic mixture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Oriented circular dichroism analysis of chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks grown by liquid-phase epitaxy and upon loading with chiral guest compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Zhigang; Bü rck, Jochen; Bihlmeier, Angela; Liu, Jinxuan; Shekhah, Osama; Weidler, Peter G.; Azucena, Carlos; Wang, Zhengbang; Heiß ler, Stefan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Klopper, Wim; Ulrich, Anne S.; Wö ll, Christof H.

    2014-01-01

    Oriented circular dichroism (OCD) is explored and successfully applied to investigate chiral surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs) based on camphoric acid (D- and Lcam) with the composition [Cu2(Dcam) 2x(Lcam)2-2x(dabco)]n (dabco=1,4-diazabicyclo- [2.2.2]-octane). The three-dimensional chiral SURMOFs with high-quality orientation were grown on quartz glass plates by using a layer-by-layer liquid-phase epitaxy method. The growth orientation, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), could be switched between the [001] and [110] direction by using either OH- or COOH-terminated substrates. These SURMOFs were characterized by using OCD, which confirmed the ratio as well as the orientation of the enantiomeric linker molecules. Theoretical computations demonstrate that the OCD band intensities of the enantiopure [Cu2(Dcam)2(dabco)] n grown in different orientations are a direct result of the anisotropic nature of the chiral SURMOFs. Finally, the enantiopure [Cu 2(Dcam)2(dabco)]n and [Cu2(Lcam) 2(dabco)]n SURMOFs were loaded with the two chiral forms of ethyl lactate [(+)-ethyl-D-lactate and (-)-ethyl-L-lactate)]. An enantioselective enrichment of >60 % was observed by OCD when the chiral host scaffold was loaded from the racemic mixture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Data on the detail information of influence of substrate temperature on the film morphology and photovoltaic performance of non-fullerene organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jicheng; Xie, SuFei; Lu, Zhen; Wu, Yang; Xiao, Hongmei; Zhang, Xuejuan; Li, Guangwu; Li, Cuihong; Chen, Xuebo; Ma, Wei; Bo, Zhishan

    2017-10-01

    This data contains additional data related to the article "Influence of Substrate Temperature on the Film Morphology and Photovoltaic Performance of Non-fullerene Organic Solar Cells" (Jicheng Zhang et al., In press) [1]. Data include measurement and characterization instruments and condition, detail condition to fabricate norfullerene solar cell devices, hole-only and electron-only devices. Detail condition about how to control the film morphology of devices via tuning the temperature of substrates was also displayed. More information and more convincing data about the change of film morphology for active layers fabricated from different temperature, which is attached to the research article of "Influence of Substrate Temperature on the Film Morphology and Photovoltaic Performance of Non-fullerene Organic Solar Cells" was given.

  7. Growth of InAs Quantum Dots on Germanium Substrate Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Renu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs were grown on germanium substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Effects of growth temperature and InAs coverage on the size, density, and height of quantum dots were investigated. Growth temperature was varied from 400 to 450 °C and InAs coverage was varied between 1.40 and 2.35 monolayers (MLs. The surface morphology and structural characteristics of the quantum dots analyzed by atomic force microscope revealed that the density of the InAs quantum dots first increased and then decreased with the amount of InAs coverage; whereas density decreased with increase in growth temperature. It was observed that the size and height of InAs quantum dots increased with increase in both temperature and InAs coverage. The density of QDs was effectively controlled by growth temperature and InAs coverage on GaAs buffer layer.

  8. Using Spent Mushroom Substrate as the Base for Organic-Mineral Micronutrient Fertilizer – Field Tests on Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tuhy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spent mushroom substrate (SMS is a noxious byproduct of the mushroom industry. The aim of this work was to convert SMS into organic-mineral micronutrient (Zn(II, Mn(II, and Cu(II fertilizer via biosorption and examine the effect of its application in field tests on maize compared to commercial reference micronutrient fertilizer. Crop yield and crop quality were assessed, and multielemental analysis of grains was conducted for the evaluation of the fertilization effect on maize grains and to assess bioavailability of nutrients from fertilizers. Grain yield for maize treated with micronutrients delivered with SMS was noticeably higher (11.5% than the untreated group and the NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer treated only group (2.8%. Bioavailability (TF of micronutrients from SMS were comparable with reference micronutrient fertilizer (7% Zn, 4% Mn, and 2.3% Cu. The new product has the potential to be used as a micronutrient fertilizer. Satisfactory results of grain yield (6.4 Mg ha-1, high content of micronutrients (Zn 1.6%, Mn 1.2%, and Cu 1.8%, and macronutrients (P 1.0%, S 3.1%, Ca 8.2%, and K 0.2% were observed. The bioavailability suggests that enriched SMS could be a good alternative to fertilizers in the present market.

  9. Design and development of plasmonic nanostructured electrodes for ITO-free organic photovoltaic cells on rigid and highly flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Beau J.; Zhu, Leize; Yu, Qiuming

    2017-04-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most common transparent electrode used in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), yet limited indium reserves and poor mechanical properties make it non-ideal for large-scale OPV production. To replace ITO, we designed, fabricated, and deployed plasmonic nanostructured electrodes in inverted OPV devices. We found that active layer absorption is significantly impacted by ZnO thickness which affects the optical field distribution inside the resonant cavity formed between the plasmonic nanostructured electrode and top electrode. High quality Cr/Au nanostructured electrodes were fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and deployed in ITO-free inverted devices on glass. Devices with thinner ZnO showed a PCE as high as 5.70% and higher J SC’s than devices on thicker ZnO, in agreement with finite-difference time-domain simulations. In addition, as the active layer was made optically thin, ITO-based devices showed diminished J SC while the resonant cavity effect from plasmonic nanostructured electrodes retained J SC. Preliminary ITO-free, flexible devices on PET showed a PCE of 1.82% and those fabricated on ultrathin and conformable Parylene substrates yielded an initial PCE over 1%. The plasmonic electrodes and device designs in this work show promise for developing highly functioning conformable devices that can be applied to numerous needs for lightweight, ubiquitous power generation.

  10. Study on epoxy/BaTiO3 composite embedded capacitor films (ECFs) for organic substrate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Dong; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Hyun, Jin-Gul; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2004-01-01

    Embedded capacitor films (ECFs) were newly designed for high dielectric constant and low capacitance tolerance (less than ±5%) embedded capacitor fabrication for organic substrates. ECFs are transferable and B-stage films which can be coated on a releasing film. In terms of materials formulation, ECFs are composed of high dielectric constant BaTiO 3 (BT) powder, specially formulated epoxy resin, and latent curing agent. And in terms of coating process, a roll coating method is used for obtaining film thickness uniformity in a large area. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermal analysis was conducted to determine the optimum amount of curing agent, curing temperature, and curing time. Changes in the dielectric constant of epoxy/BaTiO 3 composite ECFs with BT particle sizes and contents were investigated. Dielectric constant of 90 was obtained using two different size BaTiO 3 powders mixture. Typically, capacitors of 12 μm thick film with 8 nF/cm 2 with less than ±5% capacitance tolerance and low leakage current (less than 10 -7 A/cm 2 at 10 V) were successfully demonstrated on PCBs using epoxy/BaTiO 3 composite embedded capacitor films

  11. Load-dependent extracellular matrix organization in atrioventricular heart valves: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S Hamed; Sinha, Aditi; Steward, Earl; Milliken, Jeffrey C; Kheradvar, Arash

    2015-07-15

    The extracellular matrix of the atrioventricular (AV) valves' leaflets has a key role in the ability of these valves to properly remodel in response to constantly varying physiological loads. While the loading on mitral and tricuspid valves is significantly different, no information is available on how collagen fibers change their orientation in response to these loads. This study delineates the effect of physiological loading on AV valves' leaflets microstructures using Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. Fresh natural porcine tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets (n = 12/valve type) were cut and prepared for the experiments. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the microstructural differences between the valves. The specimens were imaged live during the relaxed, loading, and unloading phases using SHG microscopy. The images were analyzed with Fourier decomposition to mathematically seek changes in collagen fiber orientation. Despite the similarities in both AV valves as seen in the histology and immunohistochemistry data, the microstructural arrangement, especially the collagen fiber distribution and orientation in the stress-free condition, were found to be different. Uniaxial loading was dependent on the arrangement of the fibers in their relaxed mode, which led the fibers to reorient in-line with the load throughout the depth of the mitral leaflet but only to reorient in-line with the load in deeper layers of the tricuspid leaflet. Biaxial loading arranged the fibers in between the two principal axes of the stresses independently from their relaxed states. Unlike previous findings, this study concludes that the AV valves' three-dimensional extracellular fiber arrangement is significantly different in their stress-free and uniaxially loaded states; however, fiber rearrangement in response to the biaxial loading remains similar. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. High-conductance low-voltage organic thin film transistor with locally rearranged poly(3-hexylthiophene) domain by current annealing on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zingway; Tsai, Hsing-Wang; Lai, Hsin-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The organic material based thin film transistors (TFTs) are attractive for flexible optoelectronics applications due to the ability of lager area fabrication by solution and low temperature process on plastic substrate. Recently, the research of organic TFT focus on low operation voltage and high output current to achieve a low power organic logic circuit for optoelectronic device,such as e-paper or OLED displayer. To obtain low voltage and high output current, high gate capacitance and high channel mobility are key factors. The well-arranged polymer chain by a high temperature postannealing, leading enhancement conductivity of polymer film was a general method. However, the thermal annealing applying heat for all device on the substrate and may not applicable to plastic substrate. Therefore, in this work, the low operation voltage and high output current of polymer TFTs was demonstrated by locally electrical bias annealing. The poly(styrene-comethyl methacrylate) (PS-r-PMMA) with ultra-thin thickness is used as gate dielectric that the thickness is controlled by thermal treatment after spin coated on organic electrode. In electrical bias-annealing process, the PS-r- PMMA is acted a heating layer. After electrical bias-annealing, the polymer TFTs obtain high channel mobility at low voltage that lead high output current by a locally annealing of P3HT film. In the future, the locally electrical biasannealing method could be applied on plastic substrate for flexible optoelectronic application.

  13. Part-Load Performance of aWet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pierobon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model of the plant and to estimate its performance at different power outputs. The novel plant has a nominal power of 250 kW and a thermal efficiency of 43%. The major irreversibilities take place in the burner, recuperator, compressor and in the condenser. Toluene is the optimal working fluid for the organic Rankine engine. The part-load investigation indicates that the plant can operate at high efficiencies over a wide range of power outputs (50%–100%, with a peak thermal efficiency of 45% at around 80% load. While the ORC turbogenerator is responsible for the efficiency drop at low capacities, the off-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit.

  14. Electrophoretic deposition of organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates for bone replacement applications: mechanisms and development of new bioactive materials based on polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero Arias, Luis Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the need to improve the usually encountered osteointegration of metallic implants with the surrounding body tissue in bone replacement applications, bioactive organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates were developed in this work using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as coating technology. In the present work three polysaccharides, namely alginate, chondroitin sulfate and chitosan were used as the organic part, acting as the matrix of the coating and enabling the c...

  15. Organic loading rates affect composition of soil-derived bacterial communities during continuous, fermentative biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yonghua; Bruns, Mary Ann [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Husen; Salerno, Michael; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Bacterial community composition during steady-state, fermentative H{sub 2} production was compared across a range of organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5-19 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} in a 2-l continuous flow reactor at 30 C. The varied OLRs were achieved with glucose concentrations of 2.5-10 g l{sup -1} and hydraulic retention times of 1-10 h. The synthetic wastewater feed was amended with L-cysteine and maintained at a pH of 5.5. For each run at a given glucose concentration, the reactor was inoculated with an aliquot of well-mixed agricultural topsoil that had been heat-treated to reduce numbers of vegetative cells. At OLRs less than 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, DNA sequences from ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis profiles revealed more diverse and variable populations (Selenomonas, Enterobacter, and Clostridium spp.) than were observed above 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} (Clostridium spp. only). An isolate, LYH1, was cultured from a reactor sample (10 g glucose l{sup -1} at a 10-h HRT) on medium containing L-cysteine. In confirming H{sub 2} production by LYH1 in liquid batch culture, lag periods for H{sub 2} production in the presence and absence of L-cysteine were 5 and 50 h, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of LYH1 indicated that the isolate was a Clostridium sp. affiliated with RNA subcluster Ic, with >99% similarity to Clostridium sp. FRB1. In fluorescent in situ hybridization tests, an oligonucleotide probe complementary to the 16S rRNA of LYH1 hybridized with 90% of cells observed at an OLR of 2 g COD h{sup -1}, compared to 26% of cells at an OLR of 0.5 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1}. An OLR of 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} appeared to be a critical threshold above which clostridia were better able to outcompete Enterobacteriaceae and other organisms in the mixed soil inoculum. Our results are discussed in light of other biohydrogen studies employing pure cultures and mixed inocula. (author)

  16. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria

    2006-01-01

    the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule. Apparently......, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl......-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental factors could induce...

  17. Fabrication of large-area self-organizing gold nanostructures on a porous Al2O3 template for application as a SERS-substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Hassing, Søren; Albrektsen, Ole

    A new technique for fabrication of large-area self-organizing variably ordered gold nanostructures with sub-10 nm gaps on templates of hexagonally ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide is demonstrated. The size as well as the interparticle distance of the fabricated gold nanostructures are adjusted...... by application of various electrolytes used in anodization of the aluminum template and the thickness of gold sputter-coated on the pore layer. The fabricated substrates are characterized by SEM, and the applicability as SERS substrates is investigated by adsorption of rhodamine 6G on the nanostructures...

  18. RETRACTED: Nucleation and growth behavior of well-aligned ZnO nanorods on organic substrates in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Ching; Chen, San-Yuan; Cheng, Syh-Yuh

    2005-09-01

    Available online : 21 July 2005 This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Two papers published in the Journal of Crystal Growth are being retracted due to a case of misrepresentation and reuse of data. A reader of the Journal has brought to our attention the reuse of data within two published papers: Growth behavior and microstructure evolution of ZnO nanorods grown on Si in aqueous solution, Sz-Chian Liou, Chi-Sheng Hsiao, San-Yuan Chen, Journal of Crystal Growth 274 (2005) 438-446. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.10.025 Nucleation and growth behavior of well-aligned ZnO nanorods on organic substrates in aqueous solutions, Chin-Ching Lin, San-Yuan Chen, and Syh-Yuh Cheng, Journal of Crystal Growth 283 (2005) 141-146. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.05.065 In these papers the same transmission electron micrograph was used to describe two different experimental situations and results bringing into question the content of these papers. The reuse of data without proper attribution is not acceptable within the scientific publishing community. In the present case, this is compounded by the attribution of the micrograph to a different experimental situation and drawing , as a result, new conclusions from data obtained from different samples. Such behavior undermines the integrity of the scientific publishing endeavor and is not acceptable. The authors are responsible for the content of their papers.

  19. Concentrations, loads and yields of organic carbon from two tropical peat swamp forest streams in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Yupi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF stores large quantities of carbon. To estimate how much organic C is released from this type of landscape we determined organic carbon (C concentrations, loads and yields in two contrasting watercourses draining from PSF in Riau Province, Sumatra (Indonesia. Meranti Ditch (MD is an artificial watercourse whose small catchment (estimated area 4.8 km2 is in semi-intact condition, whereas Turip River (TR has a large natural catchment (estimated area 458 km2 covered with fairly intact PSF where > 75 % of the original canopy trees remain. The organic C load (Gg C yr-1 of each watercourse was calculated by combining TOC concentration with water discharge rate to give organic C yield (g C m-2 yr-1. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was the dominant (95.0–99.8 % component of total organic carbon (TOC in the water. TOC concentration was 85–94 mg C L-1 in MD and 50–58 mg C L-1 in TR. The high concentration in MD was not surprising because this catchment had been disturbed by repeated phases of logging and a dense network of ditches was excavated ten years ago. The TOC loads were 0.23 Gg C yr-1 in MD and 14.0 Gg C yr-1 in TR. TOC yields (i.e. TOC fluxes through the fluvial system were 41.6–55.5 g C m-2 yr-1 in MD and 26.2–34.9 g C m-2 yr-1 in TR.

  20. Sample loading for C-14 measurement in the simulated organic solvent waste from a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianu, Magdalena; Dobrin, Relu; Podina, Corneliu

    2005-01-01

    The paper evaluates the performance of two commercially available liquid scintillation cocktails designed for counting nonaqueous (organic) samples. To choose a suitable scintillation cocktail is not always easy because many cocktails are available on the market. The efficiency, sample loading, sample type are all important variables that help determine the suitability of a liquid scintillation cocktail for C-14 measurement. Samples were counted in a 2100 TRI-CARB Packard Model liquid scintillation analyzer. (authors)

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Joseph Arthur; Boyer, Jeremy James; Mack, Joseph; DeChellis, Michael; Koo, Michael

    2014-03-18

    An automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system includes a cassette storage module for storing a plurality of substrates in cassettes before and after processing. A substrate carrier storage module stores a plurality of substrate carriers. A substrate carrier loading/unloading module loads substrates from the cassette storage module onto the plurality of substrate carriers and unloads substrates from the plurality of substrate carriers to the cassette storage module. A transport mechanism transports the plurality of substrates between the cassette storage module and the plurality of substrate carriers and transports the plurality of substrate carriers between the substrate carrier loading/unloading module and a processing chamber. A vision system recognizes recesses in the plurality of substrate carriers corresponding to empty substrate positions in the substrate carrier. A processor receives data from the vision system and instructs the transport mechanism to transport substrates to positions on the substrate carrier in response to the received data.

  3. Waste Load Allocation for Whole Effluent Toxicity to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-11-01

    A process is developed to determine a waste load allocation that will implement the narrative criteria for fish and wildlife propagation found in states' water quality standards. The waste load allocation to implement the narrative chronic criterion is determined to be percent effluent at a location in the receiving stream, as opposed to an effluent concentration derived from the numerical waste load allocation process. A typical narrative chronic criterion is "receiving streams shall not exhibit chronic toxicity outside the mixing zone," while a typical numerical chronic criterion is "receiving stream concentration shall not exceed 0.005 μg/L of chlordane outside the mixing zone." Toxicity tests are used to implement narrative criteria, while compliance with numerical criteria involves concentration measurements. It is shown that the appropriate percent effluent is inversely proportional to the dilution factor for chronic toxicity. An appropriate waste load allocation to implement the narrative acute criterion is 100% effluent. Waste load allocation for whole effluent toxicity is feasible. The required independent variables are available to regulatory agencies, and toxicity testing has become routine.

  4. Abundance, genetic diversity and sensitivity to demethylation inhibitor fungicides of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from organic substrates with special emphasis on compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Matić, Slavica; Gisi, Ulrich; Spadaro, Davide; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria L

    2017-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a widespread fungus that colonizes dead organic substrates but it can also cause fatal human diseases. Aspergilloses are treated with demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides; however, resistant isolates appeared recently in the medical and also environmental area. The present study aims at molecular characterizing and quantifying A. fumigatus in major environmental habitats and determining its sensitivity to medical and agricultural DMI fungicides. A. fumigatus was isolated only rarely from soil and meadow/forest organic matter but high concentrations (10 3 to 10 7  cfu/g) were detected in substrates subjected to elevated temperatures, such as compost and silage. High genetic diversity of A. fumigatus from compost was found based on SSR markers, distinguishing among fungal isolates even when coming from the same substrate sample, while subclustering was observed based on mutations in cyp51A gene. Several cyp51A amino acid substitutions were found in 15 isolates, although all isolates were fully sensitive to the tested DMI fungicides, with exception of one isolate in combination with one fungicide. This study suggests that the tested A. fumigatus isolates collected in Italy, Spain and Hungary from the fungus' major living habitats (compost) and commercial growing substrates are not potential carriers for DMI resistance in the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Inactivation of bacterial pathogenic load in compost against vermicompost of organic solid waste aiming to achieve sanitation goals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Waste management strategies for organic residues, such as composting and vermicomposting, have been implemented in some developed and developing countries to solve the problem of organic solid waste (OSW). Yet, these biological treatment technologies do not always result in good quality compost or vermicompost with regards to sanitation capacity owing to the presence of bacterial pathogenic substances in objectionable concentrations. The presence of pathogens in soil conditioners poses a potential health hazard and their occurrence is of particular significance in composts and/or vermicomposts produced from organic materials. Past and present researches demonstrated a high-degree of agreement that various pathogens survive after the composting of certain OSW but whether similar changes in bacterial pathogenic loads arise during vermitechnology has not been thoroughly elucidated. This review garners information regarding the status of various pathogenic bacteria which survived or diffused after the composting process compared to the status of these pathogens after the vermicomposting of OSW with the aim of achieving sanitation goals. This work is also indispensable for the specification of compost quality guidelines concerning pathogen loads which would be specific to treatment technology. It was hypothesized that vermicomposting process for OSW can be efficacious in sustaining the existence of pathogenic organisms most specifically; human pathogens under safety levels. In summary, earthworms can be regarded as a way of obliterating pathogenic bacteria from OSW in a manner equivalent to earthworm gut transit mechanism which classifies vermicomposting as a promising sanitation technique in comparison to composting processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Self-Organized Dewetting of Ultrathin Polymer Blend Film for Large-Area Fabrication of SERS Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Yabo; Huang, Gang; Zhao, Xueyu; Lai, Yuqing; Shi, Tongfei

    2016-12-06

    We study the enhanced dewetting of ultrathin Polystyrene (PS)/Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend films in a mixed solution, and reveal the dewetting can act as a simple and effective method to fabricate large-area surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. A bilayer structure consisting of under PMMA layer and upper PS layer forms due to vertical phase separation of immiscible PS/PMMA during the spin-coating process. The thicker layer of the bilayer structure dominates the dewetting structures of PS/PMMA blend films. The diameter and diameter distribution of droplets, and the average separation spacing between the droplets can be precisely controlled via the change of blend ratio and film thickness. The dewetting structure of 8 nm PS/PMMA (1:1 wt%) blend film is proved to successfully fabricate large-area (3.5 cm × 3.5 cm) universal SERS substrate via deposited a silver layer on the dewetting structure. The SERS substrate shows good SERS-signal reproducibility (RSD dewetting of polymer blend films broadens the application of dewetting of polymer films, especially in the nanotechnology, and may open a new approach for the fabrication of large-area SERS substrate to promote the application of SERS substrate in the rapid sensitive detection of trace molecules.

  7. Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area and hydraulic loading on the treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter. Sesshoku bakkiho no shori koritsu ni taisuru kishitsu nodo, hihyo menseki oyobi suiryo fuka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyo, T; Ono, S; Yoshino, T [Kitasato University, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Science

    1991-06-10

    Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading, which are major factors influencing treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter, were analyzed through the test with a special apparatus. In the test, the wall of the submerged biological filter was regarded as the contact material, and the specific surface area was changed by adjusting the sectional form of the filter. Using specimens from actual plant reservoirs, treatment efficiency for each case of three kinds of substrate concentration and hydraulic loading was measured. BOD removal rate was lower with smaller specific surface area. It was conspicuous particularly with higher BOD concentration in influent water. After the multiple regression analysis of the test results, the multiple regression equation to estimate BOD residual rate from three variates such as BOD concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading was obtained. When 200mg l as BOD concentration and 50m{sup 2} m{sup {minus}3} as specific surface area were applied in this equation, the result almost agreed with the tendency obtained from data of actual plants. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Determination of the substrate repertoire of ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 significantly broadens their functions and identifies extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling as primary targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhouche, Mourad; Leduc, Cedric; Dupont, Laura; Janssen, Lauriane; Delolme, Frederic; Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Baiwir, Dominique; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Dubail, Johanne; De Pauw, Edwin; Nusgens, Betty; Hulmes, David J S; Moali, Catherine; Colige, Alain

    2016-05-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motif (ADAMTS)2, 3, and 14 are collectively named procollagen N-proteinases (pNPs) because of their specific ability to cleave the aminopropeptide of fibrillar procollagens. Several reports also indicate that they could be involved in other biological processes, such as blood coagulation, development, and male fertility, but the potential substrates associated with these activities remain unknown. Using the recently described N-terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrate approach, we analyzed the secretomes of human fibroblasts and identified 8, 17, and 22 candidate substrates for ADAMTS2, 3, and 14, respectively. Among these newly identified substrates, many are components of the extracellular matrix and/or proteins related to cell signaling such as latent TGF-β binding protein 1, TGF-β RIII, and dickkopf-related protein 3. Candidate substrates for the 3 ADAMTS have been biochemically validated in different contexts, and the implication of ADAMTS2 in the control of TGF-β activity has been further demonstrated in human fibroblasts. Finally, the cleavage site specificity was assessed showing a clear and unique preference for nonpolar or slightly hydrophobic amino acids. This work shows that the activities of the pNPs extend far beyond the classically reported processing of the aminopropeptide of fibrillar collagens and that they should now be considered as multilevel regulators of matrix deposition and remodeling.-Bekhouche, M., Leduc, C., Dupont, L., Janssen, L., Delolme, F., Vadon-Le Goff, S., Smargiasso, N., Baiwir, D., Mazzucchelli, G., Zanella-Cleon, I., Dubail, J., De Pauw, E., Nusgens, B., Hulmes, D. J. S., Moali, C., Colige, A. Determination of the substrate repertoire of ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 significantly broadens their functions and identifies extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling as primary targets. © FASEB.

  9. Two level undercut-profile substrate-based filamentary coated conductors produced using metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea R.; Sundaram, Aarthi; Hazelton, Drew W.

    2018-01-01

    The two level undercut-profile substrate (2LUPS) has been introduced as a concept for subdividing rare-earth-Ba$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{7}$ (REBCO) coated conductors (CC) into narrow filaments which reduces the AC losses and improves field stability for DC magnets. The 2LUPS consists of two levels...

  10. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzner, Kornelius; Bose, Indranil R.; Bock, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA) dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor. PMID:28788243

  11. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics onFlexible Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelius Tetzner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor.

  12. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics onFlexible Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzner, Kornelius; Bose, Indranil R; Bock, Karlheinz

    2014-10-29

    In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA) dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor.

  13. Integrated removal of organic load, P, N, on a filters serial system, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic on dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Mauricio Andres; Sierra, Jorge Humberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the results obtained during the operation under dynamic conditions of a three biofilters serial system, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic at lab scale to evaluate the N, P, and organic matter removal. The reactors were continuously fed for 200 days, including the adherence and stability periods, with hydraulic retention time among 2,27 and 0,66 d. for the ANABF and among 1,5 and 0,5 d. for the ANXBF. The adherence period was followed by a control of SSV and the DQO removal in each BF. After good results of adherence the system was fed with an initial average volumetric organic load of 0,441 kg DQO/m 3 /d. and gradually increase during the results of DQO removal over the 50%, until the achievement of the system stability for a maximum organic load of 1,5 kg. The reactor control was made by DQO, PO 4 3 , NTK, NO 2 , NO 3 , SS and alkalinity, determined at enter and exit of each reactor. The removal results for the system of growing adherence was among 90-96% for DQO, 80-90% for total P, and 65-70% for total N

  14. Sample loading for C-14 measurement in the simulated organic solvent waste from a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianu, Magdalena; Podina, C.; Nita, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Sample preparation is a critical step in obtaining accurate results in scintillation counting. Standard (22 ml) glass and plastic vials were used in these experiments. The preliminary research was conducted using glass vials to allow visual verification that a homogeneous solution is obtained at the desired cocktail/sample ratio. Then, the research was moved into plastic vials to reduce backgrounds and improve the counting rate. Samples were counted in a Model 2100 TR Packard TRI-CARB liquid scintillation analyzer. The paper mainly contains: - Composition and data about liquid scintillation cocktails used (tables); - Characterization of radioactive waste - organic solvent contaminated with C-14; - Sample loading (tables); - Efficiency vs Sample Loading - for each cocktail used. Organic solvent sample volumes were added to the vials in 0.5 ml increments from 1 ml to 2 ml. Then, the liquid scintillation cocktail was added so that the sample-cocktail volume was 20 ml. Each vial was shaken vigorously for several seconds after each addition to ensure homogeneity and count. Blank vials were prepared using C-14-free organic solvent samples in the same sample-cocktail proportions. After at least two hours, the samples and blank vials were counted for ten minutes, using a Packard counter. (authors)

  15. Effects of plasma polymerized para-xylene intermediate layers on characteristics of flexible organic light emitting diodes fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyuhyung; Kho, Samil; Jung, Donggeun; Boo, Jin-hyo

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of flexible organic light emitting diodes (FOLEDs) with the plasma polymerized para-xylene (PPpX) intermediate layer were investigated. For the purpose of reducing moisture permeation through plastic substrates, a PPpX intermediate layer was inserted between FOLEDs and the plastic substrates. As the concentration of C-H bonding in the PPpX film deposited at 25 deg. C was increased, PPpX films showed increased transmittance. Surface morphologies of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) covered with the PPpX intermediate layer were improved compared to PET without PPpX on it. Due to the highly cross-linked network structure in the plasma polymer film, water vapor permeability of PET substrates with the PPpX intermediate layer of 75 nm was decreased compared to PET substrates without PPpX on it. FOLEDs with the PPpX intermediate layer showed improved optical and electrical characteristics as well as lifetimes than FOLEDs without the PPpX intermediate layer

  16. Influence of organic carbon and nitrate loading on partitioning between dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and N2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Amber K.; Algar, Christopher K.; Giblin, Anne E.; Rich, Jeremy J.

    2015-09-01

    Biologically available nitrogen is removed from ecosystems through the microbial processes of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or denitrification, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) retains it. A mechanistic understanding of controls on partitioning among these pathways is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to conduct a manipulative experiment to determine the influence of organic C and NO3- loading on partitioning. Sediment was collected from a location on the southern New England shelf (78 m water depth) and sieved. Half of the sediment was mixed with freeze-dried phytoplankton and the other half was not. Sediment was then spread into 1.5 mm, "thin discs" closed at the bottom and placed in large aquarium tanks with filtered, N2/CO2 sparged seawater to maintain O2 limited conditions. Half of the discs received high NO3- loading, while the other half received low NO3- loading, resulting in a multifactorial design with four treatments: no C addition, low NO3- (-C-N); C addition, low NO3- (+C-N); no C addition, high NO3- (-C+N); and C addition, high NO3- (+C+N). Sediment discs were incubated in the tanks for 7 weeks, during which time inorganic N (NH4+, NO3-, and NO2-) was monitored, and sediment discs were periodically removed from the tanks to conduct 15N isotope labeling experiments in vials to measure potential rates of anammox, denitrification, and DNRA. Temporal dynamics of inorganic N concentrations in the tanks were indicative of anoxic N metabolism, with strong response of the build up or consumption of the intermediate NO2-, depending on treatments. Vial incubation experiments with added 15NO2- + 14NH4+ indicated significant denitrification and DNRA activity in sediment thin discs, but incubations with added 15NH4+ + 14NO2- indicated anammox was not at all significant. Inorganic N concentrations in the tanks were fit to a reactive transport model assuming different N transformations. Organic C decomposition rates

  17. Catalytic growth of carbon nanofibers on Cr nanoparticles on a carbon substrate: adsorbents for organic dyes in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos; Cândido da Silva, Adilson; Rodrigues Teixeira Machado, Alan; Diniz, Renata; César Pereira, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    We have produced carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using leather waste that had been tanned with a chromium bath, and when dried contained Cr 2 O 3 . Suitable reduction processing produced a carbon substrate with supported nanoparticles of chromium metal. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the Cr 2 O 3 is reduced on the carbon surface to produce CrC and metal Cr, which is the effective catalyst for the CNFs growth. The CNF arrays were confirmed by TEM images. Raman data revealed that the synthesized CNFs have a poor-quality graphite structure which favors their use in adsorption processes. These CNFs presented higher affinity to adsorb anionic dyes, whereas the cationic dyes are better adsorbed on the carbon substrate. The low-cost and availability of the carbon precursor makes their potential use to produce CNFs of interest.

  18. Chemoselective Radical Dehalogenation and C-C Bond Formation on Aryl Halide Substrates Using Organic Photoredox Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelma, Saemi O; Burnett, G Leslie; Discekici, Emre H; Mattson, Kaila M; Treat, Nicolas J; Luo, Yingdong; Hudson, Zachary M; Shankel, Shelby L; Clark, Paul G; Kramer, John W; Hawker, Craig J; Read de Alaniz, Javier

    2016-08-19

    Despite the number of methods available for dehalogenation and carbon-carbon bond formation using aryl halides, strategies that provide chemoselectivity for systems bearing multiple carbon-halogen bonds are still needed. Herein, we report the ability to tune the reduction potential of metal-free phenothiazine-based photoredox catalysts and demonstrate the application of these catalysts for chemoselective carbon-halogen bond activation to achieve C-C cross-coupling reactions as well as reductive dehalogenations. This procedure works both for conjugated polyhalides as well as unconjugated substrates. We further illustrate the usefulness of this protocol by intramolecular cyclization of a pyrrole substrate, an advanced building block for a family of natural products known to exhibit biological activity.

  19. Catalytic growth of carbon nanofibers on Cr nanoparticles on a carbon substrate: adsorbents for organic dyes in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: luizoliveira@qui.ufmg.br; Candido da Silva, Adilson; Rodrigues Teixeira Machado, Alan [ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Diniz, Renata [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Cesar Pereira, Marcio [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Ciencia, Engenharia e Tecnologia (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    We have produced carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using leather waste that had been tanned with a chromium bath, and when dried contained Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Suitable reduction processing produced a carbon substrate with supported nanoparticles of chromium metal. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is reduced on the carbon surface to produce CrC and metal Cr, which is the effective catalyst for the CNFs growth. The CNF arrays were confirmed by TEM images. Raman data revealed that the synthesized CNFs have a poor-quality graphite structure which favors their use in adsorption processes. These CNFs presented higher affinity to adsorb anionic dyes, whereas the cationic dyes are better adsorbed on the carbon substrate. The low-cost and availability of the carbon precursor makes their potential use to produce CNFs of interest.

  20. Catalytic growth of carbon nanofibers on Cr nanoparticles on a carbon substrate: adsorbents for organic dyes in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Alves; da Silva, Adilson Cândido; Machado, Alan Rodrigues Teixeira; Diniz, Renata; Pereira, Márcio César

    2013-05-01

    We have produced carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using leather waste that had been tanned with a chromium bath, and when dried contained Cr2O3. Suitable reduction processing produced a carbon substrate with supported nanoparticles of chromium metal. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the Cr2O3 is reduced on the carbon surface to produce CrC and metal Cr, which is the effective catalyst for the CNFs growth. The CNF arrays were confirmed by TEM images. Raman data revealed that the synthesized CNFs have a poor-quality graphite structure which favors their use in adsorption processes. These CNFs presented higher affinity to adsorb anionic dyes, whereas the cationic dyes are better adsorbed on the carbon substrate. The low-cost and availability of the carbon precursor makes their potential use to produce CNFs of interest.

  1. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P.; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ∼10 7  cm −2 . Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300 cm 2 /V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  2. Effect of trace element addition and increasing organic loading rates on the anaerobic digestion of cattle slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K; Harris, Peter W; Lee, Seonmi

    2018-05-18

    In this study, anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater with the addition of trace elements was monitored for biogas quantity, quality and process stability using CSTR digesters operated at mesophilic temperature. The determination of trace element concentrations was shown to be deficient in Fe, Ni, Co, Mn and Mo compared to recommendations given in the literature. Addition of these trace elements resulted in enhanced degradation efficiency, higher biogas production and improved process stability. Higher organic loading rates and lower hydraulic retention times were achieved in comparison to the control digesters. A critical accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed at an organic loading rate of 1.82 g L -1  d -1 in the control compared to 2.36 g L -1  d -1 in the digesters with trace element addition. The improved process stability was evident in the final weeks of experimentation, in which control reactors produced 84% less biogas per day compared to the reactors containing trace elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of two heavy metals, cadmium and nickel, on the organic load removal efficiency in a laboratory UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Luis Eduardo; Sierra, Jorge Humberto

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in three up flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB, reactors each with 3 L capacity, four hours of hydraulic retention time, (HRT) and volumetric organic load of 4,8 g/L/d. After the initial start phase, which was of 4.000 hours for the three reactors, they were affected in the following way: the first reactor was continuously feed with 5 mg/L of cadmium chloride, the second one was continuously feed with 10 mg/L of nickel chloride and the last one was not affected and served as reference. Efficiency in organic load removal was measured as oxygen chemical demand (OCD), the first reactor changed from 60% in the start phase (phase one) to 18% in the cadmium-affected phase (phase two), efficiency in removal (OCI) in reactor two varied from 60 to 24% and the last one did not change in a noticeable manner. Reactor one accumulated cadmium in the mud, whereas reactor two did not do that with nickel

  4. Dose load at oral entrance and injection of radionuclides in human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkoshko, S.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of the given work is the determination of probability evaluation of risk of damage to a human organism from application of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostics and therapy. The level of negligible risk divides the area of optimization of risk and the area of unconditional acceptable risk and equals to (1.0x10 6 ) for one year. (authors)

  5. Evolution of ordered one-dimensional and two-dimensional InAs/InP quantum dot arrays on patterned InP (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)B substrates by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sritirawisarn, N.; Wera, J.L.E.; Otten, van F.W.M.; Nötzel, R.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of ordered InAs/InP quantum dot (QD) arrays is demonstrated on patterned InP (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)B substrates by the concept of self-organized anisotropic strain engineering in chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). On shallow- and deep stripe-patterned InP (1 0 0) substrates, depending on the

  6. Atomic force microscopy investigation of growth process of organic TCNQ aggregates on SiO2 and mica substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Qing; Hu, Hao; Pan, Li-Da; Xiao, Jiang; Du, Shi-Xuan; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Deposition patterns of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on different surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. A homemade physical vapour deposition system allows the better control of molecule deposition. Taking advantage of this system, we investigate TCNQ thin film growth on both SiO2 and mica surfaces. It is found that dense island patterns form at a high deposition rate, and a unique seahorse-like pattern forms at a low deposition rate. Growth patterns on different substrates suggest that the fractal pattern formation is dominated by molecule-molecule interaction. Finally, a phenomenal “two-branch" model is proposed to simulate the growth process of the seahorse pattern.

  7. Atomic force microscopy investigation of growth process of organic TCNQ aggregates on SiO2 and mica substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing, Huan; Hao, Hu; Li-Da, Pan; Jiang, Xiao; Shi-Xuan, Du; Hong-Jun, Gao

    2010-01-01

    Deposition patterns of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on different surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. A homemade physical vapour deposition system allows the better control of molecule deposition. Taking advantage of this system, we investigate TCNQ thin film growth on both SiO 2 and mica surfaces. It is found that dense island patterns form at a high deposition rate, and a unique seahorse-like pattern forms at a low deposition rate. Growth patterns on different substrates suggest that the fractal pattern formation is dominated by molecule–molecule interaction. Finally, a phenomenal “two-branch” model is proposed to simulate the growth process of the seahorse pattern. (general)

  8. Organic Carbon Loading in Tropical Near-Shore Ecosystems: the Role of Mangrove Lagoons and Channels in Coastal Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E.; Morell, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Low energy tropical Caribbean shores are often dominated by highly productive mangrove ecosystems that thrive on land borne inorganic nutrient inputs and whose net production results in significant export of litter and dissolved organic compounds (DOC). These organic matrixes can be effectively transported to nearby ecosystems, including coral reefs whose vulnerability to excessive organic loading has been widely documented. This study documents the seaward transport and transformation of organic carbon from mangrove bays, trough near-shore reef ecosystems and out to open waters in the La Parguera Marine Reserve (LPMR). Considering in-situ colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as a tracer for DOC, absorption coefficient values (a350) were observed in the 6.13-0.02 m-1 and 14.08-0.06 m-1 during the dry (from 0 to 0.18 inches of rain) and wet seasons (from 0.68 to 4.76 inches of rain), respectively. Spectral properties (S275-295 and SR) calculations indicate that DOC is predominantly of terrestrial origin and found in high concentrations in enclosed mangrove bays and canals. Data evidences a strong gradient in CDOM concentration decreasing t from inshore to outer shelf waters. Rain precipitation correlated well with high CDOM values (aλ values doubled) and forced LPMR to behave similarly to a river influenced estuary as shown when CDOM is correlated with salinity, contrary to its predominant negative estuary profile. When correlating CDOM with pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations, it is evident that high organic matter content is driving ocean acidification in the nearshore areas. The non-conservative behavior of CDOM implies that other processes besides dilution may play a significant role in its spatial distribution.

  9. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene as a model substrate for the removal of organic sulphur from fossil fuels by iron(III ions generated from pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR P. BESKOSKI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper a new idea for the removal of organically bonded sulphur from fossil fuels is discussed. Dibenzothiophene (DBT was used as a model compound of organicmolecules containing sulphur. This form of (biodesulphurization was performed by an indirect mechanism in which iron(III ions generated from pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans performed the abiotic oxidation. The obtained reaction products, dibenzothiopene sulfoxide and dibenzothiophene sulfone, are more soluble in water than the basic substrate and the obtained results confirmed the basic hypothesis and give the posibility of continuing the experiments related to application of this (biodesulphurization process.

  10. Examination of adhesion layer of TeO2 film with indented platinum substrate after radiation loading by 13 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garapatskij, A.A.; Troyan, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the influence of a corrugated surface of a Pt substrate on the quality of thermal contact of an adhesion layer with a material of different compositions of TeO 2 and Al 2 O 3 when bombing a target by a 20 µA, 13.7 MeV deuteron beam has been studied. Before the irradiation a Raman spectrum of the TeO 2 +4%Al 2 O 3 material had a fuzzy contour, what corresponds to a polycrystalline composition or glass, but after the irradiation the spectrum has distinct Raman peaks which relate to the α-phase. In Raman spectrums for TeO 2 , containing α-phase peaks, essential changes were not observed after the irradiation. However, the glassy structure was formed in the target’s central part. Studies have shown good thermal contact of TeO 2 with the surface of a Pt substrate, processed by the offered technique. It allows to manage without addition of Al 2 O 3 and to carry out the target irradiation without loss of TeO 2 . (authors)

  11. Organic loading rate impact on biohydrogen production and microbial communities at anaerobic fluidized thermophilic bed reactors treating sugarcane stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Samantha Christine; Rosa, Paula Rúbia Ferreira; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high organic loading rates (OLR) (60.0-480.00 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) on biohydrogen production at 55°C, from sugarcane stillage for 15,000 and 20,000 mg CODL(-1), in two anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR1 and AFBR2). It was obtained, for H2 yield and content, a decreasing trend by increasing the OLR. The maximum H2 yield was observed in AFBR1 (2.23 mmol g COD added(-1)). The volumetric H2 production was proportionally related to the applied hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 4, 2 and 1h and verified in AFBR1 the highest value (1.49 L H2 h(-1)L(-1)). Among the organic acids obtained, there was a predominance of lactic acid (7.5-22.5%) and butyric acid (9.4-23.8%). The microbial population was set with hydrogen-producing fermenters (Megasphaera sp.) and other organisms (Lactobacillus sp.). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of organic substrates with molecular oxygen using tetradentate ruthenium(III)-Schiff base complexes as catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ourari, Ali; Khelafi, Mostefa; Aggoun, Djouhra; Jutand, Anny; Amatore, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Three complexes Ru(III)ClL n involving different tetradentate Schiff base ligands L n (see L 1 , L 2 and L 3 in ) were used as catalysts in the oxidation of cyclooctene and tetraline in the presence of molecular dioxygen associated with benzoic anhydride. The efficiency of this oxidation reaction was tested in the presence of two apical bases: 1- or 2-methylimidazole. All complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible redox system. The electrolysis experiments were carried out at controlled potential for each complex, using different substrates such as cyclooctene and tetraline. The oxidized products are cyclooctene oxide (turnover 6.7), a mixture of 1-tetralol and 1-tetralone (turnover 7.6) respectively.

  13. Deposition of metal-organic frameworks by liquid-phase epitaxy: The influence of substrate functional group density on film orientation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J.

    2012-09-05

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4\\'-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  14. Deposition of metal-organic frameworks by liquid-phase epitaxy: The influence of substrate functional group density on film orientation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J.; Shekhah, O.; Stammer, X.; Arslan, H.K.; Liu, B.; Schupbach, B.; Terfort, A.; Woll, C.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4'-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  15. Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy: The Influence of Substrate Functional Group Density on Film Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxuan; Shekhah, Osama; Stammer, Xia; Arslan, Hasan K.; Liu, Bo; Schüpbach, Björn; Terfort, Andreas; Wöll, Christof

    2012-01-01

    The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA), 4’-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA) and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyl)triptycene (CMMT). The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100) direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111) direction.

  16. Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy: The Influence of Substrate Functional Group Density on Film Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Wöll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase epitaxy (LPE of the metal-organic framework (MOF HKUST-1 has been studied for three different COOH-terminated templating organic surfaces prepared by the adsorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold substrates. Three different SAMs were used, mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA, 4’-carboxyterphenyl-4-methanethiol (TPMTA and 9-carboxy-10-(mercaptomethyltriptycene (CMMT. The XRD data demonstrate that highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs with an orientation along the (100 direction was obtained on MHDA-SAMs. In the case of the TPMTA-SAM, the quality of the deposited SURMOF films was found to be substantially inferior. Surprisingly, for the CMMT-SAMs, a different growth direction was obtained; XRD data reveal the deposition of highly oriented HKUST-1 SURMOFs grown along the (111 direction.

  17. A comparison of Alpine emissions to forest soil and spruce needle loads for persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belis, C.A., E-mail: claudio.belis@jrc.ec.europa.e [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardia (Italy); Offenthaler, I.; Uhl, M.; Nurmi-Legat, J. [Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Austria); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Jakobi, G.; Kirchner, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environment and Health (Germany); Knoth, W. [German Federal Environmental Agency (Germany); Kraeuchi, N. [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Levy, W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environment and Health (Germany); Magnani, T. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardia (Italy); Moche, W. [Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Weiss, P. [Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    The project MONARPOP analysed the concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in two important sink compartments, needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and forest soil from 40 remote Alpine forest sites in Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland. In the present study the load of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, PAH, HCB, HCH and DDT in the Alps calculated on the basis of measured data are compared with their estimated emissions in the Alpine region. It comes out that the masses of the studied pollutants stored in the forests are higher than the corresponding emissions in the Alpine area indicating that the Alps are a sink for POPs advected from surrounding areas. It is assumed that local emissions of PCDD/F and PAH deriving from biomass burning are probably underestimated and that the pool of these pollutants in the forests represents the accumulation over some decades. - The loads of POPs in the Alps are higher than their emissions in the Alpine region.

  18. Emissions of volatile organic compounds during the ship-loading of petroleum products: Dispersion modelling and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Ancione, Giuseppa; Lisi, Roberto

    2017-12-15

    Emissions due to ship-loading of hydrocarbons are currently not addressed neither by the Directive on the integrated pollution prevention or by other environmental regulations. The scope of this study is to point towards the environmental and safety concerns associated with such emissions, even if proper attention has not been given to this issue until now. In order to achieve this goal, the modelling of the emission volatile organic compounds (VOC), due to ship-load operations at refineries has been made by means of the definition of a simulation procedure which includes a proper treatment of the hours of calm. Afterwards, a quantitative analysis of VOC dispersion for an Italian case-study is presented with the primary aims: (i) to develop and verify the validity of the approach for the modelling of the emission sources and of the diffusion of these contaminants into the atmosphere by a proper treatment of the hours of calm and (ii) to identify their contribution to the total VOC emitted in a typical refinery. The calculated iso-concentration contours have also been drawn on a map and allowed the identification of critical areas for people protecting by the adoption of abatement solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-cost removal of organic pollutants with nickel nanoparticle loaded ordered macroporous hydrogel as high performance catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi, E-mail: tmyi@tjcu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Huang, Guanbo, E-mail: gbhuang2007@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Sai [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Liu, Yue [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Xianxian [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Wang, Xingrui [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Pang, Xiaobo [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Qiu, Haixia, E-mail: qhx@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-06-01

    A facile route for the in situ preparation of catalytically active Ni nanoparticles (NPs) in ordered macroporous hydrogel (OMH) has been developed. The hydrogel was fabricated based on polystyrene colloid template. The electronegativity of amide and carboxyl groups on the poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) chains of the hydrogel caused strong binding of Ni{sup 2+} ions which made them distribute uniformly inside the hydrogel. When immersed in NaBH{sub 4} aqueous solution, the Ni{sup 2+} ions on the hydrogel were reduced to Ni NPs. The resultant Ni NPs loaded OMH showed good catalytic activity for the reduction of a common organic pollutant, 4-nitrophenol, with NaBH{sub 4}. A kinetic study of the catalytic reaction was carried out. The rate constant per unit weight could reach 0.53 s{sup −1} g{sup −1}, which is much better than many common hydrogel loaded nickel catalysts. Moreover, the current catalyst can be easily separated and recovered with stable catalytic activity. - Highlights: • A new poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) hydrogel with ordered macropores. • A simple in situ fabrication of nickel nanoparticles under mild conditions. • High-performance heterogeneous catalyst for removal of nitrophenol from water. • Good recyclability of catalyst without any complicated regeneration process.

  20. Low-cost removal of organic pollutants with nickel nanoparticle loaded ordered macroporous hydrogel as high performance catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Mingyi; Huang, Guanbo; Zhang, Sai; Liu, Yue; Li, Xianxian; Wang, Xingrui; Pang, Xiaobo; Qiu, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    A facile route for the in situ preparation of catalytically active Ni nanoparticles (NPs) in ordered macroporous hydrogel (OMH) has been developed. The hydrogel was fabricated based on polystyrene colloid template. The electronegativity of amide and carboxyl groups on the poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) chains of the hydrogel caused strong binding of Ni 2+ ions which made them distribute uniformly inside the hydrogel. When immersed in NaBH 4 aqueous solution, the Ni 2+ ions on the hydrogel were reduced to Ni NPs. The resultant Ni NPs loaded OMH showed good catalytic activity for the reduction of a common organic pollutant, 4-nitrophenol, with NaBH 4 . A kinetic study of the catalytic reaction was carried out. The rate constant per unit weight could reach 0.53 s −1  g −1 , which is much better than many common hydrogel loaded nickel catalysts. Moreover, the current catalyst can be easily separated and recovered with stable catalytic activity. - Highlights: • A new poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) hydrogel with ordered macropores. • A simple in situ fabrication of nickel nanoparticles under mild conditions. • High-performance heterogeneous catalyst for removal of nitrophenol from water. • Good recyclability of catalyst without any complicated regeneration process

  1. The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading: an in situ study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaglia, Stefano; Hylén, Astrid; Rattray, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the increasing impacts of human activities on global nitrogen (N) cycle, investigations on N transformation processes in the marine environment have drastically increased in the last years. Benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while its...... sediments worldwide (range 34–344 µmol N m−2 d−1). Anammox accounted for 18–26 % of the total N2 production. Absence of free hydrogen sulfide and low concentrations of dissolved iron in sediment pore waters suggested that denitrification and DNRA were driven by organic matter oxidation rather than...... chemolithotrophy. DNRA was as important as denitrification at a shallow, coastal station situated in the northern Bothnian Bay. At this pristine and fully oxygenated site, ammonium regeneration through DNRA contributed more than one third to the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) diffusing from the sediment...

  2. Effect of the substrate on the properties of ZnO-MgO thin films grown by atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atohuer@hotmail.com [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Grupo de Ingenieria en Procesamiento de Materiales CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira, km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira. C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Grupo de Ingenieria en Procesamiento de Materiales CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira, km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira. C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps (Mexico); Brachetti-Sibaja, S.B. [Alumna del postgrado en Tecnologia Avanzada del CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira IPN, km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira. C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Pulido, A. [Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Luis Enrique Erro s/n, 07738, D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The ZnO-MgO alloys possess attractive properties for possible applications in optoelectronic and display devices; however, the optical properties are strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. In this work, the effect of the glassy and metallic substrates on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO-MgO thin films using atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was investigated at relatively low deposition temperature, 500 deg. C. Magnesium and zinc acetylacetonates were used as the metal-organic source. X-ray diffraction experiments provided evidence that the kind of substrates cause a deviation of c-axis lattice constant due to the constitution of a oxide mixture (ZnO and MgO) in combination with different intermetallic compounds(Mg{sub 2}Zn{sub 11} and Mg{sub 4}Zn{sub 7}) in the growth films. The substitutional and interstitial sites of Mg{sup 2+} instead of Zn{sup 2+} ions in the lattice are the most probable mechanism to form intermetallic compounds. The optical parameters as well as thickness of the films were calculated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry using the classical dispersion model based on the sum of the single and double Lorentz and Drude oscillators in combination with Kato-Adachi equations, as well as X-ray reflectivity.

  3. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2014-03-26

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and further link these to the biotransformation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). Two pairs of soil-column setups were established in the laboratory receiving synthetic feed solutions composed of different peptone/humic acid ratios and concentrations. Higher BDOC concentration resulted in lower microbial community diversity and higher relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria. Decreasing the peptone/humic acid ratio resulted in higher diversity of the community and higher relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria. The metabolic capabilities of microbiome involved in xenobiotics biodegradation were significantly promoted under lower BDOC concentration and higher humic acid content. Cytochrome P450 genes were also more abundant under these primary substrate conditions. Lower peptone/humic acid ratios also promoted the attenuation of most TOrCs. These results suggest that the primary substrate characterized by a more refractory character could increase the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria, as well as associated cytochrome P450 genes, all of which should play important roles in the biotransformation of TOrCs in this natural treatment system. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 ε/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10 -3 Ω -1 on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

  5. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-06-01

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and further link these to the biotransformation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). Two pairs of soil-column setups were established in the laboratory receiving synthetic feed solutions composed of different peptone/humic acid ratios and concentrations. Higher BDOC concentration resulted in lower microbial community diversity and higher relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria. Decreasing the peptone/humic acid ratio resulted in higher diversity of the community and higher relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria. The metabolic capabilities of microbiome involved in xenobiotics biodegradation were significantly promoted under lower BDOC concentration and higher humic acid content. Cytochrome P450 genes were also more abundant under these primary substrate conditions. Lower peptone/humic acid ratios also promoted the attenuation of most TOrCs. These results suggest that the primary substrate characterized by a more refractory character could increase the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria, as well as associated cytochrome P450 genes, all of which should play important roles in the biotransformation of TOrCs in this natural treatment system.

  6. Effects of High-Humidity Aging on Platinum, Palladium, and Gold Loaded Tin Oxide—Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Nishibori

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation of high-humidity aging effects on the total volatile organic compound (T–VOC gas-sensing properties of platinum, palladium, and gold-loaded tin oxide (Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2 thick films. The sensor responses of the high-humidity aged Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2, a non-aged Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2, and a high-humidity aged Pt/SnO2 to T–VOC test gas have been measured. The high-humidity aging is an effective treatment for resistance to humidity change for the Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2 but not effective for the Pt/SnO2. The mechanism of the high-humidity aging effects is discussed based on the change of surface state of the SnO2 particles.

  7. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  8. Intrinsic rates of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in Gulf of Mexico intertidal sandy sediments and its enhancement by organic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The rates of crude oil degradation by the extant microorganisms in intertidal sediments from a northern Gulf of Mexico beach were determined. The enhancement in crude oil degradation by amending the microbial communities with marine organic matter was also examined. Replicate mesocosm treatments consisted of: (i) controls (intertidal sand), (ii) sand contaminated with crude oil, (iii) sand plus organic matter, and (iv) sand plus crude oil and organic matter. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production was measured daily for 42 days and the carbon isotopic ratio of CO 2 (δ 13 CO 2 ) was used to determine the fraction of CO 2 derived from microbial respiration of crude oil. Bacterial 16S rRNA clone library analyses indicated members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi occurred exclusively in control sediments whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes occurred in both control and oil contaminated sediments. Members of the hydrocarbon-degrading genera Hydrocarboniphaga, Pseudomonas, and Pseudoxanthomonas were found primarily in oil contaminated treatments. Hydrocarbon mineralization was 76% higher in the crude oil amended with organic matter treatment compared to the rate in the crude oil only treatment indicating that biodegradation of crude oil in the intertidal zone by an extant microbial community is enhanced by input of organic matter

  9. Intrinsic rates of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in Gulf of Mexico intertidal sandy sediments and its enhancement by organic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, Behzad [University of Alabama, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 870344, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Dauphin Island Sea Lab, 101 Bienville Boulevard, Dauphin Island, AL, 36528 (United States); Horel, Agota [University of Alabama, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 870344, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Dauphin Island Sea Lab, 101 Bienville Boulevard, Dauphin Island, AL, 36528 (United States); Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A. [University of Alabama, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 870344, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The rates of crude oil degradation by the extant microorganisms in intertidal sediments from a northern Gulf of Mexico beach were determined. The enhancement in crude oil degradation by amending the microbial communities with marine organic matter was also examined. Replicate mesocosm treatments consisted of: (i) controls (intertidal sand), (ii) sand contaminated with crude oil, (iii) sand plus organic matter, and (iv) sand plus crude oil and organic matter. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) production was measured daily for 42 days and the carbon isotopic ratio of CO{sub 2} (δ{sup 13}CO{sub 2}) was used to determine the fraction of CO{sub 2} derived from microbial respiration of crude oil. Bacterial 16S rRNA clone library analyses indicated members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi occurred exclusively in control sediments whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes occurred in both control and oil contaminated sediments. Members of the hydrocarbon-degrading genera Hydrocarboniphaga, Pseudomonas, and Pseudoxanthomonas were found primarily in oil contaminated treatments. Hydrocarbon mineralization was 76% higher in the crude oil amended with organic matter treatment compared to the rate in the crude oil only treatment indicating that biodegradation of crude oil in the intertidal zone by an extant microbial community is enhanced by input of organic matter.

  10. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    throughout each event for trace-element analysis, and multiple samples were collected for suspended sediment (SS), particulate carbon (POC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis. The suspended sediment and exchange resin were analyzed for 114 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, by US EPA method 1668A, modified), seven 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD) and 10 dibenzo-p-difurans (CDF) (by US EPA method 1613), 24 PAHs (by low-resolution isotope dilution/mass-spectral methods), 27 organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) (by high resolution isotope dilution/mass-spectral methods), and the trace elements mercury (Hg), methyl-mercury (MeHg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Isotope dilution methods using gas chromatography and high-and low-resolution mass spectral (GC/MS) detection were used to accurately identify and quantify organic compounds in the sediment and water phases. Trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry methods. The loads of sediment, carbon, and chemicals were calculated for each storm and low-flow event sampled. Because only a few storm events were sampled, yearly loads of sediment were calculated from rating curves developed using historical SS and POC data. The average annual loads of sediment and carbon were calculated for the period 1975-2000, along with the loads for the selected water years being modeled as part of the New York New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program CARP. Comparison of loads calculated using the rating curve method to loads measured during the sampled storm events indicated that the rating curve method likely underpredicts annual loads. Average annual loads of suspended sediment in the tributaries were estimated to be 395,000 kilograms per year (kg/yr) in the Hackensack River, 417,000 kg/yr in the Elizabeth River, 882,000 kg/yr in the Rahway River, 22,700,000 kg/yr in the Passaic River, and 93,100,000 kg/yr in the Raritan River. Averag

  11. Oxidations of Organic and Inorganic Substrates by Superoxo-, hydroperoxo-, and oxo-compounds of the transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael John Vasbinder

    2006-01-01

    values of the Hammett reaction constant PN were -1.0(1) for 4-nitro-2-methylpyridine-N-oxide and -2.6(4) for 4-methylpyridine-N-oxide as substrates. The negative value confirms pyridine is acting as a nucleophile. Nucleophiles other than pyridine derivatives were also tested. In the end, it was found that the most effective nucleophiles were the pyridine-N-oxides themselves, meaning that a second equivalent of substrate serves as the most efficient promoter of this oxygen-atom transfer reaction. This relative nucleophilicity of pyridines and pyridine-N-oxides is similar to what is observed in other OAT reactions generating high-valent metal-oxo species

  12. Consumption and release of dissolved organic carbon by marine bacteria in a pulsed-substrate environment: from experiments to modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichinger, M.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Sempere, R.; Poggiale, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of episodic occurrence of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) in the natural environment, bacterial degradation of labile DOC was studied under laboratory-controlled conditions followed by modelling. A single labile DOC compound was periodically added to the experimental culture

  13. Studies on peptide amidase-catalysed C-terminal peptide amidation in organic media with respect to its substrate specificity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Kula, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2001), s. 183-187 ISSN 0885-4513 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/1458 Keywords : enzymic amidation * peptide amides * peptide synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.408, year: 2001

  14. Stable Low-Voltage Operation Top-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistors on Cellulose Nanocrystal Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Yin Wang; Canek Fuentes-Hernandez; Jen-Chieh Liu; Amir Dindar; Sangmoo Choi; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon; Bernard Kippelen

    2015-01-01

    We report on the performance and the characterization of top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), comprising a bilayer gate dielectric of CYTOP/ Al2O3 and a solution-processed semiconductor layer made of a blend of TIPS-pentacene:PTAA, fabricated on recyclable cellulose nanocrystal−glycerol (CNC/glycerol...

  15. The elevation of radiation load on ecosystems and genome instability of organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaziyev, A. I.; Bezlepkin, V.Q.

    2002-01-01

    At present many countries actively develop the nuclear technologies of energy production. Simultaneously, a tendency persists for the propagation of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, the waste of the nuclear energy production and nuclear weapon industry products to be utilized constantly grow in amount. Besides, there is a risk of plunder of nuclear materials and diversions at nuclear plants. Therefore, in spite of the efforts that are constantly made to enhance the control and safety in this regard, there is still danger of radiation accidents and risk of environment contamination fraught with serious consequences for the biosphere. Today the radiation-ecological situation in the Caucasus-Caspian region may be considered favorable but the risk of its deterioration, as in the whole world, still persists. It should be taken into account that in this region two nuclear power complex plants, uranium mines and treatment facilities, research nuclear reactors as well as burial-grounds for radioactive waste are situated. Earlier (in the 70's-80's of the past century) 29 subsurface nuclear explosions (for geological survey) were performed in the northern part of the region. Release of radionuclides to the environment results in increased ionizing radiation background, which, in combination with other technogenic agents may be a serious hazard to all living things and produce a variety of harmful effects in living organisms, depending on the dose. The genetic consequences of radionuclide contamination of environment and of the combined effect of low-intensity radiation and non-radiation factors on humans (as well as on other living things) have been the subject matter of numerous recent scientific discussions. Studies in this field are essential for assessing the hazards associated with increased ionizing radiation background under the conditions of contamination of environment by anthropogenic agents as well as for development of techniques and means for radiation safety and

  16. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Few-Layer MoS2-Organic Thin-Film Hybrid Complementary Inverter Pixel Fabricated on a Glass Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sung; Shin, Jae Min; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Junyeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Hwang, Hyun Chul; Park, Eunyoung; Yoon, Woojin; Ju, Sang-Yong; Im, Seongil

    2015-05-13

    Few-layer MoS2-organic thin-film hybrid complementary inverters demonstrate a great deal of device performance with a decent voltage gain of ≈12, a few hundred pW power consumption, and 480 Hz switching speed. As fabricated on glass, this hybrid CMOS inverter operates as a light-detecting pixel as well, using a thin MoS2 channel. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Manufacture of highly loaded silica-supported cobalt Fischer–Tropsch catalysts from a metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui; Suarez, Alma I. Olivos; Meijerink, Mark; van Deelen, Tom; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Zečević, Jovana; de Jong, Krijn P.; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The development of synthetic protocols for the preparation of highly loaded metal nanoparticle-supported catalysts has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades. Independently controlling metal loading, nanoparticle size

  19. Ammonia threshold for inhibition of anaerobic digestion of thin stillage and the importance of organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestedt, Jan; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Biogas production from nitrogen-rich feedstock results in release of ammonia (NH3), causing inhibition of the microbial process. The reported threshold ammonia value for stable biogas production varies greatly between studies, probably because of differences in operating conditions. Moreover, it is often difficult to separate the effect of ammonia inhibition from that of organic loading rate (OLR), as these two factors are often interrelated. This study attempted to distinguish the effects of ammonia and OLR by analysis of two laboratory-scale biogas reactors operating with thin stillage and subjected to an increase in free ammonia (from 0.30 to 1.1 g L(-1)) either by addition of an external nitrogen source (urea) or by increasing the OLR (3.2-6.0 g volatile solids L(-1) d(-1)). The results showed that ammonia concentration was detrimental for process performance, with the threshold for stability in both processes identified as being about 1 g NH3-N L(-1), irrespective of OLR. Analysis of the methanogenic community showed limited differences between the two reactors on order level and a clear increase in the abundance of Methanomicrobiales, particularly Methanoculleus sp., in response to increasing ammonia concentration. Further comprehensive molecular analysis revealed that diverse Methanoculleus species dominated in the reactors at a given ammonia level at different OLR. The acetogenic community was clearly affected by both ammonia concentration and OLR, suggesting that the volatile fatty acid load in relation to the higher OLR was important for the dynamics of this community. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, P., E-mail: pdutta2@central.uh.edu; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P. [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Martinez, J. [Materials Evaluation Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77085 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ∼10{sup 7 }cm{sup −2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  1. Selective growth of Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Wakana; Washizu, Tomoya; Ike, Shinichi; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the selective growth of a Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on a line/space-patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We examined the behavior of a Sn precursor of tributyl(vinyl)tin (TBVSn) during the growth on Si and SiO2 substrates and investigated the effect of the Sn precursor on the selective growth. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer was performed under various total pressures and growth temperatures of 300 and 350 °C. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on the patterned Si region is achieved at a low total pressure without Ge1- x Sn x growth on the SiO2 region. In addition, we found that the Sn content in the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer increases with width of the SiO2 region for a fixed Si width even with low total pressure. To control the Sn content in the selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer, it is important to suppress the decomposition and migration of Sn and Ge precursors.

  2. 3D TiO{sub 2} submicrostructures decorated by silver nanoparticles as SERS substrate for organic pollutants detection and degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianjun [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Su, Huilan, E-mail: hlsu@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); You, Xueling; Gao, Jing [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lau, Woon Ming [Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Sichuan 610207 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contrive a multifunctional SERS substrate with 3D sub-micrometer structure and multicomponent. • The blue wing of butterfly (Euploea mulciber) is used as template for Ag/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. • The 3D submicrostructures Ag/TiO{sub 2} presents superior SERS effect and photocatalytic activity. • Pave a facile route to prepare multifunctional material by utilizing smart structural designs in nature. - Abstract: The blue wing of butterfly Euploea mulciber is used as a template to generate Ag/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. Thereinto, Ag nanoparticles are deposited uniformly onto TiO{sub 2} substrate with three dimensional (3D) submicrometer structures. This unique 3D sub-micrometer structures featured with ridges, ribs and struts can provide a large number of active “hot spots” for enhanced Raman signal. Meanwhile, depositing Ag onto the TiO{sub 2} surface can greatly boost its SERS effect and photocatalytic activity by bringing additional electrons into the molecules and inhibiting electrons–holes recombination. Thus, the as-prepared 3D Ag/TiO{sub 2} submicrostructures can not only offer sensitive and reproducible SERS signals, but also present superior photocatalytic activity, which can be utilized to detect and eliminate organic pollutants.

  3. Influence of the substrate platform on the opto-electronic properties of multi-layer organic light-emitting field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generali, Gianluca; Capelli, Raffaella; Toffanin, Stefano; Muccini, Michele [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Dinelli, Franco, E-mail: g.generali@bo.ismn.cnr.it, E-mail: m.muccini@bo.ismn.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), INO U.O.S. ' A. Gozzini' Area della Ricerca di Pisa - S. Cataldo, via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-06-08

    In this paper, we present a study of the effects of the influence of the substrate platform on the properties of a three-layer vertical hetero-junction made of thin films of {alpha}, {omega}-diperfluorohexyl-4T (DHF4T), a blend of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) and {alpha}, {omega}-dihexyl-quaterthiophene (DH4T). The hetero-junction represents the active component of an organic light-emitting transistor (OLET). The substrate platforms investigated in this study are glass/indium-tin-oxide/poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) and Si{sup ++}/silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2})/PMMA. The first platform is almost completely transparent to light and therefore is very promising for use in OLET applications. The second one has been chosen for comparison as it employs standard microelectronic materials, i.e. Si{sup ++}/SiO{sub 2}. We show how different gate materials and structure can affect the relevant field-effect electrical characteristics, such as the charge mobility and threshold voltage. By means of an atomic force microscopy analysis, a systematic study has been made in order to correlate the morphology of the active layers with the electrical properties of the devices.

  4. A Comparison of Simple Rheological Parameters and Simulation Data for Zymomonas mobilis Fermentation Broths with High Substrate Loading in a 3-L Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Byung-Hwan; Hanley, Thomas R.

    Traditionally, as much as 80% or more of an ethanol fermentation broth is water that must be removed. This mixture is not only costly to separate but also produces a large aqueous stream that must then be disposed of or recycled. Integrative approaches to water reduction include increasing the biomass concentration during fermentation. In this paper, experimental results are presented for the rheological behavior of high-solids enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation for biomass conversion using Solka Floc as the model feedstock. The experimental determination of the viscosity, shear stress, and shear rate relationships of the 10 to 20% slurry concentrations with constant enzyme concentrations are performed with a variable speed rotational viscometer (2.0 to 200 rpm) at 40 °C. The viscosities of enzymatic suspension observed were in range of 0.0418 to 0.0144, 0.233 to 0.0348, and 0.292 to 0.0447 Pa s for shear rates up to 100 reciprocal seconds at 10, 15, and 20% initial solids (w/v), respectively. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of bioreactor mixing demonstrates the change in bioreactor mixing with increasing biomass concentration. The portion-loading method is shown to be effective for processing highsolids slurries.

  5. MARCKS-related protein regulates cytoskeletal organization at cell-cell and cell-substrate contacts in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Itallie, Christina M; Tietgens, Amber Jean; Aponte, Angel; Gucek, Marjan; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Chadwick, Richard S; Anderson, James M

    2018-02-02

    Treatment of epithelial cells with interferon-γ and TNF-α (IFN/TNF) results in increased paracellular permeability. To identify relevant proteins mediating barrier disruption, we performed proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) of occludin and found that tagging of MARCKS-related protein (MRP; also known as MARCKSL1) increased ∼20-fold following IFN/TNF administration. GFP-MRP was focused at the lateral cell membrane and its overexpression potentiated the physiological response of the tight junction barrier to cytokines. However, deletion of MRP did not abrogate the cytokine responses, suggesting that MRP is not required in the occludin-dependent IFN/TNF response. Instead, our results reveal a key role for MRP in epithelial cells in control of multiple actin-based structures, likely by regulation of integrin signaling. Changes in focal adhesion organization and basal actin stress fibers in MRP-knockout (KO) cells were reminiscent of those seen in FAK-KO cells. In addition, we found alterations in cell-cell interactions in MRP-KO cells associated with increased junctional tension, suggesting that MRP may play a role in focal adhesion-adherens junction cross talk. Together, our results are consistent with a key role for MRP in cytoskeletal organization of cell contacts in epithelial cells. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Thermal processing of waste organic substrates: Developing and applying an integrated framework for feasibility assessment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiannidis, A.; Malamakis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Wittmaier, M.; Langer, S. [University of Applied Sciences, Institut fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, D-27199, Bremen (Germany); Bilitewski, B. [Institute of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment, Pratzschwitzer Strasse 15, D-01796 Pirna (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Against the background of global climate change and increasing prices of fossil fuel, the importance of producing sustainable renewable energy increases significantly. CO{sub 2}-neutral energy generation using biomass or organic waste is an alternative option that deserves attention particularly in developing countries. Aim of this paper is to provide an integrated framework for the preparation of feasibility studies for the renewable energy sector there, considering technical, environmental, economic, socio-cultural, legal and institutional aspects which are particular applicable for developing countries. Such a feasibility framework involves a definition of the scope, which reflects the aims and objectives of the target groups (supplier, operator, etc. of renewable energy supply) and the methodologies and tools involved. All relevant aspects are covered: data collection, selection of sites and assessment of options. Furthermore, methods and tools for risk assessment and decision-making are presented and a practical plan of procedures is last provided. The proposed framework is then applied to a selected area in Vietnam and certain results of the study, showing that the implementation of a biogas plant utilizing organic waste would be feasible, are presented in this paper. (author)

  7. Investigations on Substrate Temperature-Induced Growth Modes of Organic Semiconductors at Dielectric/semiconductor Interface and Their Correlation with Threshold Voltage Stability in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Narayanan; Maheshwari, Priya; Bhattacharya, Debarati; Tokas, Raj B; Sen, Shashwati; Honda, Yoshihide; Basu, Saibal; Pujari, Pradeep Kumar; Rao, T V Chandrasekhar

    2016-02-10

    Influence of substrate temperature on growth modes of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films at the dielectric/semiconductor interface in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging at the interface reveals a change from 'layer+island' to "island" growth mode with increasing substrate temperatures, further confirmed by probing the buried interfaces using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and positron annihilation spectroscopic (PAS) techniques. PAS depth profiling provides insight into the details of molecular ordering while positron lifetime measurements reveal the difference in packing modes of CuPc molecules at the interface. XRR measurements show systematic increase in interface width and electron density correlating well with the change from layer + island to coalesced huge 3D islands at higher substrate temperatures. Study demonstrates the usefulness of XRR and PAS techniques to study growth modes at buried interfaces and reveals the influence of growth modes of semiconductor at the interface on hole and electron trap concentrations individually, thereby affecting hysteresis and threshold voltage stability. Minimum hole trapping is correlated to near layer by layer formation close to the interface at 100 °C and maximum to the island formation with large voids between the grains at 225 °C.

  8. Distinct respiratory responses of soils to complex organic substrate are governed predominantly by soil architecture and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, F C; Todman, L C; Corstanje, R; Deeks, L K; Harris, J A; Pawlett, M; Whitmore, A P; Ritz, K

    2016-12-01

    Factors governing the turnover of organic matter (OM) added to soils, including substrate quality, climate, environment and biology, are well known, but their relative importance has been difficult to ascertain due to the interconnected nature of the soil system. This has made their inclusion in mechanistic models of OM turnover or nutrient cycling difficult despite the potential power of these models to unravel complex interactions. Using high temporal-resolution respirometery (6 min measurement intervals), we monitored the respiratory response of 67 soils sampled from across England and Wales over a 5 day period following the addition of a complex organic substrate (green barley powder). Four respiratory response archetypes were observed, characterised by different rates of respiration as well as different time-dependent patterns. We also found that it was possible to predict, with 95% accuracy, which type of respiratory behaviour a soil would exhibit based on certain physical and chemical soil properties combined with the size and phenotypic structure of the microbial community. Bulk density, microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity and microbial community phenotype were identified as the four most important factors in predicting the soils' respiratory responses using a Bayesian belief network. These results show that the size and constitution of the microbial community are as important as physico-chemical properties of a soil in governing the respiratory response to OM addition. Such a combination suggests that the 'architecture' of the soil, i.e. the integration of the spatial organisation of the environment and the interactions between the communities living and functioning within the pore networks, is fundamentally important in regulating such processes.

  9. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of organic loading rate on anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, R. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Seville (Spain). Inst. de la Grasa; Banks, C.J.; Zhengjian Wang [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1995-09-01

    COD removal efficiencies in the range 75.0-98.9% were achieved in an aerobic fluidised-bed reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater, when evaluated at organic loading rates (OLR) of between 2.9 and 54.0 g COD/l.d, hydraulic retention times (HRT) of between 0.5 and 8 h and feed COD concentrations of between 250 and 4500 mg/l. More than 94% of feed COD could be removed up to OLR of about 27 g COD/l.d. Up to 0.320 litres of methane were produced per gram of COD removed and this methane production rate was independent of the OLR applied in this investigation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the reactor increased sharply at an OLR of about 30 g COD/l.d and, therefore, sufficient alkalinity should be provided to prevent pH from dropping to an undesirable level. The anaerobic fluidised-bed system can be operated at a significantly higher liquid throughput than other previously reported systems while maintaining its excellent efficiency. (Author)

  11. Organic loading rate effect on the acidogenesis of cheese whey: a comparison between UASB and SBR reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, R; Iglesias-Iglesias, R; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2017-09-16

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and degree of acidification (DA) were investigated in the anaerobic treatment of cheese whey by comparison of two processes: a continuous process using a laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a discontinuous process using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The main purpose of this work was to study the organic loading rate (OLR) effect on the yield of VFA in two kinds of reactors. The predominant products in the acidogenic process in both reactors were: acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate. The maximum DA obtained was 98% in an SBR at OLR of 2.7 g COD L -1 d -1 , and 97% in the UASB at OLR at 15.1 g COD L -1 d -1 . The results revealed that the UASB reactor was more efficient at a medium OLR with a higher VFA yield, while with the SBR reactor, the maximum acidification was obtained at a lower OLR with changes in the VFA profile at different OLRs applied.

  12. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Extensive Beetle-Induced Forest Mortality on Aromatic Organic Carbon Loading and Disinfection Byproduct Formation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, B.; Mikkelson, K. M.; Dickenson, E.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought and warmer temperatures associated with climate change have caused increased pest-induced forest mortality with impacts on biogeochemical and hydrologic processes. To better understand the seasonal impacts of bark beetle infestation on water quality, samples were collected regularly over two overlapping snow free seasons at surface water intakes of six water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado displaying varying levels of bark beetle infestation (high >40%, moderate 20-40%, and low <20%). Organic carbon concentrations were typically 3 to 6 times higher in waters sourced from high beetle-impacted watersheds compared to moderate and low impact watersheds, revealing elevated specific ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence, and humic-like intensity indicative of elevated aromatic carbon signatures. Accordingly, an increase in disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential of 400 to 600% was quantified when contrasted with watersheds containing less tree mortality. Beetle impact exasperated seasonal increases in carbon loading and DBP formation potential following both runoff and precipitation events indicating windows when enhanced water treatment may be utilized by water providers in highly infested regions. Additionally, elevated carbon concentrations throughout the summer and fall along with peaks following precipitation events provide evidence of shifting hydrologic flow paths in areas experiencing high forest mortality from decreased tree water uptake and interception. Collectively, these results demonstrate the need for continued watershed protection and monitoring with a changing climate as the resultant perturbations can have adverse effects on biogeochemistry and water quality in heavily impacted areas.

  15. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Harb, Moustapha; Amy, Gary L.; Hong, Pei-Ying; Leiknes, TorOve

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Use of Lignins from Sugarcane Bagasse for Assembling Microparticles Loaded with Azadirachta indica Extracts for Use as Neem-Based Organic Insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Eveline S.; Perlatti, Bruno; Silva, Everton M. da; Matos, Andreia P.; Silva, Maria Fátima G. F. da; Fernandes, João B.; Zuin, Vânia G.; Silva, Caio M. P. da; Forim, Moacir R.

    2017-01-01

    Microcapsules of sugarcane bagasse lignin loaded with organic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) were prepared and evaluated as potential bioinsecticides. Lignins were extracted and modified by oxidation and acetylation reactions providing different biopolymers. Afterwards, they were characterized through several analytical techniques. The formulations were initially prepared as colloidal suspension of lignin nanoparticles, which were then spray-dried. The products were submitted to qualit...

  17. Offshore Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This shapefile displays the distribution of substrate types from Pt. Arena to Pt. Sal in central/northern California. Originally this data consisted of seven paper...

  18. Identification of the endogenous key substrates of the human organic cation transporter OCT2 and their implication in function of dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Taubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as the accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, is unclear. Current hypotheses suggest an abnormal function of the neuronal sodium-dependent dopamine transporter DAT to contribute to cell death in the dopaminergic system, but it has not been investigated whether sodium-independent amine transporters are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By the use of a novel tandem-mass spectrometry-based substrate search technique, we have shown that the dopaminergic neuromodulators histidyl-proline diketopiperazine (cyclo(his-pro and salsolinol were the endogenous key substrates of the sodium-independent organic cation transporter OCT2. Quantitative real-time mRNA expression analysis revealed that OCT2 in contrast to its related transporters was preferentially expressed in the dopaminergic regions of the substantia nigra where it colocalized with DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase. By assessing cell viability with the MTT reduction assay, we found that salsolinol exhibited a selective toxicity toward OCT2-expressing cells that was prevented by cyclo(his-pro. A frequent genetic variant of OCT2 with the amino acid substitution R400C reduced the transport efficiency for the cytoprotective cyclo(his-pro and thereby increased the susceptibility to salsolinol-induced cell death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that the OCT2-regulated interplay between cyclo(his-pro and salsolinol is crucial for nigral cell integrity and that a shift in transport efficiency may impact the risk of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Photocatalytic performance of highly amorphous titania–silica aerogels with mesopores: The adverse effect of the in situ adsorption of some organic substrates during photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lázár, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 H-4032 (Hungary); Kalmár, József, E-mail: kalmar.jozsef@science.unideb.hu [MTA-DE Homogeneous Catalysis and Reaction Mechanisms Research Group, Egyetem tér 1 H-4032 (Hungary); Peter, Anca [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Technical University of Cluj Napoca, North University Center of Baia Mare, Baia Mare, Victoriei 76, 430122 (Romania); Szilágyi, Anett; Győri, Enikő; Ditrói, Tamás; Fábián, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 H-4032 (Hungary)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Details on the preparation of titania–silica aerogels with no crystalline anatase phase. • Investigation of the structure and the photocatalytic activity of highly amorphous titania–silica aerogels with mesopores. • The fast adsorption of methylene blue and salicylic acid reduces the rates of their photocatalytic degradations. • An elaborate kinetic model which incorporates both adsorption and photocatalysis. - Abstract: Titania–silica composite aerogels with 16–29% Ti-content by the mass were synthesized by the sol–gel method from different Ti-precursors, and calcined at 500 °C. These aerogels are highly amorphous as no crystalline TiO{sub 2} phase can be detected in them by X-ray diffraction methods, and show the dominating presence of either mesopores or macropores. The incorporation of Ti into the silica structure is shown by the appearance of characteristic IR transitions of Si−O−Ti vibrations. The characteristic band-gap energies of the different aerogels are estimated to be between 3.6 and 3.9 eV from UV reflection spectra. Band-gap energy decreases with decreasing pore-size. When suspended in solution, even these highly amorphous aerogels accelerate the photodegradation of salicylic acid and methylene blue compared to simple photolysis. Kinetic experiments were conducted under illumination, and also in the dark to study the adsorption of the substrates onto the suspended aerogels. We assume that the fast in situ adsorption of the organic substrates mask the suspended aerogel particles from UV photons, which reduces the rate of photocatalysis. We managed to mathematically separate the parallel processes of photocatalysis and adsorption, and develop a simple kinetic model to describe the reaction system.

  20. Engine Load Effects on the Energy and Exergy Performance of a Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC has been proved a promising technique to exploit waste heat from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs. Waste heat recovery systems have usually been designed based on engine rated working conditions, while engines often operate under part load conditions. Hence, it is quite important to analyze the off-design performance of ORC systems under different engine loads. This paper presents an off-design Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle (MC/ORC system model by interconnecting the component models, which allows the prediction of system off-design behavior. The sliding pressure control method is applied to balance the variation of system parameters and evaporating pressure is chosen as the operational variable. The effect of operational variable and engine load on system performance is analyzed from the aspects of energy and exergy. The results show that with the drop of engine load, the MC/ORC system can always effectively recover waste heat, whereas the maximum net power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency decrease linearly. Considering the contributions of components to total exergy destruction, the proportions of the gas-oil exchanger and turbine increase, while the proportions of the evaporator and condenser decrease with the drop of engine load.

  1. Effect of Uniaxial Tensile Cyclic Loading Regimes on Matrix Organization and Tenogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated within 3D Collagen Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become a popular cell choice for tendon repair strategies due to their relative abundance, ease of isolation, and ability to differentiate into tenocytes. In this study, we investigated the solo effect of different uniaxial tensile strains and loading frequencies on the matrix directionality and tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated within three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Samples loaded at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% strains and 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz frequencies for 2 hours/day over a 7-day period using a custom-built uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor were characterized in terms of matrix organization, cell viability, and musculoskeletal gene expression profiles. The results displayed that the collagen fibers of the loaded samples exhibited increased matrix directionality with an increase in strain values. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASC-encapsulated collagen scaffolds loaded at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency showed significant increases in extracellular matrix genes and tenogenic differentiation markers. Importantly, no cross-differentiation potential to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages was observed at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency loading condition. Thus, 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency were identified as the appropriate mechanical loading regime to induce tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional environment.

  2. Effect of Uniaxial Tensile Cyclic Loading Regimes on Matrix Organization and Tenogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Encapsulated within 3D Collagen Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Gayathri; Stasuk, Alexander; Elsaadany, Mostafa; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have become a popular cell choice for tendon repair strategies due to their relative abundance, ease of isolation, and ability to differentiate into tenocytes. In this study, we investigated the solo effect of different uniaxial tensile strains and loading frequencies on the matrix directionality and tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated within three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Samples loaded at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% strains and 0.1 Hz and 1 Hz frequencies for 2 hours/day over a 7-day period using a custom-built uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor were characterized in terms of matrix organization, cell viability, and musculoskeletal gene expression profiles. The results displayed that the collagen fibers of the loaded samples exhibited increased matrix directionality with an increase in strain values. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASC-encapsulated collagen scaffolds loaded at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency showed significant increases in extracellular matrix genes and tenogenic differentiation markers. Importantly, no cross-differentiation potential to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic lineages was observed at 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency loading condition. Thus, 2% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency were identified as the appropriate mechanical loading regime to induce tenogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells cultured in a three-dimensional environment.

  3. Effects of Organic Loading Rate on the Performance of a Pressurized Anaerobic Filter in Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic loading rate (OLR on a pressurized anaerobic filter was studied in a laboratory two-phase anaerobic digestion system. The anaerobic filter was operated successively at two working pressures (9 bar and 1.5 bar. The OLR(COD for each pressure was increased from 5 to 17.5 kg·m−3·day−1. The best performance of the reactor at 9 bar was observed at OLR(COD of 12.5 kg·m−3·day−1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1.8 day, with specific biogas productivity (SBP of 5.3 L·L−1·day−1 and COD degradation grade of 90.6%. At higher OLRs and shorter HRTs, the process became unstable. In contrast, there was no indication of digester failure during the experiments at 1.5 bar. The SBP peaked at OLR(COD of 17.5 kg·m−3·day−1 with 8.2 L·L−1·day−1, where COD degradation grade was 90.4%. The biogas collected from the reactor at 9 bar and 1.5 bar contained approximately 74.5% CH4 and 66.2% CH4, respectively, regardless of OLR variation. At OLR(COD of 5–12.5 kg·m−3·day−1, the reactor at 9 bar had the same specific methane yield as at 1.5 bar, which was in the range of 0.31–0.32 LN·g−1COD. Raising the working pressure in the reactor resulted in an increase of methane content of the produced biogas. However, the low pH value (approximately 6.5 inside the reactor, induced by high CO2 partial pressure seemed to limit the reactor performance at high OLRs and short HRT.

  4. Processing and Performance of MOF (Metal Organic Framework)-Loaded PAN Nanofibrous Membrane for CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman; Khan, Mujibur R.; Harp, Spencer; Neumann, Jeffrey; Sultana, Quazi Nahida

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to produce a nanofibrous membrane functionalized with adsorbent particles called metal organic framework (MOF) in order to adsorb CO2 from a gas source. Therefore, Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was chosen as the precursor for nanofibers and HKUST-1, a Cu-based MOF, was chosen as adsorbent. The experimental process consists of electrospinning PAN solution blended with HKUST-1 to produce a nanofibrous mat as working substrates. The fibers were collected in a cylindrical canister model. SEM image of this mat showed nanofibers with the presence of small adsorbent particles, impregnated into the as-spun fibers discretely. To increase the amount of MOF particles for effectual gas adsorption, a secondary solvothermal process of producing MOF particles on the fibers was required. This process consists of multiple growth cycles of HKUST-1 particles by using a sol-gel precursor. SEM images showed uniform distribution of porous MOF particles of 2-4 µm in size on the fiber surface. Energy dispersive spectroscopy report of the fiber confirmed the presence of MOF particles through the identification of characteristic Copper elemental peaks of HKUST-1. To determine the thermal stability of the fibrous membrane, Thermogravimetric analysis of HKUST-1 consisting of PAN fiber was performed where a total weight loss of 40% between 210 and 360 °C was observed, hence proving the high-temperature durability of the synthesized membrane. BET surface area of the fiber membrane was measured as 540.73 m2/g. The fiber membrane was then placed into an experimental test bench containing a mixed gas inflow of CO2 and N2. Using non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensors connected to the inlet and outlet port of the bench, significant reduction of CO2 in concentration was measured. Comparative IR spectroscopic analysis between the gas-treated and gas untreated fiber samples showed the presence of characteristic peak in the vicinity of 2300 and 2400 cm-1 which

  5. Loading of Two Related Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs, [Cu2(bdc2(dabco] and [Cu2(ndc2(dabco], with Ferrocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Wenzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the loading of two related, similar porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs [Cu2(bdc2(dabco] (1, and [Cu2(ndc2(dabco] (2 with ferrocene by exposing bulk powder samples to the corresponding vapor. On the basis of powder X-ray diffraction data and molecular dynamics (MD calculations we propose that each pore can store one ferrocene molecule. Despite the rather pronounced similarity of the two MOFs a quite different behavior is observed, for 1 loading with ferrocene leads to an anisotropic 1% contraction, whereas for 2 no deformation is observed. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies reveal that the Fe oxidation level remains unchanged during the process. Time dependent studies reveal that the diffusion constant governing the loading from the gas-phase for 1 is approximately three times larger than the value for 2.

  6. In situ formation of adhesive hydrogels based on PL with laterally grafted catechol groups and their bonding efficacy to wet organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mingming; Jiang, Rui; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Juntao; Yuan, Xubo; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-01

    Adhesives with catechol moieties have been widely investigated in recent years. However, actually how much catechol groups for these mussel bio-inspired adhesives, especially in their natural form under physiological condition, is appropriate to bond with organic substrates has not been studied intensively. This study blends ε-polylysine (PL), featuring laterally grafted catechols under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), with oxidized dextran to form a hydrogel in situ via the Schiff base without introducing small cytotoxic molecules as crosslinking agents. It finds that the amount of catechol groups imposes an obvious influence on gelation time, swelling behavior, and hydrogel morphology. Both the storage modulus and adhesion strength are found to increase first and decrease afterwards with an increase of pendent catechol content. Furthermore, catechol hydrogen interactions and the decrease in the crosslink density derived from the decrease of amino groups on PL are simultaneously found to affect the storage modulus. Meanwhile, multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions of catechol with amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, which are in abundance on the surface of tissue, are mainly found to provide an adhesive force. The study finds that with more catechol, there is a greater chance that the cohesive force will weaken, making the entire adhesion strength of the hydrogel decrease. Using a cytotoxicity test, the nontoxicity of the hydrogel towards the growth of L929 cells is proven, indicating that hydrogels have potential applications in soft tissue repair under natural physiological conditions.

  7. Organic Carbon and Disinfection Byproduct Precursor Loads from a Constructed, Non-Tidal Wetland in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetland restoration on peat islands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta will change the quality of island drainage waters entering the Delta, a primary source of drinking water in California. Peat island drainage waters contain high concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC and organic precursors to drinking water disinfection byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs. We quantified the net loads of DOC, POC, and THM-precursors from a constructed subsidence mitigation wetland on Twitchell Island in the Delta to determine the change in drainage water quality that may be caused by conversion of agricultural land on peat islands to permanently flooded, non-tidal wetlands. Creation of permanently flooded wetlands halts oxidative loss of the peat soils and thereby may mitigate the extensive land-surface subsidence of the islands that threatens levee stability in the Delta. Net loads from the wetland were dominated by DOC flushed from the oxidized shallow peat soil layer by seepage flow out of the wetland. The permanently flooded conditions in the overlying wetland resulted in a gradual evolution to anaerobic conditions in the shallow soil layer and a concomitant decrease in the flow could be minimized by reducing the hydraulic gradient between the wetland and the adjacent drainage ditch. Estimates of net loads from the wetland assuming efflux of surface water only were comparable in magnitude to net loads from nearby agricultural fields, but the wetland and agricultural net loads had opposite seasonal variations. Wetland surface water net loads of DOC, POC, and THM-precursors were lower during the winter months when the greatest amounts of water are available for diversion from the Delta to drinking water reservoirs.

  8. Soudage par explosion thermique sous charge de cermets poreux à base de TiC-Ni sur substrat en acier-comportement tribologique Welding of porous TiC–Ni based cermets on substrate steel by thermal explosion under load-tribological behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemboub Samia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail, nous nous intéressons à l'élaboration de cermets à base de TiC-Ni par dispersion de particules de carbures, oxydes ou borures dans une matrice de nickel, grâce à la technique de l'explosion thermique sous une charge de 20 MPa. La combustion de mélanges actifs (Ti-C-Ni-An où An = Al2O3, MgO, SiC, TiB2, WC, basée sur la réaction de synthèse de TiC (ΔHf298K = −184 kJ/mole, génère des cermets complexes. Un court maintien sous charge du cermet à 1373 K, après l'explosion thermique, permet son soudage sur un substrat en acier XC55. Les cermets obtenus dans ces conditions demeurent poreux et conservent une porosité de l'ordre de 25–35 %. La densité relative du cermet, sa dureté et son comportement tribologique, dépendront de la nature de l'addition dans les mélanges de départ. Porous TiC-Ni based cermets were obtained by dispersion of carbides, oxides or borides particles in a nickel matrix thanks to the thermal explosion technique realized under a load of 20 MPa. The combustion of active mixtures (Ti-C-Ni-An where An = Al2O3, MgO, SiC, TiB2 or WC based on the titanium carbide reaction synthesis (ΔHf = −184 kJ/mol, generates porous complex cermets. After the thermal explosion, a short maintenance under load at 1373 K of the combustion product, allows at the same time the cermets welding on a carbon steel substrate. The obtained cermets under these conditions preserve a porosity of about 25–35%. The relative density, hardness and tribological behaviour of the complex cermets depend on the additions nature (An in the starting mixtures.

  9. Complex laterally ordered InGaAs and InAs quantum dots by guided self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on artificially patterned GaAs (3 1 1)B substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selçuk, E.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Nötzel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-organized anisotropic strain engineering is combined with growth on artificially patterned GaAs (3 1 1)B substrates to realize complex lateral ordering of InGaAs and InAs quantum dots (QDs) guided by steps and facets generated along the pattern sidewalls. Depending on the pattern design, size,

  10. Development of a volumetric Analysis method to determine uranium in the loaded phosphoric acid and the loaded organic phase (DEHPA/TOPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Koudsi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid and reliable volumetric analysis method has been developed to determine uranium, on line, at uranium extraction unit from wet-process phosphoric acid, in aqueous and organic phases. This process enable up 300 mg of uranium to be determined in the presence of nitric acid, in a sample volume of up to at least 10 ml. The volume of the sample, the amounts of reagents added, the temperature of the reagents and the standing time of various stages were investigated to ensure that the conditions selected for the final procedure were reasonably non-critical

  11. Pediatric Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients Carry Chronic Loads of Epstein-Barr Virus Exclusively in the Immunoglobulin D-Negative B-Cell Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Camille; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven; Ellis, Demetrius; Reyes, Jorges; Rowe, David

    2001-01-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk for development of lymphoproliferative diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in the peripheral blood of pediatric transplant recipients who had become chronic viral load carriers (>8 copies/105 lymphocytes for >2 months). A total of 19 patients with viral loads ranging from 20 to 5,000 viral genome copies/105 lymphocytes were studied. Ten patients had no previous diagnosis of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PT-LPD), while nine had recovered from a diagnosed case of PT-LPD. No portion of the peripheral blood viral load was detected in the cell-free plasma fraction. Viral DNA was found in a population of cells characterized as CD19hi and immunoglobulin D negative, a phenotype that is consistent with the virus being carried exclusively in the memory B-cell compartment of the peripheral blood. There was no difference in the compartmentalization based upon either the level of the viral load or the past diagnosis of an episode of PT-LPD. These results have implications for the design of tests to detect EBV infection and for the interpretation and use of positive EBV PCR assays in the management of transplant recipients. PMID:11283064

  12. A Cyber-Based Data-Enabled Virtual Organization for Wind Load Effects on Civil Infrastructures: VORTEX-Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many advances in the area of wind effects on structures in recent decades, research has been traditionally conducted within limited resources scattered geographically. With the trend toward increasingly complex designs of civil infrastructure combined with the escalating potential for losses by extreme wind events, a new culture of research needs to be established based on innovative and collaborative solutions for better management of the impact of extreme wind events. To address this change, this paper presents a new paradigm of a multiscale cyber-based laboratory framework for the analysis/design, modeling, and simulation of wind load effects based on an ongoing collaborative cyberinfrastructure-based platform, Virtual Organization for Reducing the Toll of EXtreme Winds (VORTEX-Winds, https://vortex-winds.org, and discusses its current status since its inception in 2007 and ongoing developments. This collaborative framework as it evolves would enable a paradigm shift by offering advanced cyber-enabled modules (e-modules for accelerating advances in research and education to achieve improved understanding and better modeling of wind effects on structures. Accordingly, it will enhance wind community’s analysis and design capabilities to address next-generation challenges posed by wind. Through empowering those without computational or experimental resources, the e-modules will encompass a large set of subject areas and topics categorized as Database-enabled design, Full-scale/Field site data repository, Statistical/Stochastic toolboxes, Tele-experimentation, Uncertainty modeling, Damage assessment, and Computational platforms. This prototype will allow access to the individual e-module, while it is envisaged that next level of development in VORTEX-Winds will have the capability for an automated and integrated analysis/design through a nexus of e-modules. A highlight of the e-modules currently completed or in development is presented

  13. The effects of bud load and regulated deficit irrigation on sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Razakı table grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangolar Semih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the effects of increased bud load and irrigation applications on berry quality of the Razakı table grape. Two Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI having different irrigation levels (RDI-I and RDI-II based on the growth stages, in addition to a non-irrigated control treatment together with two different bud load practices (K-normal and 2K-two-fold buds of the normal were examined for their effects on quality attributes such as sugar and organic acids contents, phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant capacity of the berries. The non-irrigated vines had highest sugar level (198.86 g/kg in the first year (2013 of the experiment whilst the sugar content of the berries was increased with irrigation (RDI-II in 2014. However the highest organic acid (7.10 g/kg was recorded from the RDI-II treatment in 2013 whereas those of from non-irrigated vines were highest (7.81 g/kg in 2014. Considering the sugar and organic acid content of the berries, bud load effects were not significant. The total phenolic acids were higher under non-irrigated and 2K bud load conditions. Antioxidant activity of berries was increased with RDI-I irrigation and 2K practices in the first year (2013 although no significant effect was recorded in the second year of the experiment. In all applications, glucose among the sugars, tartaric acid among the organic acids, catechin and epicatechin among the phenolic compounds were detected to be higher compared to other components in berries.

  14. Effect of organic-buffer-layer on electrical property and environmental reliability of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by RF plasma assisted DC magnetron sputtering on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinoki, Toshio; Kyuhara, Chika; Agura, Hideaki; Yazawa, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kentaro; Ohmi, Koutoku; Kishida, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive films have been prepared by RF plasma assisted DC magnetron sputtering under a reductive atmosphere on organic-buffer-layer (OBL) coated polyethylene telephthalate (PET) substrates without intentionally heating substrates. Electrical and optical properties, crystallinity, and environmental reliability of the GZO films have been investigated. The distributional characteristic of resistivity is observed in the GZO film deposited on the OBL-coated PET substrates. The high resistivity at facing the erosion area in the source target is reduced by providing the RF plasma and H 2 gas near the substrate, resulting in a uniform distribution of the sheet resistance. It has been also found that the increase of resistivity by an accelerated aging test performed under a storage condition at 60 o C and at a relative humidity of 95% is suppressed by employing the OBL. The OBL suppresses the formation of cracks, which are induced by the aging test. These facts are thought to contribute to a high environmental reliability of GZO films on PET substrates. Values of resistivity, Hall mobility and carrier concentration are obtained: 5.0-20 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 4.0 cm 2 /Vs, and 3.8 x 10 20 cm -3 , respectively. An average transmittance of the GZO film including OBL and PET substrate is 78% in a visible region. The OBL enables to realize the practical use of GZO films on PET sheets.

  15. Effects of Organic Load, pH, and EC Variations of Raw Wastewater and Weather Condition on the Efficiency of Yazd Stabilization Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Mozaheb

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of organic load, pH, and EC variations of raw wastewater as well as the effect of weather condition on organic removal in Yazd wastewater Stabilization Ponds (2007. During the course of this study, composite samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of the anaerobic pond and the final effluent to measure such quality parameters as BOD5, COD, TSS, EC, and pH.  BOD5, COD, TSS, and Fecal coliform removal efficiencies in the final effluent were found to be 64.9%, 44.9 %, 62.6 %, and 99.96%, respectively. No intestinal nematode egg was observed. Comparison of BOD5 and COD concentrations in the filtered and non-filtered samples showed that 52% of the BOD5 and 57% of the COD in the final effluent, respectively, were due to the presence of algal mass and organic suspended solids in the non-filtered samples. The results showed that variations in organic load, pH, EC as well as seasonal weather variations had no effects on organic removal and that the removal of BOD5 was almost constant. Effluent EC was higher than influent EC. This phenomenon can be related to the evaporation rate in wastewater stabilization ponds. The survey of algae in the final effluent showed that the major species of algae were Phytoconis, Chlorella, and Anabaena.

  16. Biogas production from spent rose hips (Rosa canina L.): fraction separation, organic loading and co-digestion with N-rich microbial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osojnik Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Muri, Petra; Djinović, Petar; Pintar, Albin

    2014-11-01

    Complex waste streams originating from extraction processes containing residual organic solvents and increased C/N ratios have not yet been considered as feedstock for biogas production to a great extent. In this study, spent rosehip (Rosa canina L.) solid residue (64%VS, 22 MJ/kg HHV, 30C/1N) was obtained from an industrial ethanol aided extraction process, and extensively examined in an automated batch bioreactor system for biogas production. Fraction separation of the compact lignocellulosic seeds increased the available sugar and ethanol content, resulting in high biogas potential of the sieved residue (516 NL/kg VS'). In co-digestion of spent rosehip substrate with non-deactivated nitrogen rich microbial co-substrates, methanogenesis was favored (Y(m) > 68%(CH4)). In individual digestion of microbial co-substrates, this was not the case, as biogas with 28 vol.% N2 was produced from activated sludge supplement. Therefore, effective inhibition of exogenous microbiota was achieved in the presence of carbonaceous spent rose hip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Correlation between the Activity of Candida antarctica Lipase B and Differences in Binding Free Energies of Organic Solvent and Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2016-01-01

    in an inhibitory effect which is also confirmed by the binding free energies for the solvent and substrate molecules estimated from the simulations. Consequently, the catalytic activity of CALB decreases in polar solvents. This effect is significant, and CALB is over 10 orders of magnitude more active in nonpolar...... of the enzyme may be ascribed to binding of solvent molecules to the enzyme active site region and the solvation energy of substrate molecules in the different solvents. Polar solvent molecules interact strongly with CALB and compete with the substrate to bind to the active site region, resulting...

  18. Comparison of the loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles of Enterococcus species from conventional and organic chicken carcasses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-J; Park, J-H; Seo, K-H

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in poultry meat are a threat to public health. In this study, we compared the Enterococcus spp. loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles between carcasses of conventionally and organically raised chickens. A total of 144 chicken carcasses (72 conventional and 72 organic) was collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. Overall, 77.7% (112 of 144; 75% conventional and 80% organic) of chicken carcasses were positive for Enterococcus. The mean loads of Enterococcus spp. were greater in conventional chicken carcasses, at 2.9 ± 0.4 log CFU/mL, than those in organic chicken carcasses, at 1.78 ± 0.3 log CFU/mL (p organic chicken carcasses) was randomly selected for further analysis. The predominant species was Enterococcus faecalis in both conventional and organic chicken carcasses (57.7 and 76.9%, respectively; P > 0.05). Rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, which are used in veterinary medicine in South Korea, were significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses. However, we found no difference between the rates of resistance to antibiotics such as vancomycin and tigecycline, which were not registered for use in veterinary medicine in South Korea, of Enterococcus isolates from conventional and organic chicken carcasses. In addition, although multidrug resistant isolates were obtained from both types of chicken samples, the prevalence of samples positive for Enterococcus was significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses (P organic chicken carcasses. A high level of gentamicin resistance was observed in isolates from not only conventional (5.8%) but also organic chicken (1.9%) carcasses, with no significant difference in rates between them (P > 0.05). Despite this, our results suggest that organic food certification is effective in reducing fecal contamination and the burden of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. in

  19. Flexible fermentation of organically loaded industrial waste waters using a beverage manufacturer as an example; Flexible Vergaerung organisch belasteter Industrie-Abwaesser am Beispiel eines Getraenkeherstellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganagin, Waldemar; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael [HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)

    2013-10-01

    Industrial organic waste water is usually treated directly in an own or public sewage treatment plant which is highly cost-intensive. The anaerobic digestion of those waste waters is sometimes difficult to control. HAWK is working in a project about this topic, where a fixed bed reactor is investigated for the operation as a flexible plant. For this reason a semi-industrial pilot plant was developed and the capability will be tested on several sites. The gas production ought to run according to the companies demands and is integrated in the operation and processes. This flexible plant is specifically designed to deal with small amounts of waste water with low organic components and even sometimes discontinuously loads. This process is tested in a beverage factory. The reactor was implemented in the existing infrastructure and their waste water is treated. The assessment of the measurements shows, that the fixed bed reactor can handle the organic compounds of the waste water very well and reduce them significantly. Even fluctuating loads and a low organic concentration do not harm the process. The effect of power generation is an additional benefit for this system This innovative approach with low energy input and additional profit from the power sale makes the waste water treatment on site as a real alternative to the conventional treatment. (orig.)

  20. COMPARISON OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION BY MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES STIMULATED ON SILICON-BASED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS SLOW-RELEASE ANAEROBIC SUBSTRATES. (R828772C001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microcosm studies were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of tetrabutoxysilane (TBOS) as a slow-release anaerobic substrate to promote reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethylene (TCE). The abiotic hydrolysis of TBOS and tetrakis(2-ethylbutoxy)silane (TKEBS), and the...

  1. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.

    2012-01-01

    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study...... potential to create foam in a manure digester. Moreover, high organic loading of lipids and protein, and high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids also showed a strong tendency to create foaming during anaerobic digestion. Due to their great ability to stabilize foam, high organic loadings of Na...

  2. Part-Load Performance of a Wet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Mazzucco, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT......-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit....

  3. Balancing the organic load and light supply in symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilm reactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, B.G.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms can be very attractive for municipal wastewater treatment. Microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus and simultaneously produce the oxygen that is required for the aerobic, heterotrophic degradation of organic pollutants. For the application of these biofilms

  4. Towards explaining excess CO2 production in wetlands - the roles of solid and dissolved organic matter as electron acceptors and of substrate quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Gao, Chuanyu; Agethen, Svenja; Sander, Michael

    2017-04-01

    To understand carbon storage in water logged, anaerobic peatlands, factors controlling mineralization have been studied for decades. Temperature, substrate quality, water table position and the availability of electron acceptors for oxidation of organic carbon have been identified as major factors. However, many studies reported an excess carbon dioxide (CO2) production over methane (CH4) that cannot be explained by available electron acceptors, and peat soils did not reach strictly methanogenic conditions (i.e., a stoichiometric formation ratio of 1:1 of CO2 to CH4). It has been hypothesized that peat organic matter (OM) provides a previously unrecognized electron acceptor for microbial respiration, elevating CO2 to CH4 ratios. Microbial reduction of dissolved OM has been shown in the mid 90's, but only recently mediated electrochemical techniques opened the possibility to access stocks and changes in electron accepting capacities (EAC) of OM in dissolved and solid form. While it was shown that the EAC of OM follows redox cycles of microbial reduction and O2 reoxidation, changes in the EAC of OM were so far not related quantitatively to CO2 production. We therefore tested if CO2 production in anoxic peat incubations is balanced by the consumption of electron acceptors if EAC of OM is included. We set up anoxic incubations with peat and monitored production of CO2 and CH4, and changes in EAC of OM in the dissolved and solid phase over time. Interestingly, in all incubations, the EAC of dissolved OM was poorly related to CO2 and CH4 production. Instead, dissolved OM was rapidly reduced at the onset of the incubations and thereafter remained in reduced form. In contrast, the decrease in the EAC of particulate (i.e. non-dissolved) OM was closely linked to the observed production of non-methanogenic CO2. Thereby, the total EAC of the solid OM pool by far exceeded the EAC of the dissolved OM pool. Over the course of eight week incubations, measured decreases in the EAC

  5. Variable EBV DNA Load Distributions and Heterogeneous EBV mRNA Expression Patterns in the Circulation of Solid Organ versus Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Greijer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD is a heterogeneous and potentially life-threatening condition. Early identification of aberrant EBV activity may prevent progression to B-cell lymphoma. We measured EBV DNA load and RNA profiles in plasma and cellular blood compartments of stem cell transplant (SCT; n=5, solid organ transplant recipients (SOT; n=15, and SOT having chronic elevated EBV-DNA load (n=12. In SCT, EBV DNA was heterogeneously distributed, either in plasma or leukocytes or both. In SOT, EBV DNA load was always cell associated, predominantly in B cells, but occasionally in T cells (CD4 and CD8 or monocytes. All SCT with cell-associated EBV DNA showed BARTs and EBNA1 expression, while LMP1 and LMP2 mRNA was found in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. In SOT, expression of BARTs was detected in all leukocyte samples. LMP2 and EBNA1 mRNA was found in 5/15 and 2/15, respectively, but LMP1 mRNA in only 1, coinciding with severe PTLD and high EBV DNA. Conclusion: EBV DNA is differently distributed between white cells and plasma in SOT versus SCT. EBV RNA profiling in blood is feasible and may have added value for understanding pathogenic virus activity in patients with elevated EBV-DNA.

  6. Effects of organic loading rates on reactor performance and microbial community changes during thermophilic aerobic digestion process of high-strength food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Jae Won; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of single-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process treating high-strength food wastewater (FWW), TAD process was operated at four organic loading rates (OLRs) from 9.2 to 37.2 kg COD/m(3)d. The effects of OLRs on microbial community changes were also examined. The highest volumetric removal rate (13.3 kg COD/m(3)d) and the highest thermo-stable protease activity (0.95 unit/mL) were detected at OLR=18.6 kg COD/m(3)d. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed significant microbial community shifts in response to changes in OLR. In particular, DGGE and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate that the presence of Bacillus sp. (phylum of Firmicutes) was strongly correlated with efficient removal of organic particulates from high-strength food wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Functions of Anoxic/Aerobic Granular Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors Operated at Different Organic Loading Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikö Szabó

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The granular sludge process is an effective, low-footprint alternative to conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment. The architecture of the microbial granules allows the co-existence of different functional groups, e.g., nitrifying and denitrifying communities, which permits compact reactor design. However, little is known about the factors influencing community assembly in granular sludge, such as the effects of reactor operation strategies and influent wastewater composition. Here, we analyze the development of the microbiomes in parallel laboratory-scale anoxic/aerobic granular sludge reactors operated at low (0.9 kg m-3d-1, moderate (1.9 kg m-3d-1 and high (3.7 kg m-3d-1 organic loading rates (OLRs and the same ammonium loading rate (0.2 kg NH4-N m-3d-1 for 84 days. Complete removal of organic carbon and ammonium was achieved in all three reactors after start-up, while the nitrogen removal (denitrification efficiency increased with the OLR: 0% at low, 38% at moderate, and 66% at high loading rate. The bacterial communities at different loading rates diverged rapidly after start-up and showed less than 50% similarity after 6 days, and below 40% similarity after 84 days. The three reactor microbiomes were dominated by different genera (mainly Meganema, Thauera, Paracoccus, and Zoogloea, but these genera have similar ecosystem functions of EPS production, denitrification and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA storage. Many less abundant but persistent taxa were also detected within these functional groups. The bacterial communities were functionally redundant irrespective of the loading rate applied. At steady-state reactor operation, the identity of the core community members was rather stable, but their relative abundances changed considerably over time. Furthermore, nitrifying bacteria were low in relative abundance and diversity in all reactors, despite their large contribution to nitrogen turnover. The results suggest that the OLR has

  8. Efficient recyclable organic solar cells on cellulose nanocrystal substrates with a conducting polymer top electrode deposited by film-transfer lamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinhua Zhou; Talha M. Khan; Jen-Chieh Liu; Canek Fuentes-Hernandez; Jae Won Shim; Ehsan Najafabadi; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon; Bernard Kippelen

    2014-01-01

    We report on efficient solar cells on recyclable cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) substrates with a new device structure wherein polyethylenimine-modified Ag is used as the bottom electron-collecting electrode and high-conductivity poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, PH1000) is used as the semitransparent top holecollecting electrode. The...

  9. Organic Nano vesicular Cargoes for Sustained Drug Delivery: Synthesis, Vesicle Formation, Controlling “Pearling” States, and Terfenadine Loading/Release Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botcha, A.K.; Chandrasekar, R.; Dulla, B.; Reddy, E.R.; Rajadurai, M.S.; Chennubhotla, K.S.; Kulkarni, P.; Kulkarni, P.

    2014-01-01

    “Sustained drug delivery systems” which are designed to accomplish long-lasting therapeutic effect are one of the challenging topics in the area of nano medicine. We developed an innovative strategy to prepare nontoxic and polymer stabilized organic nano vesicles (diameter: 200 nm) from a novel bolaamphiphile, where two hydrogen bonding acetyl cytosine molecules connected to 4,4′′-positions of the 2,6-bispyrazolylpyridine through two flexible octyne chains. The nano vesicles behave like biological membrane by spontaneously self-assembling into “pearl-like” chains and subsequently forming long nano tubes (diameter: 150 nm), which further develop into various types of network-junctions through self-organization. For drug loading and delivery applications, the nano vesicles were externally protected with biocompatible poly(ethyleneglycol)-2000 to prevent them from fusion and ensuing tube formation. Nontoxic nature of the nano vesicles was demonstrated by zebra fish teratogenicity assay. Biocompatible nano vesicles were loaded with “terfenadine” drug and successfully utilized to transport and release drug in sustained manner (up to 72 h) in zebra fish larvae, which is recognized as an emerging in vivo model system Synthetic nano

  10. Preparation of the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films on STO and LAO substrates by excimer laser-assisted metal organic deposition using the KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Daoudi, K.; Manabe, T.; Yamaguchi, I.; Kumagai, T.

    2007-01-01

    La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 films were prepared on SrTiO 3 (STO) and LaAlO 3 (LAO) substrates using excimer laser-assisted metal organic deposition (ELAMOD). For the LAO substrate, no epitaxial La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 film was obtained by laser irradiation in the fluence range from 60 to 110 mJ/cm 2 with heating at 500 deg. C. On the other hand, an epitaxial La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3 film on the STO substrate was formed by laser irradiation in the fluence range from 60 to 100 mJ/cm 2 with heating at 500 deg. C. To optimize the electrical properties for an IR sensor, the effects of the laser fluence, the irradiation time and the film thickness on the temperature dependence of the resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR: defined as 1/R.(dR/dT)) of the LSMO films were investigated. An LSMO film on the STO substrate that showed the maximum TCR of 3.9% at 265 K was obtained by the ELAMOD process using the KrF laser

  11. Designing a dynamic data driven application system for estimating real-time load of dissolved organic carbon in a river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying. Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of naturally occurring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a river is central to estimating surface water quality, aquatic carbon cycling, and global climate change. Currently, determination of the DOC in surface water is primarily accomplished by manually collecting samples for laboratory analysis, which requires at least 24 h. In other words...

  12. Application of wastewater with high organic load for saline-sodic soil reclamation focusing on soil purification ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kameli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water source scarcity in arid and semiarid area is limitation factor for saline-sodic soil reclamation. The reusing of agricultural drainage and industrial wastewater are preferred strategies for combating with this concern. The objective of current study was evaluation in application of industrial sugar manufacture wastewater due to high soluble organic compounds in saline-sodic and sodic soil. Also soil ability in wastewater organic compounds removal was second aim of present study. Saline-sodic and sodic soil sample was leached in soil column by diluted wastewater of amirkabir sugar manufacture in Khuzestan Province of Iran at constant water head. Sodium, electric conductivity and chemical oxygen demand of soil column leachate were measured per each pore volume. The experimental kinetics of wastewater organic compounds on two saline-sodic and sodic soil were also investigated by three pseudo second order, intra particle diffusion and elovich model. The results of current study showed that electric conductivity of saline-sodic soil was decreased to 90% during 3 initial pore volumes, from other side exchangeable sodium percent of saline-sodic and sodic soil decreased 30 and 71 percent, respectively. There were no significant different between wastewater chemical oxygen demand removal by saline-sodic and sodic soil in both batch and column studies. Wastewater chemical oxygen demand was decreased to 35% during pass through soil column. The results showed that the adsorption kinetics of wastewater organic compounds were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model with 99 percent correlation coefficient (r2=0.99%.

  13. Removal of pharmaceuticals in pre-denitrifying MBBR – Influence of organic substrate availability in single- and three-stage configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Torresi, Elena; Loreggian, L.

    2017-01-01

    kinetics were observed, with highest and lowest rates/rate constants in the first (S1) and the last (S3) staged sub-reactors, respectively. These observations were confirmed by removal efficiency data obtained during continuous-flow operation, with limited removal (... and highest removal in S1 within the three-stage MBBR. Notably, biotransformation rate constants obtained for non-recalcitrant pharmaceuticals correlated with mean specific denitrification rates, maximum specific growth rates and observed growth yield values. Overall, these findings suggest that: (i) the long......-term exposure to tiered substrate accessibility in the three-stage configuration shaped the denitrification and biotransformation capacity of biofilms, with significant reduction under substrate limitation; (ii) biotransformation of pharmaceuticals may have occurred as a result of cometabolism by heterotrophic...

  14. Proton exchange nanohybrid membranes with high phosphotungstic acid loading within metal-organic frameworks for PEMFC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bei; Cao, Ying; Li, Zhen; Wu, Hong; Yin, Yongheng; Cao, Li; He, Xueyi; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2017-01-01

    A novel approach to in-situ synthesize and encapsulate phosphotungstic acid into the cavity of MIL-101(Cr) using Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O and Na 2 HPO 4 as precursors is presented to increase the acid loading content (31.4 wt.%). The phosphotungstic acid-encapsulating MIL-101(Cr) (HPW@MIL101) is introduced in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) to prepare SPEEK/HPW@MIL101 nanohybrid membranes for PEMFC applications. Due to the introduction of HPW@MIL101, proton-conducting nanochannels are constructed both in the cavity of MIL101 and at the interface between HPW@MIL101 and SPEEK. Meanwhile, due to the hygroscopicity of phosphotungstic acid, the membrane dehydration at elevated temperatures is alleviated. The proton conductivity at low relative humidity is remarkably enhanced. The nanohybrid membrane with 9 wt.% HPW@MIL101 exhibits proton conductivity of 272 mS cm −1 at 65 °C, 100% RH and 6.51 mS cm −1 at 60 °C, 40% RH, which are 45.5% and 7.25 times higher than those of pristine SPEEK membrane (187 mS cm −1 and 0.898 mS cm −1 ), respectively. The single H 2 /O 2 fuel cell with SPEEK/HPW@MIL-9 membrane acquires the power density of 383 mW cm −2 at 100% RH, which is 27.2% higher than that of pristine SPEEK membrane. The peak power density of SPEEK/HPW@MIL-9 membrane at 55% RH is 2.97 times higher than that of pristine SPEEK membrane (79 mW/cm 2 ).

  15. Dominance of candidate Saccharibacteria in a membrane bioreactor treating medium age landfill leachate: Effects of organic load on microbial communities, hydrolytic potential and extracellular polymeric substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmas, Nikolaos; Melidis, Paraschos; Zerva, Ioanna; Kristoffersen, Jon Bent; Nikolaki, Sofia; Tsiamis, George; Ntougias, Spyridon

    2017-08-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR), accomplishing high nitrogen removal efficiencies, was evaluated under various landfill leachate concentrations (50, 75 and 100% v/v). Proteinous and carbohydrate extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial product (SMP) were strongly correlated (p<0.01) with organic load, salinity and NH 4 + -N. Exceptionally high β-glucosidase activities (6700-10,100Ug -1 ) were determined during MBR operation with 50% v/v leachate, as a result of the low organic carbon availability that extendedly induced β-glucosidases to breakdown the least biodegradable organic fraction. Illumina sequencing revealed that candidate Saccharibacteria were dominant, independently of the leachate concentration applied, whereas other microbiota (21.2% of total reads) disappeared when undiluted leachate was used. Fungal taxa shifted from a Saccharomyces- to a newly-described Cryptomycota-based community with increasing leachate concentration. Indeed, this is the first report on the dominance of candidate Saccharibacteria and on the examination of their metabolic behavior in a bioreactor treating real wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of temperature and organic loading rate on the performance and microbial community of anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengliu; Yang, Zhaohui; Huang, Jing; Wang, Huiling; Xu, Haiyin; Wang, Like

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste was investigated semi-continuously using continuously stirred tank reactors. Results showed that the performance of co-digestion system was distinctly influenced by temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) in terms of gas production rate (GPR), methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency and the system stability. The highest GPR at 55 °C was 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that at 35 and 45 °C with the OLR of 1 g VSL(-1)d(-1), and the corresponding average CH₄ yields were 0.40, 0.26 and 0.30 L CH₄ g(-1)VSadded, respectively. The thermophilic system exhibited the best load bearing capacity at extremely high OLR of 7 g VSL(-1)d(-1), while the mesophilic system showed the best process stability at low OLRs (< 5 g VSL(-1)d(-1)). Temperature had a more remarkable effect on the richness and diversity of microbial populations than the OLR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermophilic co-digestion feasibility of distillers grains and swine manure: effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate during high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensai, P; Thangamani, A; Visvanathan, C

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of high solids containing distillers grains and swine manure (total solids, 27 +/- 2% and 18 +/- 2%, respectively) was evaluated in this study to assess the effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate (OLR). Feed mixture was balanced to achieve a C/N ratio of 30/1 by mixing distillers grains and swine manure. Pilot-scale co-digestion of distillers grains and swine manure was carried out under thermophilic conditions in the continuous mode for seven different OLRs from R1 to R7 (3.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 kg VS/m3 day) under high solid anaerobic digestion. The methane yield and volatile solid (VS) removal were consistent; ranging from 0.33 to 0.34 m3CH4/kg VS day and 50-53%, respectively, until OLR 8 kg VS/m3 day. After which methane yield and VS removal significantly decreased to 0.26 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 42%, respectively, when OLR was increased to 14 kg VS/m3 day. However, during operation, at OLR of 10 kg VS/m3 day, the methane yield and VS removal increased after the 19th day to 0.33 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 46%, respectively, indicating that a longer acclimatization period is required by methanogens at a higher loading rate.

  18. Part-Load Performance Prediction and Operation Strategy Design of Organic Rankine Cycles with a Medium Cycle Used for Recovering Waste Heat from Gaseous Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is regarded as a suitable way to recover waste heat from gaseous fuel internal combustion engines. As waste heat recovery systems (WHRS have always been designed based on rated working conditions, while engines often work under part-load conditions, it is quite significant to analyze the part-load performance and corresponding operation strategy of ORC systems. This paper presents a dynamic model of ORC with a medium cycle used for a large gaseous fuel engine and analyzes the effect of adjustable parameters on the system performance, giving effective control directions under various conditions. The results indicate that the intermediary fluid mass flow rate has nearly no effect on the output power and thermal efficiency of the ORC, while the mass flow rate of working fluid has a great effect on them. In order to get a better system performance under different working conditions, the system should be operated with the working fluid mass flow rate as large as possible, but with a slight degree of superheating. Then, with the control of constant superheat degree at the end of the heating process, the performance of the combined system that consists of ORC and the engine at steady state under seven typical working conditions is also analyzed. The results indicate that the energy-saving effect of WHRS becomes worse and worse as the working condition decreases. Especially at 40% working condition the WHRS nearly has no energy-saving effect anymore.

  19. Volatile organic compounds in urban atmospheres: Long-term measurements of ambient air concentrations in differently loaded regions of Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.; Engewald, W. [University of Leipzig, Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    For the comprehensive characterization of ambient air concentrations of a broad spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) an analytical method is described, consisting of adsorptive enrichment, thermal desorption without cryofocusing, and capillary gas chromatographic separation. The method was applied during two-week measuring campaigns in winter and summer 1995, and in the winter of 1996. Long-term sampling was carried out at sampling points in residential areas in the suburbs and near the city center of Leipzig. About 70 VOCs - mainly hydrocarbons from propene to hexadecane - were identified both by GC-MS and chromatographic retention data and quantified after external calibration. Mean values of VOC concentrations obtained during the sampling periods are reported and discussed with regard to the topographical location of the sampling points in the Leipzig area, seasonal variations, and possible emission sources. (orig.) With 7 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  20. Investigation of the mechanism of microplasma impact on iron and aluminum load using solutions of organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanova, G L; Yurmazova, T A; Shiyan, L N; Voyno, D A

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the study of mechanism of electroeffects on iron and aluminum and pellets with using solutions of organic substances. Methylene blue solution, furacilin and eosin were used. It is observed the reactions of the pulse at the time and after switching off the voltage source. It is shown that there are two developing process in the conditions studied. The first process depends on material of electrodes and pulse parameters. The second process occurs spontaneously and it is determined by the redox reaction and sorption processes. The products of electrode erosion and active particles react in the redox reactions. Active particles are formed in solution by the action of pulsed electric discharge in water. The highest efficiency of the process was demonstrated on an iron pellets. (paper)

  1. Robust and Recyclable Substrate Template with an Ultrathin Nanoporous Counter Electrode for Organic-Hole-Conductor-Free Monolithic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Yang, Yu-Syuan; Wang, Kuo-Chin; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Shen, Po-Shen; Lai, Wei-Chih; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2017-12-06

    A robust and recyclable monolithic substrate applying all-inorganic metal-oxide selective contact with a nanoporous (np) Au:NiO x counter electrode is successfully demonstrated for efficient perovskite solar cells, of which the perovskite active layer is deposited in the final step for device fabrication. Through annealing of the Ni/Au bilayer, the nanoporous NiO/Au electrode is formed in virtue of interconnected Au network embedded in oxidized Ni. By optimizing the annealing parameters and tuning the mesoscopic layer thickness (mp-TiO 2 and mp-Al 2 O 3 ), a decent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.25% is delivered. With mp-TiO 2 /mp-Al 2 O 3 /np-Au:NiO x as a template, the original perovskite solar cell with 8.52% PCE can be rejuvenated by rinsing off the perovskite material with dimethylformamide and refilling with newly deposited perovskite. A renewed device using the recycled substrate once and twice, respectively, achieved a PCE of 8.17 and 7.72% that are comparable to original performance. This demonstrates that the novel device architecture is possible to recycle the expensive transparent conducting glass substrates together with all the electrode constituents. Deposition of stable multicomponent perovskite materials in the template also achieves an efficiency of 8.54%, which shows its versatility for various perovskite materials. The application of such a novel NiO/Au nanoporous electrode has promising potential for commercializing cost-effective, large scale, and robust perovskite solar cells.

  2. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Khiet [Mission Viejo, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA; Yankoski, Edward P [Corona, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  3. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy and Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang, Ming-Yi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [Solar Fuels Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  4. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h−1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  5. Controls on the organization of the plumbing system of subduction volcanoes : the roles of volatiles and edifice load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, A. M.; Bergal-Kuvikas, O.; Shapiro, N.; Taisne, B.; Gordeev, E.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Geochemical data indicate that subduction zone magmas are extracted from the mantle and rises through the crust, with a wide range of volatile contents. The main controls on magma ascent, storage and location of eruptive vents are not well understood. Flow through a volcanic system depends on magma density and viscosity, which depend in turn on chemical composition and volatile content. Thus, one expects that changes of eruption sites in space and time are related to geochemical variations. To test this hypothesis, we have focussed on Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, a very active island arc volcano which erupts lavas with a wide range of volatile contents (e.g. 3-7 H20 wt. %). The most primitive high-Mg magmas were able to erupt and build a sizable edifice in an initial phase of activity. As the edifice grew, eruption of these magmas was suppressed in the focal area and occurred in distal parts of the volcano whilst summit eruptions involved differentiated high alumina basalts. Here we propose a new model for the development of the Klyuchevskoy plumbing system which combines edifice load, far field tectonic stress and the presence of volatiles. We calculate dyke trajectories and overpressures by taking into account the exsolution of volatiles in the magma. The most striking result is the progressive deflection of dykes towards the axial area as the edifice size increases. In this model, the critical parameters are the depth of volatile exsolution and the edifice size. Volatile-rich magmas degas at depth and experience a large increase in buoyancy which may overcome edifice-induced stresses at shallow levels. However, as the volcano grows, the stress barrier migrates downwards and may eventually act to stall dykes before gas exsolution takes place. Such conditions are likely to induce the formation of a shallow central reseroir, in which further magma focussing, mixing and contamination may take place. This model accounts for the co-evolution of magma composition

  6. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R.M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50–70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application. - Highlights: • Use of electron beam irradiation for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. • Irradiation at 4.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of bacterial infection. • Irradiation at 14.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of helminth infection. • Electron beam technology is not effective for controlling volatile organic compounds. • Electron beam treatment of sludge is less expensive than traditional techniques

  7. High-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijia; Zhang, Zichen; Wang, Wenliang; Zheng, Yulin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Guoqiang

    2018-05-01

    High-quality a-plane GaN epitaxial films have been grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). PLD is employed to epitaxial growth of a-plane GaN templates on r-plane sapphire substrates, and then MOCVD is used. The nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films with relatively small thickness (2.9 µm) show high quality, with the full-width at half-maximum values of GaN(11\\bar{2}0) along [1\\bar{1}00] direction and GaN(10\\bar{1}1) of 0.11 and 0.30°, and a root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.7 nm. This result is equivalent to the quality of the films grown by MOCVD with a thickness of 10 µm. This work provides a new and effective approach for achieving high-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films on r-plane sapphire substrates.

  8. Static Mechanical Loading Influences the Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Proteins in Vaginal Cells Derived From Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufaishi, Hala; Alarab, May; Drutz, Harold; Lye, Stephen; Shynlova, Oksana

    2016-08-01

    Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP-HVCs) demonstrate altered cellular characteristics as compared to cells derived from asymptomatic women (control-HVCs). Using computer-controllable Flexcell stretch unit, we examined whether POP-HVCs react differently to mechanical loading as compared to control-HVCs by the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell-ECM adhesion proteins, and ECM degrading and maturating enzymes. Vaginal tissue biopsies from premenopausal patients with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System stage ≥3 (n = 8) and asymptomatic controls (n = 7) were collected during vaginal hysterectomy or repair. Human vaginal cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion, seeded on collagen (COLI)-coated plates, and stretched (24 hours, 25% elongation). Total RNA was extracted, and 84 genes were screened using Human ECM and Adhesion Molecules polymerase chain reaction array; selected genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Stretch-conditioned media (SCM) were collected and analyzed by protein array, immunoblotting, and zymography. In mechanically stretched control-HVCs, transcript levels of integrins (ITGA1, ITGA4, ITGAV, and ITGB1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 8, and 13 were downregulated (P SCM from POP-HVCs compared to control-HVCs. Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse and control-HVCs react differentially to in vitro mechanical stretch. Risk factors that induce stretch may alter ECM composition and cell-ECM interaction in pelvic floor tissue leading to the abatement of pelvic organ support and subsequent POP development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  10. Effect of ploughing depth and mechanical soil loading on soil physical properties, weed infestation, yield performance and grain quality in sole and intercrops of pea and oat in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Gronle, Annkathrin; Lux, Guido; Böhm, Herwart; Schmidtke, Knut; Wild, Melanie; Demmel, Markus; Brandhuber, Robert; Wilbois, Klaus-Peter; Heß, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ploughing depth and mechanical soil loading on the performance of pea sole crops, oat sole crops and pea–oat intercrops was investigated in field experiments under organic farming conditions at two sites in Germany in 2009 and 2010. The two ploughing depths were short-term shallow ploughing to a soil depth of 7–10 cm and deep ploughing to 25–30 cm. Wheel loads of 26 and 45 kN, which correspond to typical rear wheel loads of field machinery used during sowing operations, were com...

  11. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC

  12. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimisation of single-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion under high organic loading rates of industrial municipal solid waste: population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, S; Sales, D; Romero, L I; Solera, R

    2013-10-01

    Different high feed organic loading rates (OLRs) (from 5.7 g to 46.0 g TVS/l/d) or hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (from 15 d to 2 d) in single-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were investigated. The specific gas production (SGP) values (0.25-0.53 m(3)/kg TVS) and the percentages of Eubacteria, Archaea, H2-utilising methanogens (HUMs) and acetate-utilising methanogens (AUMs) were stable within the ranges 80.2-91.1%, 12.4-18.5%, 4.4-9.8% and 5.5-10.9%, respectively. A HUM/AUM ratio greater than 0.7 seems to be necessary to maintain very low partial pressures of H2 required for dry AD process. Increasing OLR resulted in an increase in all the populations, except for propionate-utilising acetogens (PUAs). Optimal conditions were obtained at 3d HRT (OLR=30.7 g TVS/l/d), which is lower than the doubling time of acetogens and methanogens. The methane production (MP) was clearly higher than those reported in AD of OFMSW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Secret Life of Collagen: Temporal Changes in Nanoscale Fibrillar Pre-Strain and Molecular Organization during Physiological Loading of Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Sheetal R; Knight, David P; Terrill, Nicholas J; Karunaratne, Angelo; Cacho-Nerin, Fernando; Knight, Martin M; Gupta, Himadri S

    2017-10-24

    Articular cartilage is a natural biomaterial whose structure at the micro- and nanoscale is critical for healthy joint function and where degeneration is associated with widespread disorders such as osteoarthritis. At the nanoscale, cartilage mechanical functionality is dependent on the collagen fibrils and hydrated proteoglycans that form the extracellular matrix. The dynamic response of these ultrastructural building blocks at the nanoscale, however, remains unclear. Here we measure time-resolved changes in collagen fibril strain, using small-angle X-ray diffraction during compression of bovine and human cartilage explants. We demonstrate the existence of a collagen fibril tensile pre-strain, estimated from the D-period at approximately 1-2%, due to osmotic swelling pressure from the proteoglycan. We reveal a rapid reduction and recovery of this pre-strain which occurs during stress relaxation, approximately 60 s after the onset of peak load. Furthermore, we show that this reduction in pre-strain is linked to disordering in the intrafibrillar molecular packing, alongside changes in the axial overlapping of tropocollagen molecules within the fibril. Tissue degradation in the form of selective proteoglycan removal disrupts both the collagen fibril pre-strain and the transient response during stress relaxation. This study bridges a fundamental gap in the knowledge describing time-dependent changes in collagen pre-strain and molecular organization that occur during physiological loading of articular cartilage. The ultrastructural details of this transient response are likely to transform our understanding of the role of collagen fibril nanomechanics in the biomechanics of cartilage and other hydrated soft tissues.

  15. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  17. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  18. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. ► System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 were analyzed. ► A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and HRT of 15d. ► With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. ► The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2–8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m 3 d) −1 , with VS reduction rates of 61.7–69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89–5.28 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 . A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 . This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  19. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  20. Influence of deposition substrate temperature on the morphology and molecular orientation of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine films as well the performance of organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Fang; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zixing; Komino, Takeshi; Adachi, Chihaya; Pu, Wenhong; Yang, Changzhu

    2015-01-01

    The dependence of the morphology of neat chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) films on substrate temperature (T_s_u_b) during deposition is investigated by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain detailed information about the molecular orientation, phase separation, and crystallinity. AFM images indicate that both grain size and root mean square (RMS) roughness noticeably increase with T_s_u_b both in neat and blend films. Increasing T_s_u_b from room temperature to 420 K increases the horizontal orientation of the ClAlPc molecules with an increase of the mean molecular tilt angle from 60.13° (300 K) to 65.86° (420 K). The UV–vis absorption band of the corresponding films increases and the peak wavelength slightly red shifts with the T_s_u_b increase. XRD patterns show a clear diffraction peak at T_s_u_b over 390 K, implying the π-stacking of interconnected ClAlPc molecules at high T_s_u_b. Planar and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells containing pristine ClAlPc films and ClAlPc:C_6_0 blend films fabricated at T_s_u_b of 390 K show increases in the power conversion efficiency (η_P_C_E) of 28% (η_P_C_E = 3.12%) and 36% (η_P_C_E = 3.58%), respectively, relative to devices as-deposited at room temperature. The maximum short circuit current in BHJs is obtained at 390 K in the T_s_u_b range from 300 K to 450 K. (paper)

  1. Effect of organic loading rate on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Nie, Qiulin; Zhao, Hongting; Tang, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m 3 d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m 3 d) and 32kgCOD/(m 3 d), respectively. Carbon recovery ranged from 75.2-84.1% in the CSTR and CMISR with the balance assumed to be converted to biomass. One gram waste pastry could produce 0.33g (1.83mmol) glucose which could be further converted to 79.24mL (3.54mmol) hydrogen in the CMISR or 91.66mL (4.09mmol) hydrogen in the CSTR. This is the first study which reports dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the temperature and of the organic load in two-stage up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating of swine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichuette, Alexandre Abud; Duda, Rose Maria; Oliveira, Roberto Alves de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: oliveira@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work the acting of two-stage up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB) was evaluated, installed in series, in pilot scale (volumes of 908 L and 350 L, respectively) in the treatment swine wastewater, with concentrations of total solids suspended (TSS) around 10000 mg L{sup -1}. The organic loading rates (OLR) applied in first UASB were of 5,2 and of 8,6 g total COD (Ld){sup -1}. The medium efficiencies of removal of the chemical demand of total oxygen (total COD), TSS and TKN were higher than 89; 80 and 55%, respectively, for the system of anaerobic treatment composed by the reactors UASB in two apprenticeships. The rate of volumetric methane production in the system of anaerobic treatment with the reactors UASB were 0,08 and 0,16 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} (m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} reactor d){sup -1}. The number of total coliforms was reduced to 2,6x10{sup 4} NMP/100 mL. (author)

  3. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

    2014-10-17

    A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H(+)-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts.

  4. Anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage for hydrogen and methane production in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under high organic loading rate (OLR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shim, Hojae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Anaerobic hydrogen and methane production from cassava stillage in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were investigated in this study. Results showed that the heat-pretreatment of inoculum did not enhance hydrogen yield compared to raw inoculum under mesophilic condition after continuous operation. However, the hydrogen yield increased from about 14 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under mesophilic condition to 69.6 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under thermophilic condition due to the decrease of propionate concentration and inhibition of homoacetogens. Therefore, temperature was demonstrated to be more important than pretreatment of inoculum to enhance the hydrogen production. Under high organic loading rate (OLR) (>10 gVS/(L.d)), the two-phase thermophilic CSTR for hydrogen and methane production was stable with hydrogen and methane yields of 56.6 mlH{sub 2}/gVS and 249 mlCH{sub 4}/gVS. The one-phase thermophilic CSTR for methane production failed due to the accumulation of both acetate and propionate, leading to the pH lower than 6. Instead of propionate alone, the accumulations of both acetate and propionate were found to be related to the breakdown of methane reactor. (author)

  5. Pre-aeration of food waste to augment acidogenic process at higher organic load: Valorizing biohydrogen, volatile fatty acids and biohythane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Omprakash; Venkata Mohan, S

    2017-10-01

    Application of pre-aeration (AS) to waste prior to feeding was evaluated on acidogenic process in a semi-pilot scale biosystem for the production of biobased products (biohydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and biohythane) from food waste. Oxygen assisted in pre-hydrolysis of waste along with the suppression of methanogenic activity resulting in enhanced acidogenic product formation. AS operation resulted in 97% improvement in hydrogen conversion efficiency (HCE) and 10% more VFA production than the control. Increasing the organic load (OL) of food waste in association with AS application improved the productivity. The application of AS also influenced concentration and composition of fatty acid. Highest fraction of acetic (5.3g/l), butyric (0.7g/l) and propionic acid (0.84g/l) was achieved at higher OL (100g COD/l) with good degree of acidification (DOA). AS strategy showed positive influence on biofuel (biohydrogen and biohythane) production along with the biosynthesis of short chain fatty acids functioning as a low-cost pretreatment strategy in a single stage bioprocess. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance, carotenoids yield and microbial population dynamics in a photobioreactor system treating acidic wastewater: Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiangkun; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent organic loading rate (OLR) were investigated in a photobioreactor containing PNSB (Rhodopseudomonas palustris)-chemoheterotrophic bacteria to treat volatile fatty acid wastewater. Pollutants removal, biomass production and carotenoids yield in different phases were investigated in together with functional microbial population dynamics. The results indicated that properly decreasing HRT and increasing OLR improved the nutrient removal performance as well as the biomass and carotenoids productions. 85.7% COD, 89.9% TN and 91.8% TP removals were achieved under the optimal HRT of 48h and OLR of 2.51g/L/d. Meanwhile, the highest biomass production and carotenoids yield were 2719.3mg/L and 3.91mg/g-biomass respectively. In addition, HRT and OLR have obvious impacts on PNSB and total bacteria dynamics. Statistical analyses indicated that the COD removal exhibited a positive relationship with OLR, biomass and carotenoids production. PNSB/total bacteria ratio had a positive correlation with the carotenoids yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of organic load rate (OLR) on the hydrolytic acidification of 2-butenal manufacture wastewater and analysis of bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guangqing; Xi, Hongbo; Zhou, Yuexi; Fu, Liya; Xing, Xin; Wu, Changyong

    2017-11-01

    The influence of organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance of hydrolytic acidification process for treating 2-butenal manufacture wastewater was comprehensively studied, while its impact on microbial community was thoroughly investigated. The results demonstrated that over 21.0% of the average COD removal rate was observed in the range of OLR from 0.52 to 3.98g COD/L·d, whereas it reduced to 15.3% with increasing OLR to 6.09g COD/L·d. The acidification degree dramatically decreased from 17.1% to 4.7% when OLR increased from 3.98 to 6.09g COD/L·d. In addition, the removal rates of three kinds of typical matters were less than 65% at the OLR 6.09g COD/L·d. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed that Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant phyla at different OLRs. Finally, multivariate analysis suggested that the genera Longilinea and T78 had a positive correlation with the degradation of three kinds of typical matters and COD removal rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Green remediation: enhanced reductive dechlorination using recycled rinse water as bioremediation substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Gaynor; McKeon, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) has rapidly become a remedy of choice for use on chlorinated solvent contamination when site conditions allow. With this approach, solutions of an organic substrate are injected into the affected aquifer to stimulate biological growth and the resultant production of reducing conditions in the target zone. Under the reducing conditions, hydrogen is produced and ultimately replaces chlorine atoms on the contaminant molecule causing sequential dechlorination. Under suitable conditions the process continues until the parent hydrocarbon precursor is produced, such as the complete dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) to ethene. The process is optimized by use of a substrate that maximizes hydrogen production per unit cost. When natural biota are not present to promote the desired degradation, inoculates can be added with the substrate. The in-situ method both reduces cost and accelerates cleanup. Successful applications have been extended from the most common chlorinated compounds perchloroethylene (PCE) and TCE and related products of degradation, to perchlorate, and even explosives such as RDX and trinitrotoluene on which nitrates are attacked in lieu of chloride. In recent work, the process has been further improved through use of beverage industry wastewaters that are available at little or no cost. With material cost removed from the equation, applications can maximize the substrate loading without significantly increasing total cost. The extra substrate loading both accelerates reaction rates and extends the period of time over which reducing conditions are maintained. In some cases, the presence of other organic matter in addition to simple sugars provides for longer performance times of individual injections, thereby working in a fashion similar to emulsified vegetable oil. The paper discusses results of applications at three different sites contaminated with chlorinated ethylenes. The applications have included

  9. Low-leakage-current AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Si substrates with partially Mg-doped GaN buffer layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Wang Yong; Wong Kai-Ming; Lau Kei-May

    2014-01-01

    High-performance low-leakage-current AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on silicon (111) substrates grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a novel partially Magnesium (Mg)-doped GaN buffer scheme have been fabricated successfully. The growth and DC results were compared between Mg-doped GaN buffer layer and a unintentionally one. A 1-μm gate-length transistor with Mg-doped buffer layer exhibited an OFF-state drain leakage current of 8.3 × 10 −8 A/mm, to our best knowledge, which is the lowest value reported for MOCVD-grown AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Si featuring the same dimension and structure. The RF characteristics of 0.25-μm gate length T-shaped gate HEMTs were also investigated

  10. Study of organic waste for production of hydrogen in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán Chinea, Jesús Manuel; Guzmán Marrero, Elizabeth; Pérez Ponce, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes have long been used for the treatment of organic waste makes, especially our study is based on the anaerobic process in reactors, using residual organic industry. Without excluding other non-industrial we have studied. Fundamental objectives treating organic waste is to reduce the pollutant load to the environment, another aim is to recover the waste recovering the energy contained in it. In this context, the biological hydrogen production from organic waste is an interesting alternative because it has low operating costs and raw material is being used as a residue in any way should be treated before final disposal. Hydrogen can be produced sustainable by anaerobic bacteria that grow in the dark with rich carbohydrate substrates giving as final products H 2 , CO 2 and volatile fatty acids. The whey byproduct from cheese production, has great potential to be used for the generation of hydrogen as it has a high carbohydrate content and a high organic load. The main advantages of using anaerobic processes in biological treatment of organic waste, are the low operating costs, low power consumption, the ability to degrade high organic loads, resistance biomass to stay long in the absence of substrate, without lose their metabolic activity, and low nutritional requirements and increase the performance of 0.9 mol H2 / mol lactose. (full text)Biological processes have long been used for the treatment of organic waste makes, especially our study is based on the anaerobic process in reactors, using residual organic industry. Without excluding other non-industrial we have studied. Fundamental objectives treating organic waste is to reduce the pollutant load to the environment, another aim is to recover the waste recovering the energy contained in it. In this context, the biological hydrogen production from organic waste is an interesting alternative because it has low operating costs and raw material is being used as a residue in any way should be treated

  11. Organization of projections from the spinal trigeminal subnucleus oralis to the spinal cord in the rat: a neuroanatomical substrate for reciprocal orofacial-cervical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoize, Laurent; Doméjean, Sophie; Melin, Céline; Raboisson, Patrick; Artola, Alain; Dallel, Radhouane

    2010-07-09

    The organization of efferent projections from the spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis (Sp5O) to the spinal cord in the rat was studied using the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Sp5O projections to the spinal cord are restricted to the cervical cord. No labeled terminal can be detected in the thoracic and lumbar cord. The organization of these projections happens to critically depend on the dorso-ventral location of the injection site. On the one hand, the dorsal part of the Sp5O projects to the medial part of the dorsal horn (laminae III-V) at the C1 level, on the ipsilateral side, and to the ventral horn, on both sides but mainly on the ipsilateral one. Ipsilateral labeled terminals are distributed throughout laminae VII to IX but tend to cluster around the dorso-medial motor nuclei, especially at C3-C5 levels. Within the contralateral ventral horn, label terminals are found particularly in the region of the ventro-medial motor nucleus. This projection extends as far caudally as C3 or C4 level. On the other hand, the ventral part of the Sp5O projects to the lateral part of the dorsal horn (laminae III-V) at the C1 level, on the ipsilateral side, and to the ventral horn, on both sides but mainly on the contralateral one. Contralateral labeled terminals are distributed within the region of the dorso- and ventro-medial motor nuclei at C1-C4 levels whereas they are restricted to the dorso-medial motor nucleus at C5-C8 levels. These findings suggest that Sp5O is involved in the coordination of neck movements and in the modulation of incoming sensory information at the cervical spinal cord. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares na formação de mudas de cafeeiro, em substratos orgânicos comerciais Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the development of coffee plantlets using different organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Sales Massafera Tristão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento, em casa de vegetação, em arranjo fatorial 9 x 4, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de substratos orgânicos comerciais e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs no desenvolvimento de mudas de cafeeiro, cultivar 'Catuaí Amarelo', IAC 62. Utilizaram-se substratos à base de fibra de coco (Golden Mix 11, Golden Mix 47 e Golden Mix 80, casca de pinus (Rendmax, Vida Verde com adubação, Vida Verde sem adubação e Terra do Paraíso, solo puro e solo + esterco (70% e 30%,v/v, inoculando-se os FMAs Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum e Gigaspora margarita. Manteve-se um tratamento sem inoculação. Aos 200 dias após transplante avaliaram-se: altura, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria fresca da raiz, teor de fósforo na parte aérea, colonização radicular, comprimento do micélio externo, atividade da fosfatase ácida e teores de pigmentos fotossintetizantes nas folhas do cafeeiro. Independentemente da micorrização, o melhor crescimento das mudas foi obtido no substrato Vida Verde sem adubação. Os melhores efeitos da micorrização foram constatados nas plantas colonizadas por G. margarita e crescidas nos substratos convencional (solo + esterco e Vida Verde com adubação, nas quais se verificaram mais eficácia na utilização de P, o que reverteu em maior crescimento e produção de biomassa, resultando em maior eficiência simbiótica. No substrato solo + esterco, a micorrização favoreceu a concentração de pigmentos fotossintetizantes e diminuiu a atividade da fosfatase ácida nas folhas do cafeeiro.A greenhouse experiment with an alleatory factorial 9 x 4 scheme was carried out to evaluate the effects of different substrates and species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the development of coffee plants, cultivar Catuaí Amarelo, IAC 62. Nine substrates were used: seven commercial organic substrates - four substrates containing composted

  13. The synergetic effect of moisture protection, substrate quality and biotic acclimation on soil organic carbon persistence along a cultivated loamy hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiaux, François; Vanclooster, Marnik; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    The combination of hydrologic, geomorphic and biogeochemical approaches is required to determine organic carbon (OC) persistence and dynamics within landscapes. Here, we used soil in-situ surface heterotrophic respiration measurement as an indicator of OC persistence along a hillslope (crop field on the loess belt under temperate climate), characterized by an important erosion-induced OC stock colluvium downslope. Along this topographical gradient, we quantified the space-time structure of soil water and temperature, and soil OC amount and quality (from a chemical point of view based on NaOCl oxidation) in relation to CO2 fluxes. We used a Generalized Least Square (GLS) regression model to identify the role of each abiotic factor as well as their interactions on observed soil respiration rates, and to calculate time-average values of these CO2 fluxes at each studied slope positions. We observed significant differences between the observed respiration rates along the topographical gradient (up to 30% more CO2 emissions downslope and 50% backslope, relative to un-eroded summit position). Despite mean CO2 fluxes (standardized at 15°C) at the bottom of the slope are significantly higher (ppedo-climatic ecosystem would be changed.

  14. Anammox for ammonia removal from pig manure effluents: Effect of organic matter content on process performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; García, M. C.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2009-01-01

    oxidation) diluted with synthetic wastewater. High ammonium removal was achieved, up to 92.1 +/- 4.9% for diluted UASB-post-digested effluent (95 mg COD L-1) and up to 98.5 +/- 0.8% for diluted partially oxidized effluent (121 mg COD L-1). Mass balance clearly showed that an increase in organic loading......The anammox process, under different organic loading rates (COD), was evaluated using a semi-continous UASB reactor at 37 degrees C. Three different substrates were used: initially, synthetic wastewater, and later, two different pig manure effluents (after UASB-post-digestion and after partial...... improved ammonium removal at high organic matter concentration. Up to threshold organic load concentration of 142 mg COD L-1 of UASB-post-digested effluent and 242 mg COD L-1 of partially oxidized effluent, no effect of organic loading on ammonia removal was registered (ammonium removal was above 80...

  15. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  16. Printed electronic on flexible and glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futera, Konrad; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kozioł, Grażyna

    2010-09-01

    Organic electronics is a platform technology that enables multiple applications based on organic electronics but varied in specifications. Organic electronics is based on the combination of new materials and cost-effective, large area production processes that provide new fields of application. Organic electronic by its size, weight, flexibility and environmental friendliness electronics enables low cost production of numerous electrical components and provides for such promising fields of application as: intelligent packaging, low cost RFID, flexible solar cells, disposable diagnostic devices or games, and printed batteries [1]. The paper presents results of inkjetted electronics elements on flexible and glass substrates. The investigations was target on characterizing shape, surface and geometry of printed structures. Variety of substrates were investigated, within some, low cost, non specialized substrate, design for other purposes than organic electronic.

  17. Effects of Exposed Artificial Substrate on the Competition between Phytoplankton and Benthic Algae: Implications for Shallow Lake Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and benthic algae coexist in shallow lakes and the outcome of the competition between these two photoautotrophs can markedly influence water clarity. It is well established that exposed artificial substrate in eutrophic waters can remove nutrients and fine particles from the water column via the attached periphyton canopy. However, the effects of the introduction of artificial substrate on the competition between planktonic and benthic primary producers remain to be elucidated. We conducted a short-term outdoor mesocosm experiment to test the hypothesis that the nutrient and light changes induced by exposed artificial substrate (polythene nets would benefit the benthic algae. Artificial substrate significantly reduced total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and water clarity improved, the latter due to the substrate-induced reduction of both organic and inorganic suspended solids. Consequently, as judged from changes in chlorophyll a (Chl-a concentrations in water and sediment, respectively, exposed artificial substrate significantly reduced the phytoplankton biomass, while benthic algae biomass increased. Our results thus indicate that exposed artificial substrate may be used as a tool to re-establish benthic primary production in eutrophic shallow lakes after an external nutrient loading reduction, paving the way for a benthic- or a macrophyte-dominated system. Longer term and larger scale experiments are, however, needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn on this.

  18. Qualidade textural de tomates cultivados em substratos orgânicos submetidos à aplicação de substâncias húmicas Textural quality of tomatoes grown in organic substrates subjected to application of humic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Roberta Freitas Pires

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de substâncias húmicas e de diferentes substratos orgânicos na qualidade textural dos frutos do tomateiro híbrido Vênus, em ambiente protegido. Utilizaram-se, quatro tipos de substratos: fibra de coco; fibra de coco e casca de café carbonizada 1/3 (v/v; fibra de coco e casca de café carbonizada 2/3 (v/v; e casca de café carbonizada. As doses de substâncias húmicas (ácido húmico, 10% + ácido fúlvico 10,2% utilizadas foram 0, 20, 40 e 80 L ha-1, aplicadas ao substrato quinzenalmente, a partir do oitavo dia após o transplantio. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 4x4. Avaliaram-se firmeza dos frutos, percentagem de solubilização péctica e atividade enzimática (pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase. Observou-se variação na atividade das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase, em consequência das doses de substâncias húmicas adicionadas, nos diferentes substratos. O efeito das doses de substâncias húmicas sobre a firmeza, solubilidade de pectinas e atividade enzimática, em frutos de tomate, depende do substrato utilizado. Frutos obtidos de plantas cultivadas em fibra de coco apresentaram aumento de firmeza e redução da percentagem de solubilização péctica com a aplicação de doses crescentes de substâncias húmicas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of humic substances and of different organic substrates on the textural quality of tomato fruit of the Vênus hybrid, in a protected environment. Four types of substrates were used: coconut fiber; coconut fiber and carbonized coffee husk 1/3 (v/v; coconut fiber and carbonized coffee husk 2/3 (v/v; and carbonized coffee husk. The humic substances (humic acid, 10% + fulvic acid, 10,2% dosages of 0, 20, 40 and 80 L ha-1 were applied onto the substrates fortnightly from the eighth day after transplanting. The experimental design was in randomized block in a 4x4

  19. Dynamic modelling of substrate degradation for urban wastewater treatment by sequencing batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dere, T.; Demirci, Y.; Cekim, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic modelling of substrate degradation for urban wastewater treatment by a pilot-scaled sequencing batch reactor including experimental data of a long-term experimental work performed at different operation conditions. During the study, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were measured to investigate SBR treatment performance. Optimum operation times were determined and kinetic constant (k) was calculated (0.60 h-1) with using experimental results for urban wastewater. The Model Simulation estimates were very good fit with the experimental data under organic loading degradation conditions model simulation predictions well match with the experimental results under disturbed organic loading conditions. (author)

  20. In situ experimentation at the water/sediment interface in the deep sea: 2. Biotransformation of dissolved organic substrates by microbial communities at 2000m depth in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahet, Guy; Daumas, Raoul; Sibuet, Myriam

    Few attempts have been made to quantify the utilization of organic matter by the bacteria of the superficial layers of deep sea sediment. During two BIOCYAN cruises (August 1986 and June 1987) we used the submersible Cyana, to incubate sediment samples in situ in a specially designed box core in presence of 14C-glutamic acid and 3H leucine. These experiments were conducted at 2000m depth in the Bay of Biscay. Bacterial activity was stopped by the injection of formaldehyde. Samples were retrieved with the research submersible Cyana and its accompanying free vehicle shuttle. Sediment organic matter was fractioned into four components: 1) 14CO 2; 2) nucleic components and polysacharids; 3) labile proteins; and 4) condensed hydrolysable polymers. To evaluate the barotolerance of deep-sea bacteria, undisturbed superficial layer samples were also incubated with the same labelled substrates at 4°C at the atmospheric pressure. In both cases, and except for glucose, our results show that distributions of radioactivity in the different components of the organic material were almost similar. However, the rate of incorporation was usually higher for in situ experiments than for decompressed samples. Bacterial utilization of both 14C glutamic acid and 14C glucose were higher in June than in August. Such differences may result from changes in the food supply arriving as sinking particles and deriving from the photosynthetically productive surface waters. Food input was probably more important in June than in August leading to corresponding increases in: 1) the abundance of derived bacteria, and 2) deep-sea bacterial activities.

  1. Palladium Nanoparticle-Loaded Cellulose Paper: A Highly Efficient, Robust, and Recyclable Self-Assembled Composite Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangchao; Kaefer, Katharina; Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Vaz, Belén; Cartmell, Samantha E; Bouleghlimat, Azzedine; Buurma, Niklaas J; Yate, Luis; de Lera, Ángel R; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel strategy based on the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on filter paper for development of a catalytic system with high efficiency and recyclability. Oleylamine-capped Pd nanoparticles, dispersed in an organic solvent, strongly adsorb on cellulose filter paper, which shows a great ability to wick fluids due to its microfiber structure. Strong van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions between the particles and the substrate lead to nanoparticle immobilization, with no desorption upon further immersion in any solvent. The prepared Pd NP-loaded paper substrates were tested for several model reactions such as the oxidative homocoupling of arylboronic acids, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, and nitro-to-amine reduction, and they display efficient catalytic activity and excellent recyclability and reusability. This approach of using NP-loaded paper substrates as reusable catalysts is expected to open doors for new types of catalytic support for practical applications.

  2. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumate Chaiprapat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

  3. Utilização de compostos orgânicos como substratos na produção de mudas de hortaliças Utilization of organic compost as substrate for vegetable seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de A Leal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando determinar a viabilidade da utilização de compostos orgânicos obtidos com palhada de Crotalaria juncea L. e capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. como substratos na produção de mudas de hortaliças, realizaram-se experimentos com alface (folhosa, beterraba (raiz e tomate (hortaliça de fruto. Estudou-se a eficiência de compostos produzidos a partir dos materiais: 100% de Crotalária Júncea; 66% de Crotalária Júncea + 33% de Napier; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier; 100% de Napier; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier, inoculado com 5% da massa com esterco bovino; 33% de Crotalária Júncea + 66% de Napier, inoculado com 100 L de Agrobio diluído a 5%; 100% de Napier, inoculado com 100 litros de Agrobio diluído a 5%. Como controle utilizou-se o substrato comercial Plantmax HT®. Avaliou-se altura da parte aérea, número de folhas, produção de massa fresca na parte aérea e produção de massa seca na parte aérea. O composto produzido com a mistura de 66% de Crotalária Júncea e 33% de Napier mostrou-se superior aos demais tratamentos para produção de mudas de alface, beterraba e tomate.The viability of the organic compost utilization as a substrate for vegetable seedlings production, obtained from Crotalaria juncea L. and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., was determined. The research was developed with lettuce (leaf vegetable, beetroot (root vegetable and tomato (fruit vegetable. The organic composts were produced from: 100% Crotalaria Juncea; 66% Crotalaria Juncea + 33% Napier; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier; 100% Napier; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier, inoculated with 5% of the mass with cattle manure; 33% Crotalaria Juncea + 66% Napier, inoculated with 100 L of 5% diluted Agrobio; 100% Napier, inoculated with 100 L of 5% diluted Agrobio. We evaluated the height, leaf number, aerial green weight and aerial dry weight. A commercial substrate Plantmax HT® was used as control. The

  4. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  5. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate and the second fermentation product is in a more oxidised state than the substrate yet in a less oxidised state than the final oxidation product CO2, such that the concurrent synthesis of the firs...

  6. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  7. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz G P; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T

    2013-10-29

    In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate's hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene.

  8. Data-based mechanistic modeling of dissolved organic carbon load through storms using continuous 15-minute resolution observations within UK upland watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T.; Chappell, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Few watershed modeling studies have addressed DOC dynamics through storm hydrographs (notable exceptions include Boyer et al., 1997 Hydrol Process; Jutras et al., 2011 Ecol Model; Xu et al., 2012 Water Resour Res). In part this has been a consequence of an incomplete understanding of the biogeochemical processes leading to DOC export to streams (Neff & Asner, 2001, Ecosystems) & an insufficient frequency of DOC monitoring to capture sometimes complex time-varying relationships between DOC & storm hydrographs (Kirchner et al., 2004, Hydrol Process). We present the results of a new & ongoing UK study that integrates two components - 1/ New observations of DOC concentrations (& derived load) continuously monitored at 15 minute intervals through multiple seasons for replicated watersheds; & 2/ A dynamic modeling technique that is able to quantify storage-decay effects, plus hysteretic, nonlinear, lagged & non-stationary relationships between DOC & controlling variables (including rainfall, streamflow, temperature & specific biogeochemical variables e.g., pH, nitrate). DOC concentration is being monitored continuously using the latest generation of UV spectrophotometers (i.e. S::CAN spectro::lysers) with in situ calibrations to laboratory analyzed DOC. The controlling variables are recorded simultaneously at the same stream stations. The watersheds selected for study are among the most intensively studied basins in the UK uplands, namely the Plynlimon & Llyn Brianne experimental basins. All contain areas of organic soils, with three having improved grasslands & three conifer afforested. The dynamic response characteristics (DRCs) that describe detailed DOC behaviour through sequences of storms are simulated using the latest identification routines for continuous time transfer function (CT-TF) models within the Matlab-based CAPTAIN toolbox (some incorporating nonlinear components). To our knowledge this is the first application of CT-TFs to modelling DOC processes

  9. Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, R. M.; Harrold, K. H.; Neilson, B. T.; Kling, G. W.

    2015-11-01

    We investigated how absorption of sunlight by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the degradation and export of DOM from Imnavait Creek, a beaded stream in the Alaskan Arctic. We measured concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as well as concentrations and characteristics of CDOM and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), during ice-free periods of 2011-2012 in the pools of Imnavait Creek and in soil waters draining to the creek. Spatial and temporal patterns in CDOM and FDOM in Imnavait Creek were analyzed in conjunction with measures of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria and assessments of hydrologic residence times and in situ UV exposure. CDOM was the dominant light attenuating constituent in the UV and visible portion of the solar spectrum, with high attenuation coefficients ranging from 86 ± 12 m-1 at 305 nm to 3 ± 1 m-1 in the photosynthetically active region (PAR). High rates of light absorption and thus light attenuation by CDOM contributed to thermal stratification in the majority of pools in Imnavait Creek under low-flow conditions. In turn, thermal stratification increased the residence time of water and DOM, and resulted in a separation of water masses distinguished by contrasting UV exposure (i.e., UV attenuation by CDOM with depth resulted in bottom waters receiving less UV than surface waters). When the pools in Imnavait Creek were stratified, DOM in the pool bottom water closely resembled soil water DOM in character, while the concentration and character of DOM in surface water was reproduced by experimental photo-degradation of bottom water. These results, in combination with water column rates of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria, suggest that photo-degradation is the dominant process controlling DOM fate and export in Imnavait Creek. A conceptual model is presented showing how CDOM amount and lability interact with incident UV light and water residence time to determine whether photo

  10. Decoding P4-ATPase substrate interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Bartholomew P; Graham, Todd R

    Cellular membranes display a diversity of functions that are conferred by the unique composition and organization of their proteins and lipids. One important aspect of lipid organization is the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids (PLs) across the plasma membrane. The unequal distribution of key PLs between the cytofacial and exofacial leaflets of the bilayer creates physical surface tension that can be used to bend the membrane; and like Ca 2+ , a chemical gradient that can be used to transduce biochemical signals. PL flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase (P4-ATPase) family are the principle transporters used to set and repair this PL gradient and the asymmetric organization of these membranes are encoded by the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of P4-ATPase substrate specificity will help reveal their role in membrane organization and cell biology. Further, decoding the structural determinants of substrate specificity provides investigators the opportunity to mutationally tune this specificity to explore the role of particular PL substrates in P4-ATPase cellular functions. This work reviews the role of P4-ATPases in membrane biology, presents our current understanding of P4-ATPase substrate specificity, and discusses how these fundamental aspects of P4-ATPase enzymology may be used to enhance our knowledge of cellular membrane biology.

  11. Produção de mudas de rúcula em bandejas com substratos a base de resíduos orgânicos Production of rocket (Eruca sativa seedlings with substrates composed of organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Januária Beiruth da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na produção de biomassa vegetal em mudas de rúcula, cv. cultivada, foi conduzido um experimento na Universidade Federal do Acre, no período de setembro a novembro de 2006, utilizando os seguintes tratamentos: T1 Plantmax® (Tratamento padrão; T2 composto orgânico (CO + casca de coco maduro triturado (CCMT (1:1 v/v; T3 CO + cama de aviário (CA + casca-de-arroz carbonizada (CAC (1:1:1 v/v; T4 CO + esterco bovino (EB + CAC (1:1:1 v/v; T5 - CO + coprólitos de minhoca (CM + CAC (1:1:1 v/v; T6 CO + CM + caroço de açaí triturado (CAT (1:1:1 v/v; T7 - CO + CM + CCMT (1:1:1 v/v; T8 - CO + EB + CCMT (1:1:1 v/v. Foram acrescidos, 10% de carvão vegetal triturado, 1,0 kg m-3 de calcário dolomitico e 1,5 kg m-3 de termofosfato, exceto no substrato T1. A semeadura foi feita utilizando-se três sementes por células em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, contendo os diferentes tratamentos e oito dias após a semeadura, foi feito o desbaste deixando-se apenas uma planta por célula. Aos 26 dias após a semeadura, foram avaliados a massa da matéria fresca da parte aérea, massa da matéria seca da parte aérea, raiz e total da planta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental constituída de 4 plantas. Os tratamentos T4 ,T5 e T7 foram os que promoveram maior massa fresca e seca das plantas e não diferiram estatisticamente entre si e do tratamento padrão (T1, para todas as características avaliados.With the objective of evaluating the effect of different substrates in the production of vegetable biomass on rocket (Eruca sativa seedlings cv. cultivated, an experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Acre, in the period from September to November of 2006, using the following treatments: T1 - Plantmax® (control, T2 - organic compost + triturated ripe coconut shells (1:1 v/v, T3 organic compost + poultry

  12. Ulva biomass as a co-substrate for stable anaerobic digestion of spent coffee grounds in continuous mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-10-01

    Ulva biomass was evaluated as a co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of spent coffee grounds at varying organic loads (0.7-1.6g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/Ld) and substrate compositions. Co-digestion with Ulva (25%, COD basis) proved beneficial for SCG biomethanation in both terms of process performance and stability. The beneficial effect is much more pronounced at higher organic and hydraulic loads, with the highest COD removal and methane yield being 51.8% and 0.19L/g COD fed, respectively. The reactor microbial community structure changed dynamically during the experiment, and a dominance shift from hydrogenotrophic to aceticlastic methanogens occurred with increase in organic loading rate. Network analysis provides a comprehensive view of the microbial interactions involved in the system and confirms a direct positive correlation between Ulva input and methane productivity. A group of populations, including Methanobacterium- and Methanoculleus-related methanogens, was identified as a possible indicator for monitoring the biomethanation performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of substrate concentration on hydrogen production by photo-fermentation in the pilot-scale baffled bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhou, Xuehua; Hu, Jianjun; Ge, Xumeng; Xia, Chenxi; Zhao, Jia; Wang, Yi; Jing, Yanyan; Li, Yameng; Zhang, Quanguo

    2018-01-01

    Effect of substrate concentration on photo-fermentative hydrogen production was studied with a self-designed 4m 3 pilot-scale baffled photo-fermentative hydrogen production reactor (BPHR). The relationships between parameters, such as hydrogen production rate (HPR, mol H 2 /m 3 /d), hydrogen concentration, pH value, oxidation-reduction potential, biomass concentration (volatile suspended solids, VSS) and reducing sugar concentration, during the photo-fermentative hydrogen production process were investigated. The highest HPR of 202.64±8.83mol/m 3 /d was achieved in chamber #3 at a substrate concentration of 20g/L. Hydrogen contents were in the range of 42.19±0.94%-49.71±0.27%. HPR increased when organic loading rate was increased from 3.3 to 20g/L/d, then decreased when organic loading rate was further increased to 25g/L/d. A maximum HPR of 148.65±4.19mol/m 3 /d was obtained when organic loading rate was maintained at 20g/L/d during continuous bio-hydrogen production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  15. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  16. Multifunctionality is affected by interactions between green roof plant species, substrate depth, and substrate type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza, Yann; Barot, Sébastien; Kraepiel, Yvan; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Abbadie, Luc; Raynaud, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services through evapotranspiration and nutrient cycling that depend, among others, on plant species, substrate type, and substrate depth. However, no study has assessed thoroughly how interactions between these factors alter ecosystem functions and multifunctionality of green roofs. We simulated some green roof conditions in a pot experiment. We planted 20 plant species from 10 genera and five families (Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) on two substrate types (natural vs. artificial) and two substrate depths (10 cm vs. 30 cm). As indicators of major ecosystem functions, we measured aboveground and belowground biomasses, foliar nitrogen and carbon content, foliar transpiration, substrate water retention, and dissolved organic carbon and nitrates in leachates. Interactions between substrate type and depth strongly affected ecosystem functions. Biomass production was increased in the artificial substrate and deeper substrates, as was water retention in most cases. In contrast, dissolved organic carbon leaching was higher in the artificial substrates. Except for the Fabaceae species, nitrate leaching was reduced in deep, natural soils. The highest transpiration rates were associated with natural soils. All functions were modulated by plant families or species. Plant effects differed according to the observed function and the type and depth of the substrate. Fabaceae species grown on natural soils had the most noticeable patterns, allowing high biomass production and high water retention but also high nitrate leaching from deep pots. No single combination of factors enhanced simultaneously all studied ecosystem functions, highlighting that soil-plant interactions induce trade-offs between ecosystem functions. Substrate type and depth interactions are major drivers for green roof multifunctionality.

  17. Sensor Substrate Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Novel substrates, such as aerogels and porous, low density ceramics may increase the sensitivities of chemical reaction-based sensors for toxic vapors. These sensors...

  18. Synergistic co-digestion of solid-organic-waste and municipal-sewage-sludge: 1 plus 1 equals more than 2 in terms of biogas production and solids reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Peter; Wadhawan, Tanush; Kuprian, Martin; Higgins, Matthew; Ebner, Christian; Fimml, Christian; Murthy, Sudhir; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-12-15

    Making good use of existing water infrastructure by adding organic wastes to anaerobic digesters improves the energy balance of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) substantially. This paper explores co-digestion load limits targeting a good trade-off for boosting methane production, and limiting process-drawbacks on nitrogen-return loads, cake-production, solids-viscosity and polymer demand. Bio-methane potential tests using whey as a model co-substrate showed diversification and intensification of the anaerobic digestion process resulting in a synergistical enhancement in sewage sludge methanization. Full-scale case-studies demonstrate organic co-substrate addition of up to 94% of the organic sludge load resulted in tripling of the biogas production. At organic co-substrate addition of up to 25% no significant increase in cake production and only a minor increase in ammonia release of ca. 20% have been observed. Similar impacts were measured at a high-solids digester pilot with up-stream thermal hydrolyses where the organic loading rate was increased by 25% using co-substrate. Dynamic simulations were used to validate the synergistic impact of co-substrate addition on sludge methanization, and an increase in hydrolysis rate from 1.5 d(-1) to 2.5 d(-1) was identified for simulating measured gas production rate. This study demonstrates co-digestion for maximizing synergy as a step towards energy efficiency and ultimately towards carbon neutrality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of tetragonal-metal-organic framework-5 loadings with extra ZnO molecule on the gas separation performance of mixed matrix membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjmandi, Mehrzad; Pakizeh, Majid; Pirouzram, Omid

    2015-01-01

    The effect of more ZnO molecule in tetragonal structure of MOF-5 than cubic structure on the gas permeation properties of T-MOF-5/polyetherimide mixed matrix membranes was investigated. T-MOF-5 was first successfully synthesized and carefully characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and N 2 adsorption technique at 77 K. Novel T-MOF-5/PEI MMMs were prepared using solution casting method and characterized by FTIR and SEM. The SEM pictures of the MMMs showed that T-MOF-5 nanocrystals changed the morphology of PEI and exhibited acceptable contacts between the filler particles and the polymer chains. Gas permeation properties of these membranes with different T-MOF-5 contents were studied for pure H 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 gases. Permeation measurement showed that the all gases' permeability, diffusivity and solubility were increased with T-MOF-5 loading. H 2 permeability and the ideal selectivity of H 2 /CO 2 and H 2 /CH 4 in MMM with 25 wt% loading of T-MOF-5 nanocrystals were increased. This behavior was attributed to more ZnO molecule in T-MOF-5 structure. The experimental gas permeations through T-MOF-5/PEI nanocomposite with different filler loadings were fitted on Higuchi model. Good agreement between the experimental data and the predicted gas permeability was obtained

  20. The role of tetragonal-metal-organic framework-5 loadings with extra ZnO molecule on the gas separation performance of mixed matrix membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjmandi, Mehrzad; Pakizeh, Majid [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pirouzram, Omid [Kurdistan University, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The effect of more ZnO molecule in tetragonal structure of MOF-5 than cubic structure on the gas permeation properties of T-MOF-5/polyetherimide mixed matrix membranes was investigated. T-MOF-5 was first successfully synthesized and carefully characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and N{sub 2} adsorption technique at 77 K. Novel T-MOF-5/PEI MMMs were prepared using solution casting method and characterized by FTIR and SEM. The SEM pictures of the MMMs showed that T-MOF-5 nanocrystals changed the morphology of PEI and exhibited acceptable contacts between the filler particles and the polymer chains. Gas permeation properties of these membranes with different T-MOF-5 contents were studied for pure H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} gases. Permeation measurement showed that the all gases' permeability, diffusivity and solubility were increased with T-MOF-5 loading. H{sub 2} permeability and the ideal selectivity of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} in MMM with 25 wt% loading of T-MOF-5 nanocrystals were increased. This behavior was attributed to more ZnO molecule in T-MOF-5 structure. The experimental gas permeations through T-MOF-5/PEI nanocomposite with different filler loadings were fitted on Higuchi model. Good agreement between the experimental data and the predicted gas permeability was obtained.

  1. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    important for metal substrates, as it is well-known that chloride increases corrosion of metals . 3 For metal -loaded primers, it has been established...volume (MPV) percent, solvent polarity, and resin molecular weight impact corrosion protection of metal -rich organic (MRO) coatings. Following design of...pH and chloride ion concentration levels over time. As the corrosion protection of the coating decreases, chloride ion concentration will increase

  2. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  3. Strain-Compensated InGaAsP Superlattices for Defect Reduction of InP Grown on Exact-Oriented (001 Patterned Si Substrates by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Megalini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of InGaAsP strain-compensated superlattices (SC-SLs as a technique to reduce the defect density of Indium Phosphide (InP grown on silicon (InP-on-Si by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD. Initially, a 2 μm thick gallium arsenide (GaAs layer was grown with very high uniformity on exact oriented (001 300 mm Si wafers; which had been patterned in 90 nm V-grooved trenches separated by silicon dioxide (SiO2 stripes and oriented along the [110] direction. Undercut at the Si/SiO2 interface was used to reduce the propagation of defects into the III–V layers. Following wafer dicing; 2.6 μm of indium phosphide (InP was grown on such GaAs-on-Si templates. InGaAsP SC-SLs and thermal annealing were used to achieve a high-quality and smooth InP pseudo-substrate with a reduced defect density. Both the GaAs-on-Si and the subsequently grown InP layers were characterized using a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD; atomic force microscopy (AFM; transmission electron microscopy (TEM; and electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI; which indicate high-quality of the epitaxial films. The threading dislocation density and RMS surface roughness of the final InP layer were 5 × 108/cm2 and 1.2 nm; respectively and 7.8 × 107/cm2 and 10.8 nm for the GaAs-on-Si layer.

  4. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  5. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  6. Direct transfer of graphene onto flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz G. P.; Song, Yi; Zeng, Tingying; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Araujo, Paulo T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the direct transfer via lamination of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto different flexible substrates. The transfer method investigated here is fast, simple, and does not require an intermediate transfer membrane, such as polymethylmethacrylate, which needs to be removed afterward. Various substrates of general interest in research and industry were studied in this work, including polytetrafluoroethylene filter membranes, PVC, cellulose nitrate/cellulose acetate filter membranes, polycarbonate, paraffin, polyethylene terephthalate, paper, and cloth. By comparing the properties of these substrates, two critical factors to ensure a successful transfer on bare substrates were identified: the substrate’s hydrophobicity and good contact between the substrate and graphene. For substrates that do not satisfy those requirements, polymethylmethacrylate can be used as a surface modifier or glue to ensure successful transfer. Our results can be applied to facilitate current processes and open up directions for applications of chemical vapor deposition graphene on flexible substrates. A broad range of applications can be envisioned, including fabrication of graphene devices for opto/organic electronics, graphene membranes for gas/liquid separation, and ubiquitous electronics with graphene. PMID:24127582

  7. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C 12 ) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C 12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C 12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L -1 limit of detections (LOD

  8. Optimised anaerobic treatment of house-sorted biodegradable waste and slaughterhouse waste in a high loaded half technical scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, C; Grasmug, M; Smeets, W; Braun, R; Kirchmayr, R

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes from households, slaughterhouses and meat processing industries was optimised in a half technical scale plant. The plant was operated for 130 days using two different substrates under organic loading rates of 10 and 12 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Since the substrates were rich in fat and protein components (TKN: 12 g.kg(-1) the treatment was challenging. The process was monitored on-line and in the laboratory. It was demonstrated that an intensive and stable co-digestion of partly hydrolysed organic waste and protein rich slaughterhouse waste can be achieved in the balance of inconsistent pH and buffering NH4-N. In the first experimental period the reduction of the substrate COD was almost complete in an overall stable process (COD reduction >82%). In the second period methane productivity increased, but certain intermediate products accumulated constantly. Process design options for a second digestion phase for advanced degradation were investigated. Potential causes for slow and reduced propionic and valeric acid degradation were assessed. Recommendations for full-scale process implementation can be made from the experimental results reported. The highly loaded and stable codigestion of these substrates may be a good technical and economic treatment alternative.

  9. Optimization of waste water discharge and waste water cleaning on the basis of measurements of the organic pollutant load; Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und Abwasserreinigung durch Messung der organischen Abwasserbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, M. [Dr. Bruno Lange GmbH Berlin, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient (SAC) is a sum parameter for describing the organic pollutant load of waste water. It is based on a purely physical measuring technique and can be monitored continuously and directly in the medium by means of the described UV process probe. From this arise numerous opportunities for optimizing waste water discharge and cleaning. (orig.) [German] Der spektrale Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) ist ein Summenparameter zur Beschreibung der organischen Abwasserbelastung. Er basiert auf einem rein physikalischen Messverfahren und kann mit der hier vorgestellten UV-Prozess-Sonde kontinuierlich und direkt im Medium erfasst werden. Daraus ergeben sich zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und -reinigung. (orig.)

  10. Start-up of intensive anaerobic wastewater methanization processes: impact of hydrodynamic conditions and of control strategy of organic load increase on biofilm formation and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresson, Romain

    2006-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the understanding of mechanisms of anaerobic film development and maturation, in order to obtain a better control of their formation and this to decrease the duration of the bioreactor start-up phase. More precisely, the author analysed the impact of hydrodynamic parameters and of load rise strategy on biofilm characteristics (thickness, density, biodiversity) and on its activity (anaerobic breathing, decontamination kinetics) during its development. Thus, after a recall of the anaerobic digestion principle, the author presents processes, methods and techniques used during this research, reports and discusses the obtained results

  11. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  12. Coating of substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.A.; Nelson, R.L.; Woodhead, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The process is concerned with providing substrates with coatings obtainable from sols, for example to protect the substrate (such as in nuclear reactors or hydrocarbon cracking plant) or to provide a carrier for catalytically active material. Hitherto, coatings obtained from sols have had a high porosity and high surface area so that they have not been entirely satisfactory for the above applications. In the process described, dense, low-porosity coatings are provided by contacting the substrate with a sol of refractory material (e.g. CeO 2 or SiO 2 ) convertible to a gel of density at least 40% of the theoretical density of the refractory material, and converting the sol to the gel. Optionally, the gel may be converted to a ceramic coating by firing. (author)

  13. Enhanced substrate conversion efficiency of fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  14. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  15. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...

  16. Monitoring of organic loads at waste water treatment plant with due consideration of factual necessity, technical feasibility and statutory requirements; Erfassung der organischen Belastung bei Abwasserreinigungsanlagen unter Beachtung der fachlichen Notwendigkeit, der technischen Moeglichkeiten und der gesetzlichen Auflagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    Between the statutory requirement and factual necessity for monitoring organic loads in waste water discharged to municipal and industrial waste water treatment plant and effluents from these there are substantial discrepancies. The paper points out the different approaches and gives recommendations on how to proceed in the future. At plant with stable nitrification, self and external monitoring for BOD{sub 5} can be distinctly reduced without fear of impaired process transparency or water quality. Monitoring organic loads online is little expedient technically, especially where effluent from municipal sewage treatment plants is concerned. But in the industrial sector there exist the most diverse applications with a view to carbon elimination. (orig.) [German] Zwischen den gesetzlichen Anforderungen und der fachlichen Notwendigkeit bei der Erfassung der organischen Belastung im Zu- und Ablauf von kommunalen und industriellen Klaeranlagen bestehen erhebliche Diskrepanzen. In diesem Beitrag werden die unterschiedlichen Ansaetze aufgezeigt und Empfehlungen fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise gegeben. Bei Anlagen mit stabiler Nitrifikation ist die Selbst- wie Fremdueberwachung bezueglich BSB{sub 5} deutlich zu reduzieren, ohne dass Einbussen fuer Prozesstransparenz und Gewaesserqualitaet zu erwarten sind. Die online-Ueberwachung der organischen Belastung ist insbesondere bei Ablaeufen in kommunalen Klaeranlagen fachlich wenig sinnvoll, im Bereich der industriellen Abwasserreinigung ergeben sich dafuer bei dem Reinigungsziel der Kohlenstoffelimination dagegen verschiedenste Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  17. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  19. Substrate-Directed Catalytic Selective Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2018-05-04

    The development of highly efficient reactions at only the desired position is one of the most important subjects in organic chemistry. Most of the reactions in current organic chemistry are reagent- or catalyst-controlled reactions, and the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reactions are determined by the inherent nature of the reagent or catalyst. In sharp contrast, substrate-directed reaction determines the selectivity of the reactions by the functional group on the substrate and can strictly distinguish sterically and electronically similar multiple reaction sites in the substrate. In this Perspective, three topics of substrate-directed reaction are mainly reviewed: (1) directing group-assisted epoxidation of alkenes, (2) ring-opening reactions of epoxides by various nucleophiles, and (3) catalytic peptide synthesis. Our newly developed synthetic methods with new ligands including hydroxamic acid derived ligands realized not only highly efficient reactions but also pinpointed reactions at the expected position, demonstrating the substrate-directed reaction as a powerful method to achieve the desired regio- and stereoselective functionalization of molecules from different viewpoints of reagent- or catalyst-controlled reactions.

  20. Layered graphene-mica substrates induce melting of DNA origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nathaniel S.; Pham, Phi H. Q.; Crow, Daniel T.; Burke, Peter J.; Norton, Michael L.

    2018-04-01

    Monolayer graphene supported on mica substrates induce melting of cross-shaped DNA origami. This behavior can be contrasted with the case of origami on graphene on graphite, where an expansion or partially re-organized structure is observed. On mica, only well-formed structures are observed. Comparison of the morphological differences observed for these probes after adsorption on these substrates provides insights into the sensitivity of DNA based nanostructures to the properties of the graphene monolayer, as modified by its substrate.

  1. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  2. Wetting on structured substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, S; Popescu, M N; Rauscher, M

    2005-01-01

    Chemically patterned surfaces are of significant interest in the context of microfluidic applications, and miniaturization of such devices aims at generating structures on the nano-scale. Whereas on the micron scale purely macroscopic descriptions of liquid flow are valid, on the nanometre scale long-ranged inter-molecular interactions, thermal fluctuations such as capillary waves, and finally the molecular structure of the liquid become important. We discuss the most important conceptual differences between flow on chemically patterned substrates on the micron scale and on the nanometre scale, and formulate four design issues for nanofluidics related to channel width, channel separation, and channel bending radius. As a specific example of nano-scale transport we present a microscopic model for the dynamics of spreading of monolayers on homogeneous substrates. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of this model on a homogeneous substrate reveal a complex spatio-temporal structure of the extracted monolayer, which includes the emergence of interfaces and of scaling properties of density profiles. These features are discussed and rationalized within the corresponding continuum limit derived from the microscopic dynamics. The corresponding spreading behaviour on a patterned substrate is briefly addressed

  3. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Substrate effect on oxygen reduction electrocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperman, L.; Feng, Y.J.; Vogel, W.; Alonso-Vante, N.

    2010-01-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated on carbon (XC-72) supported platinum nanoparticles, generated via the carbonyl chemical route and on oxide composites supported platinum generated via the UV-photo-deposition technique in sulfuric acid medium. The behavior of Pt/C was examined using a careful dosing of the catalyst loading spanning the range from 4.3 to 131 μg cm -2 . The ORR electrochemical response of Pt/C (in line with recent literature data) is put into contrast with the Pt/oxide-composite systems. Our results point out that it is possible to use smaller amounts of catalyst for the ORR when platinum atoms interact with the oxide (anatase) surface of the substrate composite. Evidence of the incipient metal-substrate interaction is discussed in the light of the results of XRD experiments.

  5. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  6. A "ship in a bottle" strategy to load a hydrophilic anticancer drug in porous metal organic framework nanoparticles: efficient encapsulation, matrix stabilization, and photodelivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nunzio, Maria Rosaria; Agostoni, Valentina; Cohen, Boiko; Gref, Ruxandra; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2014-01-23

    An essential challenge in the development of nanosized metal organic framework (nanoMOF) materials in biomedicine is to develop a strategy to stabilize their supramolecular structure in biological media while being able to control drug encapsulation and release. We have developed a method to efficiently encapsulate topotecan (TPT, 1), an important cytotoxic drug, in biodegradable nanoMOFs. Once inside the pores, 1 monomers aggregate in a "ship in a bottle" fashion, thus filling practically all of the nanoMOFs' available free volume and stabilizing their crystalline supramolecular structures. Highly efficient results have been found with the human pancreatic cell line PANC1, in contrast with free 1. We also demonstrate that one- and two-photon light irradiation emerges as a highly promising strategy to promote stimuli-dependent 1 release from the nanoMOFs, hence opening new standpoints for further developments in triggered drug delivery.

  7. Warm-White-Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Dye-Loaded Metal-Organic Framework for Fast White-Light Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiye; Wang, Zi; Lin, Bangjiang; Hu, XueFu; Wei, YunFeng; Zhang, Cankun; An, Bing; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2017-10-11

    A dye@metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid was used as a fluorophore in a white-light-emitting diode (WLED) for fast visible-light communication (VLC). The white light was generated from a combination of blue emission of the 9,10-dibenzoate anthracene (DBA) linkers and yellow emission of the encapsulated Rhodamine B molecules. The MOF structure not only prevents dye molecules from aggregation-induced quenching but also efficiently transfers energy to the dye for dual emission. This light-emitting material shows emission lifetimes of 1.8 and 5.3 ns for the blue and yellow components, respectively, which are significantly shorter than the 200 ns lifetime of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ in commercial WLEDs. The MOF-WLED device exhibited a modulating frequency of 3.6 MHz for VLC, six times that of commercial WLEDs.

  8. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  9. Experimental analysis of green roof substrate detention characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yio, Marcus H N; Stovin, Virginia; Werdin, Jörg; Vesuviano, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs may make an important contribution to urban stormwater management. Rainfall-runoff models are required to evaluate green roof responses to specific rainfall inputs. The roof's hydrological response is a function of its configuration, with the substrate - or growing media - providing both retention and detention of rainfall. The objective of the research described here is to quantify the detention effects due to green roof substrates, and to propose a suitable hydrological modelling approach. Laboratory results from experimental detention tests on green roof substrates are presented. It is shown that detention increases with substrate depth and as a result of increasing substrate organic content. Model structures based on reservoir routing are evaluated, and it is found that a one-parameter reservoir routing model coupled with a parameter that describes the delay to start of runoff best fits the observed data. Preliminary findings support the hypothesis that the reservoir routing parameter values can be defined from the substrate's physical characteristics.

  10. Self-organized antireflection CuIn(S,Se)_2 nano-protrusions on flexible substrates by ion erosion based on CuInS_2 nanocrystal precursor inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yi-Chung; Chen, Chia-Wei; Tsai, Hung-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ze; Hu, Fan; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuIn(S,Se)_2 nano-protrusions were demonstrated on 36-cm"2 flexible substrates. • Nano-protrusions were created by ion erosion on selenized CuInS_2 nanocrystal precursor inks. • Tilt orientations and remarkable anti-reflectance characteristics of nano-protrusions can be precisely controlled. - Abstract: In this work, an approach to achieve surface nano-protrusions on a chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se)_2 thin film was demonstrated. Home-made CuInS_2 nanocrystals with average diameter of 20 nm were prepared and characterized. By applying ion erosion process on the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film, large-area self-aligned nano-protrusions can be formed. Interestingly, the process can be applied on flexible substrate where the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film remains intact with no visible cracking after several bending tests. In addition, reflectance spectra reveal the extraordinary anti-reflectance characteristics of nano-protrusions on the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film with the incident light from 350 to 2000 nm. A 36-cm"2 CuIn(S,Se)_2 film with nano-protrusions on flexible molybdenum foil substrate has been demonstrated, which demonstrated the feasibility of developing low cost with a high optical absorption CuIn(S,Se)_2 flexible thin film.

  11. Effect of volumetric organic loading rate (OLR) on H2 and CH4 production by two-stage anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and brown water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sachin; Kang, Youngjun; Yoo, Yeong-Seok; Seo, Gyu Tae

    2017-03-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophillic conditions (37°C) were studied. The aim of this study is to determine optimum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of the two-stage anaerobic digester system for hydrogen and methane production. This paper also discusses the effect of OLR with change in HRT on the system. Four different HRTs of 48, 24, 12, 8h were monitored for acidogenic reactor, which provided OLR of 17.7, 34.8, 70.8, 106gVS/L·d respectively. Two HRTs of 15days and 20days were studied with OLR of 1.24 and 1.76gVS/L·d respectively in methanogenic reactor. Hydrogen production at higher OLR and shorter HRT seemed favorable 106gVS/L·d (8h) in acidogenic reactor system. In methanogenic reactor system HRT of 20day with OLR of 1.24gVS/L·d was found optimum in terms of methane production and organic removal. The result of this study illustrated the optimum HRT of 8h and 20days in acidogenic stage and methanogenic stage for maximum hydrogen and methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification of industrial effluents with a high load of organic pollutants by a combined anaerobic/aerobic process; Reinigung organisch hochbelasteter Industriebwaesser durch eine anaerob/aerobe Verfahrenskombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidl, H.H. [AEW ESMIL GmbH fuer Wasser- und Abwassersyteme, Ratingen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Organically polluted sewage water can be economically cleaned in an aerobic biological sewage treatment plant with upstream anaerobic as this saves activation volume and ventilation energy. This was demonstrated in the sewage treatment plant of the PWA in Redenfelden, where an anaerobic stage was installed which uses the BIOTHANE{sup R} process. The CARROUSEL-system of the anaerobic stage has proved a istself both in the PWA ans in municipal plants between 5000 to 100000 EW. It is a robust system with uncomplicated control which guarantees observance of maximum values and allows elimation of P and N. (orig.) [Deutsch] Organisch hochbelastete Abwaesser werden oekonomisch durch eine aerobe biologische Klaeranlage mit vorgeschalteter Anaerobie gereinigt, weil dadurch Belebungsvolumen und Belueftungsenergie eingespart werden. Dies wurde am Beispiel der Abwasserreinigungsanlage der PWA Redenfelden gezeigt, bie der eine Anaerobstufe nach den BIOTHANE{sup R}-Verfahren installiert ist. Das dort eingesetzte CARROUSEL-System fuer die Aerobstufe hat sich sowohl bei der PWA als auch im kommunalen Bereich bei Anlagen zwischen 5000 und 100000 EW, als robustes System mit unkomplizierter Steuerung bewaehrt, das eine sichere Einhaltung der Grenzwerte garantiert und die Moeglichkeit zur P- und N-Elimination bietet. (orig.)

  13. The fibronectin-binding integrins alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 differentially modulate RhoA-GTP loading, organization of cell matrix adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danen, Erik H J; Sonneveld, Petra; Brakebusch, Cord

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the formation of different types of cell matrix adhesions in cells that bind to fibronectin via either alpha5beta1 or alphavbeta3. In both cases, cell adhesion to fibronectin leads to a rapid decrease in RhoA activity. However, alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta3 supports high levels ...... receptors expressed on a cell dictates the ability of fibronectin to stimulate RhoA-mediated organization of cell matrix adhesions.......We have studied the formation of different types of cell matrix adhesions in cells that bind to fibronectin via either alpha5beta1 or alphavbeta3. In both cases, cell adhesion to fibronectin leads to a rapid decrease in RhoA activity. However, alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta3 supports high levels...... of RhoA activity at later stages of cell spreading, which are associated with a translocation of focal contacts to peripheral cell protrusions, recruitment of tensin into fibrillar adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Expression of an activated mutant of RhoA stimulates alphavbeta3-mediated...

  14. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  15. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R P

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  16. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  17. Controlling the interparticle spacing of Au-salt loaded micelles and Au nanoparticles on flat surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansmann, J; Kielbassa, S; Hoster, H; Weigl, F; Boyen, H G; Wiedwald, U; Ziemann, P; Behm, R J

    2007-09-25

    The self-organization of diblock copolymers into micellar structures in an appropriate solvent allows the deposition of well ordered arrays of pure metal and alloy nanoparticles on flat surfaces with narrow distributions in particle size and interparticle spacing. Here we investigated the influence of the materials (substrate and polymer) and deposition parameters (temperature and emersion velocity) on the deposition of metal salt loaded micelles by dip-coating from solution and on the order and inter-particle spacing of the micellar deposits and thus of the metal nanoparticle arrays resulting after plasma removal of the polymer shell. For identical substrate and polymer, variation of the process parameters temperature and emersion velocity enables the controlled modification of the interparticle distance within a certain length regime. Moreover, also the degree of hexagonal order of the final array depends sensitively on these parameters.

  18. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  19. Optimizing substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Updegraff, D.M.; Wildeman, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction followed by sulfide precipitation effectively removes heavy metals from wastewaters. The substrate in the anaerobic zone in a constructed wetland can be designed to emphasize this removal process. This group of bacteria requires CH 2 O, P, N, and SO 4 =, reducing conditions, and pH range of 5-9 (pH=7 is optimum). The objective of this study was to find an inexpensive source of nutrients that would give the best initial production of sulfide and make a good wetland substrate. All tested materials contain sufficient P and N; mine drainage provides sulfate. Thus, tests focused on finding organic material that provides the proper nutrients and does not cause the culture to fall below pH of 5. Among chemical nutrients, sodium lactate combined with (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 were the only compounds that produced sulfide after 11 days. Among complex nutrients, only cow manure produced sulfide after 26 days. Among complex carbohydrates, cracked corn and raw rice produced sulfide after 10 days. Most substrates failed to produce sulfide because anaerobic fermentation reduced the pH below 5. Presently, cracked corn is the best candidate for a substrate. Five grams of cow manure produced 0.14 millimole of sulfide whereas 0.1 g of cracked corn produced 0.22 millimole

  20. Influência da taxa de carga orgânica no desempenho de sistemas alagados construídos cultivados com forrageiras Influence of organic loading rate on the performance of constructed wetlands cultivated with grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da taxa de carga orgânica (TCO no desempenho de sistemas alagados construídos (SACs de escoamento subsuperficial. Cada SAC foi constituído por um tanque de 0,40 x 0,73 x 3,00 m. A água residuária de laticínios (ARL foi aplicada com vazão de 60 L.d-1. O tratamento testemunha foi constituído por um SAC sem vegetação, ao qual foi aplicada uma TCO de 130 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO. Nos SACs cultivados com capim-elefante e com capim-tifton 85, foram aplicadas TCOs de 66, 130, 190, 320 e 570 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO. Os SACs se mostraram eficientes na remoção de DBO, DQO, SST, ST e nitrogênio. TCOs entre 250 e 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 de DBO proporcionaram maiores eficiências na remoção da carga orgânica e acima de 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 na de sólidos da água residuária. A presença de plantas nos SACs mostrou-se importante na remoção de N, K e Na da ARL.The present paper was carried out to study the influence of organic loading rate (OLR on the performance of subsurface flow constructed wetlands systems (CWs. Each CW was composed of a sealed tank of 0.40 x 0.73 x 3.00 m. The dairy industry wastewater was applied with flow rate of 60 L.d-1. In the control system, consisting of CW without vegetation, 130 kg.ha-1 d-1 of BOD was applied. In vegetated CWs (cultivated with elephant grass and tifton 85 bermudagrass, OLRs of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg.ha-1 d-1 of BOD were applied . The CW systems were efficient in the removal of BOD, COD, TSS, TS and nitrogen. OLRs between 250 and 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 BOD provide greater efficiencies in organic loading removal and above 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 in the solids removal from wastewater. The presence of the plants in the CWs showed to be important in the removal of N, K and Na of wastewater.

  1. Hydrological performance of dual-substrate-layer green roofs using porous inert substrates with high sorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui

    2017-06-01

    Given that the common medium in existing green roofs is a single layer composed of organic and inorganic substrates, seven pilot-scale dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs (G1-G7), which include nutrition and adsorption substrate layers, were constructed in this study. The effectiveness of porous inert substrates (activated charcoal, zeolite, pumice, lava, vermiculite and expanded perlite) used as the adsorption substrate for stormwater retention was investigated. A single-substrate-layer green roof (G8) was built for comparison with G1-G7. Despite the larger total rainfall depth (mm) of six types of simulated rains (43.2, 54.6, 76.2, 87.0, 85.2 and 86.4, respectively), the total percent retention of G1-G7 varied between 14% and 82% with an average of 43%, exhibiting better runoff-retaining capacity than G8 based on the maximum potential rainfall storage depth per unit height of adsorption substrate. Regression analysis showed that there was a logarithmic relationship between cumulative rainfall depth with non-zero runoff and stormwater retention for G1-G4 and a linear relationship for G5-G8. To enhance the water retention capacity and extend the service life of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs, the mixture of activated charcoal and/or pumice with expanded perlite and/or vermiculite is more suitable as the adsorption substrate than the mixture containing lava and/or zeolite.

  2. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, M. Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine W. K.; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-01-05

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  3. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  4. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  5. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  6. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of goose manure with alkali solubilized wheat straw: A case of carbon to nitrogen ratio and organic loading rate regression optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Umar, Muhammad; Rasool, Ghulam

    2017-04-01

    The present study focused on carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and organic loading rate (OLR) optimization of goose manure (GM) and wheat straw (WS). Dealing the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure on industrial scale; the question of optimum C/N (mixing ratio) and OLR (daily feeding concentration) have significant importance still lack in literature. Therefore, Batch and CSTR co-digestion experiments of the GM and WS were carried out at mesophilic condition. The alkali (NaOH) solubilization pretreatment for the WS had greatly enhanced its anaerobic digestibility. The highest methane production was evaluated between the C/N of 20-30 during Batch experimentation while for CSTRs; the second applied OLR of (3g.VS/L.d) was proved as the optimum with maximum methane production capability of 254.65ml/g.VS for reactor B at C/N of 25. The C/N and OLR regression optimization models were developed for their commercial scale usefulness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2017-12-12

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices that can degrade performance during operation at high temperature.

  8. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2015-11-03

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices during operation at high temperature that can degrade performance.

  9. Mechanics of patterned helical Si springs on Si substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D L; Ye, D X; Khan, F; Tang, F; Lim, B K; Picu, R C; Wang, G C; Lu, T M

    2003-12-01

    The elastic response, including the spring constant, of individual Si helical-shape submicron springs, was measured using a tip-cantilever assembly attached to a conventional atomic force microscope. The isolated, four-turn Si springs were fabricated using oblique angle deposition with substrate rotation, also known as the glancing angle deposition, on a templated Si substrate. The response of the structures was modeled using finite elements, and it was shown that the conventional formulae for the spring constant required modifications before they could be used for the loading scheme used in the present experiment.

  10. Caracterização física de dois substratos orgânicos para plantas e a estimativa da umidade por meio da reflectometria no domínio do tempo Physical characterization of two organic substrates for plants and the estimate of water content through the time domain reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Manuel Mestas Valero

    2009-04-01

    influenced by substrates physical properties, mainly on irrigation handling, where understanding about water retention and pore aeration is essential. Water volume determination on substrates used during experiments has been necessary, and in this way the use of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR can represent an advance about this kind of researches. Based on water retention curve determination, this research, has been carried on physical characterizations of two organic substrates: coconut fiber and pine bark substrates. Also, a calibration curve has been adjusted for each tested substrates, and through TDR technique was estimated the water content. In a general, except to the dry density, the tested substrates has showed similar characteristics about its water-air relation. In the range readily available water, for both tested substrates, the TDR technique has showed a good performance on the water content estimative, with a determination coefficient of 0.9319 to the pine barks and 0.9385 to the coconut fiber.

  11. Ultrasound-Enhanced Biogas Production from Different Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Fernández, Cristina; Timmers, Rudolphus Antonius; Ruiz, Begona

    2015-01-01

    Among the biofuel production processes using different substrates, the biogas generation process is one of the simplest. Compared with bioethanol or biodiesel production processes, anaerobic digestion is a process where all the organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) can be biologically...... production. The present chapter is dedicated to providing a review of ultrasound pretreatment applied to different substrates (lignocelullosic materials, manures, sludge and microalgae). The advantages and constraints, that ultrasound pretreatment exhibit towards biogas production, are discussed and compared...

  12. Tribology of bio-inspired nanowrinkled films on ultrasoft substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Juergen M; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Major, Lukasz; Teichert, Christian; Hartmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic design of new materials uses nature as antetype, learning from billions of years of evolution. This work emphasizes the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, combining both hardness and wear resistance of its surface (the stratum corneum) with high elasticity of the bulk (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis). The key for combination of such opposite properties is wrinkling, being consequence of intrinsic stresses in the bulk (soft tissue): Tribological contact to counterparts below the stress threshold for tissue trauma occurs on the thick hard stratum corneum layer pads, while tensile loads smooth out wrinkles in between these pads. Similar mechanism offers high tribological resistance to hard films on soft, flexible polymers, which is shown for diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride thin films on ultrasoft polyurethane and harder polycarbonate substrates. The choice of these two compared substrate materials will show that ultra-soft substrate materials are decisive for the distinct tribological material. Hierarchical wrinkled structures of films on these substrates are due to high intrinsic compressive stress, which evolves during high energetic film growth. Incremental relaxation of these stresses occurs by compound deformation of film and elastic substrate surface, appearing in hierarchical nano-wrinkles. Nano-wrinkled topographies enable high elastic deformability of thin hard films, while overstressing results in zigzag film fracture along larger hierarchical wrinkle structures. Tribologically, these fracture mechanisms are highly important for ploughing and sliding of sharp and flat counterparts on hard-coated ultra-soft substrates like polyurethane. Concentration of polyurethane deformation under the applied normal loads occurs below these zigzag cracks. Unloading closes these cracks again. Even cyclic testing do not lead to film delamination and retain low friction behavior, if the adhesion to the substrate is high and the initial

  13. TRIBOLOGY OF BIO-INSPIRED NANOWRINKLED FILMS ON ULTRASOFT SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen M. Lackner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic design of new materials uses nature as antetype, learning from billions of years of evolution. This work emphasizes the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, combining both hardness and wear resistance of its surface (the stratum corneum with high elasticity of the bulk (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis. The key for combination of such opposite properties is wrinkling, being consequence of intrinsic stresses in the bulk (soft tissue: Tribological contact to counterparts below the stress threshold for tissue trauma occurs on the thick hard stratum corneum layer pads, while tensile loads smooth out wrinkles in between these pads. Similar mechanism offers high tribological resistance to hard films on soft, flexible polymers, which is shown for diamond-like carbon (DLC and titanium nitride thin films on ultrasoft polyurethane and harder polycarbonate substrates. The choice of these two compared substrate materials will show that ultra-soft substrate materials are decisive for the distinct tribological material. Hierarchical wrinkled structures of films on these substrates are due to high intrinsic compressive stress, which evolves during high energetic film growth. Incremental relaxation of these stresses occurs by compound deformation of film and elastic substrate surface, appearing in hierarchical nano-wrinkles. Nano-wrinkled topographies enable high elastic deformability of thin hard films, while overstressing results in zigzag film fracture along larger hierarchical wrinkle structures. Tribologically, these fracture mechanisms are highly important for ploughing and sliding of sharp and flat counterparts on hard-coated ultra-soft substrates like polyurethane. Concentration of polyurethane deformation under the applied normal loads occurs below these zigzag cracks. Unloading closes these cracks again. Even cyclic testing do not lead to film delamination and retain low friction behavior, if the adhesion to the substrate is high

  14. Electrical properties of transparent CNT and ITO coatings on PET substrate including nano-structural aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Wang, Zuo-Jia; Kwon, Dong-Jun; Gu, Ga-Young; Lawrence DeVries, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra and surface resistance measurement were used to investigate optical transmittance and conductive properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Conductive CNT and ITO coatings were successfully fabricated on PET by a spray-coating method. Thin coatings of both materials exhibited good conductivity and transparency. Changes in electrical and optical properties of the coatings were studied as a function of the coating suspension concentration. Interfacial durability of the coatings on PET substrates was also investigated under fatigue and bending loads. CNT coated substrates, with high aspect ratios, exhibited no detectable change in surface resistance up to 2000 cyclic loadings, whereas the ITO coated substrates exhibited a substantial increase in surface resistance at 1000 loading cycles. This change in resistance is attributed to a reduction in the number and effectiveness of the electrical contact points due to the inherent brittle nature of ITO.

  15. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  16. Avaliação do desempenho do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (uasb em escala laboratorial na remoção da carga orgânica de águas residuárias da suinocultura Performance evaluation of a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB removing organic loading rate from swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o desempenho do reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB-Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket construído em escala laboratorial na redução da carga orgânica poluidora dos despejos suinícolas brutos. O sistema completo foi composto de um tanque de acidificação e equalização, reator UASB e lagoa aerada facultativa. O tempo de detenção hidráulica (TDH e temperatura adotada para o reator UASB foram de 30 horas e 30 ºC, respectivamente. Os valores médios afluentes de DQO T, ST e SVT foram de 1806, 1810 e 1240 mg.L-1. As eficiências de remoção de DQO T, ST e SVT foram de 84, 58 e 73%, respectivamente. O sistema se apresentou-se estável, com boas condições de tamponamento, retenção e digestibilidade de sólidos, demonstrando que os critérios adotados foram adequados, principalmente aqueles referentes ao TDH, carga orgânica volumétrica (COV e temperatura.The present work was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of a lab scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB treating liquid effluent from swine manure without solids separation. The treatment system consisted of one acidification tank, which also equalized the substrate, an UASB reactor, and an aerated facultative pound. The hydraulic retention time (HRT and temperature adopted for the UASB reactor were 30h and 30ºC, respectively. The influent average values of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Solids (TS and Total Volatile Solids (TVS were 1806, 1810 and 1240 mg.L-1. The removal efficiencies were 84, 58 and 73 %, respectively. The system presented good stability and buffering conditions, and also a good solids digestibility, showing that the research criteria adopted was adequate, mainly those parameters referred to the HRT, Volumetric Organic Loading Rate (VOLR and temperature.

  17. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling coupling reactions with low catalyst loading: a green and sustainable protocol in pure water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihri, Aziz; Luart, Denis; Len, Christophe; Solhy, Abderrahim; Chevrin, Carole; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2011-04-07

    The Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction represents one of the most important synthetic transformations developed in the 20th century. However, the use of toxic organic solvents remains a scientific challenge and an aspect of economical and ecological relevance, and benign water as a reaction medium was found to be highly effective to overcome some of these issues. In the present manuscript, we described Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions in neat water, without using any phase transfer reagent. Notably, this protocol also works with ultra-low loading of catalyst with high turnover numbers and also able to couple challenging substrates like aryl chlorides. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling coupling reactions with low catalyst loading: A green and sustainable protocol in pure water

    KAUST Repository

    Fihri, Aziz; Luart, Denis; Len, Christophe; Solhy, Abderrahim; Chevrin, Carole; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2011-01-01

    The Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction represents one of the most important synthetic transformations developed in the 20th century. However, the use of toxic organic solvents remains a scientific challenge and an aspect of economical and ecological relevance, and benign water as a reaction medium was found to be highly effective to overcome some of these issues. In the present manuscript, we described Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions in neat water, without using any phase transfer reagent. Notably, this protocol also works with ultra-low loading of catalyst with high turnover numbers and also able to couple challenging substrates like aryl chlorides. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Mastering the biaxial stress state in nanometric thin films on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurie, D., E-mail: faurie@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM-CNRS, UPR3407, Université Paris 13, Villetaneuse (France); Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Geandier, G. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy Cedex (France); Goudeau, P. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Thiaudière, D. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint-Aubin, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    Biaxial stress state of thin films deposited on flexible substrate can be mastered thanks to a new biaxial device. This tensile machine allows applying in-plane loads F{sub x} and F{sub y} in the two principal directions x and y of a cruciform-shaped polymer substrate. The transmission of the deformation at film/substrate interface allows controlling the stress and strain field in the thin films. We show in this paper a few illustrations dealing with strain measurements in polycrystalline thin films deposited on flexible substrate. The potentialities of the biaxial device located at Soleil synchrotron are also discussed.

  20. Drug loading to lipid-based cationic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Leide P.; Konovalov, Oleg; Torriani, Iris L.; Haas, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    Lipid-based cationic nanoparticles are a new promising option for tumor therapy, because they display enhanced binding and uptake at the neo-angiogenic endothelial cells, which a tumor needs for its nutrition and growth. By loading suitable cytotoxic compounds to the cationic carrier, the tumor endothelial and consequently also the tumor itself can be destroyed. For the development of such novel anti-tumor agents, the control of drug loading and drug release from the carrier matrix is essential. We have studied the incorporation of the hydrophobic anti-cancer agent Paclitaxel (PXL) into a variety of lipid matrices by X-Ray reflectivity measurements. Liposome suspensions from cationic and zwitterionic lipids, comprising different molar fractions of Paclitaxel, were deposited on planar glass substrates. After drying at controlled humidity, well ordered, oriented multilayer stacks were obtained, as proven by the presence of bilayer Bragg peaks to several orders in the reflectivity curves. The presence of the drug induced a decrease of the lipid bilayer spacing, and with an excess of drug, also Bragg peaks of drug crystals could be observed. From the results, insight into the solubility of Paclitaxel in the model membranes was obtained and a structural model of the organization of the drug in the membrane was derived. Results from subsequent pressure/area-isotherm and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) measurements performed with drug/lipid Langmuir monolayers were in accordance with these conjectures

  1. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  2. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  3. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  4. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  5. Effects of the reduction of the hydraulic retention time to 1.5 days at constant organic loading in CSTR, ASBR, and fixed-bed reactors – Performance and methanogenic community composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Ziganshin, Ayrat M.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Pröter, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic retention time (HRT) is one of the key parameters in biogas processes and often it is postulated that a minimum HRT of 10–25 days is obligatory in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to prevent a washout of slow growing methanogens. In this study the effects of the reduction of the HRT from 6 to 1.5 days on performance and methanogenic community composition in different systems with and without immobilization operated with simulated thin stillage (STS) at mesophilic conditions and constant organic loading rates (OLR) of 10 g L −1 d −1 of volatile solids were investigated. With the reduction of the HRT process instability was first observed in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) (at HRT of 3 days) followed by the CSTR (at HRT of 2 days). The fixed bed reactor (FBR) was stable until the end of the experiment, but the reduction of the HRT to 1.5 days caused a decrease of the specific biogas production to about 450 L kg −1 of VS compared to about 600 L kg −1 of VS at HRTs of 4–5 days. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera under stable process conditions in the CSTR and the ASBR and members of Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were only present at HRT of 4 days and lower. In the effluent of the FBR Methanosarcina spp. were not detected and Methanosaeta spp. were more abundant then in the other reactors. - Highlights: • A CSTR was operated at high OLR of 10 (g L −1  d −1  VS) and low HRT of 3 days. • Exceeding washout of methanogenic archaea did not take place. • pH and nutrient concentrations influenced the reproduction rate more than HRT. • Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera in the CSTR

  6. Colonization by benthic macroinvertebrates in two artificial substrate types of a Riparian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Borges dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim To analyze the efficiency of organic and inorganic substrates in samples of benthic macroinvertebrates of riparian forests from the Cerrado. Specific objectives (i characterize the ecological succession and taxonomic richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in stream affluent of a riparian forest; (ii analyze the influence of seasonality on the colonization of macroinvertebrates; and (iii determine the effect of the types of artificial substrates on the richness, composition and abundance of the benthic community. Methods Sampling was carried out in the rainy and dry seasons, and we installed in the watercourse two types of substrates: organic (leaf packs and inorganic (bricks, organized in pairs. Six samples per season were done to verify colonization, succession, richness and abundance of benthic community. The substrates were carefully sorted and the organisms were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Results The ecological succession was clearly observed, with the initial occurrence of Chironomidae and Baetidae (considered early colonizers, and a late occurrence of organisms such as Helotrephidae and Trichoptera (considered late colonizers. No significant difference was found in the richness and abundance among the studied seasons (rainy and dry, but the organic substrate was significantly higher than the inorganic substrate for these parameters. Conclusion Organic artificial substrates are more efficient in characterizing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates in the study area, because they are more similar to the conditions of the substrate found naturally in the environment.

  7. Dielectric coatings on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Baker, P.; Milam, D.

    1976-01-01

    Large aperture, beryllium substrate-based mirrors have been used to focus high intensity pulsed laser beams. Finished surfaces have high reflectivity, low wavefront distortion, and high laser damage thresholds. This paper describes the development of a series of metallic coatings, surface finishing techniques, and dielectric overcoatings to meet specified performance requirements. Beryllium substrates were coated with copper, diamond-machined to within 5 micro-inches to final contour, nickel plated, and abrasively figured to final contour. Bond strengths for several bonding processes are presented. Dielectric overcoatings were deposited on finished multimetallic substrates to increase both reflectivity and the damage thresholds. Coatings were deposited using both high and low temperature processes which induce varying stresses in the finished coating substrate system. Data are presented to show the evolution of wavefront distortion, reflectivity, and damage thresholds throughout the many steps involved in fabrication

  8. Probing protein phosphatase substrate binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlys-Larsen, Kim B.; Sørensen, Kasper Kildegaard; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and high throughput analysis for systems biology can benefit significantly from solid-phase chemical tools for affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures. Here we report the application of solid-phase synthesis of phosphopeptides for pull-down and analysis of the affinity...... profile of the integrin-linked kinase associated phosphatase (ILKAP), a member of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family. Phosphatases can potentially dephosphorylate these phosphopeptide substrates but, interestingly, performing the binding studies at 4 °C allowed efficient binding to phosphopeptides......, without the need for phosphopeptide mimics or phosphatase inhibitors. As no proven ILKAP substrates were available, we selected phosphopeptide substrates among known PP2Cδ substrates including the protein kinases: p38, ATM, Chk1, Chk2 and RSK2 and synthesized directly on PEGA solid supports through a BAL...

  9. Optimisation of substrate blends in anaerobic co-digestion using adaptive linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gen, Santiago; Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of multiple substrates has the potential to enhance biogas productivity by making use of the complementary characteristics of different substrates. A blending strategy based on a linear programming optimisation method is proposed aiming at maximising COD conversion into methane, but simultaneously maintaining a digestate and biogas quality. The method incorporates experimental and heuristic information to define the objective function and the linear restrictions. The active constraints are continuously adapted (by relaxing the restriction boundaries) such that further optimisations in terms of methane productivity can be achieved. The feasibility of the blends calculated with this methodology was previously tested and accurately predicted with an ADM1-based co-digestion model. This was validated in a continuously operated pilot plant, treating for several months different mixtures of glycerine, gelatine and pig manure at organic loading rates from 1.50 to 4.93 gCOD/Ld and hydraulic retention times between 32 and 40 days at mesophilic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced tribology durability of a self-assembled monolayer of alkylphosphonic acid on a textured copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Yong, E-mail: wanyong@qtech.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang Yinhu; Zhang Quan; Wang Zhongqian; Xu Zhen; Liu Changsong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Zhang Junyan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A textured surface is prepared on the copper substrate by chemical etching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alkylphosphonic acid is assembled on the etched copper substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combining texturing and alkylphosphonic acid coating render the films hydrophobicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual-layer films possess low friction with extremely long duration. - Abstract: A simple two-step process was developed to render the copper surface with lower friction and long durability. The copper substrate was immersed in a 0.01 M NaOH solution to fabricate a textured Cu{sub 2}O film. A self-assembled monolayer of alkylphosphonic acid was then deposited on the Cu{sub 2}O film to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared microscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, the chemical composition and hydrophobicity of freshly prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction-reducing behavior of the organic-inorganic composite film sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the alkylphosphonic acid films on the textured Cu{sub 2}O film led to decreased friction with significantly extended life. For a constant load, the increase in chain length of alkylphosphonic acid yields the films that are dramatically more stable against tribological deformation and provide low coefficients of friction over much longer periods of time.

  11. Enhanced tribology durability of a self-assembled monolayer of alkylphosphonic acid on a textured copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yong; Wang Yinhu; Zhang Quan; Wang Zhongqian; Xu Zhen; Liu Changsong; Zhang Junyan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A textured surface is prepared on the copper substrate by chemical etching. ► The alkylphosphonic acid is assembled on the etched copper substrate. ► Combining texturing and alkylphosphonic acid coating render the films hydrophobicity. ► The dual-layer films possess low friction with extremely long duration. - Abstract: A simple two-step process was developed to render the copper surface with lower friction and long durability. The copper substrate was immersed in a 0.01 M NaOH solution to fabricate a textured Cu 2 O film. A self-assembled monolayer of alkylphosphonic acid was then deposited on the Cu 2 O film to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared microscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, the chemical composition and hydrophobicity of freshly prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction-reducing behavior of the organic-inorganic composite film sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the alkylphosphonic acid films on the textured Cu 2 O film led to decreased friction with significantly extended life. For a constant load, the increase in chain length of alkylphosphonic acid yields the films that are dramatically more stable against tribological deformation and provide low coefficients of friction over much longer periods of time.

  12. Graphene on insulating crystalline substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcoeltekin, S; El Kharrazi, M; Koehler, B; Lorke, A; Schleberger, M

    2009-01-01

    We show that it is possible to prepare and identify ultra-thin sheets of graphene on crystalline substrates such as SrTiO 3 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaF 2 by standard techniques (mechanical exfoliation, optical and atomic force microscopy). On the substrates under consideration we find a similar distribution of single layer, bilayer and few-layer graphene and graphite flakes as with conventional SiO 2 substrates. The optical contrast C of a single graphene layer on any of those substrates is determined by calculating the optical properties of a two-dimensional metallic sheet on the surface of a dielectric, which yields values between C = -1.5% (G/TiO 2 ) and C = -8.8% (G/CaF 2 ). This contrast is in reasonable agreement with experimental data and is sufficient to make identification by an optical microscope possible. The graphene layers cover the crystalline substrate in a carpet-like mode and the height of single layer graphene on any of the crystalline substrates as determined by atomic force microscopy is d SLG = 0.34 nm and thus much smaller than on SiO 2 .

  13. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  14. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  15. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  16. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  17. A Practical Test Method for Mode I Fracture Toughness of Adhesive Joints with Dissimilar Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeman, R.G.; Erdman, D.L.; Klett, L.B.; Lomax, R.D.

    1999-09-27

    A practical test method for determining the mode I fracture toughness of adhesive joints with dissimilar substrates will be discussed. The test method is based on the familiar Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen geometry, but overcomes limitations in existing techniques that preclude their use when testing joints with dissimilar substrates. The test method is applicable to adhesive joints where the two bonded substrates have different flexural rigidities due to geometric and/or material considerations. Two specific features discussed are the use of backing beams to prevent substrate damage and a compliance matching scheme to achieve symmetric loading conditions. The procedure is demonstrated on a modified DCB specimen comprised of SRIM composite and thin-section, e-coat steel substrates bonded with an epoxy adhesive. Results indicate that the test method provides a practical means of characterizing the mode I fracture toughness of joints with dissimilar substrates.

  18. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  19. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14 C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contamina