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Sample records for oral mucosal wound

  1. IL-22 mediates the oral mucosal wound healing via STAT3 in keratinocytes.

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    Yu, Ran; Ding, Yumei; Zhu, Lijuan; Qu, Yinying; Zhang, Chenguang; Liu, Lin; Chen, Lili

    2016-12-01

    Wounds are common in the oral cavity. During wound healing, several cytokines are released, which are probably helpful in providing wound debridement, removal of damaged tissues and microbes. Most of the target cells of IL-22 are epithelial cells, which play an important role in mucosa immunity. The function of IL-22 in oral diseases is not well understood. We investigated the expression level of IL-22, collagen I and p-stat3 (Tyr705) via a mice tongue wound model in vivo and detected the effect of IL-22 on the expression of MMP-1, type I collagen and p-stat3 in keratinocytes. IL-22 and p-stat3 were associated with wound healing, and STAT3 was activated when the keratinocytes or the tongue tissue were stimulated by IL-22. In addition, IL-22 could mediate gene expression involved in wounds involving keratinocytes, such as type I collagen and MMP-1, which may contribute to scarless healing. Our study suggests that IL-22 mediates wound healing via STAT3 in keratinocytes. This study reveals a new role for IL-22 in mediating wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation induced oral mucositis

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    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  3. Using Light to Treat Mucositis and Help Wounds Heal

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    Ignatius, Robert W.; Martin, Todd S.; Kirk, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A continuing program of research and development is focusing on the use of controlled illumination by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to treat mucositis and to accelerate healing of wounds. The basic idea is to illuminate the affected area of a patient with light of an intensity, duration, and wavelength (or combination of wavelengths) chosen to produce a therapeutic effect while generating only a minimal amount of heat. This method of treatment was originally intended for treating the mucositis that is a common complication of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer. It is now also under consideration as a means to accelerate the healing of wounds and possibly also to treat exposure to chemical and radioactive warfare agents. Radiation therapy and many chemotherapeutic drugs often damage the mucosal linings of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, leading to mouth ulcers (oral mucositis), nausea, and diarrhea. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy is currently the standard of care for ischemic, hypoxic, infected, and otherwise slowlyhealing problem wounds, including those of oral mucositis. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy increases such cellular activities as collagen production and angiogenesis, leading to an increased rate of healing. Biostimulation by use of laser light has also been found to be effective in treating mucositis. For hyperbaricoxygen treatment, a patient must remain inside a hyperbaric chamber for an extended time. Laser treatment is limited by laser-wavelength capabilities and by narrowness of laser beams, and usually entails the generation of significant amounts of heat.

  4. Oral mucositis - self-care

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    Cancer treatment - mucositis; Cancer treatment - mouth pain; Cancer treatment - mouth sores; Chemotherapy - mucositis; Chemotherapy - mouth pain; Chemotherapy - mouth sores; Radiation therapy - mucositis; Radiation therapy - mouth pain; Radiation ...

  5. Can the oral microflora affect oral ulcerative mucositis?

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    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; de Soet, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review: Oral mucositis is one of the most prevalent toxicities after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mucositis is initiated by the chemotherapy or radiotherapy preceding the transplantation. It is commonly accepted that microorganisms play a role in the process of oral mucositis.

  6. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing

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    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; pwound healing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

  7. Cancer therapy-related oral mucositis.

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    Redding, Spencer W

    2005-08-01

    Oral mucositis is a common side effect of cancer therapies, particularly radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and various forms of chemotherapy. It commonly results in severe oral pain that can compromise the duration and success of cancer management. Hospitalizations are common because patients lose the ability to take anything by mouth due to severe pain and must have alimentation supported during this period. Pain management usually requires potent narcotic analgesia. Cancer therapy-related oral mucositis is commonly described as the most significant and debilitating acute complication associated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Until recently, cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis was thought to be a process involving the epithelium only. Evidence is building that the process of oral mucositis involves far more than just the epithelium, but includes multiple cellular processes of the submucosa as well. Many strategies have been evaluated to prevent oral mucositis, but the data is confusing since it is often conflicting. Therapy with the growth factor, KGF1, appears promising, as it is the only medication currently approved by the FDA. A multifaceted approach that targets the entire mucositis process will probably be needed to optimize overall prevention.

  8. Oral mucosal diseases: evaluation and management.

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    Stoopler, Eric T; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2014-11-01

    Oral mucosal diseases encompass several common conditions that affect the general population. Some of these disorders present with signs and symptoms that are pathognomonic for the condition, whereas others present with similar features that can make clinical diagnosis difficult to achieve. It is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of these disorders to provide appropriate care to patients. This article reviews clinical aspects of common oral mucosal disorders, including candidiasis, herpes simplex viral infections, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid.

  9. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

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    Feber, T. [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author).

  10. Topical morphine for oral mucositis in children

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    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Aagaard, Gitte; Henneberg, Steen W;

    2012-01-01

    Systemic opioids for painful chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children often result in unsatisfactory pain relief and a high frequency of side effects. Opioids applied topically can produce analgesia by binding to opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. These receptors...

  11. Buccal adhesive nanofibers containing human growth hormone for oral mucositis.

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    Choi, Ji Suk; Han, Suk-Hee; Hyun, Changbaig; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2016-10-01

    Due to a lack of proper drug carriers to deliver treatments for mucositis, many cancer patients suffer from oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We prepared a double-layered electrospun nanofibrous sheets composed of Eudragit and chitosan to accelerate the healing rate of oral mucous ulcer. Human growth hormone (hGH) and Eudragit in a mixture of dimethylacetamide and ethanol were co-electrospun to nanofibrous sheets. The electrospun fibrous mat was subsequently layered with chitosan by a dip-coating method. Chitosan-layered sheets showed attenuated mass erosion while uncoated sheets were instantly melted at the physiological condition. The released hGH was trapped on the chitosan layer by the ionic interaction between positively charged chitosan and negatively charged hGH, and a large number of entrapped proteins remained on the SIS membrane due to the muco-adhesive properties of chitosan. hGH-incorporated sheets significantly increased proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts. In vivo study employing oral ulcers in dogs, the ulcers dressed with chitosan-layered sheets showed enhanced wound recovery and the chitosan layers on the sheet greatly assisted prolonged recovery. Therefore, chitosan-layered Eudragit nanofibrous sheets can be potentially applied to developing muco-adhesive wound dressing materials with pH-dependent drug release by adjusting the thickness of chitosan sheath on the sheets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1396-1406, 2016.

  12. Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis

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    Fabio Luiz Coracin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  13. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

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    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  14. Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.

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    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors.

  15. Oral mucosal involvement in visceral leishmaniasis

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    Sunny Garg; Richik Tripathi; Kamlakar Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis affects both the visceral and cutaneous tissues in body.OralMucosal involvement in leishmaniasis is rare and is often overlooked.We present a case17 year old boy from the north east region ofBihar who has a history of visceral leishmaniasis one year back, came to the department of oral surgery for treatment of persistent oral ulcers.Oral examination did not give any diagnostic information while systemic examination revealed enlarged spleen and low grade fever.Patient was screened for leishmaniasis by rK39 based immunochromatographic strip test which came to be positive.Biopsy of the ulcer as well as splenic and bone marrow aspirate confirmed the presence of leishmaniasis.Patient was administeredAmphotericinB for20 days following which significant clinical and haematological improvement followed.

  16. Oral mucosal immunization using glucomannosylated bilosomes.

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    Jain, Sanyog; Indulkar, Anura; Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish K

    2014-06-01

    The present study embarks on the feasibility of GM-bilosomes as a rationally designed vehicle for oral mucosal immunization. Bilosomes containing BSA as a model antigen were found to have vesicle size of 157 +/- 3 nm, PDI of 0.287 +/- 0.045, zeta potential of -21.8 +/- 2.01 mV and entrapment efficiency of 71.3 +/- 4.3%. Bilosomal formulations were freeze dried and entrapped BSA in freeze dried formulations was found to retain its structural and conformational stability as evident by SDS-PAGE and CD analysis. The GM-bilosomes were also found stable in different simulated biological fluids and bile salt solutions of different concentrations. In-vitro drug release revealed that GM-bilosomes were able to sustain drug release up to 24 h. In-vitro cell uptake in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells demonstrated significantly higher uptake of GM-bilosomes in comparison with bilosomes and free antigen. Intestinal uptake studies on excised rat intestinal sections further demonstrated higher uptake of vesicular systems throughout the intestinal region in comparison with free antigen. Significantly higher (p alum adsorbed BSA (BSA-AL) following oral administration. The immune response observed in case of GM-bilosomes was comparable to BSA-AL administered through im route without any significant difference (p > 0.05). More importantly, GM-bilosomes were found capable of inducing mucosal immune response as well as cell mediated immune response which was not induced by im BSA-AL. In conclusion, GM-bilosomes could be considered as promising carrier and adjuvant system for oral mucosal immunization and productively exploited for oral delivery of other candidate antigens.

  17. Age, gender, dentures and oral mucosal disorders.

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    MacEntee, M I; Glick, N; Stolar, E

    1998-03-01

    The numbers of participants over 75 years of age in previous studies of oral health have not been sufficient to permit a full investigation of the influence of age on the mouth. In this study a disproportionate stratified random sample of 255 independent elders was selected from a list of urban voters to provide similar numbers of men and women in three age groups. The subjects were interviewed and examined, and nearly half of them had mucosal disorders. There was a significant (P angular cheilitis in particular were associated significantly with men and with the use of defective dentures. Logistic regression revealed that neither age alone nor the quality of dentures predispose to mucosal lesions, but that the odds of finding stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular increased about three-fold in denture-users, and almost doubled in men.

  18. Oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis.

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    De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine

    2014-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is commonly found in middle-aged women. Although the cause is unknown, research points to several complex immunologic events and cells that are responsible for the inflammatory destruction and chronicity of these lesions. Biopsy for histologic diagnosis is recommended. The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause. Given the apparent risk of squamous cell carcinoma in these patients, frequent follow-up and repeat biopsy are vital.

  19. TREATMENT OF ORAL MUCOSAL LESIONS BY SCALPEL EXCISION AND PLATELET-RICH FIBRINMEMBRANE GRAFTING: A case report

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    Ivan Chenchev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The treatment of oral mucosal lesions and mucosal hypertrophy in particular, is most often achieved by an excision with or without covering the surface of the wound. The platelet rich fibrin membrane (PRFm is an autogenous product containing platelets and leukocytes and their secreted growth factors and cytokines. The purpose of the presented clinical case is to describe a new, recent technique used for the covering of mucosal wounds left after the removal of pathological lesions. Material and Methods: On a single patient mucosal hypertrophy was removed by an excision with scalpel and the resulting surgical wound was covered with an autogenous PRF membrane. Postoperatively the healing process was followed on the 7th, 14th and 30th day. Results: The healing period went smoothly with minimal postoperative discomfort and no complications. Conclusion: The results of the presented clinical case demonstrate that the PRF membrane can successfully be used to cover postoperative mucosal defects.

  20. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

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    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  1. A DETAILED REVIEW ON ORAL MUCOSAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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    Radha Bhati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal drug delivery system is widely applicable as novel site for administration of drug for immediate and controlled release action by preventing first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation due to GI microbial flora. Oral mucosal drug delivery system provides local and systemic action. In this review, attention is focused to give regarding physiology of oral mucosal including tissue permeability, barriers to permeation and route of permeation, biopharmaceutics of buccal and sublingual absorption, factors affecting drug absorption, detailed information of penetration enhancers, design of oral mucosal drug delivery system and role of mucoadhesion and various theories of bioadhesion. Evaluation techniques and selection of animal model for in-vivo studies are also discussed.

  2. Minimally invasive treatment of oral ranula with a mucosal tunnel.

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    Jia, T; Xing, L; Zhu, F; Jin, X; Liu, L; Tao, J; Chen, Y; Gao, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a new method for minimally-invasive treatment of uncomplicated oral ranulas using a mucosal tunnel, and we report the clinical outcome. We constructed a mucosal tunnel for each of 35 patients who presented with an oral ranula, by making 2 parallel incisions across the top of the protruding ranula 2-3mm apart, and dissected the soft tissue along the incisions to its wall. The fluid was removed and the cavity irrigated with normal saline. The wall of the ranula was not treated. The first mucosal tunnel was made by suturing the base of the mucosal strip to the deepest part of the wall of the ranula. The mucosal base of the tunnel and the deepest part of the base of the ranula were fixed with absorbable sutures. The two external edges of the incisions were sutured together to form the second mucosal tunnel, and apposing sutures were inserted between the two parallel incisions to form two natural mucosal tunnels. The duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 5 years. One patient was lost to follow-up and 34 patients were cured. Outcomes were satisfactory without relapse during the follow-up period and the patients were satisfied with the outcome. The mucosal tunnel is a safe, effective, simple, and minimally-invasive treatment for oral ranula.

  3. Oral mucosal alterations among the institutionalized elderly in Brazil

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    Raquel Conceição Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of oral mucosal alterations and associated factors among the institutionalized elderly in Brazil. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, a review of their medical records and an intra-oral examination. A sample of 335 individuals over 60 years of age was randomly selected. In total, 646 alterations were diagnosed; 59.1% were variations of the normal oral mucosa. The most frequent variation consisted of sublingual varicosities (51.6%. Denture stomatitis (15.2% and denture hyperplasia (12.8% were the most frequent lesions. Elderly patients who wore dentures had a significantly higher prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (p = 0.00 than those that didn't wear dentures. There was a high prevalence of variations of the normal oral mucosa and of mucosal lesions, especially denture-induced lesions, among the institutionalized elderly.

  4. Oral administration of a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit promotes mucosal healing in the colon.

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    Baldauf, K J; Royal, J M; Kouokam, J C; Haribabu, B; Jala, V R; Yaddanapudi, K; Hamorsky, K T; Dryden, G W; Matoba, N

    2016-11-02

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of a licensed oral cholera vaccine. However, CTB has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects whose impacts on the gut are not fully understood. Here, we found that oral administration in mice of a plant-made recombinant CTB (CTBp) significantly increased several immune cell populations in the colon lamina propria. Global gene expression analysis revealed that CTBp had more pronounced impacts on the colon than the small intestine, with significant activation of TGFβ-mediated pathways in the colon epithelium. The clinical relevance of CTBp-induced impacts on colonic mucosa was examined. In a human colon epithelial model using Caco2 cells, CTBp, but not the non-GM1-binding mutant G33D-CTBp, induced TGFβ-mediated wound healing. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) acute colitis mouse model, oral administration of CTBp protected against colon mucosal damage as manifested by mitigated body weight loss, decreased histopathological scores, and blunted escalation of inflammatory cytokine levels while inducing wound healing-related genes. Furthermore, biweekly oral administration of CTBp significantly reduced disease severity and tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane/DSS model of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Altogether, these results demonstrate CTBp's ability to enhance mucosal healing in the colon, highlighting its potential application in ulcerative colitis therapy besides cholera vaccination.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 2 November 2016. doi:10.1038/mi.2016.95.

  5. Dental students' ability to detect and diagnose oral mucosal lesions.

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    Ali, Mohammad A; Joseph, Bobby K; Sundaram, Devipriya B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of dental students in the screening clinic of the Kuwait University Dental Center to detect and diagnose oral mucosal lesions. Clinical examinations performed by dental students between January 2009 and February 2011 were included. All their findings regarding the oral mucosal lesions and dental carious lesions detected were recorded, after which the patients were re-examined by faculty examiners. The students rated their own ability to detect mucosal and carious lesions before each examination. Among the 341 patients screened, 375 oral mucosal lesions were found by the faculty examiners. Of those, the students detected 178 (47.5%). Out of the 375 lesions, including the ones they failed to detect, the students diagnosed 272 (72.5%) correctly. The students were more likely (p≤0.01) to correctly diagnose a mucosal lesion when they themselves had detected it (n=169/178) than when they failed to detect it and had it subsequently pointed out by the faculty examiners (n=103/197). The students were more competent in detecting carious lesions (p≤0.001) than in detecting mucosal lesions. A significantly higher proportion of students who felt confident in detecting mucosal lesions were actually more competent in detecting the lesions than those who were not confident (p≤0.001). Further educational strategies are needed to motivate Kuwait University dental students to develop the knowledge, skills, and judgment necessary to integrate a complete intraoral examination into their routine practice.

  6. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms.

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    Mancl, Kimberly A; Kirsner, Robert S; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque, are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible; thus, biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attention to the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction, and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields and future therapies are also discussed.

  7. Phenytoin mouthwash to treat cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis: A pilot study

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    M Baharvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer therapy with no definite treatment. Phenytoin has positive effects on healing of mucosal and dermal wounds. In this study efficacy of 1% phenytoin mouthwash on severity of mucositis (on the basis of WHO scale, pain relief (based on Visual Analogue Scale, and improvement of patients' quality of life (on the basis of EORTC-QLQ-H and N35 questionnaire was evaluated. Materials And Methods: In a pilot -double-blind randomized clinical trial, eight patients in study group were given 1% phenytoin mouthwash while eight patients in control group used normal saline. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney and Repeated Measured ANOVA tests. Results: Reduction of mucositis severity was observed, but the difference was not significant. On the other hand, patients on phenytoin therapy had better pain relief (VAS# 6.75 ± 1.58 at the beginning of the study reached to # 3.75 ± 1.16 after 3 weeks in phenytoin group and improvement in quality of life (score of QOL was 70.63 ± 5.5 that reached to 63.61 ± 6.39 in phenytoin group than normal saline group significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: One percent phenytoin mouthwash caused pain relief and improvement of life quality significantly in patients with mucositis due to cancer therapy, but it did not reduce the severity of mucositis in a statistically significant scale.

  8. Icing oral mucositis: Oral cryotherapy in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

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    Chen, Joey; Seabrook, Jamie; Fulford, Adrienne; Rajakumar, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Background Up to 70% of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant develop oral mucositis as a side effect of high-dose melphalan conditioning chemotherapy. Oral cryotherapy has been documented to be potentially effective in reducing oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy protocol implemented within the hematopoietic stem cell transplant program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Secondary endpoints included duration of oral mucositis, duration of hospital stay, parenteral narcotics use and total parenteral nutrition use. Results One hundred and forty patients were included in the study, 70 patients in both no cryotherapy and cryotherapy groups. Both oral mucositis incidence and severity were found to be significantly lower in the cryotherapy group. Fifty (71.4%) experienced mucositis post cryotherapy compared to 67 (95.7%) in the no cryotherapy group (p < 0.001). The median oral mucositis severity, assessed using the WHO oral toxicity scale from grade 0-4, experienced in the no group was 2.5 vs. 2 in the cryotherapy group (p = 0.03). Oral mucositis duration and use of parenteral narcotics were also significantly reduced. Duration of hospital stay and use of parenteral nutrition were similar between the two groups. Conclusion The cryotherapy protocol resulted in a significantly lower incidence and severity of oral mucositis. These results provide evidence for the continued use of oral cryotherapy, an inexpensive and generally well-tolerated practice.

  9. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  10. Potential Benefits of Oral Cryotherapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodzinski, Amelia

    2016-10-01

    Mucositis is a common side effect of cancer therapies that causes painful, erythematous lesions to develop in the gastrointestinal tract. These lesions can lead to malnutrition, increased risk for serious infection, prolonged hospital stays, and reduced quality of life. Oral cryotherapy, or the use of ice chips to cool the mucous membranes during bolus chemotherapy infusions (e.g., 5-fluorouracil [Adrucil®] and melphalan [Alkeran®]), is the most readily accessible and cost-effective intervention available. Although many factors may contribute to the development of mucositis during cancer treatment, studies have found a reduction in the incidence and the severity of mucositis with the use of oral cryotherapy.


  11. The Effect of Oral Medication on Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jeffrey M

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information about the effects of oral medications on wound healing. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify oral medications that aid in wound healing.2. Recognize oral medications that interfere with wound healing. Given the accelerated medical discoveries of recent decades, there is a surprising lack of oral medications that directly improve wound healing. Of the oral medications available, most target ancillary aspects of wound care such as pain management, infection mitigation, and nutrition. This article describes oral pharmacologic agents intended to build new tissue and aid in wound healing, as well as an introduction to oral medications that interfere with wound healing. This review will not discuss the pharmacology of pain management or treatment of infection, nor will it address nutritional supplements.

  12. Management of oral mucositis in patients with cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, R.; Fliedner, M.C.; Smiet, A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a distressing toxic effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It can increase the need for total parenteral nutrition and opioid analgesics, prolong hospital stays, increase the risk of infection, and greatly diminish a patient's quality of life. Nurses play a critical role in

  13. Oral mucosal injury caused by cancer therapies: current management and new frontiers in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Peterson, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    This invited update is designed to provide a summary of the state-of-the-science regarding oral mucosal injury (oral mucositis) caused by conventional and emerging cancer therapies. Current modeling of oral mucositis pathobiology as well as evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for prevention...

  14. Reconstruction of a full-thickness collagen-based human oral mucosal equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Auxenfans, Céline; Pierrillas, Pascal; Justin, Virginie; Breton, Pierre; Burillon, Carole; Hasirci, Vasif; Damour, Odile

    2009-11-01

    Tissue engineered human oral mucosa has the potential to be applied to the closure of surgical wounds after tissue deficits due to facial trauma, malignant lesion surgery or preposthetic procedure. It can also be used to elucidate the biology and pathology of oral mucosa and as a model alternative to animals for safety testing of oral care products. Using the technology previously developed in our laboratory for the production of a skin equivalent, we were able to reconstruct a nonkeratinized full-thickness human oral mucosal equivalent closely mimicking human native oral mucosa. The successive coculture of human lamina propria fibroblasts and human oral epithelial cells isolated from the nonkeratinized region of oral cavity in a porous collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-chitosan scaffold gave rise to a lamina propria equivalent (LPE) and then to an oral mucosa equivalent (OME). The results of the histology, immunohistology and transmission electron microscopy of this OME demonstrated the presence of a nonkeratinized pluristratified and differentiated epithelium as in native nonkeratinized human oral mucosa expressing both K13 and K3/76. This epithelium was firmly anchored to the LPE by a continuous and ultrastructurally well-organized basement membrane. In the LPE, fibroblasts synthesized new extracellular matrix where the average collagen fibre diameter was 28.4 nm, close to that of native oral mucosa. The proliferative capacity of the basal cells was demonstrated by the expression of Ki67.

  15. A practical method for clinical diagnosis of oral mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Azañero, Wilson A; Mosqueda Taylor, Adalberto

    2003-01-01

    To present a practical and technically simple method for clinical diagnosis of oral melanomas that allows to differentiate this neoplasm from other pigmented lesions. Thirteen oral pigmented lesions with suspected diagnosis of mucosal melanomas were submitted to a test named "rubbing with a gauze" the surface of the lesion. The test was considered positive when the gauze stained dark brown or black due to the presence of melanin-laden cells on the epithelial surface. In all cases definite diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. Positive results were obtained in 11 out of 13 cases (84.6%). Our results establish that the test "rubbing with gauze" the surface of oral pigmented lesions demonstrates a high sensitivity to anticipate clinically the diagnosis of mucosal melanomas. However, a negative result does not exclude this neoplasm, since there are some cases in which malignant cells have not invaded the superficial epithelial layers. In every case the final diagnosis must be established by histopathologic or immunohistochemical analysis.

  16. Natural Products for Management of Oral Mucositis Induced by Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohamamdi, Azar; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-03-01

    Oral mucositis is a common side effect of systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy of head and neck in patients with cancer. Severe oral mucositis is painful and affects oral functions, including intake of food and medications and speech. Prevention of oral mucositis affects the life quality of patients. Recent studies have been focused on natural products to improve or reduce this complication. Many clinical trials have been performed to assess natural products for treatment of mucositis and their results are promising. The authors reviewed the evidence for natural products in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  17. Photobiomodulation reduces oral mucositis by modulating NF-kB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curra, Marina; Pellicioli, Ana Carolina Amorim; Filho, Nélson Alexandre Kretzmann; Ochs, Gustavo; Matte, Úrsula; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate NF-kB during 5-fluorouracil (FU)-induced oral mucositis and ascertain whether photobiomodulation (PBM), as a preventive and/or therapeutic modality, influences this transcription factor. Ninety-six male golden Syrian hamsters were allocated into four groups: control (no treatment); PBM therapeutic, PBM preventive, and PBM combined. Animals received an injection of 5-FU on days 0 and 2. On days 3 and 4, the buccal mucosa was scratched. Irradiation was carried out using a 660-nm, 40-mW diode laser at 6 J/cm2 during 6 s/point, 0.24 J/point, for a total dose of 1.44 J/day of application. Animals were euthanized on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 (n=6). Buccal mucosa was removed for protein quantification by Western blot. Clinical analysis revealed that PBM groups exhibited less mucositis than controls on day 10. Control animals exhibited lower levels of NF-kB during mucositis development and healing. The preventive and combined protocols were associated with higher NF-kB levels at day 5; however, the therapeutic group had higher levels at days 10 and 15. These findings suggest that the preventive and/or therapeutic PBM protocols reduced the severity of oral mucositis by activating the NF-kB pathway.

  18. Epidemiology of the most common oral mucosal diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioboo-Crespo, Maria del Rosario; Planells-del Pozo, Paloma; Rioboo-García, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Dentists who treat children must be alert to the possibility of finding diseases of the oral mucosa, especially in younger children. The present study aimed to review the most updated information and the experience of our group in order to yield epidemiological data that assist diagnosis of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa in children. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a wide variability in the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in different regions of the world and have led researchers to draw disparate conclusions. Moreover, studies have not been designed using standard criteria, further explaining the wide variability in the percentage of different groups of children with oral lesions, which ranges from 4.1 to 52.6%. The lesions most frequently considered by authors and that most often appear in the different studies are: recurrent aphthous stomatitis (0.9-10.8%), labial herpes (0.78-5.2%), fissured tongue (1.49-23%), geographic tongue (0.60-9.8%), oral candidiasis (0.01-37%) and traumatic injury (0.09%-22.15%). Dentists must be able to detect any of the numerous possible disorders and perform the correct differential diagnosis, key to the treatment plan. The aim of this paper, based on a review of the different national and international studies, is to contribute data on the most important oral mucosal diseases in the paediatric population in terms of prevalence and differential diagnosis.

  19. Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-08-01

    Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

  20. Evaluation of Oral Mucosal Lesions in 598 Referred Iranian Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Sandvik, Leiv; Lyberg, Torstein; Ahlfors, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The mucosal membrane of the oral cavity displays at times classical developmental lesions considered to be variations of normal structures rather than having disease characteristics. Of these lesions leukoedema, Fordyce granules, geographic-, fissured- and hairy tongue, median rhomboid glossitis and lingual varices were studied in 598 patients referred to the School of Dentistry, Tehran, Iran. The prevalence was studied in relation to age, gender, occupation, education, smoking habits, genera...

  1. NRAS and BRAF mutation frequency in primary oral mucosal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Buery, R. R.; Siar, C. H.; Katase, N; Gunduz, M; Lefeuvre, M.; Fujii, M.; Inoue, M.; Setsu, K.; Nagatsuka, H

    2011-01-01

    Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is a fatal sarcoma of unknown etiology. Histological morphology and genetic events are distinct from those of its cutaneous counterpart. Mutation and up-regulation of c-kit has been identified in OMM which may activate downstream molecules such as RAS and RAF. These molecules are involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway leading to tremendous cell proliferation and survival. NRAS and BRAF mutation and protein expression have been studied in ot...

  2. Cancer patients with oral mucositis: challenges for nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nilkece Mesquita Araújo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze nursing care provided to cancer patients with oral mucositis based on the Nursing Process (NP. METHOD: this exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted with 213 patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in two cancer facilities: one philanthropic and one private service. RESULTS: the participants were mainly female, aged 45.8 years old on average, with up to 11 years of schooling and income of up to one times the minimum wage. Severe mucositis was related to chemotherapy associated with radiotherapy. Only 25.3% of the patients reported having received guidance from nurses during their treatment concerning self-care. The perceptions of patients regarding quality of care did not significantly differ between the private and public facilities. The basic human needs mainly affected were comfort, eating, and hygiene. Based on this finding, one NP was established listing the diagnoses, interventions and expected results to establish an ideal, though individualized, standard of nursing care to be provided to these patients. CONCLUSION: to understand oral mucositis is crucial to establish nursing care that includes prevention based on the implementation of an oral care plan.

  3. Measuring oral mucositis of pediatric patients with cancer: A psychometric evaluation of chinese version of the oral mucositis daily questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karis Kin Fong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral mucositis is a frequent clinical condition that has been shown to affect pediatric cancer patients. Oral Mucositis Daily Questionnaire (OMDQ is one of the few available patient-reported outcome measures to assess the extent and impact of oral mucositis. The objectives of the study were to translate the Mouth and Throat Soreness-Related Questions of the OMDQ into Chinese (OMDQ MTS-Ch for children and adolescents aged 6–18 years receiving chemotherapy and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods: This was part of a multicenter, prospective cohort study involving two phases. Phase I involved forward-backward translation to fit the cognitive and linguistic age level of the children and adolescents, followed by face and content validation, together with pretesting. In Phase II, which evaluated the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity, a total of 140 patients completed the OMDQ MTS-Ch for 14 days. Results: The OMDQ MTS-Ch had satisfactory face and content validities. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the OMDQ MTS-Ch was 0.984. All of the corrected item-total correlations were higher than 0.90. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient between consecutive days for the OMDQ MTS-Ch items ranged from 0.576 to 0.983; the only value that was not over 0.70 was that for the paired study days 7 and 8 for the item of talking. The mean area-under-the-curve OMDQ MTS-Ch item scores were significantly different among patients with different degrees of mucositis severity (P < 0.001, supporting the discriminant validity. Conclusions: It has been shown that the OMDQ MTS-Ch has a good level of reliability and discriminant validity and can be completed by children aged ≥6 years and adolescents on a daily basis to measure mucositis and its related functional limitations.

  4. Biochemical evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of honey in oral mucosal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Nergiz; Nisbet, Ozlem; Nisbet, Cevat; Ceylan, Gözlem; Hoşgör, Fatih; Dede, O Doğu

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the therapeutic value of honey in oral mucosal ulcers healing in comparison with Glyceroloxytriester (TGO). We also aimed to biochemically evaluate the healing effects of honey which had been collected from the Blacksea region flora on mucosal ulcers resulting in material loss.Thirty wistar rats (240+/-30 g) were enrolled in this study. Excisional wounds were performed in all rats for animal oral mucosal ulcer model. They were randomly allocated to three groups: group 1 was treated with Apitherapeutic agent or honey (0,1 ml, 2x1), group 2 was treated with TGO (0,1ml, 2x1) locally, Group 3 served as the control group.Following the surgical procedure on day 7, biopsy specimens were taken from right buccal mucosa and on day 14 biopsy specimens were taken from left bucal mucosa in all rats. Afterwards, hydroxy pyroline levels were measured. Data were analyzed statistically.There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 2, and also between Group 2 and 3, but there was statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 3 on day 7. There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1, 2 and 3 on day 14.

  5. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, D.P.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Allemano, J.; Bossi, P.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Rao, N.G.; Potting, C.M.J.; Cheng, K.K.; Freidank, A.; Brennan, M.T.; Bowen, J.; Dennis, K.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was

  6. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, D.P.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Allemano, J.; Bossi, P.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Rao, N.G.; Potting, C.M.J.; Cheng, K.K.; Freidank, A.; Brennan, M.T.; Bowen, J.; Dennis, K.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was con

  7. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadoon Nivia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  8. Langerhans cells and their role in oral mucosal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response. The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the "sentinels" of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes. Oral mucosal Langerhans cells are capable of engaging and internalizing a wide variety of pathogens and have been found responsive to nickel in patients with nickel allergies, oral Candida species, oral lichen planus, lichenoid drug eruptions, graft versus host diseases, periodontal diseases median rhomboid glossitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, hairy leukoplakia of the tongue, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Review focuses on the role of antigen-presenting cells in particular Langerhans cells to better understand the mechanisms underlying immune responses. In this review, comprehensive detail about mucosal diseases has been compiled using the PubMed database and through textbooks.

  9. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  10. Dentists' knowledge and opinions about oral mucosal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, S; Ozel, S; Koray, M; Kürklü, E; Ak, G; Tanyeri, H

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to identify, compare and analyse the knowledge and opinions of dentists regarding oral mucosal lesions and evaluate the differences between the attitudes of dentists by practice settings. 300 dentists were enrolled in the study. Three groups were formed. The first group included general dental practitioners working in private dental offices; the second group were dentists practising in dental polyclinics; the third group was composed of dentists employed at universities in Istanbul, working in departments except for the department of oral surgery and medicine. A 17-item self constructed questionnaire investigating demographic attributes, dental practice characteristics, oral mucosal lesions (OML) knowledge and respondents' opinions was completed and all questions were asked by the same author. 85% of the dentists admitted difficulties in diagnosing OML. 62% failed to update their knowledge from the literature, 93% did not undertake biopsies or consult other practitioners. Dentists practising at universities attempted to treat fewer patients with OML (p=0.0001). The results of this questionnaire conclude that most dentists experience difficulties in diagnosing some OML.

  11. Oral mucosal precancer and cancer: A helpful discriminating clinical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Crispian; Sciubba, James J; Bagan, Jose V

    2015-09-01

    The authors have collaborated with many colleagues in several countries in formulating a useful and practical clinical tool for evaluating oral mucosal findings on routine examination. Consideration of several factors including history, evolution of positive findings and clinical information allows placement of examination results into one of three categories which are graded by a color scheme along a spectrum of concerns (green to red, or no concern to serious concern). Afforded to the clinician is a straightforward grading system as a starting point for office end clinic use for all patients.

  12. Honey and a mixture of honey, beeswax, and olive oil-propolis extract in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrhman, Mamdouh; Elbarbary, Nancy Samir; Ahmed Amin, Dina; Saeid Ebrahim, Rania

    2012-04-01

    In spite of being one of the most investigated subjects among supportive care in cancer, no therapy has been found effective in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Based on the observations that honey bees products have anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects, the present study tried to evaluate the effect of topical application of honey and a mixture of honey, olive oil-propolis extract, and beeswax (HOPE) in treatment of oral mucositis. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted on 90 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and oral mucositis grades 2 and 3. The mean age of enrolled patients was 6.9 years. The patients were assigned into 3 equal treatment groups: Honey, HOPE, and control groups. Topical treatment for each patient consists of honey, HOPE, and benzocaine gel for honey, HOPE, and control groups, respectively. Recovery time in grade 2 mucositis was significantly reduced in the honey group as compared with either HOPE or controls (P < .05). In grade 3 mucositis, recovery time did not differ significantly between honey and HOPE (P = 0.61) but compared with controls, healing was faster with either honey or HOPE (P < .01). Generally, in both grades of mucositis, honey produced faster healing than either HOPE or controls (P < .05). Based on our results that showed that honey produced faster healing in patients with grade 2/3 chemotherapy-induced mucositis, we recommend using honey and possibly other bee products and olive oil in future therapeutic trials targeting chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  13. Evaluation of oral mucosal lesions in 598 referred Iranian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Sandvik, Leiv; Lyberg, Torstein; Ahlfors, Eva

    2009-03-27

    The mucosal membrane of the oral cavity displays at times classical developmental lesions considered to be variations of normal structures rather than having disease characteristics. Of these lesions leukoedema, Fordyce granules, geographic-, fissured- and hairy tongue, median rhomboid glossitis and lingual varices were studied in 598 patients referred to the School of Dentistry, Tehran, Iran. The prevalence was studied in relation to age, gender, occupation, education, smoking habits, general health, addictions and or drug therapies. Oral developmental lesions were seen in 295 patients (49.3%). Only Fordyce granules (27,9%), fissured tongue (12,9%), leukoedema (12,5%) and hairy tongue (8,9%) had enough cases for statistical analysis. Three of these lesions increased with age but not fissured tongue. All were more common in men. After adjusting for age, the parameters education, occupation and complaints upon referral had little influence on the prevalence of the lesions. Fewer Fordyce granules were seen in oral mucosa of smoking men. Leukoedema and hairy tongue were significantly associated with smoking, leukoedema with diabetes mellitus. We conclude that there was a highly significant association between these oral lesions and age, gender and smoking. Few significant associations were found between oral lesions and general diseases.

  14. Cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among recipients of bone marrow transplantation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Abdel-Qader Mahmoud

    2014-08-01

    Oral mucositis is a distressing toxic effect of cancer therapy and one of the major side effects of the myeloablative conditioning used to prepare patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Oral cryotherapy is one of the recent modalities used to prevent and manage oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to clarify the cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among patients receiving myeloablative conditioning followed by BMT. A literature search was performed using six different electronic databases: CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, Nursing Ovid, PubMed, Springer, and Science Direct. Six articles were deemed relevant and included in this review. Oral mucositis increases mortality rate, length of hospital stay, opioid use, and the need for parenteral nutrition usage. It also decreases patient's quality of life and his or her desire to complete treatment. However, oral cryotherapy significantly minimizes the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and decreases secondary oral mucositis complications. Using oral cryotherapy concurrently with a regular oral care protocol can improve its efficacy for preventing and managing oral mucositis. Additional studies should be conducted to create standard oral cryotherapy protocols.

  15. [Efficacy of Rebamipide Gargle against Chemotherapy-induced Oral Mucositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Masato; Onikubo, Toshihide; Nakamura, Kumi

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) is a severe adverse event resulting from cancer chemotherapy. Toxic free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by anticancer drugs have been reported to be associated with CIOM. Rebamipide has been shown to increase gastric endogenous prostaglandin E2 and I2, to promote gastric epithelial mucin, and to behave as an oxygen free-radical scavenger in addition to other anti-inflammatory actions. We developed a gargle solution of rebamipide, adding ultrahydrogel for mucosal protection and to maintain rebamipide on the oral mucosa. A 300 mL rebamipide gargle solution combines 600 mg rebamipide, 3 g high molecular-weight polyethylene oxide, 1.2 g carrageenan, pineapple flavoring, and water. The efficacy of the rebamipide gargle was evaluated in 175 patients with CIOM from November 2009 to December 2012, each instructed to use the rebamipide gargle 5-6 times daily. The severity of CIOM was assessed according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 4.0). Their CTCAE scores (3/2/1/0) changed from n=13/64/98/0 to 0/10/103/62, respectively, after initiation of the rebamipide gargle (pRebamipide gargle was well tolerated and demonstrated to have significant therapeutic efficacy against CIOM.

  16. Intravital sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging is used in a rabbit model for continuous noninvasive monitoring and quantification of mucosal capillary regeneration during wound healing in the oral cavity: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.J. Milstein; J.A.H. Lindeboom; C. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis and tissue revascularization are essential for proper postoperative tissue repair and regeneration. The aim of this investigation was to develop an animal model to study postoperative microcirculatory vascularization continuously in time following oral surgery. Five female specific-path

  17. Documentation of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Scoring Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesenbeck, D. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Radiation therapy of tumors in the head and neck region is frequently associated with severe side effects in the oral mucosa which often necessitate interruption of the prescribed treatment protocol. In order to compare therapeutic strategies and, more important, in order to perform multicenter studies, generally accepted scoring systems have to be applied for uniform documentation of the oral mucosal response. Methods: Different scoring protocols are found in the literature. The scoring protocols most widely accepted are the CTC classification and the RTOG/EORTC classification. These are compared with more detailed systems. Results: In the CTC classification, grading of stomatitis is included in the responses of the gastrointestinal tract and emphasizes dietary effects. For effects of radiation alone or of radiochemotherapy, the RTOG/EORTC system, focusing on therapeutic interventions, has been established. However, there are only minor differences in the grading of mucositis between these 2 protocols. Based on the RTOG/EORTC classification, Maciejewski et al. introduced a classification system with inclusion of the area affected, but also changed the sensitivity of the scores. The latter may be confusing if the source of the system used is not cited in a report. An alternative system was proposed by Dische, which in addition to objective morphologic criteria also includes the symptoms induced by the mucosal response, and hence includes some subjective aspects reported by the patient. Conclusions: For routine documentation of acute radiation side effects in the oral cavity, the German version of the RTOG/EORTC classification can be recommended. In studies with particular interest in oral mucositis, a more sensitive scoring system may be applied. In any publication concerning mucositis, a table or a detailed description of the system used should be included. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die Strahlentherapie von Tumoren der Kopf-Hals-Region ist haeufig

  18. Clinical effects of flurbiprofen tooth patch on radiation-induced oral mucositis. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, MA; Spijkervet, FKL; Burlage, FR; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background: Mucositis is an oral sequela of radiotherapy. In the development of mucositis several mechanisms play a role, such as inflammation and the effect of radiation on the high proliferation rate of oral basal epithelial cells. Therefore, administration of a drug with antiinflammatory and

  19. Pilot study of ice-ball cryotherapy for radiation-induced oral mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Waichiro; Ebihara, Satoshi [National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    Oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy is intractable and may worsen the patient`s nutritional condition and interrupt treatment. To reduce the incidence and severity of oral mucositis induced by cancer therapy and promote early improvement of its symptoms, we devised cryotherapy by ice balls using Elase (fibrinolysin and deoxyribonuclease, combined). The therapeutic effect of ice-ball cryotherapy was evaluated in 10 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx who were undergoing radiotherapy. Cryotherapy was continued from the development of oral mucositis until its disappearance. The severity of various symptoms of mucositis were reduced by cryotherapy. Healing required 3 to 16 days (median, 7 days) after the end of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was not interrupted in any cases. This preliminary report suggests that ice-ball cryotherapy is an effective treatment for radiation-induced oral mucositis. (author).

  20. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy; Candida Oral como fator agravante da mucosite radioinduzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de odontologia

    2011-07-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  1. Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patussi, Cleverson; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir; Munhoz, Eduardo Ciliao; Zanicotti, Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; Schussel, Juliana Lucena

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patient's recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the chemotherapeutic nadir (lowest possible outcome). We evaluated patients with different diagnoses who underwent HSCT at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner. No chemotherapeutic nadir curves could be associated with mucositis, and patients had different presentations of mucositis. No patient developed oral candidiasis during hospitalization. Together with cell counts, we collected demographic data including age, oral hygiene, habits harmful to health, and the use of oral prostheses. It was observed that patients who smoked cigarettes before hospitalization showed less mucositis, resulting in no feeding problems or other comorbid conditions due to the effect of mucositis. However, the nadir of the chemotherapy curve, in isolation, is not a predictive tool for the appearance (or no appearance) of oral mucositis.

  2. Fibroblast subpopulations in intra-oral wound healing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, H.E. van; Snoek, P.A.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Torensma, R.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibroblasts at sequential time points during intra-oral wound healing in the rat. Experimental wounds were made at several time points in the mucoperiosteum of the palate of 35-day-old Wistar rats. Fibroblasts were cultured from the biopsies under

  3. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among chewing tobacco users: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha S Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to assess the statistical significance. Results: Of the 901 subjects with CT habits, 55.8% revealed no clinically detectable oral mucosal changes and 44.1% showed mucosal changes of which 63.8% were males and 36.1% were females. The most common finding was chewers mucositis (59.5% followed by submucous fibrosis (22.8%, leukoplakia (8%, lichenoid reaction (6.5%, oral cancer (2.7%, and lichen planus (0.5%. Conclusion: This study provides information about different CT habits and associated mucosal lesions among this population.

  4. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Histopathological Examination of Oralmedic Effects on Oral Wound Healing Process: an Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Akhavan Karbassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introductions: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a common disease and suitable treatment has been unsuccessful. The purpose of this study was evaluating oral wound healing process following use of Oralmedic. Methods: In this animal study, mucosal ulcers with the same size were made in the lower lip of 12 mice with the same weight, gender and race. The mice were selected randomly divided into two groups of six mice each, oralmedic and distilled groups. The Oralmedic has been used on the wound in the first group and distilled water was applied on the wound in the second group twice a day for 5 days. On the fifteenth day, biopsy was obtained from wound healing areas and they were investigated through microscopic examination. Results: The epithelium in the restored areas in both two groups was almost normal (p>0.05. In the studied groups, oral medic created different inflammatory effects in the connective tissues. In terms of medicine, formation of the granulation tissue showed a significant difference between two groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. The amount of collagen in the connective tissues were different. Histologic observations showed that after using Oralmedic, some changes such as inflammation, scar formation, and fibrosis were observed in the surface of epithelium of the mucosa and connective tissues. Conclusion: The important  point in use of oral medications, in addition to changes in the surface epithelium of the mucosa, is deeper changes that can lead to important and sometimes problematic consequences.

  6. [Analysis of oral mucosal lesions in patients referred to oral medicine specialists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Boras, Vanja Vucićević; Pintar, Elizabeta; Juras, Danica Vidović; Karaman, Natasa; Rogulj, Ana Andabak

    2013-01-01

    The need for studies on prevalence of lesions in the field of oral medicine increases as more patients suffer from oral mucosal diseases. Data on prevalence of oral mucosal diseases throughout the world are scarce. Therefore, we have made a retrospective study of patients referred to the Department of Oral Medicine, University of Zagreb, during a period of one year, i.e. 2010. Data on patient age, gender and diagnosis were recorded. Out of 1118 analyzed clinical records of the patients, 756 (67.6%) were women and 362 (32.4%) were men. The age range of female patients was 54 +/- 19 years (mean age 62.17 years) and the male age range was 49+/-21 (mean age 64.17 years). The most common diagnosis was burning mouth syndrome (23.4%), followed by xerostomia (10.6%), traumatic ulceration (8.7%), geographic tongue (6.6%) and denture stomatitis (5.7%). Other diagnoses were found in a smaller percentage. Our results point out an increased need for oral medicine services.

  7. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Yan Yeung; Wai-Tao Chan; Chun-Bin Jiang; Mei-Lien Cheng; Chia-Yuan Liu; Szu-Wen Chang; Jen-Shiu Chiang Chiau; Hung-Chang Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orall...

  8. Growth factors and cytokines in the prevention and treatment of oral and gastrointestinal mucositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Bultzingslowen, [No Value; Brennan, MT; Spijkervet, Fred K.L.; Logan, R; Stringer, A; Raber-Durlacher, JE; Keefe, D

    Goals of work: Growth factors and cytokines may be useful in preventing chemotherapy (CT)- and radiotherapy (RT)-induced oral and gastrointestinal mucositis. Two systematic reviews of the medical literature on growth factors and cytokines for the amelioration of CT- and RT-induced mucositis

  9. Quantification of oral mucositis due to radiotherapy by determining viability and maturation of epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, MA; Spijkervet, FKL; Wymenga, ANM; Burlage, FR; Timens, W; Roodenburg, JLN; de Vries, EGE

    2002-01-01

    Background: An in-vitro assay has been developed for quantitative assessment of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. In the present study this method was evaluated for assessment of irradiation mucositis at a cellular level. Methods: Ten patients participated in this consecutive study. All patients

  10. Systematic review of anti-inflammatory agents for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Sarri, Triantafyllia; Bowen, Joanne; Di Palma, Mario; Kouloulias, Vassilios E.; Niscola, Pasquale; Riesenbeck, Dorothea; Stokman, Monique; Tissing, Wim; Yeoh, Eric; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this project was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients. Materials and methods A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study

  11. Systematic review of amifostine for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Sarri, Triantafyllia; Bowen, Joanne; Di Palma, Mario; Kouloulias, Vassilios E.; Niscola, Pasquale; Riesenbeck, Dorothea; Stokman, Monique; Tissing, Wim; Yeoh, Eric; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    The aim of this study was to review the available literature from 1966 until December 31, 2010 and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of amifostine for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients. A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of

  12. The Potential Effect of Oral Microbiota in the Prediction of Mucositis During Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Interpretation: Oral microbiota changes correlate with the progression and aggravation of radiotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Microbiota-based strategies can be used for the early prediction and prevention of the incidence of severe mucositis during radiotherapy.

  13. [Therapeutic effect of rebamipide for oral mucositis associated with FEC therapy for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Akiko; Masuda, Norikazu; Yamamura, Jun; Mizutani, Makiko; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Shikata, Ayako; Masaoka, Miyuki; Takada, Seiko; Bamba, Nao; Yamamoto, Mie; Abe, Megumi; Makihara, Katsuya

    2014-11-01

    No guidelines for supportive drug therapy have been established for oral mucositis occurring during cancer chemotherapy. We retrospectively examined the progression of oral mucositis in 91 patients with breast cancer who received the 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC)-100 regimen between September 2007 and August 2008. Daily rebamipide was administered to patients with oral mucositis as per hospital protocol to evaluate the hypothesized preventive and mucosal protective effects of rebamipide(Mucosta®). Oral mucositis was observed in 43 patients (47%)during 4 courses of FEC. The median age of the patients was 55 years(range, 32-76 years). Of the 91 patients, 49 patients who did not receive rebamipide during the 4 FEC courses were classified as group A, 14 patients who received rebamipide before the start of FEC were classified as group B, and 28 patients who received rebamipide after developing oral mucositis were classified as group C. The incidence of oral mucositis at the start of FEC with or without rebamipide administration was observed in 5 patients in group B (36%) and 38 patients in groups A and C (49%) (p=0.3472). The mucositis grade was G1 in 4 patients and G2 in 1 patient in group B, and G1 in 20 patients and G2 plus G3 in 18 patients in groups A and C (p=0.2467). In group C, the grade decreased in 25 patients (89%) and did not occur (G0) in 17 patients (61%) during the next course, and 15 patients (54%) continued to the final course without any occurrence of mucositis. These results suggest that rebamipide is effective for the treatment of oral mucositis. Although significant differences were not observed in the groups, rebamipide has the potential to prevent development of oral mucositis and alleviate its symptoms, and seems promising as a new supportive drug therapy. We hope to verify the preventive and protective effects of rebamipide by conducting a prospective, randomized trial while treating oral mucositis with basic oral care

  14. Comparison of laser and ozone treatments on oral mucositis in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Suzan; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Demirtas, Nihat; Kandas, Nur Ozten

    2017-02-11

    Oral mucositis (OM) induces severe pain and limits fundamental life behaviors such as eating, drinking, and talking for patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In addition, through opportunistic microorganisms, OM frequently leads to systemic infection which then leads to prolonged hospitalization. Severe lesions often adversely affect curative effects in cancer cases. Therefore, the control of OM is important for oral health quality of life and prognosis. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and ozone may be useful to accelerate wound healing. In this study, 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as control, ozone, and laser groups. All groups received 5-fluorouracil intraperitoneally and trauma to the mouth pouch with a needle. After the formation of OM in the mouth, the control group had no treatment; the ozone group was administered ozone, and the laser group, LLLT. Then, all groups were sacrificed and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor (TGF-β), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were evaluated in all groups. LLLT was determined to be statistically significantly more effective than ozone on FGF and PDGF. However, in respect of TGF-β, no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. In conclusion, within the limitations of this study, LLLT is more effective than ozone. However, further studies on this subject are required.

  15. NRAS and BRAF mutation frequency in primary oral mucosal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buery, Rosario Rivera; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Gunduz, Mehmet; Lefeuvre, Mathieu; Fujii, Masae; Inoue, Masahisa; Setsu, Kojun; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2011-10-01

    Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is a fatal sarcoma of unknown etiology. Histological morphology and genetic events are distinct from those of its cutaneous counterpart. Mutation and up-regulation of c-kit has been identified in OMM which may activate downstream molecules such as RAS and RAF. These molecules are involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway leading to tremendous cell proliferation and survival. NRAS and BRAF mutation and protein expression have been studied in other melanoma subtypes. The purpose of this study was to determine RAS protein expression and NRAS and BRAF mutation in 18 primary OMM cases using immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis. Results showed that RAS is intensely expressed in both in situ and invasive OMMs. However, NRAS mutation was only observed in 2/15 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified cases both of which were silent mutations. On the other hand, BRAF missense mutations were observed only in 1/15 cases with PCR amplification. NRAS and BRAF mutations were independent from previously reported c-kit mutations. The classical V600E BRAF mutation was not found; instead a novel V600L was observed suggesting that the oncogenic event in OMM is different from that in skin melanoma. The low frequency of NRAS and BRAF mutations indicate that these genes are not common, but probable events in OMM pathogenesis, most likely independent of c-kit mutation.

  16. Systemic uptake of buprenorphine by cats after oral mucosal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S A; Taylor, P M; Sear, J W

    2003-05-31

    The plasma concentration of buprenorphine was measured by radioimmunoassay in six female cats after the administration of 0.01 mg/kg (0.033 ml/kg) buprenorphine hydrochloride solution into the side of the cat's mouth. Blood samples were taken through a preplaced jugular catheter before and one, two, four, six, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes, and two, four, six, 12 and 24 hours after the dose was administered. The buprenorphine was accepted well by all the cats and did not cause salivation or vomiting. Its median peak plasma concentration was 7.5 ng/ml and was reached after 15 minutes. The pharmacokinetic data were similar to the pharmacokinetic data obtained after the intramuscular and intravenous administration of buprenorphine to cats from the same colony, suggesting that the mucosal route of administration should be as effective as intravenous and intramuscular injections. In addition, the pH of the oral cavity of 26 cats was measured with pH paper, and 100 cat owners were asked their preferred method of administering drugs to cats. The pH of the cats' mouths was between 8 and 9, and the technique preferred by the cat owners was the use of drops placed in the mouth.

  17. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients of the Kuwait University Dental Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali, Mohammad; Joseph, Bobby; Sundaram, Devipriya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number, types, and locations of oral mucosal lesions in patients who attended the Admission Clinic at the Kuwait University Dental Center to determine...

  18. Effect of Oral Insulin on the Severity and Recovery of Methotrexate-induced Gastrointestinal Mucositis in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Nicoline S S; Rings, Edmond H H M; Havinga, Rick; van der Aa, Stijn A J; Groen, Albert K; Tissing, Wim J E

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal (GI) mucositis is a severe side effect of chemo- and radiotherapy. Oral insulin has been suggested as possible intestinal growth factor and possible intervention for GI mucositis. We aimed to determine the effect of oral insulin on the severity and recovery of mucositis

  19. Oral antibiotic treatment induces skin microbiota dysbiosis and influences wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Jiang, Ziwei; Li, Dongqing; Jiang, Deming; Wu, Yelin; Ren, Hongyan; Peng, Hua; Lai, Yuping

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotic treatment eliminates commensal bacteria and impairs mucosal innate immune defenses in the gut. However, whether oral antibiotic treatment could alter the composition of the microbiota on the skin surface and influence innate immune responses remains unclear. To test this, mice were treated with vancomycin for 7 days and then wounds were made on the back skin of the mice. Five days later, scar tissue from each mouse was collected for bacterial enumeration, the bacterial composition on the scar and unwounded skin was determined using 16S RNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis, and skin around wounds was collected for RNA extraction. Compared with the control group, the overall density and composition of skin bacteria were altered, and the proportion of Staphylococcus-related sequences was reduced in the vancomycin-treated group. Moreover, vancomycin treatment decreased the expression of RegIIIγ and interleukin (IL)-17 in the wounded skin. Taken together, our data demonstrate that antibiotic treatment decreases the bacterial density and alters the bacterial composition in skin wounds, followed by a decrease in RegIIIγ expression, which may contribute to the delayed wound repair. Our findings also indicate that antibiotic therapy should be carefully considered in the treatment of skin injury.

  20. The effect of chewing gum on oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakcı, Ayşe Ferda; Ayverdi, Didem; Ekim, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral mucositis is an important clinical problem, resulting in significant patient morbidity, a change in health-related quality of life, and supportive care. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chewing gum on children, who are receiving chemotherapy regimens, for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Method and Material: The study sample consisted of 60 children (30 study group-30 control group) between the ages 6-...

  1. Mucoadhesive propolis gel for prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Vladimir R A S; Araujo, Gustavo S; Gomes, Rafael T; Iwanaga, Samara H; Barbosa, Maralice C; Abdo, Evandro N; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Viana Campos, Ana C; Souza, Alexandre A; Abreu, Sheila R L; Santos, Vagner R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this phase II study was to determine the effectiveness of a mucoadhesive propolis gel in the prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Twenty-four patients who were selected to undergo radiation therapy for oral cancer were included in this open-label trial. They were advised to use a mucoadhesive gel containing propolis 5,0% w/v three times a day starting one day before the course of radiation therapy and concluding after 2 weeks of radiation therapy. A weekly follow-up for evaluation of food intake, pain and grading of mucositis was performed. In order to confirm the absence of Candida-related mucositis in patients who developed mucositis, it was performed exfoliative cytology of buccal mucosa, palate and tongue and the material for Candifast(®) Candida species identification. At the end of the study was made the compliance of patients, quality, appreciation and acceptance of product evaluation. Twenty patients did not develop mucositis, two patients developed grade 1 mucositis and two patients developed grade 2 mucositis. None of the patients discontinued food intake and no pain was observed during the study. Candidosis was not detected in any patient. Mucoadhesive propolis gel could be considered as a potential topical medication for preventing radiation-induced oral mucositis. However, comparative phase III study with larger number of patients should be done for confirmation of the efficacy of the product.

  2. STAT3 links IL-22 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells to mucosal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickert, Geethanjali; Neufert, Clemens; Leppkes, Moritz; Zheng, Yan; Wittkopf, Nadine; Warntjen, Moritz; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hirth, Sebastian; Weigmann, Benno; Wirtz, Stefan; Ouyang, Wenjun; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2009-07-06

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a pleiotropic transcription factor with important functions in cytokine signaling in a variety of tissues. However, the role of STAT3 in the intestinal epithelium is not well understood. We demonstrate that development of colonic inflammation is associated with the induction of STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Studies in genetically engineered mice showed that epithelial STAT3 activation in dextran sodium sulfate colitis is dependent on interleukin (IL)-22 rather than IL-6. IL-22 was secreted by colonic CD11c(+) cells in response to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Conditional knockout mice with an IEC-specific deletion of STAT3 activity were highly susceptible to experimental colitis, indicating that epithelial STAT3 regulates gut homeostasis. STAT3(IEC-KO) mice, upon induction of colitis, showed a striking defect of epithelial restitution. Gene chip analysis indicated that STAT3 regulates the cellular stress response, apoptosis, and pathways associated with wound healing in IECs. Consistently, both IL-22 and epithelial STAT3 were found to be important in wound-healing experiments in vivo. In summary, our data suggest that intestinal epithelial STAT3 activation regulates immune homeostasis in the gut by promoting IL-22-dependent mucosal wound healing.

  3. Use of {sup 60}Co panoramic source in the induction of oral mucositis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Maira F.; Benetti, Carolina; Zezell, Denise M., E-mail: mairandrade@yahoo.com, E-mail: zezell@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, Luciana, E-mail: lcorrea@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2013-07-01

    Oral Mucositis is a well-known side effect of chemo-radiotherapy in cancer patients or transplant recipients that could induce hospitalization or impairs therapy in different levels of severity. This study is devoted to define the first steps in the research of low level laser treatments in oral mucositis, proposing a {sup 60}Co radiation to experimentally induce oral mucositis in rats using Panoramic gamma irradiator, simulating usual radiotherapy of head and neck cancer. Fifteen male Wistar rats, above 250g, were irradiated at Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes (IPEN - CNEN/SP) and divided in three experimental groups, with different single doses of radiation (30 Gy, 25 Gy and 20 Gy). The animals were observed for a 20 days period. Animals that received 30 Gy and 25 Gy developed greater severity of mucositis and premature euthanasia was performed in these groups on the 7th and 11th day after the irradiation, respectively. The 20 Gy group developed oral mucositis grading from moderated to severe between the days 7 and 11 after irradiation, with progressive body mass loss and decrease in the intake of food and water. These animals recovered from oral mucositis around the 18th day and clinical remission at the 20th day. The single dose of 20 Gy Gamma radiation proved to be efficient way for inducing oral mucositis in rats, allowing the establishment of an experimental model for oral mucositis in rats for future use on interventions of this serious aspect of radiation therapy, such as laser therapy using different wave lengths and power densities. (author)

  4. Systematic review of natural agents for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarom, Noam; Ariyawardana, Anura; Hovan, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society for Oral Oncology. The body of evidence for each intervention, in each cancer treatment setting, was assigned an evidence level. Based on the evidence level, one of the following three guideline determinations was possible: recommendation......, suggestion, and no guideline possible. RESULTS: A total of 49 papers across 15 interventions were examined. A new suggestion was developed in favor of systemic zinc supplements administered orally in the prevention of oral mucositis in oral cancer patients receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation (Level......Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of natural agents for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational...

  5. The mucosal immune system in the oral cavity-an orchestra of T cell diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Qing Wu; Dun-Fang Zhang; Eric Tu; Qian-Ming Chen; WanJun Chen

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system defends against a vast array of pathogens, yet it exhibits limited responses to commensal microorganisms under healthy conditions. The oral-pharyngeal cavity, the gateway for both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, is composed of complex anatomical structures and is constantly challenged by antigens from air and food. The mucosal immune system of the oral-pharyngeal cavity must prevent pathogen entry while maintaining immune homeostasis, which is achieved via a range of mechanisms that are similar or different to those utilized by the gastrointestinal immune system. In this review, we summarize the features of the mucosal immune system, focusing on T cell subsets and their functions. We also discuss our current understanding of the oral-pharyngeal mucosal immune system.

  6. Effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis: A randomized clinical trial

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    Satheeshkumar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral care in cancer patients is an important aspect in the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer therpay. Mucositis, trismus, salivary gland dysfunction are the main complications of the cancer therapy, which lead to long-term comlications such as radiation caries, poor oral hygiene and osteoradionecrosis. A timely oral evaluation and intervention in these patients can reduce the severity of the potential complications. Triclosan is an antibacterial agent widely used in periodontal therapy, the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation induced oral mucositis is evaluated here. Aims: 1 To determine the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis. 2 To compare the effectiveness of triclosan mouth rinse with conventional sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who underwent radiation therapy for oral cancer and subsequently developed oral mucositis were included in the study. They were randomly allocated into two groups on noticing grade I mucositis (erythema. The study group was advised to use triclosan mouthwash containing triclosan 0.03% W/V and sodium bicarbonate 2 mg mouth wash for the control group. A weekly follow-up evaluation of body weight, food intake, pain and grading of mucositis were made during the radiation treatment period and post radiation treatment period. Results: Both the groups were statistically identical. All the 24 patients in both the groups passed through grade 3 mucositis on the last day of radiotherapy. However, 10 patients in the control group and only one patient in the study group entered to grade 4 mucositis. A definite change was noticed in the severity of the mucositis, food intake and weight loss. The control group took more than 45 days to resolve while the study group took only less than 28 days. Discussion: The results of the study were evaluated and tried to formulate a hypothesis so as to explain

  7. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India

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    Mathew Anuna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2% of the population. Fordyce′s condition was observed most frequently (6.55% followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%, fissured tongue (5.71%, leukoedema (3.78%, smoker′s palate (2.77%, recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%, oral malignancies (1.76%, leukoplakia (1.59%, median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%, candidiasis (1.3%, lichen planus (1.20%, varices (1.17%, traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer′s mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%, herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%, and mucocele (0.16%. Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker′s palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

  8. Preventive Effect of Rebamipide Gargle on Chemoradiotherpy-Induced Oral Mucositis in Patients with Oral Cancer: a Pilot Study

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    Takashi Yasuda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of rebamipide in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer.Material and Methods: Patients with oral cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (daily radiotherapy plus docetaxel hydrate once a week were enrolled for this study. They were assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either rebamipide gargle or placebo on the days of chemoradiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the WHO grading system. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of grade 3 - 4 mucositis after exposure to 40 Gy radiation (4 weeks. The secondary endpoint was the effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy.Results: Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive rebamipide gargle (n = 12 or placebo-gargle (n = 12 during chemoradiotherapy. The number of patients with severe mucositis (WHO ≥ 3 was higher in the placebo group than in the rebamipide group (83.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.036. In addition, no effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy was recognized compared with the placebo group.Conclusions: For patients with oral cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy, rebamipide gargle may contribute to decrease the severity of oral mucositis.

  9. Preventive effect of rebamipide gargle on chemoradiotherpy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takashi; Chiba, Hiroshige; Satomi, Takafumi; Matsuo, Akira; Kaneko, Tadayoshi; Chikazu, Daichi; Miyamatsu, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of rebamipide in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer. Patients with oral cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (daily radiotherapy plus docetaxel hydrate once a week) were enrolled for this study. They were assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either rebamipide gargle or placebo on the days of chemoradiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the WHO grading system. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of grade 3 - 4 mucositis after exposure to 40 Gy radiation (4 weeks). The secondary endpoint was the effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy. Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive rebamipide gargle (n = 12) or placebo-gargle (n = 12) during chemoradiotherapy. The number of patients with severe mucositis (WHO ≥ 3) was higher in the placebo group than in the rebamipide group (83.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.036). In addition, no effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy was recognized compared with the placebo group. For patients with oral cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy, rebamipide gargle may contribute to decrease the severity of oral mucositis.

  10. Hyperdry amniotic membrane as a suitable biological dressing material for raw wounds in the oral cavity

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    Makoto Noguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raw wounds in the oral cavity are prone not only to infection but also contraction by scaring and often need a proper dressing to prevent these complications. Autografts using free mucosal and split-skin grafts, which seem biologically ideal, have been used to cover raw wounds in the oral cavity. Those grafts, however, require a separate surgical procedure at donor sites and often cause morbidity associated with delayed healing of the donor site. The amnion has been considered a suitable tissue for allografts, based on its low immunogenicity. It also possesses anti-inflammatory, would –protecting, and scar-reducing properties. Preserved amnions have been used for decades in various clinical fields.  However, there have been some problems in the storage and sterilization of the material. To resolve these problems, we developed hyperdry amniotic membrane (HAM, which can be stored at room temperature for a long period. In my lecture, I will share our clinical experiences of applying HAM into oral surgery, including results of experimental studies on would healing of the oral cavity.

  11. Oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion correlate with oral health-related quality of life in elderly communities

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    Dewi Agustina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of life assessment mostly is based on general health. Deterioration of physiologic condition, polypharmacy and the high occurrence of chronic disease in elderly may manifest in oral cavity that can affect oral function, in turn it will affect quality of life of elderly. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the correlation of oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in elderly communities of Yogyakarta city. Method: Seventy three elders were subjects of this study. Data of OHRQoL and oral health status were obtained from modification of questionnaire of Dental Impact of Daily Living (DIDL Index and from intraoral examination, respectively. Intraoral examination comprised oral mucosal lesion amount, oral hygiene, DMFT index and periodontal tissue status. The data then were analyzed statistically using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Result: The results showed that mean of DMFT index was 16.9 and 63% of subjects were found with gingivitis, most subject had moderate oral hygiene and each subject at least had two oral mucosal lesions. Mean score of quality of life was 27.2 and classified as satisfying. Oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion had correlation with OHRQoL with r were -0.236 (Sig. : 0.045 and -0.288 (Sig. : 0.013, respectively. Conclusion: The study suggested that oral hygiene and number of oral mucosal lesion correlate with oral health related-quality of life in elderly communities of Yogyakarta city.Latar belakang: Penilaian kualitas hidup terutama didasarkan pada kesehatan umum. Memburuknya kondisi fisiologis, polifarmasi dan tingginya kejadian penyakit kronis pada lansia dapat termanifestasi di dalam rongga mulut sehingga dapat mempengaruhi fungsi mulut yang pada gilirannya akan mempengaruhi kualitas hidup lansia. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti hubungan antara status kesehatan mulut dan kualitas hidup berdasarkan kesehatan mulut pada masyarakat lanjut

  12. Biophysical Approaches for Oral Wound Healing: Emphasis on Photobiomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Arany, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Oral wounds can lead to significant pain and discomfort as well as affect overall general health due to poor diet and inadequate nutrition. Besides many biological and pharmaceutical methods being investigated, there is growing interest in exploring various biophysical devices that utilize electric, magnetic, ultrasound, pressure, and light energy. Recent Advances: Significant insight into mechanisms of these biophysical devices could provide a clear rationale for their clinical use. Preclinical studies are essential precursors in determining physiological mechanisms and elucidation of causal pathways. This will lead to development of safe and effective therapeutic protocols for clinical wound management. Critical Issues: Identification of precise events initiated by biophysical devices, specifically photobiomodulation—the major focus of this review, offers promising avenues in improving oral wound management. The primary phase responses initiated by the interventions that distinctly contribute to the therapeutic response must be clearly delineated from secondary phase responses. The latter events are a consequence of the wound healing process and must not be confused with causal mechanisms. Future Direction: Clinical adoption of these biophysical devices needs robust and efficacious protocols that can be developed by well-designed preclinical and clinical studies. Elucidation of the precise molecular mechanisms of these biophysical approaches could determine optimization of their applications for predictive oral wound care. PMID:26634185

  13. MUCOSITIS PREVENTION BY SELECTIVE ELIMINATION OF ORAL FLORA IN IRRADIATED HEAD AND NECK-CANCER PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPIJKERVET, FKL; VANSAENE, HKF; VANSAENE, JJM; PANDERS, AK; VERMEY, A; MEHTA, DM

    1990-01-01

    Mucositis induced by irradiation is the reactive inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucous membranes following irradiation. Bacteria colonizing the oral tissues are thought to contribute to this inflammatory process. The eradication of Gram-negative bacilli (selective elimination of oral

  14. Relationship between mucositis and changes in oral microflora during cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napeñas, Joel J; Brennan, Michael T; Bahrani-Mougeot, Farah K; Fox, Philip C; Lockhart, Peter B

    2007-01-01

    It is thought that the incidence and severity of cancer chemotherapy-associated mucositis is caused in part by changes in the oral bacterial microflora. This systematic review examined the role of oral bacterial microflora changes in the development of oral mucositis during chemotherapy. Thirteen prospective clinical trials were identified, involving 300 patients with 13 different cancer diagnoses. There was great variability in patient populations, bacterial sample collection methodology, and oral sample sites. No clear pattern regarding qualitative and quantitative oral flora changes emerged among these studies. The most frequent Gram-negative species isolated during chemotherapy were from the Enterobacteriaceae family, Pseudomonas sp. and E. coli. The most common Gram-positive species isolated were Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Five studies assessed the role of oral flora changes in the genesis of oral mucosal changes, with no consensus among them. More detailed studies are required to understand the relationship between chemotherapy, alterations in the nature and magnitude of the oral microflora, and the presence of mucositis.

  15. Oral mucositis and the clinical and economic outcomes of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonis, ST; Oster, G; Fuchs, H; Bellm, L; Bradford, WZ; Edelsberg, J; Hayden, [No Value; Eilers, J; Epstein, JB; LeVeque, FG; Miller, C; Peterson, DE; Schubert, MM; Spijkervet, FKL; Horowitz, M

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between oral mucositis and selected clinical and economic outcomes in blood and marrow transplant patients. Patients and Methods: Subjects consisted of 92 transplant patients from eight centers who participated in a multinational pilot study of a new oral mucosit

  16. MUCOSITIS PREVENTION BY SELECTIVE ELIMINATION OF ORAL FLORA IN IRRADIATED HEAD AND NECK-CANCER PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPIJKERVET, FKL; VANSAENE, HKF; VANSAENE, JJM; PANDERS, AK; VERMEY, A; MEHTA, DM

    1990-01-01

    Mucositis induced by irradiation is the reactive inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucous membranes following irradiation. Bacteria colonizing the oral tissues are thought to contribute to this inflammatory process. The eradication of Gram-negative bacilli (selective elimination of oral

  17. Randomized DoubleBlind PlaceboControlled Trial of Propolis for Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AkhavanKarbassi, Mohammad Hasan; Yazdi, Mohammad Forat; Ahadian, Hakimeh; SadrAbad, Maryam Jalili

    2016-01-01

    Propolis based preparations have a wide range of applications in various specialties of dentistry. The aim of this clinical trial was to test the efficacy of propolis as a mouthwash in the reduction of chemotherapy induced oral mucositis (OM) in a single center. In this randomised, controlled study patients undergoing chemotherapy were included consecutively and randomised to an experimental group receiving propolis mouthwash (n = 20) and a control group receiving diluted water (n=20). Oral mucositis, erythema and eating and drink ability were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 7 days using the World Health Organization (WHO) scale and the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). There were significant differences in OM, wound and erythema in propolis group compared to placebo, but no significant difference in eating and drink ability. However, it was interesting that 65% of the patients in the propolis group were completely healed at day 7 of the trial. No significant adverse events were reported by the patients. This study found that oral care with propolis as mouthwash for patients undergoing chemotherapy is an effective intervention to improve oral health. Our findings shouldlencourage health practitioners to apply propolis mouth rinse for the oral care of patients under chemotherapy.

  18. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  19. Effect of epicatechin against radiation-induced oral mucositis: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Seob Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Radiation-induced oral mucositis limits the delivery of high-dose radiation to head and neck cancer. This study investigated the effectiveness of epicatechin (EC, a component of green tea extracts, on radiation-induced oral mucositis in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of EC on radiation-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed in the human keratinocyte line HaCaT. Radiation-induced apoptosis, change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and changes in the signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo therapeutic effects of EC for oral mucositis were explored in a rat model. Rats were monitored by daily inspections of the oral cavity, amount of oral intake, weight change and survival rate. For histopathologic evaluation, hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL staining were performed. RESULTS: EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, change of MMP, and intracellular ROS generation in HaCaT cells. EC treatment markedly attenuated the expression of p-JNK, p-38, and cleaved caspase-3 after irradiation in the HaCaT cells. Rats with radiation-induced oral mucositis showed decreased oral intake, weight and survival rate, but oral administration of EC significantly restored all three parameters. Histopathologic changes were significantly decreased in the EC-treated irradiated rats. TUNEL staining of rat oral mucosa revealed that EC treatment significantly decreased radiation-induced apoptotic cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and rat oral mucosa and may be a safe and effective candidate treatment for the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis.

  20. The therapeutic effect of PLAG against oral mucositis in hamster and mouse model

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    Ha-Reum Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can limit the effectiveness of cancer therapy and increase the risk of infections. However, no specific therapy for protection against mucositis is currently available. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced oral mucositis animal models. Hamsters were administered 5-FU (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 0, 6, and 9. The animals’ cheek pouches were then scratched equally with the tip of an 18-gauge needle on days 1, 2, and 7. PLAG was administered daily at 250 mg/kg/day. PLAG administration significantly reduced 5-FU/scratching–induced mucositis. Dramatic reversal of weight loss in PLAG-treated hamsters with mucositis was observed. Histochemical staining data also revealed newly differentiated epidermis and blood vessels in the cheek pouches of PLAG-treated hamsters, indicative of recovery. Whole blood analyses indicated that PLAG prevents 5-FU–induced excessive neutrophil transmigration to the infection site and eventually stabilizes the number of circulating neutrophils. In a mouse mucositis model, mice with 5-FU–induced disease treated with PLAG exhibited resistance to body-weight loss compared with mice that received 5-FU or 5-FU/scratching alone. PLAG also dramatically reversed mucositis-associated weight loss and inhibited mucositis-induced inflammatory responses in the tongue and serum. These data suggest that PLAG enhances recovery from 5-FU–induced oral mucositis and may therefore be a useful therapeutic agent for treating side effects of chemotherapy, such as mucositis and cachexia.

  1. Comparison of efficacy of cryotherapy and chlorhexidine to oral nutrition transition time in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Y; Ipekcoban, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of cryotherapy and chlorhexidine to oral nutrition transition time in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. This randomised controlled trial with random assignments to the experimental and control groups was conducted with cancer patients. Study data were collected from 90 cancer patients. The first experimental group (n = 30) received chlorhexidine mouthwash, the second experimental group (n = 30) received oral cryotherapy and the control group (n = 30) received routine care. To collect data we used the 'Mucositis Rating Index'. Changes in patients' oral mucosa in each group were checked and oral feeding transition periods were recorded. There was an important statistical difference between the times of transition to oral nutrition for patients (P < 0.01). Oral nutrition transition time of patients in the first experimental group who had applied chlorhexidine was shorter than in other groups. Following the tests, we detected a significant shortening in oral nutrition transition time of patients in first group who used chlorhexidine gargle as compared to the second group and control group. There was no significant difference between cryotherapy application and control group. In parallel with these findings, we detected that the degree of oral mucositis decreased.

  2. [Surgical wound healing in oral surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, M; Coscia, D; Bottalico, L; Libro, D

    1999-12-01

    Aim of this study is to improve the in vivo knowledge about the real effects and the physiologic repair by a detached stitches silk suture in the 8th zone. The study has been carried out on 44 patients submitted to surgical extraction of the impacted 8th (19 upper and 25 lower) teeth. Clinical and histological controls have demonstrated the usefulness of this suture procedure, since it gives a good histological reaction and in easy and safe. Histological and clinical results have confirmed the usefulness of silk suture, presenting however the inconvenience of stitches removal and bacterial plaque on the surgical wound.

  3. Serum zinc levels in 368 patients with oral mucosal diseases: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhe-Xuan; Yang, Xiao-Wen; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels in patients with common oral mucosal diseases by comparing these to healthy controls. Material and Methods A total of 368 patients, which consisted of 156 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients, 57 oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, 55 burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients, 54 atrophic glossitis (AG) patients, 46 xerostomia patients, and 115 sex-and age-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum zinc levels were measured in all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Chi-square test. Results The mean serum zinc level in the healthy control group was significantly higher than the levels of all other groups (p < 0.001). No individual in the healthy control group had a serum zinc level less than the minimum normal value. However, up to 24.7% (13/54) of patients with AG presented with zinc deficiency, while 21.2% (33/156) of patients with RAS, 16.4% (9/55) of patients with BMS, 15.2% (7/46) of patients with xerostomia, and 14.0% (8/57) of patients with OLP were zinc deficient. Altogether, the zinc deficiency rate was 19.02% (70/368) in the oral mucosal diseases (OMD) group (all patients with OMD). The difference between the OMD and healthy control group was significant (p <0.001). Gender differences in serum zinc levels were also present, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Zinc deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of common oral mucosal diseases. Zinc supplementation may be a useful treatment for oral mucosal diseases, but this requires further investigation; the optimal serum level of zinc, for the prevention and treatment of oral mucosal diseases, remains to be determined. Key words:Oral mucosal diseases, Zinc deficiency, pathogenesis. PMID:27031065

  4. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of normal and abnormal oral mucosal squames: preliminary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been applied to the exfoliative cytology of normal and abnormal human oral mucosal squames. This study is ongoing but early results indicate that a normal baseline for clinically normal oral squames, related to age and site, may be difficult to achieve. However, results obtained for the pathological smears suggest that these techniques may improve the diagnostic sensitivity of cytology in the management of oral cancer. PMID:6389859

  5. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of normal and abnormal oral mucosal squames: preliminary communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowpe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been applied to the exfoliative cytology of normal and abnormal human oral mucosal squames. This study is ongoing but early results indicate that a normal baseline for clinically normal oral squames, related to age and site, may be difficult to achieve. However, results obtained for the pathological smears suggest that these techniques may improve the diagnostic sensitivity of cytology in the management of oral cancer.

  6. The role of sucralfate oral suspension in prevention of radiation induced mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Mucositis is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of radiation induced mucositis.
    • METHODS: A clinical randomized trial performed on 52 patients with head and neck cancers in Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These patients randomly assigned in 2 groups of 26 patients. Placebo and sucralfate was used for control and experimental patients respectiv ly, from the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients were visited weekly until the end of treatment. Grade of the mucositis was evaluated according to WHO grading scale.
    • RESULTS: Sucralfate significantly reduced the mean grade of mucositis in weeks one to four (with P-values of 0.02, 0.02, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively. Development of grade3 mucositis was also lower in sucralfate group (P-value = 0.0001. But, time interval between radiotherapy and appearance of mucositis was not statistically different in the two groups (P-value = 0.9
    • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that using oral suspension of sucralfate reduced the grade of radiation-induced mucositis, but did not prevent or delay it.
    • KEYWORDS: Mucositis, radiotherapy, sucralfate, head and neck cancers.

  7. Low-level Laser Therapy: A Review of Its Applications in the Management of Oral Mucosal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2016-11-01

    Due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and biostimulating effects, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely used for oral disorders, such as oral lichen planus (OLP), xerostomia, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), herpes labialis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), and oral mucositis (OM). The research team for the present study has reviewed the literature on the subject, with an emphasis on the applicability of LLLT in general and of its various clinical protocols for the management of those oral disorders. In lesions such as the ones occurring in OM, RAS, herpes labialis, and OLP, the course of wound healing and the pain have been shown to decrease, with a few, or most often, no adverse side effects. The literature shows that LLLT can also be effective in reducing symptoms in patients with BMS. For the treatment of hyposalivation and xerostomia, the use of LLLT has been described in the literature, but no consensus has resulted. Very few controlled clinical studies with well-established therapeutic protocols have occurred, except for OM, for which LLLT has been widely researched. Although information on the use of the laser for some lesions has already been consolidated, further research is needed, especially randomized, controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up. Those studies will allow the safe use of LLLT, permitting the creation of care protocols for the management of oral disorders.

  8. Investigation of trefoil factor expression in saliva and oral mucosal tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Utrawichian, Akasith; Leelayuwat, Chanvit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims of our study were to determine levels of trefoil factor (TFF) peptides in saliva and oral mucosal tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate whether individual members of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) might act as biomarkers of disease....... Materials and methods Saliva samples were from 23 healthy subjects and 23 OSCC patients. Tissue samples were collected from 32 normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 32 OSCC biopsy specimens. ELISA and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in saliva and oral mucosal...... progression in OSCC. Quantification of TFF levels in saliva may not be optimal in terms of diagnostic or predictive value for OSCC derived from oral mucosa....

  9. Alteration of the redox state with reactive oxygen species for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Yoshino

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis.

  10. FAK regulates intestinal epithelial cell survival and proliferation during mucosal wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Owen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following damage to the intestinal epithelium, restoration of epithelial barrier integrity is triggered by a robust proliferative response. In other tissues, focal adhesion kinase (FAK regulates many of the cellular processes that are critical for epithelial homeostasis and restitution, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. However, few studies to date have determined how FAK contributes to mucosal wound healing in vivo. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the role of FAK in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and during injury, we generated intestinal epithelium (IE-specific conditional FAK knockout mice. Colitis was induced with dextran-sulfate-sodium (DSS and intestinal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. While intestinal development occurred normally in mice lacking FAK, FAK-deficient animals were profoundly susceptible to colitis. The loss of epithelial FAK resulted in elevated p53 expression and an increased sensitivity to apoptosis, coincident with a failure to upregulate epithelial cell proliferation. FAK has been reported to function as a mechanosensor, inducing cyclin D1 expression and promoting cell cycle progression under conditions in which tissue/matrix stiffness is increased. Collagen deposition, a hallmark of inflammatory injury resulting in increased tissue rigidity, was observed in control and FAK knockout mice during colitis. Despite this fibrotic response, the colonic epithelium in FAK-deficient mice exhibited significantly reduced cyclin D1 expression, suggesting that proliferation is uncoupled from fibrosis in the absence of FAK. In support of this hypothesis, proliferation of Caco-2 cells increased proportionally with matrix stiffness in vitro only under conditions of normal FAK expression; FAK depleted cells exhibited reduced proliferation concomitant with attenuated cyclin D1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: In the colon, FAK functions as a regulator of

  11. Establishment of a Single Dose Radiation Model of Oral Mucositis in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seung Hee; Moon, Soo Young; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do; Song, Si Yeol; Park, Jin Hong; Noh, Young Ju; Lee, Sang Wook [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy to the head and neck area, is a common acute complication and is considered as the most severe symptom for cancer patients in the early stages of treatment. This study was proposed to establish the oral mucositis mouse model induced by a single dose of radiation for the facility of testing therapeutic candidates which can be used for the oral mucositis treatments. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: control, 16 Gy, 18 Gy, and 20 Gy. Oral mucositis was induced by a single dose of radiation to the head and neck using 6 MV x-Ray from linear accelerator. After irradiation, body weight and physical abnormalities were checked daily. Tongue tissues from all groups were taken on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 14, respectively and H and E staining was conducted to examine morphological changes. Results: Body weight dramatically decreased after day 5 in all irradiated mice. In the 16 Gy treatment group, body weight was recovered on day 14. The histology data showed that the thickness of the epithelial cell layer was decreased by the accumulated time after radiation treatment, up to day 9. Severe ulceration was revealed on day 9. Conclusion: A single dose of 16 Gy is sufficient dose to induce oral mucositis in Balb/C mice. Significant changes were observed in the Balb/C mice on days 7 and 9 after radiation. It is suggested that this mouse model might be a useful standard tool for studying oral mucositis induced by radiation.

  12. Development of oral mucositis model induced by radiation in hamsters: prevention and treatment with low power laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galletta, Vivian C.; Folgosi-Correa, Melissa S.; Zezell, Denise M., E-mail: vivian.galletta@gmail.com, E-mail: melfolgosi@gmail.com, E-mail: zezell@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gouw-Soares, Sheila, E-mail: sheilagouw@hotmail.com [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Correa, Luciana, E-mail: lcorrea@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FO/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2013-07-01

    Despite the benefits for the prognosis of patients treated with radiotherapy for oral cancer treatment, it might cause local side effects such as oral mucositis. The oral mucositis is a pathological condition that may appear in affected oral mucosa by ionizing radiation, and the pain related can alter and even stop the antineoplastic treatment, decreasing tumor control rates. Oral mucositis has several treatment modalities, although it remains as a problem since therapies available are not enough to treat efficiently this inflammatory process. Many pharmacological solutions (anti-inflammatory, antibiotics, antiseptic, lubricant agents) are used to alleviate oral mucositis symptoms. Laser treatment has been used as an option, but there is lack of studies to verify the process of laser therapy in oral mucositis caused by ionizing radiation. This work accomplishes follow-up of oral mucositis evolution, comparing laser and benzydamine therapies in an animal model. Forty-two animals were irradiated at head and neck in a single dose of 30 Grays, by means of a Co{sup 60} source. After irradiation, treatments were applied daily, once a day, for 20 days, in which severity of lesions were clinically classified by two calibrated examiners. Histological evaluation was performed to search for mucosal alterations at treated tissues. Statistical analysis of data showed that laser treatment was more efficient than benzydamine treatment, diminishing severity and duration of oral mucosal lesions caused by ionizing irradiation. (author)

  13. Oral Mucosal Disorders: Problems and Questions What are the Critical Points?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tülin Mansur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal disorders comprise more than 200 pathological conditions or diseases, grouped in different categories including genetic, inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic. In this report the key points in diagnosis and treatment of oral mucosal disorders are briefly underlined, and indications, precautions, and contraindications are pointed out. In addition, some clues are given to the dermatologists for management of common symptoms of oral disorders, such as pain, dry mouth and halitosis, which greatly disrupt the quality of life. Moreover, the frequently encountered problems in daily practice including contact stomatitis, effects of dental prostheses, dental materials, and topical agents on oral mucosa, and the critical points in surgical interventions of oral disorders are reviewed.

  14. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and associated habits in Kashmir, India

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    Tasneem S. Ain

    2016-08-01

    Results: Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was found to be 8%. Smoker's palate was the most frequently found oral lesion comprising of 33.89% followed by oral lichen planus and leukoplakia (13.55% each. Other lesions included chemical burns, erythroplakia, OSMF and lichenoid reactions. Subjects were indulged into various habits; the most prevalent being the cigarette smoking (56.46%, followed by hukka and bidi smoking and smokeless tobacco. Conclusions: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 8% among the study sample. Subjects were associated with various deleterious habits which were found more in males than females. This study helps in public awareness about the ill effects of oral habits and may motivate them in overcoming their indulgence. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3525-3530

  15. An Epidemiological Study of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Karnataka State, India

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    K. V. V Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents oral mucosal lesions findings from a state oral health survey of Karnataka, India. A total of 46,579 subjects aged 1-4 to 65+ years were selected by using multistage-cluster-stratified random sampling method and subjects were examined by 32 dentists trained in standardized clinical diagnostic criteria for oral mucosal lesions. In the present study, 7.53% of subjects had one or more oral mucosal lesions, in which, male subjects (9.41 % had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions compared to female subjects (4.38%; urban subjects (11.61% had a significantly higher prevalence than rural subjects (5.01 % and the Christian subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions than the Hindus, Muslims and others (F=211.594, <0.001, S. The observed prevalence of oral mucosal lesions increased with age (r=0.8174, P<0.05, S, which is statistically significant. The most prevalent lesions observed were Leukoplakia (1.73%, Lichen planus (2.02% Ulceration (0.73%, Candidiasis (0.94% and Abscess (1.05%. The maximum number of lesions was seen in sulci (7.33% and the minimum number of lesions was seen in lips (0.02%. Differences in prevalence were analyzed by sex, religion, location and geographical area.

  16. Isoniazid Induced Lupus Presenting as Oral Mucosal Ulcers with Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ria; Ankale, Padmaraj; Sinha, Kanishk; Iyer, Aparna; Jayalakshmi, T. K.

    2016-01-01

    Drug Induced Lupus Erythematous (DILE) is a rare adverse reaction to a large variety of drugs including Isoniazid (INH), with features resembling idiopathic Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Diagnosis require identification of a temporal relationship between drug administered and symptom. It is an idiosyncratic reaction, with no pre-existing lupus. Our case highlights a rare presentation of isoniazid induced lupus with profound pancytopenia and mucosal ulcers, thus posing a diagnostic chall...

  17. Assessment of oral mucositis in adult and pediatric oncology patients: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Michele; Cullen, Laura; Dawson, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a frequent side effect of cancer treatment and can lead to delayed treatment, reduced treatment dosage, altered nutrition, dehydration, infections, xerostomia, pain, and higher healthcare costs. Mucositis is defined as "inflammatory lesions of the oral and/or gastrointestinal tract caused by high-dose cancer therapies. Alimentary tract mucositis refers to the expression of mucosal injury across the continuum of oral and gastrointestinal mucosa, from the mouth to the anus" (Peterson, Bensadoun, & Roila, 2008, p. ii122). Evidence demonstrates that oral mucositis is quite distressing for patients. In addition, the majority of oncology nurses are unaware of available guidelines related to the care of oral mucositis. A multidisciplinary Oral Mucositis Committee was formed by the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for adult and pediatric oncology patients experiencing oral mucositis. The first step was implementing an evidence-based nursing oral assessment. The Iowa Model was used to guide this evidence-based practice initiative. The Oral Assessment Guide (OAG) is reliable and valid, feasible, and sensitive to changing conditions. The OAG was piloted on an Adult Leukemia and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit leading to modification and adaptation. The pilot evaluation found 87% of patients had an abnormal oral assessment involving all categories in the tool. Nursing questionnaires showed that staff (8/23; 35% response) felt they were able to identify at risk patients using the OAG (3.3; 1-4 scale), and the tool accurately identifies mucosal changes (2.9; 1-4 scale). A knowledge assessment found nurses correctly identified OAG components 63% of the time. Unlike results from a national survey, most University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics nurses (63%) were aware of national guidelines for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Developing an evidence-based nursing policy and updating

  18. Low level laser therapy in the treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients: systematic review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Rula Fawzi; Selting, Wayne J.

    2016-03-01

    Oral mucositis is a debilitating and dose limiting side effect of oncotherapy in cancer patients. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is a promising new intervention for the treatment of oral mucositis. Aims and objectives: 1. Perform a systematic review of available literature on the therapeutic effect of LLLT on established oral mucositis. 2. Formulate recommendations for future studies based on results of review. Methods: Electronic search oflow level laser therapy in the treatment of oral mucositis was conducted and eligible studies reviewed. Results: Four studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 109 patients were included, 59 of which received LLLT as a therapeutic measure. An overall success rate of 81.4% success rate was reported in regard to OM. Conclusion: The review demonstrated the positive therapeutic effect of LLLT on oral mucositis. However, the need for future studies with standardized reporting of parameters and methods is needed to increase the level of evidence of this intervention.

  19. Oral opportunistic infections in HIV-positive individuals: review and role of mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Janet E; Shetty, Kishore; Fidel, Paul L

    2004-08-01

    Oral opportunistic infections in the HIV-positive individual have been documented since the first reports of the epidemic, with many lesions associated with reduced CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count. The most common oral lesions seen in HIV disease prior to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. However, since the advent of HAART while many oral lesions have decreased significantly the incidence of oral warts has surprisingly increased. Despite the correlation of diminished CD4(+) T lymphocyte count to the occurrence of these lesions, it is rare for the lesions to occur concurrently suggesting that each pathologic lesion type is associated with distinct host immune dysfunctions. To date, the oral opportunistic infection most frequently investigated is oropharyngeal candidiasis, where data suggests that both systemic and local immunity is important for protection against infection. In contrast, recent investigations into the host responses associated with oral hairy leukoplakia and oral warts show little to no evidence of systemic or mucosal immune responsiveness despite the presumed competence of several types of leukocytes other than CD4(+) T cells. Together these data are suggesting that susceptibility to oropharyngeal candidasis in HIV-positive persons is predominantly immune-based, whereas protection or susceptibility to oral hairy leukoplakia and oral warts may be more associated with factors other than mucosal immune function.

  20. Preventive intervention possibilities in radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis : Results of meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, M A; Spijkervet, F K L; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J.P.; Roodenburg, J L N; de Vries, E G E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of these meta-analyses was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis in cancer patients treated with head and neck radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, with a focus on randomized clinical trials. A literature search was performed for reports of randomiz

  1. Efficacy of palifermin (keratinocyte growth factor-1 in the amelioration of oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Sonis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen T SonisBrigham and Women’s Hospital and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Oral mucositis is a significant toxicity of cytotoxic chemo- and radiation-therapy used to treat cancer. Palifermin is the first pharmaceutical/biological agent approved for the intervention of oral mucositis. The major objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting the use of palifermin.Methods: A literature search was performed using an appropriate keyword search in MEDLINE and PubMed databases.Results: Of 100 full papers and 4 abstracts identified, 12 papers and 3 abstracts were appropriate for analysis. Level 2 evidence supporting palifermin use in patients with hematologic malignancies being treated with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is clear. Level 2 evidence also exists for the use of palifermin in the prevention of oral mucositis in patients with solid tumors (colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, but is incomplete. Level ≥ 3 data support the use of palifermin in allogeneic HSCT recipients and cycled chemotherapy. A single health economic study concluded that palifermin is essentially cost neutral in the autologous HSCT population.Conclusion: Data supporting the use of palifermin in autologous HSCT recipients with hematologic malignancies is clear. Some data exist demonstrating its efficacy in other oncologic indications. Additional studies are needed to broaden the potential applications of palifermin and to ascertain its economic, but not symptomatic, effectiveness.Keywords: oral mucositis, palifermin, toxicity

  2. Laser phototherapy as a treatment for radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lino, Maira Doria Martinez da Costa; Carvalho, Fabola Bastos de; Magalhaes, Edval Barreto; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa [Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dental School. Center of Biophotonics; Oliveira, Lara Ramalho de [Metropolitan Union of Culture and Education, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dental School. Oral Diagnosis Specialization Program; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira, E-mail: lucianaramalho@uol.com.b [Metropolitan Union of Culture and Education (UNIME), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dental School. Lab. of Pathology

    2011-07-01

    Oral mucositis is a harmful side effect of radiotherapy (RT) on the head and neck region. There are encouraging reports on the beneficial aspects of the use of laser light on the treatment of oral mucositis. This paper reports the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the treatment of oral mucositis in a patient undergoing RT after surgical removal of a squamous cell carcinoma with osseous invasion of the maxilla. Palatal and commissural lesions were treated with {lambda}660 nm, 40 mW, {phi}=4 mm{sup 2}, in contact mode, 5 x 2.4 J/cm{sup 2} per point, 14.4 J/cm{sup 2} per session. For treating the lesion on the patient's nasal mucosa, LPT ({phi}=4 mm{sup 2}, {lambda}780 nm, 70 mW, 3 x 2.1 J/cm{sup 2} per point, 6.3 J/cm{sup 2} per session, contact mode) was used on the external area of the nose. A single dose (2.4 J/cm{sup 2}) with the {lambda}660 nm laser, as described before, was applied on the entrance of each nostril. LPT was used 3 times/week during 4 weeks. Treatment results indicate that the use of LPT on oral mucositis was effective and allowed the patient to carry on the RT without interruption. However, long-term and controlled clinical trials are necessary to establish both preventive and curative protocols using LPT. (author)

  3. Systematic review of cytokines and growth factors for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; von Bültzingslöwen, I.; Logan, R.M.; Bowen, J.; Al-Azri, A.R.; Everaus, H.; Gerber, E.; Gomez, J.G.; Pettersson, B.G.; Soga, Y.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Tissing, W.J.E.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this project was to review the literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of cytokines and growth factor agents for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis induced by cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods A systematic review was conducted by the Mu

  4. Morphine mouthwash for the management of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sarvizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Topical morphine is more effective and more satisfactory to patients than the magic mouthwash in reducing severity of cancer treatment-induced oral mucositis. More studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up are required in this regard.

  5. Helicobacter pylori coinfection is a confounder, modulating mucosal inflammation in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity has been considered a potential reservoir for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori , from where the organism causes recurrent gastric infections. Aim: With this case-control study we tried to evaluate the role of H pylori in the etiology of mucosal inflammation, a condition that compounds the morbid state associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. Materials and Methods : Subjects ( n = 150 were selected following institutional regulations on sample collection and grouped into test cases and positive and negative controls based on the presence of mucosal fibrosis and inflammation. The negative controls had none of the clinical signs. All patients underwent an oral examination as well as tests to assess oral hygiene/periodontal disease status; a rapid urease test (RUT of plaque samples was also done to estimate the H pylori bacterial load. We used univariate and mutivariate logistic regression for statistical analysis of the data and calculated the odds ratios to assess the risk posed by the different variables. Results : The RUT results differed significantly between the groups, reflecting the variations in the bacterial loads in each category. The test was positive in 52% in the positive controls (where nonspecific inflammation of oral mucosa was seen unassociated with fibrosis, in 46% of the test cases, and in 18% of the negative controls (healthy volunteers (χ2 = 13.887; P < 0.01. A positive correlation was seen between the oral hygiene/periodontal disease indices and RUT reactivity in all the three groups. Conclusions: The contribution of the H pylori in dental plaque to mucosal inflammation and periodontal disease was significant. Logistic regression analysis showed gastrointestinal disease and poor oral hygiene as being the greatest risk factors for bacterial colonization, irrespective of the subject groups. A positive correlation exists between RUT reactivity and the frequency of mucosal inflammation.

  6. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study following the STROBE guidelines was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among males, females, and eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: Based on convenient non-probability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of examination and who fulfilled the selection criteria were examined. A cross section of the general population (males and females residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was also examined. The World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997 was used to collect the information on oral mucosal lesions. All the obtained data were analyzed by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Results: Overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 127 (19.9% among the study subjects. Fifty-nine (28.5% eunuchs, 56 (25.7% males, and 12 (5.6% females were observed to have some oral mucosal lesions. Oral submucous fibrosis (6.4%, leukoplakia (5.5%, and traumatic ulceration (4.2% were the major oral mucosal conditions observed. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in the eunuch population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve the oral and general health of eunuchs.

  7. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, Byarakele; Saxena, Vrinda

    2015-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study following the STROBE guidelines was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among males, females, and eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh India. Based on convenient non-probability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of examination and who fulfilled the selection criteria were examined. A cross section of the general population (males and females) residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was also examined. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment proforma (1997) was used to collect the information on oral mucosal lesions. All the obtained data were analyzed by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 127 (19.9%) among the study subjects. Fifty-nine (28.5%) eunuchs, 56 (25.7%) males, and 12 (5.6%) females were observed to have some oral mucosal lesions. Oral submucous fibrosis (6.4%), leukoplakia (5.5%), and traumatic ulceration (4.2%) were the major oral mucosal conditions observed. The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in the eunuch population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve the oral and general health of eunuchs.

  8. Ketoprofen-loaded Eudragit electrospun nanofibers for the treatment of oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda RI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rana Ihab Reda,1 Ming Ming Wen,2 Amal Hassan El-Kamel1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Manufacturing, Pharos University in Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of this study was to formulate ketoprofen (KET-loaded Eudragit L and Eudragit S nanofibers (NFs by the electrospinning technique for buccal administration to treat oral mucositis as a safe alternative to orally administered KET, which causes gastrointestinal tract (GIT side effects. Materials and methods: NFs were prepared by electrospinning using Eudragit L and Eudragit S. Several variables were evaluated to optimize NF formulation, such as polymer types and concentrations, applied voltage, flow rate and drug concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and analyses of drug contents, hydration capacity, surface pH, drug release and ex vivo permeation were performed to evaluate the NFs. The selected formulation (F1 was evaluated in vivo on induced oral mucositis in rabbits. Results: SEM revealed that 20% polymer formed smooth and bead-free NFs. DSC results confirmed the amorphous nature of KET in the NFs. FTIR confirmed hydrogen bond formation between the drug and polymer, which stabilized the NFs. Both formulations (F1 and F2 had an acceptable surface pH. The drug loading was >90%. The amount of KET released from NF formulations was statistically significantly higher (P≤0.001 than that released from the corresponding solvent-casted films. The complete release of KET from F1 occurred within 2 hours. Ex vivo permeation study revealed that only a small fraction of drug permeated from F1, which was a better candidate than F2 for local buccal delivery. In vivo evaluation of F1 on oral mucositis induced in rabbits demonstrated that F1 reduced the clinical severity of mucositis in

  9. Effects of Copaiba Oil Topical Administration on Oral Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Ortiz, Lisley; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Meurer, Luise; Lameira, Osmar Alves; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2017-08-01

    The effects of topical copaiba oil extract and topical corticosteroid were assessed on oral wound healing in an in vivo model using 96 male Wistar rats. Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The animals were divided into: Control; Corticosteroid; Placebo and Copaiba oil Group. The animals received two daily applications of the products. The control group received only daily handling. Six rats in each group were euthanized at days 3, 5, 10 and 14. The animals were monitored daily to determine wound status. The weigh was assessed at day 0 and euthanasia day. The percentage of repair was calculated, and histopathological aspects were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the results between groups and times of evaluation. Closing time was assessed through the log-rank test. The corticosteroid group lost more weight at days 10 and 14 than the control group (p oil group and the control group. We concluded that topical copaiba oil, in spite of being safe, did not accelerate the process of oral wound healing. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Evaluación de terapias alternativas en mucositis oral experimental

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    D. Mora-Montoya

    Full Text Available La mucositis oral es una complicación importante de la terapia antineoplásica En la actualidad, la mucositis es uno de los efectos secundarios del tratamiento del cáncer al cual se le está dedicando un gran esfuerzo terapéutico para encontrar medidas farmacológicas, que reduzcan su incidencia, así como su impacto o gravedad debido a las consecuencias planteadas. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la patogénesis de la enfermedad y presentar los resultados de las diferentes alternativas terapéuticas estudiadas de forma experimental.

  11. Preliminary study on radio-chemo-induced oral mucositis and low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Cella, Luigi; Vescovi, Paolo; Oppici, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    Background: Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of antineoplastic radiation and drug therapy: its incidence in onco-hematological radio-chemotreated patients is variable between 50 and 100% and its impact on this populations is directly linked with the experience of intense pain causing reduction and modification of therapy regimens, decreased survival rates and increased cost of care. Purpose: Aim of this study is the preliminary evaluation of a Low Level Laser therapy (LLLT) protocol on healing process of oral mucositis and on pain and quality of life of patients experiencing this dramatic side-effect. Materials and methods: Patients were evaluated and treated at the Unita` Operativa Semplice Dipartimentale di Odontostomatologia e Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale of the Hospital of Piacenza were they were treated for primary disease with protocols of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. LLLT protocol was performed with a diode laser (808 nm -XD Smile - Fotona -Slovenia) on a two weeks-6 treatments schedule with power of 0.5 W and application of 30 seconds. Mucositis grading was scored on the basis of WHO classification by two blind operators at each treatment and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. Pain and capability of deglutition were described by patients by means questionnaires based on Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale and Quality of Life. Results: A relevant improvement of healing of oral mucositis, in terms of reduction of grading score, and of pain, swallowing discomfort and quality of life was recorded. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this preliminary study are encouraging for the realization of larger studies focused on the application of LLLT protocols in management of radio-chemotreated patients with oral mucositis.

  12. Novel submicronized rebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity: significant effects on oral mucositis in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takako; Sako, Nobutomo; Matsuda, Takakuni; Uematsu, Naoya; Sakurai, Kazushi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a novel rebamipide liquid for an effective treatment of oral mucositis. The healing effects of a variety of liquids comprising submicronized rebamipide crystals were investigated using a rat cauterization-induced oral ulcer model. Whereas 2% rebamipide liquid comprising micro-crystals did not exhibit significant curative effect, 2% rebamipide liquids comprising submicronized crystals with moderate viscosities exhibited healing effects following intra-oral administration. The 2% and 4% optimized rebamipide liquids showed significant healing effects in the rat oral ulcer model (prebamipide liquid significantly reduced the percent area of ulcerated injury (prebamipide liquid with moderate viscosity following intra-oral administration showed better both healing effect in the rat oral ulcer model and preventive effect in the rat irradiation-induced glossitis model.

  13. Necrotic erythema nodosum leprosum with oral mucosal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J P; Soud, A; Agarwal, S K

    2008-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic, infectious disease with varied clinical presentations. The type 2 lepra reaction / erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) classically involves extremities and face. Besides to the classical lesions of type 2 lepra reaction sometimes rare findings of vesicular lesions with necroticans may be observed. We are reporting a case of lepromatous leprosy with bullous reaction and necroticans involving usual sites along with the unusual involvement of oral cavity, which on first look mimicked necrotizing vasculitis or other bullous disorders. This manifestation of type 2 lepra reaction in oral mucosa should be kept in mind by the physicians while dealing with a case of type 2 lepra reaction.

  14. A Study on Oral Mucosal Lesions in 3500 Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a great variety of diseases, which affect the oral tissues and those were .... The pattern of BMZ staining depends on its ultra-structural morphology in each tissue. .... of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) with geographic tongue .... brown to brownish black in color. All the ... symptoms such as anhidrosis, thin and sparse hair, dry.

  15. Role of dental restoration materials in oral mucosal lichenoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental restorative materials containing silver-mercury compounds have been known to induce oral lichenoid lesions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of contact allergy to dental restoration materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions and to study the effect of removal of the materials on the lesions. Results: Forty-five patients were recruited in three groups of 15 each: Group A (lesions in close contact with dental materials, Group B (lesions extending 1 cm beyond the area of contact and Group C (no topographic relationship. Thirty controls were recruited in two groups of 15 individuals each: Group D (oral lichenoid lesions but no dental material and Group E (dental material but no oral lichenoid lesions. Patch tests were positive in 20 (44.5% patients. Mercury was the most common allergen to elicit a positive reaction in eight patients, followed by nickel (7, palladium (5, potassium dichromate (3, balsam of Peru, gold sodium thiosulphate 2 and tinuvin (2 and eugenol (1, cobalt chloride (1 and carvone (1. Seven patients elicited positive response to more than one allergen. In 13 of 20 patients who consented to removal of the dental material, complete healing was observed in 6 (30%, marked improvement in 7 (35% and no improvement in 7 (35% patients. Relief of symptoms was usually observed 3 months after removal. Limitations: Limited number of study subjects and short follow up after removal/replacement of dental restoration materials are the main limitations of this study. Conclusion: Contact allergy to amalgam is an important etiologic factor in oral lichenoid lesions and removal of restorative material should be offered to patients who have lesions in close proximity to the dental material.

  16. Oral Administration of Surface-Deacetylated Chitin Nanofibers and Chitosan Inhibit 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Ryo; Azuma, Kazuo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Ochi, Kosuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prophylactic effects of orally administered surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (SDACNFs) and chitosan against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis, which is a common side effect of 5-FU chemotherapy. SDACNFs and chitosan abolished histological abnormalities associated with intestinal mucositis and suppressed hypoproliferation and apoptosis of intestinal crypt cells. These results indicate that SDACNF and chitosan are useful agents for preventing mucositis induced by anti-cancer drugs. PMID:28134832

  17. Protective effects of progesterone against gastric mucosal lesion induced by open abdominal wound and seawater immersion in rats

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    Jiang PU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of progesterone on gastric mucosal inflammatory response, changes in mucosa structure, and cell apoptosis in rats with open abdominal wound and seawater immersion. Methods  Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 each. The rats in group A were subjected to open abdominal wound + subcutaneous injection of sterile water, and rats in group B to open abdominal wound + seawater immersion + subcutaneous injection of sterile water, and rats in group C to open abdominal wound + seawater immersion + progesterone treatment. The animal model of open abdominal wound and seawater immersion was reproduced, and the rats in groups B and C were given subcutaneous injection of sterile water or progesterone (16mg/kg at 1, 6 and 12h after immersion. All rats were executed at 16h after immersion. The ulcer index (UI of gastric mucosa was calculated in the three groups. The pathological changes in gastric mucosa were observed under light microscope. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL -6 in gastric mucosa were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, the expression of caspase-3 in gastric mucosa was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the cell apoptosis of gastric mucosa was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining. Results  The UI, concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6, and injury score of gastric mucosa in group B were all significantly higher than those in group A (P<0.01 and group C (P<0.05. The expression of caspase-3 (23.8%±3.5% and apoptosis index (26.4%±2.8% of the gastric mucosa in group B were higher than those in group A (10.2%±1.6% and 8.5%±1.5% respectively, P<0.01 and group C (17.1%±2.3% and 19.8%±2.4% respectively, P<0.05. Conclusion  Progesterone administration could suppress gastric mucosa inflammation, protect gastric mucosal structure, and reduce mucosal cell apoptosis in the rats

  18. Effect of oral epidermal growth factor on mucosal healing in rats with duodenal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane CJ Chao; Kuo-Yu Liu; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Chia-Lang Fang; Chih-Wei Tsao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on mucosal healing in rats with duodenal ulcer.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation without EGF, sham operation with EGF, duodenal ulcer without EGF, or duodenal ulcer with EGF groups. Additionally, normal rats without operation served as the control group. Duodenal ulcer was induced in rats by 300 mL/L acetic acid. Rats with EGF were orally administered at a dose of 60 μg/kg/day in drinking water on the next day of operation (day 1). Healing of duodenal ulcer was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Cell growth of damaged mucosa was determined by the contents of nucleic acids and proteins. The level of EGF in duodenal mucosa was measured by ELISA.RESULTS: The pathological results showed that duodenal ulcer rats with EGF improved mucosal healing compared with those without EGF after day 5. Duodenal ulcer rats with EGF significantly increased duodenal DNA content compared with those without EGF on day 15 (6.44±0.54mg/g VS 1.45±0.52 mg/g mucosa, P<0.05). Duodenal RNA and protein contents did not differ between duodenal ulcer rats with and without EGF during the experimental period.Sham operation and duodenal ulcer rats with EGF significantly increased duodenal mucosal EGF content compared with those without EGF on day 5 (76.0±13.7 ng/g VS 35.7±12.9ng/g mucosa in sham operation rats, and 68.3±10.9 ng/gVS 28.3±9.2 ng/g mucosa in duodenal ulcer rats, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Oral EGF can promote mucosal healing of the rats with duodenal ulcer by stimulating mucosal proliferation accompanied by an increase in mucosal EGF content.

  19. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

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    Jiang, Chun-Bin; Cheng, Mei-Lien; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chiang Chiau, Jen-Shiu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orally administrated daily saline, probiotic suspension of Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus (Lcr35) or Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum (LaBi). Diarrhea score, pro-inflammatory cytokines serum levels, intestinal villus height and crypt depth and total RNA from tissue were assessed. Samples of blood, liver and spleen tissues were assessed for translocation. Results Marked diarrhea developed in the 5-FU groups but was attenuated after oral Lcr35 and LaBi administrations. Diarrhea scores decreased significantly from 2.64 to 1.45 and 0.80, respectively (Pprobiotics administration. We also found TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expressions were up-regulated in intestinal mucositis tissues following 5-FU treatment (TNF-α: 4.35 vs. 1.18, IL-1β: 2.29 vs. 1.07, IL-6: 1.49 vs. 1.02) and that probiotics treatment suppressed this up-regulation (Pprobiotics Lcr35 and LaBi can ameliorate chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. This suggests probiotics may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the prevention or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the future. PMID:26406888

  20. Prevalence based epigrammatic study of oral cancer and other mucosal disorders in elderly patients visiting dental institution of Northern India

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    Basavaraj T Bhagawati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This report provides the descriptive information about the oral health among the elderly population. The objective is to assess the association of age, medical status, recent use of dental services, habits and dentures with that of oral cancer, and other mucosal disorders. Materials and Methods: Data from the interviews and clinical examination of 285 persons aged above 60 years were obtained. Patients were divided into three groups of 75 patients each with age group of 60-65 years, 66-70 years, and 71 years above, respectively. Patients were examined and questioned regarding the oral health complaints and the presence of cancer and other mucosal disorders. Results: There are no statistically significant differentiates between the three groups in terms of oral health complaint, medical status. The patients in all the three groups gave the history of consumption of betel quid/alcohol/smoking. About 22.1% patients in Group A, 18.9% in Group B, and 37.9% in Group C had associated mucosal lesion like oral cancer, growth, pigmentation, red lesion, ulcer, and white lesions. Association between deleterious habits and oral mucosal lesions was seen in 12, 15, and 16 patients in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusion: The oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions were associated with oral habits and the use of faulty dentures. Age had minimal influence but coexistence of multiple conditions might further complicate the oral health.

  1. Serum amyloid P ameliorates radiation-induced oral mucositis and fibrosis

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    Murray Lynne A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of the anti-fibrotic protein serum amyloid P (SAP on radiation-induced oral mucositis (OM and fibrosis in a hamster cheek-pouch model. Experimental Design Hamsters received a single dose of radiation (40 Gy to the left everted cheek pouch to induce significant OM. The protective therapeutic potential of SAP was evaluated using varying dosing regimens. The extent of OM was measured using a validated six-point scoring scheme ranging from 0 (normal tissue, no mucositis to 5 (complete ulceration. Fibrotic remodeling was also visualized histologically and quantified at later time points using collagen gene expression. Results SAP treatment attenuated the profile of radiation-induced oral mucositis by delaying the time of onset, reducing the peak value, and enhancing the resolution of injury. The peak mucositis score was reduced by approximately 0.5 grade in SAP-treated animals. The number of animal days with a score of ≥ 3 was reduced by 48% in the SAP-treated group, compared with the saline control group (P Conclusions SAP treatment significantly attenuated radiation-induced injury. In particular, SAP attenuated the severity of OM and inhibited pathogenic remodeling. This suggests that SAP may be a useful therapy for the palliation of side effects observed during treatment for head and neck cancer.

  2. Oral mucosal lesions in elderly dental patients in Sana’a, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Jamaei, Aisha Ahmed; Al-Sufyani, Ghadah A.; Tarakji, Bassel; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With aging, the oral mucosa becomes more susceptible to external stimuli. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline data on the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in a population of elderly Yemeni patients and to investigate differences in the presentation of these findings in relation to age, gender, education level, and the wearing of dentures. Patients and Methods: The prevalence of OMLs was assessed by clinical examination of a sample of 310 elderly Yemeni patients aged 60 years and older. A single examiner performed detailed oral examinations of the oral cavity according to international criteria and the World Health Organization codes. Results: The overall prevalence of OMLs was 77.1%, with a significant difference (P 0.05). Conclusions: The present study has shown a high prevalence of oral lesions among Yemeni elders. PMID:25984462

  3. Ketoprofen-loaded Eudragit electrospun nanofibers for the treatment of oral mucositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Rana Ihab; Wen, Ming Ming; El-Kamel, Amal Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to formulate ketoprofen (KET)-loaded Eudragit L and Eudragit S nanofibers (NFs) by the electrospinning technique for buccal administration to treat oral mucositis as a safe alternative to orally administered KET, which causes gastrointestinal tract (GIT) side effects. Materials and methods NFs were prepared by electrospinning using Eudragit L and Eudragit S. Several variables were evaluated to optimize NF formulation, such as polymer types and concentrations, applied voltage, flow rate and drug concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyses of drug contents, hydration capacity, surface pH, drug release and ex vivo permeation were performed to evaluate the NFs. The selected formulation (F1) was evaluated in vivo on induced oral mucositis in rabbits. Results SEM revealed that 20% polymer formed smooth and bead-free NFs. DSC results confirmed the amorphous nature of KET in the NFs. FTIR confirmed hydrogen bond formation between the drug and polymer, which stabilized the NFs. Both formulations (F1 and F2) had an acceptable surface pH. The drug loading was >90%. The amount of KET released from NF formulations was statistically significantly higher (P≤0.001) than that released from the corresponding solvent-casted films. The complete release of KET from F1 occurred within 2 hours. Ex vivo permeation study revealed that only a small fraction of drug permeated from F1, which was a better candidate than F2 for local buccal delivery. In vivo evaluation of F1 on oral mucositis induced in rabbits demonstrated that F1 reduced the clinical severity of mucositis in rabbits under the current experimental conditions. The attenuated clinical severity was accompanied by a marked reduction in inflammatory infiltrate and re-epithelization of the epithelial layer. Conclusion Eudragit L100 nanofibers (EL-NF) loaded with KET (F1) suppressed

  4. Oral mucosal diseases in anxiety and depression patients: Hospital based observational study from south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Kandagal V; Shenai, Prashanth; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Ronad, Yusuf-Ahammed A; Bilahari, Naduvakattu; Pramod, Redder C; Kumar, Sreeja P

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different Oral Mucosal diseases in Anxiety and Depression patients. A hospital based observational Study was conducted in the department of Psychiatry and department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patients who were diagnosed with Anxiety or Depression by the psychiatrists using Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scale were subjected to complete oral examination to check for oral diseases like Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS), and Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Equal number of control group subjects were also included. In this study statistically significant increase in the oral diseases in patients with anxiety and depression than the control group was recorded. Oral diseases were significantly higher in anxiety patients (20.86%) than in depression (9.04%) and control group patients (5.17%). In anxiety patients, the prevalence of RAS was 12%, OLP was 5.7%, and BMS was 2.87%. In depression patients, the prevalence of RAS was 4.02%, OLP was 2.01% and BMS was 3.01%. In control group the prevalence was 2.2%, 1.33% and 1.62% in RAS, OLP and BMS respectively. RAS and OLP were significantly higher in the younger age group (18-49) and BMS was seen between the age group of 50-77 years in both study and control groups. The results of the present study showed a positive association between psychological alterations and changes in the oral mucosa, particularly conditions like OLP, RAS and BMS. Thus psychogenic factors like anxiety and depression may act as a risk factor that could influence the initiation and development of oral mucosal diseases. Hence psychological management should be taken into consideration when treating patients with these oral diseases. Key words:Lichen planus, anxiety, depression, burning mouth syndrome, recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

  5. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Treldal, Charlotte; Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Kristensen, Claus Andrup; Jacobsen, Jette; Kreilgaard, Mads; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate systemic exposure after administration of a novel bupivacaine lozenge in healthy individuals with normal mucosa and in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with oral mucositis. A lozenge containing 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg bupivacaine, respectively, was administered as single dose to 10 healthy individuals, and a lozenge containing 25 mg bupivacaine was administered as single dose to 10 HNC patients with oral mucositis and as multiple doses to five patients with HNC. Blood samples were collected for 6 hr from the healthy individuals and 3 hr from the patients with HNC, respectively, after administration. The plasma concentration-time profiles of bupivacaine were fitted to pharmacokinetic models using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, evaluating demographics and health status as covariates. The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of bupivacaine lozenge was best described by a two-compartment distribution model with absorption transit compartments. All the observed plasma concentrations were well below the bupivacaine concentrations (2000-2250 ng/ml) which have caused toxic symptoms. The PK model suggested that relative bioavailability was two times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 1-2 and three times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 3-4 than in the healthy individuals. Simulations showed that the plasma concentrations would be below the toxic limit after repeated dosing every second hour with 25 mg bupivacaine for five days. The 25-mg bupivacaine lozenges were safe without systemic toxic levels of bupivacaine or risk of side effects. Based on PK simulations of repeated doses of 25 mg every two hours for 16 hr a day, the lozenges can be administered with minimum risk of exceeding the toxic limit.

  6. The mode of oral bovine lactoferrin administration influences mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

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    Sfeir, Rose Mary; Dubarry, Michel; Boyaka, Prosper N; Rautureau, Michèle; Tomé, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Food protein intake interacts with the immune system. In earlier nutritional and immunological studies, nutrients, particularly milk whey proteins, were generally administered in soluble form and by gavage. However, orogastric intubation does not represent a natural way of ingesting nutrients such as lactoferrin (Lf). We examined how different modes of oral administration of Lf could affect the regulatory effect of this molecule on intestinal and systemic immune responses. Groups of 10 female BALB/c mice were administered Lf daily for 6 wk. To address the influence of the oral modes of administration, mice were given Lf either in solution, by gastric intubation or in the drinking water, or as a powder, by buccal deposition or in the diet. Mucosal and systemic immune responses, including specific immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion, cell proliferation, and cytokine production, were analyzed and compared with those of naïve mice given water under the same conditions or positive control mice that were administered Lf by i.m. injection. The addition of Lf to the drinking water had no visible effect on the immune status. Gastric intubation, single buccal doses, and continuous doses of Lf in the diet stimulated transient systemic and intestinal antibody responses against Lf. All of these oral modes of Lf exposure biased mucosal and systemic T-cell responses toward Thelper (Th)2-types and elevated IgA production by mucosal cells. However, the less natural gastric intubation also promoted Th1-type responses as evidenced by serum IgG(2a) antibodies and the secretion of Th1 cytokine by mucosal and systemic T cells in vitro. Thus, one should carefully consider the oral mode of administration for understanding regulation of immune responses by food proteins such as Lf.

  7. S-Nitrosoglutathione Accelerates Recovery from 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Oral Mucositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeff, Maria Adriana; Brito, Gerly A. C.; de Oliveira, Marcelo G.; Braga, Cintia M.; Cavalcante, Matheus M.; Baldim, Victor; Holanda-Afonso, Rosenilde C.; Silva-Boghossian, Carina M.; Colombo, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A.; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Leitão, Renata F. C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mucositis induced by anti-neoplastic drugs is an important, dose-limiting and costly side-effect of cancer therapy. Aim To evaluate the effect of the topical application of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a nitric oxide donor, on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. Materials and Methods Oral mucositis was induced in male hamsters by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU on the first and second days of the experiment (60 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) followed by mechanical trauma on the fourth day. Animals received saline, HPMC or HPMC/GSNO (0.1, 0.5 or 2.0 mM) 1 h prior to the 5-FU injection and twice a day for 10 or 14 days. Samples of cheek pouches were harvested for: histopathological analysis, TNF-α and IL-1β levels, immunohistochemical staining for iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, Ki67 and TGF-β RII and a TUNEL assay. The presence and levels of 39 bacterial taxa were analyzed using the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. The profiles of NO released from the HPMC/GSNO formulations were characterized using chemiluminescence. Results The HPMC/GSNO formulations were found to provide sustained release of NO for more than 4 h at concentration-dependent rates of 14 to 80 nmol/mL/h. Treatment with HPMC/GSNO (0.5 mM) significantly reduced mucosal damage, inflammatory alterations and cell death associated with 5-FU-induced oral mucositis on day 14 but not on day 10. HPMC/GSNO administration also reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on cell proliferation on day 14. In addition, we observed that the chemotherapy significantly increased the levels and/or prevalence of several bacterial species. Conclusion Topical HPMC/GSNO accelerates mucosal recovery, reduces inflammatory parameters, speeds up re-epithelization and decreases levels of periodontopathic species in mucosal ulcers. PMID:25478918

  8. Significantly different proliferative potential of oral mucosal epithelial cells between six animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yamato, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Murakami, Daisuke; Namiki, Hideo; Okano, Teruo

    2014-06-01

    There has been an upsurge in regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, because oral mucosal epithelial cells can be obtained noninvasively, cultured epithelial cell sheets have been used in a number of ectopic transplantations. Additionally, the verification of the properties of experimental animals' cultured cells has accelerated the application of regenerative medicine. In the present study, the properties of oral mucosal epithelial cells were compared between six animal species. The human and pig epithelia were relatively thicker than the epithelia of the other species. The colony-forming efficiency of the rat was the highest, followed by those of the dog, human, rabbit, and pig, whereas the colonies of the mouse cells were all paraclone and uncountable in the colony-forming assay. We also found that the rabbit and pig cells proliferated poorly and were unable to form cell sheets without feeder layers. In contrast, even in the absence of feeder layers and cholera toxin, cultured dog and mouse cells formed contiguous sheets, when the cell seeding density was high. These results indicate that interspecies variation is considerable in oral mucosal epithelial cells and that specific experimental animal or human cells must be chosen according to the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  9. A Novel Peptide to Treat Oral Mucositis Blocks Endothelial and Epithelial Cell Apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xiaoyan; Chen Peili [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Sonis, Stephen T. [Division of Oral Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Biomodels, Watertown, Massachusetts (United States); Lingen, Mark W. [Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Berger, Ann [NephRx Corporation, Kalamazoo, Michigan (United States); Toback, F. Gary, E-mail: gtoback@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: No effective agents currently exist to treat oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving chemoradiation for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer. We identified a novel 21-amino acid peptide derived from antrum mucosal protein-18 that is cytoprotective, mitogenic, and motogenic in tissue culture and animal models of gastrointestinal epithelial cell injury. We examined whether administration of antrum mucosal protein peptide (AMP-p) could protect against and/or speed recovery from OM. Methods and Materials: OM was induced in established hamster models by a single dose of radiation, fractionated radiation, or fractionated radiation together with cisplatin to simulate conventional treatments of head-and-neck cancer. Results: Daily subcutaneous administration of AMP-p reduced the occurrence of ulceration and accelerated mucosal recovery in all three models. A delay in the onset of erythema after irradiation was observed, suggesting that a protective effect exists even before injury to mucosal epithelial cells occurs. To test this hypothesis, the effects of AMP-p on tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis were studied in an endothelial cell line (human dermal microvascular endothelial cells) as well as an epithelial cell line (human adult low-calcium, high-temperature keratinocytes; HaCaT) used to model the oral mucosa. AMP-p treatment, either before or after cell monolayers were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, protected against development of apoptosis in both cell types when assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry or ligase-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: These observations suggest that the ability of AMP-p to attenuate radiation-induced OM could be attributable, at least in part, to its antiapoptotic activity.

  10. New developments and opportunities in oral mucosal drug delivery for local and systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnden, Vanessa; Sankar, Vidya; Hull, Katrusha; Juras, Danica Vidović; Greenberg, Martin; Kerr, A Ross; Lockhart, Peter B; Patton, Lauren L; Porter, Stephen; Thornhill, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    The oral mucosa's accessibility, excellent blood supply, by-pass of hepatic first-pass metabolism, rapid repair and permeability profile make it an attractive site for local and systemic drug delivery. Technological advances in mucoadhesives, sustained drug release, permeability enhancers and drug delivery vectors are increasing the efficient delivery of drugs to treat oral and systemic diseases. When treating oral diseases, these advances result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy, reduced drug wastage and the prospect of using biological agents such as genes, peptides and antibodies. These technologies are also increasing the repertoire of drugs that can be delivered across the oral mucosa to treat systemic diseases. Trans-mucosal delivery is now a favoured route for non-parenteral administration of emergency drugs and agents where a rapid onset of action is required. Furthermore, advances in drug delivery technology are bringing forward the likelihood of transmucosal systemic delivery of biological agents.

  11. The effect of low-level helium-neon laser on oral wound healing

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    Farimah Sardari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that He-Ne laser had no beneficial effects on incisional oral wound healing particularly in 5 days after laser therapy. Future research in the field of laser effects on oral wound healing in human is recommended.

  12. Prevención de mucositis oral en pacientes sometidos a trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia del Pilar Bohórquez Ávila; Carolina Marín Restrepo; Liced Álvarez Lozano

    2011-01-01

    La mucositis oral es una complicación de la quimio y/o radioterapia por los efectos citotóxico e inflamatorio sobre la mucosa oral. Hasta el momento las estrategias para la prevención y/o el tratamiento de esta condición no han conseguido un resultado contundente. Se ha establecido que algunas variables dependientes del paciente pueden incidir en la presentación y el curso de la mucositis oral, como altos niveles de placa bacteriana. Objetivo: Elaborar y aplicar un protocolo de cuidado oral p...

  13. Oral mucosal lesions in Indians from Northeast Brazil: cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Figueiredo e Ribeiro, Livia Silva; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥ 19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥ 35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96-4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population.

  14. Effects of aging on apoptosis gene expression in oral mucosal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Octavio A; Novak, M John; Kirakodu, Sreenatha; Stromberg, Arnold J; Shen, Shu; Orraca, Luis; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2013-03-01

    Apoptotic processes are important for physiologic renewal of an intact epithelial barrier and contribute some antimicrobial resistance for bacteria and viruses, as well as anti-inflammatory effects that benefits the mucosa. The oral cavity presents a model of host-bacterial interactions at mucosal surfaces, in which a panoply of microorganisms colonizes various niches in the oral cavity and creates complex multispecies biofilms that challenge the gingival tissues. This report details gene expression in apoptotic pathways that occur in oral mucosal tissues across the lifespan, using a nonhuman primate model. Macaca mulatta primates from 2 to 23 years of age (n = 23) were used in a cross-sectional study to obtain clinical healthy gingival tissues specimens. Further, mRNA was prepared and evaluated using the Affymetrix Rhesus GeneChip and 88 apoptotic pathway genes were evaluated. The results identified significant positive correlations with age in 12 genes and negative correlations with an additional five genes. The gene effects were predicted to alter apoptosis receptor levels, extrinsic apoptotic pathways through caspases, cytokine effects on apoptotic events, Ca(+2)-induced death signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, and potential effects of survival factors. Both the positively and negatively correlated genes within the apoptotic pathways provided evidence that healthy tissues in aging animals exhibit decreased apoptotic potential compared to younger animals. The results suggested that decreased physiologic apoptotic process in the dynamic septic environment of the oral mucosal tissues could increase the risk of aging tissues to undergo destructive disease processes through dysregulated inflammatory responses to the oral microbial burden.

  15. Clinical Effectiveness of Aloe Vera in the Management of Oral Mucosal Diseases- A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopakumar Ramachandran; Naidu, Giridhar Seetharam; Jain, Supreet; Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Jha, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera is well known for its medicinal properties which lead to its application in treating various diseases. Its use in treating oral lesions has not been much documented in literature. Aim Although, systematic reviews on aloe vera and its extracts have been done earlier, but in relation to oral diseases this is the first systematic review. The aim of the present systematic review was to compile evidence based studies on the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of various oral diseases. Materials and Methods Computerized literature searches were performed to identify all published articles in the subject. The following databases were used: PUBMED [MEDLINE], SCOPUS, COCHRANE DATABASE, EMBASE and SCIENCE DIRECT using specific keywords. The search was limited to articles published in English or with an English Abstract. All articles (or abstracts if available as abstracts) were read in full. Data were extracted in a predefined fashion. Assessment was done using Jadad score. Results Fifteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Population of sample study ranged from 20 patients to 110 patients with clinically diagnosed oral mucosal lesions. Out of 15 studies, five were on patients with oral lichen planus, two on patients with oral submucous fibrosis, other studies were carried on patients with burning mouth syndrome, radiation induced mucositis, candida associated denture stomatitis, xerostomic patients and four were on minor recurrent apthous stomatitis. Most studies showed statistically significant result demonstrating the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of oral diseases. Conclusion Although there are promising results but in future, more controlled clinical trials are required to prove the effectiveness of Aloe vera for management of oral diseases. PMID:27656587

  16. Multiple functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts in oral wound healing and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, Matthias; Katsaros, Christos; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblasts are cells of mesenchymal origin. They are responsible for the production of most extracellular matrix in connective tissues and are essential for wound healing and repair. In recent years, it has become clear that fibroblasts from different tissues have various distinct traits. Moreover, wounds in the oral cavity heal under very special environmental conditions compared with skin wounds. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the various interconnected functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts during the repair of oral wounds. The MEDLINE database was searched with the following terms: (gingival OR mucoperiosteal) AND fibroblast AND (wound healing OR repair). The data gathered were used to compare oral fibroblasts with fibroblasts from other tissues in terms of their regulation and function during wound healing. Specifically, we sought answers to the following questions: (i) what is the role of oral fibroblasts in the inflammatory response in acute wounds; (ii) how do growth factors control the function of oral fibroblasts during wound healing; (iii) how do oral fibroblasts produce, remodel and interact with extracellular matrix in healing wounds; (iv) how do oral fibroblasts respond to mechanical stress; and (v) how does aging affect the fetal-like responses and functions of oral fibroblasts? The current state of research indicates that oral fibroblasts possess unique characteristics and tightly controlled specific functions in wound healing and repair. This information is essential for developing new strategies to control the intraoral wound-healing processes of the individual patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of denture plaque biofilm on oral mucosal membrane in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowska, D; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E; Rubinsztajn, R; Chazan, R; Rolski, D; Swoboda-Kopeć, E

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have the lower airways colonized with pathogenic bacteria in a stable period of the disease and during exacerbations. The etiology of bacterial exacerbations of COPD depends on the underlying disease, the frequency of exacerbations and antibiotic therapy. Microorganisms can be aspirated off the denture plaque biofilm into the lower respiratory tract and could reduce the patient's immunity and cause pneumonia. COPD patients, who are using acrylic dentures in oral cavity, are exposed to denture stomatitis and oral candidiasis. The aim of this study was to establish the composition of denture plaque biofilm and its impact on the oral mucosa in COPD patients. The study included patients in a stable phase of COPD using removable denture and the control group included healthy wearer's appliances. Examinations concerned the oral mucosal membrane and the hygienic condition of prosthetic restorations. Microbiological examinations were performed by taking a direct swab from the surface of acrylic dentures. Seventeen bacterial and fungal strains were isolated from denture plaque of COPD patients, which could be a reservoir of pathogens in the upper and lower airways. The results showed a greater frequency of prosthetic stomatitis complicated by mucosal infections among COPD patients compared to healthy subjects.

  18. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients of the Kuwait University Dental Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Joseph, Bobby; Sundaram, Devipriya

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number, types, and locations of oral mucosal lesions in patients who attended the Admission Clinic at the Kuwait University Dental Center to determine prevalence and risk factors for oral lesions. Intraoral soft tissue examination was performed on new patients seen between January 2009 and February 2011. The lesions were divided into six major groups: white, red, pigmented, ulcerative, exophytic, and miscellaneous. Five hundred thirty patients were screened, out of which 308 (58.1%) had one or more lesions. A total of 570 oral lesions and conditions were identified in this study, of which 272 (47.7%) were white, 25 (4.4%) were red, 114 (20.0%) were pigmented, 21 (3.7%) were ulcerative, 108 (18.9%) were exophytic, and 30 (5.3%) were in the miscellaneous group. Overall, Fordyce granules (n = 116; 20.4%) were the most frequently detected condition. A significantly higher (p lesions than those in the ⩽20 years age group. A significantly higher (p lesions than did nonsmokers. Most of the lesions and conditions were found on the buccal mucosa and gingiva. White, pigmented, and exophytic lesions were the most common types of oral mucosal lesions found in this study. Although most of these lesions are innocuous, the dentist should be able to recognize and differentiate them from the worrisome lesions, and decide on the appropriate treatment.

  19. The Prospective Oral Mucositis Audit: relationship of severe oral mucositis with clinical and medical resource use outcomes in patients receiving high-dose melphalan or BEAM-conditioning chemotherapy and autologous SCT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, S.; Schwenkglenks, M.; Bacon, P.; Einsele, H.; D'Addio, A.; Maertens, J.; Niederwieser, D.; Rabitsch, W.; Roosaar, A.; Ruutu, T.; Schouten, H.; Stone, R.; Vorkurka, S.; Quinn, B.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Prospective Oral Mucositis Audit was an observational study in 197 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) undergoing, respectively, high-dose melphalan or BEAM chemotherapy and autologous SCT at 25 European centres. We evaluated the relationship between severe oral m

  20. Sex differences in upper respiratory symptoms prevalence and oral-respiratory mucosal immunity in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Bishop, Nicolette C; Handzlik, Michal K; Muhamad, Ayu S; Gleeson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in oral-respiratory mucosal immunity and the incidence, severity and duration of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) episodes in endurance athletes during a 16-week winter training period. Blood was collected from 210 subjects (147 men and 63 women) at the start and end of the study for determination of differential leukocyte counts. Timed collections of unstimulated saliva were obtained at the start and at 4-week intervals during the study period. Saliva samples were analysed for salivary antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). Weekly training and daily illness logs were kept using validated questionnaires. Training loads averaged 11 h/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity and were not different for males and females. The salivary concentration of lysozyme and lactoferrin (both P mucosal immunity may, in part, account for this.

  1. Mucosite bucal rádio e quimioinduzida Radiation therapy and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da intensidade da quimioterapia e radioterapia no tratamento do câncer tem elevado a incidência de efeitos colaterais, em especial da mucosite bucal. OBJETIVO E MÉTODO: Através de revisão bibliográfica realizou-se atualizar informações quanto à definição, características clínicas, incidência, etiologia, patofisiologia, morbidade associada, prevenção e tratamento dessa manifestação clínica. RESULTADOS: Estudos atuais definem a mucosite bucal como uma inflamação e ulceração dolorosa bastante freqüente na mucosa bucal apresentando formação de pseudomembrana. Sua incidência e severidade são influenciadas por variáveis associadas ao paciente e ao tratamento a que ele é submetido. A mucosite é conseqüência de dois mecanismos maiores: toxicidade direta da terapêutica utilizada sobre a mucosa e mielossupressão gerada pelo tratamento. Sua patofisiologia é composta por quatro fases interdependentes: fase inflamatória/vascular, fase epitelial, fase ulcerativa/bacteriológica e fase de reparação. É considerada fonte potencial de infecções com risco de morte, sendo a principal causa de interrupção de tratamentos antineoplásicos. Algumas intervenções mostraram-se potencialmente efetivas para sua prevenção e tratamento. Entretanto, faz-se necessária a realização de novos estudos clínicos mais bem conduzidos para obtenção de melhor evidência científica acerca do agente terapêutico de escolha para o controle da mucosite bucal, permitindo a realização da quimioterapia e radioterapia do câncer em parâmetros ideais.Tincreasing the intensity of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the management of cancer has increased the incidence of adverse effects, especially oral mucositis. AIM AND METHODS: a bibliographical review was conducted on the definition of oral mucositis, its clinical findings, the incidence, its etiology, the pathofisiology, associated morbidity, prevention and treatment

  2. Modulation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by pentoxifylline: Preclinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Sylvia; Bozsaky, Eva [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria); Schmidt, Margret [Technical University of Dresden, Dept. Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site Dresden; Wolfram, Kathrin; Haagen, Julia; Habelt, Bettina; Puttrich, Martin [Technical University of Dresden, Dept. Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria); Technical University of Dresden, Dept. Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-10-29

    Oral mucositis is a frequent early side effect of radio(chemo)therapy of head-and-neck malignancies. The epithelial radiation response is accompanied by inflammatory reactions; their interaction with epithelial processes remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on the oral mucosal radiation response in the mouse tongue model. Irradiation comprised fractionation (5 fractions of 3 Gy/week) over 1 (days 0-4) or 2 weeks (days 0-4, 7-11), followed by graded local top-up doses (day 7/14), in order to generate complete dose-effect curves. PTX (15 mg/kg subcutaneously) was applied once daily over varying time intervals. Ulceration of mouse tongue epithelium, corresponding to confluent mucositis, was analyzed as the clinically relevant endpoint. With fractionated irradiation over 1 week, PTX administration significantly reduced the incidence of mucosal reactions when initiated before (day - 5) the onset of fractionation; a trend was observed for start of PTX treatment on day 0. Similarly, PTX treatment combined with 2 weeks of fractionation had a significant effect on ulcer incidence in all but one experiment. This clearly illustrates the potential of PTX to ameliorate oral mucositis during daily fractionated irradiation. PTX resulted in a significant reduction of oral mucositis during fractionated irradiation, which may be attributed to stimulation of mucosal repopulation processes. The biological basis of this effect, however, needs to be clarified in further, detailed mechanistic studies. (orig.) [German] Die orale Mukositis ist eine haeufige fruehe Nebenwirkung der Radio(chemo)therapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren. Die epitheliale Strahlenreaktion wird von Entzuendungserscheinungen begleitet; deren Interaktion mit epithelialen Prozessen ist derzeit unklar. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war die quantitative Erfassung des Effekts einer Behandlung mit Pentoxifyllin (PTX) auf die Strahlenreaktion der Mundschleimhaut

  3. Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2011-03-01

    Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

  4. Hypothermia Improves Oral and Gastric Mucosal Microvascular Oxygenation during Hemorrhagic Shock in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vollmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is known to improve tissue function in different organs during physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypothermia on oral and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation (μHbO2 and perfusion (μflow under physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. Five dogs were repeatedly anesthetized. All animals underwent each experimental protocol (randomized cross-over design: hypothermia (34°C, hypothermia during hemorrhage, normothermia, and normothermia during hemorrhage. Microcirculatory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Systemic (DO2 and oral mucosal (μDO2 oxygen delivery were calculated. Hypothermia increased oral μHbO2 with no effect on gastric μHbO2. Hemorrhage reduced oral and gastric μHbO2 during normothermia (−36 ± 4% and −27 ± 7%; however, this effect was attenuated during additional hypothermia (−15 ± 5% and −11 ± 5%. The improved μHbO2 might be based on an attenuated reduction in μflow during hemorrhage and additional hypothermia (−51 ± 21 aU compared to hemorrhage and normothermia (−106 ± 19 aU. μDO2 was accordingly attenuated under hypothermia during hemorrhage whereas DO2 did not change. Thus, in this study hypothermia alone improves oral μHbO2 and attenuates the effects of hemorrhage on oral and gastric μHbO2. This effect seems to be mediated by an increased μDO2 on the basis of increased μflow.

  5. Oral mucosal diseases in children - casuistics from the Department of Dermatology - University of São Paulo - Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erthal, Aline; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen

    2016-01-01

    There are no studies about pediatric oral mucosal diseases performed by dermatologists in Brazil. This study presents the casuistics of oral mucosal diseases in children examined at the Oral Diseases Clinic at the Department of Dermatology - University of São Paulo - Brazil. Cases were retrospectively studied from the hospital records from 2003 to 2015. A hundredsix children have been examined. Commoner lesions examined included mucoceles and aphthae. Rare and difficult cases were also seen and have been published; this clinic is based in a tertiary hospital center that deals mostly with complex cases. PMID:28099620

  6. Effects of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone oral liquid on mucosal immunity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolan; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Hu, Yuanliang; Jiang, Chunmao; Wang, Deyun; Fan, Qiang; Zhang, Cunshuai; Huang, Yee; Yu, Yun; Yang, Haifeng; Liu, Cui; Gao, Zhenzhen; Hou, Ranran; Li, Xiuping

    2014-03-01

    A previous study found that epimedium polysaccharide (EP)-propolis flavonoid (PF) injection (EPI) produced reliable immunoenhancement. In this study, we investigate the effects of EP-PF oral liquid (EFO) on mucosal immunity in the chicken small intestine while using EPI, EP and PF as controls. Groups of fourteen-day-old chickens were given EFO orally at one of the three doses when they were vaccinated with ND vaccine. On days 7, 21 and 35 after the first vaccination, six chickens were selected randomly from each group for measurements of the sIgA and IL-17 contents of the washing liquors of the duodenum and jejunum, counts of the lymphocytes in the duodenal endothelium and counts of the IgA(+) cells in the jejunal endothelium and cecum tonsil. The results indicated that EFO significantly promoted the secretion of sIgA and IL-17 and increased the numbers of lymphocyte and IgA(+) cells. Furthermore, EFO was more efficient than EPI at the high and medium doses. These findings indicate that EPO may enhance intestinal mucosal immunity and may be exploited as an oral immunopotentiator.

  7. Oral mucosal lesions and their association with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheno, José Nicolau; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Weissheimer, Camila; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and their associations with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral factors in a southern Brazilian population. Information was collected from participants (n = 801) using a structured questionnaire during an oral cancer screening campaign held at an agribusiness show in southern Brazil in 2009. Data were described using frequency distributions or means and standard deviations. Associations between independent variables and outcomes were assessed using the Chi-squared test. A total of 465 lesions were detected (actinic cheilitis: n = 204, 25.5%; candidiasis: n = 50, 6.2%; fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia: n = 42, 5.2%; ulceration, n = 33, 4.1%; hemangioma: n = 14, 1.7%; leukoplakia: n = 11, 1.4%). Candidiasis, actinic cheilitis, and fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia were associated significantly with literacy. Actinic cheilitis was also associated significantly with sun exposure and hat use, and leukoplakia was associated with smoking. The high frequency of oral mucosal lesions observed highlights the importance of education about risk factors. Additionally, training of health professionals, mainly those from public health services, in the use of preventive and community education strategies is needed.

  8. Oral mucosal lesions and their association with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolau GHENO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and their associations with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral factors in a southern Brazilian population. Information was collected from participants (n = 801 using a structured questionnaire during an oral cancer screening campaign held at an agribusiness show in southern Brazil in 2009. Data were described using frequency distributions or means and standard deviations. Associations between independent variables and outcomes were assessed using the Chi-squared test. A total of 465 lesions were detected (actinic cheilitis: n = 204, 25.5%; candidiasis: n = 50, 6.2%; fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia: n = 42, 5.2%; ulceration, n = 33, 4.1%; hemangioma: n = 14, 1.7%; leukoplakia: n = 11, 1.4%. Candidiasis, actinic cheilitis, and fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia were associated significantly with literacy. Actinic cheilitis was also associated significantly with sun exposure and hat use, and leukoplakia was associated with smoking. The high frequency of oral mucosal lesions observed highlights the importance of education about risk factors. Additionally, training of health professionals, mainly those from public health services, in the use of preventive and community education strategies is needed.

  9. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioko Fukahori

    Full Text Available Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells.Animal experiment using eight beagles (including three controls.A 3 mm by 3 mm specimen of canine oral mucosa was surgically excised and divided into epithelial and subepithelial tissues. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated and cultured separately. The proliferated epithelial cells were co-cultured on oriented collagen gels containing the proliferated fibroblasts for an additional two weeks. The organotypic cultured tissues were transplanted to the mucosa-deficient vocal folds. Two months after transplantation, vocal fold vibrations and morphological characteristics were observed.A tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa, consisting of stratified epithelium and lamina propria, was successfully fabricated to closely resemble the normal layered vocal fold mucosa. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed regular but slightly small mucosal waves at the transplanted site. Immunohistochemically, stratified epithelium expressed cytokeratin, and the distributed cells in the lamina propria expressed vimentin. Elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a decreased number of elastic fibers in the lamina propria of the transplanted site.The fabricated mucosa with autologous oral mucosal cells successfully restored the vocal fold mucosa. This reconstruction technique could offer substantial clinical advantages for treating intractable diseases such as scarring of the vocal folds.

  10. Contact Endoscopy of mucosal lesions of oral cavity – Preliminary experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awadhesh Kumar; Nilakantan, Ajith; Sahai, Kavita; Datta, Rakesh; Malik, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background Contact Endoscopy is a non invasive tool to visualise alterations in cell architecture in vivo. In this study we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of Contact Endoscopy in detecting malignancy in oral mucosal lesions. Methods 76 patients with oral mucosal lesions requiring biopsy were included. Contact Endoscopy was performed by Otolaryngologist before biopsy and findings recorded. The lesion was then biopsied and sent for histopathological examination by Pathologist who was blinded to Contact Endoscopy findings. Findings of Contact Endoscopy were compared with histopathological findings taking the latter as the gold standard. Two biopsies were reported as ‘inconclusive’ on histopathological examination and hence excluded from the final analysis. Data of the remaining 74 patients is presented here. Results Clinically lesions were diagnosed as ulcero-proliferative lesions in 34 patients, Leukoplakia in 19, Erythroplakia in 9, Lichen planus in 5 and Submucous fibrosis in 7 patients. Histopathological examination revealed presence of malignancy in 97.06% of ulcero-proliferative mucosal lesions, 10.53% of leukoplakia and 33.33% of erythroplakia while corresponding figures on Contact Endoscopy were 94.12%, 5.26% and 11.11% respectively. No malignancy was detected in lichen planus and submucous fibrosis by either technique. When compared with histopathological examination, CE showed sensitivity of 84.21%, specificity of 94.44% and accuracy of 89.19%. No adverse effects on the patients were seen due to the procedure or stain. Conclusion Contact Endoscopy may be useful in determining cellular structure in vivo without biopsy to detect oral malignancy early. Further studies are suggested. PMID:25378780

  11. Mineral derivatives in alleviating oral mucositis during cancer therapy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Oral mucositis (mouth ulcers is a cancer therapy side effect. Costly treatment interventions are often neglected in favor of cost-effective agents. This review assessed the general efficacy of mineral derivatives (a cost-effective agent in alleviating oral mucositis (OM during cancer therapy compared to the standard care, or placebo—including a decision tree to aide healthcare workers.Data Sources. Electronic searches of MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CANCERLIT via PubMed, and CINAHL via EBSCO (year 2000 to 11 September 2014 were undertaken for randomised controlled trials. A meta-search strategy extracted content from aggregate online databases.Review Methods. Randomized controlled trials were assessed (participants, intervention, outcome, results, and risk of bias for inclusion. The author abstracted binary and continuous data synthesised to Hedges’ g in a random effects model. The primary outcome measures were severity (incidence of peak oral mucositis, duration of oral mucositis, and time to onset; secondary outcome measures were the incidence of pain, and analgesic use. Serum mineral levels, total parenteral nutrition, and adverse events were discussed. The decision tree was mapped using sensitivity, specificity, pre-test and post-test Bayesian probability.Results. 1027 citations were identified and 16 studies were included (n = 1120; mean age 49 years. Cancer therapies consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Outcome mineral derivatives were zinc (n = 549, calcium phosphate (n = 227, povidone-iodine (n = 228, or selenium (n = 116. Severity was measured across variable OM grading systems: In 13 studies, individuals in treatment groups (n = 958 experienced peak OM less than controls (g = −0.47, 95% CI −0.7 to −0.2, p = 0.0006; time to OM onset was significantly delayed in treatment than controls (g = −0.51, 95% CI−0.8 to −0.2, p = 0.0002; five

  12. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in alcohol misusers in Chennai, south India

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    Rooban T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of various oral mucosal lesions (OML among alcohol misusers attending a rehabilitation center in Chennai, south India. Materials and Methods: Qualified dental surgeons examined 500 consecutive alcohol misusers at Ragas Dental College and Hospital and TTK Hospital, India. Thorough history and oral findings were recorded in a pre-determined format. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS 10.0.5β. The variables for this study were OML, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI, age, smoking, and alcohol misuse (type and units consumed and duration of misuse. Results: Of the 500 patients, 77% were in the 25-44 years old age group and 84% were married. The mean age of initiation of alcohol misuse was 34 years. In addition to alcohol, 72% smoked tobacco and 96% used other psychoactive substances. The mean alcohol use duration was 12.6 years. A total of 25% of the study group had at least one OML. The common oral lesions were smoker′s melanosis (10.2%, oral submucous fibrosis (8%, and leukoplakia (7.4%. Those who misused spirits had a higher incidence of OML than those who misused beer or both. Patients with fair oral hygiene had an odds ratio (OR of 2.96 for OML compared with an OR of 2.08 for those who had OML with good oral hygiene. Conclusion : This study indicates that subjects who misuse alcohol have poor oral hygiene and are at risk for the development of periodontal disease and OML. This survey indicates that oral examination and treatment should be a part of the standard care for alcohol misusers at rehabilitation centers.

  13. Effect of Oral Zinc Sulphate in Preventionof Radiation Induced OropharyngealMucositis During and After Radiotherapyin Patients with Head and Neck Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Mucositis is a disturbing side effect of radiotherapy treatment forhead and neck cancer. To date, no effective modality for its prophylaxis and treatmenthas been found. We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy of oral zincsulphate in delaying the onset of oral and pharyngeal mucositis and decreasing theirseverity.Materials and Methods: Atotal of 58 patients who were treated for head andneck squamous cell carcinoma with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy wererandomly assigned to receive oral zinc sulphate (220 mg or an oral placebo 3 timesa day during their radiotherapy course. Total radiation dose was 6000 cGy to 7000cGy by conventional radiotherapy. Seventy nine percent of the patients also receivedconcurrent chemotherapy. Oral and pharyngeal mucositis were scored according toan RTOG protocol. Results:Time to onset of mucositis did not vary between the two groups.However, oral mucositis scores were less severe in the zinc group in weeks 4 to 6.The difference was statistically significant and the Pvalues for weeks 4, 5 and 6 were0.02, 0.007, and 0.012, respectively. Treatment interruptions in both groups were thesame (four cases each and all were due to dysphagia (pharyngeal mucositis.Conclusion:Our results suggest that zinc is effective in reducing the severity oforal mucositis but not pharyngeal mucositis. Treatment interruptions were morefrequently caused by pharyngeal mucositis which presented as dysphagia, rather thanoral pain that was a manifestation of oral mucositis.

  14. Altered expression of epithelial cell surface glycoconjugates and intermediate filaments at the margins of mucosal wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Grøn, B; Mandel, U

    1998-01-01

    Alterations in cell to cell adhesion are necessary to enable the type of cell movements that are associated with epithelial wound healing and malignant invasion. Several studies of transformed cells have related epithelial cell movement to changes in the cell surface expression of the carbohydrate......-T antigen. The changes induced by wounding in the expression of collagen IV, laminin gamma2-chain (laminin-5), and laminin alpha5-chain were similar to those found in skin wounds and served to define the region of epithelial movement. This region was found to show a marked increase in staining for both...... epithelium, a pattern of expression similar to K16, which was also strongly upregulated in both the outgrowth and the adjacent nonwounded epithelium. These findings provide further support for an influence of such carbohydrate structures on the migratory behavior of epithelial cells....

  15. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects.

  16. Dental implants in patients with oral mucosal diseases - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A; Schmidt-Westhausen, A M; Khongkhunthian, P; Strietzel, F P

    2016-05-01

    To reveal dental implants survival rates in patients with oral mucosal diseases: oral lichen planus (OLP), Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). A systematic literature search using PubMed/Medline and Embase databases, utilising MeSH and search term combinations identified publications on clinical use implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in patients with OLP, SjS, EB, SSc reporting on study design, number, gender and age of patients, follow-up period exceeding 12 months, implant survival rate, published in English between 1980 and May 2015. After a mean observation period (mOP) of 53·9 months (standard deviation [SD] ±18·3), 191 implants in 57 patients with OLP showed a survival rate (SR) of 95·3% (SD ±21·2). For 17 patients with SjS (121 implants, mOP 48·6 ± 28·7 months), 28 patients with EB (165 implants, mOP 38·3 ± 16·9 months) and five patients with SSc (38 implants, mOP 38·3 ± 16·9 months), the respective SR was 91·7 ± 5·97% (SjS), 98·5 ± 2·7% (EB) and 97·4 ± 4·8% (SSc). Heterogeneity of data structure and quality of reporting outcomes did not allow for further comparative data analysis. For implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients suffering from OLP, SjS, EB and SSc, no evidence-based treatment guidelines are presently available. However, no strict contraindication for the placement of implants seems to be justified in patients with OLP, SjS, EB nor SSc. Implant survival rates are comparable to those of patients without oral mucosal diseases. Treatment guidelines as for dental implantation in patients with healthy oral mucosa should be followed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility in enterococci isolated from oral mucosal and deep infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Dahlén

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the presence of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility among enterococcal isolates from oral mucosal and deep infections. Forty-three enterococcal strains from oral mucosal lesions and 18 from deep infections were isolated from 830 samples that were sent during 2 years to Oral Microbiology, University of Gothenburg, for analysis. The 61 strains were identified by 16S rDNA, and characterized by the presence of the virulence genes efa A (endocarditis gene, gel E (gelatinase gene, ace (collagen binding antigen gene, asa (aggregation substance gene, cyl A (cytolysin activator gene and esp (surface adhesin gene, tested for the production of bacteriocins and presence of plasmids. MIC determination was performed using the E-test method against the most commonly used antibiotics in dentistry, for example, penicillin V, amoxicillin and clindamycin. Vancomycin was included in order to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE strains. Sixty strains were identified as Enterococcus faecalis and one as Enterococcus faecium. All the virulence genes were detected in more than 93.3% (efa A and esp of the E. faecalis strains, while the presence of phenotypic characteristics was much lower (gelatinase 10% and hemolysin 16.7%. Forty-six strains produced bacteriocins and one to six plasmids were detected in half of the isolates. Enterococcal strains from oral infections had a high virulence capacity, showed bacteriocin production and had numerous plasmids. They were generally susceptible to ampicillins but were resistant to clindamycin, commonly used in dentistry, and no VRE-strain was found.

  18. Oral mucosal injection of a local anesthetic solution containing epinephrine enhances muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Asako; Terakawa, Yui; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide.

  19. Low-dose irradiation affects the functional behavior of oral microbiota in the context of mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoecke, Barbara W A; De Ryck, Tine R G; De boel, Kevin; Wiles, Siouxsie; Boterberg, Tom; Van de Wiele, Tom; Swift, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The role of host-microbe interactions in the pathobiology of oral mucositis is still unclear; therefore, this study aimed to unravel the effect of irradiation on behavioral characteristics of oral microbial species in the context of mucositis. Using various experimental in vitro setups, the effects of irradiation on growth and biofilm formation of two Candida spp., Streptococcus salivarius and Klebsiella oxytoca in different culture conditions were evaluated. Irradiation did not affect growth of planktonic cells, but reduced the number of K. oxytoca cells in newly formed biofilms cultured in static conditions. Biofilm formation of K. oxytoca and Candida glabrata was affected by irradiation and depended on the culturing conditions. In the presence of mucins, these effects were lost, indicating the protective nature of mucins. Furthermore, the Galleria melonella model was used to study effects on microbial virulence. Irradiated K. oxytoca microbes were more virulent in G. melonella larvae compared to the nonirradiated ones. Our data indicate that low-dose irradiation can have an impact on functional characteristics of microbial species. Screening for pathogens like K. oxytoca in the context of mucosits could be useful to allow early detection and immediate intervention. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. Biomodulation of Inflammatory Cytokines Related to Oral Mucositis by Low-Level Laser Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Fernanda G; Pansani, Taisa N; Soares, Diana G; Scheffel, Débora L; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of LLLT on the expression of inflammatory cytokines related to the development of oral mucositis by gingival fibroblasts. Primary gingival fibroblasts were seeded on 24-well plates (10(5) cells/well) for 24 h. Fresh serum-free culture medium (DMEM) was then added, and cells were placed in contact with LPS (Escherichia coli, 1 μg mL(-1)), followed by LLLT irradiation (LaserTABLE-InGaAsP diode prototype-780 nm, 25 mW) delivering 0, 0.5, 1.5 or 3 J cm(-2)². Cells without contact with LPS were also irradiated with the same energy densities. Gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was evaluated by Real-Time PCR, and protein synthesis of these cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay. Data were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, complemented by the Mann-Whitney test (P treatment increased the gene expression and protein synthesis of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, while the expression of IL-1β was not affected. For LPS-treated groups, LLLT promoted significant decreases in the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 at 1.5 J cm(-2) and 3 J cm(-2). These results demonstrate that LLLT promoted a beneficial biomodulatory effect on the expression of inflammatory cytokines related to oral mucositis by human gingival fibroblasts.

  1. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Showraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10 and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4. On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000. Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Keywords ● 5- fluorouracil ● Anti-inflammatory ● Antioxidant ● Olive Leaf ● Oral Mucositis

  2. Base-metal dental casting alloy biocompatibility assessment using a human-derived three-dimensional oral mucosal model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, E L

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloys used in fixed prosthodontics have been associated with type IV Ni-induced hypersensitivity. We hypothesised that the full-thickness human-derived oral mucosa model employed for biocompatibility testing of base-metal dental alloys would provide insights into the mechanisms of Ni-induced toxicity. Primary oral keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts were seeded onto Alloderm™ and maintained until full thickness was achieved prior to Ni-Cr and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy disc exposure (2-72 h). Biocompatibility assessment involved histological analyses with cell viability measurements, oxidative stress responses, inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular toxicity analyses. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis determined elemental ion release levels. We detected adverse morphology with significant reductions in cell viability, significant increases in oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular toxicity for the Ni-Cr alloy-treated oral mucosal models compared with untreated oral mucosal models, and adverse effects were increased for the Ni-Cr alloy that leached the most Ni. Co-Cr demonstrated significantly enhanced biocompatibility compared with Ni-Cr alloy-treated oral mucosal models. The human-derived full-thickness oral mucosal model discriminated between dental alloys and provided insights into the mechanisms of Ni-induced toxicity, highlighting potential clinical relevance.

  3. DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Fei He; Jian-Gang Chen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of fluoride on oxidativestress,DNA damage and apoptosis as well as cell cycle of rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes.METHODS: Ten male SD rats weighing 80~120 g were randomly divided into control group and fluoride group,5 animals each group. The animals in fluoride group had free access to deionized water containing 150 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF). The animals in control group were given distilled water. Four weeks later, the animals were killed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oral mucosa and liver were measured by Fenton reaction, lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), was detected by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction, reduced glutathione (GSH) was assayed by dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB)reaction. DNA damage in oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes was determined by single cell gel (SCG) electrophoresis or comet assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle in oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes were detected by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The contents of ROS and MDA in oral mucosa and liver tissue of fluoride group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.01), but the level of GSH was markedly decreased (P<0.01). The contents of ROS, MDA and GSH were (134.73±12.63) U/mg protein,(1.48±0.13) mmol/mg protein and (76.38±6.71) mmol/mg protein in oral mucosa respectively, and (143.45±11.76) U/mg protein, (1.44±0.12) mmol/mg protein and (78.83±7.72) mmol/mg protein in liver tissue respectively. The DNA damage rate in fluoride group was 50.20%in oral mucosal cells and 44.80% in hepatocytes, higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). The apoptosis rate in oral mucosal cells was (13.63±1.81) % in fluoride group, and (12.76±1.67) % in hepatocytes,higher than those in control group. Excess fluoride could differently lower the number of oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes at G0/G1 and S G2/M phases (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Excess fluoride can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage and lead to apoptosis and cell cycle

  4. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa and diagnosis of early precancerous changes in the oral cavity based on non-invasive monitoring of neovascularization.

  5. Low energy laser in prevention of oral mucositis in patients receiving radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy in Pernambuco Cancer Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelner, Natalie; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de [Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil). Dept. of Clinics and Preventive Dentistry. Discipline of Oral Pathology]. E-mail: jlisboa72@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    Oral mucositis induced by antineoplastic therapy causes wide-range pain and discomfort resulting in decreased quality of life. The present study evaluated the benefits of low intensity laser and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate in the prevention of oral mucositis induced by radiation, associated or not with chemotherapy, and considered degrees/severity, time of appearance of the lesions and functional loss. Eighty-four outpatients were considered and 49 were included in this study and divided into two groups: Group 1 received laser treatments in three stages, starting three days before treatment until the end of therapy. Group 2 was instructed to do daily mouth rinses with chlorhexidine gluconate. The prevalence of clinical mucositis was 49%, and of functional mucositis, 28.6%, when the two groups were considered together. This percentage was smaller in the laser group, 44% for the clinical mucositis group and 24% for the functional. The two protocols were well tolerated and showed benefits, mainly from the point of view of functionality, and delayed the onset and development of mucositis. (author)

  6. Evaluation of oral mucosal epithelium in diabetic male patients by exfoliative cytology method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Safoura; Feizi, Farideh; Moazzezi, Zoleikhah; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Zamani, Babak

    2014-01-01

    The goal of present study is to examine comparatively the epithelium of oral mucosa in persons with diabetes types I and II and the healthy persons by cytomorphometric method. Cytology smear was prepared from oral mucosa epithelium in 24 persons with diabetes and 30 healthy persons were stained by papanicolao method. Its before, from patients were requested acquiring written. The quantitative cytomorphometric characteristics were measured in each group by motic plus 2 software. Also, the qualitative evaluation of cytology slides are performed in three groups. There were decrease in the nuclear and cytoplasmic size, (P < 0.001) and increase in the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasm size in buccal mucosal areas (P = 0.001) and tongue (P = 0.011) of diabetic persons compared to the healthy persons. There was no significantly statistical difference in diabetic persons types I and II in buccal mucosal area (P = 0.15) and tongue (P = 0.86) in quantitative characteristics of cytomoerphometry. In nuclear and cytoplasm size, there was a significant statistical difference in persons with diabetes type I and persons of control I and persons with diabetes type II and persons of control II in buccal mucosa and the tongue (P < 0.001). Bilobed or multi-lobed nuleous, karyorrhexis and vacuolization of cytoplasm were more in diabetic persons compared to the healthy ones (P < 0.001). Diabetes are effective in creating some quantitative and qualitative cytometric alterations in the oral mucosa but the type of diabetes doesn't seem to be effective on these changes.

  7. Distinct TRPV1- and TRPA1-based mechanisms underlying enhancement of oral ulcerative mucositis-induced pain by 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kiichiro; Ono, Kentaro; Hitomi, Suzuro; Ito, Misa; Nodai, Tomotaka; Goto, Tetsuya; Harano, Nozomu; Watanabe, Seiji; Inoue, Hiromasa; Miyano, Kanako; Uezono, Yasuhito; Matoba, Motohiro; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

    2016-05-01

    In many patients with cancer, chemotherapy-induced severe oral ulcerative mucositis causes intractable pain, leading to delays and interruptions in therapy. However, the pain mechanism in oral ulcerative mucositis after chemotherapy has not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in a preclinical model of oral ulcerative mucositis after systemic administration of the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil, using our proprietary pain assay system for conscious rats. 5-Fluorouracil caused leukopenia but did not induce pain-related behaviors. After 5-fluorouracil administration, oral ulcers were developed with topical acetic acid treatment. Compared with saline-treated rats, 5-fluorouracil-exposed rats showed more severe mucositis with excessive bacterial loading due to a lack of leukocyte infiltration, as well as enhancements of spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia. Antibacterial drugs, the lipid A inhibitor polymyxin B and the TRPV1/TRPA1 channel pore-passing anesthetic QX-314, suppressed both the spontaneous pain and the mechanical allodynia. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and the TRPV1 antagonist SB-366791 inhibited the spontaneous pain, but not the mechanical allodynia. In contrast, the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 and the N-formylmethionine receptor FPR1 antagonist Boc MLF primarily suppressed the mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that 5-fluorouracil-associated leukopenia allows excessive oral bacterial infection in the oral ulcerative region, resulting in the enhancement of spontaneous pain through continuous TRPV1 activation and cyclooxygenase pathway, and mechanical allodynia through mechanical sensitization of TRPA1 caused by neuronal effects of bacterial toxins. These distinct pain mechanisms explain the difficulties encountered with general treatments for oral ulcerative mucositis-induced pain in patients with cancer and suggest more effective approaches.

  8. The effect of a calcium phosphate mouth rinse on (chemo) radiation induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, M. A.; Burlage, F. R.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Promising results of a calcium phosphate (CP) mouth rinse on reduced severity of oral mucositis have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a CP mouth rinse on the frequency, duration and severity of (chemo) radiation induced oral mucositis in patients with h

  9. The effect of a calcium phosphate mouth rinse on (chemo) radiation induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, M. A.; Burlage, F. R.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Promising results of a calcium phosphate (CP) mouth rinse on reduced severity of oral mucositis have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a CP mouth rinse on the frequency, duration and severity of (chemo) radiation induced oral mucositis in patients with h

  10. Effects of Honey on Oral Mucositis among Pediatric Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemo/Radiotherapy Treatment at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaouni, Soad K.; Al Muhayawi, Mohammad S.; Hussein, Abear; Elfiki, Iman; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Al Muhayawi, Saad M.; Almasaudi, Saad

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common complications of cancer chemotherapy is oral mucositis. This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of honey with the focus on grade III and IV oral mucositis, reduction of bacterial and fungal infections, duration of episodes of oral mucositis, and body weight in pediatric leukemic patients undergoing chemo/radiotherapy. This is an open labeled randomized controlled study conducted at our hospital on 40 pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemo/radiotherapy. All the 40 patients included in this study experienced a sum total of 390 episodes of fever and neutropenia associated with oral mucositis. A significant reduction of oral mucositis, associated Candida, and aerobic pathogenic bacterial infections was noted in patients in the honey treatment group. Also, there is a significant decrease in the duration of hospitalization for all those in the treatment group combined with a significant increase of body weight, delayed onset, and decreased severity of pain related to oral mucositis. Complications of oral mucositis can be tremendously reduced by the topical application of local Saudi honey and honey should be used as an integrative approach in prophylaxis and treatment of chemo/radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in pediatric cancer patients. Further research is needed to elucidate and better understand the underlying mechanism.

  11. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dermatologically diseased patients: A cross-sectional study in Meerut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Keswani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a noted fact that dermatologic diseases have varied oral manifestations. By far, there have been inordinately few studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is significant as oral lesions may be the only or the primary feature of the skin disease, which could be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and sociobehavioral correlates of OML in skin disease patients attending outpatient′s facility of Subharti Hospital, Dermatology Clinic, Meerut, India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted in Meerut during the period from August 2013 to October 2013. A total of 500 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 14.11 years, 41.4% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher′s exact test were used. Results: At least one kind of OML was registered in 11.8%, males (58.6%: 60.0% versus females (40.0%: 45.6%, P < 0.01 skin disease patients. Thus, a certain number of patients had more than one type of OML. Aphthae were the most frequently diagnosed OML (3.4%, followed in descending order by oral lichen planus (1.8% and geographic tongue (1.6%. Conclusion: OML were frequently diagnosed in skin disease patients (11.80% and varied systematically with the dermatologic disease, age, and gender. The substantial prevalence rates of OML emphasize the importance of routine examination of the oral mucosa in a dermatology clinic.

  12. Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune response with squalane oil-containing multiple emulsions upon intranasal and oral administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahiwala, Aliasgar; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate squalane oil-containing water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion for mucosal administration of ovalbumin (OVA) as a model candidate vaccine in BALB/c mice. Control and optimized OVA-containing W/O/W emulsion (OVA-Emul) and chitosan-modified W/O/W emulsion (OVA-Emul-Chi) formulations were administered intranasally and orally at an OVA dose of 100 mug. The mucosal and systemic immune responses were evaluated after the first and second immunization. The OVA-Emul formulations resulted in higher immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and immunoglobulin-A (IgA) responses as compared with aqueous solution. In addition, significant IgG and IgA responses were observed after the second immunization dose using the emulsions with both routes of administration. Intranasal vaccination was more effective in generating the systemic OVA-specific IgG response than the mucosal OVA-specific IgA response. Oral immunizations, on the other hand, showed a much higher systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses as compared with the nasally treated groups. The results of this study show that squalane oil-containing W/O/W multiple emulsion formulations can significantly enhance the local and systemic immune responses, especially after oral administration, and may be adopted as a better alternative in mucosal delivery of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

  13. Effects of bone marrow or mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on oral mucositis (mouse) induced by fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M. [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Haagen, J.; Noack, R.; Siegemund, A.; Gabriel, P. [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University/AKH Vienna, Dept. of Radiation Oncology/Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-15

    Oral mucositis is a severe and dose limiting early side effect of radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors. This study was initiated to determine the effect of bone marrow- and mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on oral mucositis (mouse tongue model) induced by fractionated irradiation. Daily fractionated irradiation (5 x 3 Gy/week) was given over 1 (days 0-4) or 3 weeks (days 0-4, 7-11, 14-18). Each protocol was terminated (day 7 or 21) by graded test doses (5 dose groups, 10 animals each) in order to generate complete dose-effect curves. The incidence of mucosal ulceration, corresponding to confluent mucositis grade 3 (RTOG/EORTC), was analyzed as the primary, clinically relevant endpoint. Bone marrow or mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted intravenously at various time points within these fractionation protocols. Transplantation of 6 x 10{sup 6}, but not of 3 x 10{sup 6} bone marrow stem cells on day -1, +4, +8, +11 or +15 significantly increased the ED{sub 50} values (dose, at which an ulcer is expected in 50% of the mice); transplantation on day +2, in contrast, was ineffective. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on day -1, 2 or +8 significantly, and on day +4 marginally increased the ED{sub 50} values. Transplantation of bone marrow or mesenchymal stem cells has the potential to modulate radiation-induced oral mucositis during fractionated radiotherapy. The effect is dependent on the timing of the transplantation. The mechanisms require further investigation. (orig.)

  14. Treatment for Cancer Patients with Oral Mucositis: Assessment Based on the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer in International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) in 2013 and Proposal of Possible Novel Treatment with a Japanese Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Kanako; Ueno, Takao; Yatsuoka, Wakako; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    The cancer patients who received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant and terminal care often have a wide range of stomatitis, which induces severe pain and limits fundamental life behaviors such as "eating, drinking and talking". In addition, oral mucositis frequently leads to systemic infection through opportunistic microorganisms, which causes extension of hospitalization. Severe oral mucositis often causes cancer patients to partially or completely discontinue/modify cancer therapy regimen, which adversely affects the curative effects of cancer. Therefore, the control of oral mucositis is important and indispensable for improvement of quality of life and prognosis. In this review, we introduce recent trends of the oral mucositis management in cancer patients, according to the following sentences; 1) pathophysiological mechanisms of oral mucositis, 2) assessment, 3) risk factors, 4) prevention and treatment, and 5) development of novel therapy for oral mucositis.

  15. Early inflammatory changes in radiation-induced oral mucositis. Effect of pentoxifylline in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Sylvia; Bozsaky, Eva; Roitinger, Eva; Schwarz, Karoline [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Schmidt, Margret [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Early inflammation is a major factor of mucosal reactions to radiotherapy. Pentoxifylline administration resulted in a significant amelioration of radiation-induced oral mucositis in the mouse tongue model. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the immunomodulatory properties of the drug. The present study hence focuses on the manifestation of early inflammatory changes in mouse tongue during daily fractionated irradiation and their potential modulation by pentoxifylline. Daily fractionated irradiation with 5 fractions of 3 Gy/week (days 0-4, 7-11) was given to the snouts of mice. Groups of 3 animals per day were euthanized every second day between day 0 and 14. Pentoxifylline (15 mg/kg, s. c.) was administered daily from day 5 to the day before sacrifice. The expression of the inflammatory proteins TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β were analysed. Fractionated irradiation increased the expression of all inflammatory markers. Pentoxifylline significantly reduced the expression of TNFα and IL-1β, but not NF-κB. Early inflammation, as indicated by the expression of the inflammatory markers TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β, is an essential component of early radiogenic oral mucositis. Pentoxifylline differentially modulated the expression of different inflammatory markers. The mucoprotective effect of pentoxifylline does not appear to be based on modulation of NF-κB-associated inflammation. (orig.) [German] Fruehe entzuendliche Veraenderungen sind ein bedeutender Faktor waehrend der Strahlenreaktion der Schleimhaut. Die Behandlung mit Pentoxifyllin erzielte eine signifikante Minderung strahleninduzierter oraler Mukositis im Mauszungenmodel. Die zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen sind potenziell auf die immunomodulatorischen Eigenschaften des Wirkstoffs zurueckzufuehren. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen fokussieren daher auf die Manifestation frueher entzuendlicher Veraenderungen in der Mauszunge waehrend taeglich fraktionierter Bestrahlung und deren potenzieller Modifikation

  16. Concise review: transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells for treating limbal stem cell deficiency-current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2015-06-01

    A number of diseases and external factors can deplete limbal stem cells, causing pain and visual loss. Ten years have passed since the first transplantation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial cells in humans, representing the first autologous cell-based therapy for severe bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Its steady increase in popularity since then can be attributed to the accumulating evidence of its efficacy in reverting limbal stem cell deficiency. In this review, the focus is on clinical, and to a lesser degree laboratory, features of cultured oral mucosal epithelial transplants over the past 10 years. Comparisons with other available technologies are made. Avenues for research to stimulate further improvements in clinical results and allow worldwide distribution of limbal stem cell therapy based on oral mucosal cells are discussed. These include storage and transportation of cultured oral mucosal epithelial sheets and in vivo culture of oral mucosal epithelial cells.

  17. Effects of human oral mucosal tissue, saliva, and oral microflora on intraoral metabolism and bioactivation of black raspberry anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, Susan R; Budendorf, Deric E; Larsen, Matthew P; Pei, Ping; Tong, Meng; Holpuch, Andrew S; Larsen, Peter E; Stoner, Gary D; Fields, Henry W; Chan, Kenneth K; Ling, Yonghua; Liu, Zhongfa

    2011-08-01

    Our oral cancer chemoprevention trial data implied that patient-specific differences in local retention and metabolism of freeze-dried components of black raspberries (BRB) affected therapeutic responsiveness. Subsequent studies have confirmed that anthocyanins are key contributors to BRB's chemopreventive effects. Consequently, functional assays, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analyses to evaluate levels and distribution of BRB anthocyanin-relevant metabolic enzymes in human oral tissues were conducted. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analyses of time course saliva samples collected following BRB rinses were conducted to assess local pharmacokinetics and compare the capacities of three different BRB rinse formulations to provide sustained intraoral levels of anthocyanins. Protein profiles showed the presence of key metabolic enzymes in all 15 oral mucosal tissues evaluated, whereas immunohistochemistry confirmed these enzymes were distributed within surface oral epithelia and terminal salivary ducts. β-Glucosidase assays confirmed that whole and microflora-reduced saliva can deglycosylate BRB anthocyanins, enabling generation of the bioactive aglycone, cyanidin. LC/MS-MS analyses showed retention of parent anthocyanins and their functional, stable metabolite, protocatechuic acid, in saliva for up to 4 hours after rinsing. Furthermore, postrinse saliva samples contained glucuronidated anthocyanin conjugates, consistent with intracellular uptake and phase II conversion of BRB anthocyanins into forms amenable to local recycling. Our data show that comparable to the small intestine, the requisite hydrolytic, phase II and efflux transporting enzymes necessary for local enteric recycling are present and functional in human oral mucosa. Notably, interpatient differences in anthocyanin bioactivation and capacities for enteric recycling would impact treatment as retention of bioactivated chemopreventives at the target site would sustain

  18. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hird

    Full Text Available Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5-30 days after a "challenge" dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.24. In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59-1.11] or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82-1.58]. There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.

  19. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Thomas R; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2012-01-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5-30 days after a "challenge" dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.24)). In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59-1.11]) or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82-1.58]). There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.

  20. A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front.

  1. N-succinyl chitosan as buccal penetration enhancer for delivery of herbal agents in treatment of oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Neha; Kumar, Krishan; Kalia, A N; Arora, Saahil

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the major side effects of cancer chemotherapy (30-76%) and radiotherapy (over 50%). Current palliative treatments of oral mucositis include specialized agents like pelifermin, platelet derived factors etc. or oral hygienic agents which suffered from various drawbacks like systemic side effect, least effect owing to fast wash out of buccal mucosa, patient unfriendly delivery systems, and mere symptomatic relief. In this research work, N-succinyl chitosan gel delivery system of microemulsified eugenol, honey and sodium hyaluronate was prepared to explore their multiple and synergistic effects on various pathological factors of oral mucositis. N-succinyl chitosan was synthesized in our laboratory and loaded with microemulsified eugenol (10% v/v), honey (10% v/v) and sodium hyaluronate (0.2% w/v) to prepare orogel with optimum pH, spreadability, mucoadhesion strength, and viscosity. In vitro eugenol release from N-succinyl chitosan gel after 8 hours in PBS (pH-6.4) was found to be 87.45±0.14%, which was better in comparison to that released from chitosan gel. Ex vivo penetration studies using rat buccal mucosal tissue also suggested better J-efflux of eugenol through N-succinyl chitosan in comparison to chitosan gel with enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.71. The antimicrobial effect of N-succinyl chitosan based orogel against S. aureus and C. albicans efficacy was found to be statistically high in comparison to chitosan based orogel as well as marketed formulation of chlorhexidine (pgel formulation within 15 days. The formulation was successful in elevating the survival and reducing the inflammation in the oral mucosa of animals compared to disease control (p<0.05) and hence suggesting the potential of N-succinyl chitosan orogel in the treatment of oral mucositis.

  2. Prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a literature review; Prevencao e tratamento da mucosite oral induzida por radioterapia: revisao de literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Ieda Lessa de Souza [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital do Cancer I. Servico de Enfermagem]. E-mail: iedalessa@yahoo.com.br; Camargo, Teresa Caldas [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital do Cancer III. Servico de Enfermagem]. E-mail: tcamargo@inca.gov.br

    2007-04-15

    The prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis have still not been fully defined. The current study thus involved a literature search aimed at identifying preventive and therapeutic measures in relation to oral mucositis in patients submitted to radiotherapy, analyzing the level of evidence in the selected studies, identifying which indications for prevention and treatment in the literature pertain to the field of nursing, and critically analyzing the results and their implications for nursing care. This was a systematic literature survey without a meta analysis, consulting the following databases: BIREME, Medline, CancerLit, Scirus, CAPES, Free medical journal, High wire press, SCIELO, and Medscape, from 2000 to 2005. According to observations, nursing care was capable of improving patient's quality of life, promoting education of patients, implementing and supervising oral care programs, and providing guidance on hygiene, prevention, and treatment of oral mucositis, including pain management. However, no Brazilian nursing publications were found on the subject. Research and publications focusing on nursing experience in the prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-related oral mucositis and the implications for patients and nurses are important to provide evidence-based nursing guidelines. (author)

  3. Characterization of fibroblast phenotypes in intra-oral wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, H.E. van

    2006-01-01

    Wound contraction and subsequent scar tissue formation is thought to be a main cause of the maxillary and dento-alveolar growth inhibition observed after cleft palate surgery. A reduction in wound contraction and scar tissue formation might prevent these iatrogenic effects. To achieve this, differen

  4. Characterization of fibroblast phenotypes in intra-oral wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, H.E. van

    2006-01-01

    Wound contraction and subsequent scar tissue formation is thought to be a main cause of the maxillary and dento-alveolar growth inhibition observed after cleft palate surgery. A reduction in wound contraction and scar tissue formation might prevent these iatrogenic effects. To achieve this,

  5. The effectiveness of commonly used mouthwashes for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.J. Potting (C. M J); R. Uitterhoeve (R.); W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer (Wilma); T. van Achterberg (Theo)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDaily chlorhexidine mouthwash is often recommended for preventing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Povidone-iodine, NaCl 0.9%, water salt soda solution and chamomile mouthwash are also recommended. However, the effectiveness of these mouthwashes is unclear. Therefore, we performed a

  6. The effectiveness of commonly used mouthwashes for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, C.M.J.; Uitterhoeve, R.J.; Reimer, W.S. op; Achterberg, T. van

    2006-01-01

    Daily chlorhexidine mouthwash is often recommended for preventing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Povidone-iodine, NaCl 0.9%, water salt soda solution and chamomile mouthwash are also recommended. However, the effectiveness of these mouthwashes is unclear. Therefore, we performed a systematic r

  7. Guidelines for the assessment of oral mucositis in adult chemotherapy, radiotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, B.; Potting, C.M.J.; Stone, R.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Fliedner, M.; Margulies, A.; Sharp, L.

    2008-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a serious consequence of some chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. A number of reliable instruments are available to assess OM, but none are universally accepted. A unique collaboration of multi-disciplinary experts from Europe was formed to make recommendations on OM asses

  8. Antioxidant agents: a future alternative approach in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Cuba, Letícia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Cherubini, Karen; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a therapeutic modality frequently employed for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). It destroys tumor cells, but it is not selective, also affecting healthy tissues and producing adverse effects. One that stands out is oral mucositis because of the morbidity that it is capable of causing. This lesion is characterized by the presence of erythema, ulcerations, pain, opportunistic infections, and weight loss. These side effects can lead to serious situations that require the interruption of the antineoplastic treatment and can result in hospitalization and even death. The complex mechanisms linked to the pathogenesis of oral mucositis were recently established, and since then, the control of oxidative stress (OS) has been tied to the prevention and management of this disease. The authors have carried out a review of the literature about the use of antioxidant agents in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis, using the PubMed database. This review has shown that the research on use of antioxidants (AOX) has proved insufficient to justify suggesting the products in treatment protocols. Results are promising, however, and AOX may represent a future alternative in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis.

  9. Combination of Estrogen and Immunosuppressive Agents to Establish a Mouse Model of Candidiasis with Concurrent Oral and Vaginal Mucosal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Wang, Chong; Mei, Huan; Shen, Yongnian; Lv, Guixia; Zeng, Rong; Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-02-01

    Mouse model is an appropriate tool for pathogenic determination and study of host defenses during the fungal infection. Here, we established a mouse model of candidiasis with concurrent oral and vaginal mucosal infection. Two C. albicans strains sourced from clinical candidemia (SC5314) and mucosal infection (ATCC62342) were tested in ICR mice. The different combinational panels covering estrogen and immunosuppressive agents, cortisone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were used for concurrent oral and vaginal candidiasis establishment. Prednisolone in combination with estrogen proved an optimal mode for concurrent mucosal infection establishment. The model maintained for 1 week with fungal burden reached at least 10(5) cfu/g of tissue. This mouse model was evaluated by in vivo pharmacodynamics of fluconazole and host mucosal immunity of IL-17 and IL-23. Mice infected by SC5314 were cured by fluconazole. An increase in IL-23 in both oral and vaginal homogenates was observed after infection, while IL-17 only had a prominent elevation in oral tissue. This model could properly mimic complicated clinical conditions and provides a valuable means for antifungal assay in vivo and may also provide a useful method for the evaluation of host-fungal interactions.

  10. Immunohistochemical characterization of oral mucosal lesions in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2011-05-01

    Histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed on samples of the glossopalatine mucosa from 30 cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS). Immunohistochemical labelling and computer-assisted morphometric analysis were used to identify expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD79a, IgG, IgM, IgA, leucocyte antigen 1 (L1) and class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in tissue sections. Mast cells were detected by toluidine blue staining. The microscopical lesions were graded by severity of inflammation and although this grading correlated significantly with the severity of mucosal inflammation assessed at clinical examination, sites assessed as clinically normal or mildly inflamed were poorly predictive of the histopathological grade in the corresponding tissue sample. The number of CD79a+ cells (mostly plasma cells), L1+ cells (mostly neutrophils) and CD3+ T cells, and the level of MHC class II expression, tended to correlate with the severity of the inflammation. In general, CD8+ T cells were more numerous than CD4+ T cells. The majority of the plasma cells were of the IgG isotype and fewer IgA+ and IgM+ plasma cells were present. In some cases MHC class II expression by mucosal epithelium, salivary duct epithelium or skeletal muscle fibres was observed. Relative to equivalent oral mucosal samples from healthy cats, the number of cells labelled for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD79a, IgG, IgM, IgA or L1, and the number of mast cells, within the lamina propria/submucosa were significantly increased. Limited analysis of the epithelial compartment also found more CD3+ T cells compared with healthy cats. These findings indicate that the glossopalatine mucosal lesions in FCGS represent a complex, chronic and destructive inflammatory process affecting the epithelium and lamina propria, with frequent extension into submucosal tissues. The predominance of CD8+ cells over CD4+ cells suggests the induction of an underlying cytotoxic cell-mediated immune

  11. Chemotherapy-Induced and/or Radiation Therapy-Induced Oral Mucositis-Complicating the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddireddy Umameshwar Rao Naidu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The term mucositis is coined to describe the adverse effects of radiation and chemotherapy treatments. Mucositis is one of the most common adverse reactions encountered in radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, as well as in chemotherapy, in particular with drugs affecting DNA synthesis (Sphase-specific agents such as fluorouracil, methotrexate, and cytarabine. Mucositis may limit the patient's ability to tolerate chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and nutritional status is compromised. It may drastically affect cancer treatment as well as the patient's quality of life. The incidence and severity of mucositis will vary from patient to patient. It will also vary from treatment to treatment. It is estimated that there is 40% incidence of mucositis in patients treated with standard chemotherapy and this will not only increase with the number of treatment cycles but also with previous episodes. Similarly, patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and who receive high doses of chemotherapy have a 76% chance of getting mucositis. Patients receiving radiation, in particular to head and neck cancers, have a 30% to 60% chance. The exact pathophysiology of development is not known, but it is thought to be divided into direct and indirect mucositis. Chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy will interfere with the normal turnover of epithelial, cells leading to mucosal injury; subsequently, it can also occur due to indirect invasion of Gram-negative bacteria and fungal species because most of the cancer drugs will cause changes in blood counts. With the advancement in cytology, a more precise mechanism has been established. With this understanding, we can select and target particular mediators responsible for the mucositis. Risk factors such as age, nutritional status, type of malignancy, and oral care during treatment will play important roles in the development of mucositis. Many treatment options are available to prevent and treat this

  12. Enfermedad de la mucosa oral: Penfigoide de las membranas mucosas Oral mucosal disease: Mucouse membrane pemphigoid

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    N. Discepoli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos vesículobullosos subepiteliales representan desordenes autoinmunitarios que cogen origen de reacciones dirigidas hacia componentes de los hemidesmosomas o bien de las Zonas de la Membrana Basal (ZMB de los epitelios escamosos estratificados. A estos trastornos ha sido conferidoel término de enfermedades ampollosa subepiteliales inmunomediadas (EASIM y el penfigoide de las membranas mucosas (PMM es el más frecuente. Todas las enfermedades subepiteliales vesiculobullosas se presentan como lesiones ampollosas y descamativas, y el diagnostico debe de ser confirmado por una biopsia junta a tinción inmunológica. No hay un único tratamiento capaz de controlar todas las enfermedades subepiteliales vesiculoampollosas; las diferencias inmunológicas entre las EASIM proporciona diferencias en las respuestas al tratamiento. Hoy en día el tratamiento inmunorregulador es usado para controlar la lesión oral de PMM.Subepithelial vesiculobullous conditions are chronic autoimmune disorders that arise from reactions directed against components of the hemidesmosomes or basement membrane zones (BMZ of stratified squamous epithelium to which the term immune-mediated subepithelial blistering diseases (IMSEBD has been given. Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP is the most common, but variants do exist. All subepithelial vesiculobullous disorders present as blisters and erosions, and diagnosis must be confirmed by biopsy examination with immunostaining, sometimes supplemented by other investigations. No single treatment reliably controls all subepithelial vesiculobullous disorders; the immunological differences within IMSEBD may account for differences in responses to treatment. Currently, as well as improving oral hygiene, immunomodulatory treatment is used to control the oral lesions of MMP, but it is not known if its specific subsets reliably respond to different agents.

  13. A comparison between zinc sulfate and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwashes in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mehdipour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Background and the Purpose of the Study: Patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy for hematological malignancies are susceptible to development of oral mucositis, and no effective modality has been reported for its prophylaxis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc mouthwash on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis lesions. "nMethods: In this double-blind randomized trial, patients under chemotherapy for acute leukemia were divided into two test and control groups of 15 patients each. The groups were homogeneous with respect to medical history, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. The test group received 10ml 0.2% zinc sulfate mouthwash, and the control group received 10ml 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, twice a day for a period of two weeks. Spijkervet scale was used to grade the severity of mucositis at every other week during eight weeks. The severity scores were analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS 13.0 computer software. "nResults: Mean severity scores were generally lower in the test group compared to the controls at all four time intervals evaluated; but only, the differences in weeks of 2 and 3 were statistically significant (P=0.025. Conclusion: Zinc mouthwash used in conjunction with chemotherapy may reduce the severity of oral mucositis lesions in patients with leukaemia.

  14. HIV-Associated Oral Mucosal Melanin Hyperpigmentation: A Clinical Study in a South African Population Sample

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    R. Chandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized, intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light, and smoking and snuff use. Results. Overall, 18.5% of the study cohort had HIV-OMH. Twenty-two and a half percent had OMH that could not with confidence be attributed to HIV infection, and 59% did not have any OMH. There was a significant but weak association between smoking and the presence of HIV-OMH. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV-OMH in the study population was 18.5%, the gingiva being the most commonly affected site. It appears that the CD4+ T cell count does not play any role in the biopathology of HIV-OMH.

  15. Candidiasis and other oral mucosal lesions during and after interferon therapy for HCV-related chronic liver diseases

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    Nagao Yumiko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral lichen planus (OLP is seen frequently in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral candidiasis, other mucosal lesions, and xerostomia during interferon (IFN therapy for HCV infection. Methods Of 124 patients with HCV-infected liver diseases treated with IFN therapy in our hospital, 14 (mean age 56.00 ± 12.94 years who attended to receive administration of IFN once a week were identified and examined for Candida infection and other oral lesions and for the measurement of salivary flow. Serological assays also were carried out. Results Cultures of Candida from the tongue surfaces were positive in 7 (50.0% of the 14 patients with HCV infection at least once during IFN therapy. C. albicans was the most common species isolated. The incidence of Candida during treatment with IFN did not increase above that before treatment. Additional oral mucosal lesions were observed in 50.0% (7/14 of patients: OLP in three (21.4%, angular cheilitis in three (21.4% and recurrent aphthous stomatitis in one (7.1%. OLP occurred in one patient before treatment with IFN, in one during treatment and in one at the end of treatment. 85.7% of the oral lesions were treated with topical steroids. We compared the characteristics of the 7 patients in whom Candida was detected at least once during IFN therapy (group 1 and the 7 patients in whom Candida was not detected during IFN therapy (group 2. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (P=0.0075 and incidence of external use of steroids (P=0.0308 in group 1 were significantly higher than in group 2. The average body weight of group 1 decreased significantly compared to group 2 (P=0.0088. Salivary flow decreased in all subjects throughout the course of IFN treatment and returned at 6th months after the end of treatment. In group 1, the level of albumin at the beginning of the 6th month of IFN administration was lower than in group 2 (P=0

  16. The effect of red, green and blue lasers on healing of oral wounds in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mirmoezzi, Amir; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Arany, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can improve wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic animals. We compared the effects of red, green, and blue lasers in terms of accelerating oral wound healing in diabetic rats. Diabetes was successfully induced in 32 male Wistar rats using intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). After intraperitoneal injection of the anesthetic agent, a full-thickness oral wound (10 mm × 2 mm) was created aseptically with a scalpel on hard palate of the diabetic rats. The study was performed using red (630 nm), green (532 nm), and blue (425 nm) lasers and a control group. We used an energy density of 2J/cm2 and a treatment schedule of 3 times/week for 10 days. The area of wounds was measured and recorded on a chart for all rats. On the 10th day, the samples were then sacrificed and a full-thickness sample of wound area was prepared for pathological study. We observed a significant difference (plaser and two other lasers - blue and green (plaser and green laser (p=0.777). The results of the present study provide evidence that wound healing is slower in control rats compared to the treatment groups. Moreover, the findings suggest that wound healing occurs faster with red laser compared to blue and green lasers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of bacteria on the wound healing behavior of oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rupa; Xu, Fanxing; Dong, Guangyu; Li, Shuai; Tian, Chen; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Graves, Dana T

    2014-01-01

    Wounded tissue offers opportunity to microflora to adhere, colonize, invade and infect surrounding healthy tissue. The bacteria of the oral cavity have the potential to alter the wound healing process by interacting with keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms through which oral bacteria may influence re-epithelialization by interacting with gingival keratinocytes. By an in vitro scratch assay we demonstrate that primary gingival keratinocytes have impaired closure when exposed to two well characterized oral bacteria, P. gingivalis, and to a lesser extent, F. nucleatum. P. gingivalis reduced wound closure by ∼ 40%, which was partially dependent on proteolytic activity, and bacteria was still present within infected cells 9 days later despite exposure to bacteria for only 24 h. Both oral bacteria caused keratinocyte apoptosis at the wound site with cell death being greatest at the wound edge. P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum adversely affected cell proliferation and the effect also had a spatial component being most striking at the edge. The impact of the bacteria was long lasting even when exposure was brief. Cell migration was compromised in bacteria challenged keratinocytes with P. gingivalis having more severe effect (pbacteria challenged cells showed that P. gingivalis and to a lesser extent F. nucleatum significantly downregulated cell cycle genes cyclin1, CDK1, and CDK4 (pcell migration such as integrin beta-3 and -6 were significantly downregulated by P. gingivalis (p<0.05).

  18. Oral Delivery of a Novel Recombinant Streptococcus mitis Vector Elicits Robust Vaccine Antigen-Specific Oral Mucosal and Systemic Antibody Responses and T Cell Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Xie

    Full Text Available The pioneer human oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus mitis has unique biologic features that make it an attractive mucosal vaccine or therapeutic delivery vector. S. mitis is safe as a natural persistent colonizer of the mouth, throat and nasopharynx and the oral commensal bacterium is capable of inducing mucosal antibody responses. A recombinant S. mitis (rS. mitis that stably expresses HIV envelope protein was generated and tested in the germ-free mouse model to evaluate the potential usefulness of this vector as a mucosal vaccine against HIV. Oral vaccination led to the efficient and persistent bacterial colonization of the mouth and the induction of both salivary and systemic antibody responses. Interestingly, persistently colonized animals developed antigen-specific systemic T cell tolerance. Based on these findings we propose the use of rS. mitis vaccine vector for the induction of mucosal antibodies that will prevent the penetration of the mucosa by pathogens such as HIV. Moreover, the first demonstration of rS. mitis having the ability to elicit T cell tolerance suggest the potential use of rS. mitis as an immunotherapeutic vector to treat inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  19. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol L Fischer; Katherine S Walters; David R Drake; Deborah V Dawson; Derek R Blanchette; Kim A Brogden; Philip W Wertz

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria;however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  20. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-09-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  1. Antibody blockade of IL-17 family cytokines in immunity to acute murine oral mucosal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Tritto, Elaine; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Kolbinger, Frank; Moulin, Pierre; Brees, Dominique; Coleman, Bianca M; Mamo, Anna J; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Kammüller, Michael; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2016-06-01

    Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor, IL-17RA, are approved to treat psoriasis and are being evaluated for other autoimmune conditions. Conversely, IL-17 signaling is critical for immunity to opportunistic mucosal infections caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans, as mice and humans lacking the IL-17R experience chronic mucosal candidiasis. IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF bind the IL-17RA-IL-17RC heterodimeric complex and deliver qualitatively similar signals through the adaptor Act1. Here, we used a mouse model of acute oropharyngeal candidiasis to assess the impact of blocking IL-17 family cytokines compared with specific IL-17 cytokine gene knockout mice. Anti-IL-17A antibodies, which neutralize IL-17A and IL-17AF, caused elevated oral fungal loads, whereas anti-IL-17AF and anti-IL-17F antibodies did not. Notably, there was a cooperative effect of blocking IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F together. Termination of anti-IL-17A treatment was associated with rapid C. albicans clearance. IL-17F-deficient mice were fully resistant to oropharyngeal candidiasis, consistent with antibody blockade. However, IL-17A-deficient mice had lower fungal burdens than anti-IL-17A-treated mice. Act1-deficient mice were much more susceptible to oropharyngeal candidiasis than anti-IL-17A antibody-treated mice, yet anti-IL-17A and anti-IL-17RA treatment caused equivalent susceptibilities. Based on microarray analyses of the oral mucosa during infection, only a limited number of genes were associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis susceptibility. In sum, we conclude that IL-17A is the main cytokine mediator of immunity in murine oropharyngeal candidiasis, but a cooperative relationship among IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F exists in vivo. Susceptibility displays the following hierarchy: IL-17RA- or Act1-deficiency > anti-IL-17A + anti-IL-17F antibodies > anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-17RA antibodies > IL-17A deficiency.

  2. Comprehensive Assessment of Host Responses to 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Oral Mucositis through Transcriptomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ta Chang

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy plays an important role in current cancer therapy; however, several problems remain unsolved on the issue of host-therapeutics interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the host responses after 5-flurouracil (5-FU administration and to find the target genes and their relationship with other cytokines in the 5-FU-induced oral mucositis (OM mouse model through transcriptomic analysis.Thirty-six 6 to 8 week-old male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the control group and 5-FU-treated group. In the 5-FU group, mice received 5-FU (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally on day 1, day 8, day 15, day 22, and day 29, respectively. We evaluated the oral mucosal change under macroanalysis and histological examination at indicated periods, and then applied transcriptomic analysis of gene expression profile and Immunohistochemical stain to identify the target molecules related to 5-FU-induced OM.The most prominent histological change in this model was observed in the fifth week. The gene expression of Bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein, related sequence 1 (Bglap-rs1 (-12.69-fold and Chitinase 3-like 4 (Chi3l4 (-6.35-fold were significantly down-regulated in this phase. The quantitative real-time PCR results also revealed the expression levels were 0.62-fold in Bglap-rs1 and 0.13-fold in Chi3l4 compared with the control group. Immunohistochemical stain showed significant expression of cluster of differentiation 11b (p<0.01, interleukin-1β (p<0.001 and tumor necrosis factor-α (p<0.05, and down-regulation of Bglap-rs1 (p<0.01 compared with the control group. By Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis, there were twenty-three pathways significantly participated in this study (p<0.05.Through comprehensively transcriptomic analysis and IHC stain, we discovered several valuable pathways, verified the main pro-inflammatory cytokines, and revealed two significantly down-regulated genes in the 5-FU-induced OM model. These

  3. The Role of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF and Its Precursor Forms in Oral Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Schenck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF and its different precursor forms are secreted into human saliva by salivary glands and are also produced by an array of cells in the tissues of the oral cavity. The major forms of NGF in human saliva are forms of pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF and not mature NGF. The NGF receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR are widely expressed on cells in the soft tissues of the human oral cavity, including keratinocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and leukocytes, and in ductal and acinar cells of all types of salivary glands. In vitro models show that NGF can contribute at most stages in the oral wound healing process: restitution, cell survival, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. NGF may therefore take part in the effective wound healing in the oral cavity that occurs with little scarring. As pro-NGF forms appear to be the major form of NGF in human saliva, efforts should be made to study its function, specifically in the process of wound healing. In addition, animal and clinical studies should be initiated to examine if topical application of pro-NGF or NGF can be a therapy for chronic oral ulcerations and wounds.

  4. The Role of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Its Precursor Forms in Oral Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Karl; Schreurs, Olav; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Helgeland, Kristen

    2017-02-11

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its different precursor forms are secreted into human saliva by salivary glands and are also produced by an array of cells in the tissues of the oral cavity. The major forms of NGF in human saliva are forms of pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF) and not mature NGF. The NGF receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) are widely expressed on cells in the soft tissues of the human oral cavity, including keratinocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and leukocytes, and in ductal and acinar cells of all types of salivary glands. In vitro models show that NGF can contribute at most stages in the oral wound healing process: restitution, cell survival, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. NGF may therefore take part in the effective wound healing in the oral cavity that occurs with little scarring. As pro-NGF forms appear to be the major form of NGF in human saliva, efforts should be made to study its function, specifically in the process of wound healing. In addition, animal and clinical studies should be initiated to examine if topical application of pro-NGF or NGF can be a therapy for chronic oral ulcerations and wounds.

  5. The Role of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Its Precursor Forms in Oral Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Karl; Schreurs, Olav; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Helgeland, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its different precursor forms are secreted into human saliva by salivary glands and are also produced by an array of cells in the tissues of the oral cavity. The major forms of NGF in human saliva are forms of pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF) and not mature NGF. The NGF receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) are widely expressed on cells in the soft tissues of the human oral cavity, including keratinocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and leukocytes, and in ductal and acinar cells of all types of salivary glands. In vitro models show that NGF can contribute at most stages in the oral wound healing process: restitution, cell survival, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. NGF may therefore take part in the effective wound healing in the oral cavity that occurs with little scarring. As pro-NGF forms appear to be the major form of NGF in human saliva, efforts should be made to study its function, specifically in the process of wound healing. In addition, animal and clinical studies should be initiated to examine if topical application of pro-NGF or NGF can be a therapy for chronic oral ulcerations and wounds. PMID:28208669

  6. Stabilization of serum antibody responses triggered by initial mucosal contact with the antigen independently of oral tolerance induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Verdolin

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Initial contacts with a T-dependent antigen by mucosal routes may result in oral tolerance, defined as the inhibition of specific antibody formation after subsequent parenteral immunizations with the same antigen. We describe here an additional and permanent consequence of these initial contacts, namely, the blockade of secondary-type responsiveness to subsequent parenteral contacts with the antigen. When repeatedly boosted ip with small doses (3 µg of ovalbumin (OVA (or lysozyme, primed B6D2F1 mice showed progressively higher antibody responses. In contrast, mice primed after a single oral exposure to the antigen, although repeatedly boosted, maintained their secondary antibody titers on a level which was inversely proportional to the dose of antigen in the oral pretreatment. This phenomenon also occurred in situations in which oral tolerance was not induced. For example, senile 70-week-old B6D2F1 mice pretreated with a single gavage of 20 mg OVA did not become tolerant, i.e., they formed the same secondary levels of anti-OVA antibodies as non-pretreated mice. However, after 4 weekly challenges with 3 µg OVA ip, orally pretreated mice maintained the same anti-OVA serum levels, whereas the levels of control mice increased sequentially. This "stabilizing" effect of mucosal exposure was dose dependent, occurred with different proteins and was triggered by single or multiple oral or nasal exposures to the antigen.

  7. Two cases with nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia: a rare clinical form of allergic contact stomatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Esen; Babuna, Goncagül

    2011-03-15

    Allergic contact stomatitis (ACS) can occur with variable clinical presentations such as erythematous, erosive, and lichenoid forms. Burning mouth symptoms may also be a result of allergic contact stomatitis. Additionally, gingival hyperplasia has been reported in exceptional cases of ACS caused by dental metals. Here, two rare cases are presented of nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia with gingival and upper palatal involvement from metal-porcelain crowns and metal-acrylic upper denture, respectively. In both cases the diagnosis was made on the basis of the positive patch test results to nickel sulfate and the regression of the lesions after removing the nickel containing dental materials. Nickel-induced ACS should be borne in mind in every case of oral mucosal hyperplasia appearing after dental procedures, especially in the presence of previous allergies and sensitization risks such as ear piercing. It might be further suggested to include this variant within the clinical forms of ACS.

  8. Therapeutic management of radiation-induced oral mucositis; Therapeutische Beeinflussung der radiogenen oralen Mukositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Doelling-Jochem, I. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Baumann, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Herrmann, T. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Background: Acute reactions of oral mucosa are a frequent side effect of radiotherapy, which often necessitates interruption of the treatment. Marked proliferation of tumor stem cells during treatment interruptions may occur in squamous cell carcinomata, which represent the majority of tumors in the head and neck area. Hence a fatal consequence of treatment breaks may be a significant decrease in tumor cure rates. Furthermore, marked acute responses frequently result in increased late sequelae (`consequential damage`). Therefore, amelioration of the mucosal response aiming at avoiding treatment breaks and at reduction of late reactions coul definitely increase the therapeutic success of radiation treatment. Results: A variety of prophylactic and therapeutic methods have been proposed for the management of acute radiation reactions of the oral mucosa. Frequently, their efficiacy has been established for chemotherapy or in combination with other immunosuppressive treatments. Hence, systemical rather than local effects have to be considered. Conclusions: In general, prophylaxis of oral mucositis is mainly based on dental restoration or edentation, in combination with frequent oral hygienic measures after the meals and with antiseptic mouthwashes. Intensive personal care is recommended. The necessity of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma is dependent on the status of the patient and on size and localization of the treatment area, i.e. the impairment of food uptake which is to be expected. Therapeutic intervention is restricted to local or systemic treatment of pain and local application of antimycotics and antibiotics. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Die akute Reaktion der Mundschleimhaut ist eine regelmaessige Nebenwirkung der klinischen Strahlentherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren, die in vielen Faellen eine Unterbrechung der Behandlung erzwingt. In den Behandlungspausen besteht gerade bei den im Kopf-Hals-Bereich haeufigen Plattenepithelkarzinomen die Gefahr der verstaerkten

  9. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review; Aspectos clinicos, biologicos, histopatologicos e tratamentos propostos para a mucosite oral induzida por radioterapia: revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogerio Ferreti [Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros e Faculdades Unidas do Norte de Minas, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Odontologia]. E-mail: pbonan@yahoo.com; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Almeida, Oslei Paes de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Alves, Fabio de Abreu [Hospital do Cancer AC Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Estomatologia

    2005-07-01

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  10. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Paaske Utheim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC, which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells.

  11. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-03-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells.

  12. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p< 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. Adverse event management of oral mucositis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Sabine; Kosse, Jens; Loibl, Sibylle; Jackisch, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a clinically important and frequent adverse event (AE) associated with cancer treatment with conventional chemotherapy as well as new targeted agents. Incidence and severity of OM vary from treatment to treatment and from patient to patient. The pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced OM can be divided into 5 phases. OM induced by targeted therapies differs among other things in appearance, course, concomitant AEs and toxicity, and thus could be perceived as an entity distinct from chemotherapy-induced OM with an innate pathogenic mechanism. OM has a severe impact on a patient's quality of life (QoL) by causing complications such as pain and discomfort. Even more important are associated restrictions in nutrition and hydration. Thus, the efficacy of cancer therapy might be impaired due to the necessity of dose delays and dose reductions. Numerous preventive and therapeutic approaches have been evaluated, but currently no single agent has changed the standard of care in preventing and treating OM. Thus, the current management has evolved from clinical experience rather than clinical evidence. This article will review the AE 'OM' induced by breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy and targeted agents in order to provide practical guidance for management and prevention.

  14. Dosimetric study of photobiomodulation therapy in 5-FU-induced oral mucositis in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotomacio, Claudia Carrara; Campos, Luana; Nesadal de Souza, Douglas; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Simões, Alyne

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating consequence of cancer treatment that could be treated with photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT); however, there is no consensus about its dosimetric parameters for OM healing. The aim of this study was to compare different PBMT protocols on OM treatment, through clinical and histological analysis. Thirty hamsters were used, in an induced model of OM by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and superficial scratching, in seven days of follow-up. The animals were divided into five groups: control (C), which received only anesthesia and chemotherapeutic vehicle; chemotherapy (Ch), which received anesthesia, 5-FU, and scratches; laser 1 (L1), the same as Ch group, PBMT 6 J/cm2 and 0.24 J (one point); laser 2 (L2), the same as Ch group, PBMT 25 J/cm2 and 1 J (one point); and laser 3 (L3), the same as Ch group, PBMT 4 points of 0.24 J and 6 J/cm2 each. The laser used has λ=660 nm, 0.04 cm2 of spot area, and 40 mW. The best PBMT protocol to maintain lowest OM levels compared to Ch group was L1, followed by L2 and L3. Our results suggest that the application mode of PBMT and the energy delivered per area could interfere with the OM healing.

  15. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. Materials and Method: OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Results: Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (p= 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups (phamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27942549

  16. Divalent toxoids loaded stable chitosan-glucomannan nanoassemblies for efficient systemic, mucosal and cellular immunostimulatory response following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Harshad; Siddhapura, Krupa; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Jain, Sanyog

    2015-06-20

    The present study reports dual tetanus and diphtheria toxoids loaded stable chitosan-glucomannan nanoassemblies (sCh-GM-NAs) formulated using tandem ionic gelation technique for oral mucosal immunization. The stable, lyophilized sCh-GM-NAs exhibited ~152 nm particle size and ~85% EE of both the toxoids. The lyophilized sCh-GM-NAs displayed excellent stability in biomimetic media and preserved chemical, conformation and biological stability of encapsulated toxoids. The higher intracellular APCs uptake of sCh-GM-NAs was concentration and time dependent which may be attributed to the receptor mediated endocytosis via mannose and glucose receptor. The higher Caco-2 uptake of sCh-GM-NAs was further confirmed by ex vivo intestinal uptake studies. The in vivo evaluation revealed that sCh-GM-NAs posed significantly (p<0.001) higher humoral, mucosal and cellular immune response than other counterparts by eliciting complete protective levels of anti-TT and anti-DT (~0.1 IU/mL) antibodies. Importantly, commercial 'Dual antigen' vaccine administered through oral or intramuscular route was unable to elicit all type of immune response. Conclusively, sCh-GM-NAs could be considered as promising vaccine adjuvant for oral mucosal immunization.

  17. Absorption and tolerability of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF in patients with cancer in the presence of oral mucositis

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    Finn AL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrew L Finn1, WD Charlie Hill2, Ignacio Tagarro3, Larry N Gever41Product Development, BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Co-founding partner, InVisions Consultants, LLC, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3Marketing Centre CIP CNS, Meda Pharma S.A.U., Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Affairs, Meda Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Somerset, NJ, USAPurpose: Fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF consists of a small, bilayered, water-soluble polymer film that adheres to the buccal mucosa and rapidly delivers fentanyl into the systemic circulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the absorption of fentanyl from FBSF in patients with cancer, with and without grade 1 oral mucositis, and to assess the tolerability of FBSF in this patient population.Patients and methods: In an open-label, single-dose study, two groups of opioid-naive patients (ie, not receiving opioids on a regular basis with cancer received a 200 µg dose of FBSF. Patients in cohort I (n = 7 had grade 1 mucositis, and patients in cohort II (n = 7 were age- and gender-matched controls without mucositis. The FBSF dose was placed on the area of mucositis in cohort I and on a matching location in cohort II. Blood samples were collected up to 4 hours after administration, and safety assessments were made throughout the study.Results: Peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration–time curve from time 0 to 4 hours post-dose values of patients in the grade 1 mucositis cohort were lower than those observed in patients without mucositis. There was no application site irritation reported in any patient, regardless of mucositis status. Mild somnolence was reported by two patients with mucositis. There were no deaths or serious adverse events reported in this study.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that application of FBSF to an area of grade 1 mucositis does not result in increased fentanyl exposure or irritation of the mucosa. The 200 µg dose of FBSF was well

  18. Successful treatment with oral mizoribine in refractory ocular manifestation of mucosal pemphigus vulgaris: A unique response to different immunosuppressive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Noritaka; Togashi, Ari; Nomura, Erika; Kaneko, Fumio

    2016-11-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an acquired autoimmune disease in which the disease characteristic antibodies are directed against the desmosomal transmembrane glycoprotein, desmoglein 3 (Dsg 3), resulting in flaccid blisters and erosions of skin and mucous membrane. Among various affected sites, ocular involvement may often persist or relapse even after remission of other mucocutaneous lesions, and also represent a higher morbidity. We describe such an example case of mucosal PV, whose oral and ocular manifestations were responded specifically to oral cyclosporine and mizoribine, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first case of the site-specific efficacy of mizoribine in PV.

  19. Prediction of Acute Radiation Mucositis using an Oral Mucosal Dose Surface Model in Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Musha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the dose-response relationship for development of acute radiation mucositis (ARM using an oral mucosal dose surface model (OMDS-model in carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT for head and neck tumors.Thirty-nine patients receiving C-ion RT for head and neck cancer were evaluated for ARM (once per week for 6 weeks according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 4.0, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG scoring systems. The irradiation schedule typically used was 64 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE] in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Maximum point doses in the palate and tongue were compared with ARM in each patient.The location of the ARM coincided with the high-dose area in the OMDS-model. There was a clear dose-response relationship between maximum point dose and ARM grade assessed using the RTOG criteria but not the CTCAE. The threshold doses for grade 2-3 ARM in the palate and tongue were 43.0 Gy(RBE and 54.3 Gy(RBE, respectively.The OMDS-model was useful for predicting the location and severity of ARM. Maximum point doses in the model correlated well with grade 2-3 ARM.

  20. Biomarkers in the assessment of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normando, Ana Gabriela Costa; Rocha, Camila Lopes; de Toledo, Isabela Porto; de Souza Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu; Dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of biomarkers to predict the risk of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients, as well as to assess the correlation between these biomarkers and the severity of mucositis. The search was performed at LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. A search of the gray literature was performed on Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ProQuest. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (MAStARI) tool, and the evidence quality was assessed by the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. After a two-step selection process, 26 studies met the eligibility criteria. In total, 27 biomarkers were evaluated, and the most frequent were the epidermal growth factor (EGF), C-reactive protein (CRP), genetic polymorphisms, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The meta-analysis showed an expression of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (32.66%), XRCC3 (31.00%), and RAD51 (39.16%) genes, as well as an expression of protein biomarkers (39.57%), in patients with an increased risk of developing oral mucositis. Dosing biomarkers before starting radiation therapy may be a promising method to predict the risk of developing mucositis and allow radiosensitive patients to have a customized treatment. Although there is currently limited evidence to confirm the putative implementation of serum and salivary biomarkers to assess the correlation between them and the severity of mucositis, this current review provides new research directions.

  1. A morphometric study of the protective effect of cryotherapy on oral mucositis in cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeli, M; Aldemir, M N; Bingol, F; Dogan, C; Kara, A

    2016-10-01

    We investigated cytological changes in oral mucosa smears from patients treated with cryotherapy to determine whether cryotherapy prevented mucositis caused by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy. Patients with gastrointestinal malignancies were divided into four groups; control patients before 5-FU therapy, patients after 5-FU therapy without cryotherapy, patients with cryotherapy before 5-FU therapy and patients with cryotherapy after 5-FU therapy. Oral mucosa samples from all patients were assessed at the beginning and on day 14 of chemotherapy. We used exfoliative cytology to evaluate cellular changes in the oral mucosa that were caused by 5-FU. Smears from each patient were stained using the Papanicolaou method and analyzed using stereology. Smears were taken from each group before and after 5-FU infusion. We found that nuclear volume was decreased significantly in cells of the 5-FU therapy after cryotherapy patients compared to the 5-FU therapy before cryotherapy patients. We also found significantly decreased cytoplasmic volumes in the 5-FU therapy after cryotherapy patients compared to the 5-FU therapy before cryotherapy patients. The results of cytomorphometric estimations revealed that cryotherapy may be used to prevent damage to oral tissue and may decrease the frequency and duration of oral mucositis caused by 5-FU.

  2. Roles of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor amniotic membrane in oral wound healing

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    Elly Munadziroh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI is serine protease inhibitor. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor is a protein found in secretions such as whole saliva, seminal fluid, cervical mucus, synovial fluid, breast milk, tears, and cerebral spinal fluid, as in secretions from the nose and bronchi, amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane etc. These findings demonstrate that SLPI function as a potent anti protease, anti inflammatory, bactericidal, antifungal, tissue repair, extra cellular synthesis. Impaired healing states are characterized by excessive proteolysis and often bacterial infection, leading to the hypothesis that SLPI may have a role in the process. The objectives of this article are to investigate the role of SLPI in oral inflammation and how it contributes to tissue repair in oral mucosa. The oral wound healing responses are impaired in the SLPI sufficient mice and matrix synthesis and collagen deposition are delayed. This study indicated that SLPI is a povital factor necessary for optimal wound healing.

  3. [Use of laser for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy for head and neck cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; González-Nieto, Almudena; López-Pintor Muñoz, Rosa María

    2014-08-19

    One of the complications of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is oral mucositis. Since the low energy laser is one of the most frequently recommended interventions by authors and international societies, the aim of this study is to review the scientific evidence on the use of lasers as a preventive and therapeutic in oral mucositis associated with treatment of cancer. We performed a literature search in PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration Library, limiting the search to the last 20 years. We finally included 29 articles that contained 30 studies. Low energy laser phototherapy seems a promising intervention in both the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis associated with cancer treatment. Virtually all studies reviewed showed good results with no adverse effects and reductions in both incidence and severity of mucositis in all types of cancer treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative assessment of the therapeutic effects of the topical and systemic forms of Hypericum perforatum extract on induced oral mucositis in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanideh, N; Namazi, F; Andisheh Tadbir, A; Ebrahimi, H; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O

    2014-10-01

    Oral mucositis is a common and irritating complication of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignancies. Current treatments have failed to achieve complete remission of this complication. The St. John's wort plant (Hypericum perforatum) has long been known for its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the topical and systemic administration of H. perforatum extract on oral mucositis. Oral mucositis was induced in 72 male golden hamsters by administration of 5-fluorouracil (60mg/kg), on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, H. perforatum extract topical gel 10%, oral H. perforatum extract (300mg/kg), and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Weights and blood samples were evaluated, biopsies from buccal lesions were examined histopathologically, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Both of the H. perforatum extract treatment groups saw a significant relief in oral mucositis compared to the control and base gel groups; the systemic form was superior to the topical form. H. perforatum extract, administered orally or topically, expedited the healing of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

  5. Role of Bcr1-activated genes Hwp1 and Hyr1 in Candida albicans oral mucosal biofilms and neutrophil evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prabhat; Thompson, Angela; Xie, Zhihong; Kashleva, Helena; Ganguly, Shantanu; Mitchell, Aaron P; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2011-01-25

    Candida albicans triggers recurrent infections of the oropharyngeal mucosa that result from biofilm growth. Prior studies have indicated that the transcription factor Bcr1 regulates biofilm formation in a catheter model, both in vitro and in vivo. We thus hypothesized that Bcr1 plays similar roles in the formation of oral mucosal biofilms and tested this hypothesis in a mouse model of oral infection. We found that a bcr1/bcr1 mutant did not form significant biofilm on the tongues of immunocompromised mice, in contrast to reference and reconstituted strains that formed pseudomembranes covering most of the tongue dorsal surface. Overexpression of HWP1, which specifies an epithelial adhesin that is under the transcriptional control of Bcr1, partly but significantly rescued the bcr1/bcr1 biofilm phenotype in vivo. Since HWP1 overexpression only partly reversed the biofilm phenotype, we investigated whether additional mechanisms, besides adhesin down-regulation, were responsible for the reduced virulence of this mutant. We discovered that the bcr1/bcr1 mutant was more susceptible to damage by human leukocytes when grown on plastic or on the surface of a human oral mucosa tissue analogue. Overexpression of HYR1, but not HWP1, significantly rescued this phenotype. Furthermore a hyr1/hyr1 mutant had significantly attenuated virulence in the mouse oral biofilm model of infection. These discoveries show that Bcr1 is critical for mucosal biofilm infection via regulation of epithelial cell adhesin and neutrophil function.

  6. A clinical study on the influence of suturing material on oral wound healing

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    Gazivoda Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Suture materials play an important role in healing, enabling reconstruction and reassembly of tissue separated by the surgical procedure or trauma, and at the same time facilitating and promoting healing and hemostasis. Suture materials are used daily in oral surgery, and are considered to be substances most commonly implanted in human body. The aim of this clinical study was to examine the speed of wound healing and complications incidence, after the use of three different absorbable synthetic suture materials in oral surgery (catgut, Dexon and Vicryl rapide, and to ascertain which one is the most suitable for oral surgery. Methods. The study was conducted on 96 patients undergoing root resection or surgical extraction of third molars. Each of the suture materials (catgut, Dexon and Vicryl rapide was used for 8 root resections and 8 surgical third molar extractions in the maxilla, as well as in the mandible (a total of 32 surgical interventions for each suture material. Results. The faster wound healing was obtained with Vicryl rapide compared to other two suturing material tested. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of local reaction in all the three groups of patients on the 21st postoperative day. Conclusion. The results of our clinical study point out that Vycrilrapid contributes more than catgut or Dexon to faster healing of human wounds, with fewer incidences of wound dehiscence and milder local reactions.

  7. Management of chemo- and radiotherapy induced oral mucositis with low-energy laser: initial results of A.C. Camargo Hospital Manejo da mucosite oral induzida por quimioterapia e radioterapia com laser de baixa potência: resultados iniciais do Hospital A.C. Camargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lazari Sandoval

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oral mucositis is a common complication of some malignancies treatment, causing therapeutic modifications due to patient's debilitation, which often interferes with the prognosis of the disease. Many attempts have been made to find an optimal treatment or preventive method to minimize the severity of oral mucositis. Several studies have shown good results with the use of low-energy laser, with the aim of accelerating the process of wound healing and promoting pain relief. Methods. Patients (n=18 who developed oral mucositis during chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were submitted to low-energy laser applications until cessation of symptoms. Mucositis severity was scored by an oral mucositis scale based on clinical features and by an oral toxicity scale from the National Cancer Institute based on the ability to swallow; pain severity was scored by subjects on a visual analogue scale before and after the applications. Results. Immediate pain relief was achieved in 66.6% of the patients after the first application. Based on the functional scale, mucositis grade III (not capable to eat solids was reduced in 42.85% of the cases. According to the scale based on the clinical features, mucositis grade IV (ulcerative lesions was reduced in 75% of the patients that presented this grade of mucositis at the beginning of laser therapy. Conclusions. Low-energy laser was well-tolerated and showed beneficial effects on the management of oral mucositis, improving the quality of life during the oncologic treatment.Mucosite é a complicação oral mais comum do tratamento de algumas doenças malignas, podendo causar a necessidade de modificações terapêuticas, o que pode interferir com o prognóstico da doença. Muitas tentativas têm sido feitas com o intuito de desenvolver um tratamento ou método preventivo para minimizar a severidade da mucosite oral. Vários estudos têm mostrado bons resultados com o uso do laser de baixa potência, devido

  8. Assessment of indomethacin oral spray for the treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis-induced pain during anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Kenji; Nagaoka, Hiroka; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Bukawa, Hiroki; Chiba, Shigeru; Kohda, Yukinao; Homma, Masato

    2017-07-15

    The efficacy and safety of indomethacin (IM) oral spray (OS) as a pain control therapy for oropharyngeal mucositis due to anticancer chemo- and radiotherapy were assessed in patients with head and neck carcinomas and haematological tumours. We observed 35 patients (male/female, 20/15; 53 ± 17 years) with oropharyngeal mucositis who were treated with IM-OS preparation for pain relief at University of Tsukuba Hospital, Japan. Analgesic effects were assessed using the six-grade face scale for pain in 28 patients at the start of IM oral spray treatment. Systemic exposure was assessed by determining urinary excretions of IM in seven patients. Pain relief was achieved in 26 (93%) patients at 25 (5-60) min after applying the IM-OS preparation (15.6 ± 3.4 μg/kg) and analgesic effects were maintained for 120 (10-360) min. The pain was significantly decreased after using the spray (3.6 ± 0.7 vs. 2.4 ± 0.9, p < 0.01). Moreover, urinary IM excretion rates after applying the IM spray preparation were 1.8 ± 0.8% of the IM oral spray dose (130.5 ± 77.7 μg/kg/day), which was markedly lower than that following oral administration of IM (60%). No adverse events were observed following application of the spray. The present IM spray is an effective and safe preparation for pain relief and can be used as an alternative therapeutic option for oropharyngeal mucositis in cancer patients.

  9. Oral ingestion of Streptococcus thermophilus does not affect mucositis severity or tumor progression in the tumor-bearing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Katie L; Howarth, Gordon S; Lymn, Kerry A; Lawrence, Andrew; Butler, Ross N

    2011-07-15

    Preventative or adjunctive agents for the amelioration of small intestinal chemotherapy-induced mucositis are not currently available for clinical use. We have previously demonstrated that oral ingestion of Streptococcus thermophilus (TH-4) partially attenuated chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the rat. Here we assess the effects of TH-4 on small intestinal damage and tumor progression in tumor-bearing rats with experimentally-induced mucositis. Female Dark Agouti tumor-bearing (mammary adenocarcinoma) rats (n = 36; 139 ± 1 g) had small intestinal damage induced via the administration of methotrexate (MTX). Rats were administered MTX; (1.5 mg/kg intramuscular) or saline at 0 and 24 h; with daily gavage administration of TH-4 (109 cfu/mL) or skim milk from -48 to +96 h post-MTX. Rats were allocated to groups (n=9): saline control, TH-4 control, MTX control or TH-4+MTX. The non-invasive ( 13) C-sucrose breath test (SBT) was conducted prior to tumor inoculation, pre-MTX (-24 h) and prior to sacrifice (96 h) to monitor gut function. At sacrifice small intestinal segments were excised and assessed for sucrase and myeloperoxidase activity as well as histological damage. Irrespective of TH-4 treatment, MTX-treated rats had a significant decrease in bodyweight, SBT levels, sucrase and myeloperoxidase activity, and histological damage score (p 0.05) but failed to alleviate mucositis indices. Although TH-4, at a dose of 109 cfu/mL, yielded neither protection nor amelioration of chemotherapy-induced mucositis, progression of mammary adenocarcinoma was unaffected.

  10. Re‑Evaluation of the First Phenytoin Paste Healing Effects on Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were pretreated with phenytoin had less pain, inflammation, and accelerated ... topical phenytoin as a mucoadhesive paste for treatment of human oral mucosal .... the healing process of wounds; however, the outcomes of existing methods are .... improve healing in a diabetic incisional animal wound model. J Wound Care ...

  11. Influence of different energy densities of laser phototherapy on oral wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Marques, Márcia Martins; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the impact of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the healing of oral ulcers. Different power densities were used on oral wounds in Wistar rats (n=72) randomly divided into three groups: control (0 J/cm2), 4 J/cm2 laser, and 20 J/cm2 laser. Ulcers (3 mm in diameter) were made on the dorsum of the tongue with a punch. Irradiation with an indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide laser (660 nm output power: 40 mW spot size: 0.04 cm) was performed once a day in close contact with the ulcer for 14 consecutive days. A statistically significant acceleration in healing time was found with wounds treated with 4 J/cm2 LPT. Moreover, striking differences were found in the ulcer area, healing percentage, degree of reepithelialization, and collagen deposition. The most significant changes occurred after 5 days of irradiation. Based on the conditions employed in the present study, LPT is capable of accelerating the oral mucosa wound-healing process. Moreover, faster and more organized reepithelialization and tissue healing of the oral mucosa were achieved with an energy density of 4 J/cm2 in comparison to 20 J/cm2.

  12. Oral mucosal lesions in a Chilean elderly population: A retrospective study with a systematic review from thirteen countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droguett, Daniel; Arenas-Márquez, María-Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Background The oral examination is an essential part of the multidisciplinary medical care in elderly people. Oral mucosal lesions and normal variations of oral anatomy (OMLs) are very common in this people, but few studies have examined the frequency and prevalence of these conditions worldwide and less in Chile. The aim of this research was to evaluate the frequency of OMLs in a Chilean elderly population. Material and Methods It was conducted a retrospective study (Talca, Chile). Two hundred seventy-seven OMLs were classified in groups and anatomical sites. In order to contextualize our numbers, we made a systematic review using Publish or Perish software, Google Scholar and InteractiVenn. Results The most prevalent OMLs groups were soft tissue tumors, epithelial pathology, facial pain and neuromuscular diseases, and dermatologic diseases. The most frequent OMLs included irritation fibroma (30 patients, 10.8%), hemangioma (20, 7.2%), burning mouth syndrome (20 cases, 7.2%), oral lichen planus (12, 4.3%) and epulis fissuratum (12, 4.3%). In the systematic review, 75 OMLs were relevant and the more studied pathologies were traumatic ulcerations (11 of 15 articles), oral lichen planus (10/15), irritation fibroma, melanotic pigmentations, and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (9/10, respectively). Considering all included articles, most frequent OMLs in elderly people included denture-related stomatitis (13.3%), irritation fibroma (8.7%) and fissured tongue (6.3%). Conclusions The results reflect the frequency of OMLs diagnosed in a specialized service in south of Chile and many countries around the world. These numbers will allow the establishment of preventive politics and adequacy of the clinical services. Key words:Oral mucosal lesions, elderly people, Chilean population, frequency, systematic review. PMID:28210449

  13. Oral mucositis caused by Candida glabrata biofilms: failure of the concomitant use of fluconazole and ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Candida glabrata is becoming one of the most prevalent pathogenic yeasts in cases of oral diseases. Mucositis is an recurrent oral infection in immunocompromised patients, and the actual guidelines recommend the use of fluconazole (Flu) for many cases. However, the azole resistance by C. glabrata is renowned, causing a reduced therapeutic response, especially when it occurs in biofilms. In this study, we performed an in vitro evaluation of an alternative pharmacotherapy for C. glabrata biofilm infections, combining ascorbic acid (AA) with Flu. AA is recognized for degrading β-glucans, an important compound of the biofilm matrices, which prevent drug diffusion. Materials and Methods: Routine clinical 30 or 40 mg/l doses of Flu were applied to C. glabrata biofilms simultaneously with 200 or 300 mg/l of AA. Results: The results showed that this combination effectively promoted the degradation of the biofilm network, but unfortunately, also stimulated the growth of the yeasts population due to release of several glucose monomers during β-glucans hydrolysis. Discussion: AA lead to the hydrolysis of the β-glucans of the matrix, liberating glucose molecules which are used as carbon souce by the yeasts, thus suppressing the desired antifungal effect of the drug combination with Flu. Conclusions: Unlike to what happens in treatment of bacterial infection, AA should not be used together with Flu in the treating oral mucositis caused by Candida. PMID:28357061

  14. Chitosan and gelatin based prototype delivery systems for the treatment of oral mucositis: from material to performance in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchyonok, V Tamara; Zhang, Shengmiao; Oberholzer, Theunis

    2013-02-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a prototype of an effective occlusive mucoadhesive system for prophylaxis and/or treatment of oral mucositis based on chitosan and gelatine models together with nystatin as a prophylactic agent incorporated into the formulation and investigated drug release in-vitro. Results of in vitro studies showed that chitosan and gelatine based gels posses properties that makes them excellent candidates for treatment of oral mucositis. These properties include not only the palliative effects of an occlusive dressing but also the potential for delivering therapeutic compounds with chitosan gels providing drug concentrations above their minimum inhibition concentration and extending the retention time in the oral cavity due to their bioadhesive properties. Chitosan also offers an advantage over suspensions because of its inherent antimicrobial properties. The performance of gelatin-based gels highlights the novel, non-toxic, in situ forming gelatine based hydrogel. The results of in vitro drug release experiments demonstrated that all the hydrogel showed sustained release properties.

  15. Phenylbutyrate Mouthwash Mitigates Oral Mucositis During Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Sang-Hue; Wang, Ling-Wei [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yi-Hsien [Division of Radiotherapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Yih-Lin, E-mail: ylchung@kfsyscc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Deleterious oral mucositis (OM) develops during radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients. There are currently no effective cytoprotective treatments for OM without a potential risk of tumor protection. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study aimed to determine the therapeutic safety and efficacy of phenylbutyrate (an antitumor histone deacetylase inhibitor and chemical chaperone) 5% mouthwash for treating OM caused by cancer therapy. Methods and Materials: Between September 2005 and June 2006, 36 HNC patients were randomized to standard oral care plus 5 mL of either phenylbutyrate 5% mouthwash (n = 17) or placebo (mouthwash vehicle, n = 19) taken four times daily (swish and spit). Treatment began when mild mucositis (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1) occurred, and ended 4 weeks after RT completion. Safety and efficacy were based on adverse events, physical examination, laboratory determinations, vital signs, Oral Mucosa Assessment Scale (OMAS) and World Health Organization scores, the ability to eat, body weight change, local control, and survival. Results: We found no severe drug-related side effect. At RT doses of 5500-7500 cGy, phenylbutyrate significantly mitigated the severity of mucositis compared with placebo, based on both the WHO score (severity {>=} 3; p = 0.0262) and the OMAS scale (ulceration score {>=} 2; p = 0.0049). The Kaplan-Meier estimates for 2- and 3-year local control, and overall survival were 100% and 80.8%, and 78.6% and 64.3%, respectively, in the phenylbutyrate group and 74.2% and 74.2%, and 57.4% and 50.2%, respectively, in the placebo group. Conclusions: This pilot trial suggested that phenylbutyrate mouthwash significantly decreased the impact of OM in HNC patients receiving RT or chemoradiotherapy and did not confront the tumor control. Larger Phase II randomized trials are needed to confirm these results.

  16. How to prevent contamination with Candida albicans during the fabrication of transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets

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    Ryo Takagi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have utilized patients' own oral mucosa as a cell source for the fabrication of transplantable epithelial cell sheets to treat limbal stem cell deficiency and mucosal defects after endoscopic submucosal dissection of esophageal cancer. Because there are abundant microbiotas in the human oral cavity, the oral mucosa was sterilized and 40 μg/mL gentamicin and 0.27 μg/mL amphotericin B were added to the culture medium in our protocol. Although an oral surgeon carefully checked each patient's oral cavity and although candidiasis was not observed before taking the biopsy, contamination with Candida albicans (C. albicans was detected in the conditioned medium during cell sheet fabrication. After adding 1 μg/mL amphotericin B to the transportation medium during transport from Nagasaki University Hospital to Tokyo Women's Medical University, which are 1200 km apart, no proliferation of C. albicans was observed. These results indicated that the supplementation of transportation medium with antimycotics would be useful for preventing contamination with C. albicans derived from the oral mucosa without hampering cell proliferation.

  17. New photobiomodulation protocol prevents oral mucositis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients-a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissheimer, Camila; Curra, Marina; Gregianin, Lauro J; Daudt, Liane E; Wagner, Vivian P; Martins, Marco Antonio T; Martins, Manoela D

    2017-08-24

    Oral mucositis (OM) is an adverse side effect among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the preventive effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) applied three times per week versus seven times per week in patients undergoing HSCT. The risk factors related to the incidence and severity of OM were also assessed. This was a retrospective study that evaluated 99 HSCT recipients who received different PBM protocols. Group I received three sessions per week, and group II received daily treatment. PBM was applied using a continuous-wave diode laser (InGaAlP; MM Optics, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) at a wavelength of 660 nm (visible-red) and a total radiant energy of 0.24 J per point. The baseline disease, type of transplant, type of conditioning, prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease, OM grade, absolute leukocyte and platelet counts, and levels of liver and renal function markers were collected from medical records. The patients' age ranged from 13 to 71 years (mean/SD, 40.54 ± 16.45). No significant difference was observed between groups I and II regarding sex, age, ethnic, diagnosis, donor type, and conditioning treatment. Both PBM protocols were equally efficient in preventing OM (p = 0.34, ANOVA). Independent of the PBM protocol used, patients who received allogeneic transplant (p < 0.01-Fischer's exact test), total body irradiation (TBI-12Gy) (p = 0.01-chi-square test), busulfan + cyclophosphamide (p < 0.01-chi-square test), or methotrexate-containing regimens (p < 0.01-Fischer's exact test) demonstrated higher OM incidence and severity. Myelosuppression (p < 0.01-Mann-Whitney test) and impaired renal function (p = 0.02-Mann-Whitney test) were also considered risk factors for OM. Based on this retrospective data, PBM was effective in preventing OM in patients undergoing HSCT even when it was applied three times a week. A prospective study might be necessary to confirm

  18. Identifying cell and molecular stress after radiation in a three-dimensional (3-D) model of oral mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambros, Maria Polikandritou, E-mail: mlambros@westernu.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Parsa, Cyrus [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Mulamalla, HariChandana [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Orlando, Robert [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Lau, Bernard [Center for Advancement of Drug Research and Evaluation (CADRE), Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Huang, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Center for Advancement of Drug Research and Evaluation (CADRE), Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Pon, Doreen [Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Chow, Moses [Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Center for Advancement of Drug Research and Evaluation (CADRE), Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} We irradiated a 3-D human oral cell culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts with 12 and 2 Gy. {yields} 6 h after irradiation the histopathology and apoptosis of the 3-D culture were evaluated. Microarrays were used to assess the gene expression in the irradiated 3-D tissue. {yields} 12 Gy induced significant histopathologic changes and cellular apoptosis. {yields} 12 Gy significantly affected genes of the NF-kB pathway, inflammatory cytokines and DAMPs. -- Abstract: Mucositis is a debilitating adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. It is important to develop a simple and reliable in vitro model, which can routinely be used to screen new drugs for prevention and treatment of mucositis. Furthermore, identifying cell and molecular stresses especially in the initiation phase of mucositis in this model will help towards this end. We evaluated a three-dimensional (3-D) human oral cell culture that consisted of oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts as a model of oral mucositis. The 3-D cell culture model was irradiated with 12 or 2 Gy. Six hours after the irradiation we evaluated microscopic sections of the cell culture for evidence of morphologic changes including apoptosis. We used microarrays to compare the expression of several genes from the irradiated tissue with identical genes from tissue that was not irradiated. We found that irradiation with 12 Gy induced significant histopathologic effects including cellular apoptosis. Irradiation significantly affected the expression of several genes of the NF-kB pathway and several inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1B, 1L-8, NF-kB1, and FOS compared to tissue that was not irradiated. We identified significant upregulation of several genes that belong to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as HMB1, S100A13, SA10014, and SA10016 in the 3-D tissues that received 12 Gy but not in tissues that received 2 Gy. In conclusion, this model quantifies radiation damage and this

  19. Mucositis oral: decisiones sobre el cuidado bucal en pacientes sometidos a radioterapia y quimioterapia conforme a la evidencia.

    OpenAIRE

    Tejada Domínguez, FJ.; Ruíz Domínguez, MR.

    2010-01-01

    La finalidad de este estudio fue identificar la evidencia científica existente en la literatura indexada en diferentes bases de datos respecto a las intervenciones preventivas y de tratamiento específico de la mucositis oral inducida por los tratamientos antineoplásicos como son la radioterapia y la quimioterapia. Para conseguir respuestas que clarificaran este problema se realizó una búsqueda en las siguientes bases de datos: Medline-PubMed, Cochrane Library Plus, Cuiden, Scielo, Bibliot...

  20. Combined Oral and Intravenous Immunization Stimulates Strong IgA Responses in Both Systemic and Mucosal Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Zhao, Qing; Gao, Yun-An; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of immunization routes onIgG, IgA and IgM production in systemic and mucosal compartments, we immunized mice with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) via oral, intranasal (i.n.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes alone or combined with the intravenous (i.v.) route. We found that administering antigen intravenously could affect antibody production and formation of antibody secreting cells (ASCs) depending on the immunization route previously used. Combined oral/i.v. immunization but not s.c./i.v. immunization caused a great increase of IgA ASCs in the spleen and enhanced IgA production in the small intestine and serum. Combined i.n./i.v. immunization could also increase IgA ASCs in the spleen and enhance IgA production in serum but had no effect on IgA production in the small intestine. Oral/i.v. immunization caused increase of IgG ASCs in both the spleen and bone marrow. In comparison, combined i.n./i.v. and s.c./i.v. immunization could increase IgG ASCs in the spleen but not in bone marrow. Intravenous administration of KLH in mice that had been immunized via oral, i.n. or s.c. routes caused some increase of IgM ASCs in the spleen but not in bone marrow. In conclusion, combined oral and i.v. administration of an antigen can induce fast and strong immune responses, especially for IgA, in both systemic and mucosal compartments.

  1. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  2. The effect of three mouthwashes on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck malignancies: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study was done to assess the effect of three alcohol-free mouthwashes on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck malignancies. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with head and neck malignancies, scheduled to undergo curative radiotherapy, were randomly assigned to receive one of the three alcohol-free test mouthwashes (0.12% chlorhexidine, 1% povidone-iodine, or salt/soda or a control. The patients were instructed to rinse with 10 ml of the mouthwash, twice a day, for a period of 6 weeks. Mucositis was assessed at baseline and at weekly intervals during radiation therapy, using the World Health Organization criteria for grading of mucositis. The baseline demography of the four groups was matched for age, sex, stage of cancer, and whether the patient had cancer of oral or extraoral regions. A post hoc test for repeated measures was used to find the difference of mean mucositis scores between the groups at various week intervals. Results: Among the 76 patients who completed the study, patients in the povidone-iodine group had significantly lower mucositis scores when compared to the control group from the first week of radiotherapy. Their scores were also significantly lower when compared to the salt/soda and chlorhexidine groups from the fourth and fifth week, respectively, after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that use of alcohol-free povidone-iodine mouthwash can reduce the severity and delay the onset of oral mucositis due to antineoplastic radiotherapy.

  3. Efficacy of Sucralfate Mouth Wash in Prevention of 5-fluorouracil Induced Oral Mucositis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Shahram; Saeedi, Majid; Janbabai, Ghasem; Ganji, Reza; Azhdari, Elham; Shiva, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Sucralfate has been used for the prevention and treatment of radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced stomatitis and mucositis in a number of studies, but the results are contradictory. To answer such discrepancies, the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Patients with gastrointestinal cancers receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy regimens were included in this randomized, blinded, controlled trial and were randomly allocated to either sucralfate mouthwash (every 6 h) or placebo. The patients were visited at fifth and tenth day of trial; the presence and severity of oral mucositis and the intensity of pain were assessed. The patients receiving sucralfate experienced lower frequency and severity of mucositis (76% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.005 and 84 vs. 38.5%, P oral mucositis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies compared with placebo, indicating its efficacy in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  4. The effects of swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia on nutritional status, oral intake and weight loss in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Valentina; Stevanin, Simone; Bianchi, Monica; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-04-01

    Combined-modality treatment of head and neck cancer is becoming more common, driven by the idea that organ(s) preservation should maintain patient appearance and the function of organ(s) involved. Even if treatments have improved, they can still be associated with acute and late adverse effects. The aim of this systematic review was to retrieve current data on how swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, oral mucositis, and xerostomia affect nutritional status, oral intake and weight loss in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. A systematic literature search covered four relevant electronic databases from January 2005 to May 2015. Retrieved papers were categorised and evaluated considering their methodological quality. Two independent reviewers reviewed manuscripts and abstracted data using a standardised form. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the Edwards Method Score. Of the 1459 abstracts reviewed, a total of 25 studies were included. The most studied symptom was dysphagia, even if symptoms were interconnected and affected one other. In most of the selected studies the level of evidence was between 2 and 3, and their quality level was from medium to low. There are limited data about dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia outcomes available for HNC patients. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials and multicenter-prospective cohort studies, therefore further research is needed to ascertain which aspects of these symptoms should be measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary study in a new protocol for the treatment of oral mucositis in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and chemotherapy (CT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Marina Consuelo; Modaffari, Carola; Decembrino, Nunzia; Zhou, Feng Xiao; Zecca, Marco; Defabianis, Patrizia

    2017-08-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating and serious side effect in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and chemotherapy (CT). Laser therapy is becoming a promising treatment option in these patients, avoiding the necessity of enteral/parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser therapy in patients affected by oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy and HSCT. Sixteen onco-hematological pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, affected by oral mucositis, were enrolled in this study. They were divided in two randomized groups: the laser group and the placebo-control group. Patients in the laser group were treated with HPLT (970 ± 15 nm, 3.2 W (50%), 35-6000 Hz, 240 s) for four consecutive days, once a day; and placebo group underwent sham treatment. The assessment of mucositis was recorded through WHO Oral Mucositis Grading Objective Scale, and pain was evaluated through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Patients were monitored and evaluated 3, 7, and 11 days after the first day of laser therapy. Once OM was diagnosed, the patients had mucositis grading assessments before laser or sham application at day 3, 7, and 11 after first application. All patients of laser group demonstrated improvement in pain sensation from day 3 after first application of laser (p < 0.05), ulcerations reduced their dimensions and erythema disappeared. The patients of placebo group had improvement from day 7. In laser group, all mucositis were fully resolved from day 7 (p < 0.05). Oral mucositis negatively impacts on nutritional intake, oral hygiene, and quality of life. Laser therapy appears to be a safe and innovative approach in the management of oral mucositis. In this preliminary study, HPLT encourages to consider laser therapy as a part of onco-hematological protocol, providing to decrease pain and duration of OM induced by CT and HSCT. Further researches will be needed

  6. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brennan, F.R.; Bellaby, T.; Helliwell, S.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone o...

  7. Molecular Characteristics of High-Dose Melphalan Associated Oral Mucositis in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Mette; Bødker, Julie Støve; Christensen, Heidi Søgaard

    2017-01-01

    after therapy, at two days after melphalan treatment, we found gene regulation in the p53 and TNF pathways (MDM2, INPPD5, TIGAR), which favored anti-apoptotic defense, and upregulation of immunoregulatory genes (TREM2, LAMP3) in mucosal dendritic cells. This upregulation was independent of clinical...

  8. Healing Potentials of Oral Moringa Oleifera Leaves Extract and Tetracycline on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Wounds of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyarefe, Oghenemega D; Idowu, Aderayo; Afolabi, Jeremiah M

    2015-12-20

    The effects of oral dose of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and tetracycline antibiotics on cutaneous wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus were studied in eighteen adult wistar rats (159±31.5g) randomized into three groups: Group A, n = 6, Moringa oleifera-(300 mg/kg). Group B, n = 6, tetracycline (9.4 mg/kg) and Group C, n = 6, Sterile water (control). Six millimetres diameter nape wound, created on each rat under 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg) and 5% ketamine (35 mg/kg), was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (108 Colony Forming Unit (CFU). Following infection, treatment was commenced with daily oral dose of test preparations and the wounds were evaluated every other day i.e., day 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 for wetness (wound exudation), wound edge oedema, hyperaemia, granulation tissues and contraction (diameter). Severe wound exudation existed in all the groups between days 0-3 (p = 1.00). A significantly less wound exudation was observed at days 3-5 (p = 0.000) and 5-9 (p = 0.003) (ControlMoringa). Wound edge oedema was significantly less on days 5-9 (p = 0.000) and 9-15 (p = 0.001) (ControlMoringaMoringa Moringa> Tetracycline). Differences in wound diameter was not significant except at days 5-9 (p = 0.013) (Control> Moringa >Tetracycline). Oral doses of Moringa oleifera extract (300mg/kg) and tetracycline (9.4mg/kg) are not effective as antimicrobial or immune-boosting agents to enhance healing of wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus and hence not recommended for rapid clearance of Staphylococcus aureus infected wounds.

  9. Oral Mucositis Prevention By Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouvea de Lima, Aline [Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Villar, Rosangela Correa [Instituto de Radiologia, Servico de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, Gilberto de, E-mail: gilberto.castro@usp.br [Department of Clinical Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Antequera, Reynaldo [Divisao de Odontologia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral [Instituto de Radiologia, Servico de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moises Longo [Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. Methods and Materials: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm{sup 2} or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. Conclusions: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might

  10. Clinical effectiveness of palifermin in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorina Lauritano; Massimo Petruzzi; Dario Di Stasio; Alberta Lucchese

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of palifermin, an N-terminal truncated version of endogenous keratinocyte growth factor, in the control of oral mucositis during antiblastic therapy. Twenty patients undergoing allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were treated with palifermin, and compared to a control group with the same number of subjects and similar inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis were performed to compare the outcomes in the treatment vs. control groups. In the treatment group, we found a statistically significant reduction in the duration of parenteral nutrition (P50.002), duration of mucositis (P50.003) and the average grade of mucositis (P50.03). The statistical analysis showed that the drug was able to decrease the severity of mucositis. These data, although preliminary, suggest that palifermin could be a valid therapeutic adjuvant to improve the quality of life of patients suffering from leukaemia.

  11. Low-energy laser in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis: report of two cases; Laser de baixa intensidade no tratamento da mucosite oral induzida pela radioterapia: relato de casos clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelner, Natalie; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Disciplina de Patologia Oral]. E-mail: nataliekelner@yahoo.com.br

    2007-01-15

    Oral mucositis is a common, dose-limiting, and potentially serious complication of cancer therapy. Severe mucositis can lead to modifications of treatment planning and even suspension of therapy, with a negative impact on local tumor control and patient survival, increasing the risk of local and systemic infections. The lesions generally develop in non-keratinized mucosa, which is most vulnerable to this complication. Symptoms can range from a burning sensation to severe pain that impairs nutrient and fluid intake. Low-energy laser has been proposed for treatment of mucositis, with good clinical and functional results, accelerating the healing process and decreasing the pain. The aim of this article, illustrated by two clinical cases at the Pernambuco Cancer Hospital in Recife, Brazil, was to report on the efficacy of low-energy laser in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis.(author)

  12. Cell population kinetics of collagen scaffolds in ex vivo oral wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agis, Hermann; Collins, Amy; Taut, Andrei D; Jin, Qiming; Kruger, Laura; Görlach, Christoph; Giannobile, William V

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable collagen scaffolds are used clinically for oral soft tissue augmentation to support wound healing. This study sought to provide a novel ex vivo model for analyzing healing kinetics and gene expression of primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) within collagen scaffolds. Sponge type and gel type scaffolds with and without platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF) were assessed in an hGF containing matrix. Morphology was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, and hGF metabolic activity using MTT. We quantitated the population kinetics within the scaffolds based on cell density and distance from the scaffold border of DiI-labled hGFs over a two-week observation period. Gene expression was evaluated with gene array and qPCR. The sponge type scaffolds showed a porous morphology. Absolute cell number and distance was higher in sponge type scaffolds when compared to gel type scaffolds, in particular during the first week of observation. PDGF incorporated scaffolds increased cell numbers, distance, and formazan formation in the MTT assay. Gene expression dynamics revealed the induction of key genes associated with the generation of oral tissue. DKK1, CYR61, CTGF, TGFBR1 levels were increased and integrin ITGA2 levels were decreased in the sponge type scaffolds compared to the gel type scaffold. The results suggest that this novel model of oral wound healing provides insights into population kinetics and gene expression dynamics of biodegradable scaffolds.

  13. Cell population kinetics of collagen scaffolds in ex vivo oral wound repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Agis

    Full Text Available Biodegradable collagen scaffolds are used clinically for oral soft tissue augmentation to support wound healing. This study sought to provide a novel ex vivo model for analyzing healing kinetics and gene expression of primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGF within collagen scaffolds. Sponge type and gel type scaffolds with and without platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF were assessed in an hGF containing matrix. Morphology was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, and hGF metabolic activity using MTT. We quantitated the population kinetics within the scaffolds based on cell density and distance from the scaffold border of DiI-labled hGFs over a two-week observation period. Gene expression was evaluated with gene array and qPCR. The sponge type scaffolds showed a porous morphology. Absolute cell number and distance was higher in sponge type scaffolds when compared to gel type scaffolds, in particular during the first week of observation. PDGF incorporated scaffolds increased cell numbers, distance, and formazan formation in the MTT assay. Gene expression dynamics revealed the induction of key genes associated with the generation of oral tissue. DKK1, CYR61, CTGF, TGFBR1 levels were increased and integrin ITGA2 levels were decreased in the sponge type scaffolds compared to the gel type scaffold. The results suggest that this novel model of oral wound healing provides insights into population kinetics and gene expression dynamics of biodegradable scaffolds.

  14. Molecular Characteristics of High-Dose Melphalan Associated Oral Mucositis in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Gene Expression Study on Human Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Mette; Bødker, Julie Støve; Christensen, Heidi Søgaard; Johansen, Preben; Nielsen, Søren; Christiansen, Ilse; Bergmann, Olav Jonas; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen; Vyberg, Mogens; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity of the oral and gastrointestinal mucosa induced by high-dose melphalan is a clinical challenge with no documented prophylactic interventions or predictive tests. The aim of this study was to describe molecular changes in human oral mucosa and to identify biomarkers correlated with the grade of clinical mucositis. Ten patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were included. For each patient, we acquired three buccal biopsies, one before, one at 2 days, and one at 20 days after high-dose melphalan administration. We also acquired buccal biopsies from 10 healthy individuals that served as controls. We analyzed the biopsies for global gene expression and performed an immunohistochemical analysis to determine HLA-DRB5 expression. We evaluated associations between clinical mucositis and gene expression profiles. Compared to gene expression levels before and 20 days after therapy, at two days after melphalan treatment, we found gene regulation in the p53 and TNF pathways (MDM2, INPPD5, TIGAR), which favored anti-apoptotic defense, and upregulation of immunoregulatory genes (TREM2, LAMP3) in mucosal dendritic cells. This upregulation was independent of clinical mucositis. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 (surface receptors on dendritic cells) were expressed at low levels in all patients with MM, in the subgroup of patients with ulcerative mucositis (UM), and in controls; in contrast, the subgroup with low-grade mucositis (NM) displayed 5-6 fold increases in HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 expression in the first two biopsies, independent of melphalan treatment. Moreover, different splice variants of HLA-DRB1 were expressed in the UM and NM subgroups. Our results revealed that, among patients with MM, immunoregulatory genes and genes involved in defense against apoptosis were affected immediately after melphalan administration, independent of the presence of clinical mucositis. Furthermore, our results suggested that the expression levels of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 may serve as potential

  15. The Impact Of Oral Vitamin E In Preventing Mucositis (Bucal Mucous Inflammation Resulting From The Radiotherapy In Tumors Of Head And Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucositis [bucal Mucous inflamation] is the most common complication resulting from the radiotherapy in tumors of head and neck. These malignancies are often curable through radiotherapy. This complication, however, may impair the treatment process and cause malnutrition. So far no medicine has been Known to prevent this complication. Vitamin E is a stabilizer of cell membrane and is also used in mucositis treatment. The survey of oral vitamin E effect on mucositis prophylaxis in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients afflicted with head and neck malignancies referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital were randomly divided into 2groups, two of whom died during treatment process. The first group (The case group consisting of 34 patients Consumed oral vitamin E 200 mg daily for seven days. The second group (The control group did not use any medicine at all. The two group underwent radiotherapy. They were compared and contrasted as to mucositis severity and dysphagia during treatment. Results: In the first group, since the fourth week up to the end of the treatment, there was a lower frequency and grade of mucositis in contrast with the control group. In the fourth week, the grade two mucositis in the first group (Case group was 20.6% and 47.5% in the control group the difference was statistically significant (P=0.024. There was also a lower frequency and grade of dysphagia in the case group since the fourth week versus the control group. In the fourth week, moderate dysphagia was 29.4% in the case group and 55.9% in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.023. Conclusion: Oral vitamin E has Proved to be effective in the Prophylaxis of Moderate and severe mucositis and dysphagia resulting from radiotherapy. It is advisable to conduct more research with more cases, lengthier duration and heavier doses.

  16. The clinical and microbiological effects of a novel acidified sodium chlorite mouthrinse on oral bacterial mucosal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Naglik, L; Downes, J; Shirlaw, P; Wilson, R; Challacombe, S J; Kemp, G K; Wade, W G

    2001-09-01

    Acidified sodium chlorite mouthrinses have been shown to have equivalent anti-plaque activity to those containing chlorhexidine, the current 'gold standard'. In this study, sodium chlorite mouthrinses (ASC) acidified with either malic or gluconic acids were compared to each other and with a chlorhexidine rinse and sterile water for their effect on salivary bacterial counts. Sixteen subjects participated in the study, which had a cross-over Latin square design. In a second study, a sodium chlorite/gluconic acid rinse was compared with chlorhexidine for its clinical and microbiological effects in 36 patients with oral mucosal infections. The sodium chlorite rinses acidified with malic and gluconic acids and the chlorhexidine rinse caused significant reductions in salivary bacterial counts up to 7 h after a single rinse compared with water. There were no significant differences between the three active treatments. In the mucosal infection study, there was a significant reduction in erythema in the chlorhexidine group compared with the ASC group. Patients who received the ASC rinse reported significantly less discomfort following treatment than those receiving the chlorhexidine rinse. Staphylococcus aureus counts were significantly reduced in the group who received the sodium chlorite rinse. There were no other significant differences between the treatments. ASC appears to be an effective alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse.

  17. Comparison of Gene Expression in Peri-implant Soft Tissue and Oral Mucosal Tissue by Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Yasushi; Sasaki, Hodaka; Mori, Gentaro; Sekine, Hideshi; Yoshinari, Masao; Yajima, Yasutomo

    2015-01-01

    Implant placement entails disruption of the epithelial continuity, which can lead to various complications. Therefore, the area of mucosal penetration is of particular interest clinically. The goal of the present study was to compare gene expression in peri-implant soft tissue (PIST) with that in oral mucosal tissue (OMT) using microarray analysis, and to investigate which genes were specifically expressed in PIST. The bilateral upper first molars were extracted from 4-week-old rats and titanium alloy implants placed only in the left-side extraction sockets. Four weeks after surgery, samples were harvested from the left-side PIST and right-side OMT and total RNA samples isolated. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in PIST and OMT, which was then confirmed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining was also performed to confirm protein level expression. The number of genes expressed with more than a twofold change in PIST compared with OMT was 1,102, of which 750 genes were upregulated and 352 genes were downregulated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of three selected genes-Ceacam1, Ifitm1, and MUC4-were more significantly expressed in PIST than in OMT(P microarray analysis showed that, because of implant placement, 750 genes were upregulated in PIST compared with OMT. CEACAM1, IFITM1, and MUC4 were specifically upregulated in PIST.

  18. Effects of orally ingested Bifidobacterium longum on the mucosal IgA response of mice to dietary antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Nakagawa, E; Nara, T; Yajima, T; Kuwata, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the effects of lactic acid bacteria on the mucosal defence against dietary protein antigens, we compared the mucosal IgA responses to beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) of two groups of mice fed a whey protein diet with and without a culture condensate of Bifidobacterium longum. Both total IgA and anti-beta-LG IgA levels in tissue extracts of the small intestinal wall were significantly higher in mice fed the B. longum diet for 2 weeks than in control ones. Peyer's patch (PP) cells from B. longum-fed mice had a much larger increase in in vitro IgA production than ones from control mice. Furthermore, the in vitro IgA response to beta-LG was detected only when PP cells from B. longum-fed mice were assayed. These results suggest that orally ingested lactic acid bacteria may protect a host from invasion of the intestinal mucosa by dietary antigens that have escaped enzymatic digestion in the intestine.

  19. Significant mucosal sIgA production after a single oral or parenteral administration using in vivo CD40 targeting in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Ko; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Vuong, Christine N; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Mwangi, Waithaka; Bielke, Lisa R; Hargis, Billy M; Berghman, Luc R

    2016-10-01

    Many pathogens enter the host through mucosal surfaces and spread rapidly via the circulation. The most effective way to prevent disease is to establish mucosal and systemic immunity against the pathogen. However, current vaccination programs in poultry industry require repeated administrations of live-attenuated virus or large amounts (10 to 100μg) of antigen together with adjuvant to induce specific secretory IgA immune responses at the mucosal effector sites. In the present study, we show that a single administration of 0.4μg of oligopeptide complexed with an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 (chCD40) monoclonal antibody (Mab) effectively targets antigen-presenting cells of the bird's mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in vivo, and induces peptide-specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in the trachea 7days post administration. Anti-chCD40 Mab-peptide complex was administered once to four-week old male Leghorns via various mucosal routes (orally, via cloacal drinking, or oculo-nasally) or via subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization. Immunization through any of the three mucosal induction routes induced significant peptide-specific mucosal sIgA responses 7 and 14days after immunization. Interestingly, s.c. injection of the complex also induced mucosal sIgA. Our data suggest in vivo targeting of CD40 as a potential adjuvant platform, particularly for the purpose of enhancing and speeding up mucosal vaccine responses in chickens, and potentially other food animals. This is the first study able to elicit specific sIgA immune responses in remote mucosal sites with a single administration of only 0.4μg of antigen.

  20. Oral Administration of Linoleic Acid Induces New Vessel Formation and Improves Skin Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Hosana G.; Vinolo, Marco A. R.; Sato, Fabio T.; Magdalon, Juliana; Kuhl, Carolina M. C.; Yamagata, Ana S.; Pessoa, Ana Flávia M.; Malheiros, Gabriella; dos Santos, Marinilce F.; Lima, Camila; Farsky, Sandra H.; Camara, Niels O. S.; Williner, Maria R.; Bernal, Claudio A.; Calder, Philip C.; Curi, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Impaired wound healing has been widely reported in diabetes. Linoleic acid (LA) accelerates the skin wound healing process in non-diabetic rats. However, LA has not been tested in diabetic animals. Objectives We investigated whether oral administration of pure LA improves wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods Dorsal wounds were induced in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats treated or not with LA (0.22 g/kg b.w.) for 10 days. Wound closure was daily assessed for two weeks. Wound tissues were collected at specific time-points and used to measure fatty acid composition, and contents of cytokines, growth factors and eicosanoids. Histological and qPCR analyses were employed to examine the dynamics of cell migration during the healing process. Results LA reduced the wound area 14 days after wound induction. LA also increased the concentrations of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (CINC-2αβ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and reduced the expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1). These results together with the histological analysis, which showed accumulation of leukocytes in the wound early in the healing process, indicate that LA brought forward the inflammatory phase and improved wound healing in diabetic rats. Angiogenesis was induced by LA through elevation in tissue content of key mediators of this process: vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT-2). Conclusions Oral administration of LA hastened wound closure in diabetic rats by improving the inflammatory phase and angiogenesis. PMID:27764229

  1. Mucoadhesive fenretinide patches for site-specific chemoprevention of oral cancer: enhancement of oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by coincorporation of propylene glycol and menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H; Mallery, Susan R; Holpuch, Andrew S; Phelps, Maynard P; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2012-04-02

    The objective of this study was to enhance oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by coincorporation of propylene glycol (PG) and menthol in fenretinide/Eudragit RL PO mucoadhesive patches. Fenretinide is an extremely hydrophobic chemopreventive compound with poor tissue permeability. Coincorporation of 5-10 wt % PG (mean J(s) = 16-23 μg cm⁻² h⁻¹; 158-171 μg of fenretinide/g of tissue) or 1-10 wt % PG + 5 wt % menthol (mean J(s) = 18-40 μg cm⁻² h⁻¹; 172-241 μg of fenretinide/g of tissue) in fenretinide/Eudragit RL PO patches led to significant ex vivo fenretinide permeation enhancement (p < 0.001). Addition of PG above 2.5 wt % in the patch resulted in significant cellular swelling in the buccal mucosal tissues. These alterations were ameliorated by combining both enhancers and reducing PG level. After buccal administration of patches in rabbits, in vivo permeation of fenretinide across the oral mucosa was greater (∼43 μg fenretinide/g tissue) from patches that contained optimized permeation enhancer content (2.5 wt % PG + 5 wt % menthol) relative to permeation obtained from enhancer-free patch (∼17 μg fenretinide/g tissue) (p < 0.001). In vitro and in vivo release of fenretinide from patch was not significantly increased by coincorporation of permeation enhancers, indicating that mass transfer across the tissue, and not the patch, largely determined the permeation rate control in vivo. As a result of its improved permeation and its lack of deleterious local effects, the mucoadhesive fenretinide patch coincorporated with 2.5 wt % PG + 5 wt % menthol represents an important step in the further preclinical evaluation of oral site-specific chemoprevention strategies with fenretinide.

  2. Effective vitamin B12 treatment can reduce serum antigastric parietal cell antibody titer in patients with oral mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Andy; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Wang, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2016-10-01

    Patients with serum antigastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA) positivity may have vitamin B12 deficiency and some oral symptoms. This study assessed the changes of serum GPCA titer in GPCA-positive patients after effective vitamin B12 treatment. Two hundred and ten GPCA-positive oral mucosal disease patients became oral symptom free (complete response) after 1.0-67.1 months of treatment with regular and continuous intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 once per week. The changes of serum GPCA titers after treatment were evaluated in these 210 patients. We found a significant drop of the GPCA positive rate from 100% to 42.9% in our 210 complete response patients after effective vitamin B12 treatment (p vitamin BC capsules (containing 10 μg of vitamin B12) plus deficient hematinic supplements per day after a follow-up period of 2.7-27 months. A maintenance vitamin B12 treatment once a month could retain the GPCA-negative status in 87% of treated-to GPCA-negative patients compared with those (10%) without further maintenance vitamin B12 treatment. Regular and continuous effective vitamin B12 treatment can reduce the relatively higher serum GPCA titers to significantly lower or undetectable levels in GPCA-positive patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The utility of toluidine blue staining and brush cytology as adjuncts in clinical examination of suspicious oral mucosal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneri, P; Epstein, J B; Kaya, A; Veral, A; Kazandı, A; Boyacioglu, H

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of toluidine blue and brush cytology in patients with clinically detected oral mucosal lesions. Clinical examination of 35 patients was completed before toluidine blue application, oral brush cytology and scalpel biopsy. Lesions were photographed before and after stain application; followed by brush cytology. All findings were compared with histopathologic results. Severe dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ were determined as 'positive'; no dysplasia and mild to moderate dysplasia were defined as 'negative'. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical examination and toluidine blue were the same: 0.923, 0.433, 0.414, and 0.929, respectively. Those of brush cytology were 0.923, 0.517, 0.462, and 0.938. The concordance of all methods was 30% for benign and 61% for malignant lesions. Adjuncts identified 92% of carcinoma-in-situ and squamous cell carcinoma as confirmed by histopathology, in contrast to clinical findings alone in which 62% of these lesions were identified (p=0.046). In conclusion, adjunct diagnostic methods decreased the level of uncertainty for the diagnosis of oral malignancies and lichenoid dysplasias when applied as adjuncts to clinical examination.

  4. Structural specificity of mucosal-cell transport and metabolism of peptide drugs: implication for oral peptide drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J. P.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The brush border membrane of intestinal mucosal cells contains a peptide carrier system with rather broad substrate specificity and various endo- and exopeptidase activities. Small peptide (di-/tripeptide)-type drugs with or without an N-terminal alpha-amino group, including beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, are transported by the peptide transporter. Polypeptide drugs are hydrolyzed by brush border membrane proteolytic enzymes to di-/tripeptides and amino acids. Therefore, while the intestinal brush border membrane has a carrier system facilitating the absorption of di-/tripeptide drugs, it is a major barrier limiting oral availability of polypeptide drugs. In this paper, the specificity of peptide transport and metabolism in the intestinal brush border membrane is reviewed.

  5. Structural specificity of mucosal-cell transport and metabolism of peptide drugs: implication for oral peptide drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J. P.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The brush border membrane of intestinal mucosal cells contains a peptide carrier system with rather broad substrate specificity and various endo- and exopeptidase activities. Small peptide (di-/tripeptide)-type drugs with or without an N-terminal alpha-amino group, including beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, are transported by the peptide transporter. Polypeptide drugs are hydrolyzed by brush border membrane proteolytic enzymes to di-/tripeptides and amino acids. Therefore, while the intestinal brush border membrane has a carrier system facilitating the absorption of di-/tripeptide drugs, it is a major barrier limiting oral availability of polypeptide drugs. In this paper, the specificity of peptide transport and metabolism in the intestinal brush border membrane is reviewed.

  6. [Injury and reparative regeneration of the oral mucosal epithelium after cytostatic drugs administration (tissue, cell and molecular mechanisms)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, V L; Leont'eva, I V

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the systematized summary of current literature data and the authors' own findings on the regularities of human and animal surface oral mucosal epithelium (OME) injury caused by cytostatic drugs (CSD) administration, and on the ways of its regeneration after the cytostatic chemotherapy (CSCT) discontinuation. Tissue, cell and molecular mechanisms of CSCT effects on OME, are described. The direct effects of CSD included the epithelial layer attenuation with the derangement of its architecture, epitheliocyte proliferation suppression, apoptosis activation, and differentiation disturbances (involving the broad spectrum of cytological, cytochemical, ultrastructural and molecular-biological changes). In severe cases, these processes resulted in the loss of the epithelial layer integrity with the development of ulceration. Complete epithelial regeneration requires a long period after the CSCT discontinuation. Indirect effects of CSD on OME are associated with the microbial invasion and the diffusion of microbial vital activity products into the epithelium with concurrent leukopenia, immunosuppression and decreased salivary secretion.

  7. GWAS of 972 autologous stem cell recipients with multiple myeloma identifies 11 genetic variants associated with chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Lee, Jeannette Y; Erickson, Stephen W;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) to treat multiple myeloma (MM) and other cancers carries the risk of oral mucositis (OM) with sequelae including impaired nutritional and fluid intake, pain, and infectious complications. As a result of these problems, can...

  8. Oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Bergmann, Olav Jonas

    2008-01-01

    (n = 7, 16%). Five patients (11%) were diagnosed with oral candidosis. Scores of dental bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation increased during CT and the oral microbial composition changed towards a more acidophilic flora. Taste disturbances were experienced by 84% (n = 38) of the patients...

  9. [Efficacy of oral cavity care in preventing stomatitis (mucositis) in cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshino, Miki; Sakai, Chie; Ogura, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Akiko; Fukuzato, Fumiko; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    Stomatitis is a common side effect during cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that careful oral cavity care using patient guidance and cleanliness index prevents stomatitis in cancer chemotherapy. We introduced oral care patient guidance including teaching good brushing methods, O'Leary's Plaque Control Record(PCR)as a cleanliness index, and Eilers' Oral Assessment Guide(OAG)as an overall index after April 2006. We evaluated the incidence of stomatitis in 20 patients(10 patients between April 2004 to May 2006 and 10 patients after April 2006)with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy including 5-FU and CDDP. Patients receiving brushing training after 2006 were evaluated regarding cleanliness of their oral cavities using PCR index and OAG index. The rates of stomatitis were 60%(6/10)and 40%(4/10)before and after the introduction of oral care patient guidance. The average of PCR index decreased from 82% to 46% after teaching good brushing method to the patients. The average of OAG index after brushing training was 9.14 which was better score compared with previous reports. Introduction of oral care patient guidance decreased the incidence of stomatitis. Both PCR and OAG indexes were useful in evaluating the objective condition of the oral cavity and in sharing patients' information among a medical team. These indexes encouraged the patients to clean their oral cavities.

  10. Efficacy of Oral Cryotherapy on Oral Mucositis Prevention in Patients with Hematological Malignancies Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ruiren; Zhao, Shasha; Luo, Lan; Li, Dandan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Wei, Huaping; Pang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Lili; Liu, Daihong; Wang, Quanshun; Gao, Chunji

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Controversy exists regarding whether oral cryotherapy can prevent oral mucositis (OM) in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy for OM prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing HSCT. Methods PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched through October 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of oral cryotherapy with no treatment or with other interventions for OM in patients undergoing HSCT were included. The primary outcomes were the incidence, severity, and duration of OM. The secondary outcomes included length of analgesic use, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, and length of hospital stay. Results Seven RCTs involving eight articles analyzing 458 patients were included. Oral cryotherapy significantly decreased the incidence of severe OM (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.99) and OM severity (SMD = -2.07, 95% CI = -3.90 to -0.25). In addition, the duration of TPN use and the length of hospitalization were markedly reduced (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI = -0.92 to -0.19; SMD = -0.44, 95% CI = -0.76 to -0.13; respectively). However, the pooled results were uncertain for the duration of OM and analgesic use (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI = -0.41 to 0.15; SMD = -1.15, 95% CI = -2.57 to 0.27; respectively). Conclusions Oral cryotherapy is a readily applicable and cost-effective prophylaxis for OM in patients undergoing HSCT. PMID:26024220

  11. Efficacy of oral cryotherapy on oral mucositis prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding whether oral cryotherapy can prevent oral mucositis (OM in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy for OM prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing HSCT.PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched through October 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing the effect of oral cryotherapy with no treatment or with other interventions for OM in patients undergoing HSCT were included. The primary outcomes were the incidence, severity, and duration of OM. The secondary outcomes included length of analgesic use, total parenteral nutrition (TPN use, and length of hospital stay.Seven RCTs involving eight articles analyzing 458 patients were included. Oral cryotherapy significantly decreased the incidence of severe OM (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.99 and OM severity (SMD = -2.07, 95% CI = -3.90 to -0.25. In addition, the duration of TPN use and the length of hospitalization were markedly reduced (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI = -0.92 to -0.19; SMD = -0.44, 95% CI = -0.76 to -0.13; respectively. However, the pooled results were uncertain for the duration of OM and analgesic use (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI = -0.41 to 0.15; SMD = -1.15, 95% CI = -2.57 to 0.27; respectively.Oral cryotherapy is a readily applicable and cost-effective prophylaxis for OM in patients undergoing HSCT.

  12. Low-level laser therapy in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and oral mucositis; Prevencao da xerostomia e da musosite oral induzidas por radioterapia com uso do laser de baixa potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos de Oliveira [Instituto de Radioterapia do Vale do Paraiba Ltda., Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: colopes@uol.com.br; Mas, Josepa Rigau I. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Facultat Medicine i la Ciencies Salut; Zangaro, Renato Amaro [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2006-03-15

    Objective: to verify if the use of InGaAIP laser with 685 nm wave length can reduce the xerostomy incidence, the oral mucositis severity and the pain related to mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiotherapy. Objective: sixty patients presenting head and neck carcinoma were submitted to radiotherapy with daily doses of 1.8 to 2.0 Gy and a final dose of 45 to 72 Gy. The salivary volume was evaluated in the first and fifteenth days, at the end of the treatment and after 15 and 30 days. The oral mucositis was evaluated on a weekly basis. Twenty-nine patients were submitted to radiotherapy without laser and 31 were submitted to radiotherapy and laser with daily doses of 2 joules/cm{sup 2} in predetermined areas of the oral mucosa and the parotid and submandibular glands. Results: in the group submitted to radiotherapy and laser the incidence of mucositis (p < 0.001) and pain (p < 0.016) was significantly lower and the salivary volume (p < 0.001) was kept higher during and after the treatment. Conclusion: the group of patients submitted to radiotherapy and laser had lower incidence of xerostomy, oral mucositis and pain when compared to the group treated with radiotherapy without laser, producing statistically significant results. (author)

  13. Development and preclinical evaluation of acellular collagen scaffolding and autologous artificial connective tissue in the regeneration of oral mucosa wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Lady; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2010-05-01

    This work assessed wound healing response in rabbit oral lesions grafted with autologous artificial connective tissue or acellular collagen scaffolds. Autologous artificial oral connective tissue (AACT) was produced using rabbit fibroblasts and collagen I scaffolds. Before implantation, AACT grafts were assayed to demonstrate the presence of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix components, as well as the expression of characteristic genes and secretion of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors. AACT grafts were tested in the rabbits from which the fibroblasts were obtained, whereas acellular collagen type I scaffolds (CS) were evaluated in a separate group of rabbits. In both cases, contralateral wounds closed by secondary intention were used as controls. In a separate experiment, AACT-grafted wounds were directly compared with contralateral CS-grafted wounds in the same animals. Wound contraction and histological parameters were examined to evaluate closure differences between the treatments in the three animal experiments performed. Contraction of wounds grafted with AACT and CS was significantly lower than in their controls (p oral mucosa.

  14. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats.

  15. Oral mucosal lesions and HIV viral load in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, D; Komaroff, E; Redford, M; Phelan, J A; Navazesh, M; Alves, M E; Kamrath, H; Mulligan, R; Barr, C E; Greenspan, J S

    2000-09-01

    The prevalence of oral lesions was assessed in a five-center subset of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and correlated with other features of HIV disease. Oral examinations were performed by dental examiners on 729 women (577 HIV-positive and 152 HIV-negative) during baseline examination. Significant differences between the groups were found for the following oral lesions: pseudomembranous candidiasis, 6.1% and 2.0%, respectively; erythematous candidiasis, 6.41% and 0.7%, respectively; all oral candidiasis, pseudomembranous and/or erythematous, 13.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Hairy leukoplakia was observed in 6.1% of HIV-positive women. No significant differences were found for recurrent aphthous ulcers, herpes simplex lesions, or papillomas. Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 0.5% of HIV-positive and 0% of HIV-negative women. Using multiple logistic regression models controlling for use of antiretrovirals and antifungals, in HIV-positive women the presence of oral candidiasis was associated with a CD4 count <200 cells/microl, cigarette smoking, and heroin/methadone use; the presence of hairy leukoplakia was not related to CD4 count but was associated with high viral load. Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia are confirmed as being common features of HIV infection in women and appear to be associated with HIV viral load, immunosuppression, and various other behaviorally determined variables.

  16. 社区常见口腔黏膜疾病的诊治%Diagnose and treatment of the community common oral mucosal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯靳秋

    2012-01-01

      The oral mucosal disease is a general term that the diseases occur on the oral mucosa and its soft tissue, which are related with the immune function, diet and living habits, genetic and mental factors and others. This article elaborates the causes of aphthous, lichen planus and leukoplakia, the clinical manifestation and treatment of the oral mucosal disease in detail.%  口腔黏膜病是指发生在口腔黏膜及软组织上的疾病总称,与免疫功能、饮食生活习惯、遗传因素、精神因素等相关。本文对口腔黏膜病中常见的阿弗他溃疡、扁平苔藓、白斑的病因、临床表现和治疗进行了详细的阐述。

  17. Evaluation of ploidy status using DNA-image cytometry of exfoliated mucosal cells in oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Teja Chitturi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP is one of the potentially malignant disorders (PMDs with a malignancy rate of 0.2-2%. Aneuploidy is considered to be one of the important markers for malignant transformation and DNA-image cytometry (DIC has been successfully employed in oral mucosal PMDs and also in tumors of the cervix, lung and biliary tract. Aims: In this study, we intend to assess the ploidy status of exfoliated cells in OLP using DIC. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated cells from 48 patients with different subtypes of OLP (reticular, plaque type, erosive and atrophic and 10 controls were stained using Feulgen reaction and assessed for integrated optical density using image analysis software and the ploidy status was assessed. Results: All the patients in the control group and most of the patients (93.5% who had reticular or plaque type of OLP (29 out of 31 exhibited diploid nuclei in the smears, whereas 11 patients who had erosive or atrophic types of OLP showed aneuploid nuclei. Conclusions: The patients with erosive or atrophic types of OLP are at more risk and assessment of ploidy status by exfoliative cytology can be used as an adjuvant for diagnosis.

  18. Tetanus toxoid-loaded layer-by-layer nanoassemblies for efficient systemic, mucosal, and cellular immunostimulatory response following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Harshad; Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Jain, Sanyog

    2015-10-01

    The present study reports the tetanus toxoid (TT)-loaded layer-by-layer nanoassemblies (layersomes) with enhanced protection, permeation, and presentation for comprehensive oral immunization. The stable and lyophilized TT-loaded layersomes were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by alternate layer-by-layer coating of an electrolyte. The developed system was assessed for in vitro stability of antigen and formulation, cellular uptake, ex vivo intestinal uptake, and immunostimulatory response using a suitable experimental protocol. Layersomes improved the stability in simulated biological media as well as protected the integrity/conformation and native 3D structure of TT as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The cell culture studies demonstrated a 3.8-fold higher permeation of layersomes in Caco-2 cells and an 8.5-fold higher uptake by antigen-presenting cells (RAW 264.7). The TT-loaded layersomes elicited a complete immunostimulatory profile consisting of higher systemic (serum IgG titer), mucosal (sIgA titer), and cellular (interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels) immune response after peroral administration in mice. The modified TT inhibition assay further confirmed the elicitation of complete protective levels of anti-TT antibody (>0.1 IU/mL) by layersomes. In conclusion, the proposed strategy is expected to contribute significantly in the field of stable liposome technology for mass immunization through the oral route.

  19. ONCOLOGICAL PATIENTS AND THE NURSING FIELD: RATION BETWEEN THE ORAL MUCOSITIS GRADE AND THE IMPLEMENTED THERAPEUTIC

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    Sarah Nilkece Araújo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar a mucosite oral em pacientes em tratamento oncológico. Métodos: Estudo exploratório descritivo com abordagem quantitativa com 50 pacientes em um Hospital Filantrópico em Teresina-PI, de agosto a outubro de 2010. Resultados: Os achados apontaram a prevalência de mucosite oral no gênero masculino e nas faixas etárias inferiores a 17 e superiores a 60 anos. Os diagnósticos oncológicos mais freqüentes foram as leucemias e os cânceres das vias aerodigestivas superiores, cujos tratamentos se concentravam na quimiorradiação, determinando predominantemente graus 1 e 2 de mucosite oral. Os quimioterápicos mais associados à afecção foram a cisplatina, a citarabina, o metotrexate, sulfato de vincristina, etoposídeo e cloridrato de doxorrubicina. Conclusão: Conclui-se que há necessidade da inserção da enfermagem no fomento às ações preventivas e de controle da mucosite oral para manutenção do bem estar, otimização da resposta terapêutica e melhoria da qualidade de vida do paciente oncológico. DESCRITORES: Mucosite oral, Oncologia, Enfermagem.

  20. Oral Immunization with a Recombinant Lactococcus lactis-Expressing HIV-1 Antigen on Group A Streptococcus Pilus Induces Strong Mucosal Immunity in the Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Jones, Andrew; Quigley, Bernard R; Scott, June R; Amara, Rama Rao

    2015-11-15

    The induction of a potent humoral and cellular immune response in mucosal tissue is important for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Most of the current HIV vaccines under development use the i.m. route for immunization, which is relatively poor in generating potent and long-lived mucosal immune responses. In this article, we explore the ability of an oral vaccination with a probiotic organism, Lactococcus lactis, to elicit HIV-specific immune responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments of BALB/c mice. We expressed the HIV-1 Gag-p24 on the tip of the T3 pilus of Streptococcus pyogenes as a fusion to the Cpa protein (LL-Gag). After four monthly LL-Gag oral immunizations, we observed strong Gag-specific IgG and IgA responses in serum, feces, and vaginal secretions. However, the Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses in the blood were at or below our detection limit. After an i.m. modified vaccinia Ankara/Gag boost, we observed robust Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses both in systemic and in mucosal tissues, including intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes of the small intestine, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Consistent with strong immunogenicity, the LL-Gag induced activation of CD11c(+) CD11b(+) dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches after oral immunization. Our results demonstrate that oral immunization with L. lactis expressing an Ag on the tip of the group A Streptococcus pilus serves as an excellent vaccine platform to induce strong mucosal humoral and cellular immunity against HIV.

  1. Laser phototherapy as topical prophylaxis against head and neck cancer radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: comparison between low and high/low power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Alyne; Eduardo, Fernanda P; Luiz, Ana Claudia; Campos, Luana; Sá, Pedro Henrique R N; Cristófaro, Márcio; Marques, Márcia M; Eduardo, Carlos P

    2009-04-01

    Oral mucositis is a dose-limiting and painful side effect of radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy in cancer patients. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of different protocols of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the grade of mucositis and degree of pain in patients under RT. Thirty-nine patients were divided into three groups: G1, where the irradiations were done three times a week using low power laser; G2, where combined high and low power lasers were used three time a week; and G3, where patients received low power laser irradiation once a week. The low power LPT was done using an InGaAlP laser (660 nm/40 mW/6 J cm(-2)/0.24 J per point). In the combined protocol, the high power LPT was done using a GaAlAs laser (808 nm, 1 W/cm(2)). Oral mucositis was assessed at each LPT session in accordance to the oral-mucositis scale of the National Institute of the Cancer-Common Toxicity criteria (NIC-CTC). The patient self-assessed pain was measured by means of the visual analogue scale. All protocols of LPT led to the maintenance of oral mucositis scores in the same levels until the last RT session. Moreover, LPT three times a week also maintained the pain levels. However, the patients submitted to the once a week LPT had significant pain increase; and the association of low/high LPT led to increased healing time. These findings are desired when dealing with oncologic patients under RT avoiding unplanned radiation treatment breaks and additional hospital costs.

  2. Systematic review of miscellaneous agents for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Jarvis, Virginia; Zadik, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    : A total of 32 papers across 10 interventions were examined. New suggestions were developed against the use of systemic pilocarpine administered orally for prevention of OM during RT in head and neck cancer patients and in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy, with or without total body irradiation......, prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A suggestion was also made against the use of systemic pentoxifylline administered orally for the prevention of OM in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. No guideline was possible for any other agent reviewed due to inadequate and...

  3. Altered β-catenin expression in oral mucosal dysplasia: a comparative study

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    Brunno Santos de Freitas SILVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the β-catenin expression in oral leukoplakia (OL with different degrees of epithelial dysplasia and normal oral mucosa.Material and Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 39 OL (mild dysplasia n=19, moderate dysplasia n=13, and severe dysplasia n=7, and 10 normal oral mucosa (control group were submitted to immunohistochemical reactions to anti-β-catenin primary antibody. A qualitative β-catenin analysis was performed based on the percentage of positive cells. The cellular location and the epithelial layer were also considered. The Chi-square test and the Fisher’s exact test were used to verify possible differences in the β-catenin expression among the OL groups. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Membranous expression of β-catenin in parabasal and basal layers was gradually lost in the higher degrees of epithelial dysplasia. In normal oral mucosa, β-catenin was detected only in the cytoplasmic membrane. However, a significant increase in cytoplasmic β-catenin could be observed between mild and moderate dysplasia (Fisher Exact test - p<0.001 and between mild and severe dysplasia (p<0.001.Conclusions The β-catenin cytoplasmic expression observed in this study may represent the initial stage of modifications in the E-cadherin-catenin complex, along with morphological cellular changes.

  4. Clinicopathologic Correlation of White, Non scrapable Oral Mucosal Surface Lesions: A Study of 100 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidullah, Mohammed; Raghunath, Vandana; Karpe, Tanveer; Akifuddin, Syed; Imran, Shahid; Dhurjati, Venkata Naga Nalini; Aleem, Mohammed Ahtesham; Khatoon, Farheen

    2016-02-01

    White, non scrapable lesions are commonly seen in the oral cavity. Based on their history and clinical appearance, most of these lesions can be easily diagnosed, but sometimes diagnosis may go wrong. In order to arrive to a confirmative diagnosis, histopathological assessment is needed in many cases, if not all. 1) To find out the prevalence of clinically diagnosed oral white, non scrapable lesions. 2) To find out the prevalence of histopathologically diagnosed oral white, non scrapable lesions. 3) To correlate the clinical and histopathological diagnosis in the above lesions. A total of 100 cases of oral white, non scrapable lesions were included in the study. Based on their history and clinical presentation, clinical provisional diagnosis was made. Then biopsy was done and confirmatory histopathological diagnosis was given and both were correlated. In order to correlate clinical and histopathological diagnosis Discrepancy Index (DI) was calculated for all the cases. Based on clinical diagnosis, there were 59 cases (59%) of leukoplakia, 29 cases (29%) of lichen planus and six cases (6%) of lichenoid reaction; whereas, based on histopathological diagnosis, there were 66 cases (66%) of leukoplakia epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis (leukoplakia) and 30 cases (30%) of lichen planus. Seventy eight clinically diagnosed cases (78%) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis and 22 cases (22%) did not correlate. The total discrepancy index was 22%. A clinician needs to be aware of oral white, non scrapable lesions. Due to the overlapping of many clinical features in some of these lesions and also due to their malignant potential, a histopathological confirmative diagnosis is recommended.

  5. Research status quo of oral cavity cold therapy to prevent oral cavity mucositis caused by chemotherapy%口腔冷疗预防放化疗所致口腔黏膜炎研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆茵; 徐桂华; 金胜姬

    2011-01-01

    综述了口腔冷疗预防放化疗所致口腔黏膜炎研究现状,指出应对口腔冷疗方法、时间及应用范围进行进一步深入分析,以更好地发挥口腔冷疗对放化疗所致口腔黏膜炎的预防作用.%It summarized the research status quo of oral cavity cold therapy to prevent oral cavity mucositis of patients caused by chemotherapy.And it pointed out that method, time and application of oral cavity cold therapy should be further analyzed so as to play a preventive role better in oral cavity mucositis caused by chemotherapy.

  6. ٍEvaluating Baremoom Mouthwash Efficacy in Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

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    MH Akhavan Karbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is regarded as a painful and discomforting chemotherapy complication , affecting patient’s quality of life and endurance to continue the treatment. Hence, treatment of mucositis is of great significance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Baremoom mouthwash in treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis . Methods: This interventional double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was performed on 40 adult patients under chemotherapy in blood and oncology department of Shahid Sadouqhi hospital. The total of 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental baremoom group and a control placebo group each containing 20 subjects. Baremoom mouthwash (30% extract, Soren Tektoos, Mashhad and placebo mouthwash ( Sterile water with allowable additives ,Soren Tektoos, Mashhad with same apparent properties were given to the patients (3 times a day for 7 days after mucositis detection. The patients were evaluated in regard with mucositis grade (0-4 WHO and wounds extension on 1th , 3th and 7th days after the study begining. In order to statistically analyze the collected data, Freidman, Mann–Whitney, and wilcoxon W tests were applied utilizing SPSS software (ver, 17. Results: On 3rd  and 7th  days, mean degree of wound extension and mucositis were demonstrated to be significantly different between the two groups. According to Friedman test, both experimental and control groups revealed a significant difference in regard with wound extension and mucositis grade within the three time periods. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that Baremoom mouthwash was more effective in chemotherapy- induced mucositis than placebo. Hence, this agent can be recommended as an appropriate medicine in order to eliminate mucositis symtoms and decrease oral ulcers.

  7. Increased cytogenetic abnormalities in exfoliated oral mucosal cells of South Indian foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, Saranya Ramalingam; Sellappa, Sudha

    2015-02-01

    Biomonitoring offers a valuable tool to estimate the genetic risk as of exposure to genotoxic agents. Here, we intend to assess the potential cytogenetic damage related with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by evaluating the genetic damages in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of foundry workers via counting micronucleus (MNs) and other nuclear abnormalities (NAs). This was a cross-sectional study and all study subjects were male . Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were obtained from 100 subjects involved in either foundry molding or melting processes, and 100 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking from the area of Coimbatore city, Southern India. For each individual, 2000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. Significantly, there was a higher frequency of MN in the exposed workers than in the controls (P Smoking was associated with the increased frequencies of micronuclei and NAs in the buccal epithelium of both the control and the exposed groups. Smoking represented significant factors in terms of increasing the production of MN when the control and the exposed groups were compared (P periodical biological monitoring and proper care which is essential for them.

  8. 口腔黏膜病临床特点及解决对策研究%The clinical features of oral mucosal disease and Countermeasures Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永莲

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究口腔黏膜病的临床特点及解决对策。方法选取2014年4月~2015年4月我院收治的口腔粘膜病患者2640例,分析口腔黏膜病的临床特点、发病趋势及相应的解决对策。结果随着年龄的增长,口腔黏膜病发生率出现上升趋势,多发老年患者;口腔黏膜发病因素相对较多,主要有扁平苔藓类、溃疡类、口炎类等。结论福建地区口腔黏膜病发生率较高,疾病类型相对较多,应加强患者护理干预和宣传教育,降低口腔黏膜疾病发生率。%ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features of oral mucosal diseases and Solutions. Methods2640 cases of patient data from April 2014 to April 2015 in our hospital were analyzed, analysis of the clinical features of oral mucosal disease incidence trends and corresponding solutions.Results2640 cases of patients with mucosal statistical analysis see: As age, mucosal disease occurs upward trend, and the highest incidence in the elderly; oral relatively more vulnerable to disease, the top three were : Flat mosses, ulcers, stomatitis, etc.ConclusionThe incidence of oral disease in Fujian higher, and the type of disease is relatively large, should strengthen patient care interventions and public education to reduce the incidence of oral disease.

  9. The impact of oral herpes simplex virus infection and candidiasis on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis among patients with hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-K; Hou, H-A; Chow, J-M; Chen, Y-C; Hsueh, P-R; Tien, H-F

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of oral candidiasis and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM). The medical records of 424 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who had received chemotherapy at a medical center in Taiwan from January 2006 to November 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The results of swab cultures of fungus and HSV-1 for OM were correlated with associated clinical features. Younger age, myeloid malignancies, and disease status other than complete remission before chemotherapy were significantly correlated with the development of OM. Risks of fever (p < 0.001) and bacteremia were higher in patients with OM. Among 467 episodes of OM with both swab cultures available, 221 were non-infection (47.3%) and 246 were related to either fungal infections, HSV-1 infections, or both (52.7%); of the 246 episodes, 102 were associated with fungal infections alone (21.8%), 98 with HSV-1 infections alone (21%), and 46 with both infections (9.9%). Patients who had received antifungal agents prior to OM occurrence tended to have HSV-1 infection (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that Candida albicans and HSV-1 play an important role in chemotherapy-induced OM in patients with hematological malignancies.

  10. Effects of LEDs on oral mucositis prevention in a patient with classic Hodgkin's lymphoma - a case report; Utilizacao de LEDs na prevencao de mucosite oral em paciente com linfoma de Hodgkin classico - estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicudo, Leticia Lang

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this case report was to evaluate the efficacy of therapy using LEDs (light-emitting diodes), at a wavelength of 880 nm, in the prevention of oral mucositis in a patient with Hodgkin's disease treated with ABVD regimen. Mucositis is a dose limiting complication of cancer treatment, of high incidence, which severity can lead to alterations of treatment planning or even to suspension of cancer therapy, with serious consequences in tumor response and even survival. Lesions develop most commonly on the nonkeratinized mucosa and present symptoms that begin like mild burning and evolve to severe pain. For this reason, low power laser and, recently, LEDs have been considered for preventing and management of oral mucositis, with great results. In this study, a 34-year-old male received intraoral irradiations with an infrared LEDs array (3,6 J/cm{sup 2}, 74 mW), for five consecutive days, starting on the day of chemotherapy. In each chemotherapy cycle, he received ABVD protocol on day 1 and day 15, and received LEDs treatment during five days on each ABVD infusion. To analyze results, the WHO (World Health Organization) scale was used for grading of mucositis and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) for pain evaluation, on days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 13 post-chemotherapy. The results obtained showed the patient did not develop oral mucositis, during the five chemotherapy cycles and did not present any pain symptom. Therapy with LEDs was a safe and effective method for the prevention of oral mucositis in this case report. However, new studies are needed in order to prove the efficacy of this methodology with more patients, increasing their quality of life. (author)

  11. Ocular Surface Rreconstruction with Allogeneic Limbal Stem Cell and Autologous Oral Mucosal Graft: Two Cases

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    Gözde Orman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two patients with severe ocular surface damage in both eyes are presented. In the patient with limbal stem cell deficiency, allogeneic limbal stem cell transplantation was performed. In the other patient with recurrent pterygium and symblepharon, autogenic oral mucosa transplantation was performed to manage the symblepharon. In this study, we discuss the methods that can be performed for reconstruction in patients with ocular surface disorder in both eyes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 129-31

  12. Oral mucosal manifestations in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and dry mouth syndrome

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    Katarzyna Błochowiak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : One of the most important symptoms of Sjögren syndrome is xerostomia. The oral cavity deprived of saliva and its natural lubricative, protective and antibacterial properties is prone to a number of unfavourable consequences. Aim : To present the most important lesions on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and in dry mouth syndrome. Material and methods: The study group comprised 55 patients including 52 women and 3 men aged 20–72 years (average: 28.25 years. Results : Basing on the accepted criteria, primary Sjögren syndrome was diagnosed in 22 (40% patients, secondary Sjögren syndrome in 18 (32.7% patients, and dry mouth syndrome in 15 (27.27% patients. The physical examination and the examination of the mouth were performed and history was elicited from every patient. Conclusions : The most common pathologies appearing on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome are angular cheilitis, cheilitis, increased lip dryness as well as non-specific ulcerations, aphthae and aphthoid conditions.

  13. Oral mucosal manifestations in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and dry mouth syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olewicz-Gawlik, Anna; Polańska, Adriana; Nowak-Gabryel, Michalina; Kocięcki, Jarosław; Witmanowski, Henryk; Sokalski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most important symptoms of Sjögren syndrome is xerostomia. The oral cavity deprived of saliva and its natural lubricative, protective and antibacterial properties is prone to a number of unfavourable consequences. Aim To present the most important lesions on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and in dry mouth syndrome. Material and methods The study group comprised 55 patients including 52 women and 3 men aged 20–72 years (average: 28.25 years). Results Basing on the accepted criteria, primary Sjögren syndrome was diagnosed in 22 (40%) patients, secondary Sjögren syndrome in 18 (32.7%) patients, and dry mouth syndrome in 15 (27.27%) patients. The physical examination and the examination of the mouth were performed and history was elicited from every patient. Conclusions The most common pathologies appearing on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome are angular cheilitis, cheilitis, increased lip dryness as well as non-specific ulcerations, aphthae and aphthoid conditions. PMID:26985175

  14. Effects of an orabase formulation with ethanolic extract of Malva sylvestris L. in oral wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Ana Cristina; Bisetto, Paula; Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Campagnoli, Eduardo Baulm; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Santos, Fábio André

    2014-05-01

    Malva sylvestris L. is widely used in medicine for treatment of inflammatory processes. The plant has anti-inflammatory properties due to substances such as mucilage, flavonoids, and tannins. A mouthwash with leaves from the plant can be used for the treatment of wounds in the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to assess the wound healing effect of Malva sylvestris L. on a palate mucosa wound in rats. After intraperitoneal anesthesia, a 4-mm-diameter excisional wound was made in the center of the palatal mucosa of 136 rats, using a punch-out biopsy tool. Eight animals were used as baseline wound. The remaining rats were divided into four groups: CO, control; OB, orabase vehicle; CX, 2% chlorhexidine; and MA, 20% Malva in orabase. At 24 h postoperatively, the animals were immobilized without anesthetic to apply 25 mg of each substance twice a day, totaling 50 mg daily. The wound areas were measured photographically and the reepithelialization rates were determined histologically (%) after 0, 3, 7, 15, and 21 days. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Similar healing pattern was observed among the groups (P>.05; ANOVA). According to the methodology, Malva sylvestris L. extract had no effect on wound healing in the palatal mucosa of rats.

  15. Oral delivery of wafers made from HBsAg-expressing maize germ induces long-term immunological systemic and mucosal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Celine A; Fischer, Maria E; Andrews, Bryan L; Chilton, Hayley C; Turner, Debra D; Walker, John H; Tizard, Ian R; Howard, John A

    2015-06-09

    The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been administered over the last 20 years as a parenteral vaccine against the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite high seroconversion rates, chronic infection rates are still high worldwide. Orally delivered vaccines provide a practical alternative to injected vaccines, potentially helping poorly responding populations and providing a viable alternative for populations in remote locations. Anamnestic responses are vital to establishing the efficacy of a given vaccine and have been assessed in this study using a plant-based oral delivery platform expressing HBsAg. Long-term immunological memory was assessed in mice injected with a primary dose of Recombivax and boosted with orally-delivered HBsAg wafers, control wafers, or parenterally-delivered commercial vaccine (Recombivax). Mice boosted with HBsAg orally-administered wafers displayed sharp increases in mucosal IgA titers in fecal material and steep increases in serum IgA, whereas mice boosted with Recombivax showed no detectable levels of IgA in either fecal or serum samples following four boosting treatments. Long-term memory in the orally-treated mice was evidenced by sustained fecal IgA, and serum IgA, IgG, and mIU/mL over one year, while Recombivax-treated mice displayed sustained serum IgG and mIU/mL. Furthermore, sharp increases in these same antibodies were induced after re-boosting at 47 and 50 weeks post-primary injection. Orally-delivered vaccines can provide long-term immune responses mucosally and systemically. For sexually-transmitted diseases that can be acquired at mucosal surfaces, such as HBV, an oral delivery platform may provide added protection over a conventional parenterally administered vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of clove-based herbal mouthwash on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a single-blind randomized preliminary study

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    Kong M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Moonkyoo Kong,1 Deok-Sang Hwang,2 Seong Woo Yoon,3 Jinsung Kim4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 2Department of Korean Medicine Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, 3Department of Korean Internal Medicine, Korean Medicine Cancer Center, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, 4Department of Korean Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clove-based herbal mouthwash in ameliorating radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and randomized to either an experimental group or a control group. The patients of the experimental group swished their mouths with a clove-based herbal mouthwash during radiotherapy (RT, while the patients of the control group swished with clear water. The primary end point of this study was incidence of radiation-induced oral mucositis. The secondary end points were time to onset of radiation-induced oral mucositis, duration of radiation-induced oral mucositis, incidence of supplemental nutrition through feeding tube, maximum pain score, body weight loss, incidence of RT interruption, and duration of RT interruption. Results: The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash shortened the duration of grade ≥2 mucositis (24.3 days vs 37.1 days, P=0.044 and reduced body weight loss during RT (3.1% vs 7.4%, P=0.023 compared with clear water. The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash also reduced the incidence of grade 3 mucositis (28.6% vs 57.1%, supplemental nutrition (0% vs 28.6%, and RT interruption (14.3% vs 28.6%, and reduced the duration of grade 3 mucositis (5.1 days vs 17.7 days and RT interruption (1 days vs 8.5 days. In addition, clove-based herbal mouthwash

  17. Oral mucosal diseases in the office setting--part I: Aphthous stomatitis and herpes simplex infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, James J

    2007-01-01

    This article is an update and review of the most common nontraumatic ulcerative and vesicular lesions of the oral cavity. Details concerning their etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and management are included. Comparisons are made between the various forms of aphthous ulcerations and their viral counterparts. Lesions of herpes simplex origin are described for both primary and recurrent or secondary forms and differentiation from aphthous ulcerations is made. Treatment options for both the chronic and more acute forms of this condition are discussed.

  18. Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseased patients attending a dermatologic clinic: a cross-sectional study in Sudan

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    Salman Hussein

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far there have been no studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is noteworthy as skin lesions are strongly associated with oral lesions and could easily be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and socio-behavioural correlates of OML in skin diseased patients attending outpatient's facility of Khartoum Teaching Hospital - Dermatology Clinic, Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in Khartoum from October 2008 to January 2009. A total of 588 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 16 years, 50.3% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview of which 544 patients (mean age 37.1 ± 15.9 years, 50% females with confirmed skin disease diagnosis were included for further analyses. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria (WHO. Biopsy and smear were used as adjuvant techniques for confirmation. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher's exact test were used. Results A total of 438 OML were registered in 315 (57.9%, males: 54.6% versus females: 45.6%, p Tongue lesions were the most frequently diagnosed OML (23.3%, followed in descending order by white lesions (19.1%, red and blue lesions (11% and vesiculobullous diseases (6%. OML in various skin diseases were; vesiculobullous reaction pattern (72.2%, lichenoid reaction pattern (60.5%, infectious lesions (56.5%, psoriasiform reaction pattern (56.7%, and spongiotic reaction pattern (46.8%. Presence of OML in skin diseased patients was most frequent in older age groups (62.4% older versus 52.7% younger, p Conclusions OML were frequently diagnosed in skin diseased patients and varied systematically with age, gender, systemic condition and use of toombak. The high prevalence of OML emphasizes the importance of routine examination

  19. Effect of class IV laser therapy on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a clinical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Gobbo, Margherita; Sturnega, Mauro; Martinelli, Valentina; Mano, Miguel; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bussani, Rossana; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Long, Carlin S; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Giacca, Mauro; Biasotto, Matteo; Zacchigna, Serena

    2013-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a serious and acute side effect in patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, often leading to the suspension of therapy and a need for opioid analgesic and enteral/parenteral nutrition, with an effect on patient survival. Among the various interventions proposed in OM management, laser therapy is becoming a recommended treatment option but has limitations due to its heterogeneous laser parameters. Here, we report on our successful clinical experience on the use of class IV laser therapy to treat OM induced by different chemotherapy regimens. To shed light on the mechanisms of action of laser therapy in improving OM resolution, we have developed an animal model of chemotherapy-induced OM, in which we compare the efficacy of the standard low-power laser therapy protocol with an innovative protocol, defined as high-power laser therapy. We show that high-power laser therapy is more effective than low-power laser therapy in improving OM lesion healing, reducing the inflammatory burden, and preserving tissue integrity. In addition, high-power laser therapy has been particularly effective in promoting the formation of new arterioles within the granulation tissue. Our results provide important insights into the mechanism of action of biostimulating laser therapy on OM in vivo and pave a way for clinical experimentation with the use of high-power laser therapy.

  20. Development, optimization and characterization of a full-thickness tissue engineered human oral mucosal model for biological assessment of dental biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharamzadeh, K; Brook, I M; Van Noort, R; Scutt, A M; Smith, K G; Thornhill, M H

    2008-04-01

    Restorative dental materials and oral health care products come into direct contact with oral mucosa and can cause adverse reactions. In order to obtain an accurate risk assessment, the in vitro test model must reflect the clinical situation as closely as possible. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a three-dimensional full-thickness engineered human oral mucosal model, which can be used for biological assessment of dental materials. In this study human oral fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated from patients and seeded onto a number of collagen-based and synthetic scaffolds using a variety of cell seeding techniques and grown at the air/liquid interface to construct human oral mucosa equivalents. Suitability of 10 different scaffolds for engineering human oral mucosa was evaluated in terms of biocompatibility, biostability, porosity, and the ability to mimic normal human oral mucosa morphology. Finally an optimized full-thickness engineered human oral mucosa was developed and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining. The oral mucosa reconstruct resembled native human oral mucosa and it has the potential to be used as an accurate and reproducible test model in mucotoxicity and biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials.

  1. New mechanism of oral immunity to mucosal candidiasis in hyper-IgE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, H R; Baker, O; Freeman, A F; Jang, W S; Holland, S M; Li, R A; Edgerton, M; Gaffen, S L

    2011-07-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, thrush) is an opportunistic infection caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans. An understanding of immunity to Candida has recently begun to unfold with the identification of fungal pattern-recognition receptors such as C-type lectin receptors, which trigger protective T-helper (Th)17 responses in the mucosa. Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES/Job's syndrome) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency characterized by dominant-negative mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is downstream of the Th17-inductive cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23, and hence patients with HIES exhibit dramatic Th17 deficits. HIES patients develop oral and mucocutaneous candidiasis, supporting a protective role for Th17 cells in immunity to OPC. However, the Th17-dependent mechanisms of antifungal immunity in OPC are still poorly defined. An often unappreciated aspect of oral immunity is saliva, which is rich in antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and exerts direct antifungal activity. In this study, we show that HIES patients show significant impairment in salivary AMPs, including β-defensin 2 and Histatins. This tightly correlates with reduced candidacidal activity of saliva and concomitantly elevated colonization with Candida. Moreover, IL-17 induces histatins in cultured salivary gland cells. This is the first demonstration that HIES is associated with defective salivary activity, and provides a mechanism for the severe susceptibility of these patients to OPC.

  2. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus using oral mucosal transudate by rapid test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvan Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Settings and Design: OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Diagnostic test was evaluated in sera and oral fluids from 83 subjects. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 50 HIV seropositive subjects and the control group comprised of 33 seronegative subjects. Serum samples were collected using the standard phlebotomy technique and oral samples were collected using OraQuick Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody test OMT collecting device. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences version 16.0, SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11 th Floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412. The Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were used. Results: All the subjects who tested either positive/reactive or negative/non-reactive with Western blot/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA produced similar results with Rapid test using OMT in study, our study also revealed that the subjects whether on anti-retroviral therapy or not had 100% sensitivity and specificity with the Rapid test using OMT. Conclusions: The Rapid test using OMT is highly accurate as the diagnostic efficacy in our study was 100% for HIV antibody detection and produced similar results to that of conventional Western blot/ELISA tests.

  3. Characterization of immune cell populations in oral mucosal tissue of healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the leucocyte subsets present in the oral mucosa of healthy cats. Immunohistochemical labelling and computer-assisted morphometric analysis was used to identify expression of MHC class II, CD3, CD79a, IgG, IgM, IgA, and leucocyte antigen L1 (L1) by cells in sections from 19 cats, and expression of CD4 and CD8 by cells in sections from 17 cats. Mast cells were detected by toluidine blue staining. In the epithelial compartment, CD3(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes were detected, and CD8(+) cells were more common than CD4(+) cells. MHC class II labelling revealed intraepithelial and subepithelial cells with a characteristic dendritic morphology. In some sections these dendritic cells were closely associated with subepithelial clusters of CD3(+) T cells containing both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. In the lamina propria and submucosal compartments, the cells most commonly identified were mast cells. CD3(+) T-lymphocytes were also observed, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were detected in similar numbers. L1(+) and CD79(+) cells were detected least frequently. The few plasma cells present were generally found to be either IgG(+) or IgA(+). Within the stroma surrounding the salivary glands, CD79a(+) and IgA(+) cells predominated. Slight epithelial labelling for L1 was seen in some sections. The normal feline oral mucosa clearly contains a range of immune cell populations.

  4. Distinct Ecological Niche of Anal, Oral, and Cervical Mucosal Microbiomes in Adolescent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin C.; Zolnik, Christine P.; Usyk, Mykhaylo; Chen, Zigui; Kaiser, Katherine; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Peake, Ken; Diaz, Angela; Viswanathan, Shankar; Strickler, Howard D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Burk, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Human body sites represent ecological niches for microorganisms, each providing variations in microbial exposure, nutrient availability, microbial competition, and host immunological responses. In this study, we investigated the oral, anal, and cervical microbiomes from the same 20 sexually active adolescent females, using culture-independent, next-generation sequencing. DNA from each sample was amplified for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and sequenced on an Illumina platform using paired-end reads. Across the three anatomical niches, we found significant differences in bacterial community composition and diversity. Overall anal samples were dominated with Prevotella and Bacteriodes, oral samples with Streptococcus and Prevotella, and cervical samples with Lactobacillus. The microbiomes of a few cervical samples clustered with anal samples in weighted principal coordinate analyses, due in part to a higher proportion of Prevotella in those samples. Additionally, cervical samples had the lowest alpha diversity. Our results demonstrate the occurrence of distinct microbial communities across body sites within the same individual. PMID:27698612

  5. A hyaluronic acid-based compound inhibits fibroblast senescence induced by oxidative stress in vitro and prevents oral mucositis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Nicola; Vicidomini, Antonio; McCullough, Michael; Gambardella, Antonio; Hassona, Yazan; Prime, Stephen S; Colella, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    Virtually all patients receiving radio- and chemotherapy for cancer develop oral mucositis, a severe and highly debilitating condition. The onset of mucositis is thought to involve the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the submucosa. Here we investigated a possible protective effect of a commercial formulation of hyaluronic acid (HA) enriched with amino acids (Mucosamin(®)) against the damage induced by oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Transient exposure of normal human oral fibroblasts to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) led to irreversible senescence, as demonstrated by sustained increase in the levels of p16(INK4A) and SA-βGal. Conditioned media from senescent fibroblasts induced detrimental effects on keratinocytes, as shown by reduced metabolic activity and migration capability. Pre-treatment with Mucosamin(®) prevented H(2)O(2) -induced, but not TGF-β-induced, fibroblast senescence with a concomitant reduction of fibroblast-induced loss of keratinocyte vitality and functional activity. Finally, data from a case-series of patients undergoing radio/chemotherapy strongly suggested that prophylactic use of the hyaluronic acid-based compound in the form of a spray may be effective in preventing the onset of oral mucositis.

  6. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers; Prise en charge des mucites apres radiotherapie des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapeyre, M.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Kaminsky, M.C.; Geoffrois, L.; Dolivet, G.; Pourel, N.; Marchal, C.; Bey, P.; Maire, F.; Simon, M. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Toussaint, B. [Hopital Central, Service de Chirurgie ORL, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-11-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  7. Plasticity of Myeloid Cells during Oral Barrier Wound Healing and the Development of Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujie; Kaur, Kawaljit; Kanayama, Keiichi; Morinaga, Kenzo; Park, Sil; Hokugo, Akishige; Kozlowska, Anna; McBride, William H; Li, Jun; Jewett, Anahid; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2016-09-23

    Injury to the barrier tissue initiates a rapid distribution of myeloid immune cells from bone marrow, which guide sound wound healing. Bisphosphonates, a widely used anti-bone resorptive drug with minimal systemic side effects, have been linked to an abnormal wound healing in the oral barrier tissue leading to, in some cases, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here we report that the development of ONJ may involve abnormal phenotypic plasticity of Ly6G+/Gr1+ myeloid cells in the oral barrier tissue undergoing tooth extraction wound healing. A bolus intravenous zoledronate (ZOL) injection to female C57Bl/6 mice followed by maxillary first molar extraction resulted in the development of ONJ-like lesion during the second week of wound healing. The multiplex assay of dissociated oral barrier cells exhibited the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, which was significantly modulated in ZOL mice. Tooth extraction-induced distribution of Ly6G+/Gr1+ cells in the oral barrier tissue increased in ZOL mice at week 2. ONJ-like lesion in ZOL mice contained Ly6G+/Gr1+ cells with abnormal size and morphology as well as different flow cytometric staining intensity. When anti-Ly6G (Gr1) antibody was intraperitoneally injected for 5 days during the second week of tooth extraction, CD11b+GR1(hi) cells in bone marrow and Ly6G+ cells in the oral barrier tissue were depleted, and the development of ONJ-like lesion was significantly attenuated. This study suggests that local modulation of myeloid cell plasticity in the oral barrier tissue may provide the basis for pathogenesis and thus therapeutic as well as preventive strategy of ONJ.

  8. Prevalencia de lesiones mucosas en población anciana de la Región de Murcia Prevanlence of oral mucosal lesions in elderly people in Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. López Jornet

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El estudio de la prevalencia de la patología oral es importante, tanto para conocer el estado de salud como las necesidades de tratamiento. En este trabajo se valora la presencia de las lesiones mucosas orales en mayores de 65 años en pacientes institucionalizados y no institucionalizados de la Región de Murcia Pacientes y método: Se estudio una muestra representativa de ancianos de la región de Murcia igual o mayor de 65 años en total 385 sujetos; tasa de participación 46%. Se diagnosticaron las lesiones mucosas en base a los criterios establecidos por la OMS. Resultados: La prevalencia de las lesiones orales fue de 17,8% (no institucionalizado y 14,2% institucionalizado. La lesión mas frecuente asociada fue la ulcera traumática seguida de lengua geográfica y candidiasis protésica. Conclusión: Realizar programas de prevención y diagnostico de lesiones de mucosa oral. Además en los casos que se establezcan tratarlas adecuadamente.Background: Oral prevalence studies are important to know the state of health and the needs of treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the oral health status in a group of Murcia individuals 65 years of age or older Patients and Methods: A sample of 385 representative Murcia subjects older than 65 years old were (response rate 46% Oral mucosal lesions were gathered according World Health Organization. Results: The prevalence of oral lesions was17,8% (non-institutionalised and 14,2 (institutionalised. The most common lesion was traumatic ulcer followed geographic tongue and denture stomatitis. Conclusions: That oral mucosal lesions are common in elderly people in Murcia, suggesting the necessity for improved standards of prevention, and diagnostic and opportune treatment of these lesions.

  9. Herpes simplex virus-related oral mucositis in patients with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Maria D; Swenson, Karen K

    2014-05-01

    A 58-year-old man named J.S. was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and underwent treatment with standard rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy. He presented to his local outpatient clinic for evaluation and laboratory tests on day 10 after cycle 3. During this visit, J.S. reported great difficulty opening his mouth with significant gingival and lingual pain when eating and drinking in spite of prophylactic oral care. Laboratory test results revealed a white blood cell count of 0.9 k/ul, hemoglobin level of 8.9 g/dl, platelets of 100 k/ul, serum creatinine level of 1 mg/dl, and blood urea nitrogen level of 29 mg/dl.

  10. IMMEDIATE RESULTS OF CONFORMIC HDR BRACHYTHERAPY USING THE MULTISOURCE APPARATUS FOR ORAL MUCOSAL TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lozhkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In February to August 2011, the Chelyabinsk District Clinical Oncology Dispensary performed combined radiotherapy using conformic HDR brachytherapy (BT with daily dose fractionaton on a Multisource apparatus in 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. An algorithm for planning conformic BT was developed, by combining the data of multislice spiral computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, by using the inverse procedures for dose calculation, and by choosing the parameters of plan assessment. No complications or severe toxic reactions were noted. The immediate results of the treatment were studied. A complete effect was obtained in 4 patients with Stages I−II. There was process stabilization in 2 patients and continued tumor growth in 1 case. Recurrent tumor was diagnosed in 2 cases following 3 and 9 months. The enhanced efficiency of BT was associated with the increased accuracy of tumor imaging.

  11. Oral Pseudoephedrine Decreases the Rate of Trans-mucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miriam S.; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Martin, Brian S; Cullen Doyle, Brendan M.; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if oral pretreatment with a vasoconstrictor decreases the blood to middle-ear exchange-rate of the perfusion-limited gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Study Design Randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Methods Ten adult subjects with and 10 without past middle-ear disease completed paired experimental sessions, identical but for oral pretreatment with either pseudoephedrine HCL or lactose placebo. At each session, subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes (acclimation period), 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes (experimental period) and 100% O2 for 10 minutes (recovery period). Throughout, heart-rate, blood-pressure and O2 saturation were monitored and bilateral middle-ear pressures were recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome was the slope of the middle-ear pressure-time function for the experimental period which estimates the volume N2O exchange-rate. Using repeated measures ANOVA, the effects of Group (disease history), Treatment (active vs. placebo) and Period (1 vs. 2) on the recorded vital signs, and of Group, Treatment and Ear (left/right) on the middle-ear pressure-time slope were evaluated for statistical significance. Results Statistically significant effects of Period on O2 saturation (Period 2>Period 1) and of Treatment on heart-rate (Active>Placebo) were documented. Only Treatment was statistically significant for the middle-ear pressure-time slope with a shallower slope characterizing the active treatment session. Conclusion The volume exchange-rate across the middle-ear mucosa of perfusion-limited gases can be modulated pharmacologically. Theoretically, similar drugs can be used to reduce the requisite Eustachian tube opening efficiency for adequate middle-ear pressure regulation. PMID:26152838

  12. 口腔颌面外科疾病与口腔黏膜病的关系研究%Study on the Relationship Between Oral and Maxillofacial Disease and Oral Mucosal Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杜斌

    2015-01-01

    This paper in recent years about the oral and maxillofacial surgery and oral mucosal disease summarizes related research reports, from ulcerative oral cavity mucous membrane inflammation, oral and maxillofacial precancerous lesions and malignant lymphoma in the physiology and pathology of three kinds of diseases such as to explore the relationship between the two types of diseases, so as to provide the necessary guidance for clinical treatment.This paper in recent years about the oral and maxillofacial surgery and oral mucosal disease summarizes related research reports, from ulcerative oral cavity mucous membrane inflammation, oral and maxillofacial precancerous lesions and malignant lymphoma in the physiology and pathology of three kinds of diseases such as to explore the relationship between the two types of diseases, so as to provide the necessary guidance for clinical treatment.%本文对近年来有关口腔颌面外科疾病和口腔黏膜病相关研究报道进行总结,从溃疡性口腔黏膜炎、口腔颌面癌前病损和恶性淋巴瘤等三种疾病的生理病理来探讨这两类疾病之间的关系,以期为临床治疗提供必要的指导。

  13. Effect of oral olive oil on healing of 10-20% total body surface area burn wounds in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Mahtab; Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Zahra; Tolouei, Mohammad; Amiri, Zohreh

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of consumption of oral olive oil on clinical outcomes and wound healing of thermally injured patients with hospital stays. One hundred patients (mean age; 33.34±7 years) with 10-20% total body surface area, deep second degree and more burn wounds were randomized to receive either oral olive oil or sunflower oil as the oil in their diet. Patients were evaluated daily for occurrence of wound infection, sepsis and healing of the grafted skin. Also the duration of hospitalization and admission to the intensive care unit were compared in two groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the olive oil group and the control group in percent of TBSA involvement (14.28±0.53 vs. 13.02±0.48, P=0.7), albumin concentration (3.25±0.5 vs. 3.13±0.5, P=0.5) and mean calorie intake (2034±216.9 kcal vs2118±192.1 kcal, P=0.2). We found a significant difference in the duration of wound healing (7.2±0.5 vs. 8.7±0.5, P=0.04) and duration of hospitalization (7.4±0.5 vs. 8.9±0.4, P=0.05) in the olive oil group versus the control group. We did not find any difference in ICU admission, wound infection and occurrence of sepsis between two groups. This study showed that an oral diet provided with olive oil in patients with burn may accelerate wound healing and decrease the duration of hospitalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Benefits of oral and topical administration of ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. on skin inflammation and wound healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Duffaud, Anais; Nejdi, Amine; Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Helene; Rozan, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to the risk of traumatic lesions. Chlorella is a green microalgae enriched with nutrients, vitamins, minerals and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) was investigated by oral administration (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cutaneous application (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%) to evaluate its impact in two dermatological disorder models in mice: skin inflammation and wound healing. For skin inflammation, it was administered during 14 days starting one week before the induction of chronic skin inflammation by repeated cutaneous application of 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). For wound healing the microalgae was administered by topical application after scarification of the skin until complete wound healing. Results indicated that oral and topical administrations of the two higher doses of RCs had significant effects on macroscopic score of skin inflammation with an efficient effect on microscopic score with cutaneous application. The microalgae had also efficient effect on healing process and duration of wound healing for both administration routes and particularly at the two highest doses of RCs. These findings suggest that administration of RCs by both oral and topical routes appeared to have beneficial effects on skin lesions.

  15. Clinicopathological analysis of 782 cases of elderly oral mucosal lesions%老年口腔黏膜病变782例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文波

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对老年人口腔分泌物检查,了解老年黏膜病变的规律及特点,为防治老年口腔疾病的提供参考.方法 分析某院2008年6月~2011年6月4250例老年门诊及住院患者口腔黏膜检查报告,其中186例口腔黏膜活检检验报告.结果 4250例老年门诊及住院患者口腔检查及活检情况显示,共检出口腔黏膜病变782例,占18.4%;从病变情况显示,以念珠菌口腔炎为主,占9.69%,其排列顺位依次是念珠菌口腔炎、口照溃疡、口腔黏膜白斑、口腔黏膜慢性炎症、口腔扁平苔藓、口腔黏膜囊肿、灼口综合症、白色角化病、幽门螺杆菌感染、口腔癌.从各年龄段老年口腔黏膜病变情况显示,口腔黏膜病变与年龄无关,各年龄段发病率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).吸烟、饮洒患者中口腔黏膜病变发病率明显高于不吸烟、不饮洒患者,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 老年口腔黏膜病变病理变化复杂多样.在老年人群中发病率高,为减少老年口腔黏膜病变的发病率,应加强口腔健康教育,养成良好的口腔卫生习惯和生活习惯、戒烟、戒酒等可有效预防口腔黏膜病变的发生.%OBJECTIVE To check on elderly patients with oral secretions, to understand the rules and characteristics of the elderly mucosal lesions, to provide a reference for the prevention of age-related oral diseases. METHODS We analyzed inspection reports on oral mucosa of 4 250 cases of elderly outpatients and inpatients in our hospital from June 2008 to June 2011, including biopsy test reports on oral mucosa of 186 cases. RESULTS The oral examination and biopsy situation of 4 250 cases of this group of elderly outpatients and inpatients shoed oral mucosal lesions were detected in 782 cases, accounting for 18.4%; Candida stomatitis, accounting for 9.69 percent from the lesions, followed by Candida stomatitis, oral ulcers, oral leukoplaki-a, chronic inflammation of the

  16. The use of wound healing assessment methods in psychological studies: a review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschwanez, Heidi E; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2011-02-01

    To provide a critical review of methods used to assess human wound healing in psychological research and related disciplines, in order to guide future research into psychological influences on wound healing. Acute wound models (skin blister, tape stripping, skin biopsy, oral palate biopsy, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tubing), surgical wound healing assessment methods (wound drains, wound scoring), and chronic wound assessment techniques (surface area, volumetric measurements, wound composition, and assessment tools/scoring systems) are summarized, including merits, limitations, and recommendations. Several dermal and mucosal tissue acute wound models have been established to assess the effects of psychological stress on the inflammatory, proliferative, and repair phases of wound healing in humans, including material-based models developed to evaluate factors influencing post-surgical recovery. There is a paucity of research published on psychological factors influencing chronic wound healing. There are many assessment techniques available to study the progression of chronic wound healing but many difficulties inherent to long-term clinical studies. Researchers need to consider several design-related issues when conducting studies into the effects of psychological stress on wound healing, including the study aims, type of wound, tissue type, setting, sample characteristics and accessibility, costs, timeframe, and facilities available. Researchers should consider combining multiple wound assessment methods to increase the reliability and validity of results and to further understand mechanisms that link stress and wound healing. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Challenges and Future Prospects for the Delivery of Biologics: Oral Mucosal, Pulmonary, and Transdermal Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier O; Fathe, Kristin R; Brunaugh, Ashlee; Ferrati, Silvia; Li, Song; Montenegro-Nicolini, Miguel; Mousavikhamene, Zeynab; McConville, Jason T; Prausnitz, Mark R; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2017-02-13

    Biologic products are large molecules such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, etc., which have already produced many new drugs for clinical use in the last decades. Due to the inherent challenges faced by biologics after oral administration (e.g., acidic stomach pH, digestive enzymes, and limited permeation through the gastrointestinal tract), several alternative routes of administration have been investigated to enable sufficient drug absorption into systemic circulation. This review describes the buccal, sublingual, pulmonary, and transdermal routes of administration for biologics with relevant details of the respective barriers. While all these routes avoid transit through the gastrointestinal tract, each has its own strengths and weaknesses that may be optimal for specific classes of compounds. Buccal and sublingual delivery enable rapid drug uptake through a relatively permeable barrier but are limited by small epithelial surface area, stratified epithelia, and the practical complexities of maintaining a drug delivery system in the mouth. Pulmonary delivery accesses the highly permeable and large surface area of the alveolar epithelium but must overcome the complexities of safe and effective delivery to the alveoli deep in the lung. Transdermal delivery offers convenient access to the body for extended-release delivery via the skin surface but requires the use of novel devices and formulations to overcome the skin's formidable stratum corneum barrier. New technologies and strategies advanced to overcome these challenges are reviewed, and critical views in future developments of each route are given.

  18. Oral mucosal blood flow, plasma epinephrine and haemodynamic responses after injection of lidocaine with epinephrine during midazolam sedation and isoflurane anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Y; Ichinohe, T; Kaneko, Y

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the relationship between oral mucosal blood flow and plasma epinephrine concentration, and the effects of conscious sedation vs general anaesthesia on haemodynamic responses after submucosal epinephrine injection in 14 subjects. The same seven patients were studied both as controls and after sedation. For sedation, midazolam i.v. was used. Another seven patients underwent orthognathic surgery with isoflurane anaesthesia. All subjects received a submucosal injection of epinephrine 0.8 microgram kg-1, given as 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with epinephrine 12.5 micrograms ml-1. Baseline mucosal blood flow and peak increase in plasma epinephrine concentration in the general anaesthesia and sedation groups were approximately 2.0 and 1.5 times, respectively, higher than those in the control group. Mean plasma epinephrine concentration reached a maximum 3 min after administration of epinephrine in all groups. Overall, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.65) between baseline mucosal blood flow and the maximum increase in plasma epinephrine concentration. There were no differences in haemodynamic changes except for heart rate, between the three groups. These results suggest that plasma epinephrine concentration after submucosal injection depends on the initial mucosal blood flow in the injected area. Haemodynamic changes, except heart rate, in the sedation and general anaesthesia groups were similar despite different changes in maximum plasma epinephrine concentration.

  19. Sensing vascularization of ex-vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) skin grafts in nude mice using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Gurjar, Rajan; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Fasi, Anthony; Kim, Roderick; Riccardi, Suzannah; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Wolf, David E.

    2014-03-01

    Repair of soft tissue defects of the lips as seen in complex maxillofacial injuries, requires pre-vascularized multi-tissue composite grafts. Protocols for fabrication of human ex-vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents (EVPOME) composed of epithelial cells and a dermal equivalent are available to create prelaminated flaps for grafting in patients. However, invivo assessment of neovascularization of the buried prelaminated flaps remains clinically challenging. Here, we use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to non-invasively quantify longitudinal changes in the vessel density and blood-flow within EVPOME grafts implanted in the backs of SCID mice and subsequently to determine the utility of these optical techniques for assessing vascularization of implanted grafts. 20 animals were implanted with EVPOME grafts (1x1x0.05 cm3) in their backs. DRS and DCS measurements were obtained from each animal both atop the graft site and far away from the graft site, at one week post-implantation, each week, for four consecutive weeks. DRS spectra were analyzed using an inverse Monte Carlo model to extract tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, which were then used to extract blood flow information by fitting the experimental DCS traces. There were clear differences in the mean optical parameters (averaged across all mice) at the graft site vs. the off-site measurements. Both the total hemoglobin concentration (from DRS) and the relative blood flow (from DCS) peaked at week 3 at the graft site and declined to the off-site values by week 4. The optical parameters remained relatively constant throughout 4 weeks for the off-site measurements.

  20. Intrinsic differences between oral and skin keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Turabelidze

    Full Text Available Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles.

  1. Intrinsic Differences between Oral and Skin Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; Chung, Allison Yen; Chen, Lin; Dai, Yang; Marucha, Phillip T.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles. PMID:25198578

  2. Using procedure of emulsification-lyophilization to form lipid A-incorporating cochleates as an effective oral mucosal vaccine adjuvant-delivery system (VADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Meiling; Chen, Ruonan; Deng, Yihui

    2014-07-01

    Using a procedure of emulsification-lyophilization (PEL), adjuvant lipid A-cochleates (LACs) were prepared as a carrier for model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). With phosphatidylserine and lipid A as emulsifiers dissolved in oil phase (O), sucrose and CaCl2 in the inner water phase (W1), and BSA, sucrose and PEG2000 in the outer water phase (W2), the W1/O/W2 emulsions were prepared and subsequently lyophilized to form a dry product which was stable enough to be stored at room temperature. Upon rehydration of the dry products, cochleates formed with a size of 800 nm and antigen association rates of 38%. After vaccination of mice through oral mucosal (o.m.) administration, LACs showed no side effects but induced potent immune responses as evidenced by high levels of IgG in the sera and IgA in the salivary, intestinal and vaginal secretions of mice. In addition, high levels of IgG2a and IFN-γ in the sera or culture supernatants of splenocytes of the immunized mice were also detected. These results revealed that LACs induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response against the loaded antigens. Thus, the LACs prepared by PEL were able to induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses and may act as a potent cold-chain-free oral mucosal vaccine adjuvant delivery system (VADS).

  3. Efficacy of thiolated eudragit microspheres as an oral vaccine delivery system to induce mucosal immunity against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Jung; Cha, Seungbin; Shin, Minkyoung; Jung, Myunghwan; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Cho, Chong-su; Yoo, Han Sang

    2012-05-01

    A vaccine delivery system based on thiolated eudragit microsphere (TEMS) was studied in vivo for its ability to elicit mucosal immunity against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Groups of mice were orally immunized with F4 or F18 fimbriae of ETEC and F4 or F18 loaded in TEMS. Mice that were orally administered with F4 or F18 loaded TEMS showed higher antigen-specific IgG antibody responses in serum and antigen-specific IgA in saliva and feces than mice that were immunized with antigens only. In addition, oral vaccination of F4 or F18 loaded TEMS resulted in higher numbers of IgG and IgA antigen-specific antibody secreting cells in the spleen, lamina propria, and Peyer's patches of immunized mice than other groups. Moreover, TEMS administration loaded with F4 or F18 induced mixed Th1 and Th2 type responses based on similarly increased levels of IgG1 and IgG2a. These results suggest that F4 or F18 loaded TEMS may be a promising candidate for an oral vaccine delivery system to elicit systemic and mucosal immunity against ETEC.

  4. Influencia de una intervención educativa en el conocimiento sobre la prevención de mucositis oral en pacientes sometidos a quimioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Jacobo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de una intervención educativa en el conocimiento sobre la prevención de mucositis oral en pacientes sometidos a quimioterapia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de tipo cuantitativo, diseño pre experimental. La muestra fue no probabilística intencional conformado por 50 pacientes. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado para evaluar conocimientos sobre cáncer, mucositis oral y cuidados preventivos. La recolección de datos se realizó entre diciembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. La intervención se realizó en 3 sesiones y de forma individual e incluyó: sensibilización e información sobre cáncer y su relación con la mucositis oral, cuidados preventivos, preparación de colutorio y utilización de la crioterapia a nivel oral; usando técnicas de demostraciones y redemostraciones según necesidades del paciente y familia. Se utilizó estadística inferencial, previa verificación del criterio de normalidad, aplicándose la prueba t pareado para variables dependientes, además de una prueba de McNemar, se consideró significativo un p<0,05. Resultados: El conocimiento se incrementó de 12% en el pretest a 88% post intervención; igualmente, por áreas se incrementó a 82% en el área de aspectos generales y a 92% en el área de medidas preventivas. Conclusiones: La intervención educativa de enfermería se mostró efectiva al incrementar el conocimiento de los pacientes participantes.

  5. Prevenção da xerostomia e da mucosite oral induzidas por radioterapia com uso do laser de baixa potência Low level laser therapy in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Oliveira Lopes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se o uso do laser de InGaAlP com comprimento de onda de 685 nm pode reduzir a incidência de xerostomia, gravidade da mucosite oral e da dor associada à mucosite em pacientes portadores de câncer de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a radioterapia. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes portadores de carcinoma de cabeça e pescoço foram submetidos a radioterapia com dose diária de 1,8 a 2,0 Gy e dose final de 45 a 72 Gy. O volume salivar foi medido nos dias um, 15, ao final do tratamento e após 15 e 30 dias, e a mucosite oral em avaliações semanais. Vinte e nove pacientes se submeteram a radioterapia sem laser e 31 foram submetidos a radioterapia e laser com dose diária de 2 joules/cm² em pontos pré-determinados da mucosa oral e glândulas parótida e submandibular. RESULTADOS: No grupo submetido a radioterapia e laser, a incidência de mucosite (p OBJECTIVE: To verify if the use of InGaAIP laser with 685 nm wave length can reduce the xerostomy incidence, the oral mucositis severity and the pain related to mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients presenting head and neck carcinoma were submitted to radiotherapy with daily doses of 1.8 to 2.0 Gy and a final dose of 45 to 72 Gy. The salivary volume was evaluated in the first and fifteenth days, at the end of the treatment and after 15 and 30 days. The oral mucositis was evaluated on a weekly basis. Twenty-nine patients were submitted to radiotherapy without laser and 31 were submitted to radiotherapy and laser with daily doses of 2 joules/cm² in predetermined areas of the oral mucosa and the parotid and submandibular glands. RESULTS: In the group submitted to radiotherapy and laser the incidence of mucositis (p < 0.001 and pain (p < 0.016 was significantly lower and the salivary volume (p < 0.001 was kept higher during and after the treatment. CONCLUSION: The group of patients submitted to

  6. Oral immunization with HpaA affords therapeutic protective immunity against H. pylori that is reflected by specific mucosal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Johanna; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2007-03-30

    In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of Helicobacter pylori adhesin A (HpaA), a H. pylori specific colonization factor, to induce therapeutic protection against H. pylori infection in mice. We found that oral immunization of H. pylori infected mice with HpaA induced protection, i.e. significant reduction in bacterial load in the stomach. This was even more pronounced when a combination of HpaA and urease was used. The protection was strongly related to specific mucosal CD4+ T cell responses with a Th1 profile as well as to mucosal IgA responses locally in the stomach. These findings suggest that HpaA is a promising vaccine candidate antigen for use in a therapeutic vaccine against H. pylori.

  7. Bioengineering in the oral cavity: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalfamo L

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available L Catalfamo,1 E Belli,2 C Nava,1 E Mici,1 A Calvo,1 B D'Alessandro,1 FS De Ponte1 1Unit of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Messina, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Policlinico G Martino, Messina, Italy; 2Unit of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Rome Sapienza, Azienda Ospedaliera Sant Andrea, Rome, Italy Background: To date, there are no studies reported in the literature on the possible use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, or synthetic hyaluronic acid medications in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper is to report the use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, and synthetic hyaluronic acid medications to improve wound healing in the oral cavity by stimulating granulomatous tissue. Methods: From 2007 to 2011, 80 patients (median age 67 years suffering from oral mucosal lesions participated in this double-blind study. The patients were divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 patients. One group received conventional medications, while the other group of patients were treated with the advanced medications. Results: Advanced medications allowed re-epithelialization of the wound margin in 2–20 days, whereas patients receiving conventional medication showed a median healing duration of 45 days. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that treating oral mucosal wounds with advanced medication has an advantage with regard to wound healing time, allowing patients to have a rapid, functional, and esthetic recovery. Keywords: bioengineering, oral cavity, mucosal recovery

  8. Factors influencing oral health in patients during cancer treatment; with emphasis on the relationship between the oral microbiome and oral mucositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of cancer therapy for oral health were studied. The effects of irradiation to the head and neck area for the protein composition of parotid saliva were mapped. It was found that irradiation to the head and neck area likely altered the gland tissues resulting in a change in the prote

  9. Factors influencing oral health in patients during cancer treatment; with emphasis on the relationship between the oral microbiome and oral mucositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of cancer therapy for oral health were studied. The effects of irradiation to the head and neck area for the protein composition of parotid saliva were mapped. It was found that irradiation to the head and neck area likely altered the gland tissues resulting in a change in the

  10. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of chlorhexidine prophylaxis for 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis with nonblinded randomized comparison to oral cooling (cryotherapy) in gastrointestinal malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, T.; Bork, E.; Damstrup, L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose was to evaluate prevention of oral mucositis (OM) using chlorhexidine compared with placebo and with oral cooling (cryotherapy) during fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. METHODS: Patients with previously untreated GI cancer receiving...... bolus 5-FU/leucovorin chemotherapy were randomized to chlorhexidine mouthrinse 3 times a day for 3 weeks (Arm A), double-blind placebo (normal saline) with the same dose and frequency (Arm B), or cryotherapy with crushed ice 45 minutes during chemotherapy (Arm C). Patients self-reported on severity (CTC...... (33%) than in A (13%, Pcryotherapy. The latter is easy and inexpensive but has...

  11. Proteome data of whole saliva which are associated with development of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Jehmlich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Saliva as major human body fluid may act as an indicator of oral disease status. Oral mucositis is a common and often treatment-limiting side effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer patients. In this dataset, we provide the complete proteome dataset (raw and search files of the patients at baseline of radiotherapy treatment in patients undergoing radiotherapy analyzed by nano liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. In the data set, 5323 tryptic peptides were identified which can be assigned to 487 distinct proteins (≥2 peptides. The MS data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange (“ProteomeXchange provides globally coordinated proteomics data submission and dissemination” [1] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD003230. The data are associated with the previously published work, “Differences in the whole saliva baseline proteome profile associated with development of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy” [2].

  12. The mucosal and systemic immune responses in chickens orally immunised with Campylobacter jejuni antigen entrapped in poly-lactide-co-glycolide microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maphilindawati Noor

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An oral immunisation in chickens with antigen entrapping in biodegradable microparticles was evaluated in order to achieve optimal antibody responses following oral vaccination. This study was adapted to Campylobacter jejuni antigen in chickens to observe its stimulation both mucosal and systemic immune responses. A group of 5 embryonated chicken eggs was immunised with heat-killed C. jejuni entrapped in poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLG microparticles at day 17 of incubation deposited into the amniotic fluid. Seven days after hatching the chickens were oral boostered, these was design to as Group A. In the Group B, each embryonated egg was immunised with soluble C. jejuni as in the same as Group A. Immune responses of post vaccination were observed at day-14, the humoral immunity was evaluated with an ELISA and whereas mucosal antibody response was detected by fluorescent histology. The serum IgG and IgA antibody responses, and also the bile and intestinal scrapping IgA antibody responses to campylobacter in Group A were significantly higher than those of the soluble antigen of Group B (P<0.05. Total number of immunoglobulin-containing cells for IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes in the ileum in Group A chickens were also significantly higher than those of Group B (P<0.05 but was not in the duodenum and spleen.

  13. Stimulation of oral fibroblast chemokine receptors identifies CCR3 and CCR4 as potential wound healing targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskermolen, Jeroen K; Roffel, Sanne; Gibbs, Susan

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study was to determine which chemokine receptors are present on oral fibroblasts and whether these receptors influence proliferation, migration, and/or the release of wound healing mediators. This information may provide insight into the superior wound healing characteristics of the oral mucosa. The gingiva fibroblasts expressed 12 different chemokine receptors (CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR9, CCR10, CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR4, CXCR5, CXCR7, CX3CR1, and XCR1), as analyzed by flow cytometry. Fourteen corresponding chemokines (CCL5, CCL15, CCL20, CCL22, CCL25, CCL27, CCL28, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL13, CX3CL1, and XCL1) were used to study the activation of these receptors on gingiva fibroblasts. Twelve of these fourteen chemokines stimulated gingiva fibroblast migration (all except for CXCL8 and CXCL12). Five of the chemokines stimulated proliferation (CCL5/CCR3, CCL15/CCR3, CCL22/CCR4, CCL28/CCR3/CCR10, and XCL1/XCR1). Furthermore, CCL28/CCR3/CCR10 and CCL22/CCR4 stimulation increased IL-6 secretion and CCL28/CCR3/CCR10 together with CCL27/CCR10 upregulated HGF secretion. Moreover, TIMP-1 secretion was reduced by CCL15/CCR3. In conclusion, this in-vitro study identifies chemokine receptor-ligand pairs which may be used in future targeted wound healing strategies. In particular, we identified the chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR4, and the mucosa specific chemokine CCL28, as having an predominant role in oral wound healing by increasing human gingiva fibroblast proliferation, migration, and the secretion of IL-6 and HGF and reducing the secretion of TIMP-1. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by wiley periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cell-cycle regulatory proteins in human wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Jirina; Grøn, Birgitte; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Proper healing of mucosal wounds requires careful orchestration of epithelial cell migration and proliferation. To elucidate the molecular basis of the lack of cellular proliferation in the migrating 'epithelial tongue' during the re-epithelialization of oral mucosal wounds, the expression of cell......-cycle regulators critical for G(1)-phase progression and S-phase entry was here analysed immunohistochemically. Compared to normal human mucosa, epithelia migrating to cover 2- or 3-day-old wounds made either in vivo or in an organotypic cell culture all showed loss of the proliferation marker Ki67 and cyclins D(1...... the abundance of most of the CKIs, including p27Kip1, p57Kip2, p15ink4b and p18ink4c, was relatively maintained in the migrating epithelial tongue. These data indicate that downmodulation of several G(1)/S-phase cyclins and a relative excess of CKIs may cooperate to ensure the quiescent state of migrating...

  15. Identification of a transcriptional signature for the wound healing continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Matthew A; Caley, Mathew; Giles, Peter J; Wall, Ivan; Enoch, Stuart; Davies, Lindsay C; Kipling, David; Thomas, David W; Stephens, Phil

    2014-01-01

    There is a spectrum/continuum of adult human wound healing outcomes ranging from the enhanced (nearly scarless) healing observed in oral mucosa to scarring within skin and the nonhealing of chronic skin wounds. Central to these outcomes is the role of the fibroblast. Global gene expression profiling utilizing microarrays is starting to give insight into the role of such cells during the healing process, but no studies to date have produced a gene signature for this wound healing continuum. Microarray analysis of adult oral mucosal fibroblast (OMF), normal skin fibroblast (NF), and chronic wound fibroblast (CWF) at 0 and 6 hours post-serum stimulation was performed. Genes whose expression increases following serum exposure in the order OMF healing phenotype (the dysfunctional healing group), whereas genes with the converse pattern are potentially associated with a positive/preferential healing phenotype (the enhanced healing group). Sixty-six genes in the enhanced healing group and 38 genes in the dysfunctional healing group were identified. Overrepresentation analysis revealed pathways directly and indirectly associated with wound healing and aging and additional categories associated with differentiation, development, and morphogenesis. Knowledge of this wound healing continuum gene signature may in turn assist in the therapeutic assessment/treatment of a patient's wounds. © 2014 The Authors. Wound Repair and Regeneration published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Wound Healing Society.

  16. A single, low dose oral antigen exposure in newborn piglets primes mucosal immunity if administered with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and polyphosphazene adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, J Alex; Ng, Siew Hon; Wilson, Heather L

    2014-10-15

    By definition, soluble antigens ingested orally trigger mucosal tolerance such that any subsequent re-exposure by a systemic route results in suppression of immunity. We propose that antigens introduced in extreme early life can readily traverse the gut wall and therefore circumvent induction of mucosal tolerance and instead induce immunity. Piglets were drenched with low-doses of ovalbumin (OVA; 5mg or 0.05 mg) alone, OVA plus adjuvants (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and PCEP polyphosphazene) or saline within 6h of birth. At 28 days of age, they were administered 10mg OVA plus 1:1 Montanide adjuvant (or saline) via the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route or via the oral route. Serum was obtained on day 28 and day 49 to measure OVA-specific antibodies titres. All piglets boosted orally with OVA plus Montanide, regardless of prior OVA exposure, failed to induce immunity. As expected, piglets drenched with saline but boosted via the i.p. route with OVA plus Montanide showed significant induction of anti-OVA IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 relative to saline control piglets. Newborn animals drenched with 5mg or 0.05 mg OVA failed to induce oral immunity. A second intramuscular injection in adulthood triggered immunity in the piglets that were drenched with 0.05 mg OVA and boosted initially by the i.p. route suggesting that some systemic lymphocytes were primed despite initial lack of induction of humoral immunity. In contrast, piglets orally immunized with 5mg or 0.05 mg OVA plus adjuvants resulted in significant induction of anti-OVA IgA (5mg only), IgM, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in serum relative to saline control piglets as well as significant induction of anti-OVA IgA, IgM (5mg only) IgG, IgG1 (5mg only) or IgG2 relative to piglets drenched with OVA alone. These data clearly show that the response was sensitive to the oral vaccine components and was not simply a response to the i.p. immunization at day 28. This work demonstrates that newborn piglets respond to oral antigens with immunity

  17. Oral ketamine and dexmedetomidine in adults' burns wound dressing--A randomized double blind cross over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundra, Pankaj; Velayudhan, Savitri; Krishnamachari, Srinivasan; Gupta, Suman Lata

    2013-09-01

    Study was designed to compare analgesic efficacy and side effects of oral dexmedetomidine and ketamine in adults for burn wound dressing. Sixty healthy adults with thermal burns with burn area (20-50%) were randomly assigned into 2 groups. In Group K 5mg/kg ketamine and in Group D 4 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine was given orally. Patients crossed over to the other group the following day. Visual analogue score, sedation score, haemodynamic parameters were recorded from 30min after drug administration to 2h after procedure. Patients' preference was also recorded. Mean VAS score was significantly reduced from baseline in both the groups at all time points (Pdressing. Oral ketamine produced significantly better pain relief than dexmedetomidine but was associated with delirium and excessive salivation.

  18. Prevention and management of radiation-induced dermatitis, mucositis, and xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Lauren J; Pace, Makala B; Siddiqui, Asif

    2013-06-15

    Current strategies for preventing and managing radiation-induced dermatitis, mucositis, and xerostomia are reviewed, with an emphasis on pharmacologic interventions. Nearly two thirds of all patients with cancer receive radiation therapy during the course of treatment, frequently resulting in acute skin and mucosal toxicities. The severity of radiotherapy-associated toxicities varies according to multiple treatment- and patient-related factors (e.g., total radiation dose and dose fractionation schedule, volume of organ or tissue irradiated, use of concurrent versus sequential chemotherapy, comorbid conditions, functional performance status). Three major radiation toxicities encountered in clinical practice are (1) radiation dermatitis, typically managed with a variety of topical agents such as water-based moisturizing creams or lotions, topical steroids, antiinflammatory emulsions, and wound dressings, (2) radiation-induced oral mucositis, which can be managed through proper basic oral care practices, appropriate pain management, and the use of medicated mouthwashes and oral rinses and gels, and (3) radiation-induced xerostomia, which can be alleviated with saliva substitutes, moistening agents, and sialagogues. Pharmacists involved in the care of patients receiving radiotherapy can play an important role in optimizing symptom control, educating patients on self-care strategies, and adverse effect monitoring and reporting. Radiation-induced dermatitis, mucositis, and xerostomia can cause significant morbidity and diminished quality of life. Pharmacologic interventions for the prevention and treatment of these toxicities include topical agents for dermatitis; oral products, analgesics, and palifermin for mucositis; and amifostine, saliva substitutes, and pilocarpine for xerostomia.

  19. L-lysine in Treating Oral Mucositis in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy For Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Mucositis; Oral Complications of Chemotherapy; Oral Complications of Radiation Therapy; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage

  20. Two-photon autofluorescence/FLIM/SHG endoscopy to study the oral cavity and wound healing in humans (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring the oral cavity noninvasively with superior 3D resolution is realized by clinical multiphoton tomography and high NA two-photon endoscopy without the need of additional contrast agents. The technology behind this investigation is based on nonlinear optical contrast of the multiphoton tomograph MPTflex®. Furthermore, the miniaturized GRIN endoscope was used to realize more accessibility for more demanding wound conditions in skin. The MPTflex® distinguishes autofluorescence (AF) signals from second harmonic generation (SHG) signals simultaneously. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) based on time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technology offers additional information on the functional level of the intratissue fluorophores, their binding status, and the contribution of SHG signals in chronic wounds.

  1. Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial of Celecoxib for Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Choquette, Linda E.; Curley, Kathleen F.; Dowsett, Robert J.; Feinn, Richard S.; Hegde, Upendra P.; Pilbeam, Carol C.; Salner, Andrew L.; Sonis, Stephen T.; Peterson, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Oral mucositis (OM) is a painful complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (H&NC). OM can compromise nutrition, require opioid analgesics and hospitalization for pain control, and lead to treatment interruptions. Based on the role of inflammatory pathways in OM pathogenesis, we investigated effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on severity and morbidity of OM. Methods In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 40 H&NC patients were randomized to daily use of 200 mg celecoxib or placebo, for the duration of RT. Clinical OM, normalcy of diet, pain scores, and analgesic use were assessed 2–3 times/week by blinded investigators during the 6–7 week RT period, using validated scales. Results Twenty subjects were randomized to each arm, which were similar with respect to tumor location, radiation dose, and concomitant chemotherapy. In both arms, mucositis and pain scores increased over course of RT. Intention-to-treat analyses demonstrated no significant difference in mean Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS) scores at 5000 cGy (primary endpoint). There was also no difference between the two arms in mean OMAS scores over the period of RT, mean worst pain scores, mean normalcy of diet scores, or mean daily opioid medication use in IV morphine equivalents. There were no adverse events attributed to celecoxib use. Conclusions Daily use of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, during period of RT for H&NC, did not reduce the severity of clinical OM, pain, dietary compromise or use of opioid analgesics. These findings also have implications for celecoxib use in H&NC treatment regimens (NCT00698204). PMID:25151488

  2. Efficacy of Hypozalix spray and propolis mouthwash for prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in leukemic patients: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hosein; Pouralibaba, Firouz; Falsafi, Parisa; Bohluli, Sepideh; Najati, Babak; Negahdari, Ramin; Ghanizadeh, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oral mucositis is the chief complication of head and neck chemotherapy. This study was conducted to evaluate Hypozalix artificial saliva and propolis mouthwash efficacy for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in leukemic patients. Methods. The present double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 72 patients undergoing chemotherapy. The patients were assigned to 3 groups. In the control group, CHX mouthwash and fluconazole were used by the subjects. In groups 1 and 2, Hypozalix and propolis mouthwashes were added to the combination therapy used in the control group. The results were compared between the three groups after 14 days. Results. Mean score A was significantly higher than mean score B in children (P = 0.001). In contrast, mean score A was significantly lower than mean score B in young adults (P = 0.003). Conclusion. Use of Hypozalix spray or propolis mouthwash in association with CHX mouthwash and fluconazole simultaneously at the start of chemotherapy resulted in a decrease in chemotherapy complications after 14 days. In many cases the use of propolis mouthwash yielded better results and the patients exhibited a greater tendency to continue to use it. PMID:28096948

  3. EFFECT OF SELECTIVE ELIMINATION OF THE ORAL FLORA ON MUCOSITIS IN IRRADIATED HEAD AND NECK-CANCER PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPIJKERVET, FKL; VANSAENE, HKF; VANSAENE, JJM; PANDERS, AK; VERMEY, A; MEHTA, DM; FIDLER, [No Value

    Recently it has been reported that chlorhexidine 0.1% rinsing was not successful in eradication of gram-negative bacilli in patients who have head and neck cancer. These bacilli could play a role in irradiation mucositis. This study reports the effect of lozenges containing 2 mg polymyxin E, 1.8 mg

  4. Effect of selective elimination of the oral flora on mucositis in irradiated head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spijkervet, F.K.; Van Saene, H.K.; Van Saene, J.J.; Panders, A.K.; Vermey, A.; Mehta, D.M.; Fidler, V. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1991-03-01

    Recently it has been reported that chlorhexidine 0.1% rinsing was not successful in eradication of gram-negative bacilli in patients who have head and neck cancer. These bacilli could play a role in irradiation mucositis. This study reports the effect of lozenges containing 2 mg polymyxin E, 1.8 mg tobramycin, and 10 mg amphotericin B qid on the oropharyngeal flora in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients. The results were compared with those of a previous study in two groups of 15 patients comparing chlorhexidine rinsing with placebo. In all patients using lozenges, eradication of gram-negative bacilli and yeasts was achieved within 3 weeks. A significant increase of enterococci was found. Mucositis was significantly reduced compared with the previous two groups. All patients showed erythema only, whereas 80% of both the placebo and chlorhexidine rinsing patients suffered from severe mucositis, with signs of pseudomembranes developing from the third week of conventional irradiation protocol. The effect of selective elimination of gram-negative bacilli from the oropharynx and the prevention of severe mucositis may be explained by the eradication of these bacteria and/or neutralization of salivary endotoxin, released by gram-negative bacilli, mediating the inflammatory processes.

  5. Azilsartan reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels, increased IL-10 levels and upregulated VEGF, FGF, KGF, and TGF-α in an oral mucositis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurigena Antunes de Araújo

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis (OM is a common complication of treatments for head and neck cancer, particularly radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. OM is characterised by oral erythema, ulceration, and pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of azilsartan (AZT, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced oral mucositis (OM in Syrian hamsters. OM was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 5-FU on experimental days 1 (60 mg/Kg and 2 (40 mg/Kg. Animals were pretreated with oral AZT (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg or vehicle 30 min before 5-FU injection and daily until day 10. Experimental treatment protocols were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee Use/CEUA (Number 28/2012 of the UFRN. Macroscopic analysis and cheek pouch samples were removed for histopathologic analysis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO, Malonyldialdehyde (MDA, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-10 (IL-10, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were analysed by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, and transforming growth factor (TGF-α were measured by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni's test was used to calculate the means of intergroup differences (p ≤ 0.05. Treatment with 1 mg/kg AZT reduced levels MPO (p<0.01, MDA (p<0.5 and histological inflammatory cell infiltration, and increased the presence of granulation tissue. AZT treatment at 1 mg/kg reduced the TNF-α (p<0.05 and IL-1β (p<0.05 levels, increased the cheek pouch levels of IL-10 (p<0.01, and upregulated VEGF, FGF, KGF, and TGF-α. Administration of AZT at higher doses (5 and 10 mg/kg did not significantly reverse the OM. AZT at a dose of 1 mg/kg prevented the mucosal damage and inflammation associated with 5-FU-induced OM, increasing granulation and tissue repair.

  6. Saliva and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2013-01-01

    Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival

  7. Saliva and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2013-01-01

    Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival

  8. Saliva and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In

  9. Saliva and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In

  10. Evaluating Effectiveness of Axiostat Hemostatic Material in achieving Hemostasis and Healing of Extraction Wounds in Patients on Oral Antiplatelet Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saurabh; Kale, Tejraj P; Balihallimath, Lingaraj J; Motimath, Abhishek

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Axiostat Hemostatic Dental dressing in achieving hemostasis postextraction and determining its effect on pain and healing of the extraction wound, compared with control, i.e., conventional method of extraction in patients on oral antiplatelet therapy. Totally, 40 patients on oral antiplatelet drugs were included in the study and overall 80 extractions were done applying split mouth study design, without altering patient's drug regime. Extraction sites were divided into two groups: Group I received Axiostat Hemostatic Dental Dressing (study site), and group II received conventional method; pressure pack with sterile gauze under biting pressure followed by suturing if required (control site) was used to attain hemostasis. Extraction sites treated with Axiostat Hemostatic Dressing achieved hemostasis earlier (mean 1 minute 13 seconds) compared with control sites (mean = 14 minutes 1 second), which was also statistically significant (p patients on oral antiplatelet drugs postextraction. In addition, it even offered minimal postoperative pain and improved healing of the extraction wound. On comparing the results of this study with our study on HemCon Dental Dressing, Axiostat Dental Dressing (ADD) is found to be as effective and at par in achieving hemostasis in patients on oral antiplatelet therapy. The past few decades have seen an upsurge in use of low-dose aspirin either alone or in combination with other drugs. When these patients require dental/maxillofacial treatment, earlier concept of stopping these medications is associated with increased risk of thromboembolic event. The present study highlights an alternative approach using ADD which aids in quick hemostasis, accentuates healing, and reduce postoperative pain.

  11. Efficacy of Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E for reduction of oral mucositis after radiotherapy. Results of a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind phase III multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W.; Herrmann, T. [Univ. of Technology, Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E (proteolytic enzymes) for amelioration of early side effects of radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors, particularly oral mucositis. Patients and Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, triple-blind phase III study with parallel groups. 69 patients with carcinomas of the oropharynx or the oral cavity were enrolled between 1996 and 2000 in five centers; 54 of these were recruited in Dresden. Of the 69 patients, 61 (Dresden: 46) were available for analysis. The proteolytic enzymes tested (Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E) comprised papain 100 mg, trypsin 40 mg, and chymotrypsin 40 mg. Results: Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E was well tolerated. For the maximum mucositis scores, no statistically significant differences were found between the placebo and the verum group. The average mucositis score over weeks 1-6 revealed a significant difference in favor of the placebo arm, based on an earlier onset of mucositis in the Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E group. Conclusion: The present study failed to demonstrate any effect of treatment with Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E on radiotherapy side effects in patients treated for head-and-neck tumors. In particular, there was no beneficial effect on radiation-induced early oral mucositis. (orig.)

  12. 昂丹司琼口腔黏附片的制备及评价%Preparation and evaluation of ondansetron oral mucosal adhesive tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友智; 王力

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate an oral mucosal adhesive tablet containing ondansetron hydrochioride. Methods The tablets were prepared with carbopol (CP 934), sodium alginate, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose low viscosity (SCMC LV). Special punches and dies were fabricated and used in preparing oral mucosal adhesive tablets. The study was appraised by different parameters such as drug content, swelling index, in vitro drug release studies, and mucoadhesive strength. Results The optimized formulation was composed of ondansetron (5 mg), CP 934 (30 rag), SCMC LV (165 mg), PEG-6000 (40 mg), lactose (10 mg), magnesium stearate (1.5 mg), and aspar-tame (2 mg). Conclusion Compared with ondansetron ordinary tablets, buccal adhesive ondansetron tablets have good dosage form, maximum release and permeation. Ondansetron oral mucosal adhesive tablets are an alternative route to bypass the hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of ondansetron.%目的 制备及评价盐酸昂丹司琼口腔黏附片.方法 采用相关的黏膜黏着剂卡波姆(CP934)、海藻酸钠、低黏度羧甲基纤维素钠( SCMCLV),用直接压片法压片,对黏附片的不同参数如药物含量,体外溶胀百分率、药物体外释放度和黏附力进行评价.结果 筛选出最佳配方:昂丹司琼5mg、CP934 30 mg、SCMC 165 mg、聚乙二醇-6000 40 mg,乳糖10mg、硬脂酸镁1.5 mg和阿斯巴甜2mg.结论 与昂丹司琼的普通片剂进行比较,昂丹司琼口腔黏附片体外药物释放和渗透都很好,既避免了肝脏首过效应,提高了昂丹司琼的生物利用度;又避免了昂丹司琼的苦味,更易于为患者所接受.

  13. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  14. Efficacy and safety of rebamipide liquid for chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, T; Ogawa, T; Takahashi, S; Okami, K; Fujii, T; Tanaka, K; Iwae, S; Ota, I; Ueda, T; Monden, N; Matsuura, K; Kojima, H; Ueda, S; Sasaki, K; Fujimoto, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Beppu, T; Nishimori, H; Hirano, S; Naka, Y; Matsushima, Y; Fujii, M; Tahara, M

    2017-05-05

    Recent preclinical and phase I studies have reported that rebamipide decreased the severity of chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer. This placebo-controlled randomized phase II study assessed the clinical benefit of rebamipide in reducing the incidence of severe chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Patients aged 20-75 years with HNC who were scheduled to receive chemoradiotherapy were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive rebamipide 2% liquid, rebamipide 4% liquid, or placebo. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade ≥ 3 oral mucositis determined by clinical examination and assessed by central review according to the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events version 3.0. Secondary endpoints were the time to onset of grade ≥ 3 oral mucositis and the incidence of functional impairment (grade ≥ 3) based on the evaluation by the Oral Mucositis Evaluation Committee. From April 2014 to August 2015, 97 patients with HNC were enrolled, of whom 94 received treatment. The incidence of grade ≥ 3 oral mucositis was 29% and 25% in the rebamipide 2% and 4% groups, respectively, compared with 39% in the placebo group. The proportion of patients who did not develop grade ≥ 3 oral mucositis by day 50 of treatment was 57.9% in the placebo group, whereas the proportion was 68.0% in the rebamipide 2% group and 71.3% in the rebamipide 4% group. The incidences of adverse events potentially related to the study drug were 16%, 26%, and 13% in the placebo, rebamipide 2%, and rebamipide 4% groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in treatment compliance among the groups. The present phase II study suggests that mouth washing with rebamipide may be effective and safe for patients with HNC receiving chemoradiotherapy, and 4% liquid is the optimal dose of rebamipide. ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT02085460 (the date of trial registration: March

  15. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter; Vág, János

    2017-01-01

    The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7-12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation.

  16. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter

    2017-01-01

    The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7–12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation. PMID:28232940

  17. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Molnár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft® to connective tissue grafts (CTG on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7–12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation.

  18. Effect of low-level laser therapy on inflammatory mediator release during chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Geisa Badauy Lauria; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Othon-Leite, Angélica Ferreira; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Arantes, Adriano Moraes; Bariani, César; Duarte, Luciana Garcia Lobo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira; Queiroz-Júnior, Celso Martins; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are submitted to a conditioning regimen of high-dose chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, which usually results in oral ulcerations and mucosal barrier breakdown. Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and debilitating toxicity side effect of autologous and allogeneic HSCT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the severity of OM and inflammatory mediator (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β, metalloproteinases, and growth factors) levels in saliva and blood of HSCT patients. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to two groups: control (n = 15) and laser (n = 15). LLLT was applied from the first day of the conditioning regimen until day 7 post-HSCT (D + 7). Saliva and blood were collected from patients on admission (AD), D-1, D + 3, D + 7, and on marrow engraftment day (ME). Clinical results showed less severe OM in the laser group (p < 0.05). The LLLT group showed increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels in saliva on D + 7 (p = 0.04). Significant differences were also observed for IL-10 on D + 7 and on ME in blood plasma, when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). No significant differences were seen in saliva or blood for the other inflammatory mediators investigated. LLLT was clinically effective in reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced OM in HSCT patients, and its mechanism of action does not seem to be completely linked to the modulation of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors or matrix metalloproteinases.

  19. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus- indica mucilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Vázquez-Ramírez; Marisela Olguín-Martínez; Carlos Kubli-Garfias; Rolando Hernández-Mu(n)oz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats.METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5'-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined.Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included.RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect.The activity of 5'-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes.CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids,mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage.

  20. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Tamaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  1. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  2. Narrow band (light) imaging of oral mucosa in routine dental patients. Part I: Assessment of value in detection of mucosal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Edmond L; Dean, David; Maltby, Samuel; Griffith, Matthew; Huggins, Kimberly; Griffith, Mickealla; Taylor, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the value of adding narrow band (light) imaging (NBI) to the standard oral soft tissue examination process used to detect mucosal change. A total of 620 dental patients who came to the clinic for regular dental evaluation or for treatment of acute dental problems were given a standard oral soft tissue examination by dental students under faculty supervision. The results of the white light examination were recorded after the tissues were examined with NBI, at which point areas with a loss of fluorescence (LOF) were recorded. The nature of the tissue change was classified clinically as normal variation, inflammatory, traumatic, dysplastic, or other, and patients were categorized depending on their clinical findings: normal, need follow-up visit, or immediate biopsy. Risk factors related to oral dysplasia also were recorded. The addition of NBI added between one and two minutes to the examination process. Of the 620 examinations, an area with an LOF suggestive of pathology was detected in 69 subjects (11.1%). After a second immediate evaluation, 28 of the 69 subjects were scheduled for follow-up or biopsy. None of the lesions discovered in these 28 subjects had been detected using standard (white light) examination. Adding NBI to the routine clinical examination resulted in detection of changes not seen with white light examination in 11.1% of patients; of these, a small but important number were found to have otherwise undetected persistent changes representing inflammatory lesions or potentially dangerous oral dysplasia. Adding NBI as an adjunctive diagnostic procedure improved the quality and outcome of the examination process.

  3. DMFT index and oral mucosal lesions associated with HIV infection: cross-sectional study in Porto Velho, Amazonian region - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Queiroz Aleixo

    Full Text Available We evaluated the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth index and the prevalence of candidiasis, linear gingival erythema, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex, aphthous ulcers, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma, as well as the association with TCD4 count, viral load (VL and antiretroviral therapy (ART in 140 HIV-infected adult individuals. A standardized examination to determine the DMFT index and the presence of oral lesions was conducted. Demographic data, TCD4 count and use of ART were obtained from medical records. A high number of decayed teeth detected among patients undergoing ART resulted in a mean DMFT of 16.9 teeth. It was observed that 24.2% of the individuals had at least one oral lesion. Candidiasis was the most frequent lesion and was associated with the TCD4 count. Oral hairy leukoplakia was associated with an increased VL. Regular use of ART was inversely associated with the occurrence of lesions. Overall, the studied population showed low prevalence of oral lesions and high DMFT index. The use of ART seems to reduce the occurrence of these lesions. Higher TCD4 count and a lower VL were associated with an improved oral health status in HIV + individuals

  4. Habits with killer instincts: in vivo analysis on the severity of oral mucosal alterations using autofluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer Shaiju, S.; Ariya, Saraswathy; Asish, Rajasekharan; Salim Haris, Padippurakkakath; Anita, Balan; Arun Kumar, Gupta; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2011-08-01

    Oral habits like chewing and smoking are main causes of oral cancer, which has a higher mortality rate than many other cancer forms. Currently, the long term survival rate of oral cancer is less than 50%, as a majority of cases are detected very late. The clinician's main challenge is to differentiate among a multitude of red, white, or ulcerated lesions. Hence, new noninvasive, reliable, and fast techniques for the discrimination of oral cavity disorders are to be developed. This study includes autofluorescence spectroscopic screening of normal volunteers with and without lifestyle oral habits and patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). The spectra from different sites of habitués, non-habitués, and OSF patients were analyzed using the intensity ratio, redox ratio, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The spectral disparities among these groups are well demonstrated in the emission regions of collagen and Flavin adenine dinucleotide. We observed that LDA gives better efficiency of classification than the intensity ratio technique. Even the differentiation of habitués and non-habitués could be well established with LDA. The study concludes that the clinical application of autofluorescence spectroscopy along with LDA, yields spontaneous screening among individuals, facilitating better patient management for clinicians and better quality of life for patients.

  5. DMFT index and oral mucosal lesions associated with HIV infection: cross-sectional study in Porto Velho, Amazonian region - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Queiroz Aleixo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth index and the prevalence of candidiasis, linear gingival erythema, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex, aphthous ulcers, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma, as well as the association with TCD4 count, viral load (VL and antiretroviral therapy (ART in 140 HIV-infected adult individuals. A standardized examination to determine the DMFT index and the presence of oral lesions was conducted. Demographic data, TCD4 count and use of ART were obtained from medical records. A high number of decayed teeth detected among patients undergoing ART resulted in a mean DMFT of 16.9 teeth. It was observed that 24.2% of the individuals had at least one oral lesion. Candidiasis was the most frequent lesion and was associated with the TCD4 count. Oral hairy leukoplakia was associated with an increased VL. Regular use of ART was inversely associated with the occurrence of lesions. Overall, the studied population showed low prevalence of oral lesions and high DMFT index. The use of ART seems to reduce the occurrence of these lesions. Higher TCD4 count and a lower VL were associated with an improved oral health status in HIV + individuals

  6. Efficacy of cryotherapy associated with laser therapy for decreasing severity of melphalan-induced oral mucositis during hematological stem-cell transplantation: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Eduardo, Fernanda; Bezinelli, Leticia Mello; da Graça Lopes, Roberta Marques; Nascimento Sobrinho, Jairo Jose; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Correa, Luciana

    2015-09-01

    Melphalan followed by hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is the standard treatment for multiple myeloma and other hematopoietic neoplasms. However, high doses of melphalan cause severe oral mucositis (OM). The objective was to verify the efficacy of cryotherapy plus laser therapy on reduction of OM severity. HSCT patients undergoing melphalan chemotherapy (n = 71) were randomly divided into two groups according to OM treatment: oral cryotherapy performed with ice chips for 1 h 35 min followed by low-level laser therapy (InGaAIP, 660 nm, 40 mW, 6 J/cm(2) ) (n = 54) and laser therapy alone with the same protocol (n = 17). A control group (n = 33) was composed of HSCT patients treated with melphalan who received no specific treatment for OM. OM scores and clinical information were collected from D0 to D + 11. The cryotherapy/laser therapy group showed the lowest OM scores (maximum Grade I) and the lowest mean number of days (8 days) with OM in comparison with the other groups (p cryotherapy with laser therapy was effective in reducing OM severity in HSCT patients who underwent melphalan conditioning.

  7. The effects of oral administration of Yunnan Baiyao on blood coagulation in beagle dogs as measured by kaolin-activated thromboelastography and buccal mucosal bleeding times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jami; Boysen, Søren; Wagg, Catherine; Chalhoub, Serge

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of oral administration of Yunnan Baiyao (YB) on hemostasis by measuring buccal mucosal bleeding times (BMBTs) and doing citrated kaolin-activated whole-blood thromboelastography (TEG). In a randomized controlled crossover trial 8 beagle dogs were given either placebo or 1000 mg of YB orally every 12 h for 5 consecutive treatments. Blood was drawn 24 h before treatment and 2 and 24 h after the last treatment, and the BMBT was measured in each sample in duplicate. The TEG analysis was done in duplicate 60 ± 5 min after sample collection. There were no adverse effects of treatment and no significant differences between the control and treatment BMBTs or TEG parameters at any time point. Significant differences were found between baseline and 24 h after the last treatment within the treatment group for the TEG parameters LY30 and LY60 and within the control group for the TEG parameters MA, G, LY30, and LY60. Thus, at the dose and frequency of administration in this study YB did not appear to have any clinically significant effects on the measured coagulation parameters. The differences within the treatment group were likely due to analytic error since similar differences were seen in the control group. Further studies with a larger sample, as well as more direct measures of platelet function, are needed.

  8. Treatment of oral mucositis in hematologic patients undergoing autologous or allogeneic transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells: a prospective, randomized study with a mouthwash containing Camelia Sinensis leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carulli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is an important side effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST, mainly due to toxicity of conditioning regimens. It produces significant pain and morbidity. The present study reports a prospective, randomized, non-blinded study testing the efficacy of a new mouthwash, called Baxidil Onco® (Sanitas Farmaceutici Srl, Tortona, Italy in 60 hematologic patients undergoing HCST (28 autologous, 32 allogeneic. Baxidil Onco®, used three times a day from Day -1 to Day +30, in addition to standard prophylactic schedules, was administered to 14 patients undergoing autologous and 14 patients undergoing allogeneic HCST. The remaining 32 patients (14 autologous and 18 HCST were treated only with standard prophylactic schedules and served as control. In our study, the overall incidence of oral mucositis, measured according to the World Health Organization 0-4 scale, was 50% in the Baxidl Onco® group versus 82% in the control group (P=0.022. In addition, a significant reduction in scale 2-4 oral mucositis was observed in the Baxidil Onco® group (25% vs 56.2%; P=0.0029. The results obtained indicate that incidence, severity and duration of oral mucositis induced by conditioning regi- mens for HCST can be significantly reduced by oral rinsing with Baxidil Onco®, in addition to the standard prophylaxis scheme. Since Camelia Sinensin extract, which is used to produce green tea, is the main agent in this mouthwash, we hypothesize that the anti-oxidative properties of polyphenolic compounds of tea might exert protective effects on oral mucosa.

  9. Treatment of Oral Mucositis in Hematologic Patients Undergoing Autologous or Allogeneic Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells: a Prospective, Randomized Study with a Mouthwash Containing Camelia Sinensis Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulli, Giovanni; Rocco, Melania; Panichi, Alessia; Chios, Chiara Feira; Ciurli, Ester; Mannucci, Chiara; Sordi, Elisabetta; Caracciolo, Francesco; Papineschi, Federico; Benedetti, Edoardo; Petrini, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is an important side effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST), mainly due to toxicity of conditioning regimens. It produces significant pain and morbidity. The present study reports a prospective, randomized, non-blinded study testing the efficacy of a new mouthwash, called Baxidil Onco® (Sanitas Farmaceutici Srl, Tortona, Italy) in 60 hematologic patients undergoing HCST (28 autologous, 32 allogeneic). Baxidil Onco®, used three times a day from Day -1 to Day +30, in addition to standard prophylactic schedules, was administered to 14 patients undergoing autologous and 14 patients undergoing allogeneic HCST. The remaining 32 patients (14 autologous and 18 HCST) were treated only with standard prophylactic schedules and served as control. In our study, the overall incidence of oral mucositis, measured according to the World Health Organization 0-4 scale, was 50% in the Baxidl Onco® group versus 82% in the control group (P=0.022). In addition, a significant reduction in scale 2-4 oral mucositis was observed in the Baxidil Onco® group (25% vs 56.2%; P=0.0029). The results obtained indicate that incidence, severity and duration of oral mucositis induced by conditioning regimens for HCST can be significantly reduced by oral rinsing with Baxidil Onco®, in addition to the standard prophylaxis scheme. Since Camelia Sinensin extract, which is used to produce green tea, is the main agent in this mouthwash, we hypothesize that the anti-oxidative properties of polyphenolic compounds of tea might exert protective effects on oral mucosa. PMID:23888242

  10. High prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral mucosal lesions of patients at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Mariana Goveia Melo; MARCOLINO, Larissa Doddi; RAMOS, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade; MIRANDA, Elaine Alves; TRENTO, Cleverson Luciano; JAIN, Sona; GURGEL, Ricardo Queiroz; da SILVA, Márcia Guimarães; DOLABELLA, Silvio Santana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral carcinogenesis is still controversial as detection rates of the virus in oral cavity reported in the literature varies greatly. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection and its genotypes in patients with oral lesions at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Material and Methods We conducted a molecular study with 21 patients (15 females) aged from two to 83 years with clinically detectable oral lesions. Samples were collected through exfoliation of lesions and HPV-DNA was identified using MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. Results Benign, premalignant and malignant lesions were diagnosed by histopathology. HPV was detected in 17 samples. Of these, HPV-6 was detected in 10 samples, HPV-18 in four and HPV-16 in one sample. When samples were categorized by lesion types, HPV was detected in two papilloma cases (2/3), five carcinomas (5/6), one hyperplasia (1/1) and nine dysplasia cases (9/11). Conclusion Unlike other studies in the literature, we reported high occurrence of HPV in oral lesions. Further studies are required to enhance the comprehension of natural history of oral lesions. PMID:28198978

  11. Oral mucositis in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: clinical outcomes in a context of specialized oral care using low-level laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Fernanda de Paula; Bezinelli, Leticia Mello; de Carvalho, Danielle Lima Corrêa; Lopes, Roberta Marques da Graça; Fernandes, Juliana Folloni; Brumatti, Melina; Vince, Carolina Sgaroni Camargo; de Azambuja, Alessandra Milani Prandini; Vogel, Cristina; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Correa, Luciana

    2015-05-01

    OM is a painful inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa, derived from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. High OM severity is frequently present in HSCT pediatric patients, who exhibit multiple painful ulcers that limit their mastication and swallowing, leading to poor nutritional status. Few studies have demonstrated OM clinical outcomes in young patients undergoing HSCT. Feasibility of oral care and LLLT on OM prophylaxis and treatment is also poorly discussed. The aim of this study was to describe a specialized oral care protocol that included LLLT for pediatric patients undergoing transplantation and to demonstrate the clinical outcomes after OM prevention and treatment. Data from OM-related morbidity were collected from 51 HSCT pediatric patients treated daily with LLLT, followed by standard oral care protocols. All the patients, even infants and young children, accepted the daily oral care and LLLT well. The majority (80.0%) only exhibited erythema in the oral mucosa, and the maximum OM degree was WHO II. Patients who had undergone autologous and HLA-haploidentical transplants showed OM with the lowest severity. The frequency of total body irradiation and methotrexate prescriptions was higher in adolescents when compared with infants (p = 0.044), and adolescents also exhibited OM more severely than infants and young children. We found that good clinical outcomes were obtained using this therapy, mainly in regard to the control of OM severity and pain reduction in the oral cavity. Specialized oral care, including LLLT, is feasible and affordable for HSCT pediatric patients, although some adaptation in the patient's oral hygiene routine must be adopted with help from parents/companions and clinical staff.

  12. 8-prenylnaringenin and tamoxifen inhibit the shedding of irradiated epithelial cells and increase the latency period of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Cell culture and murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryck, Tine de; Impe, Annouchka van; Bracke, Marc E. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Vanhoecke, Barbara W. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent (Belgium); Heyerick, Arne [Ghent University, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Ghent (Belgium); Vakaet, Luc; Neve, Wilfried de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent (Belgium); Mueller, Doreen [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Margret [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site Dresden and German Cancer Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, CCC, and CD-Laboratory RadOnc, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    The major component in the pathogenesis of oral radiation-induced mucositis is progressive epithelial hypoplasia and eventual ulceration. Irradiation inhibits cell proliferation, while cell loss at the surface continues. We conceived to slow down this desquamation by increasing intercellular adhesion, regulated by the E-cadherin/catenin complex. We investigated if 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) or tamoxifen (TAM) decrease the shedding of irradiated human buccal epithelial cells in vitro and thus delay the ulcerative phase of radiation-induced mucositis in vivo. In vitro, aggregates of buccal epithelial cells were irradiated and cultured in suspension for 11 days. 8-PN or TAM were investigated regarding their effect on cell shedding. In vivo, the lower tongue surface of mice was irradiated with graded single doses of 25 kV X-rays. The incidence, latency, and duration of the resulting mucosal ulcerations were analyzed after topical treatment with 8-PN, TAM or solvent. 8-PN or TAM prevented the volume reduction of the irradiated cell aggregates during the incubation period. This was the result of a higher residual cell number in the treated versus the untreated irradiated aggregates. In vivo, topical treatment with 8-PN or TAM significantly increased the latency of mucositis from 10.9 to 12.1 and 12.4 days respectively, while the ulcer incidence was unchanged. 8-PN and TAM prevent volume reduction of irradiated cell aggregates in suspension culture. In the tongues of mice, these compounds increase the latency period. This suggests a role for these compounds for the amelioration of radiation-induced mucositis in the treatment of head and neck tumors. (orig.) [German] Die wesentliche Komponente in der Pathogenese der radiogenen Mukositis ist eine progressive epitheliale Hypoplasie und letztendlich Ulzeration. Die Bestrahlung hemmt die Zellproliferation, waehrend der Zellverlust an der Oberflaeche fortbesteht. Wir versuchten, diese Desquamation durch eine Stimulation der

  13. [Non-invasive assessment used to evaluate the nasal and oral mucosal cytological status in sociohygienic monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaeva, N N; Ponomareva, O Iu; Aleksandrova, V P; Olesinov, A A; Budarina, O V; Gasimova, Z M

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing their own studies and the results of other studies by other investigators, the authors provide evidence that the noninvasive evaluation of the nasal and oral cytological status is one of techniques for assessing the health status and reflects the organism's state varying with environmental pollution, which enables it to be recommended for sociohygienic monitoring.

  14. Thermographic monitoring of wound healing and oral health-related quality of life in patients treated with laser (aPDT) after impacted mandibular third molar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinjan, G; Zore, Z; Čelebić, A; Papić, M; Gabrić Pandurić, D; Filipović Zore, I

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of low-level laser therapy on wound swelling, wound temperature changes, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. Forty patients with impacted lower third molars requiring surgical removal participated in this study; all were Pell-Gregory class IIB or IIC. The patients were divided randomly into two groups for post-extraction therapy. One group received antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and the other received no additional therapy (placebo group). Temperature measurements were done using an infrared thermographic camera on days 3 and 7 postoperative. OHRQoL was assessed in both groups on day 7 using the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire translated into Croatian (OHIP-14-CRO). Prior to surgical treatment, there was no difference in patient characteristics between the two groups. A significantly lower temperature and less wound swelling were recorded on day 3 postoperative in the aPDT group compared to the control group (Plower OHIP-14-CRO summary scores (P<0.01). The present study showed beneficial effects of the aPDT modality of low-level laser therapy: postoperative wound swelling was reduced and wound temperature decreased, and OHRQoL was better through the 7-day postoperative period in comparison to the placebo group.

  15. High prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral mucosal lesions of patients at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mariana Goveia Melo; Marcolino, Larissa Doddi; Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade; Miranda, Elaine Alves; Trento, Cleverson Luciano; Jain, Sona; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Silva, Márcia Guimarães da; Dolabella, Silvio Santana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection and its genotypes in patients with oral lesions at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. We conducted a molecular study with 21 patients (15 females) aged from two to 83 years with clinically detectable oral lesions. Samples were collected through exfoliation of lesions and HPV-DNA was identified using MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. Benign, premalignant and malignant lesions were diagnosed by histopathology. HPV was detected in 17 samples. Of these, HPV-6 was detected in 10 samples, HPV-18 in four and HPV-16 in one sample. When samples were categorized by lesion types, HPV was detected in two papilloma cases (2/3), five carcinomas (5/6), one hyperplasia (1/1) and nine dysplasia cases (9/11). Unlike other studies in the literature, we reported high occurrence of HPV in oral lesions. Further studies are required to enhance the comprehension of natural history of oral lesions.

  16. The effect of 25% Mauli banana stem extract gel to increase the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mauli banana is a special plant of South Borneo that can be used as alternatif medicine for wound healing wound healing. Recent studies showed that Mauli banana stem contained some compound such as flavonoid, saponin, and tannin that had antibacterial and antiinflamation effect, and can accelerate the wound healing. Purpose: This study was aimed to know the effect of 25% Mauli banana extract gel to the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa. Method: It was the real experimental with post test only control group design. It used 36 Sprague dawley rats that divided into 3 groups: the negative control group by giving aquadest, the positive control group by giving drug contain Aloe vera, and the treatment group by giving 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. Biopsy was done on day 3, 5, 7 and the preparat was made to measure the thickness of oral mucosa epithel by Image J software. Result: The result showed that 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem can increased the thickness of oral mucosa epithel on third day (51.26 µm, fifth days (108.49 µm, and seventh day (170.66 µm. The top thickness of mucosa epithel was on the seventh day. Two-ways Anova and Post Hoc LSD (p<0.05 showed the significant different between aquadest and 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem and drug contains Aloe vera are the aqual of meaningfull. Conclusion: 25%ethanol extract of Mauli banana can increase the epithelial thickness of wound healing procces in oral mucosa.

  17. Effects of quercetin on hyper-proliferation of gastric mucosal cells in rats treated with chronic oral ethanol through the reactive oxygen species-nitric oxide pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Li Liu; Jun Du; Ling-Ling Fan; Xiao-Yan Liu; Luo Gu; Ying-Bin Ge

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of quercetin (3,3,4',5,7-pentahydroxy flavone),a major flavonoid in human diet,on hyper-proliferation of gastric mucosal cells in rats treated with chronic oral ethanol.METHODS:Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 200-250 g,were randomly divided into control group (tap water ad//b/tum),ethanol treatment group (6 mL/L ethanol),quercetin treatment group (intragastric garage with 100 mg/kg of quercetin per day),and ethanol plus quercetin treatment group (quercetin and 6 mL/L ethanol).Expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cyclin D1 were detected by Western blot to assay gastric mucosal cell proliferation in rats.To demonstrate the influence of quercetin on the production of extra-cellular reactive oxygen species/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in rats,changes in levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBAR5),protein carbonyl,nitrite and nitrate (NOx) and nitrotyrosine (NT) were determined.The activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) including iNOS and nNOS was also detected by Western blot,RESULTS:Compared to control animals,cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa of animals subjected to ethanol treatment for 7 days was significant increased (increased to 290% for PCNA density P < 0.05,increased to150 for Cyclin D1 density P < 0.05 and 21.6 + 0.8 vs 42.3 + 0.7 for PCNA positive cells per view field),accompanied by an increase in ROS generation (1.298 ± 0.135 μmol vs 1.772 ± 0.078 μmol for TBARS P < 0.05;4.36 + 0.39 mmol vs 7.48 4- 0.40 mmol for carbonyl contents P < 0.05) and decrease in NO generation (11.334 + 0.467 μmol vs 7.978 ± 0.334 μmol P < 0.01 for NOx;8.986 ± 1.351 μmol vs 6.854 ± 0.460 μmol for nitrotyrosine P < 0.01) and nNOS activity (decreased to 43% P < 0.05).This function was abolished by the co-administration of quercetin.CONCLUSION:The antioxidant action of quercetin relies,in part,on its ability to stimulate nNOS and enhance production of NO that

  18. [Oral problems in divers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  19. [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol, active ingredients of the traditional Japanese medicine hangeshashinto, relief oral ulcerative mucositis-induced pain via action on Na(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Suzuro; Ono, Kentaro; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Chinami; Mizuno, Keita; Yamaguchi, Kiichiro; Imai, Ryota; Omiya, Yuji; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

    2017-03-01

    The traditional Japanese herbal medicine hangeshashinto (HST) has beneficial effects for the treatment of oral ulcerative mucositis (OUM) in cancer patients. However, the ingredient-based mechanism that underlies its pain-relieving activity remains unknown. In the present study, to clarify the analgesic mechanism of HST on OUM-induced pain, we investigated putative HST ingredients showing antagonistic effects on Na(+) channels in vitro and in vivo. A screen of 21 major ingredients using automated patch-clamp recordings in channel-expressing cells showed that [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol, two components of a Processed Ginger extract, considerably inhibited voltage-activated Na(+) currents. These two ingredients inhibited the stimulant-induced release of substance P and action potential generation in cultured rat sensory neurons. A submucosal injection of a mixture of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold in healthy rats. In a rat OUM model, OUM-induced mechanical pain was alleviated 30min after the swab application of HST despite the absence of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory actions in the OUM area. A swab application of a mixture of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol induced sufficient analgesia of OUM-induced mechanical or spontaneous pain when co-applied with a Ginseng extract containing abundant saponin. The Ginseng extract demonstrated an acceleration of substance permeability into the oral ulcer tissue without an analgesic effect. These findings suggest that Na(+) channel blockage by gingerol/shogaol plays an essential role in HST-associated analgesia of OUM-induced pain. This pharmacological mechanism provides scientific evidence supporting the use of this herbal medicine in patients suffering from OUM-induced pain.

  20. Elevated expression of NF-kappaB in oral submucous fibrosis--evidence for NF-kappaB induction by safrole in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei-Feng; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is considered to be important in many inflammatory and immune responses. The aim of this study was to compare NF-kappaB expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further explore the potential mechanism that may lead to induction of NF-kappaB expression. Seventeen OSF and six normal buccal mucosa specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry. Primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were established and challenged with safrole, a major polyphenolic compound in the influorescence of Piper betel, by cytotoxicity and western blot assays. Furthermore, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398, dexamethasone, and cyclosporin A were added to find the possible mechanism. NF-kappaB expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens and expressed mainly by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Safrole was cytotoxic to BMFs in a dose-dependent manner (psafrole (psafrole induced-NF-kappaB expression (psafrole in fibroblasts may be mediated by ERK activation and COX-2 signal transduction pathway.

  1. Efficacy of a Solution Composed by Verbascoside, Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Chemotherapy-induced Oral Mucositis in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Schumacher, Richard Fabian; D'Ippolito, Carmelita; Porta, Fulvio; Majorana, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a solution composed by verbascoside, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and sodium hyaluronate (Mucosyte) in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositi (OM). Patients between 5 and 18 years receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and with OM grade 1 or 2 were randomized in group A (treated with Mucosyte, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d) and group B (treated with placebo, ie, an inert water-based solution, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d). The OM scoring was performed at day 1 (diagnosis of OM-T0), after 3 days of treatment (T1), and at day 8 (T2). Pain was evaluated through the visual analog scale with the same timing of OM measurement. A total of 56 patients were included (28 patients per group). Group A experienced a statistically significant decline of OM at T2 (P=0.0038); a statistically significant difference in pain reduction between 2 groups both at T1 and at T2 (P<0.005) was observed. The use of Mucosyte mouthwashes in children with chemotherapy-induced OM may be recommended as supportive therapy.

  2. Modulation of systemic and mucosal immunity against an inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus by oral co-administration of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interleukin-18 and interferon-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Masudur; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Han, Young Woo; Hur, Jin; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of chickens causing significant economic losses worldwide. Due to limitations in the efficacy against currently circulating ND viruses, existing vaccination strategies require improvements, and incorporating immunomodulatory cytokines with existing vaccines might be a novel approach. Here, we investigated the systemic and mucosal immunomodulatory properties of oral co-administration of chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) and chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α) using attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on an inactivated ND vaccine. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 or chIFN-α provided enhanced systemic and mucosal immune responses, as determined by serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody and NDV Ag-specific IgG as well as NDV Ag-specific IgA in lung and duodenal lavages of chickens immunized with inactivated ND vaccine via the intramuscular or intranasal route. Notably, combined oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 and chIFN-α significantly enhanced systemic and mucosal immunity in ND-vaccinated chickens, compared to single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 or chIFN-α. In addition, oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 and chIFN-α provided enhanced NDV Ag-specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to single administration of either construct. Therefore, our results provide valuable insight into the modulation of systemic and mucosal immunity by incorporation of immunomodulatory chIL-18 and chIFN-α using Salmonella vaccines into existing ND vaccines.

  3. Buccal Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Arlen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At our institution, the majority of buccal mucosal graft urethroplasties are performed using a two-team approach with an otolaryngologic surgeon. We report our two-surgeon experience with buccal mucosal grafting for reconstruction of all anterior urethral strictures. Twenty-four men underwent autologous buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty between October 2001 and September 2008 for recurrent urethral stricture disease. Twenty-two underwent a single-stage repair and two underwent a two-stage repair. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, comorbidities, etiology, location and length of stricture, and prior interventions in order to identify predictors of buccal urethroplasty success, defined as no evidence of stricture recurrence. All patients underwent retrograde urethrogram and cystoscopy. Operative and anesthesia times were evaluated. We determined an overall success rate of 83.3% (20 of 24 cases. Mean anesthesia time for single-stage urethroplasty was 155 min and mean operative time was 123 min. One of the two two-stage urethroplasties experienced stricture recurrence (50%. The single-stage buccal graft success rate was 86.4% (19 of 22 cases. Two of the four who developed recurrent stricture disease that required intervention had undergone a previous mesh urethroplasty. Complications developed in four of 24 patients (16.6%, including superficial wound infection (one, superficial wound dehiscence (two, and abscess/fistula formation requiring reoperation (one. The buccal mucosa is an ideal tissue for both single- and two-stage substitution urethroplasty for patients with recurrent stricture disease. Our two-surgeon technique minimizes anesthesia and operative times, and contributes to the overall high success rate and relatively low complication rate.

  4. 口腔黏膜病患者牙周健康状况调查分析%Epidemiological survey and analysis on periodontal heath status of patients with oral mucosal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小凤; 王越; 靳赢; 林晓萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the periodontal health in patients with oral mucosal diseases through epidemiology investigation methods and provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. Methods 766 patients from Department of Sto⁃matology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University were given periodontal specialist examinations and then filled in the question⁃naire. Results were statistically analyzed with SPSS software. Results The rates of the periodontal health of patients with oral mucosal diseases were fewer than 10.70%. Oral hygiene and periodontal heath were significantly affected by different genders, ages, education and oral care. The two oral mucosal diseases with the highest visiting rates were recurrent aphthous ulcer ( 34. 20%) and oral lichen planus ( 32. 64%) . The higher periodontitis prevalence rates of recurrent aphthous ulcer and oral lichen planus were 95. 42% and 92.80%, respectively. Conclusion Periodontal health is related to the onset and development of oral mucosal diseases. Reasons for bad oral conditions of patients with oral mucosal diseases and whether bad periodontal health has adverse effect on oral mucosal lesions should be analyzed from various perspectives, and active prevention measures should be taken.%目的:通过流行病学调查方法了解口腔黏膜病患者牙周健康状况,为口腔黏膜病患者牙周病的预防与治疗提供依据。方法对中国医科大学附属盛京医院口腔科门诊的黏膜病患者766人进行牙周专科检查,填写调查问卷,检查结果采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析。结果口腔黏膜病患者牙周健康者只有10.70%。不同性别、年龄、学历、口腔护理情况显著影响口腔卫生及口腔健康情况;口腔黏膜病中,患者就诊率最高的是口腔溃疡(34.20%),其次为扁平苔癣(32.64%);口腔溃疡及扁平苔藓的牙周炎患病率均较高,分别是95.42%和92

  5. Distribución de condiciones y lesiones de la mucosa bucal en pacientes adultos mexicanos Distribution for gender and age of oral mucosal alterations in adult patients

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    Alejandro Donohué Cornejo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución de condiciones y lesiones de la mucosa bucal de pacientes que asistieron a las clínicas de admisión de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. El examen clínico lo realizaron 5 especialistas en Patología Bucal previamente calibrados. El total de pacientes examinados fue de 1 152 en un período de 9 meses: 754 mujeres (65,45 % y 398 hombres (34,55 %, con un rango de edad entre 18 y 84 años (39 años como promedio. Se incluyeron en el estudio32 condiciones y lesiones; las definiciones operacionales se basaron en los criterios establecidos en la Guide to epidemiology and diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases and conditions de la OMS. Del total de pacientes, únicamente 18 (1,6 % no presentaron ninguna alteración. Las lesiones más frecuentemente diagnosticadas fueron: lesión blanca friccional con 354 casos (30,72 %, úlceras traumáticas con 132 (11,45 % y aumento tisular con causa aparente con 103 (11,28 %. Las condiciones más comunes fueron: melanosis racial con 694 casos (60,24 %, gránulos de Fordyce 634 (55,03 % y lengua fisurada 428 (37,15 %. En este estudio encontramos que las condiciones y lesiones se incrementan con la edad observándolas entre la 3ra. y 5ta. décadas de la vida.The aim of this study is to record prevalence of oral mucosal alterations in adult patients , who were attended in the clinics of the faculty of Odontology , National Autonomous University of México in México City. Clinical examination were made by specialists in Oral Pathology, this sample consisted in 1152 subjects reviewed in 9 months duration clinical trial; 754 patients were females (64.45% and 398 males (34.55% age range 18-84 yr. and a mean age of 39 yr ±15.12. We record 32 different diagnosis, 18 patients (1.6% had any lesion. The more prevalent lesions were: White fricctional lesions 354 cases (30.72%, traumatic ulcer 132 (11.45% and tissue growing as

  6. Comparative Efficacy of Aloe vera and Benzydamine Mouthwashes on Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Triple-blind, Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjamee, Mahnaz; Mansourian, Arash; Hajimirzamohammad, Mohammad; Mohammad, Haji Mirza Mohammad; Zadeh, Mohsen Taghi; Bekhradi, Reza; Kazemian, Ali; Manifar, Soheila; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Doroudgar, Kiavash

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of an Aloe vera mouthwash with a benzydamine mouthwash in the alleviation of radiation- induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients using a triple-blind, randomised controlled trial. Twenty-six eligible head and neck cancer patients who were to receive conventional radiation therapy at the radiation oncology department were randomised to receive an Aloe vera mouthwash or a benzydamine mouthwash. Mucositis severity was assessed during the course of radiation therapy using the WHO grading system. At baseline, there was no difference in the distribution of mucositis severity between the two groups. The mean interval between radiation therapy and onset of mucositis was similar for both groups (Aloe vera 15.69±7.77 days, benzydamine 15.85±12.96 days). The mean interval between the start of radiation therapy and the maximum severity of mucositis were was also similar in both the Aloe vera and benzydamine groups (Aloe vera 23.38±10.75 days, benzydamine 23.54±15.45 days). Mean changes of mucositis severity over time in both groups were statistically similar and the effect of both treatments did not change signficantly with time (p=0.09). Aloe vera mouthwash was as beneficial as benzydamine mouthwash in alleviating the severity of radiation-induced mucositis and showed no side effects. The Aloe vera mouthwash could be an alternative agent in the treatment of radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers.

  7. Th17与Treg在口腔黏膜病中的研究进展%The Advances of Th17 and Treg in Oral Mucosal Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁和震; 梁文红

    2015-01-01

    Th17细胞和Treg细胞是CD4+T淋巴细胞的新亚群,其发育和分化过程与Th1和Th2细胞是不同的,两者在功能上相互调节。Th17细胞主要介导机体的炎症反应及自身免疫性疾病的发生,而Treg细胞抑制免疫功能和维持免疫稳态有重要作用,两者存在相互转化的关系。目前研究发现Th17和Treg细胞与炎症反应性疾病,免疫性疾病和肿瘤等的发生发展相关,在口腔疾病中的作用也在逐步深入。本文就Th17细胞和Treg细胞的作用和调节及其与口腔黏膜病的研究进展做一综述。%Th17 cells and Treg cells are new subsets of CD4+T-lymphocytes,who are different from Th1 and Th2 in the process of development and differentiation,and can also regulate each other in function. The Th17 cells mainly mediates the occurrence of the body’s inflammatory response and autoimmune diseases,while the Treg cells play an important role in inhibition of immune function and maintenance of immune steady state. Also there is a relationship of mutual transformation between them. The current studys find that Th17 and Treg cells are involed in inflammatory diseases,autoimmune diseases and tumor development and also in oral diseases. This article makes a review on the function and regulation of Th17 cells and Treg cells and relations between them and oral mucosal diseases.

  8. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  9. Accelerated wound healing phenotype in Interleukin 12/23 deficient mice

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    Matias Marie AT

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept that a strong inflammatory response involving the full complement of cytokines and other mediators is critical for unimpaired healing has been challenged by wound healing studies using transgenic and knockout (KO mice. The present study explored the effect of abrogation of the p40 subunit, which is shared by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-12 and IL-23, on wound closure of excisional oral mucosal wounds. Methods Double IL-12 and IL-23 KO mice and C57BL ⁄ 6J wildtype mice were wounded on the dorsal surface of the tongue using a 2 mm biopsy punch. The degree of epithelialization was examined histologically. At specific timepoints wounds were examined for cellular and molecular markers for inflammation and angiogenesis using 1 immunohistochemistry; 2 analysis of RNA expression; and 3 flow cytometric analysis. Results Compared to wild type controls, KO mice displayed enhanced healing, which was driven by a greater influx of neutrophils and macrophages during the early stages of wound healing, and increased induction of messenger RNA (mRNA for endothelial derived neutrophil attractant (ENA78 chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 alpha (MIP-2α. Increased mRNA for monocyte-attracting chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 and MCP-3 was seen from day 1, together with higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6 within 24 hours after wounding. In addition, mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A was upregulated in KO mice within 2 hours after injury, and higher expression of this mediator was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion Overall, the accelerated oral mucosal wound healing seen in IL-12/IL-23p40 KO compared to wildtype mice was associated with the early establishment of an inflammatory response and vascularization.

  10. Experimental study on the effects of bismuth subgallate on the inflammatory process and angiogenesis of the oral mucosa

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    Eduardo Vieira Couto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Bismuth subgallate is a salt derived from heavy metal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this salt on some phases of healing. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of subgallate on mucosa and to evaluate the association between the use of bismuth subgallate and neogenesis of vessels in oral mucosal wounds. METHODS: This was a prospective and experimental study. This study used sixty rats, which were divided into control and experimental groups. The animals were submitted to a surgical procedure, which caused oral mucosal injury. A saline solution was applied on the wound of the control group, and in the experimental group, a solution of bismuth subgallate was administrated. RESULTS: The experimental group showed greater inflammatory reaction with increasing monomorphic proliferation. There was increased vessel proliferation in the control group. CONCLUSION: Bismuth subgallate had a negative influence on the healing process, delaying the rate of new vessel formation and optimal wound healing.

  11. Comparison of the chloride channel activator lubiprostone and the oral laxative Polyethylene Glycol 3350 on mucosal barrier repair in ischemic-injured porcine intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam J Moeser; Prashant K Nighot; Birgit Roerig; Ryuji Ueno; Anthony T Blikslager

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of lubiprostone and Polyethylene Glycol 3350 (PEG) on mucosal barrier repair in ischemic-injured porcine intestine.METHODS: Ileum from 6 piglets (approximately 15 kg body weight) was subjected to ischemic conditions by occluding the local mesenteric circulation for 45 min in vivo. Ileal tissues from each pig were then harvested and mounted in Ussing chambers and bathed in oxygenated Ringer's solution in vitro. Intestinal barrier function was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin. Statistical analyses of data collected over a 120-min time course included 2-way ANOVA for the effects of time and treatment on indices of barrier function.RESULTS: Application of 1 μmol/L lubiprostone to the mucosal surface of ischemic-injured ileum in vitro induced significant elevations in TER compared to non-treated tissue. Lubiprostone also reduced mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin. Alternatively, application of a polyethylene laxative (PEG, 20 mmol/L) to the mucosal surface of ischemic tissues significantly increased flux of 3H-mannitol and 14C-inulin.CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrates that lubiprostone stimulates recovery of barrier function in ischemic intestinal tissues whereas the PEG laxative had deleterious effects on mucosal repair. These results suggest that, unlike osmotic laxatives, lubiprostone stimulates repair of the injured intestinal barrier.

  12. Use of cultured mucosal grafts to cover defects caused by vestibuloplasty: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghoebar, G M; Tomson, A M; Scholma, J; Blaauw, E H; Witjes, M J; Vissink, A

    1995-08-01

    In oral and maxillofacial surgery palatal mucosal grafts are routinely used to cover mucosal defects caused by vestibuloplasty. However, the quantity of palatal mucosa is a limiting factor in more extensive operations. This study investigated whether autologous cultured sheets of mucosa can serve as a dressing for these wounds. Punch biopsies (diameter, 4 mm) were taken from the hard palate of eight patients (five men, three women; mean age 43 years). Epithelial cells were enzymatically dissociated from these tissue specimens and grown in vitro in the presence of a fibroblast feeder layer. Within 3 weeks, a transplantable epithelial sheet of about 20 cm2 was obtained. The sheet was detached from the culture flask by enzyme treatment and fixed to a carrier of Vaseline (Cheeseborough Ponds Inc, Greenwich, CT) gauze. Using a split-mouth technique, the sheet was placed on half of a mucosal defect created by vestibuloplasty, while the other half of the defect was covered by a conventional split-thickness palatal graft. Both the cultured and conventional graft were held in place by the patient's relined denture fixed with perimandibular sutures. One week postsurgery, the denture and Vaseline gauze were removed. Three months after vestibuloplasty, biopsy specimens of each grafted site were taken and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy (LM, TEM). Three months postsurgery, the grafted mucosa of both sites bore close resemblance to palatal mucosa. Both the cultured and split-thickness grafts were vascularized, did not evoke a homograft reaction, and showed a smooth graft/lip mucosal junction and minimal wound contraction. LM and TEM revealed that both types of grafts formed a fully differentiated keratinizing mucosa with a well-developed basement membrane and rete ridges, comparable with the histology and ultrastructure of palatal mucosa in situ. It was concluded from this study that cultured mucosa can serve as a proper dressing for mucosal defects

  13. 头颈部鳞癌患者同步放化疗和(或)分子靶向治疗继发口腔黏膜炎的防治%Management of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemoradiotherapy and/or molecular targeted therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣欣; 马林; 王嘉陵; 武文明; 冯林春; 黄德亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and treatment of oral mucositis caused by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and/or molecular targeted therapy in the patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods A retrospective study of the incidence and treatment of oral mucositis was performed in 179 patients (155 male and 24 female; 124 patients at stage Ⅲ and 55 patients at stage Ⅳ) receiving concurrent chemotherapy and (or) molecular targeted therapy between November 2007 and November 2010. Grade Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ and Ⅳ oral mucositis occurred respectively in 49, 50, 67 and 13 patients. All the patients received oral mucositis prophylaxis. After the occurrence of oral mucositis, conventional treatment of mucositis combined with quinolone antibiotics were applied. Results Of the patients, 99 patients with grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ and 4 patients with grade Ⅲ oral mucositis were effectively managed by conventional treatment; 76 patients with grade Ⅲ or Ⅳ oral mucositis were also significantly controled by conventional treatment plus antibiotics. After the treatments, all patients with oral mucositis were under control, with the decrease in the grade of oral mucositis, the reduction of oral pain and the improvement in ability to eat None of them had radiation treatment breaks. Conclusions Combined modality therapy can effectively control chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ oral mucositis were cured by conventional treatment and quinolone antibiotics play a key role in the treatmeats for grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ oral mucositis.%目的 探讨接受同步放化疗和(或)分子靶向药物治疗的中晚期头颈部鳞癌患者口腔黏膜炎的防治.方法 回顾性分析2007年11月至2010年11月期间接受同步放化疗和(或)分子靶向药物治疗的179例中晚期头颈部鳞癌患者口腔黏膜炎发生情况及治疗效果.男155例,女24例.临床分期:Ⅲ期124

  14. Fluconzole in treatment of acute radiation-induced oral mucositis with fungal infection%氟康唑治疗急性放射性口腔粘膜炎继发的真菌感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚原; 吴国华; 蒋马伟; 林清; 陆冬青; 翁霞

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究头颈部肿瘤放射治疗中急性放射性口腔粘膜反应与真菌感染的关系及氟康唑治疗的有效性。方法:71例口腔粘膜受到大面积照射的肿瘤病人:男性42例,女性29例;年龄52 a± s 41 a(11~76 a),在病人的口腔粘膜反应最严重的时候,做口腔粘膜真菌学检查,32例有真菌感染的病人,用氟康唑胶囊100 mg,po, qd×5 d或氟康唑注射液150 mg,iv,gtt×3 d治疗。结果:真菌的检出率为45%,以白念珠菌感染为主。有真菌感染和无真菌感染的2组病人,在急性放射性粘膜反应上差异有显著意义(P<0.05);有真菌感染的病人用氟康唑治疗,治疗前后的粘膜反应差异有显著意义(P<0.05)。结论:严重的急性放射性粘膜反应与真菌感染有密切的关系;有真菌感染的放射性口腔粘膜反应用氟康唑治疗可以明显减轻放射性粘膜反应。%AIM: To study the relation of acute radiation-induced oral mucositis to fungal infection and evaluate the effect of fluconazole in the treatment of patients with fungal infection. METHODS: Seventy-one patients (M 42, F 29; 52 a± s 41 a,11-76 a) with large area of oral mucosas irradiated were into this study. When most serious mucositis, the patients' oral mucosas were checked, 32 patients with fungal infection were treated with fluconazole (fluconazole 100 mg, po, qd×5 d or 150 mg,iv,gtt×3 d). RESULTS: The rate of fungal infection was 45%, the most of patients were infected by candida albicans. Degrees of mucositis between the patients with fungal infection to the patients without fungal infection were significantly different (P<0.05). The patients with fungal infection were treated with fluconazole. Degree of mucositis between the pretreated patients and post-treated patients were significantly different (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The serious acute radiation-induced oral mucositis has significantly related with fungal infection. The patients

  15. The Application of Oral Mucosal Free Grafts in Urethroplasty for Hypospadias%游离移植物口腔粘膜在尿道下裂成形术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永生; 李思熳; 彭明栋; 杨焕南; 孙林; 鞠海宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of oral mucosal free graft in urethroplasty for various types of hypospadias. Methods Oral mucosal free grafts were transplanted and sutured to the ventral surface of penile tunica albuginea. Using the graft as a part of reconstructed urethra could provide a clinical solution for various problems, such as poor development of urethra plate, urinary tract defect after penile curative correction, lacking of alternative surgery materials and etc. In this study, the technique of longitudinal urethral plate incision was in combination with the methods of urethral reconstruction by inlay oral mucosal graft and one-stage transverse preputial island flap urethral reconstruction with coupled urethroplasty. Results In 60 cases of patients received urethroplasty for various types of hypospadias, all the oral mucosal grafts survived and formed an important constituent of the reconstructed urethra. The penile appearances were all satisfactory, urinary fistula presented in only 5 cases, which were all successfully fixed half a year after fistula repairs. Metastatic flap necrosis occurred in 2 cases, which were all spontaneously healed after changing the dressings. Urethral stricture occurred in 3 cases, which were all cured after receiving periodic urethral dilation, the success rate of about 80% . Conclusions The application of oral mucosal free grafts in urethroplasty for hypospadias features a number of advantages, including easy material recovery , high survival rate, high mucosal thickness, high elasticity and etc. The incidences of post-operative urethral stricture and urinary fistula are relatively lower, and thus this graft could be applied to the urethroplasty procedures for various types of hypospadias.%目的 探讨游离移植物口腔粘膜在各型尿道下裂中尿道重建的应用效果.方法 将游离移植物口腔粘膜移植于阴茎腹侧白膜表面,固定.成为重建尿道一部分,以弥补尿道板的发育

  16. Risk analysis, diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal mucositis in pediatric cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Nicoline S. S.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Mucositis is a complex inflammatory reaction of the mucous membranes of the alimentary tract upon chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment in oncology patients. Mucositis can be subdivided in oral and gastrointestinal mucositis (GI mucositis). The damage to the gastrointestinal tract compromises the

  17. Oral Platelet Gel Supernatant Plus Supportive Medical Treatment Versus Supportive Medical Treatment in the Management of Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Matched Explorative Active Control Trial by Propensity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfili, Pierluigi; Gravina, Giovanni L; Marampon, Francesco; Rughetti, Anna; Di Staso, Mario; Dell'Orso, Luigi; Vittorini, Francesca; Moro, Roberto; La Verghetta, Maria E; Parente, Silvia; Reale, Marilisa; Ruggieri, Valeria; Franzese, Pietro; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Masciocchi, Carlo; Di Cesare, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    In this active control trial, the rate of radio-induced WHO grade 3/4 oral mucositis and the change in quality of life, assessed by OMWQ-HN, were measured in subjects with head and neck cancer treated by platelet gel supernatant (PGS) and supportive medical treatment versus subjects treated by supportive medical treatment alone. Eighty patients with nonmetastatic head and neck cancer underwent curative or adjuvant radiotherapy. All patients underwent supportive medical treatment and/or PGS at the beginning and during radiotherapy. Sixteen patients received PGS in association with supportive medical treatment. To obtain 2 groups virtually randomized for important clinical characteristics subjects were matched, by propensity analysis, with a group of subjects (64 patients) treated with supportive medical treatment alone. Subjects treated with standard supportive treatment experienced significant higher WHO grade 3/4 toxicity (55%; 35/64) than subjects treated by PGS (13%; 3/16). The reduced toxicity found in PGS group paralleled with the evidence that they developed later symptoms with respect to controls. The Cox proportional hazard model indicated that patients treated with standard supportive medical treatment experienced 2.7-fold increase (hazard ratio=2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.7) in the occurrence of WHO grade 3/4 toxicity. PGS group significantly experienced higher quality of life than control groups as measured by OMWQ-HN. A significant decrease in the opioid analgesics usage was found in the PGS group. These preliminary data should be interpreted with caution and could serve as a framework around which to design future trials.

  18. A Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Oral Versus Intravenous Antibiotics for the Treatment of Postoperative Wound Infection After Extremity Fractures (POvIV Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obremskey, William T; Schmidt, Andrew H; OʼToole, Robert V; DeSanto, Jennifer; Morshed, Saam; Tornetta, Paul; Murray, Clinton K; Jones, Clifford B; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Taylor, Tara J; Carlini, Anthony R; Castillo, Renan C

    2017-04-01

    Patients surgically treated for infection after extremity fractures are typically discharged with a 6- to 12-week antibiotic regimen. Intravenous (IV) antibiotics are associated with significant cost and potential complications of deep vein thrombosis, line clotting, and sepsis. Many of the pathogens that cause musculoskeletal infection have both oral (PO) and IV antibiotic options with adequate bioavailability and antibacterial effect, yet IV antibiotics remain the standard of care absent evidence that PO options are clinically as efficacious. The POvIV study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial to compare PO with IV antibiotic therapy in patients with postoperative wound infections after extremity fractures. Patients between the ages of 18 and 84 who have a culture-positive surgical site infection after internal fixation for fracture repair or arthrodesis are approached for this study, and if they provide consent, are randomly assigned to receive either PO or IV antibiotics. Antibiotic selection is based on culture and sensitivity results. Randomization determines the route of administration. Patients are followed for 1 year after study enrollment. This study will be the largest prospective randomized trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of PO antibiotic use for treatment of postoperative wound infections. Results will inform clinician decisions on antibiotic delivery in patients with postoperative wound infections.

  19. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  20. Transgenic Killer Commensal Bacteria as Mucosal Protectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As first line of defense against the majority of infections and primary site for their transmission, mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts represent the most suitable sites to deliver protective agents for the prevention of infectious diseases. Mucosal protection is important not only for life threatening diseases but also for opportunistic infections which currently represent a serious burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost of cures. Candida albicans is among the most prevalent causes of mucosal infections not only in immuno- compromised patients, such as HIV-infected subjects who are frequently affected by oral and esophageal candidiasis, but also in otherwise healthy individuals, as in the case of acute vaginitis. Unfortunately, current strategies for mucosal protection against candidiasis are severely limited by the lack of effective vaccines and the relative paucity and toxicity of commercially available antifungal drugs. An additional option has been reported in a recent

  1. Puncture Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Puncture Wounds What Is a Puncture Wound? Puncture wounds are not the same as cuts. ... professional treatment right away. Foreign Bodies in Puncture Wounds A variety of foreign bodies can become embedded ...

  2. Saliva and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I

    2014-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In addition, saliva contains several proteins which play a role in the different stages of wound healing. Saliva contains substantial amounts of tissue factor, which dramatically accelerates blood clotting. Subsequently, epidermal growth factor in saliva promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells. Secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor inhibits the tissue-degrading activity of enzymes like elastase and trypsin. Absence of this protease inhibitor delays oral wound healing. Salivary histatins in vitro promote wound closure by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration, but do not stimulate cell proliferation. A synthetic cyclic variant of histatin exhibits a 1,000-fold higher activity than linear histatin, which makes this cyclic variant a promising agent for the development of a new wound healing medication. Conclusively, recognition of the many roles salivary proteins play in wound healing makes saliva a promising source for the development of new drugs involved in tissue regeneration.

  3. Wound Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ingrid M; Culp, William T N

    2015-09-01

    Wound care requires an understanding of normal wound healing, causes of delays of wound healing, and the management of wounds. Every wound must be treated as an individual with regard to cause, chronicity, location, and level of microbial contamination, as well as patient factors that affect wound healing. Knowledge of wound care products available and when negative pressure wound therapy and drain placement is appropriate can improve outcomes with wound healing. Inappropriate product use can cause delays in healing. As a wound healing progresses, management of a wound and the bandage material used must evolve.

  4. Field Evaluation of Calypte’s AWARE™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid Tests for Detecting Antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in Plasma and Oral Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2009-01-01

    As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE ™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collected prospectively from HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons from different regions of Cameroon and tested using the AWARE ™ BSP and OMT test kits, respectively. These results were compared to the gold standard that included a combination of Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV-1/2. The BSP Rapid test kit was further evaluated using well characterized panels of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O samples. Cost and end-user analysis of the OMT test kit was done by comparing its actual cost, consumables, safety, bench time and manipulation with other test kits. Of the 732 matched samples, 412 (56.3%) and 320 (43.7%) were from females and males, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (3.1%) gave discordant results between Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV1/2 and were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the AWARE™ BSP were 100%. The AWARE™ OMT had 98.8% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.0% PPV and 99.4% NPV. The results of a well-characterized archived panel of HIV-2 (n=7) and HIV-1 group O (n=3) samples using the AWARE™ BSP Rapid test kit gave 100% concordance. Total per patient cost of the AWARE OMT rapid test kit was US$4.72 compared to a mean cost of US $7.33 ± 0.11 for the other test kits. Both the AWARE™ BSP and OMT Rapid test kits demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities on all samples tested and were well adapted for use in resource-constrained settings with high HIV

  5. Field evaluation of Calypte's AWARE blood serum plasma (BSP) and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) rapid tests for detecting antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in plasma and oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2009-03-19

    As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collected prospectively from HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons from different regions of Cameroon and tested using the AWARE BSP and OMT test kits, respectively. These results were compared to the gold standard that included a combination of Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV-1/2. The BSP Rapid test kit was further evaluated using well characterized panels of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O samples. Cost and end-user analysis of the OMT test kit was done by comparing its actual cost, consumables, safety, bench time and manipulation with other test kits. Of the 732 matched samples, 412 (56.3%) and 320 (43.7%) were from females and males, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (3.1%) gave discordant results between Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV1/2 and were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the AWARE BSP were 100%. The AWARE OMT had 98.8% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.0% PPV and 99.4% NPV. The results of a well-characterized archived panel of HIV-2 (n=7) and HIV-1 group O (n=3) samples using the AWARE BSP Rapid test kit gave 100% concordance. Total per patient cost of the AWARE OMT rapid test kit was US dollars 4.72 compared to a mean cost of US dollars 7.33 +/- 0.11 for the other test kits. Both the AWARE BSP and OMT Rapid test kits demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities on all samples tested and were well adapted for use in resource-constrained settings with high HIV

  6. Molecular Signatures in the Prevention of Radiation Damage by the Synergistic Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Qingre Liyan Decoction, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Using a 3-Dimensional Cell Culture Model of Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Lambros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD, a Traditional Chinese medicine, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC have been used to prevent radiation induced mucositis. This work evaluates the protective mechanisms of QYD, NAC, and their combination (NAC-QYD at the cellular and transcriptional level. A validated organotypic model of oral mucosal consisting of a three-dimensional (3D cell tissue-culture of primary human keratinocytes exposed to X-ray irradiation was used. Six hours after the irradiation, the tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E and a TUNEL assay to assess histopathology and apoptosis, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray gene expression profiling. The tissue-cultures treated with NAC-QYD preserved their integrity and showed no apoptosis. Microarray results revealed that the NAC-QYD caused the upregulation of genes encoding metallothioneins, HMOX1, and other components of the Nrf2 pathway, which protects against oxidative stress. DNA repair genes (XCP, GADD45G, RAD9, and XRCC1, protective genes (EGFR and PPARD, and genes of the NFκB pathway were upregulated. Finally, tissue-cultures treated prophylactically with NAC-QYD showed significant downregulation of apoptosis, cytokines and chemokines genes, and constrained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs. NAC-QYD treatment involves the protective effect of Nrf2, NFκB, and DNA repair factors.

  7. Sublingual administration of an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-based vaccine confirms Toll-like receptor agonist activity in the oral cavity and elicits improved mucosal and systemic cell-mediated responses against HIV antigens despite preexisting Ad5 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appledorn, Daniel M; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Godbehere, Sarah; Seregin, Sergey S; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continue to devastate populations worldwide. Recent studies suggest that vaccines that induce beneficial immune responses in the mucosal compartment may improve the efficacy of HIV vaccines. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-based vectors remain a promising platform for the development of effective vaccines. In an effort to improve the efficacy of Ad5-based vaccines, even in the presence of preexisting Ad5 immunity, we evaluated the potential for an Ad5-based HIV vaccine to induce antigen-specific immune responses following sublingual (s.l.) administration, a route not previously tested in regard to Ad-based vaccines. s.l. vaccination with an Ad5-based HIV-Gag vaccine resulted in a significant induction of Gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in both the systemic and the mucosal compartment. We also show that s.l. immunization not only avoided preexisting Ad5 immunity but also elicited a broad repertoire of antigen-specific CTL clones. Additionally, we confirm for the first time that oral delivery of a vaccine expressing a potent Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist can stimulate innate immune responses through induction of cytokines and chemokines and activation of NK cells, NKT cells, and macrophages in vivo. These results positively correlated with improved antigen-specific CTL responses. These results could be achieved both in Ad5-naïve mice and in mice with preexisting immunity to Ad5. The simplicity of the s.l. vaccination regimen coupled with augmentation of TLR-dependent pathways active in the oral cavity makes s.l. delivery a promising method for HIV vaccine development specifically, as well as for many other vaccine applications in general.

  8. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  9. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  10. Current approaches in oral mucositis prevention, care and treatment in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Literature reviewHematopoetik kök hücre naklinde oral mukozitin önlemesi, bakımı ve tedavisinde güncel yaklaşımlar: Literatür incelemesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Baysal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is important inflammatory complications affecting the esophagus, oropharyngeal mucosa and gastrointestinal tract in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Oral mucositis’ incidence is depending on the conditioning regimen, type of disease and the applied transmission procedure. It’s incidence is 35-75% in autologous transplant patients and 75-100% in allogeneic transplant patients. The aim of this review, examine the results of the researches for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The population of this study is consisted of 1094 articles from accessed by searching with "hematopoietic stem cell transplantation", "oral mucositis" and "oral care" key words on “Medline”, "Ebscohost", "PubMed", "Web of Science" and "Google Scholar" databases by in dates between June-August 2016. In this review, the articles were selected as full text and they were published in English and Turkish languages in the last decade. The sample of the review have occurred total 26 studies of these articles that meet the research’s criteria. In researches were included in the review, palifermin (6 articles and prophylactic laser therapy (4 articles was determined the most widely used methods for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Most of the research has been conducted in adult patients with Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation. The methods used in the 24 researchs have been determined to be effective in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. The majority of the methods used in researchs, especially palifermin and prophylactic laser, have been found to be effective in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis, however there is no standardized oral care protocol for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.   Özet Oral mukozit kemoterapi ve radyoterapi alan kanser hastalarında orofarengeal mukoza, özefagus ve gastrointestinal

  11. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  12. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K. (Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Saene, H.K.F. van (Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool (UK)); Vermey, A. (Department of Surgery Oncology Division, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Mehta, D.M. (Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author).

  13. Vestibuloplasty: allograft versus mucosal graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H M; Parhiz, A; Ghafari, S

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the application of alloderm and mucosal graft for vestibuloplasty. This randomized controlled trial with split mouth design was carried out on 20 edentulous patients. Patients underwent vestibuloplasty surgery with the Clark technique. Half of the prepared bed in each patient was covered with alloderm and the other half with mucosal graft. Vestibule depth (width of fixed tissue) and relapse in the two sides immediately after surgery, and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery were measured and compared. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student's paired t and Friedman tests. The width of the fixed tissue in the alloderm graft at 1, 3 and 6 month intervals was significantly lower than that in the autograft (Pvestibuloplasty. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  14. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Chandra, Rampalli Viswa

    2013-06-06

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases.

  15. 老年2型糖尿病患者口腔黏膜病变及危险因素%Investigation of oral mucosal lesions and risk factors in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳玲; 张春舫; 王四宝; 赵丹宁; 高月平; 高媛

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解老年2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者口腔黏膜病变状况及其危险因素,为实施干预提供依据.方法 2011年1月至2012年3月,将纳入某市综合医院门诊的105例老年T2DM患者作为病例组,按照1:1配对的原则,将105例健康老年体检者作为对照组,进行问卷调查,调查内容包括人口学特征、糖尿病史等,并进行口腔黏膜临床检查.结果 病例组有口腔黏膜病变倾向者占86.7%,对照组占l9.0%;病例组患潜在恶性疾病(PMD)者占38.1%,对照组占7.6%;病例组真菌感染者占21.9%,对照组占6.7%;两组上述指标的差异均有统计学意义(x2值分别为18.963、18.976、15.642,P<0.01).多因素条件logistic回归分析结果显示,T2DM并发症(OR=10.607,95% CI:5.027~18.796)、吸烟(OR =3.531,95%CI:1.393~8.788)可增加老年T2DM患者口腔黏膜病变的机会.结论 T2DM并发症和吸烟是老年T2DM患者口腔黏膜病变的危险因素,应定期进行临床检查,以确保老年T2DM患者口腔黏膜病变的早期诊断和及时处理.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to identify possible risk factors. Methods During January of 2011 to March of 2012, 105 elderly patients with T2DM from a clinic of comprehensive hospital and 105 healthy controls matched by age and gender were investigated with questionnaire which included demographic data as well as current and former history of diabetes, and the clinical examination of oral mucosa in each subject was conducted. Results The morbidity of oral mucosal lesions in the case group was 86.7 % which was significantly higher than that (19.0 %) in control group(P<0.01). The prevalence of potentially malignant disorder (PMD) in case group was 38.1 % which was obviously higher than that (7.6 %) in control group (P<0.01). The rates of fungal infection in case and control groups were 21.9 % and 6.7 %, respectively

  16. Toll-like Receptor 5 Agonist Protects Mice From Dermatitis and Oral Mucositis Caused by Local Radiation: Implications for Head-and-Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdelya, Lyudmila G. [Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Gleiberman, Anatoli S.; Toshkov, Ilia [Cleveland BioLabs, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States); Aygun-Sunar, Semra [Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Bapardekar, Meghana [Cleveland BioLabs, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States); Manderscheid-Kern, Patricia; Bellnier, David [Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Krivokrysenko, Vadim I.; Feinstein, Elena [Cleveland BioLabs, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States); Gudkov, Andrei V., E-mail: andrei.gudkov@roswellpark.org [Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Cleveland BioLabs, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Development of mucositis is a frequent side effect of radiotherapy of patients with head-and-neck cancer. We have recently reported that bacterial flagellin, an agonist of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), can protect rodents and primates from acute radiation syndrome caused by total body irradiation. Here we analyzed the radioprotective efficacy of TLR5 agonist under conditions of local, single dose or fractionated radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Mice received either single-dose (10, 15, 20, or 25 Gy) or fractioned irradiation (cumulative dose up to 30 Gy) of the head-and-neck area with or without subcutaneous injection of pharmacologically optimized flagellin, CBLB502, 30 min before irradiation. Results: CBLB502 significantly reduced the severity of dermatitis and mucositis, accelerated tissue recovery, and reduced the extent of radiation induced weight loss in mice after a single dose of 15 or 20 Gy but not 25 Gy of radiation. CBLB502 was also protective from cumulative doses of 25 and 30 Gy delivered in two (10 + 15 Gy) or three (3 Multiplication-Sign 10 Gy) fractions, respectively. While providing protection to normal epithelia, CBLB502 did not affect the radiosensitivity of syngeneic squamous carcinoma SCCVII grown orthotopically in mice. Use of CBLB502 also elicited a radiation independent growth inhibitory effect upon TLR5-expressing tumors demonstrated in the mouse xenograft model of human lung adenocarcinoma A549. Conclusion: CBLB502 combines properties of supportive care (radiotherapy adjuvant) and anticancer agent, both mediated via activation of TLR5 signaling in the normal tissues or the tumor, respectively.

  17. Effect of photobiomodulation therapy on reducing the chemo-induced oral mucositis severity and on salivary levels of CXCL8/interleukin 8, nitrite, and myeloperoxidase in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Daniella Ribeiro Naves; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; de Castro, Eduardo Fernandes; Silva, Geisa Badauy Lauria; E Silva, Larissa Pereira; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Valadares, Marize Campos; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2017-06-29

    Oral mucositis (OM) is the most common debilitating complication among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of OM, but few studies have evaluated its biological effects. This study evaluated the effect of PBM on the reduction of OM severity in patients undergoing HSCT and its relation to the modulation of the inflammatory response. Fifty-one patients were randomly assigned to two groups: PBM [submitted to PBM from admission (AD) to D+7] (n = 27) and control (n = 24) [received oral hygiene]. OM severity was assessed daily using the WHO scale. Saliva samples were collected on AD, D+7, and hospital discharge (HD) to measure CXCL8/interleukin 8, using cytometric bead array analysis and nitrite (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) using colorimetric methods. PBM significantly reduced the severity of OM from D+7 to D+11 (p  0.05). MPO significantly decreased on D+7 in both groups (p < 0.05). PBM brought about a reduction in the severity of OM in patients undergoing HSCT, and this reduction was associated with a decrease in CXCL8 salivary levels.

  18. Freqüência de Candida sp. em biópsias de lesões da mucosa bucal The frequency of Candida sp. in biopsies of oral mucosal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Spolidorio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a freqüência da infecção por Candida sp. em biópsias de lesões da mucosa bucal, assim como associar a presença de Candida sp. com lesões malignas e lesões com vários graus de displasia. Foram utilizadas 832 biópsias da mucosa bucal, previamente incluídas em parafinas, cujos blocos foram obtidos dos arquivos da Disciplina de Patologia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara da UNESP, no período entre 1990-2001. Três cortes seqüenciais foram corados pelo ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS. Do total de biópsias 27,2% foram PAS positivas, dessas 83,25% eram provenientes de pacientes do sexo masculino. Houve associação positiva entre infecção com displasia epitelial leve, moderada, severa, carcinoma espinocelular e hiperqueratose (p Candidosis is the most common fungal infection in the oral cavity, and is usually associated with local and systemic predisposing factors. The ocurrence and relevance of Candidal infection in oral lesions such as liquen planus, leukoplakias and carcinomas are still to be understood. The aim of the present study was to define the frequency of infection by Candida sp. on biopsies of oral mucosal lesions and associate its presence with malignant and dysplastic lesions. Histopathology reports issued between 1990 and 2001 inclusive were reviewed. Three sections of each mucosal biopsy were stained using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS technique. From the 832 biopsies 27.2% were PAS positive, of which 83.25% were obtained from male patients. There was positive association between fungic infection and mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma and hiperqueratosis (p < 0.05. There was no association between fungic infection and inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, lichen planus and pyogenic granuloma (p < 0.05. The frequency of infection in the tongue was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in the other sites. Our results do not

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW ON STEM CELL TREATMENT & ORAL SUBMUCOUS FIBROSIS (OSMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathipaty James

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is a part of regenerative medicine that involves the use of undifferentiated cells in order to cure the disease. Stem cell - based therapies are being investigated for the treatment of many conditions, including neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and for nerve regeneration. (1 In orofacial region these therapies are being used for tooth and periodontal regeneration, temporomandibular joint reconstruction, alve olar bone regeneration. Craniofacial stem cells including dental pulp derived stem cells have the potential to cure a number of diseases. Present day treatment modalities for oral mucosal lesions like ulcerative lesions, premalignancies and malignancies mainly consist of steroids and antioxidants (which provide only a short term and symptomatic relief and surgery with or without chemo/radiotherapy (which leave the patient with certain amount of morbidity. Advances in stem cell technology have opened new vistas for treatment of these lesions. Various studies have shown the successful role of stem cell therapies in the treatment of precancerous conditions, oral ulcers, wounds and mucositis. (2 The recent concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs has directed sci entific communities toward a new area of research and possible potential treatment modalities for oral cancer. (3 The present article will discuss the role of stem cell applications in oral mucosal lesions. KEYWORDS: R eview - stem cells - properties - types - appl ications - role in osmf - results

  20. Nutrition and Gut Mucositis in Pediatric Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    and differential regulation of miRNA-155 and -146a. This was sustained during the first three weeks after transplantation, along with increased spontaneous production of inflammatory cytokines by early trafficking of leukocytes. In conclusion, we successfully induced oral and intestinal mucositis in piglets...

  1. Measuring mucosal damage induced by cytotoxic therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Land, B. van 't; Donnelly, J.P.; Rabet, L. M'; Pauw, B.E. de

    2004-01-01

    We scored oral mucositis and gut toxicity and measured sugar permeability testing among 56 recipients of a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) given myeloablative conditioning with idarubicin, cyclophosphamide and TBI, and a group of 18 patients given cytotoxic chemotherapy for newly diagnose

  2. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  3. 鼻咽癌放化疗发生严重放射性口腔黏膜炎的相关因素探讨%Prospective study of serious oral mucositis risk factors during radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭露杏; 陈甲信; 陆合明; 黄宝芹; 庞强; 邓珊; 古俊钊

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨鼻咽癌患者在综合治疗中发生严重放射性口腔黏膜炎的相关因素,寻找相应的早期预防和干预措施,并建立发生严重口腔黏膜炎的预测模型,为临床治疗提供参考。方法对221例鼻咽癌患者的10项临床指标进行单因素分析和多因素COX回归分析,根据COX回归分析结果建立预后指数( PI)方程,并按PI值将患者划分为严重口腔黏膜炎高发组和低发组,比较其口腔黏膜炎发生率的组间差异。结果多因素COX回归分析提示同步放化疗、口腔护理差、采用常规放疗方法是发生严重口腔黏膜炎的高危因素, PI值>0.2201的患者严重口腔黏膜炎发生率高于PI值≤0.2201患者,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论同步放化疗、口腔护理差、采用常规放疗方法是发生严重口腔黏膜炎的高危因素。 PI值能较好地预测严重放射性口腔黏膜炎的发生,为临床进行预防和治疗提供参考。%Objective To study the high risk factors of serious oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy for the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma( NPC) , and to seek for the early treatment and prevention of serious oral mu-cositis, and to establish a predictive model of prognostic index( PI) for physicians to give individualized treatment. Methods The clinical factors of 221 NPC patients with oral mucositis were analyzed by univariate analysis and mul-tifactorial COX regression.PI equation was built on basis of the COX regression mode1.According to PI values, the patients were classified into 2 different risk groups.The incidence rate of serious oral mucositis was compared between the two groups.Results Multifactorial COX regression showed that chemotherapy, bad oral cavity and conventions radiotherapy were the high risk factors of serious oral mucositis.There was significant difference in the incidence rate of serious oral mucositis between the two groups classified by

  4. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  5. The Research of Rhesus Monkeys′ Mucosal Immunity Response Induced by Oral Attenuated Poliovirus Vaccine%OPV诱导恒河猴黏膜免疫应答研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卉娟; 陈俊英; 和占龙; 孙强明; 施海晶; 李华; 马绍辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价OPV诱导恒河猴黏膜免疫应答效果.方法 将20只恒河猴随机分成3个实验组(第1组:OPV+OPV+OPV,第2组:IPV+IPV+OPV+OPV,第3组:IPV+IPV+OPV)和1个对照组,采集不同时间恒河猴粪便和唾液,检测粪便和唾液中脊髓灰质炎病毒特异性IgA;通过细胞培养和中和试验对口服OPV后恒河猴粪便排毒状况进行分析.结果 粪便和唾液中IgA效价随着接种剂数增加而增高,3个组全程免疫后30天粪便样品中IgA效价第1组最高,第2组次之,第3组最低,3组间两两比较有统计学差异(方差分析,P<0.05).口服OPV后恒河猴粪便中均可分离到3个型的疫苗病毒.结论 OPV可诱导恒河猴咽部和肠道产生良好的黏膜免疫应答,口服OPV后3个型疫苗病毒均能在肠道增殖.%Objective To evaluate the mucosal immune effect against poliovirus in Rhesus monkeys induced by OPV. Methods Twenty Rhesus monkeys were divided into 4 groups randomly : group 1 ( OPV + OPV + OPV) , group 2( IPV + IPV + OPV + OPV) , group 3 ( IPV + IPV + OPV) , group 4 ( negative control group) . These monkeys' stool and saliva in different time points were collected to detect 3 types Sabin poliovirus - specific IgA , and the stool sample after immunized with OPV were tested for Sabin strain poliovirus by cell culture and neutralization test. Results The IgA titers of stool and saliva increased with the increaaing of OPV dose. Thirty days after the last dose, the highest level of IgA titers was in group 1, then followed by the group 2 and 3. Significant difference existed among the 3 groups (variance analysis, P <0. 05). After being immunized with OPV, 3 types' Sabin polioviruses could be isolated from the stool of Rhesus monkeys. Conclusion OPV can induce good mucosal immunity response against poliovirus in Rhesus monkeys. Vaccine viruses of 3 types could be proliferated in Rhesus monkeys' intestine.

  6. Estado periodontal y de la mucosa oral en un grupo de embarazadas: Estudio clínico Periodontal and mucosal status in a group of pregnant women: Clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lacalzada-Pastor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los cambios hormonales en el embarazo se reflejan en la salud periodontal de las pacientes, se pretende cuantificar y evaluar estos cambios en la cavidad oral de 165 pacientes embarazadas, así como el estado de su mucosa oral y relacionar su percepción de salud oral con los resultados de su estado periodontal. Métodos: Pacientes de revisión de rutina de un centro de atención primaria. Se les realiza una exploración donde se evalúa el estado periodontal, mediante el Índice de Necesidad de Tratamiento Periodontal de la Comunidad (C.P.I.T.N., y el estado de las mucosas. Los dientes escogidos para el sondaje fueron el 16, 11, 26, 36, 31 y 46 de cada paciente y se tomó como valor representativo el más alto de todos los sextantes. 56 acudieron para realizarse una reevaluación. Resultados: De las 165 embarazadas el 5% (9 fueron consideradas invalorables. El 35% dieron como resultado valor 0 (57; el 46% valor 1 (76; el 12% valor 2 (20; y el 2% valor 3 (1. De las 56 que acudieron a la reevaluación el 23% (13 mejoraron, el 10% (6 empeoraron y el 66% (37 se mantuvieron. De las 165 sólo una presentó una lesión en mucosas, una ránula. Conclusiones: Aunque hubo un porcentaje sin patología periodontal, 35%, la mayoría padecía gingivitis (46% y algunas periodontitis (14%. Por tanto consideramos importa