WorldWideScience

Sample records for oral cancer survival

  1. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... to 2014. Material and methods: This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980–2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox......-standardized incidence of OC during the last 30 years in Denmark, and also an improvement in survival. The 5-year OS was significantly better in recent years even when we adjusted the analysis for relevant covariates....

  2. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  3. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  4. Pretreatment serum albumin: a prognostic indicator of survival in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bobdey; Aanchal Jain; Jignasa Sathwara; Ganesh B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition has been recognized as a poor prognostic indicator for cancer. In recent years, the role of serum albumin as a predictor of survival in cancer has received considerable attention. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate whether the pretreatment serum albumin can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Medical records of 433 pathologically proven oral cancer patients diagnosed and treated from 01st January 2006 to 31st Decemb...

  5. SURVIVAL RATES IN ORAL CANCER PATIENTS – A 10-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Tonchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and presents a serious health problem in countries with higher alcohol consumption and smoking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the survival rates of patients with oral cancer diagnosed at a single center in Bulgaria. The clinical records of patients with oral cancer admitted to the Clinic of Maxillofacial surgery, University Hospital “St. George”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, from 2004 till 2013 were reviewed. Additional information about follow-up was obtained from the Regional Complex Oncological Centre (RCOC. Data about patient and tumor characteristics – age, sex, site of cancer, stage, degree of differentiation and survival rates were analyzed. The overall 5-year survival rate was 36% while the disease-specific survival rate was 45%. The highest chance for survival was for upper lip (66% while the lowest was for retromolar trigone (0%. Overall survival rate depended also on the stage and grade of differentiation of the tumor. The study confirmed that oral cancer remains serious problem in terms of risk factors, delayed diagnosis, and overall survival rates.

  6. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  7. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hala; Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Corcoran, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Sharp, Linda; Kabir, Zubair

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009. National data on incident oral cancers [ICD 10 codes C01-C06] were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland from 1994 to 2009. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) in oral cancer incidence during 1994-2009 using joinpoint regression software (version 4.2.0.2). The lifetime risk of oral cancer to age 79 was estimated using Irish incidence and population data from 2007 to 2009. Survival rates were also examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to explore the influence of several demographic/lifestyle covariates with follow-up to end 2012. Data were obtained on 2,147 oral cancer incident cases. Men accounted for two-thirds of oral cancer cases (n = 1,430). Annual rates in men decreased significantly during 1994-2001 (APC = -4.8 %, 95 % CI: -8.7 to -0.7) and then increased moderately (APC = 2.3 %, 95 % CI: -0.9 to 5.6). In contrast, annual incidence increased significantly in women throughout the study period (APC = 3.2 %, 95 % CI: 1.9 to 4.6). There was an elevated risk of death among oral cancer patients who were: older than 60 years of age; smokers; unemployed or retired; those living in the most deprived areas; and those whose tumour was sited in the base of the tongue. Being married and diagnosed in more recent years were associated with reduced risk of death. Oral cancer increased significantly in both sexes between 1999 and 2009 in Ireland. Our analyses demonstrate the influence of measured factors such as smoking, time of diagnosis and age on observed trends. Unmeasured factors such as alcohol use, HPV and dietary factors may also be contributing to increased trends. Several of

  8. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  9. The impact of intraoperative opioid use on survival after oral cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Miguel A; Ramirez, Rafael E; Perez, Carlos A; Feng, Lei; Kataria, Pranav; Myers, Jeffrey; Cata, Juan P

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the impact of opioid use on cancer recurrence after oral cancer surgery. We hypothesized that the amount of opioids administered during oral cancer surgery is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). After Institutional Review Board approval, we collected demographic, tumor related, intraoperative and survival data of patients who had oral cancer surgery. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the impact of important covariates on RFS and OS. 268 patients were included. After adjusting for significant covariates, the amount of opioids administered during surgery was not an independent predictor of RFS (HR: 1.27 [CI 95%, 0.838-1.924], p=0.26). However, we observed an association between opioid consumption and shorter OS (HR=1.77, [CI 95%=0.995-3.149]. p=0.05). High requirements of opioids during surgery increase the risk of recurrence and mortality by 27% and 77%, although the association is not statically significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  11. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo

  12. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Province (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Song, Yong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Stomatology, Liu Zhou People' s Hospital, Guangxi (China); Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ke, E-mail: liuke.1999@aliyun.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  13. Influence of Educational Level, Stage, and Histological Type on Survival of Oral Cancer in a Brazilian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Thinali Sousa; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlânio; Sousa, Eric Fernandes; da Cunha, Maria do PSS; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mortality rate associated with oral cancer is estimated at approximately 12,300 deaths per year, and the survival rate is only 40% to 50% for diagnosed patients and is closely related to the duration of time between disease perception and its diagnosis and treatment. Socioeconomic risk factors are determinants of the incidence and mortality related to oral cancer. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 573 records of patients with oral cancer at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital – Cancer Institute of Ceará from 2000 to 2009 to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on survival and epidemiological behavior of this neoplasia in a Brazilian population. In this study, patients with oral cancer were males greater than 60 years of age, presented squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of mouth and were characterized by low education levels. A total of 573 lesions were found in oral cavities. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the histological type, tumor stage, and low degree of education significantly influenced survival. A lower patient survival rate was correlated with a more advanced stage of disease and a worse prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a higher mortality when compared with other histological types of malign neoplasia. PMID:26817864

  14. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  16. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  17. Assessment of the Survival of Dental Implants in Irradiated Jaws Following Treatment of Oral Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Meenakshi Chauhan; Solanki, Swati; Pujari, Sudarshan C; Shaw, Eisha; Sharma, Swati; Anand, Abhishek; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2016-01-01

    Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients. Materials and Methods: Data of oral cancer treated patients was collected retrospectively from 2002 to 2008. We took 46 oral cancer treated patients in which implants were placed in irradiated jaws for rehabilitation. Results: It was found that out of 162 dental implants placed, 52 failed. Furthermore, there was no variation in the implant survival rate in between both the jaws. Radiation dose of <50 Gy units also showed significantly increased amount of implant survival rate. Conclusions: Implant survival is multifactorial and depends upon a number of factors like level of radiation exposure in that area, time gap between last radiation doses etc., Further research is required in this field to improve the esthetics and quality of life of cancer treated patients. PMID:27843270

  18. Assessment of the survival of dental implants in irradiated jaws following treatment of oral cancer: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Chauhan Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients. Materials and Methods: Data of oral cancer treated patients was collected retrospectively from 2002 to 2008. We took 46 oral cancer treated patients in which implants were placed in irradiated jaws for rehabilitation. Results: It was found that out of 162 dental implants placed, 52 failed. Furthermore, there was no variation in the implant survival rate in between both the jaws. Radiation dose of <50 Gy units also showed significantly increased amount of implant survival rate. Conclusions: Implant survival is multifactorial and depends upon a number of factors like level of radiation exposure in that area, time gap between last radiation doses etc., Further research is required in this field to improve the esthetics and quality of life of cancer treated patients.

  19. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  20. Oral cancer cells may rewire alternative metabolic pathways to survive from siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Min; Chai, Yang D; Brumbaugh, Jeffrey; Liu, Xiaojun; Rabii, Ramin; Feng, Sizhe; Misuno, Kaori; Messadi, Diana; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells may undergo metabolic adaptations that support their growth as well as drug resistance properties. The purpose of this study is to test if oral cancer cells can overcome the metabolic defects introduced by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down their expression of important metabolic enzymes. UM1 and UM2 oral cancer cells were transfected with siRNA to transketolase (TKT) or siRNA to adenylate kinase (AK2), and Western blotting was used to confirm the knockdown. Cellular uptake of glucose and glutamine and production of lactate were compared between the cancer cells with either TKT or AK2 knockdown and those transfected with control siRNA. Statistical analysis was performed with student T-test. Despite the defect in the pentose phosphate pathway caused by siRNA knockdown of TKT, the survived UM1 or UM2 cells utilized more glucose and glutamine and secreted a significantly higher amount of lactate than the cells transferred with control siRNA. We also demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of AK2 constrained the proliferation of UM1 and UM2 cells but similarly led to an increased uptake of glucose/glutamine and production of lactate by the UM1 or UM2 cells survived from siRNA silencing of AK2. Our results indicate that the metabolic defects introduced by siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes TKT or AK2 may be compensated by alternative feedback metabolic mechanisms, suggesting that cancer cells may overcome single defective pathways through secondary metabolic network adaptations. The highly robust nature of oral cancer cell metabolism implies that a systematic medical approach targeting multiple metabolic pathways may be needed to accomplish the continued improvement of cancer treatment

  1. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  2. Differences in incidence and survival of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers between Germany and the United States depend on the HPV-association of the cancer site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, L; Buttmann-Schweiger, N; Listl, S; Ressing, M; Holleczek, B; Katalinic, A; Luttmann, S; Kraywinkel, K; Brenner, H

    2018-01-01

    The epidemiology of squamous cell oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OCPC) has changed rapidly during the last years, possibly due to an increase of human papilloma virus (HPV) positive tumors and successes in tobacco prevention. Here, we compare incidence and survival of OCPC by HPV-relation of the site in Germany and the United States (US). Age-standardized and age-specific incidence and 5-year relative survival was estimated using data from population-based cancer registries in Germany and the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 13 database. Incidence was estimated for each year between 1999 and 2013. Relative survival for 2002-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013 was estimated using period analysis. The datasets included 52,787 and 48,861 cases with OCPC diagnosis between 1997 and 2013 in Germany and the US. Incidence was much higher in Germany compared to the US for HPV-unrelated OCPC and more recently also for HPV-related OCPC in women. Five-year relative survival differences between Germany and the US were small for HPV-unrelated OCPC. For HPV-related OCPC, men had higher survival in the US (62.1%) than in Germany (45.4%) in 2010-2013. These differences increased over time and were largest in younger patients and stage IV disease without metastasis. In contrast, women had comparable survival for HPV-related OCPC in both countries. Strong survival differences between Germany and the US were observed for HPV-related OCPC in men, which might be explained by differences in HPV-attributable proportions. Close monitoring of the epidemiology of OCPC in each country is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality of life as predictor of survival: A prospective study on patients treated with combined surgery and radiotherapy for advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskam, Inge M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Kuik, Dirk J.; Bree, Remco de; Doornaert, Patricia; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, Rene C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The relation between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival was investigated at baseline and 6 months in 80 patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal cancer after microvascular reconstructive surgery and (almost all) adjuvant radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Multivariate Cox regression analyses of overall and disease-specific survival were performed including sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, comorbidity), and clinical (tumor stage and site, radical surgical, metastasis, radiotherapy) parameters, and HRQOL (EORTC QLQ-C30 global quality of life scale). Results: Before treatment, younger age and having a partner were predictors of disease-specific survival; younger age predicted overall survival. At 6 months post-treatment, disease-specific and overall survival was predicted by (deterioration of) global quality of life solely. Global health-related quality of life after treatment was mainly influenced by emotional functioning. Conclusion: Deterioration of global quality of life after treatment is an independent predictor of survival in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal cancer.

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer ... oral cancer self-exam each month. An oral examination is performed using a bright light and a ...

  5. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  6. Outcomes by area of residence deprivation in a cohort of oral cancer patients: Survival, health-related quality of life, and place of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Joseph; Lowe, Derek; Rogers, Simon N

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer patients from lower socio-economic backgrounds have worse outcomes of survival and health related quality of life. The mechanism of cause is not fully understood. The purpose of the paper is to report treatment selection, survival, health related quality of life, cause and place of death in relation to deprivation status. 553 patients treated for oral cancer between 2008 and 2012 were identified from records at University hospital. Mortality was tracked via the Office of National Statistics (ONS) and health-related quality of life was measured using the University Washington quality of life questionnaire (UW-QoLv4). Postcodes of residence at diagnosis were used to obtain index of multiple deprivation (IMD) 2010 scores. Nearly half of the sample (47%) lived in the 'most deprived' IMD 2010 quartile of residential areas in England and such patients when treated with curative intent using surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy had worse survival than patients living elsewhere, p=0.01 after adjusting for pathological staging and age group. There were no notable differences by IMD group in cancer being mentioned anywhere in part 1 or part 2 of the death certificate or in place of death. After adjustment for patient and clinical factors patients residing in more deprived areas had worse quality of life outcomes in regard to social-emotional functioning and overall quality of life but not in regard to physical oral function. Addressing inequalities in health care related to deprivation is a priority for patients with oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Ajimu, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Shintarou; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Ikenaga, Kouji; Sakamoto, Ichirou.

    1988-01-01

    13 cases with oral cancer were treated using brachytherapy at the Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University Hospital from September 1985 to February 1988. Among 11 cases of tongue cancer, T1 and T2 cases were well controlled by radiation therapy using 226 Ra needles. Cancer of oral floor and buccal mucosa were controlled by the use of 192 Au grains. (author)

  8. Suppression of pro-inflammatory and pro-survival biomarkers in oral cancer patients consuming a black raspberry phytochemical-rich troche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Thomas J.; Uhrig, Lana K.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Casto, Bruce C.; Warner, Blake M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Sardo-Molmenti, Christine L.; Ferguson, Jeanette M.; Daly, Brett T.; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven J.; Vodovotz, Yael; Buchta, Anthony J.; Schuller, David E.; Ozer, Enver; Agrawal, Amit; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Black raspberries (BRBs) demonstrate potent inhibition of aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in animal models. However, translational clinical trials evaluating the ability of BRB phytochemicals to impact molecular biomarkers in the oral mucosa remain limited. The present phase 0 study addresses a fundamental question for oral cancer food-based prevention: Do BRB phytochemicals successfully reach the targeted oral tissues and reduce pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic gene expression profiles? Patients with biopsy-confirmed oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) administered oral troches containing freeze-dried BRB powder from the time of enrollment to the date of curative intent surgery (13.9 ± 1.27 days). Transcriptional biomarkers were evaluated in patient-matched OSCCs and non-involved high at-risk mucosa (HARM) for BRB-associated changes. Significant expression differences between baseline OSCC and HARM tissues were confirmed using a panel of genes commonly deregulated during oral carcinogenesis. Following BRB troche administration, the expression of pro-survival genes (AURKA, BIRC5, EGFR) and pro-inflammatory genes (NFKB1, PTGS2) were significantly reduced. There were no BRB-associated Grade 3–4 toxicities or adverse events and 79.2% (N = 30) of patients successfully completed the study with high levels of compliance (97.2%). The BRB phytochemicals cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside were detected in all OSCC tissues analyzed, demonstrating that bioactive components were successfully reaching targeted OSCC tissues. We confirmed that hallmark anti-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory molecular biomarkers were over-expressed in OSCCs and that their gene expression was significantly reduced following BRB troche administration. Since these molecular biomarkers are fundamental to oral carcinogenesis and are modifiable, they may represent emerging biomarkers of molecular efficacy for BRB-mediated oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26701664

  9. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  11. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get involved Understanding Dental Research People Resources About Understanding Events Get involved Dental Research Resources Contact Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation admin 2017-11-12T16:49:25+ ...

  12. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  13. Inactivation of the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway in lung and oral cancers: implications for treatment and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsit, Carmen J; Liu, Mei; Nelson, Heather H; Posner, Marshall; Suzuki, Makoto; Kelsey, Karl T

    2004-01-29

    Inactivation of the FANC-BRCA pathway via promoter methylation of the FANCF gene renders cells sensitive to DNA crosslinking agents, and has been identified in ovarian cancer cell lines and sporadic primary tumor tissues. We investigated epigenetic alterations in the FANC-BRCA pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) using methylation-specific PCR. Promoter methylation of FANCF occurred in 15% (13/89) of HNSCCs and 14% (22/158) of NSCLCs. Methylation of BRCA1 occurred only in 6/158 NSCLC, and was limited to adenocarcinomas and large-cell carcinomas of the lung. No methylation of BRCA2 was detected. FANCF methylation was associated with a shorter duration of tobacco use (P=0.03) and a younger age of starting smoking (P=0.06) in NSCLC, and with a greater number of years of alcohol drinking (P=0.02) in HNSCC. In adenocarcinomas of the lung, FANCF promoter methylation was a significant predictor of poor survival with a hazard ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-7.9). This study demonstrates that inactivation of the FANC-BRCA pathway is relatively common in solid tumors and may be related to tobacco and alcohol exposure and survival of these patients.

  14. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  15. High Numbers of Stromal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Are Associated With a Shorter Survival Time in Cats With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobukowska, H J; Munday, J S

    2016-11-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are fibroblastic cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and have been identified in the stroma of numerous epithelial tumors. The presence of CAFs within the tumor stroma has been associated with a poorer prognosis in some human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Cats frequently develop oral SCCs, and although these are generally highly aggressive neoplasms, there is currently a lack of prognostic markers for these tumors. The authors investigated the prognostic value of the presence of CAFs within the stroma of oral SCC biopsy specimens from 47 cats. In addition, several epidemiologic, clinical, and histologic variables were also assessed for prognostic significance. A CAF-positive stroma was identified in 35 of 47 SCCs (74.5%), and the median survival time (ST) of cats with CAF-positive SCCs (35 days) was significantly shorter than that of cats with CAF-negative SCCs (48.5 days) (P = .031). ST was also associated with the location of the primary tumor (P = .0018): the median ST for oropharyngeal SCCs (179 days) was significantly longer than for maxillary (43.5 days; P = .047), mandibular (42 days; P = .022), and sublingual SCCs (22.5 days; P = .0005). The median ST of sublingual SCCs was also shorter compared with maxillary SCCs (P = .0017). Furthermore, a significant association was identified between site and the presence of stromal CAFs (P = .025). On the basis of this retrospective study, evaluating the tumor stroma for CAFs in feline oral SCC biopsy specimens may be of potential prognostic value. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Imaging in oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist

  17. Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Characteristics and Survival in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Western Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Frydrych, A.M; Slack-Smith, L.M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Methods: All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (...

  18. Survival and quality of life of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer at 1-year follow-up of tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the survival and life quality evolution of patients subjected to surgical excision of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients treated at a Brazilian healthcare unit specialized in head and neck surgery between 2006 and 2007 were enrolled in the study. The gathering of data comprised reviewing hospital files and applying the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL questionnaire previously and 1 year after the surgery. Comparative analysis used Poisson regression to assess factors associated with survival and a paired t-test to compare preoperative and 1-year postoperative QOL ratings. RESULTS: 1 year after surgery, 7 patients were not found (dropout of the cohort; 15 had died and 25 fulfilled the UW-QOL again. The risk of death was associated with having regional metastasis previously to surgery (relative risk=2.18; 95% confidence interval=1.09-5.17 and tumor size T3 or T4 (RR=2.30; 95%CI=1.05-5.04. Survivors presented significantly (p<0.05 poorer overall and domain-specific ratings of quality of life. Chewing presented the largest reduction: from 74.0 before surgery to 34.0 one year later. Anxiety was the only domain whose average rating increased (from 36.0 to 70.7. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective assessment of survival and quality of life may contribute to anticipate interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of functional limitations in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  1. [Analysis of the causes of cancer negligence and low survival in the patients with malignant neoplasms of ENT and oral cavity in the city of Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdvizhkov, A M; Kozhanov, L G; Shatskaia, N Kh; Belov, E N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the causes of late detection of malignant neoplasms of ENT and oral cavity and low survival of the patents with these tumours in Moscow. The secondary objective was to elaborate the organizational measures for reducing the level of negligence and mortality from these malignancies among the city population. It was shown that the main cause behind the negligence is the late application of the patients for the medical assistance. Next in importance are asymptomatic clinical course of the disease in the absence of the pathognomonic and early signs of malignant neoplasms, a combination of several pathologies, imperfection of medical knowledge, and the poor resolving power of the modern methods. It is emphasized that the lack of vigilance against cancer among the practicing health providers is one of the main causes of medical errors. A few ways to address the problem of negligence with respect to malignant neoplasms of ENT and oral cavity in Moscow are proposed.

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ... OMS is in the best position to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the cancer is often discovered late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the best position to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer self-exam each month. Perform a Self-Exam Monthly ...

  4. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  5. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  6. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

  7. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ... be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ... will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. ...

  11. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  12. Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jae Won

    1993-01-01

    Eighty five patients of oral cavity cancer, treated with radiation at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, during the period from March 1985 to September 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 85 patients, 37 patients were treated with radiation only and 48 patients were treated with radiation following surgery And 70 patients received external irradiation only by 60 Co with or without electron, the others were 7 patients for external irradiation plus interstitial implantation and 8 patients for external irradiation plus oral cone electron therapy. Primary sites were mobile tongue for 40 patients, mouth floor for 17 patients, palate for 12 patients, gingiva including retromolar trigone for 10 patients, buccal mucosa for 5 patients, and lip for 1 patient. According to pathologic classification, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (77 patients). According to AJC TNM stage, stage I + II were 28 patients and stage III + IV were 57 patients. Acturial overall survival rate at 3 years was 43.9%, 3 year survival rates were 60.9% for stage I + II, and 23.1% for stage III + IV, respectively. As a prognostic factor, primary T stage was a significant factor (p<0.01). The others, age, location, lymph node metastasis, surgery, radiation dose, and cell differentiation were not statistically significant. Among those factors, radiation plus surgery was more effective than radiation only in T3 + T4 or in any N stage although it was not statistically sufficient(p<0.1). From those results, it was conclusive that definitive radiotherapy was more effective than surgery especially in the view of pertaining of anatomical integrity and function in early stage, and radiation plus surgery was considered to be better therapeutic tool in advanced stage

  13. Effect of oral administration of lactobacillus acidophilus on the immune responses and survival of BALB/c mice bearing human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltan Dallal MM

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: In according to immunomodulatory effect of probiotics and effect of these bacteria on the effectiveness of immune responses, at the present work we proposed the evaluation of oral administration of L.acidophilus on the immune statues in BALB/c mice bearing breast cancer."n"nMethods: A total of 30 In-bred BALB/c mices aged from six to eight weeks weighting 25-30g were randomly enrolled in our study, in two groups each consist of 15 mices. The L.acidophilus ATCC4356 strain used in this study was inoculated in MRS broth and cultivated for a day at 37°C under anaerobic conditions, collected by centrifugation and resuspend in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS. After preparation of proper amount of these suspensions it was orally administered to the mice with a gastric feeding, Control mices received an equal volume of PBS in duration of study."n"nResults: Results showed the increase in production of IFnγ (p<0.005, and decrease in production of Th2 cytokines such as IL4 (p=0.347 in the L.acidophilus administered mice in comparison to control group of mice. In addition the proliferation of immune cells in probiotic group was significantly higher than controls, and most importantly probiotic administered mice showed

  14. Genetic etiology of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Johar; Sabiha, Bibi; Jan, Hanif Ullah; Haider, Syed Adnan; Khan, Abid Ali; Ali, Saima S

    2017-07-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It accounts for 2.5% of all new cancer cases and 1.9% of all cancer deaths annually. More than 90% of oral cancers (occurring in the mouth, lip, and tongue) are oral squamous cell carcinoma. The incidence rate of oral cancer varies widely throughout the world, with an evident prevalence in South Asian countries. This high incidence occurs in correlation with oral cancer-associated behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco use. Researchers have reported that these behaviors lead to genetic variations in tumor suppressor genes (APC, p53), proto-oncogenes (Myc), oncogene (Ras) and genes controlling normal cellular processes (EIF3E, GSTM1). Processes such as segregation of chromosomes, genomic copy number, loss of heterozygosity, telomere stabilities, regulations of cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA damage repairs and defects in notch signaling pathways are involved in causing oral cancer. In order to develop preventive and therapeutic options, it is necessary to comprehend the basic molecular mechanisms forcing oral tumorigenesis. This review examines, in detail, the mechanisms of genetic alteration which are considered to be responsible for the initiation of oral cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  16. Influence of oral glutamine supplementation on survival outcomes of patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topkan, Erkan; Parlak, Cem; Topuk, Savas; Pehlivan, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine (Gln) supplementation during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT) effectively reduces the incidence and severity of acute radiation-induced esophagitis (RIE). However, there are concerns that Gln might stimulate tumor growth, and therefore negatively impact the outcomes of anticancer treatment. We retrospectively investigated the effect of co-administration of oral Gln during C-CRT on survival outcomes of patients with stage IIIB non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We additionally evaluated role of oral Gln in preventing C-CRT-induced weight change, acute and late toxicities. The study included 104 patients: 56 (53.8%) received prophylactic powdered Gln (Gln+) orally at a dose of 10 g/8 h and 48 (46.2%) did not receive Gln (Gln-) and served as controls. The prescribed radiation dose to the planning target volume was 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Primary endpoints of progression-free survival (PFS), local/regional progression-free survival (LRPFS), and overall survival (OS) were correlated with status of Gln supplementation. Oral Gln was well tolerated except for mild nausea/vomiting in 14 (25.0%) patients. There was no C-CRT-related acute or late grade 4–5 toxicity. Administration of Gln was associated with a decrease in the incidence of grade 3 acute radiation-induced esophagitis (RIE) (7.2% vs. 16.7% for Gln+ vs. Gln-; p=0.02) and late-RIE (0% vs. 6.3%; p=0.06), a reduced need for unplanned treatment breaks (7.1% vs. 20.8%; p=0.04), and reduced incidence of weight loss (44.6% vs. 72.9%; p=0.002). At a median follow-up of 24.2 months (range 9.2-34.4) the median OS, LRPFS, and PFS for Gln+ vs. Gln- cohorts were 21.4 vs. 20.4 (p=0.35), 14.2 vs.11.3 (p=0.16), and 10.2 vs. 9.0 months (p=0.11), respectively. In our study, supplementation with Gln during C-CRT had no detectable negative impact on tumor control and survival outcomes in patients with Stage IIIB NSCLC. Furthermore, Gln appeared to have a beneficial effect with respect to prevention of weight loss

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to the need for harmony between facial appearance and function. As ... or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here to find out more. ...

  18. Oral complications in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, W.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications

  19. Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigamori, Rikako

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for...

  20. Non-randomized study on the effects of preoperative radiotherapy and daily administration of low-dose cisplatin against those of radiotherapy alone for oral cancer. Effects on local control, control of metastases, and overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Akiko; Kobayashi, Hiroichi; Kurashina, Kenji; Shikama, Naoto; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2000-01-01

    Cisplatin is a known radiation modifier. Our previous study suggested that daily administration of low-dose cisplatin enhanced the efficacy of radiotherapy against primary oral squamous carcinoma. In this paper, we follow the patients who participated in the previous study and survey the benefit of combination low-dose cisplatin in improving local control, prevention of metastases, and overall survival. This study included patients with surgically resectable advanced oral tumors. Ten patients underwent preoperative radiotherapy of 30-40 Gy/15-20 days with concomitant daily administration of low-dose cisplatin (5 mg/body or 5 mg/m 2 ). Ten other patients received external radiotherapy alone. All patients then underwent a planned radical tumor resection. No significant difference was see in loco-regional control rates (primary: 86 vs. 88%, neck: 83 vs. 78% at 48 months) or incidence of metastasis (70 vs. 64%) between the two groups. Nor was there a significant difference in the overall survival rate (60 vs. 66%). The results of this study suggest that the concomitant use of daily administration of low-dose cisplatin with preoperative radiation brings no statistically significant benefit in improving local control and survival rate in patients with advanced resectable oral cancer. (author)

  1. Changing Trends in oral cancer - a global scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Acharya, Arun Kumar; Patthi, Basavaraj; Goud, Venkatesh; Reddy, Somanath; Garg, Anshul; Singla, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the highly prevalent cancers worldwide and a leading cause of mortality in certain regions like South-Central Asia. It is a major public health problem. Late diagnosis, high mortality rates and morbidity are characteristics of the disease worldwide. For control of oral cancer an idea of the coverage of the same in the various regions is necessary. The estimated incidence, mortality and 5-year survival due to lip, oral cavity cancer in world is 3, 00, 373(2.1%), 1, 45, 328(1.8%) and 7, 02, 149(2.2%) respectively according to data of GLOBOCAN 2012. A changing trend in incidence and prevalence of oral cancer has been observed with more women and youngsters being affected by oral cancer. PMID:28804673

  2. Efficacy of radiotherapy of oral mucosa cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, Yu.I.; Garbuzov, M.I.; Sarantseva, I.P.; Popov, N.V.; Pereslegin, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of 10-year experience of a radiological department (962 patients) indicated late admission of oral mucosa cancer patients for specialized treatment: 75-85% of the patients were admitted with Stage 2-4 disease. The assessment of the efficacy of radiotherapy according to the 3 ad 5-year survival rates showed that better results were obtained for buccal mucosa cancer and the worst for mouth fundus cancer. Regional metastates are a poor prognostic sign, particularly fixed metastases in patients with tongue and mouth fundus cancer. Combined therapy turned out be the most effective in tongue cancer. In different variants of dose delivery in time the most favorable results were obtained with small fractionation (a conventional course). However it should be noted that a split course was usually applied to weak elderly patients with advanced stages of disease

  3. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  4. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals in human oral cancer cells bearing mutated p53 gene after exposure to high-LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Advanced Scientific Research Leader Development Unit, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Imai, Yuichiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ota, Ichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Noda, Taichi [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [Heavy-ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kirita, Tadaaki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation induces efficiently apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined whether high-LET radiation depresses the Akt-survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation depresses of survival signals even in the mp53 cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation activates Caspase-9 through depression of survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation suppresses cell growth through depression of survival signals. -- Abstract: Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status in cancer cells. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signaling were analyzed with Western Blotting 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis. Akt-related protein levels decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G{sub 2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and suppresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signaling, even in mp

  5. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  6. Staging N0 oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1......%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel...

  7. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  8. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  9. Molecular concept in human oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U. S.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in...

  10. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  11. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  12. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and

  13. Oral Cancer Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that allows malignant transformation, or perhaps, immune system competence diminishes with age. Very recent data (late 2008- ... all cancers There are studies which indicate a diet low in fruits and vegetables could be a ...

  14. Oral cancer screening practices of oral health professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Haresaku, Satoru; McGrath, Roisin; Bailey, Denise; Mccullough, Michael; Musolino, Ross; Kim, Boaz; Chinnassamy, Alagesan; Morgan, Michael

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate oral cancer-related screening practices of Oral Health Professionals (OHPs - dentists, dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists) practising in Victoria, Australia. A 36-item survey was distributed to 3343 OHPs. Items included socio-demographic and work-related characteristics; self-assessed knowledge of oral cancer; perceived level of confidence in discussing oral health behaviors with patients; oral cancer screening practices; and self-evaluated need for additional training on screening procedures for oral cancer. A total of 380 OHPs responded this survey, achieving an overall response rate of 9.4%. Forty-five were excluded from further analysis. Of these 335 OHP, 72% were dentists; (n = 241); either GDP or Dental Specialists; 13.7% (n = 46) were dental hygienists; 12.2% (n = 41) were oral health therapists, and the remaining 2.1% (n = 7) were dental therapists. While the majority (95.2%) agreed that oral cancer screening should be routinely performed, in actual practice around half (51.4%) screened all their patients. Another 12.8% "Very rarely" conducted screening examinations. The probability of routinely conducting an oral cancer screening was explored utilising Logistic Regression Analysis. Four variables remained statistically significant (p oral cancer screening rose with increasing levels of OHPs' confidence in oral cancer-related knowledge (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.67) and with higher levels of confidence in discussing oral hygiene practices with patients (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52). Results also showed that dental specialists were less likely to perform oral cancer screening examinations compared with other OHPs (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.52) and the likelihood of performing an oral cancer screening decreased when the "patient complained of a problem" (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44). Only half the study sample performed oral cancer screening examinations for all of their patients

  15. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  16. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Cancer survival among Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Meisner, Angela L W; Zimpelman, Garrett L; Barry, Marc; Wiggins, Charles L

    2018-03-26

    Recent cancer survival trends among American Indian and Alaska Native (AN) people are not well understood; survival has not been reported among AN people since 2001. This study examined cause-specific survival among AN cancer patients for lung, colorectal, female breast, prostate, and kidney cancers. It evaluated whether survival differed between cancers diagnosed in 1992-2002 (the earlier period) and cancers diagnosed in 2003-2013 (the later period) and by the age at diagnosis (<65 vs ≥65 years), stage at diagnosis (local or regional/distant/unknown), and sex. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate univariate and multivariate-adjusted cause-specific survival for each cancer. An improvement was observed in 5-year survival over time from lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for the later period vs the earlier period, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.97), and a marginally nonsignificant improvement was observed for colorectal cancer (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-1.01). Site-specific differences in survival were observed by age and stage at diagnosis. This study presents the first data on cancer survival among AN people in almost 2 decades. During this time, AN people have experienced improvements in survival from lung and colorectal cancers. The reasons for these improvements may include increased access to care (including screening) as well as improvements in treatment. Improving cancer survival should be a priority for reducing the burden of cancer among AN people and eliminating cancer disparities. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  18. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma - characteristics and survival in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Western australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, A M; Slack-Smith, L M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm. Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC.

  19. Oral cancer: knowledge, practices and opinions of dentists in yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer presents with high mortality rates, and the likelihood of survival is remarkably superior when detected early. Dental professionals have an important role and responsibility in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and opinions regarding oral cancer among dentists in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private and public dental practitioners, working in different governorates in Yemen. Of the 800 dentists surveyed, a total of 221 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 27.6%). A vast majority of dentists (96.38%) identified tobacco as the major risk factor for oral cancer, and 82.8% knew that squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form. While 47.1% of the dentists agreed that they were adequately trained in oral cancer screening, the majority (86%) believed that they need further training in oral cancer screening. These results suggest that additional training and continuing educational programs on prevention and early detection of oral cancer for dentists are to be highly recommended.

  20. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Is a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yu Kuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancers, which affect 650,000 people and cause 350,000 deaths per year, is the sixth leading cancer by cancer incidence and eighth by cancer-related death worldwide. Oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The overall five-year survival rate of OSCC patients is approximately 63%, which is due to the low response rate to current therapeutic drugs. In this review we discuss the possibility of using caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE as an alternative treatment for oral cancer. CAPE is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells. CAPE treatment inhibits Akt signaling, cell cycle regulatory proteins, NF-κB function, as well as activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Therefore, CAPE treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in oral cancer cells. According to the evidence that aberrations in the EGFR/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt signaling, NF-κB function, COX-2 activity, and MMPs activity are frequently found in oral cancers, and that the phosphorylation of Akt, EGFR, and COX-2 correlates to oral cancer patient survival and clinical progression, we believe that CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients.

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  2. Natural ways to prevent and treat oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Danaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the usual causes of mortality all over the world, with a five-year survival rate of only 50%. Oral cancers are treated primarily by surgery with / without adjuvant radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy. However, there is significant post-treatment morbidity and mortality secondary to recurrences. Dietary supplements like fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and provide a variety of antioxidants like vitamin A, C, E. Spirulina, Selenium, Green tea (EGCG, Neem, Tomatoes (lycopene, Turmeric (curcumin, and some medicinal mushrooms are also used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This overview emphasizes on natural therapies to fight against oral cancer. Thus, there are several natural compounds that can enhance the prevention of oral cancer.

  3. Colorectal cancer, diabetes and survival : Epidemiological insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanders, M. M. J.; Vissers, P. A. J.; Haak, H. R.; van de Poll-Franse, L.

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with pre-existing diabetes have significantly lower rates of overall survival compared with patients without diabetes. Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society in 2010 reviewed the scientific literature concerning diabetes

  4. Marital status and survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xiao; Zhang, Ting-ting; Hu, Wei-ping; Ji, Qing-hai

    2017-01-01

    Background The relationship between marital status and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) survival has not been explored. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of marital status on OCSCC survival and investigate the potential mechanisms. Results Married patients had better 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) (66.7% vs 54.9%) and 5-year overall survival (OS) (56.0% vs 41.1%). In multivariate Cox regression models, unmarried patients also showed higher mortality risk ...

  5. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  7. Predictors for oral cancer in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Lima Arrais RIBEIRO; Johnys Berton Medeiros da NÓBREGA; Ana Maria Gondim VALENÇA; Ricardo Dias de CASTRO

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...

  8. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of \\'field cancerisation\\'\\/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  9. Application of a stent splint to protect intraoral organs from radiation injury to a 97 year-old patient with multiple oral cancers who survived over 100 year-old

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Shigetaka; Kawamura, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Aoki, Hirooki; Mizuki, Harumi; Ashizawa, Akira [Oita Medical Coll., Hasama (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    Radiation therapy had been used with increasing frequency in recent years in the management of oral cancers of advanced ages. In those cases we have to take good care to maintain the oral health of patients undergoing cancerocidal dose of radiation therapy. Using splints, as a tissue displacer, during radiation, we could treat a 99-year-old female patient without serious radiation sequelae, successfully she survived over 100 year-old. As she visited us at 97 year-old, the primary lesions located on the left upper lip, nose, upper and lower gums were diagnosed as multiple verrucous carcinoma histologically. Seventeen months after the first radiotherapy to the lip, nose and upper jaw, we planned again radiotherapy to the recurrent tumor of the lower gum. In order to eliminate and minimize side effects of the second irradiation for the contigenous intraoral organs, we devised a splint to exclude the tongue and upper gum apart from a radiation field. The splint, as tissue displacer, was made of heat-cured acrylic resin and divided into two pieces which were formed like full denture without artificial teeth. They were applied to the upper and lower jaws. The lower one had a large wing to exclude the tongue from irradiation field. After setting of the splint, she had been clenched slightly with an aid of chin cap. Then we could finish successfully the radiotherapy with 10 MV X-ray 40 Gy as scheduled without serious troubles. (author).

  10. Application of a stent splint to protect intraoral organs from radiation injury to a 97 year-old patient with multiple oral cancers who survived over 100 year-old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Shigetaka; Kawamura, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Aoki, Hirooki; Mizuki, Harumi; Ashizawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    Radiation therapy had been used with increasing frequency in recent years in the management of oral cancers of advanced ages. In those cases we have to take good care to maintain the oral health of patients undergoing cancerocidal dose of radiation therapy. Using splints, as a tissue displacer, during radiation, we could treat a 99-year-old female patient without serious radiation sequelae, successfully she survived over 100 year-old. As she visited us at 97 year-old, the primary lesions located on the left upper lip, nose, upper and lower gums were diagnosed as multiple verrucous carcinoma histologically. Seventeen months after the first radiotherapy to the lip, nose and upper jaw, we planned again radiotherapy to the recurrent tumor of the lower gum. In order to eliminate and minimize side effects of the second irradiation for the contigenous intraoral organs, we devised a splint to exclude the tongue and upper gum apart from a radiation field. The splint, as tissue displacer, was made of heat-cured acrylic resin and divided into two pieces which were formed like full denture without artificial teeth. They were applied to the upper and lower jaws. The lower one had a large wing to exclude the tongue from irradiation field. After setting of the splint, she had been clenched slightly with an aid of chin cap. Then we could finish successfully the radiotherapy with 10 MV X-ray 40 Gy as scheduled without serious troubles. (author)

  11. Oral care of the cancer patient receiving radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzhausen, T [Medical Univ. of Southern Africa, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Community Dentistry

    1982-07-01

    Radiation therapy is frequently being used for the patient with oral cancer. The survival rate is increasing, due to more effective treatment technique. The question of whether any teeth should be extracted, the mode of therapy and the side effects of radiation like Xerostomia, caries, stomatitis, trismus and osteo-radionecrosis and also post radiation care are discussed.

  12. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by me...

  13. Superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for advanced oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Wataru; Sakaki, Hirotaka; Kakehata, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Hiroto; Teh, Beng Gwan

    2012-01-01

    Functional preservation is important in the treatment of advanced oral cancer in terms of patient's quality of life (QOL), therefore surgery is not ideal for advanced oral cancer. In order to ensure both curability and functional preservation, superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy (SSIACRT), which is considered to be superior to conventional surgical treatment, has been conducted. Thirty-four patients with advanced oral cancer have been treated with SSIACRT with a combination of nedaplatin (CDGP) and docetaxel (DOC) since 2003. Complete response was achieved in 30 (89%) out of the 34 patients. Amongst the 25 patients with positive neck diseases, 23 (92%) were assessed as disease-free. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.4%. Wide resection of both primary and neck lesions was avoidable and oral cavity function (swallowing, speech, mastication) after SSIACRT was satisfactory. A problem for SSIACRT is the development of late adverse events of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis. (author)

  14. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among undergraduate dental students in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. A validated questionnaire which tested oral cancer awareness was given to third- and fifth-year students of the dental faculty of Marmara University. A total of 198 students participated in this survey. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentistry student's attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 198 participant dentistry students, there were 99 (50%) third-grade and 99 (50%) fifth-grade students. The largest number of the third- and last-grade students identified tobacco (98%) and alcohol usage (87.4%), prior oral cancer lesions (94.9%), viral infections (91.9%), UV exposure (94.4%), betel quid chewing (84.8%), older age (62.1%), and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (85.4%). Both groups showed higher scores in indicating squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p oral cancer detection and prevention.

  15. A clinicopathological study of various oral cancer diagnostic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ulaganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignant tumors in the head and neck regions with high incident rate and mortality rate in the developed countries than in the developing countries. Generally, the survival rate of cancer patients may increase when diagnosed at early stage, followed by prompt treatment and therapy. Recently, cancer diagnosis and therapy design for a specific cancer patient have been performed with the advanced computer-aided techniques. The responses of the cancer therapy could be continuously monitored to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment process that hardly requires diagnostic result as quick as possible to improve the quality and patient care. This paper gives an overview of oral cancer occurrence, different types, and various diagnostic techniques. In addition, a brief introduction is given to various stages of immunoanalysis including tissue image preparation, whole slide imaging, and microscopic image analysis.

  16. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebabcıoğlu, Özge; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists who attended 101st FDI World Dental Congress, İstanbul, Turkey. Among 170 dentists who agreed to participate, there were 13 oral surgeons, 6 restorative dentists, 4 endodontists, 4 orthodontists, 6 periodontists, 5 pedodontists, and 14 prosthodontists. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentists' attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 170 participant dentists, there were 69 (40.6%) male dentists and 101 (59.4%) female dentists. Largest number of them identified tobacco (98.8%) and alcohol usage (91.2%), prior oral cancer lesions (95.3%), viral infections (90.0%), UV exposure (86.5%), and betel quid chewing (80.6%), and lower numbers reported older age (56.5%) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (52.4%). Oral medicine specialists scored marginally higher in indicating erythroplakia and leukoplakia most likely to be precancerous and squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p ral cancer detection and prevention.

  17. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...... the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER...

  18. Prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Tu, Hung-Pin; Ko, Ying-Chin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Chu; Ko, Min-Shan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chiang, Shang-Lun

    2007-01-01

    In Taiwan, a distinct ethnic group variation in incidence and mortality rates has been suggested for most carcinomas. Our aim is to identify the role of prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Taiwan Cancer Registry records of 9039 subjects diagnosed with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed. The population was divided into three ethnic groups by residence, which were Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien communities. Five-year survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Ethnic curves differed significantly by log-rank test; therefore separate models for Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien were carried out. The Cox multivariate proportional hazards model was used to examine the role of prognostic factors on ethnic survival. The five-year survival rates of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were significantly poorer for Hokkien community (53.9%) and Taiwanese aborigines community (58.1%) compared with Hakka community (60.5%). The adjusted hazard ratio of Taiwanese aborigines versus Hakka was 1.07 (95%CI, 0.86–1.33) for oral and pharyngeal carcinoma mortality, and 1.16 (95%CI, 1.01–1.33) for Hokkien versus Hakka. Males had significantly poor prognosis than females. Subjects with tongue and/or mouth carcinoma presented the worst prognosis, whereas lip carcinoma had the best prognosis. Subjects with verrucous carcinoma had better survival than squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis was the worst in elderly subjects, and subjects who underwent surgery had the highest survival rate. Our study presented that predictive variables in oral and pharyngeal carcinoma survival have been: ethnic groups, period of diagnosis, gender, diagnostic age, anatomic site, morphologic type, and therapy

  19. Does buccal cancer have worse prognosis than other oral cavity cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilon, P Ryan; Stokes, William A; Fuller, Colin W; Nguyen, Shaun A; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether buccal squamous cell carcinoma has worse overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity. Retrospective analysis of a large population database. We began with a Kaplan-Meier analysis of OS and DSS for buccal versus nonbuccal tumors with unmatched data, followed by an analysis of cases matched for race, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and treatment modality. This was supported by a univariate Cox regression comparing buccal cancer to nonbuccal cancer, followed by a multivariate Cox regression that included all significant variables studied. With unmatched data, buccal cancer had significantly lesser OS and DSS values than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity (P cancer versus nonbuccal oral cancer were no longer significant. Univariate Cox regression models with respect to OS and DSS showed a significant difference between buccal cancer and nonbuccal cancer. However, with multivariate analysis, buccal hazard ratios for OS and DSS were not significant. With the largest series of buccal carcinoma to date, our study concludes that the OS and DSS of buccal cancer are similar to those of cancers in other oral cavity sites once age at diagnosis, tumor stage, treatment, and race are taken into consideration. The previously perceived poor prognosis of buccal carcinoma may be due to variations in tumor presentation, such as later stage and older patient age. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Oral Field Cancerization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raviraj Jayam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of oral field cancerization (OFC has been ever changing since its first description by Slaughter et al in 1953. The concept of OFC explains the mechanisms by which second primary tumors (OPTs develop- OPTs are the tumor-, which develop in the oral cavity in succession to the primary malignant tumors, which might vary in duration ranging from few months to years. The "classical" mechanism, which was originally observed by Slaughter describes that in the individuals with adverse habits, large areas of the aerodigestive tissue are affected by long-term exposure to carcinogens. In this preconditioned epithelium, multifocal carcinomas can develop as a result of independent mutations, and thus would not be genetically related. Although this mechanism was accepted for a quite a long time, the controversies began with the advent of new mechanism called the "clonal theory-, which explains that a single cell, on exposure to carcinogens, is transformed and give- rise to one large extended premalignant field by clonal expansion and gradual replacement of normal mucosa. In this field of various subclones, two separate tumors can develop after accumulation of additional genetic alteration-. Both tumors have the same clonal origin, and would thus share at least one early genetic event, which occurred before the initial clonal expansion. Also, the molecular studies regarding OFC have been expanding exponentially since a few years. The need for chemoprevention and the management of OFC with its resultant effect of development of second primary tumors has been challenging till today. Hence, the article tries to explain the conflicting aspects of various mechanisms by which SPTs develop, the molecular techniques, chemoprevention and therapeutic implications for oral field cancerization.

  1. Improved survival after rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Harling, H; Iversen, L H

    2010-01-01

    Objective In 1995, an analysis showed an inferior prognosis after rectal cancer in Denmark compared with the other Scandinavian countries. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) was established with the aim of improving the prognosis, and in this study we present a survival analysis of patients...... treated from 1994 to 2006. Method The study was based on the National Rectal Cancer Registry and the National Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented with data from the Central Population Registry. The analysis included actuarial overall and relative survival. Results A total of 10 632 patients were...

  2. Role of Aspirin in Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Holmes, Michelle D

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer. Although the potential mechanism for aspirin preventing breast cancer is not known, possible pathways may involve platelets, inflammation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, hormones, or PI3 kinase. This review article summarizes the current epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence as well as possible underlying mechanisms that justify current phase III randomized trials of aspirin to improve breast cancer survival.

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  4. Human papilloma virus: An etiological and prognostic factor for oral cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaurie, Gloria I; Perdomo, Sandra J; Buenahora, María R; Amaya, Sandra; Díaz-Báez, David

    2018-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive oral tumors can be considered an epidemic. Although the incidence of HPV cervical cancer is decreasing, the incidence of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers associated with HPV is increasing. The presence of certain HPV genotypes could be a predictor of future oral cancer lesions, although lesions associated with HPV could be less aggressive and exhibit a higher survival rate. In the present study, we review the most important biologic, clinic, epidemiologic, and prognostic factors associated with HPV infection and oral cancer. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: survival, recurrence and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Camilo Souza Cruz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper was based in data survey from macro and microscopic oral lesions characteristics, personal data and medical history of patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Lab of Pathological Anatomy from the Federal University of Alfenas from January 2000 to December 2010, establishing comparative parameters among clinical data, type of treatment, recurrence, survival and anatomic pathological characteristics of the lesions. Were analyzed the histopathological reports, dental and hospital records. The highest incidence was in white men, age between 50 and 60 years, married, with low education and socioeconomic levels. The beginning of treatment occurred in average 67 days after the histopathological diagnosis. The estimated survival of patients at five years was 42%. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco and the occurrence of metastasis were statistically significant for the increase of recurrence and lethality.

  6. Sentinel Node in Oral Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartaglione, Girolamo; Stoeckli, Sandro J; de Bree, Remco

    2016-01-01

    /static scan and/or SPECT/CT. RESULTS: Lymphoscintigraphy identified 723 lymphatic basins. 1398 sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) were biopsied (3.2 SN per patient; range, 1-10). Dynamic scan allowed the differentiation of sentinel nodes from second tier lymph nodes. SPECT/CT allowed more accurate anatomical......PURPOSE: Nuclear imaging plays a crucial role in lymphatic mapping of oral cancer. This evaluation represents a subanalysis of the original multicenter SENT trial data set, involving 434 patients with T1-T2, N0, and M0 oral squamous cell carcinoma. The impact of acquisition techniques, tracer...... localization and estimated SN depth more efficiently. After pathological examination, 9.9% of the SN excised (138 of 1398 SNs) showed metastases. The first neck level (NL) containing SN+ was NL I in 28.6%, NL IIa in 44.8%, NL IIb in 2.8%, NL III in 17.1%, and NL IV in 6.7% of positive patients. Approximately...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth ... involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  8. The effect of preventive oral care on treatment outcomes of a cohort of oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Marilia Oliveira; Elias, Marcela Ramos Abrahão; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Dourado Pinezi, Juliana Castro; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess patient adherence to an oral preventive measures (OPM) protocol and its impact on cancer treatment outcomes. A retrospective cohort of oral cancer of 133 patients submitted to radiotherapy (RT) was selected, excluding those with metastasis. Patients were grouped according to their local tumor response after finishing RT (favorable or unfavorable) and adherence to an OPM (none, ≤6 months, and >6 months). OPM included education and counseling about adverse effects, elimination of infection foci, restorative procedures, fluoride therapy, oral rehydration, and maintenance and supervision of oral hygiene throughout treatment. Clinical and pathological characteristics were recorded, and patient outcomes (frequency of adverse effects, RT interruption, and overall survival) were analyzed. Patients with higher adherence to the OPM had greater occurrence of RT interruption as a consequence of symptoms (p = 0.01); however, these patients were more likely to complete the established RT protocol (p = 0.02). Overall survival (p = 0.01) was higher in the group with higher adherence. This study suggests that the implementation of oral preventive measures may contribute to improving the prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treatment by reducing the negative impact of oral complications.

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  11. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sze Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The potential of genetic programming (GP on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. Method GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS. The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM and logistic regression (LR are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. Result The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341 when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Discussion Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  12. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Chang, Siow-Wee; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  13. Dissortativity and duplications in oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.

  14. Anthropometric characteristics and ovarian cancer risk and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mayor, Paul C; Etter, John L; Cannioto, Rikki A; Ness, Roberta B; Starbuck, Kristen; Edwards, Robert P; Segal, Brahm H; Lele, Sashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Diergaarde, Brenda; Modugno, Francesmary

    2018-02-01

    Multiple studies have examined the role of anthropometric characteristics in ovarian cancer risk and survival; however, their results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between weight change, height and height change and risk and outcome of ovarian cancer using data from a large population-based case-control study. Data from 699 ovarian cancer cases and 1,802 controls who participated in the HOPE study were included. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, race, number of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer to examine the associations between self-reported height and weight and height change with ovarian cancer risk. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age and stage were used to examine the association between the exposure variables and overall and progression-free survival among ovarian cancer cases. We observed an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality and progression for gaining more than 20 pounds between ages 18-30, HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.05-1.76, and HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.04-1.66, respectively. Losing weight and gaining it back multiple times was inversely associated with both ovarian cancer risk, OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63-0.97 for 1-4 times and OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.99 for 5-9 times, and mortality, HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.99 for 10-14 times. Finally, being taller during adolescence and adulthood was associated with increased risk of mortality. Taller stature and weight gain over lifetime were not related to ovarian cancer risk. Our results suggest that height and weight and their change over time may influence ovarian cancer risk and survival. These findings suggest that biological mechanisms underlying these associations may be hormone driven and may play an important role in relation to ovarian carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

  15. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  16. Oral cancer screening: knowledge is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, C L; Haslam, S Kim; Brillant, Mgs; Doucette, H J; Cameron, J E; Wade, S E

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether dental hygienists are transferring their knowledge of oral cancer screening into practice. This study also wanted to gain insight into the barriers that might prevent dental hygienists from performing these screenings. A 27-item survey instrument was constructed to study the oral cancer screening practices of licensed dental hygienists in Nova Scotia. A total of 623 practicing dental hygienists received the survey. The response rate was 34% (n = 212) yielding a maximum margin of error of 5.47 at a 95% confidence level. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics v21 software (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). Qualitative thematic analysis was performed on any open-ended responses. This study revealed that while dental hygienists perceived themselves as being knowledgeable about oral cancer screening, they were not transferring this knowledge to actual practice. Only a small percentage (13%) of respondents were performing a comprehensive extra-oral examination, and 7% were performing a comprehensive intra-oral examination. The respondents identified several barriers that prevented them from completing a comprehensive oral cancer screening. Early detection of oral cancer reduces mortality rates so there is a professional responsibility to ensure that comprehensive oral cancer screenings are being performed on patients. Dental hygienists may not have the authority in a dental practice to overcome all of the barriers that are preventing them from performing these screenings. Public awareness about oral cancer screenings could increase the demand for screenings and thereby play a role in changing practice norms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ... and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We ... surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ...

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ...

  5. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the expert for diagnosing and surgically treating ... late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the best position to detect oral ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ...

  9. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  10. Social Relationships, Inflammation, and Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boen, Courtney E; Barrow, David A; Bensen, Jeannette T; Farnan, Laura; Gerstel, Adrian; Hendrix, Laura H; Yang, Yang Claire

    2018-05-01

    Background: Social stressors, such as social relationship deficits, have been increasingly linked to chronic disease outcomes, including cancer. However, critical gaps exist in our understanding of the nature and strength of such links, as well as the underlying biological mechanisms relating social relationships to cancer progression and survival. Methods: Utilizing novel questionnaire and biomarker data from the UNC Health Registry/Cancer Survivorship Cohort, this study examines the associations between diverse measures of social support and mortality risk among individuals with cancer ( N = 1,004). We further assess the role of multiple serum markers of inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), IL6, TNFα, and VEGF, as potential mediators in the social relationship-cancer link. Results: The findings revealed that one's appraisal of their social support was associated with cancer mortality, such that individuals reporting higher levels of social support satisfaction had lower mortality risk than individuals reporting lower levels of satisfaction. The amount of support received, on the other hand, was not predictive of cancer survival. We further found evidence that inflammatory processes may undergird the link between social support satisfaction and mortality among individuals with cancer, with individuals reporting higher levels of social support satisfaction having lower levels of CRP, IL6, and TNFα. Conclusions: These results provide new knowledge of the biosocial processes producing population disparities in cancer outcomes. Impact: Our study offers new insights for intervention efforts aimed at promoting social connectedness as a means for improving cancer survival. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(5); 541-9. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence.

  12. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  13. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G

    2015-12-23

    Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and nasogastric or intravenous nutrition. These complications may lead to interruptions or alterations to cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients. Ulcerative oral mucositis can be costly to healthcare systems, yet there are few preventive interventions proven to be beneficial. Oral cryotherapy is a low-cost, simple intervention which is unlikely to cause side-effects. It has shown promise in clinical trials and warrants an up-to-date Cochrane review to assess and summarise the international evidence. To assess the effects of oral cryotherapy for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 June 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 17 June 2015), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 17 June 2015), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 17 June 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 17 June 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching databases. We included parallel-design randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment. We used outcomes from a published core outcome set registered on the COMET website. Two review authors independently screened the results of electronic searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors for information

  14. Aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-07-01

    To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  15. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations.Material and Methods: This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.Results: Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless, alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors.Conclusions: Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  16. Comparison of different combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with cancer of oral cavity and pharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachmar, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    The study involved 341 cases. The use of simultaneous chemoradiotherapy increases total regression of the malignant process by 10% and prolongs survival by 14% in patients with advanced cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. Neo adjuvant therapy combined with radiotherapy vs radiotherapy alone increases the frequency of total regression by 9% and prolongs the survival by 15% in the patients with cancer of the oral cavity and throat (IV stage, male patients, the tumor located in the oral cavity and oropharynx)

  17. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained...... by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...... with stepwise inclusion of possible mediators. RESULTS: For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients...

  18. Oral Cryotherapy for Preventing Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; McCabe, Martin G; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In patients receiving treatment for cancer, does oral cryotherapy prevent oral mucositis? Oral cryotherapy is effective for the prevention of oral mucositis in adults receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for solid cancers, and for the prevention of severe oral mucositis in adults receiving high-dose melphalan-based chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

  19. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    improved 5-year survival rate when compared with more advanced stage III and IV lesions. Surgical management of this disease remains the mainstay of treatment. Other therapies include radiation and chemotherapy options that may be used adjunctively and palliatively. Following treatment, it is important to understand the significant risks of second primary cancers developing within the upper aerodigestive tract as a result of field cancerization. The most important message is that early detection of the asymptomatic early stage oral cancer translates in general terms to satisfactory clinical outcome and cure in most patients.

  20. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  1. A marketing campaign to promote screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Jedele, Jenefer M; Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol

    2012-09-01

    Organizers of the Detroit Oral Cancer Prevention Project at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, launched a multifaceted media campaign targeted toward a high-risk population to raise awareness about oral cancer, educate the public regarding the importance of early detection and increase screening rates. The authors present data about the effectiveness of the campaign with regard to the screening behaviors of medical and dental providers. Before the start of the campaign and during each of the three years of the campaign, the authors mailed surveys to random samples of physicians and dentists practicing in targeted and non-targeted areas. More dentists than physicians reported screening patients routinely, and dentists reported that they referred more patients for biopsy or further evaluation compared with physicians. A larger proportion of dentists and physicians in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported that their patients had seen or heard the advertisements. A larger proportion of dentists in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported an increase in patients' questions and requests for screening, even after the authors accounted for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47). The survey findings show that the media campaign was effective in influencing providers' screening for signs and symptoms of oral cancer. An increase in patients' requests for screening as a result of the implementation of mass media campaigns may promote oral cancer screening and improve patients' chances of survival.

  2. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ... more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial ... Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can ...

  4. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine ...

  5. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral cancer present with advanced disease. There are several ways of trying to diagnose oral cancer in a lower tumor stage, being 1) mass screening or screening in selected patients, 2) reduction of patients’ delay, and 3) reduction of doctors’ delay. Oral cancer population-based screening (“mass screening”) programs do not meet the guidelines for a successful outcome. There may be some benefit when focusing on high-risk groups, such as heavy smokers and heavy drinkers. Reported reasons for patients’ delay range from fear of a diagnosis of cancer, limited accessibility of primary health care, to unawareness of the possibility of malignant oral diseases. Apparently, information campaigns in news programs and TV have little effect on patients’ delay. Mouth self-examination may have some value in reducing patients’ delay. Doctors’ delay includes dentists’ delay and diagnostic delay caused by other medical and dental health care professionals. Doctors’ delay may vary from almost zero days up to more than six months. Usually, morbidity of cancer treatment is measured by quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. In the past decades this topic has drawn a lot of attention worldwide. It is a challenge to decrease the morbidity that is associated with the various treatment modalities that are used in oral cancer without substantially compromising the survival rate. Smoking cessation contributes to reducing the risk of oral cancers, with a 50% reduction in risk within five years. Indeed, risk factor reduction seems to be the most effective tool in an attempt to decrease the morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, quality of life

  6. Molecular concept in human oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which multiple genetic events occur that alter the normal functions of proto-oncogenes/oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these gene alterations can deregulate the normal activity such as increase in the production of growth factors (transforming growth factor-α [TGF-α], TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, etc.) or numbers of cell surface receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor, etc.), enhanced intracellular messenger signaling and mutated production of transcription factors (ras gene family, c-myc gene) which results disturb to tightly regulated signaling pathways of normal cell. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in oral cancer especially cyclin family, ras, PRAD-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p53 and RB1. Viral infections, particularly with oncogenic human papilloma virus subtype (16 and 18) and Epstein-Barr virus have tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia. Worldwide, this is an urgent need to initiate oral cancer research programs at molecular and genetic level which investigates the causes of genetic and molecular defect, responsible for malignancy. This approach may lead to development of target dependent tumor-specific drugs and appropriate gene therapy.

  7. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find ... the need for harmony between facial appearance and function. As a result, OMSs are uniqely qualified to ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We Are News Videos Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... one of your body's most important early warning systems. Don't ignore any suspicious lumps or sores. ... and maxillofacial surgeon. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons: The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery Contact Us ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Oral, Head ...

  12. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We Do Who We Are News Videos Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral ... of sedation and general anesthesia. Click here to find out more. Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neck Pathology Download Download the ebook for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the ... well be the key to complete recovery. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  14. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenNasir, E; El Mistiri, M; McGowan, R; Katz, R V

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people.

  15. Molecular buckets: cyclodextrins for oral cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, P. (Patricia); Huarte, J. (Judit); Agüeros, M. (Maite); Ruiz-Gaton, L. (Luisa); Espuelas, S. (Socorro); Irache, J.M. (Juan Manuel)

    2012-01-01

    The oral route is preferred by patients for drug administration due to its convenience, resulting in improved compliance. Unfortunately, for a number of drugs (e.g., anticancer drugs), this route of administration remains a challenge. Oral chemotherapy may be an attractive option and especially appropriate for chronic treatment of cancer. However, this route of administration is particularly complicated for the administration of anticancer drugs ascribed to Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical C...

  16. Acid tolerance response and survival by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensäter, G; Larsson, U B; Greif, E C; Cvitkovitch, D G; Hamilton, I R

    1997-10-01

    Using 21 species of oral bacteria, representing six acidogenic genera, we undertook to determine whether the pH-limiting exponential growth is related to the ability of the organisms to generate an acid-tolerance response that results in enhanced survival at low pH. The lower pH limit of exponential growth varied by more than two units with that of Neisseria A182 at pH 6.34; growth of Lactobacillus casei RB1014 stopped at pH 3.81, with species of Actinomyces, Enterococcus, Prevotella and Streptococcus falling between these limits. The working hypothesis was that the organisms with the higher pH limits for growth are unable to respond to acidic environments in order to survive, whereas the more aciduric organisms would possess or acquire acid tolerance. Adaptation to acid tolerance was tested by determining whether the prior exposure of exponential-phase cells to a low, sub-lethal pH would trigger the induction of a mechanism that would enhance survival at a pH killing pH 7.5 control cells. The killing pH varied from pH 4.5 for Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 to pH 2.3 for the three Lactobacillus casei strains in the study, with the three Streptococcus mutans strains killed at pH 3.0 for 3 h. The adaptation experiments revealed three groups of organisms: non-acid-responders, generally representing strains with the highest terminal pH values; weak acid-responders in the middle of the pH list, generating low numbers of survivors at one or two pH values, and the aciduric, strong responders generating a high number of survivors at pH values in the range 6.0 to 3.5, but not at pH 7.5. Predominant among the latter group were the S. mutans and Lactobacilli casei strains, with the most significant adaptive response exhibited by S. mutans LT11 and S. mutans Ingbritt, involving a process that required protein synthesis. Time course experiments with the latter organisms indicated that 90-120 min was required after exposure to the triggering pH before the acid response was

  17. Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Patients in Omdurman, Sudan: a cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Tasneem Mohammed; Osman, Khansa Awad Alkareem; Mohamed, Safa Abdelrawf; Mohamed, Matab Abdalrhaman; Almahdi, Hatim Mohammed

    2017-03-23

    Oral cancer is a preventable disease. Its occurrence is mostly due to lifestyle. In Sudan, the use of smokeless tobacco (Toombak) has long been linked to oral cancer. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms of oral cancer may well aid in early diagnosis and treatment. This is bound to result in increasing survival rates, as well as reducing the oral cancer burden on the society. This study aimed to assess oral cancer awareness regarding knowledge of signs, symptoms, risk factors and sources of the information. Furthermore, it attempts to evaluate attitudes towards oral cancer screening and any previous experience of screening, amongst dental patients attending University of Science and Technology (UST) Dental Teaching Hospital. Omdurman, Sudan. A hospital based cross-sectional study, interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted amongst 500 adult patients attending the UST Dental Hospital during 2015. A total of 57.7% (286) of the individuals demonstrated good knowledge of signs and symptoms, whereas 49% (139) expressed good knowledge of risk factors of oral cancer. For the majority of the individuals 66.1% (290), the most common source of information about oral cancer was from the media, while 33.9% individuals (149), obtained knowledge from direct contact of health workers. The overwhelming majority, 93.2% (466) never screened for oral cancer despite their positive attitude towards it 66.4% (332). Knowledge of risk factors associated significantly with those reported positive attitude towards oral cancer screening and those reported direct contact with health workers as a source of information, (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, females and those living in urban districts scores higher than their counterpart in knowledge of risk factor of oral cancer. In addition, those employed 58.6% (280) and 62.8% (164) with correct believes about oral cancer showed significant association with positive knowledge of signs and symptoms (p ≤ 0.05). Awareness levels, knowledge

  18. Oral Microbiome: A New Biomarker Reservoir for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yenkai; Totsika, Makrina; Morrison, Mark; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2017-01-01

    Current biomarkers (DNA, RNA and protein) for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers demonstrate biological variations between individuals, rendering them impractical for clinical translation. Whilst these biomarkers originate from the host, there is not much information in the literature about the influence of oral microbiota on cancer pathogenesis, especially in oral cancers. Oral microbiotas are known to participate in disease initiation and progression not only limited to the oral cavity, ...

  19. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  20. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  1. Childhood Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cavity cancer in children is usually lymphoma or sarcoma, but most tumors of the mouth are benign. Get information about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of oral cavity cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  2. Metformin Use and Endometrial Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Van Arsdale, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Moadel, Alyson; Kaur, Gurpreet; Frimer, Marina; Conroy, Erin; Goldberg, Gary L.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are risk factors for the development of uterine cancer. Although greater progression free survival among diabetic patients with ovarian and breast cancer using metformin have been reported, no studies have assessed the association of metformin use with survival in women with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods We conducted a single-institution retrospective cohort study of all patients treated for uterine cancer from January 1999 through December 2009. Demographic, medical, social, and survival data were abstracted from medical records and the national death registry. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox models were utilized for multivariate analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 985 patients, 114 (12%) had diabetes and were treated with metformin, 136 (14%) were diabetic but did not use metformin, and 735 (74%) had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Greater OS was observed in diabetics with non-endometrioid EC who used metformin than in diabetic cases not using metformin and non-endometrioid EC cases without diabetes (log rank test (p=0.02)). This association remained significant (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.97, p<0.04) after adjusting for age, clinical stage, grade, chemotherapy treatment, radiation treatment and presence of hyperlipidemia in multivariate analysis. No association between metformin use and OS in diabetics with endometrioid histology was observed. Conclusion Diabetic EC patients with non-endometrioid tumors who used metformin had lower risk of death than women with EC who did not use metformin. These data suggest that metformin might be useful as adjuvant therapy for non-endometrioid EC. PMID:24189334

  3. Cryotherapy for oral precancers and cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an "open" or a "closed" system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Survival in patients with oral and maxillofacial diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Ofelia Guevara-Canales

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the survival and prognostic factors of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL of the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. Retrospectively, the clinical records of patients with a primary diagnosis of DLBCL of the oral cavity and maxillofacial region treated at the A.C. Camargo Hospital for Cancer, São Paulo, Brazil, between January 1980 and December 2005 were evaluated to determine (A overall survival (OS at 2 and 5 years and the individual survival percentage for each possible prognostic factor by means of the actuarial technique (also known as mortality tables, and the Kaplan Meier product limit method (which provided the survival value curves for each possible prognostic factor; (B prognostic factors subject to univariate evaluation with the log-rank test (also known as Mantel-Cox, and multivariate analysis with Cox's regression model (all the variables together. The data were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. From 1980 to 2005, 3513 new cases of lymphomas were treated, of which 151 (4.3% occurred in the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. Of these 151 lesions, 48 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with 64% for OS at 2 years and 45% for OS at 5 years. Of the variables studied as possible prognostic factors, multivariate analysis found the following variables have statistically significant values: age (p = 0.042, clinical stage (p = 0.007 and performance status (p = 0.031. These data suggest that patients have a higher risk of mortality if they are older, at a later clinical stage, and have a higher performance status.

  5. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF SURVIVAL IN RENAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Seriogin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to reveal the independent anatomic, histological, and clinical factors of cancer-specific survival in patients with renal-cell carcinoma (RCC. For this, the authors retrospectively analyzed their experience with radical surgical treatments in 73 RCC patients operated on at the Department of Urology and Surgical Andrology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2004; their outcomes have become known by the present time. There was a statistically significant correlation of cancer-specific survival with its parameters, such as pathological stage of a tumor, its maximum pathological size, differentiation grade, involvement of regional lymph nodes, venous tumor thrombosis, level of thrombocytosis, and degree of the clinical symptoms of the disease. Multivariate analysis of survival in RCC in relation to the prognostic factors could reveal odd ratios for the limit values of significant prognostic factors. The statistically significant prognostic values established in the present study, as well as the molecular factors the implication of which is being now investigated can become in future an effective addition to the TNM staging system to define indications for certain treatments and to predict survival in RCC  

  6. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF SURVIVAL IN RENAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Seriogin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to reveal the independent anatomic, histological, and clinical factors of cancer-specific survival in patients with renal-cell carcinoma (RCC. For this, the authors retrospectively analyzed their experience with radical surgical treatments in 73 RCC patients operated on at the Department of Urology and Surgical Andrology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2004; their outcomes have become known by the present time. There was a statistically significant correlation of cancer-specific survival with its parameters, such as pathological stage of a tumor, its maximum pathological size, differentiation grade, involvement of regional lymph nodes, venous tumor thrombosis, level of thrombocytosis, and degree of the clinical symptoms of the disease. Multivariate analysis of survival in RCC in relation to the prognostic factors could reveal odd ratios for the limit values of significant prognostic factors. The statistically significant prognostic values established in the present study, as well as the molecular factors the implication of which is being now investigated can become in future an effective addition to the TNM staging system to define indications for certain treatments and to predict survival in RCC  

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lump in the neck Your mouth is one of your body's most important early warning systems. Don't ignore any suspicious lumps or sores. Should you discover something, make an appointment for a prompt examination. Early treatment may well be the key to complete ... Oral and maxillofacial ...

  8. Integrative review on oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar estudos nacional e internacional sobre o câncer bucal. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura. Foram selecionados 28 artigos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão da pesquisa. Os dados foram processados no software IRAMUTEC e analisados pela classificação hierárquica descendente com base no dendograma. Resultados: Foram apresentados em 05 classes, a saber: 1-A prevenção e o tratamento das morbidades orais. 2- A reabilitação do paciente com câncer de boca. 3-Qualidade de vida dos pacientes em terapia para câncer bucal. 4- A equipe profissional multidisciplinar de saúde nos cuidados de prevenção do câncer oral. 5- O rastreio do câncer oral para diminuição da prevalência. Conclusão: O câncer oral é um grave problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo.  Há necessidade de maiores investimentos nas pesquisas relacionadas com o câncer bucal e implementação das políticas públicas para o rastreio do câncer oral e diminuição da prevalência.

  9. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  10. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Huisman, Paulien M.; van Oort, Rob P.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    Purpose This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Methods Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or

  11. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandron, E.; Desrez, G.; Chatelain, C.

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  12. Mouse Models for Studying Oral Cancer: Impact in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J J; Young, C D; Zhou, H M; Wang, X J

    2018-04-01

    Model systems for oral cancer research have progressed from tumor epithelial cell cultures to in vivo systems that mimic oral cancer genetics, pathological characteristics, and tumor-stroma interactions of oral cancer patients. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is imperative to use model systems to test oral cancer prevention and therapeutic interventions in the presence of an immune system and to discover mechanisms of stromal contributions to oral cancer carcinogenesis. Here, we review in vivo mouse model systems commonly used for studying oral cancer and discuss the impact these models are having in advancing basic mechanisms, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention of oral cancer while highlighting recent discoveries concerning the role of immune cells in oral cancer. Improvements to in vivo model systems that highly recapitulate human oral cancer hold the key to identifying features of oral cancer initiation, progression, and invasion as well as molecular and cellular targets for prevention, therapeutic response, and immunotherapy development.

  13. How will I be after my operation for oral cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatas, A; Singh, P; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N

    2015-07-01

    Validated health-related quality of life measures for patients with oral cancer have been available for over a decade. We used the Liverpool head and neck cancer database to identify 1060 patients who had curative operations for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck at the regional maxillofacial unit between 1995 and 2010. We then produced one-page summary tables for subsites of oral cancer by stage and common treatments based on patient-reported outcomes from the University of Washington quality of life (UWQoL) head and neck cancer questionnaire. Data had been collected in a series of annual surveys. Sites included were buccal and retromolar (n=189), oral tongue (n=358), floor of the mouth (n=321), and other oral sites (n=192). A total of 633 patients completed at least one questionnaire (total 1931) between 9 and 60 months after treatment (71% of those alive at 9 months). Only questionnaires completed around 2 years from diagnosis or operation were analysed. Data include crude survival at 1, 2, and 5 years, the 12 UWQoL domains, which comprise the number of patients who chose the best 2 responses for each, overall health-related QoL, and the number who chose the worst responses (based on an algorithm). The data are sufficiently detailed to be used in discussions with patients about likely outcomes. They can help patients to make decisions about the type of treatment, provide a reference for realistic expectations, and enable them to be better informed when they give their consent. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral cancer awareness among dentists in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bobby K; Sundaram, Devipriya B; Sharma, Prem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists in Kuwait. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 dentists working at the Ministry of Health Dental Centers and Kuwait University Dental Center using a structured questionnaire. Dentists' knowledge about risk factors of oral cancer and about diagnostic concepts, current practices and opinions, preferred point of referral as well as interest in continuing education were assessed and the responses were analyzed. Of the 200 dentists surveyed, 153 responded (76.5% response rate). The mean knowledge score of the respondents was 20.6 ± 4.0 out of a total score of 30. Thirty-five (22.9%) dentists had consistently high knowledge scores for both risk factors and diagnostic concepts. Of the 153 dentists, 132 (86.3%) were interested in obtaining further information about oral cancer. This study highlighted the need for improved knowledge and education of dental practitioners on oral cancer. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Second primary tumours in oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.

    2010-01-01

    Second primary tumours in patients treated for oral cancer occur at a rate of 3% to 7% per year. The majority of these tumours show up at least six months after the detection of the primary and are often located in the upper aerodigestive tract. Cessation of smoking habits may reduce the risk of the

  16. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... United States contains synthetic versions of the natural female hormones estrogen and progesterone . This type of birth ...

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the cancer is often discovered late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the ... here is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It is provided ...

  18. Signature of genetic associations in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishwas; Nandan, Amrita; Sharma, Amitesh Kumar; Singh, Harpreet; Bharadwaj, Mausumi; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2017-10-01

    Oral cancer etiology is complex and controlled by multi-factorial events including genetic events. Candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing identified various chromosomal loci to be associated with oral cancer. There is no available review that could give us the comprehensive picture of genetic loci identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based approaches. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed database to identify the loci associated with oral cancer by exclusive candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based study approaches. The information of loci associated with oral cancer is made online through the resource "ORNATE." Next, screening of the loci validated by candidate gene studies and next-generation sequencing approach or by two independent studies within candidate gene studies or next-generation sequencing approaches were performed. A total of 264 loci were identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing approaches. In total, 28 loci, that is, 14q32.33 (AKT1), 5q22.2 (APC), 11q22.3 (ATM), 2q33.1 (CASP8), 11q13.3 (CCND1), 16q22.1 (CDH1), 9p21.3 (CDKN2A), 1q31.1 (COX-2), 7p11.2 (EGFR), 22q13.2 (EP300), 4q35.2 (FAT1), 4q31.3 (FBXW7), 4p16.3 (FGFR3), 1p13.3 (GSTM1-GSTT1), 11q13.2 (GSTP1), 11p15.5 (H-RAS), 3p25.3 (hOGG1), 1q32.1 (IL-10), 4q13.3 (IL-8), 12p12.1 (KRAS), 12q15 (MDM2), 12q13.12 (MLL2), 9q34.3 (NOTCH1), 17p13.1 (p53), 3q26.32 (PIK3CA), 10q23.31 (PTEN), 13q14.2 (RB1), and 5q14.2 (XRCC4), were validated to be associated with oral cancer. "ORNATE" gives a snapshot of genetic loci associated with oral cancer. All 28 loci were validated to be linked to oral cancer for which further fine-mapping followed by gene-by-gene and gene

  19. Global variations in cancer survival. Study Group on Cancer Survival in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Black, R J

    1996-12-15

    Population-based cancer registries from Algeria, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, India, the Philippines, and Thailand are collaborating with the International Agency for Research on Cancer in a study of cancer survival in developing countries. Comparisons with the SEER program results of the National Cancer Institute in the United States, and the EUROCARE study of survival in European countries revealed considerable differences in the survival of patients with certain tumors associated with intensive chemotherapeutic treatment regimes (Hodgkin's disease and testicular tumors), more modest differences in the survival of patients with tumors for which early diagnosis and treatment confer an improved prognosis (carcinomas of the large bowel, breast, and cervix), and only slight differences for tumors associated with poor prognosis (carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas, and lung). With limited resources to meet the challenge of the increasing incidence of cancer expected in the next few decades, health authorities in developing countries should be aware of the importance of investing in a range of cancer control activities, including primary prevention and early detection programs as well as treatment.

  20. Survival in common cancers defined by risk and survival of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on survival between familial and sporadic cancers have been inconclusive and only recent data on a limited number of cancers are available on the concordance of survival between family members. In this review, we address these questions by evaluating the published and unpublished data from the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database and a total of 13 cancer sites were assessed. Using sporadic cancer as reference, HRs were close to 1.0 for most of the familial cancers in both the offspring and parental generations, which suggested that survival in patients with familial and sporadic cancers was equal, with an exception for ovarian cancer with a worse prognosis. Compared to offspring whose parents had a poor survival, those with a good parental survival had a decreased risk of death for most cancers and HR was significantly decreased for cancers in the breast, prostate, bladder, and kidney. For colorectal and nervous system cancers, favorable survival between the generations showed a borderline significance. These data are consistent in showing that both good and poor survival in certain cancers aggregate in families. Genetic factors are likely to contribute to the results. These observations call for intensified efforts to consider heritability in survival as one mechanism regulating prognosis in cancer patients.

  1. Gender specific association of TP53 polymorphisms (EX4 215G>C Arg72Pro, IVS3+40-41ins16, and IVS6+62G>A), with risk of oral cancer subtypes and overall survival of the patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagam, Srivani L S S; Katta, Saritha; Prasad, Vidudala V T S

    2017-03-01

    Reports on the association of TP53 polymorphisms with oral cancer are not only limited but also not specific to site and/or gender. Hence, we examined the effect of TP53 polymorphisms (EX4 215G>C, IVS3+40-41ins16 and IVS6+62G>A) on buccal mucosa cancer (BMC) and tongue cancer (TC) risk, survival of patients in relation to risk and clinical factors, gender wise (excepting for estimating hazards ratio [HR]), using Fisher's Exact Test, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox-proportional hazards models. The exonic polymorphism increased BMC and TC risk in males by 2-4-fold. The IVS3+40-41ins16 was protective against BMC and TC in both genders, whereas IVS6+62G>A protected only males against TC. Genotype combinations and haplotypes which altered the risk of cancers in males and females were different. TC males, aged 40-44 years and females, aged 55-59 years survived better than BMC patients. The IVS3+40-41ins16 polymorphism differentially impacted survival of female patients exposed to tobacco. TC patients with EX4 215GC with lymphovascular spread (LVS) and metastasis exhibited higher HR while, patients with EX4 215CC and perineural invasion (PNI) showed lower HR. Impact of the intronic variants along with clinical parameters on survival and HR estimates varied between BMC and TC. Our bioinformatics analysis revealed the presence of CTCF binding site within TP53 gene. In conclusion, the polymorphisms altered risk and survival of BMC and TC in a gender specific manner, which varied with mode of tobacco and/or alcohol use. The current study, therefore underscores strong need for research, stratified by tumor site and gender. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The genomics of oral cancer and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, Y B

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignancy in India, where it is epidemiologically linked to the chewing of betel quid and other carcinogens. But various point mutations were detectable in the p53 and p15 genes. Hence, this review was conducted with the aim to find out genetic risks as well as markers for oral cancers and wound healing. Tobacco-related cancers are associated with polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in terms of genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking dose. Expression of E6/E7 were also found in tumors, most of which were derived from the oropharynx. Presence of homozygous arginine at codon 72 renders p53 about seven times more susceptible to E6-mediated proteolytic degradation. Erythropoietin, vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF), and PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. Activation of NF-kB is associated with enhanced cell survival. Human papilloma virus status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in tonsilar cancer and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer.

  3. The genomics of oral cancer and wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Y

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common malignancy in India, where it is epidemiologically linked to the chewing of betel quid and other carcinogens. But various point mutations were detectable in the p53 and p15 genes. Hence, this review was conducted with the aim to find out genetic risks as well as markers for oral cancers and wound healing. Tobacco-related cancers are associated with polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in terms of genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking dose. Expression of E6/E7 were also found in tumors, most of which were derived from the oropharynx. Presence of homozygous arginine at codon 72 renders p53 about seven times more susceptible to E6-mediated proteolytic degradation. Erythropoietin, vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF, and PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. Activation of NF-kB is associated with enhanced cell survival. Human papilloma virus status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in tonsilar cancer and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer.

  4. Student knowledge and awareness of oral cancer (study at Senior High School 2 Baubau, Southeast of Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mardhiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a malignancy  which came from oral mucosal epithelial and other oral’s part including from saliva glands (majority the minor one inside the mouth. Oral cancer has a quick spread. A half of oral cancer diagnosed at a late stage with a high level of death. Only half of this malignancy sufferer survive more than five years. However, the survival prognosis will increase 80-90% if the cancer could diagnose in early stage. The objective of this study is to measure qualitatively oral cancer knowledge and awareness among the students at SMAN 2 Baubau. This study is descriptive study by cross-section approach. Oral cancer knowledge and awareness among the students in SMAN 2 Baubau is in a low stage.  Students hardly hear the information about the signs of oral cancer and have no idea what must they do if they find someone presented with one of the oral cancer signs. The reason behind unknown action lack of information and socialization about oral cancer.

  5. Oral Cancer Knowledge and Diagnostic Ability Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.

  6. Improvement in survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: An international collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Moran; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Kowalski, Luiz P; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Clark, Jonathan R; Kreppel, Matthias; Zöller, Joachim; Fridman, Eran; Bolzoni, Villaret A; Shah, Jatin P; Binenbaum, Yoav; Patel, Snehal G; Gil, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    An association between the survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and advancements in diagnosis and therapy has not been established. This was a retrospective, longitudinal, international, population-based study of 2738 patients who underwent resection of OCSCC during 2 different decades. Characteristics of patients from 7 international cancer centers who received treatment between 1990 and 2000 (group A; n = 735) were compared with patients who received treatment between 2001 and 2011 (group B; n = 2003). Patients in group B had more advanced tumors and tended to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients in group A (P = .005). More group B patients underwent selective neck dissection and received adjuvant radiotherapy (P < .001). Outcome analysis revealed a significant improvement in 5-year overall survival, from 59% for group A to 70% for group B (P < .001). There was also a significant improvement in disease-specific survival associated with operations performed before and after 2000 (from 69% to 81%, respectively; P < .001). Surgery after 2000, negative margins, adjuvant treatment, and early stage disease were independent predictors of a better outcome in multivariate analysis. The decade of treatment was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.6). The survival rate of patients with OCSCC improved significantly during the past 2 decades despite older age, more advanced disease stage, and a higher rate of distant metastases. The current results suggest that the prognosis for patients with OCSCC has improved over time, presumably because of advances in imaging and therapy. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  7. Survival pathological prognosis factors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Longoria Boada, Lourdes B.

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and longitudinal study of 273 women with breast cancer belonging to Granma province was carried out from 2003 to 2004, in order to analyze the survival of this female population, reason why the method of Kaplan Meier was used for the calculation of the mentioned variable and the Log Rank test was used for the comparison of curves. Patients with higher survival at 5 years were those who had tumors of 2 cm or less (87.5%), histological grade I (90.3%), nuclear grade I (88.3%), as well as the absence of vascular, lymphatic or lymph node invasion (with 80.6; 74.9 and 6.1% respectively). Also, tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, nodal status, as well as lymphatic and vascular invasion constituted prognosis factors, which favored the individualization of therapeutic behaviors

  8. 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer Patient Health ... cancer has increased in all races and both sexes. Thyroid cancers account for ... who work in environments with dust, glues, formaldehyde, mustard gas, ...

  9. Telomeres, telomerase and oral cancer (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Sinto; Grammatica, Luciano; Paradiso, Angelo

    2005-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (oral cancer) and many squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck arise as a consequence of multiple molecular events induced by the effects of various carcinogens related to tobacco use, environmental factors, and viruses in some instances (e.g., mucosal oncogenic human papillomaviruses), against a background of inheritable resistance or susceptibility. Consequent genetic damage affects many chromosomes and genes, and it is the accumulation of these changes that appears to lead to carcinoma. Telomere maintenance by telomerase or, in its absence, alternative lengthening of telomeres protect this acquired altered genetic information ensuring immortality without losing eukaryotic linear DNA; when this does not occur DNA is lost and end-replication problems arise. Telomerase is reactivated in 80-90% of cancers thus attracting the attention of pathologists and clinicians who have explored its use as a target for anticancer therapy and to develop better diagnostic and prognostic markers. In the last few years, valuable research from various laboratories has provided major insights into telomerase and telomeres leading to their use as diagnostic and prognostic markers in several types of cancer. Moreover, many strategies have emerged which inhibit this complex enzyme for anticancer therapy and are one step ahead of clinical trials. This review explains the basic biology and the clinical implications of telomerase-based diagnosis and prognosis, the prospects for its use in anticancer therapy, and the limitations it presents in the context of oral cancer.

  10. Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Osterlind, K; Hansen, M

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) the characteristics of those who survive for > or = 5 years, to identify long-term prognostic factors, to analyze survival data of 5-year survivors, and to study 10-year survival in patients entered before 1981. PATIENTS......, especially tobacco-related cancers and other tobacco-related diseases....

  11. Korean ethnicity as compared with white ethnicity is an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer before and after the oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Myung-Ju; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Yun-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zell, Jason A; Park, Keunchil; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2010-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated, using a regional California Cancer Registry database, that Asian ethnicity is an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Retrospective population-based analysis of Korean and US white patients with NSCLC with known smoking status from Samsung Cancer Center, Seoul, South Korea, and a Southern California Regional Cancer Registry between 1998 and 2005 with follow-up through February 2008 to allow for even case ascertainment periods before and after 2002, when epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors were introduced in Korea and considered as the year of reference. A total of 4622 Korean and 8846 US white patients were analyzed. Median age of diagnosis was 63 years versus 71 years for Korean and white patients, respectively (P white patients were never-smokers. There was significant OS improvement in never-smokers when compared with ever-smokers among either Korean patients (p white (p white patients (p = 0.5641). Except for stage II patients (p = 0.0723), univariate analysis revealed Korean patients had improved OS compared with US white patients among stages I, III, and IV, respectively (all p white; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.869; p white ethnicity improved during 2002-2005 (HR = 0.795; p white ethnicity is an independent favorable prognostic factor for OS in NSCLC. In addition, greater survival benefit among Korean patients with NSCLC was noted in the postepidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor era (2002 and after) compared with US white ethnicity.

  12. Recurrence in oral and pharyngeal cancer is associated with quantitative MGMT promoter methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taioli, Emanuela; Ragin, Camille; Wang, Xiao-hong; Chen, Jiangying; Langevin, Scott M; Brown, Ashley R; Gollin, Susanne M; Garte, Seymour; Sobol, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers that predict clinical response, tumor recurrence or patient survival are severely lacking for most cancers, particularly for oral and pharyngeal cancer. This study examines whether gene-promoter methylation of tumor DNA correlates with survival and recurrence rates in a population of patients with oral or pharyngeal cancer. The promoter methylation status of the DNA repair gene MGMT and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and RASSF1 were evaluated by methylation-specific PCR in 88 primary oral and pharyngeal tumors and correlated with survival and tumor recurrence. Quantitative MGMT methylation was also assessed. 29.6% of the tumors presented with MGMT methylation, 11.5% with CDKN2A methylation and 12.1% with RASSF1 methylation. MGMT promoter methylation was significantly associated with poorer overall and disease-free survival. No differences in methylation status of MGMT and RASSF1 with HPV infection, smoking or drinking habits were observed. A significant inverse trend with the amount of MGMT methylation and overall and disease-free survival was observed (p trend = 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). These results implicate MGMT promoter methylation as a possible biomarker for oral and pharyngeal cancer prognosis. The critical role of MGMT in DNA repair suggests that defective DNA repair may be correlative in the observed association between MGMT promoter methylation and tumor recurrence. Follow-up studies should include further quantitative MSP-PCR measurement, global methylation profiling and detailed analysis of downstream DNA repair genes regulated by promoter methylation

  13. Role of aquaporins in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha G. S. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQP are the membrane proteins involved in the transport of water and some neutral solutes. Thirteen types of AQP are identified in various human tissues. The expression of AQP's has been studied in various tumors among one is oral cancer. These molecules are involved in cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. AQP target inhibitors act directly or indirectly through focal adhesion kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and shown promising results along with anti-cancer drugs. However, further researches were required to verify the efficiency and safety of these AQPs-target inhibitors in clinical therapy.

  14. Cancer of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity are curable. When early tumor (T1 and T2) is diagnosed and treated, cure rates by surgery or irradiation are high. The choice of therapeutic modalities for these lesions is complex and depends on the site of origin and size of the tumor, the presence or absence of nodal metastases, and the age, physical, medical, and socioeconomic status of the patient. Other factors include the willingness of the patient to return for a protracted course of radiation therapy, the skill of the physician, and the relative morbidity and cosmesis of the two forms of treatment. In general, surgery may be considered for early (T1) lesions if the deformity resulting from surgery is minimal. If resection involves major morbidity, such as a deformity that alters cosmesis or the function of the speech and swallowing mechanisms, then radiation therapy is preferred. For medium-sized (T2) tumors, superficial radiation therapy is the treatment of choice, for it controls the disease and preserves normal function and anatomy. Surgery is reserved for radiation failures. Extensive disease (T3 and T4) often associated with bone and muscle involvement and cervical lymph node metastases is rarely curable by radiation therapy or surgery alone; a combined approach using radiation therapy and surgery is therefore the procedure of choice

  15. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Souhei

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  16. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer.

  17. Benefits of marriage on relative and conditional relative cancer survival differ between males and females in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Johnson, Erin

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the influence of marital status on conditional relative survival of cancer according to sex. Analyses involved 779,978 males and 1,032,868 females diagnosed with 1 of 13 cancer types between 2000 and 2008, and followed through 2013. Data are from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and tumor stage. Five-year relative survival conditional on years already survived is higher among married patients with less lethal cancers (oral cavity and pharynx, colon and rectum, breast, urinary bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, melanoma of the skin, thyroid, lymphoma). For more lethal cancers, married patients have similar (liver, lung and bronchus, pancreas, leukemia) or poorer (brain and other nervous system) cancer survival. Separated/divorced or widowed patients have the lowest conditional relative survival rates. For most cancers, 5-year cancer relative survival rates conditional on time already survived through 5 years approach 70 to 90% of that for the general population. The beneficial effect of marriage on survival decreases with years already survived. Superior conditional relative survival rates in females decrease with time already survived and are less pronounced in married patients. Five-year relative survival rates improve with time already survived. The benefits of marriage on conditional relative survival are greater for less lethal cancers. Greater 5-year conditional relative survival rates in females narrow with time already survived and are less pronounced in married patients. Conditional relative survival rates of cancer can lead to more informed decisions and understanding regarding treatment and prognosis.

  18. Challenges of the Oral Cancer Burden in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over thirty per cent of all cancers reported in the country and oral cancer control is quickly becoming a global health priority. This paper provides a synopsis of the incidence of oral cancer in India by focusing on its measurement in cancer registries across the country. Based on the International Classification of Disease case definition adopted by the World Health Organisation, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, this review systematically examines primary and secondary data where the incidence or prevalence of oral cancer is known to be directly reported. Variability in age-adjusted incidence with crude incidence is projected to increase by 2030. Challenges focus on measurement of disease incidence and disease-specific risk behavior, predominantly, alcohol, and tobacco use. Future research should be aimed at improving quality of data for early detection and prevention of oral cancer. PMID:23093961

  19. Challenges of the Oral Cancer Burden in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, K. R.; Coelho, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over thirty per cent of all cancers reported in the country and oral cancer control is quickly becoming a global health priority. This paper provides a synopsis of the incidence of oral cancer in India by focusing on its measurement in cancer registries across the country. Based on the International Classification of Disease case definition adopted by the World Health Organisation, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, this review systematically examines primary and secondary data where the incidence or prevalence of oral cancer is known to be directly reported. Variability in age-adjusted incidence with crude incidence is projected to increase by 2030. Challenges focus on measurement of disease incidence and disease-specific risk behavior, predominantly, alcohol, and tobacco use. Future research should be aimed at improving quality of data for early detection and prevention of oral cancer.

  20. Characteristics of Oral Problems and Effects of Oral Care in Terminally Ill Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-01

    Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p oral intake groups, respectively ( p oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.

  1. Apoptosis-related molecules and radiation response in human oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teni, Tanuja; Mallick, Sanchita; Palve, Vinayak; Yasser, Mohd; Pawar, Sagar; Kannan, Sadhana; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Kane, Shubhada

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the tumor cells to respond to radiotherapy depends upon their intrinsic radiosensitivity, which may be partly governed by molecules of the intrinsic cell death pathway. To identify the defects in this pathway in oral cancers, transcript expression analysis of the pathway members was done using the Ribonuclease protection assay in oral cell lines and tumors. The intrinsic apoptosis pathway was found to be deregulated in oral cell lines and majority of oral tumors with altered expression of Mcl-l, bclxl, survivin, p53 and p16 mRNA. To identify factors associated with radiosensitivity, differential gene expression profiles of radiation-treated versus untreated oral cell lines of differing radiosensitivities was carried out. To assess the predictive value of above altered molecules in radiotherapy outcome in oral cancer patients, pretreated biopsies from thirty nine oral cancer patients were examined for the expression of the apoptotic markers using immunohistochemistry and their expression was correlated with the clinico pathological parameters. High expression of Mcl-1 (p = 0.05) and PCNA (p = 0.007) was seen to be associated with poor disease free survival. High expression of Bcl-xL was associated with poor response to radiotherapy treatment. PCNA (p=0.04) and Mcl-1 (p=0.05) emerged as independent prognostic markers for predicting disease free survival in oral cancers treated with primary radiotherapy. A predominant overexpression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1L over pro-apoptotic Mcl-1S isoform was observed in the oral cancer cell lines and oral tumors. An inverse correlation was observed between Mcl-1L expression and apoptosis induction in AW8507 cell line post-radiation treatment supporting its pro-survival role. A rapid and short induction of Mcl-1L versus sustained induction of Mcl-1L was observed in the relatively more radiosensitive FBM versus AW8507 respectively. siRNA treatment in combination with IR demonstrated significant induction of apoptosis

  2. Survival of Patients With Cervical Cancer in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoda Thulaseedharan, Jissa; Malila, Nea; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Esmy Pulikottil, Okuru; Hakama, Matti; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ survival after diagnosis of cervical cancer is indirectly influenced by socio-economic factors. We evaluated this survival and its socio-economic determinants in a rural population in south India. Methods: We assessed 165 women diagnosed with cervical cancer from the routine care control arm of a randomized screening trial conducted in rural south India. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to illustrate the observed survival of cancer patients. The effect of socio-econom...

  3. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  4. Oral mucosa and lung cancer: Are genetic changes in the oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-03

    Feb 3, 2016 ... to lung cancer, although other risk factors (such as genetic tendency) ... analysis of oral mucosa identifying individuals predisposed to lung cancer. ... of the study is that oral epithelial cells of smokers who have lung cancer are ... Stratec Molecular, Berlin, Germany). p53 codon 72 ..... Validity and reliability of.

  5. Use of next-generation sequencing in oral cavity cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Kruse, Torben A; Thomassen, Mads

    Background: Oral cavity cancer is a subgroup of head and neck cancer which is the world’s 6th most common cancer form. Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) constitute almost all oral cavity cancers, and OSCC are primarily attributed by excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco exposure...... of tumour cells exists. Conclusions: Use of next generation sequencing in oral cavity cancer can give valuable insight into the biology of the disease. By investigating intra tumour heterogeneity we see that the different tumour specimens in each patient are quite homogenous, but evidence of heterogeneous...

  6. Implication for second primary cancer from visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions in betel-nut chewing related oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shyun-Yu; Feng, I-Jung; Wu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Che-Yi; Chang, Min-Te; Yu, Hsi-Chien; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions may be used to monitor for a second primary oral cancer. To control for bias, we focused on the visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions of patients with oral cancer with a positive betel-nut chewing habit. Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions that can predict second primary oral cancers were studied. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with positive betel-nut chewing habits and oral cancer were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the relevance of their visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesion incidence and relative clinicopathological variables to the development of a second primary oral cancer. Second primary oral cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with positive visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions (P oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions make it a potentially valuable marker in follow-ups of patients with a positive betel-nut chewing habit with oral cancer, especially young patients with heterogeneous leukoplakia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Salivary mineral composition in patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, Anna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Bachanek, Teresa; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the mineral content of saliva in patients with oral cancer in order to identify possible markers that might aid the diagnosis of oral cancer. The study group consisted of 34 patients, aged 35-72 years with a diagnosis of oral cancer, including seven women and 27 men, before the start of treatment. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in plastic containers. The concentrations of sodium and potassium were assessed using ion selective electrodes, and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistically significant differences between the study and control groups were found only for the concentration of sodium--higher concentrations were found in the study group. When comparing different cancer localisations, the highest levels of salivary sodium were found in cases of cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue or parotid gland cancer. The highest calcium levels were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue cancer. The highest levels of magnesium were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest in tongue cancer. As regards the different histological types, higher sodium and calcium levels were found in squamous cell carcinomas than in other types. Salivary mineral content in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is indicative of oral dehydration; however, we found no evidence of any salivary mineral markers that would be useful for the diagnosis of oral cancer.

  8. Therapeutic strategies with oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, S-1 against oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Koji; Ferdous, Tarannum; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer has been recognized as a tumor with low sensitivity to anticancer agents. However, introduction of S-1, an oral cancer agent is improving treatment outcome for patients with oral cancer. In addition, S-1, as a main drug for oral cancer treatment in Japan can be easily available for outpatients. In fact, S-1 exerts high therapeutic effects with acceptable side effects. Moreover, combined chemotherapy with S-1 shows higher efficacy than S-1 alone, and combined chemo-radiotherapy with S-1 exerts remarkable therapeutic effects. Furthermore, we should consider the combined therapy of S-1 and molecular targeting agents right now as these combinations were reportedly useful for oral cancer treatment. Here, we describe our findings related to S-1 that were obtained experimentally and clinically, and favorable therapeutic strategies with S-1 against oral cancer with bibliographic considerations.

  9. Chemotherapy Regimen Extends Survival in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four-drug chemotherapy regimen has produced the longest improvement in survival ever seen in a phase III clinical trial of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest types of cancer.

  10. Detection of survivin mRNA in healthy oral mucosa, oral leucoplakia and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, G; Franchini, R; Bez, C; Sardella, A; Moneghini, L; Pellegrini, C; Bosari, S; Manfredi, M; Vescovi, P; Carrassi, A

    2010-01-01

    Survivin is involved in modulation of cell death and cell division processes. Survivin expression in normal adult tissues has not been fully understood, although it is markedly lower than in cancer, where it is over-expressed. To investigate survivin expression in normal, potentially malignant and cancerous oral mucosa. We measured survivin mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR in specimens of oral mucosa (15 from normal mucosa, 17 from potentially malignant lesions, 17 from neoplasms). Scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc according to Conover. Chi-squared test was used for dichotomous data. The median relative levels of survivin mRNA resulted six for normal mucosa, eight for potentially malignant lesions, 13 for cancers: differences among these three groups were statistically significant, as between cancer and potentially malignant lesions. Expression in normal mucosa and potentially lesions group showed no significant difference. Low, but not marginal expression of survivin in normal mucosa is a new finding, and it could be explained with the higher sensibility of our methods. Survivin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions might indicate a progressive deregulation of expression paralleling oncogenesis, particularly during the first stages of process, suggesting a putative predictive role for survivin.

  11. BCL2 genotypes and prostate cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Wilfried [Medical University of Graz, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Graz (Austria); Langsenlehner, Uwe [GKK Outpatient Department, Division of Internal Medicine, Graz (Austria); Krenn-Pilko, Sabine; Langsenlehner, Tanja [Medical University of Graz, Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Graz (Austria); Eder, Petra [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    The antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene is a key player in cancer development and progression. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (c.-938C>A, rs2279115) in the inhibitory P2 BCL2 gene promoter has been associated with clinical outcomes in various types of cancer. Aim of the present study was to analyze the role of BCL2-938C>A genotypes in prostate cancer mortality. The association between BCL2-938C>A (rs2279115) genotypes and prostate cancer outcome was studied within the prospective PROCAGENE study comprising 702 prostate cancer patients. During a median follow-up time of 92 months, 120 (17.1%) patients died. A univariate Cox regression model showed a significant association of the CC genotype with reduced cancer-specific survival (CSS; hazard ratio, HR, 2.13, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.10-4.12; p = 0.024) and overall survival (OS; HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.58-3.47; p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression model including age at diagnosis, risk group, and androgen deprivation therapy, the CC genotype remained a significant predictor of poor CSS (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.05-3.99; p = 0.034) and OS (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.51-3.36; p < 0.001). This study provides evidence that the homozygous BCL2-938 CC genotype is associated with OS and C in prostate cancer patients. (orig.) [German] Das antiapoptotische Gen B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) spielt eine Schluesselrolle in der Entstehung und Progression von Krebserkrankungen. Ein funktioneller Einzelnukleotid-Polymorphismus (c.-938C>A, rs2279115) im inhibitorischen P2-BCL2-Promotor wurde mit dem klinischen Outcome verschiedener Krebserkrankungen verknuepft. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Untersuchung der Rolle von BCL2-938C>A-Genotypen fuer die Mortalitaet bei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom. Der Zusammenhang zwischen BCL2-938C>A-Genotypen (rs2279115) und dem Outcome bei Prostatakrebs wurde in der prospektiven PROCAGENE-Studie, die 702 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom umfasste, untersucht. Waehrend der medianen

  12. Overdentures on primary mandibular implants in patients with oral cancer : a follow-up study over 14 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Anke; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Vissink, Arjan; Reintsema, Harry

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess oral functioning, patients' satisfaction, condition of pen-implant tissues, and survival of implants up to 14 years after their insertion in patients with oral cancer who had had mandibular overdentures placed over primary implants. Endosseous dental implants were inserted

  13. Overdentures on primary mandibular implants in patients with oral cancer : a follow-up study over 14 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Anke; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Vissink, Arjan; Reintsema, Harry

    We aimed to assess oral functioning, patients' satisfaction, condition of pen-implant tissues, and survival of implants up to 14 years after their insertion in patients with oral cancer who had had mandibular overdentures placed over primary implants. Endosseous dental implants were inserted

  14. Clinical implications of epigenetic regulation in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Wendy; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2015-12-01

    Oral cancer is a high incidence cancer which is of major public health concern in India being the most common cancer in males and fifth most common cancer in females in India, contributing to 26% of the global oral cancer burden. The major risk factors of oral cancer are tobacco, alcohol and high risk Human Papilloma Virus type 16/18. However, only 3-12% of the high risk individuals with dysplasia develop oral cancer. Thus, individual genomic variants representing the genomic constitution and epigenetic alterations play a critical role in the development of oral cancer. Extensive epigenetic studies on the molecular lesions including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, genes associated with apoptosis, DNA damage repair have been reported. The current review highlights epigenetic regulation with a focus on molecular biomarkers and epidrug therapy in oral cancer. Epigenetic regulation by hypermethylation, histone modifications and specific microRNAs are often associated with early events and advanced stages in oral cancer, and thus indicate epidrug therapy for intervention. The presence of epigenetic marks in oral lesions, cancers and tumor associated mucosa emphasizes indications as biomarkers and epidrugs with therapeutic potential for better patient management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of colorectal and gastric cancer: Survival and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Safaee, Azadeh; Zali, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    Gastric and colorectal cancers are the most common gastrointestinal malignancies in Iran. We aim to compare the survival rates and prognostic factors between these two cancers. We studied 1873 patients with either gastric or colorectal cancer who were registered in one referral cancer registry center in Tehran, Iran. All patients were followed from their time of diagnosis until December 2006 (as failure time). Survival curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier Method and compared by the Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out using the Cox proportional hazard model. Of 1873 patients, there were 746 with gastric cancer and 1138 with colorectal cancer. According to the Kaplan-Meier method 1, 3, 5, and 7-year survival rates were 71.2, 37.8, 25.3, and 19.5%, respectively, in gastric cancer patients and 91.1, 73.1, 61, and 54.9%, respectively, in patients with colorectal cancer. Also, univariate analysis showed that age at diagnosis, sex, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis were of prognostic significance in both cancers ( P < 0.0001). However, in multivariate analysis, only distant metastasis in colorectal cancer and age at diagnosis, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer were identified as independent prognostic factors influencing survival. According to our findings, survival is significantly related to histological differentiation of tumor and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer patients and only to distant metastasis in gastric cancer patients. (author)

  16. Identification of novel genetic markers of breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Guo (Qi); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); P. Kraft (Peter); S. Canisius (Sander); C. Chen (Constance); S. Khan (Sofia); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M. Lush (Michael); S. Kar (Siddhartha); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); D. Lambrechts (Diether); C. Weltens (Caroline); K. Leunen; S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); R. Fagerholm (Rainer); T.A. Muranen (Taru); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); A. Broeks (Annegien); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); J. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); G.G. Giles (Graham G.); R.L. Milne (Roger L.); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); J.W.M. Martens (John W. M.); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); R. Yang (Rongxi); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); B. Holleczek (B.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); J. Li (Jingmei); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); P. Mariani (Paolo); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); R. Hein (Rebecca); A.B. Ekici (Arif); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); R. Balleine (Rosemary); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); U. Hamann (Ute); M. Kabisch (Maria); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); S. Margolin (Sara); V. Kristensen (Vessela); S. Nord (Silje); D.G. Evans (Gareth); J. Abraham (Jean); H. Earl (Helena); L. Hiller (Louise); J.A. Dunn (J.); S. Bowden (Sarah); C.D. Berg (Christine); D. Campa (Daniele); W.R. Diver (Ryan); S.M. Gapstur (Susan M.); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); R.N. Hoover (Robert); A. Hüsing (Anika); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); M.J. Machiela (Mitchell J.); W.C. Willett (Walter C.); M. Barrdahl (Myrto); F. Canzian (Federico); S.-F. Chin (Suet-Feung); C. Caldas (Carlos); D. Hunter (David); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); D. Eccles (Diana); N. Rahman (Nazneen); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. Methods: We conducted a large

  17. Análise de sobrevida global em pacientes diagnosticados com carcinoma de células escamosas de boca no INCA no ano de 1999 Overall survival analysis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Honorato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma de células escamosas de boca compreende cerca de 90 a 95% de todas as neoplasias malignas da boca e é um dos tipos de câncer mais frequentes no Brasil. O índice de sobrevida em 5 anos é baixo e permaneceu estável nas últimas décadas, apesar dos avanços nas terapias. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o perfil e a sobrevida global dos pacientes diagnosticados com carcinoma de células escamosas de boca no ano de 1999 no Instituto Nacional de Câncer. Dos 320 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 79,4% eram homens. A idade média foi de 56,7 anos, e 82,2% deles fumavam e/ou bebiam. A língua, seguida do assoalho de boca foram os locais mais acometidos. A maioria (68,9% dos pacientes foi diagnosticada em estádios tardios e submetida à radioterapia exclusiva (53,6%. A sobrevida média no período do estudo foi de 29,4 meses. Os pacientes dos estádios iniciais apresentaram maior sobrevida, assim como aqueles submetidos apenas à cirurgia como forma de tratamento e os que não apresentaram linfonodos acometidos ao diagnóstico. Tumores localizados em palato duro e mucosa jugal apresentaram pior prognóstico. Foram fatores preditivos independentes de melhor sobrevida os tumores T1 ou T2 (p=0,001, sem acometimento de linfonodos (p=0,012 e não localizados em mucosa jugal (p=0,021. O diagnóstico do câncer oral ainda se faz em estádios tardios, o que influencia negativamente a sobrevida global dos pacientes. Maior ênfase deve ser dada à capacitação dos profissionais para o reconhecimento precoce do câncer e à conscientização da população de risco.Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 90 to 95% of all malignant neoplasms of the mouth and it is one of most common cancers in Brazil. Five-year survival rates remain low and have not improved over the past decades, despite advances in therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the features and overall survival of patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma in

  18. Sentinel lymph node concept in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shogo; Omura, Ken; Harada, Hiroyuki; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Yoshihiko; Uekusa, Masaru; Togawa, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The cervical lymph node (CLN) status is one of the most important prognostic factors in oral cancer. However, the main method of addressing the CLN depends on diagnostic imaging. Sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy combined with lymphoscintigraphy may be a minimally invasive technique that samples first-echelon lymph node to predict the need for neck dissection. Focused analysis of the SN is highly accurate in identifying metastases. In this study, we investigate the possibility of identifying the SN in oral cancer and the detection of metastases in SN by HE stain, cytokeratin IHC and cytokeratin 17 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twenty-four consecutive patients who had clinically negative CLN underwent SN biopsy, followed by elective neck dissection. SNs were detected by means of mapping with isotope labeling 99m Tc-phytate. All lymph nodes were examined by conventional HE staining for evaluating metastasis. In addition, each SN was cut into multiple sections for cytokeratin IHC staining and for RT-PCR for cytokeratin 17. SNs were identified in 24 (100%) of 24 patients by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe. One to seven SNs were identified in each patient. Both HE and immunohistochemical staining of SN identified metastasis in 7 patients (29.2%), and the expression of cytokeratin 17 by RT-PCR of SN was positive in 8 patients (34.8%). No metastases were identified using HE, cytokeratin IHC staining in non-SNs. Neck failure has not developed in 23 (95.8%) of 24 patients. The results strongly suggest the usefulness of the SN concept in oral cancer and for better assessing the status of the CLN. (author)

  19. Infectious and dietary risk factors of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the classic risk factors of oral cancer, namely alcohol and tobacco, other factors both infectious and environmental are thought to be associated with the development of oral malignancy. Infections in the oral cavity may be an important preventable cause of cancer. Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, chronic candidiasis, human papilloma virus (HPV) and herpesvirus infections link statistically with cancer but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Infections may trigger cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, interfere with cellular signaling mechanisms and up-regulate tumor promoters. In addition, several oral micro-organisms metabolize alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde thus explaining the association between poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and carcinogenesis. With regards to dietary factors the Mediterranean-type fruit and vegetable rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of oral cancer but the evidence is weak, the effect of individual food components and trace elements on carcinogenesis remains unclear at present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  1. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer among Medical Students in Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, M; Shrestha, I; Dhakal, A; Amatya, R Cm

    Background Oral cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. It has high mortality rates and chances of survival is relatively superior when detected early. Lack of knowledge and awareness about oral cancer among medical students may contribute to delay in diagnosis and treatment. Objective To assess awareness and knowledge of oral cancer among medical students. Method A cross-sectional study conducted among 286 students by Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck surgery, Kathmandu University School of Medical sciences between July to August 2016. A questionnaire with questions on socio-demographic profile, awareness and knowledge of oral cancer was used. Independent sample t test and Pearson Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Result Out of 329 students approached, 286 participated in the study yielding a response rate of 86.9%. Symptoms of oral cancer as reported were ulceration in mouth (92.3%), oral bleeding (85.0%),whitish or reddish patch (84.3%), halitosis (75.5%) and swelling in neck (74.5%), trismus (69.2%), numbness (67.1%), loosening of teeth (49.3%) and tooth sensitivity (41.6%). The perceived risk factors were smoking (97.2%), tobacco chewing (96.5%), chronic irritation (86.7%), immunodeficiency (83.9%), poor oral hygiene (88.5%), human papilloma virus infection (82.5%), dietary factors (81.1%), alcohol (79.4%), ill-fitting dentures (72.4%), hot spicy food (65.4%) and hot beverages (58.0%). Significant differences were found between pre-clinical and clinical students for knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer (pcancer. Active involvement while examining patients and taking biopsies of malignant and premalignant lesions may help in improving students' knowledge about oral cancer.

  3. Association of -330 interleukin-2 gene polymorphism with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Gupta, Rajni; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Jain, Amita; Bogra, Jaishri; Chandra, Girish

    2017-12-01

    Cytokines play an important role in the development of cancer. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been reported to be associated with the development and severity of inflammatory diseases and cancer predisposition. This study was undertaken to evaluate a possible association of interleukin 2 (IL-2) (- 330A>C) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to oral cancer. The SNP in IL-2 (-330A>C) gene was genotyped in 300 oral cancer patients and in similar number of healthy volunteers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the association of the gene with the disease was evaluated. IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphism was significantly associated with oral cancer whereas it was neither associated with clinicopathological status nor with cancer pain. The AC heterozygous genotype was significantly associated with oral cancer patients as compared to controls [odds ratio (OR): 3.0; confidence interval (CI): 2.14-4.20; Poral cancer (OR: 1.80; CI: 1.39-2.33; PC) gene polymorphism was also associated with oral cancer in tobacco smokers and chewers. Our results showed that oral cancer patients had significantly higher frequency of AA genotype but significantly lower frequency of AC genotype and C allele compared to controls. The IL-2 AC genotype and C allele of IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphisms could be potential protective factors and might reduce the risk of oral cancer in Indian population.

  4. Health-related quality of life outcome for oral cancer survivors after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fu-Min; Chien, Chih-Yen; Wang, Chong-Jong; Tsai, Wen-Ling; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2004-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) data are becoming an important supplement to information pertaining to treatment outcome for cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HRQL outcome for oral cancer survivors after surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and to investigate the variables associated with their HRQL. Sixty-six oral cancer patients with cancer-free survival after surgery plus postoperative RT of >2 years were enrolled. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire in the Taiwan Chinese version was self-reported by all participants at the clinics. The linear regression model was used to analyze the socio-demographic and medical-related variables correlated with the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) in SF-36. The mean scores of the eight functional domains in the SF-36 were markedly lower for oral cancer survivors compared with the Taiwanese and US norms. Those with older age, lower annual family income, more advanced cancer stage and flap reconstruction had significantly worse PCS, and those with lower annual family income, unemployment and more advanced cancer stage reported significantly worse MCS. This model accounts for 63% of variance in PCS, and 51% in MCS. These results provided patient-reported evidence that oral cancer survivors lived with a worse HRQL compared with the general Taiwanese population. Socio-economic factors and cancer stage were important factors correlated with their HRQL. (authors)

  5. Survival after elective surgery for colonic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawid, S K; Hemmingsen, L; Boesby, S

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Total mesorectal excision (TME) has been shown to improve the outcome for patients with rectal cancer. In contrast, there are fewer data on complete mesocolic excision (CME) for colonic cancer. METHOD: Data from the National Colorectal Cancer Database were analysed. This includes about 95......% of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark. Only patients having elective surgery for colonic cancer in the period 2001-2008 were included. Overall and relative survival analyses were carried out. The study period was divided into the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. RESULTS: 9149 patients were...... included for the final analysis. The overall 5-year survival rates were 0.65 in 2001-2004 and 0.66 in 2005-2008. The relative 5-year survival rates were also within 1% of each other. None of these comparisons was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Survival following elective colon cancer surgery has...

  6. Breast cancer survival studies in India: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Jignasa Sathwara; Saurabh Bobdey; Ganesh B.

    2016-01-01

    Length of survival of cancer patients is an important indicator for knowing the outcome of treatment in any study. Epidemiological features and biological profile of breast cancer appear to be different in developing countries as compared to Western countries. Knowing the factors that influence survival rates among women with breast cancer may help define early detection actions, and improve treatment and care proposals in all the areas of health. Therefore, this study aims to identify, the p...

  7. A study of the treatment of oral multiple primary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takayuki; Kamata, Shin-etsu; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The subjects were 30 multiple primary cancers (out of 2,169 oral squamous cell carcinoma including lip cancers), which were treated at the Division of Head and Neck, Cancer Institute Hospital. Seven synchronous carcinomas and 23 metachronous cases were seen. The most common site of the primary cancer was the tongue. Surgical treatment was performed for the first treatment in 5 cases of the 7 synchronous cancers. On the other hand, radical treatment was performed in 11 cases of the 23 metachronous cancers. Fourteen of the 18 cases were treated by surgical treatment and controlled. It is suggested that surgical treatment is the most effective for oral multiple primary cancers. (author)

  8. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Oral complications in the pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggott, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A number of acute oral complications may be associated with cancer therapy in children, but the extent and duration of these complications, and the most effective management techniques. have not been well described. The few studies differ in design, making comparisons difficult. Well-controlled, prospective clinical studies are needed to define the most effective strategies for the management of acute oral complications in children. However, it is clear that dental intervention prior to cancer therapy is an important factor in the optimal preparation of the patient. During cancer therapy, intensive supervised oral preventive protocols appear to be of benefit to the child's oral health, overall comfort, and well-being. Furthermore, the prevention of oral infection may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with cancer therapy. Long-term preventive oral care may help prevent dental disease and infection in medically compromised children and contribute to improving the quality of life. 41 references

  9. Rectal cancer survival in a Brazilian Cancer Reference Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo da Silva Corrêa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malign tumors in men and women all over the world. In spite of prevention advances in the last few years, worldwide incidence remains significant, about one million per year. Objectives: Evaluate rectal cancer survival in patients diagnosed and surgically treated at the Cancer Reference Unit at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Methods: Observational retrospective study composed by 135 patients assisted from 2007 to 2014 at Doctor Luiz Antonio Hospital, Natal, Brazil. Data were collected from the patient records revision and survival rates were calculated and analyzed by non-parametric Kaplan–Meier and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. All patients were submitted to surgical treatment, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Results: Overall survival was 62% in seven years, while disease-free survival in one, three and five years was 91.7%, 75.5% and 72.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Overall survival and disease-free survival remained enhanced until the end of the study, suggesting that the treatment protocols used in the institution have shown to be effective. Resumo: O câncer colorretal é um dos tumores malignos mais comuns em homens e mulheres em todo o mundo. Apesar das melhorias na prevenção nos últimos anos, a incidência global ainda é expressiva, cerca de um milhão por ano. Objetivos: Avaliar a sobrevida do câncer de reto nos pacientes diagnosticados e tratados cirurgicamente na Unidade de Referência do Câncer no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo composto por 135 pacientes, compreendido no período de 2007 a 2014 no Hospital Dr. Luiz Antônio, Natal, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados através da revisão de prontuários e as sobrevidas foram calculadas e comparadas utilizando, respectivamente, os métodos não-paramétricos de Kaplan-Meier e teste de Wilcoxon. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico, quimioterápico e radioter

  10. Development of oral cancer vaccine using recombinant Bifidobacterium displaying Wilms' tumor 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Koichi; Oda, Tsugumi; Saito, Hiroki; Araki, Ayame; Gonoi, Reina; Shigemura, Katsumi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Katayama, Takane; Fujisawa, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    Several types of vaccine-delivering tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been developed in basic and clinical research. Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1), identified as a gene responsible for pediatric renal neoplasm, is one of the most promising TAA for cancer immunotherapy. Peptide and dendritic cell-based WT1 cancer vaccines showed some therapeutic efficacy in clinical and pre-clinical studies but as yet no oral WT1 vaccine can be administrated in a simple and easy way. In the present study, we constructed a novel oral cancer vaccine using a recombinant Bifidobacterium longum displaying WT1 protein. B. longum 420 was orally administered into mice inoculated with WT1-expressing tumor cells for 4 weeks to examine anti-tumor effects. To analyze the WT1-specific cellular immune responses to oral B. longum 420, mice splenocytes were isolated and cytokine production and cytotoxic activities were determined. Oral administrations of B. longum 420 significantly inhibited WT1-expressing tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice. Immunohistochemical study and immunological assays revealed that B. longum 420 substantially induced tumor infiltration of CD4 + T and CD8 + T cells, systemic WT1-specific cytokine production, and cytotoxic activity mediated by WT1-epitope specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, with no apparent adverse effects. Our novel oral cancer vaccine safely induced WT1-specific cellular immunity via activation of the gut mucosal immune system and achieved therapeutic efficacy with several practical advantages over existing non-oral vaccines.

  11. Conditional survival of cancer patients: an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimated conditional survival for cancer patients diagnosed at different ages and disease stage provides important information for cancer patients and clinicians in planning follow-up, surveillance and ongoing management. Methods Using population-based cancer registry data for New South Wales Australia, we estimated conditional 5-year relative survival for 11 major cancers diagnosed 1972–2006 by time since diagnosis and age and stage at diagnosis. Results 193,182 cases were included, with the most common cancers being prostate (39,851, female breast (36,585 and colorectal (35,455. Five-year relative survival tended to increase with increasing years already survived and improvement was greatest for cancers with poor prognosis at diagnosis (lung or pancreas and for those with advanced stage or older age at diagnosis. After surviving 10 years, conditional 5-year survival was over 95% for 6 localised, 6 regional, 3 distant and 3 unknown stage cancers. For the remaining patient groups, conditional 5-year survival ranged from 74% (for distant stage bladder cancer to 94% (for 4 cancers at different stages, indicating that they continue to have excess mortality 10–15 years after diagnosis. Conclusion These data provide important information for cancer patients, based on age and stage at diagnosis, as they continue on their cancer journey. This information may also be used by clinicians as a tool to make more evidence-based decisions regarding follow-up, surveillance, or ongoing management according to patients' changing survival expectations over time.

  12. The role of hypoxia in oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujan, Omar; Shearston, Kate; Farah, Camile S

    2017-04-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal cancer are major health problems globally with over 500 000 new cases diagnosed annually. Despite the fact that oral cancer is a preventable disease and has the potential for early detection, the overall survival rate remains at around 50%. Most oral cancer cases are preceded by a group of clinical lesions designated 'potentially malignant disorders'. It is difficult to predict if and when these lesions may transform to malignancy, and in turn it is difficult to agree on appropriate management strategies. Understanding underlying molecular pathways would help in predicting the malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders and ultimately identifying effective methods for early detection and prevention of oral cancer. Reprogramming energy metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer that is predominantly controlled by hypoxia-induced genes regulating angiogenesis, tumour vascularization, invasion, drug resistance and metastasis. This review aims to highlight the role of hypoxia in oral carcinogenesis and to suggest future research implications in this arena. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rural factors and survival from cancer: analysis of Scottish cancer registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N C; Elliott, A M; Sharp, L; Ritchie, L D; Cassidy, J; Little, J

    2000-06-01

    In this survival study 63,976 patients diagnosed with one of six common cancers in Scotland were followed up. Increasing distance from a cancer centre was associated with less chance of diagnosis before death for stomach, breast and colorectal cancers and poorer survival after diagnosis for prostate and lung cancers.

  14. Is oral cancer incidence among patients with oral lichen planus/oral lichenoid lesions underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Moles, M A; Gil-Montoya, J A; Ruiz-Avila, I; Bravo, M

    2017-02-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are considered potentially malignant disorders with a cancer incidence of around 1% of cases, although this estimation is controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the cancer incidence in a case series of patients with OLP and OLL and to explore clinicopathological aspects that may cause underestimation of the cancer incidence in these diseases. A retrospective study was conducted of 102 patients diagnosed with OLP (n = 21, 20.58%) or OLL (n = 81) between January 2006 and January 2016. Patients were informed of the risk of malignization and followed up annually. The number of sessions programmed for each patient was compared with the number actually attended. Follow-up was classified as complete (100% attendance), good (75-99%), moderate (25-74%), or poor (<25% attendance) compliance. Cancer was developed by four patients (3.9%), three males and one male. One of these developed three carcinomas, which were diagnosed at the follow-up visit (two in lower gingiva, one in floor of mouth); one had OLL and the other three had OLP. The carcinoma developed in mucosal areas with no OLP or OLL involvement in three of these patients, while OLP and cancer were diagnosed simultaneously in the fourth. Of the six carcinomas diagnosed, five (83.3%) were T1 and one (16.7%) T2. None were N+, and all patients remain alive and disease-free. The cancer incidence in OLP and OLL appears to be underestimated due to the strict exclusion criteria usually imposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Use of common analgesic medications and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Suzanne C; Nagle, Christina M; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with improved survival in some cancers, but evidence for ovarian cancer is limited. METHODS: Pooling individual-level data from 12 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies, we evaluated the association between self......-reported, pre-diagnosis use of common analgesics and overall/progression-free/disease-specific survival among 7694 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (4273 deaths). RESULTS: Regular analgesic use (at least once per week) was not associated with overall survival (pooled hazard ratios, pHRs (95......% confidence intervals): aspirin 0.96 (0.88-1.04); non-aspirin NSAIDs 0.97 (0.89-1.05); acetaminophen 1.01 (0.93-1.10)), nor with progression-free/disease-specific survival. There was however a survival advantage for users of any NSAIDs in studies clearly defining non-use as less than once per week (pHR=0...

  16. Oral Cancer: Awareness and Knowledge Among Dental Patients in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Dhaifullah, Esam; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Tarakji, Bassel

    2017-06-01

    More than 50 % of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Public knowledge about oral cancer can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge about signs and risk factors of oral cancer among dental patients in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 1410 randomly selected patients attending dental departments within public hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P oral cancer. Some 68.2 and 56.5 %, respectively, were able to correctly identify tobacco and alcohol as risk factors. More than two thirds of subjects had no knowledge about any signs of oral cancer. Participants with lower than university education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer. The knowledge regarding oral cancer among Saudi dental patients is alarmingly low. Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated.

  17. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genden, E.M.; Ferlito, A.; Silver, C.E.; Takes, R.P.; Suarez, C.; Owen, R.P.; Haigentz Jr, M.; Stoeckli, S.J.; Shaha, A.R.; Rapidis, A.D.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction

  18. Common germline polymorphisms associated with breast cancer-specific survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirie, Ailith; Guo, Qi; Kraft, Peter

    2015-01-01

    in the meta-analysis. Fifty-four of these were evaluated in the full set of 37,954 breast cancer cases with 2,900 events and the two additional variants were evaluated in a reduced sample size of 30,000 samples in order to ensure independence from the previously published studies. Five variants reached...... evaluated in the pooled analysis of over 37,000 breast cancer cases for association with breast cancer-specific survival. Previous associations were evaluated using a one-sided test based on the reported direction of effect. RESULTS: Fifty-six variants from 45 previous publications were evaluated......-specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: A literature review was conducted of all previously published associations between common germline variants and three survival outcomes...

  19. Does HPV status influence survival after vulvar cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Louise; Sand, Freja Laerke; Hoffmann Frederiksen, Marie

    2018-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is essential in the carcinogenesis of a substantial part of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers and has additionally been shown to be a possible predictive marker for survival, especially in oropharyngeal cancer. Studies examining the influence of HPV...... status on survival after vulvar cancer have been conflicting and limited by small study populations. Therefore, the aim of this review and meta-analysis was to examine whether HPV status influences survival after vulvar cancer, which, to our knowledge, has not been done before. We conducted a systematic...... search of PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase to identify studies examining survival after histologically verified and HPV tested vulvar cancer. A total of 18 studies were eligible for inclusion. Study-specific and pooled HRs of the 5-year OS and DFS were calculated using a fixed effects model. The I2...

  20. Survival after bone metastasis by primary cancer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Christian F; Ulrichsen, Sinna P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the 10 most common primary types with bone metastases, we aimed to examine survival, further stratifying on bone metastases only or with additional synchronous metastases. METHODS: We included all patients aged 18 years and older with incident hospital diagnosis of solid cancer...... between 1994 and 2010, subsequently diagnosed with BM until 2012. We followed patients from date of bone metastasis diagnosis until death, emigration or 31 December 2012, whichever came first. We computed 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival (%) and the corresponding 95% CIs stratified on primary cancer...... prostate (34%), breast (22%) and lung (20%). One-year survival after bone metastasis diagnosis was lowest in patients with lung cancer (10%, 95% CI 9% to 11%) and highest in patients with breast cancer (51%, 50% to 53%). At 5 years of follow-up, only patients with breast cancer had over 10% survival (13...

  1. Meta-analysis of two computer-assisted screening methods for diagnosing oral precancer and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yaqin; Chen, Guanying; Zhou, Gang

    2015-11-01

    The early diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer is crucial and could have the highest impact on improving survival rates. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the accuracy between the OralCDx brush biopsy and DNA-image cytometry in diagnosing both conditions. Bibliographic databases were systematically searched for original relevant studies on the early diagnosis of oral precancer and oral cancer. Study characteristics were evaluated to determine the accuracy of the two screening strategies. Thirteen studies (eight of OralCDx brush biopsy and five of DNA-image cytometry) were identified as having reported on 1981 oral mucosa lesions. The meta-analysis found that the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves of the OralCDx brush biopsy and DNA-image cytometry were 0.8879 and 0.9885, respectively. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of the OralCDx brush biopsy were 86% (95% CI 81-90), 81% (95% CI 78-85), and 20.36 (95% CI 2.72-152.67), respectively, while these modalities of DNA-image cytometry were 89% (95% CI 83-94), 99% (95% CI 97-100), and 446.08 (95% CI 73.36-2712.43), respectively. Results of a pairwise comparison between each modality demonstrated that specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and Q(∗) index of DNA-image cytometry was significantly higher than that of the OralCDx brush biopsy (Z=2.821, p0.05). In conclusion, the meta-analysis of the published studies indicated that DNA-image cytometry is more accurate than the OralCDx brush biopsy in diagnosing oral precancer and oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.

  3. Simplified Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient after Oral Cancer Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Džakula; Josip Kranjčić; Denis Vojvodić

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of patients with oral cancer is complex: a multidisciplinary approach needs to be taken and maxillofacial and oral surgeons, an oncologist, a prosthodontist should be included, and a psychologist is often needed. This case report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient after surgical removal of oral cancer with obturator prosthesis. Resection cavity was located in central part of the hard palate and the condition belonged to Aramany class 3 maxillary defects. The tw...

  4. Disparities in Oral Cancer Awareness: a Population Survey in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Ghorbani, Zahra; Ghasemi, Erfan; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2018-03-10

    Oral cancer is a life-threatening disease with low survival rates, especially when diagnosed in an advanced stage. Lack of awareness about this cancer among the population is proposed as a possible reason for this diagnostic delay. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral cancer awareness, as well as the association of this with sociodemographic status in Tehran. In this cross-sectional population-based survey, 1800 self-administered questionnaires (collecting sociodemographic data, questions regarding oral cancer awareness and the source of information) were distributed through multistage stratified random sampling. Scores for questions ranged from 0 to 4, and totals were summed. The outcome of question responses was also analyzed separately. In total, 1312 questionnaires were available for analysis, from 788 females and 489 males (37.8 ± 9.02 years). Only 30% of the respondents were aware of oral cancer. The average score for awareness was 1.09 ± 1.6 with no significant differences between age groups and genders. Almost 6.5% of participants had complete awareness about oral cancer. A significant difference was found between mean scores in different levels of education and occupation (p = 0.0001). From 585 responses to the "source of information" question, "public media" was the most important source (almost 50%). Only 2% mentioned "dentists" as a source of information. This study indicated an alarming lack of oral cancer awareness and literacy in Tehran, Iran. Dentists should be obliged to practice their pivotal role in informing the public about oral cancer.

  5. Impact of Somatic Mutations in the D-Loop of Mitochondrial DNA on the Survival of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ching; Wang, Chen-Chi; Jiang, Rong-San; Wang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Shih-An

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate somatic mutations in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and their impact on survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Surgical specimen confirmed by pathological examination and corresponding non-cancerous tissues were collected from 120 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The sequence in the D-loop of mtDNA from non-cancerous tissues was compared with that from paired cancer samples and any sequence differences were recognized as somatic mutations. Results Somatic mutations in the D-loop of mtDNA were identified in 75 (62.5%) oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and most of them occurred in the poly-C tract. Although there were no significant differences in demographic and tumor-related features between participants with and without somatic mutation, the mutation group had a better survival rate (5 year disease-specific survival rate: 64.0% vs. 43.0%, P = 0.0266). Conclusion Somatic mutation in D-loop of mtDNA was associated with a better survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. PMID:25906372

  6. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  7. Awareness of Undergraduate Dental and Medical Students Towards Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Marla, Vinay; Shrestha, Sushmita; Agrawal, Diksha

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a common malignancy in Nepal and many other South East Asian countries, which is predisposed by a variety of potentially malignant oral diseases. Considering the importance of knowledge of health professionals and their role in early diagnosis and reduction of cancer statistics, this study aims to evaluate the awareness of undergraduate dental and medical students towards oral cancer. The study involved undergraduate dental and medical students of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. A self-administered questionnaire adapted from Carter to Ogden was distributed. One hundred forty-three dental and 311 medical students responded to the questionnaire. Significantly more dental (80.4 %) than medical students (36.0 %) were found to routinely examine the oral mucosa. Tobacco smoking and chewing were the most commonly recognized risk factors by both medical and dental students. Most of the students found ulcer as the common change associated with oral cancer. Only 30 out of the total students felt very well informed about oral cancer. This study has demonstrated a lack of awareness in some aspects of oral cancer among medical and dental students which highlights the need to frame new teaching methodologies. Similar studies from other health institutions would provide an insight regarding the same and could be a base for formulating a uniform curriculum in the implementation of knowledge regarding oral cancer.

  8. Possible role for interleukins as biomarkers for mortality and recurrence in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Menegatti, Elisa; Cappello, Nazario; Martina, Eugenio; Gardino, Nicolò; Tanteri, Carlotta; Cavallo, Franco; Scully, Crispian; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2015-05-26

    Salivary and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) have previously been studied in oral cancer with conflicting results. We designed a controlled study to assess the correlation between pretreatment salivary and serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8, and all-cause survival and cancer recurrence in oral cancer patients. Fifty-two oral cancer patients and 52 healthy control cases were selected. In univariate analysis, salivary IL-6 and IL-8 seemed to be more expressed in cases (p<0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that higher pretreatment saliva IL-6 levels were significantly associated with better survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.62; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.21-62.50; p = 0.031). To date, this is the largest prospective controlled study that has analyzed the pretreatment salivary and serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in oral cancer patients, suggesting salivary IL-6 as a possible prognostic biomarker. But further validation in a larger sample is still necessary.

  9. The incidence and mortality of lip and oral cavity cancer and its relationship to the 2012 Human Development Index of Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Tiyuri; Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani; Elham Iziy; Hamidreza Sadeghi Gandomani; Hamid Salehiniya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lip and oral cavity cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in Asia and considered to be a major public health problem due to the low survival rate. Because of the importance of access to information about this cancer (including incidence, mortality rate and relation to socioeconomic indicators), this study aims at investigating the incidence and mortality of lip and oral cavity cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) of Asia (from 2012). Meth...

  10. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  11. Key factors influencing lung cancer survival in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Vicentini, Massimo; Giacomin, Adriano; Caldarella, Adele; Cirilli, Claudia; Falcini, Fabio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Sant, Milena

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. The aims of this study were to analyze presentation, treatment and survival for lung cancer in northern Italy, and identify factors influencing survival. A total of 1180 lung cancer cases diagnosed in four north Italian cancer registries (Biella, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Romagna) in 2003-2005 were analyzed. Information on morphology, stage, diagnostic examinations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment was collected from clinical records. Three-year relative survival and relative excess risks of death were estimated. Overall, 10% of cases were stage I, 50% stage IV, and 12% stage unknown. Romagna - where sophisticated diagnostic examinations were performed more often - had proportionately more microscopically verified cases and resected cases than Biella. Romagna had also high proportions of cases given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 14%, range 10% (Biella) to 19% (Romagna); 69% for stage I, 3% for stage IV. Stage I survival was higher in Romagna (82%) than Reggio Emilia and Biella (60-61%) but for operated stage I cases, survival was similar (88%) in Romagna and Biella. The fully adjusted model showed a higher risk of death in Biella (1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.48) than Modena (reference). Stage and surgery are key factors influencing survival. Centralizing lung cancer treatment to improve diagnostic work-up may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  13. Lymph Node Yield as a Predictor of Survival in Pathologically Node Negative Oral Cavity Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Aaron; Kedarisetty, Suraj; Raju, Sharat; Orosco, Ryan; Coffey, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Even after a pathologically node-negative (pN0) neck dissection for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), patients may develop regional recurrence. In this study, we (1) hypothesize that an increased number of lymph nodes removed (lymph node yield) in patients with pN0 oral SCC predicts improved survival and (2) explore predictors of survival in these patients using a multivariable model. Case series with chart review. Administrative database analysis. The SEER database was queried for patients diagnosed with all-stage oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2009 who were determined to be pN0 after elective lymph node dissection. Demographic and treatment variables were extracted. The association of lymph node yield with 5-year all-cause survival was studied with multivariable survival analyses. A total of 4341 patients with pN0 oral SCC were included in this study. The 2 highest lymph node yield quartiles (representing >22 nodes removed) were found to be significant predictors of overall survival (22-35 nodes: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.854, P = .031; 36-98 nodes: HR = 0.827, P = .010). Each additional lymph node removed during neck dissection was associated with increased survival (HR = 0.995, P = .022). These data suggest that patients with oral SCC undergoing elective neck dissection may experience an overall survival benefit associated with greater lymph node yield. Mechanisms behind the demonstrated survival advantage are unknown. Larger nodal dissections may remove a greater burden of microscopic metastatic disease, diminishing the likelihood of recurrence. Lymph node yield may serve as an objective measure of the adequacy of lymphadenectomy. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  14. Nerve Growth Factor in Cancer Cell Death and Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, Niamh H.; Read, Danielle E.; Gorman, Adrienne M., E-mail: adrienne.gorman@nuigalway.ie [Apoptosis Research Centre, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-02-01

    One of the major challenges for cancer therapeutics is the resistance of many tumor cells to induction of cell death due to pro-survival signaling in the cancer cells. Here we review the growing literature which shows that neurotrophins contribute to pro-survival signaling in many different types of cancer. In particular, nerve growth factor, the archetypal neurotrophin, has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis over the past decade. Nerve growth factor mediates its effects through its two cognate receptors, TrkA, a receptor tyrosine kinase and p75{sup NTR}, a member of the death receptor superfamily. Depending on the tumor origin, pro-survival signaling can be mediated by TrkA receptors or by p75{sup NTR}. For example, in breast cancer the aberrant expression of nerve growth factor stimulates proliferative signaling through TrkA and pro-survival signaling through p75{sup NTR}. This latter signaling through p75{sup NTR} promotes increased resistance to the induction of cell death by chemotherapeutic treatments. In contrast, in prostate cells the p75{sup NTR} mediates cell death and prevents metastasis. In prostate cancer, expression of this receptor is lost, which contributes to tumor progression by allowing cells to survive, proliferate and metastasize. This review focuses on our current knowledge of neurotrophin signaling in cancer, with a particular emphasis on nerve growth factor regulation of cell death and survival in cancer.

  15. Nerve Growth Factor in Cancer Cell Death and Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Niamh H.; Read, Danielle E.; Gorman, Adrienne M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges for cancer therapeutics is the resistance of many tumor cells to induction of cell death due to pro-survival signaling in the cancer cells. Here we review the growing literature which shows that neurotrophins contribute to pro-survival signaling in many different types of cancer. In particular, nerve growth factor, the archetypal neurotrophin, has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis over the past decade. Nerve growth factor mediates its effects through its two cognate receptors, TrkA, a receptor tyrosine kinase and p75 NTR , a member of the death receptor superfamily. Depending on the tumor origin, pro-survival signaling can be mediated by TrkA receptors or by p75 NTR . For example, in breast cancer the aberrant expression of nerve growth factor stimulates proliferative signaling through TrkA and pro-survival signaling through p75 NTR . This latter signaling through p75 NTR promotes increased resistance to the induction of cell death by chemotherapeutic treatments. In contrast, in prostate cells the p75 NTR mediates cell death and prevents metastasis. In prostate cancer, expression of this receptor is lost, which contributes to tumor progression by allowing cells to survive, proliferate and metastasize. This review focuses on our current knowledge of neurotrophin signaling in cancer, with a particular emphasis on nerve growth factor regulation of cell death and survival in cancer

  16. Oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McNicol, Ewan D; Bell, Rae F; Carr, Daniel B; McIntyre, Mairead; Wee, Bee

    2017-07-12

    Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Non-opioid drugs are commonly used to treat mild to moderate cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the WHO cancer pain treatment ladder, either alone or in combination with opioids.A previous Cochrane review that examined the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain was withdrawn in 2015 because it was out of date; the date of the last search was 2005. This review, and another on NSAIDs, updates the evidence. To assess the efficacy of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain in adults and children, and the adverse events reported during its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to March 2017, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries. We included randomised, double-blind, studies of five days' duration or longer, comparing paracetamol alone with placebo, or paracetamol in combination with an opioid compared with the same dose of the opioid alone, for cancer pain of any intensity. Single-blind and open studies were also eligible for inclusion. The minimum study size was 25 participants per treatment arm at the initial randomisation. Two review authors independently searched for studies, extracted efficacy and adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality and potential bias. We did not carry out any pooled analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Three studies in adults satisfied the inclusion criteria, lasting up to one week; 122 participants were randomised initially, and 95 completed treatment. We found no studies in children. One study was parallel-group, and

  17. Predictive model for survival in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshayeshi, Ladan; Hoseini, Benyamin; Yousefli, Zahra; Khooie, Alireza; Etminani, Kobra; Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Golabpour, Amin

    2017-12-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Characterized by poor prognosis, it is a frequent cause of cancer in Iran. The aim of the study was to design a predictive model of survival time for patients suffering from gastric cancer. This was a historical cohort conducted between 2011 and 2016. Study population were 277 patients suffering from gastric cancer. Data were gathered from the Iranian Cancer Registry and the laboratory of Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Patients or their relatives underwent interviews where it was needed. Missing values were imputed by data mining techniques. Fifteen factors were analyzed. Survival was addressed as a dependent variable. Then, the predictive model was designed by combining both genetic algorithm and logistic regression. Matlab 2014 software was used to combine them. Of the 277 patients, only survival of 80 patients was available whose data were used for designing the predictive model. Mean ?SD of missing values for each patient was 4.43?.41 combined predictive model achieved 72.57% accuracy. Sex, birth year, age at diagnosis time, age at diagnosis time of patients' family, family history of gastric cancer, and family history of other gastrointestinal cancers were six parameters associated with patient survival. The study revealed that imputing missing values by data mining techniques have a good accuracy. And it also revealed six parameters extracted by genetic algorithm effect on the survival of patients with gastric cancer. Our combined predictive model, with a good accuracy, is appropriate to forecast the survival of patients suffering from Gastric cancer. So, we suggest policy makers and specialists to apply it for prediction of patients' survival.

  18. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, J.; Engholm, G.; Ehrnrooth, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates four patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based oil cancer register data. differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries ill...... Europe. Variation ill the distribution of stage at diagnosis. initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum. diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were...

  19. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Joakim; Engholm, Gerda; Ehrnrooth, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates for patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based on cancer register data, differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries...... in Europe. Variation in the distribution of stage at diagnosis, initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum, diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were included...

  20. Conditional Melanoma Cancer Survival in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond relative survival, which indicates the likelihood that patients will not die from causes associated with their cancer, conditional relative survival probabilities provide further useful prognostic information to cancer patients, tailored to the time already survived from diagnosis. This study presents conditional relative survival for melanoma patients in the United States, diagnosed during 2000–2008 and followed through 2012. Analyses are based on 62,803 male and 50,261 female cases in population-based cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute. Five-year relative survival estimates are presented for melanoma patients who have already survived one, two, three, four, or five years after the initial diagnosis. Five- and ten-year relative survival decreases with age, stage at diagnosis, and is lower among males, Blacks, and Hispanics. Five-year conditional relative survival improves with each year already survived. The potential for improvement in five-year conditional relative survival is greatest for older age, males, Blacks, Hispanics, and in later staged cases. For local disease, five-year conditional relative survival was significantly lower in ages greater than 65 years and in Blacks. It was significantly higher in females, non-Hispanics, and married individuals. Age had a greater inverse relationship with five-year survival in later staged disease. A similar result occurred for females and married individuals. In contrast, non-Hispanics had better five-year survival if diagnosed with local or regional disease, but not distant disease.

  1. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizen, S.

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references

  2. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  3. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN) for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  4. Predicting Scheduling and Attending for an Oral Cancer Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and pharyngeal cancer is highly treatable if diagnosed early, yet late diagnosis is commonplace apparently because of delays in undergoing an oral cancer examination. Purpose We explored predictors of scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination among a sample of Black and White men who were at high risk for oral cancer because they smoked. Methods During an in-person interview, participants (N = 315) from rural Florida learned about oral and pharyngeal cancer, completed survey measures, and were offered a free examination in the next week. Later, participants received a follow-up phone call to explore why they did or did not attend their examination. Results Consistent with the notion that scheduling and attending an oral cancer exam represent distinct decisions, we found that the two outcomes had different predictors. Defensive avoidance and exam efficacy predicted scheduling an examination; exam efficacy and having coping resources, time, and transportation predicted attending the examination. Open-ended responses revealed that the dominant reasons participants offered for missing a scheduled examination was conflicting obligations, forgetting, and confusion or misunderstanding about the examination. Conclusions The results suggest interventions to increase scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination. PMID:26152644

  5. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Philiponis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis - in keeping with the methodology of the main study - we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process "living in limbo." This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself - "self-detected lesion," "lack of concern," "seeking help," "not a straightforward diagnosis," and "hearing the diagnosis." Entry into treatment concludes "Living in Limbo" and is described by the theme "worry and trust." Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, "living in limbo" suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed.

  6. Comorbidity and survival after early breast cancer. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Lotte Holm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht

    2011-01-01

    : A search in Pubmed with keywords, breast neoplasm, comorbidity, and survival, was performed. A total of 18 studies published between 2000 and August 2010 was included in this review. RESULTS: All 18 studies demonstrated that comorbidity had a significant impact on survival after breast cancer with poorer...

  7. Improved survival for rectal cancer compared to colon cancer: the four cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Pamela; Hall, Claire; Davidson, Callum; Dixon, Liane; Dobbs, Bruce; Robinson, Bridget; Frizelle, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate survival outcomes and changes of disease outcomes of CRC patients over the last decades. A retrospective analysis of CRC patients in Christchurch was performed in four patient cohorts at 5 yearly intervals; 1993-94, 1998-99, 2004-05 and 2009. Data on cancer location, stage, surgical and oncological treatment and survival were collected. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed. There were 1391 patients (355, 317, 419 and 300 per cohort), 1037 colon and 354 rectal cancers, respectively. For colon cancer, right-sided cancers appeared more common in later cohorts (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in the number of permanent stomas for colon cancer patients (P = 0.001). There was an analogous trend for rectal cancers (P = 0.075). More CRC patients with stage IV disease were treated surgically (P = 0.001) and colon cancer stages I and II tended to have increased survival if operated by a colorectal surgeon (P = 0.06). Oncology referrals have increased remarkably (P = 0.001). Overall 56% of patients were alive at 5 years however rectal cancer patients had significantly better 5-year survival than those with colon cancer (P rectal cancer patients have a better 5-year survival than colon cancer patients. The improved survival with early stage colon cancers operated on by specialist colorectal surgeons needs further exploration. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Xerostomia after Radiotherapy for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killerup Kaae, Julie; Stenfeldt, Lone; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radiation-induced xerostomia is a frequent late side effect after treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers. This may induce swallowing difficulties, compromised oral well-being, reduced nutrition intake, or speech deficiencies. Consequently, quality of life is often impaired...... oral well-being when used on a regular basis. METHODS: From October to December 2014, 31 consecutive patients treated with primary radiotherapy (RT) and concomitant cisplatin (in locally advanced cases) for oral or oropharyngeal cancer consented to participate. All patients had finalized RT 2-8 months...

  9. INTRADIALYTIC ORAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS AND SURVIVAL IN MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lacson

    2012-06-01

    Crude mortality in the ONS group (N= 7,264 was 29.4% vs. 36.6% for controls (N= 13,853, p<0.001. Compared to controls, the unadjusted mortality hazard ratio for ONS was 0.70 (0.67, 0.74 and after adjustment for baseline case‐mix and 5 quality indicators was 0.68 (0.64, 0.71. Although limited by the observational design, these results indicate favorable survival associated with ONS use in malnourished chronic HD patients with albumin ≤3.5 g/dL.

  10. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  11. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. HIV-associated lung cancer: survival in an unselected cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Kohrs, Fabienne; Sabranski, Michael; Wolf, Eva; Jaeger, Hans; Wyen, Christoph; Siehl, Jan; Baumgarten, Axel; Hensel, Manfred; Jessen, Arne; Schaaf, Bernhard; Vogel, Martin; Bogner, Johannes; Horst, Heinz-August; Stephan, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected patients. However, data on clinical outcome and prognostic factors are scarce. This was a national German multicentre, retrospective cohort analysis of all cases of lung cancer seen in HIV-infected individuals from 2000 through 2010. Survival was analyzed with respect to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), specific lung cancer therapies, and other potential prognostic factors. A total of 72 patients (mean age 55.5 y, CD4 T-cells 383/μl) were evaluated in this analysis. At time of lung cancer diagnosis, 86% were on ART. Of these, 79% had undetectable HIV-1 RNA (cancer stage of I-IIIA was associated with better overall survival when compared with the advanced stages IIIb/IV (p = 0.0003). Other factors predictive of improved overall survival were better performance status, CD4 T-cells > 200/μl, and a non-intravenous drug use transmission risk for HIV. Currently, most cases of lung cancer occur in the setting of limited immune deficiency and a long-lasting viral suppression. As in HIV-negative cases, the clinical stage of lung cancer is highly predictive of survival, and long-term overall survival can only be achieved at the limited stages. The still high mortality underscores the importance of smoking cessation strategies in HIV-infected patients.

  13. CORRECTION OF MALNUTRITION IN CANCER P ATIENTS WITH ORAL SUPPLEMENTS (SIPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Khomyakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Malnutrition occurs in 40 to 80 percent of cancer patients. Malnutrition in cancer patients is associated with poorer overall survival, reduced benefit from surgical and medical therapies, increased therapy-related toxicity, poorer quality of life. Early diagnostics of malnutrition and purpose of nutritional therapy is one of important components of supportive care at all steps of anticancer treatment. The modern tools for evaluation of the nutritional status and the principles of nutritional support at cancer patients, including oral nutritional supplements (siping are presented in the article.

  14. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Oral Cavity Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Zhung, Joanne E.; Gomez, Jennifer; Chan, Kelvin; Wu, Abraham J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Pfister, David G.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Wong, Richard J.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To present our single-institution experience of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2006, 35 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent surgery followed by postoperative IMRT. The sites included were buccal mucosa in 8, oral tongue in 11, floor of the mouth in 9, gingiva in 4, hard palate in 2, and retromolar trigone in 1. Most patients had Stage III-IV disease (80%). Ten patients (29%) also received concurrent postoperative chemotherapy with IMRT. The median prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 28.1 months (range, 11.9-85.1). Treatment failure occurred in 11 cases as follows: local in 4, regional in 2, and distant metastases in 5. Of the 5 patients with distant metastases, 2 presented with dermal metastases. The 2- and 3-year estimates of locoregional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 84% and 77%, 85% and 85%, 70% and 64%, and 74% and 74%, respectively. Acute Grade 2 or greater dermatitis, mucositis, and esophageal reactions were experienced by 54%, 66%, and 40% of the patients, respectively. Documented late complications included trismus (17%) and osteoradionecrosis (5%). Conclusion: IMRT as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection for oral cavity tumors is feasible and effective, with promising results and acceptable toxicity

  15. NEDD 4 binding protein 2-like 1 promotes cancer cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Kurihara, Miyako; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Rina; Kirita, Tadaaki; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although cancer cell invasion and metastasis are crucial for tumor progression, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma are unclear. Comparison of transcriptional profiles using a cDNA microarray demonstrated that N4BP2L1, a novel oncogene expressed by neural precursor cells, is involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of N4BP2L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma is regulated by activation of miR-448 and is higher than in normal oral mucosa. Knockdown of N4BP2L1 and upregulation of miR-448 significantly reduced the invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. We studied N4BP2L1 expression in 187 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and found its overexpression to be significantly associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0155) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0136). Expression of miR-448 was found to be inversely associated with that of N4BP2L1 (P = 0.0019). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified N4BP2L1 expression as an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.0349). Our results suggest that N4BP2L1 plays an important role in tumor cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies on expression of N4BP2L1 may provide new insight into its function and clarify its potential as biomarker in human oral cancer.

  16. EMMPRIN Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Correlation with Tumor Proliferation and Patient Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Silva Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, and its relation with the proliferative tumor status of OSCC. We examined EMMPRIN and Ki-67 proteins expression by immunohistochemistry in 74 cases with OSCC. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in OSCC. EMMPRIN membrane expression was observed in all cases, with both membrane and cytoplasmic tumor expression in 61 cases (82.4%. EMMPRIN overexpression was observed in 56 cases (75.7%. Moderately or poorly differentiated tumors showed EMMPRIN overexpression more frequently than well-differentiated tumors (P=0.002. Overexpression of EMMPRIN was correlated with high Ki-67 expression (P=0.004. In the multivariate analysis, EMMPRIN overexpression reveals an adverse independent prognostic value for cancer-specific survival (CSS (P=0.034. Our results reveal that EMMPRIN protein is overexpressed in more than two-thirds of OSCC cases, especially in high proliferative and less differentiated tumors. The independent value of EMMPRIN overexpression in CSS suggests that this protein could be used as an important biological prognostic marker for patients with OSCC. Moreover, the high expression of EMMPRIN makes it a possible therapeutic target in OSCC patients.

  17. EMMPRIN expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: correlation with tumor proliferation and patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís Silva; Delgado, Maria Leonor; Ricardo, Sara; Garcez, Fernanda; do Amaral, Barbas; Pacheco, José Júlio; Lopes, Carlos; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and its relation with the proliferative tumor status of OSCC. We examined EMMPRIN and Ki-67 proteins expression by immunohistochemistry in 74 cases with OSCC. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in OSCC. EMMPRIN membrane expression was observed in all cases, with both membrane and cytoplasmic tumor expression in 61 cases (82.4%). EMMPRIN overexpression was observed in 56 cases (75.7%). Moderately or poorly differentiated tumors showed EMMPRIN overexpression more frequently than well-differentiated tumors (P = 0.002). Overexpression of EMMPRIN was correlated with high Ki-67 expression (P = 0.004). In the multivariate analysis, EMMPRIN overexpression reveals an adverse independent prognostic value for cancer-specific survival (CSS) (P = 0.034). Our results reveal that EMMPRIN protein is overexpressed in more than two-thirds of OSCC cases, especially in high proliferative and less differentiated tumors. The independent value of EMMPRIN overexpression in CSS suggests that this protein could be used as an important biological prognostic marker for patients with OSCC. Moreover, the high expression of EMMPRIN makes it a possible therapeutic target in OSCC patients.

  18. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.I. Scher (Howard I.); K. Fizazi (Karim); F. Saad (Fred); M.-E. Taplin (Mary-Ellen); C.N. Sternberg (Cora); K. Miller (Kurt); R. de Wit (Ronald); P.F.A. Mulders (P. F A); K.N. Chi (Kim Nguyen); N.D. Shore (Neal); A.J. Armstrong (Andrew); T.W. Flaig (Thomas); A. Flechon (Aude); P. Mainwaring (Paul); M. Fleming; J.D. Hainsworth (John); M. Hirmand (Mohammad); B. Selby (Bryan); L. Seely (Lynn); J.S. de Bono (Johann)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly called MDV3100) targets multiple steps in the androgen-receptor-signaling pathway, the major driver of prostate-cancer growth. We aimed to evaluate whether enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after

  19. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scher, H.I.; Fizazi, K.; Saad, F.; Taplin, M.E.; Sternberg, C.N.; Miller, K.; de Wit, R.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Chi, K.N.; Shore, N.D.; Armstrong, A.J.; Flaig, T.W.; Flechon, A.; Mainwaring, P.; Fleming, M.; Hainsworth, J.D.; Hirmand, M.; Selby, B.; Seely, L.; Bono, J. De; Investigators, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly called MDV3100) targets multiple steps in the androgen-receptor-signaling pathway, the major driver of prostate-cancer growth. We aimed to evaluate whether enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. METHODS:

  20. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia.

  1. Factors associated with lip and oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; de Medeiros, Júlia Julliêta; Rodrigues, Larycia Vicente; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Lima Neto, Eufrásio de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the occurrence of primary cancer of the lip and oral cavity regions compared to other types of head and neck cancers according to demographic, socioeconomic data and lifestyle, in Brazil, from 2000 to 2011. A study was conducted using Hospital Cancer Records (Instituto Nacional do Câncer), from 2000 to 2011, totaling 23,153 cases. Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression (response category: primary cancers located in the lip and oral cavity; comparison category; other types of primary cancer in the head and neck, which does not affect the lip and oral cavity) at a significance level α = 5%. The study showed factors associated with higher incidence of cancer in the lip and oral cavity: being of advanced age (OR = 1.16), not having a family history of cancer (OR = 2.38), alcohol consumption (OR = 1.17); former tobacco use (OR = 1.51) or current tobacco use (OR = 1.65); having a previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment (OR =1.66). Being female (OR = 0.92), having completed basic (OR = 0.71) and higher (OR = 0.46) education and having previous diagnosis of cancer with treatment (OR = 0.74) constituted factors associated with lower prevalence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity. Age, absence of family history of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption, and previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment were associated with a higher incidence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity.

  2. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  3. Trastuzumab and survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Schoffer, Olaf; Link, Theresa; Forberger, Almuth; Petzold, Andrea; Niedostatek, Antje; Werner, Carmen; Klug, Stefanie J; Werner, Andreas; Gatzweiler, Axel; Richter, Barbara; Baretton, Gustavo; Wimberger, Pauline

    2017-08-01

    Prognosis of Her2-positive breast cancer has changed since the introduction of trastuzumab for treatment in metastatic and early breast cancer. It was described to be even better compared to prognosis of Her2-negative metastatic breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of trastuzumab in our cohort. Besides the effect of adjuvant pretreatment with trastuzumab on survival of patients with metastatic Her2-positive breast cancer was analyzed. All patients with primary breast cancer of the Regional Breast Cancer Center Dresden diagnosed during the years 2001-2013 were analyzed for treatment with or without trastuzumab in the adjuvant and in the metastatic treatment setting using Kaplan-Meier survival estimation and Cox regression. Age and tumor stage at time of first diagnosis of breast cancer as well as hormone receptor status, grading, time, and site of metastasis at first diagnosis of distant metastatic disease were analyzed. Of 4.481 female patients with primary breast cancer, 643 presented with metastatic disease. Her2-positive status was documented in 465 patients, including 116 patients with primary or secondary metastases. Median survival of patients with Her2-positive primary metastatic disease was 3.0 years (95% CI 2.3-4.0). After adjustment for other factors, survival was better in patients with Her2-positive breast cancer with trastuzumab therapy compared to Her2-negative metastatic disease (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.58-2.79). Analysis of influence of adjuvant therapy with and without trastuzumab by Kaplan-Meier showed a trend for better survival in not pretreated patients. Median survival was highest in hormone receptor-positive Her2-positive (triple-positive) primary metastatic breast cancer patients with 3.3 years (95% CI 2.3-4.6). Prognosis of patients with Her2-positive metastatic breast cancer after trastuzumab treatment is more favorable than for Her2-negative breast cancer. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy with or without

  4. Surviving testicular cancer: the Lebanese lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohammad; Noureddine, Samar; Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Dejong, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer is thought to have a great impact on its survivors, yet there has been limited literature on the topic globally and no literature on the topic in Lebanon and the Arab region. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors and gain an in-depth understanding of the psychosexual aspect of their experience. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach with semistructured digitally recorded interviews and observational field notes was utilized. A purposive sample of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors, aged between 18 and 50 years, in remission for at least 3 years, and willing to share personal information was recruited. Interviews were transcribed verbatim in Arabic. Data saturation was achieved at the seventh interview; a total of eight informants were recruited. The opening question was, "Tell me about your life since you got treated for testicular cancer," and was followed by probing questions. Two to three weeks after the initial interview, informants were called to validate the investigators' primary analysis. Six core themes emerged: cancer perception in the Lebanese culture; "do not show, do not tell"; cancer experience is a turning point; fertility, manhood, and relationships; coping with cancer; and preserved aspects of life. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of the experience of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors with a focus on the psychosexual aspect of this experience. The results suggest the need to educate patients about testicular cancer and its effect on their fertility.

  5. Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with Gastric Cancer using a Random Survival Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Davoud; Abbasgholizadeh, Nategh; Abazari, Malek

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third top cause of cancer related death with about 1 million new cases and 700,000 deaths in 2012. The aim of this investigation was to identify important factors for outcome using a random survival forest (RSF) approach. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 128 gastric cancer patients through a historical cohort study in Hamedan-Iran from 2007 to 2013. The event under consideration was death due to gastric cancer. The random survival forest model in R software was applied to determine the key factors affecting survival. Four split criteria were used to determine importance of the variables in the model including log-rank, conversation?? of events, log-rank score, and randomization. Efficiency of the model was confirmed in terms of Harrell’s concordance index. Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 63 ±12.57 and mean and median survival times were 15.2 (95%CI: 13.3, 17.0) and 12.3 (95%CI: 11.0, 13.4) months, respectively. The one-year, two-year, and three-year rates for survival were 51%, 13%, and 5%, respectively. Each RSF approach showed a slightly different ranking order. Very important covariates in nearly all the 4 RSF approaches were metastatic status, age at diagnosis and tumor size. The performance of each RSF approach was in the range of 0.29-0.32 and the best error rate was obtained by the log-rank splitting rule; second, third, and fourth ranks were log-rank score, conservation of events, and the random splitting rule, respectively. Conclusion: Low survival rate of gastric cancer patients is an indication of absence of a screening program for early diagnosis of the disease. Timely diagnosis in early phases increases survival and decreases mortality. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...... in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer....

  7. Stage-specific predictive models for breast cancer survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Rohit J; Nadig, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    Survivability rates vary widely among various stages of breast cancer. Although machine learning models built in past to predict breast cancer survivability were given stage as one of the features, they were not trained or evaluated separately for each stage. To investigate whether there are differences in performance of machine learning models trained and evaluated across different stages for predicting breast cancer survivability. Using three different machine learning methods we built models to predict breast cancer survivability separately for each stage and compared them with the traditional joint models built for all the stages. We also evaluated the models separately for each stage and together for all the stages. Our results show that the most suitable model to predict survivability for a specific stage is the model trained for that particular stage. In our experiments, using additional examples of other stages during training did not help, in fact, it made it worse in some cases. The most important features for predicting survivability were also found to be different for different stages. By evaluating the models separately on different stages we found that the performance widely varied across them. We also demonstrate that evaluating predictive models for survivability on all the stages together, as was done in the past, is misleading because it overestimates performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment. METHODS: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were...... referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had...... adenocarcinoma, 2% had large cell carcinoma and 8% had NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS). In all, 28 (16%) had small cell lung cancer. A total of 142 patients (82%) received treatment; 20 underwent surgery (ten stage Ib, one stage IIa, five stage IIb, four stage IIIa); palliative chemotherapy was given to 122...

  9. Towards virtual surgery in oral cancer to predict postoperative oral functions preoperatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, M.J.A.; Kreeft, A.M.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Smeele, L.E.; Balm, A.J.M.; Balm, Alfonsus Jacobus Maria

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to develop a dynamic virtual model of the oral cavity and oropharynx so that we could incorporate patient-specific factors into the prediction of functional loss after advanced resections for oral cancer. After a virtual resection, functional consequences can be assessed, and a more

  10. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral

  11. Candida virulence and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production in oral cancer and non-cancer subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, A D; Ramdzan, A N; Wiesenfeld, D; O'Brien-Simpson, N M; Kolev, S D; Reynolds, E C; McCullough, M J

    2016-11-01

    To compare biofilm-forming ability, hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production of oral Candida isolated from the patients with oral cancer and matched non-oral cancer. Fungal biofilms were grown in RPMI-1640 medium, and biofilm mass and biofilm activity were assessed using crystal violet staining and XTT salt reduction assays, respectively. Phospholipase, proteinase, and esterase production were measured using agar plate method, while fungal acetaldehyde production was assessed via gas chromatography. Candida isolated from patients with oral cancer demonstrated significantly higher biofilm mass (P = 0.031), biofilm metabolic activity (P oral cancer. High ethanol-derived acetaldehyde-producing Candida were more prevalent in patients with oral cancer than non-oral cancer (P = 0.01). In univariate regression analysis, high biofilm mass (P = 0.03) and biofilm metabolic activity (P production ability (0.01) were significant risk factors for oral cancer; while in the multivariate regression analysis, high biofilm activity (0.01) and phospholipase (P = 0.01) were significantly positive influencing factors on oral cancer. These data suggest a significant positive association between the ability of Candida isolates to form biofilms, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to metabolize alcohol to acetaldehyde with their ability to promote oral cancer development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 5 years survival after radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawska, J; Strzeszynski, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1973-01-01

    Radiotherapy was applied to 256 patients with lung cancer treated in the Institute of Oncology in Krakow in the years 1959-1967. Malignancy had been confirmed throughout in organs of the chest cavity, and diagnosed by microscopic examination. Eleven patients, i.e. 4%, survived 5 years. Survival rate was related to the stage of the disease and the microscopic pattern. Some patients were cured after irradiation of lung cancer, using nominal doses lower than the lethal dose for squamous cell cancer. The specific physical conditions of radiation absorption in the chest cavity evidently made the effective dose inside the cavity much higher than the nominal dose.

  13. Oral cavity infection: an adverse effect after the treatment of oral cancer in aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The immune compromised patients after treatment of oral cancer may have a chance of infection by drug-resistant opportunistic microbes. We investigated the occurrence of opportunistic microorganisms in aged individuals receiving follow-up examinations after treatment of oral cancer in China. These patients were used as test group and the respective age grouped healthy individuals as control group. In this study, the oral cavity microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast were taken for the analysis. After the screening of representative microorganisms, their aptitude of pervasiveness against drugs was studied. Here, we used antimicrobial agents which are common in clinical practice. We also performed studies to investigate the presence of toxin genes in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The results indicate that the prevalence of drug-resistant microbes was more pronounced in oral cancer patients after initial treatment above 70 years old. The oxacillin resistance of S. aureus isolate confirms that the prevalence of MRSA is increasing in accordance to age-factor and immune compromise in elderly patients. This study reveals the occurrence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity after treatment for oral cancer in aged individuals. Special attention should be directed to MRSA during the treatment of oral cancer, and to realize the fact of immune compromise in elderly patients.

  14. Potential role of p21 Activated Kinase 1 (PAK1) in the invasion and motility of oral cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvathy, Muraleedharan; Sreeja, Sreeharshan; Kumar, Rakesh; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer malignancy consists of uncontrolled division of cells primarily in and around the floor of the oral cavity, gingiva, oropharynx, lower lip and base of the tongue. According to GLOBOCAN 2012 report, oral cancer is one of the most common cancers among males and females in India. Even though significant advancements have been made in the field of oral cancer treatment modalities, the overall prognosis for the patients has not improved in the past few decades and hence, this demands a new thrust for the identification of novel therapeutic targets in oral cancer. p21 Activated Kinases (PAKs) are potential therapeutic targets that are involved in numerous physiological functions. PAKs are serine-threonine kinases and they serve as important regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell motility, transcription through MAP kinase cascades, death and survival signalling, and cell-cycle progression. Although PAKs are known to play crucial roles in cancer progression, the role and clinical significance of PAKs in oral cancer remains poorly understood. Our results suggest that PAK1 is over-expressed in oral cancer cell lines. Stimulation of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cells with serum growth factors leads to PAK1 re-localization and might cause a profound cytoskeletal remodelling. PAK1 was also found to be involved in the invasion, migration and cytoskeletal remodelling of OSCC cells. Our study revealed that PAK1 may play a crucial role in the progression of OSCC. Studying the role of PAK1 and its substrates is likely to enhance our understanding of oral carcinogenesis and potential therapeutic value of PAKs in oral cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2263-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  15. Oral cancer awareness in Spain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, P; Estany-Gestal, A; Bugarín-González, R; Seoane-Romero, J M

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the level of oral cancer knowledge and awareness in a Spanish general population. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire applied in the community to randomly selected laypersons. Sample size for the general population was determined by quota sampling, resulting in 1,041 individuals. A total of 1,707 pedestrians were approached (response: 61%). When the participants were asked about what cancers had they heard about (up to ten), oral cancer was mentioned in first place by 2% of the sample and by 22% in any order. When specifically asked about oral cancer, the percentage of interviewees who were familiar with it raised to 72%. Participants were also asked about the main signs or symptoms of oral cancer, and the most frequently (22%) mentioned as the first warning sign was a non-healing ulcer. Tobacco smoking generally was recognised as the most important (57%) risk factor for oral cancer. This pilot study revealed a low awareness of oral cancer, and a poor knowledge of its signs and symptoms and risk factors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasprasad, Vijayan; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Sunitha, J.; Ragunathan, Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the “role” that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology. PMID:26538877

  17. Patterns of relapse following surgery and postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy for oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collan, Juhani; Vaalavirta, Leila; Kajanti, Mikael; Tenhunen, Mikko; Saarilahti, Kauko (Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, and Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)), E-mail: kauko.saarilahti@hus.fi; Lundberg, Marie; Baeck, Leif; Maekitie, Antti (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, and Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland))

    2011-10-15

    Background. To investigate the patterns of relapse following intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) given after radical surgery for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer. Patients and methods. One hundred and two patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer were treated with radical surgery followed by IMRT up to a mean total dose of 60 Gy between years 2001 and 2007. Thirty-nine of the patients (%) also received concomitant weekly cisplatin. Forty of the patients had oral and 62 had oropharyngeal cancer. Data on the tumour, patient and treatment factors were collected. Following therapy the patients were followed by clinical examination, endoscopy and MRI/CT at 2- to 3-months interval up to 2 years and thereafter at 6-month intervals. Results. The mean follow-up time of the patients was 55 months (range, 26-106 months). The rate for local tumour control for the whole cohort was 92.2%: 87.5% for oral cancer patients and 96.7% for oropharyngeal cancer patients. The 5-year disease specific survival was 90.2% and 5-year overall survival 84.3%. During the follow-up eight locoregional recurrences were observed, three at the primary tumour site and one at regional nodal site and four at both sites. The mean time to primary tumour recurrence was seven months (range, 2-10 months) and to nodal recurrence seven months (range, 2-12 months). Distant metastasis occurred in six (6%) patients. The factors associated with poor prognosis were the primary tumour size and tumour site with oral cancers having worse outcome. The treatment was well tolerated with no unexpected toxicities. The most frequent late toxicity was dysphagia necessitating permanent PEG in five patients. This was correlated with the advanced primary tumour size and resulting in wide tumour excision and reconstruction. Conclusions. Surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy given as IMRT results in low level of tumour recurrence

  18. Patterns of relapse following surgery and postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy for oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collan, Juhani; Vaalavirta, Leila; Kajanti, Mikael; Tenhunen, Mikko; Saarilahti, Kauko; Lundberg, Marie; Baeck, Leif; Maekitie, Antti

    2011-01-01

    Background. To investigate the patterns of relapse following intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) given after radical surgery for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer. Patients and methods. One hundred and two patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer were treated with radical surgery followed by IMRT up to a mean total dose of 60 Gy between years 2001 and 2007. Thirty-nine of the patients (%) also received concomitant weekly cisplatin. Forty of the patients had oral and 62 had oropharyngeal cancer. Data on the tumour, patient and treatment factors were collected. Following therapy the patients were followed by clinical examination, endoscopy and MRI/CT at 2- to 3-months interval up to 2 years and thereafter at 6-month intervals. Results. The mean follow-up time of the patients was 55 months (range, 26-106 months). The rate for local tumour control for the whole cohort was 92.2%: 87.5% for oral cancer patients and 96.7% for oropharyngeal cancer patients. The 5-year disease specific survival was 90.2% and 5-year overall survival 84.3%. During the follow-up eight locoregional recurrences were observed, three at the primary tumour site and one at regional nodal site and four at both sites. The mean time to primary tumour recurrence was seven months (range, 2-10 months) and to nodal recurrence seven months (range, 2-12 months). Distant metastasis occurred in six (6%) patients. The factors associated with poor prognosis were the primary tumour size and tumour site with oral cancers having worse outcome. The treatment was well tolerated with no unexpected toxicities. The most frequent late toxicity was dysphagia necessitating permanent PEG in five patients. This was correlated with the advanced primary tumour size and resulting in wide tumour excision and reconstruction. Conclusions. Surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy given as IMRT results in low level of tumour recurrence

  19. Italian regional health system structure and expected cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Marina; Lillini, Roberto; Quaglia, Alberto; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Few studies deal with the association of socioeconomic and health system resource variables with cancer survival at the Italian regional level, where the greatest number of decisions about social and health policies and resource allocations are taken. The present study aimed to describe the causal relationships between socioeconomic and health system resource factors and regional cancer survival and to compute the expected cancer survival at provincial, regional and area levels. Age-standardized relative survival at 5 years from diagnosis of cases incident in 1995-1998 and followed up to 2004 were derived by gender for 11 sites from the Italian Association of Cancer Registries data bank. The socioeconomic and health system resource variables, describing at a regional level the macro-economy, demography, labor market, and health resources for 1995-2005, came from the Health for All database. A principal components factor analysis was applied to the socioeconomic and health system resource variables. For every site, linear regression models were computed considering the relative survival at 5 years as a dependent variable and the principal components factor analysis factors as independent variables. The factors described the socioeconomic and health-related features of the regional systems and were causally related to the characteristics of the patient taken in charge. The models built by the factors allowed computation of the expected relative survival at 5 years with very good concordance with those observed at regional, macro-regional and national levels. In the regions without any cancer registry, survival was coherent with that of neighboring regions with similar socioeconomic and health system resources characteristics. The models highlighted the causal correlations between socioeconomic and health system resources and cancer survival, suggesting that they could be good evaluation tools for the efficiency of the resources allocation and use.

  20. Low Muscle Mass and Breast Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study, researchers compared the risk of death for women with breast cancer who had low skeletal muscle mass, or sarcopenia, at diagnosis and women who had adequate muscle mass. Learn what they found and what it might mean for patients in this Cancer Currents blog post.

  1. Surviving testicular cancer: : sexuality & other existential issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Grietje

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the psychological aspects of ‘sexuality after testicular cancer’, where my collegue, the physician dr. Van Basten formerly predominantly described the physical-biological aspects of this subject. Testicular cancer is a type of male genital cancer, usually diagnosed between

  2. Non - Tobacco Induced Oral Cancer - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayannush K Dadachanji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the overwhelming evidence for the role of tobacco & alcohol, there is a great interest in the minority of patients who develop oral cancer in the apparent absence of one or both of these risk factors. Lifelong abstainers from both these prevalent social customs are unusual people & little is known about their wider lifestyle. Oral cancer in non - tobacco users is a distinct clinical entity. The individuals tend to be elderly female patients, who may be passive smokers. Potential factors that may contribute to oral cancer development in non - tobacco users include nutritional deficiency, Human Papilloma Viruses Infection, gastro - intestinal reflux disease & lichen planus. Evaluation of these factors, along with the molecular mechanisms that underlie the onset & progress of tumor in this minority of oral cancer patients is a must

  3. Opium usage as an etiologic factor of oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmpa, Ebrahim; Saedi, Babak; Motiee-langroudi, Maziar; Garajei, Ata; Hoseinpor, Sareh; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of opium in causing oral cancer. Eighty patients and 80 selected matched controls who were referred to the ear-nose-throat department of an academic hospital were included in this study between October 2008 and September 2010. In addition to demographic data, information regarding alcohol, tobacco, and opium use was documented in the subjects. Finally, the effect of each risk factor was assessed. There was no significant difference in patient demographics between the 2 groups. Smoking (P = 0.042) and poor oral hygiene (P = 0.016) significantly correlated with cancer. Finally, opium addiction showed a significant relationship with oral cavity cancer with an odds ratio of 4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.6). Opium use is among the possible risk factors for oral cancer.

  4. ORAL-THERAPY FOR SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTMUS, PE; SMIT, EF

    After a remarkable improvement of the very poor prognosis of small cell lung cancer with very simple therapy such as iv and oral cyclophosphamide the role of oral therapy has become minimal. However, since more than a decade results of combination chemotherapy are at a plateau and it is necessary to

  5. Ras oncogenes in oral cancer: the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2012-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of head and neck is associated with high morbidity and mortality in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are very well established, including tobacco chewing, betel quid, smoking, alcohol drinking and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Apart from these risk factors, many genetic factors such as oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and regulatory genes are identified to involve in oral carcinogenesis with these risk factors dependent and independent manner. Ras is one of the most frequently genetically deregulated oncogene in oral cancer. In this review, we analyze the past 22years of literature on genetic alterations such as mutations and amplifications of the isoforms of the ras oncogene in oral cancer. Further, we addressed the isoform-specific role of the ras in oral carcinogenesis. We also discussed how targeting the Akt and MEK, downstream effectors of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, respectively, would probably pave the possible molecular therapeutic target for the ras driven tumorigenesis in oral cancer. Analysis of these ras isoforms may critically enlighten specific role of a particular ras isoform in oral carcinogenesis, enhance prognosis and pave the way for isoform-specific molecular targeted therapy in OSCC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Worse survival after breast cancer in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bens, Annet; Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Mellemkjær, Lene

    2018-04-01

    A history of anorexia nervosa has been associated with a reduced risk of developing breast cancer. We investigated survival after breast cancer among women with a prior anorexia nervosa diagnosis compared with women in a population comparison group. This register-based study included combined data from Sweden, Denmark and Finland. A total of 76 and 1462 breast cancer cases identified among 22,654 women with anorexia nervosa and 224,619 women in a population comparison group, respectively, were included in the study. Hazard ratios (HR) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality after breast cancer diagnosis were estimated using Cox regression. Cause of death was available only for Swedish and Danish women; therefore, the analysis on breast cancer-specific mortality was restricted to these women. We observed 23 deaths after breast cancer among anorexia nervosa patients and 247 among population comparisons. The overall mortality after the breast cancer diagnosis was increased in women with a history of anorexia nervosa compared with population comparisons (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-3.9) after adjustment for age, period and extent of disease. Results were similar for overall (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.6) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.6) among Swedish and Danish women. We found that female breast cancer patients with a prior diagnosis of anorexia nervosa have a worse survival compared with other breast cancer patients.

  7. A Chemopreventive Nanodiamond Platform for Oral Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Albert; Zhang, Kangyi; Daneshgaran, Giulia; Kim, Ho-Joong; Ho, Dean

    2016-02-01

    Standard oral cancer therapy generally includes a combination of surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. This treatment paradigm has not changed in some time. In this paper, we propose a chemopreventive nanodiamond platform for the delivery of celecoxib (Celebrex) to oral cancer lesions. This innovative platform allows for sustained drug release under physiological conditions, potentially enhancing chemopreventive efficacy of celecoxib without the physical and toxicological damage associated with conventional means of drug delivery.

  8. Serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and oral precancerous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajul Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken to estimate and compare the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides in patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions, oral cancer and normal subjects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 60 patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions, 60 patients with oral cancer and a control group of 60 healthy individuals. The diagnosis of oral precancerous lesions/conditions and oral cancer was confirmed histopathologically. Under aseptic condition 5 ml venous blood of overnight fasting patient was withdrawn from each individual. Serum was separated by centrifugation and plasma levels of TC, LDL, HDL, VLDL and triglycerides were estimated. Descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Analysis of variance has been used to find the significance of study parameters between three or more groups of patients, Post-hoc test as Tukey has been used to find the pair wise significance. Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. Results: Statistically significant decrease in levels of plasma TC, LDL, HDL, VLDL and triglycerides was observed in the precancerous and cancerous groups as compared to the control group. On comparison between precancerous and cancerous groups, significant decrease was observed in cancerous group. Conclusion: The change in lipid levels may have an early diagnostic or prognostic role in the oral premalignant lesions/conditions and oral cancer. The presence of decreased plasma lipid profile should increase the suspicion of these lesions to be investigated further.

  9. Association Between Pretransplant Cancer and Survival in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Dag Olav; Grotmol, Tom; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Hartmann, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Reisæter, Anna V; Mjøen, Geir; Pihlstrøm, Hege K; Næss, Hege; Holdaas, Hallvard

    2017-10-01

    Kidney transplantation in recipients with a previous malignancy is often deferred 2 to 5 years after cancer treatment due to fear of cancer recurrence. In Norway, the required waiting period has been 1 year. We compared patient and graft survival of recipients with pretransplant cancer to the outcomes of matched recipients without such cancer (comparators) using Cox regression. From 1963 to 2010, 377 (6.4%) of 5867 recipients had a pretransplant cancer. During a median follow-up of 6.8 years, 256 recipients died, 35 (13.7%) from recurrent cancer and 27 (10.5%) from de novo cancer. Uncensored and death-censored graft loss occurred in 263 and 46 recipients, respectively. All-cause mortality was similar as in comparators (hazard ratio [HR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.20]; P = 0.40), death-censored graft loss was lower (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.84; P = 0.002), and uncensored graft loss was similar (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.87-1.12; P = 0.87). Cancer mortality was higher than in comparators (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.51-2.56; P cancer mortality or all-cause mortality (both P > 0.45). Results were similar within cancer subgroups, with most data in patients with a history of kidney cancer, prostate cancer, urothelial cancer, and skin squamous cell carcinoma. Kidney transplant recipients with a pretransplant cancer had a similar overall patient and graft survival as recipients without such cancer. Cancer mortality was increased, particularly during the first 5 years after transplantation. A short waiting period was not associated with mortality.

  10. Quantitative prediction of oral cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yicheng; Fu, Yue; Liu, Tong; Liu, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Xinyan; Fu, Jie; Guan, Xiaobing; Chen, Tong; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2017-07-11

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We have developed an oral cancer risk index using DNA index value to quantitatively assess cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia, but with limited success. In order to improve the performance of the risk index, we collected exfoliative cytology, histopathology, and clinical follow-up data from two independent cohorts of normal, leukoplakia and cancer subjects (training set and validation set). Peaks were defined on the basis of first derivatives with positives, and modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Random forest was found to be the best model with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99.2%). Using the Peaks-Random Forest model, we constructed an index (OCRI2) as a quantitative measurement of cancer risk. Among 11 leukoplakia patients with an OCRI2 over 0.5, 4 (36.4%) developed cancer during follow-up (23 ± 20 months), whereas 3 (5.3%) of 57 leukoplakia patients with an OCRI2 less than 0.5 developed cancer (32 ± 31 months). OCRI2 is better than other methods in predicting oral squamous cell carcinoma during follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed an exfoliative cytology-based method for quantitative prediction of cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia.

  11. Early intensive rehabilitation after oral cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschorer, Maximilian; Schneider, Daniel; Hennig, Matthias; Frank, Bernd; Schön, Gerhard; Heiland, Max; Bschorer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of oral cancer requires an effective rehabilitation strategy such as an early intensive rehabilitation (EIR) program. The medical records and data of 41 patients who participated in an EIR program and 20 control group patients were analyzed. These patients all underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by microsurgical reconstruction using free flaps. The length of stay (LOS) at the acute care hospital was compared between the two groups. Four indexes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIR program. EIR patients stayed an average of 11.6 fewer days at the acute care hospital. All indexes showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The Barthel Index (BI) and the Early Intensive Rehabilitation Barthel Index (EIR-BI) improved by 36.0 and 103.6 points, respectively. At discharge, the Bogenhausener Dysphagia Score (BODS) had improved to a score of 11.0 compared to the 13.9 at admission. EIR patients had a Work Ability Index (WAI) score of 25.7. Length of stay at the acute care hospital can be reduced using early intensive rehabilitation if patients are transferred to an intensive rehabilitation clinic early. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  13. Breast cancer data analysis for survivability studies and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Nagesh; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Win, Khin Than; Yang, Jack

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting females worldwide. Breast cancer survivability prediction is challenging and a complex research task. Existing approaches engage statistical methods or supervised machine learning to assess/predict the survival prospects of patients. The main objectives of this paper is to develop a robust data analytical model which can assist in (i) a better understanding of breast cancer survivability in presence of missing data, (ii) providing better insights into factors associated with patient survivability, and (iii) establishing cohorts of patients that share similar properties. Unsupervised data mining methods viz. the self-organising map (SOM) and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) is used to create patient cohort clusters. These clusters, with associated patterns, were used to train multilayer perceptron (MLP) model for improved patient survivability analysis. A large dataset available from SEER program is used in this study to identify patterns associated with the survivability of breast cancer patients. Information gain was computed for the purpose of variable selection. All of these methods are data-driven and require little (if any) input from users or experts. SOM consolidated patients into cohorts of patients with similar properties. From this, DBSCAN identified and extracted nine cohorts (clusters). It is found that patients in each of the nine clusters have different survivability time. The separation of patients into clusters improved the overall survival prediction accuracy based on MLP and revealed intricate conditions that affect the accuracy of a prediction. A new, entirely data driven approach based on unsupervised learning methods improves understanding and helps identify patterns associated with the survivability of patient. The results of the analysis can be used to segment the historical patient data into clusters or subsets, which share common variable values and

  14. Public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Addas, Abdallah; Tarakji, Bassel; Abbas, Alkasem; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is in increasing in incidence in Yemen and indeed worldwide. Knowledge regarding risk factors and early signs in the general population can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in the general population in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on Yemeni adults aged ≥15 years old. A total of 543 persons participated, the collected data being analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Two thirds (71.5%) of the participants had heard about oral cancer. Smoking and smokeless tobacco usage were identified as the major risk factors by 71.5% and 73.7% of the participants, respectively. Only 24.1% and 21.4%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Knowledge of oral cancer was significantly associated with age (p<0.01), gender (p<0.05) and education level (p<0.001). The findings suggest that the knowledge regarding oral cancer in this population is low. Therefore, educational programs are highly needed to improve such knowledge.

  15. Obesity adversely affects survival in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R; Matsumoto, Martha E; Burch, Patrick A; Kim, George P; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; de Andrade, Mariza; Reid-Lombardo, Kaye; Bamlet, William R

    2010-11-01

    Higher body-mass index (BMI) has been implicated as a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer, but its effect on survival has not been thoroughly investigated. The authors assessed the association of BMI with survival in a sample of pancreatic cancer patients and used epidemiologic and clinical information to understand the contribution of diabetes and hyperglycemia. A survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards by usual adult BMI was performed on 1861 unselected patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma; analyses were adjusted for covariates that included clinical stage, age, and sex. Secondary analyses incorporated self-reported diabetes and fasting blood glucose in the survival model. BMI as a continuous variable was inversely associated with survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio [HR], 1.019 for each increased unit of BMI [kg/m2], PFasting blood glucose and diabetes did not affect the results. Higher BMI is associated with decreased survival in pancreatic cancer. Although the mechanism of this association remains undetermined, diabetes and hyperglycemia do not appear to account for the observed association. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  16. Marital status and survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Hu, Wei-Ping; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2017-04-25

    The relationship between marital status and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) survival has not been explored. The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of marital status on OCSCC survival and investigate the potential mechanisms. Married patients had better 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) (66.7% vs 54.9%) and 5-year overall survival (OS) (56.0% vs 41.1%). In multivariate Cox regression models, unmarried patients also showed higher mortality risk for both CSS (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.260, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.187-1.339, P married patients were more likely to be diagnosed at earlier stage (P Married patients still demonstrated better prognosis in the 1:1 matched group analysis (CSS: 62.9% vs 60.8%, OS: 52.3% vs 46.5%). 11022 eligible OCSCC patients were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, including 5902 married and 5120 unmarried individuals. Kaplan-Meier analysis, Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to analyze survival and mortality risk. Influence of marital status on stage, age at diagnosis and selection of treatment was determined by binomial and multinomial logistic regression. Propensity score matching method was adopted to perform a 1:1 matched cohort. Marriage has an independently protective effect on OCSCC survival. Earlier diagnosis and more sufficient treatment are possible explanations. Besides, even after 1:1 matching, survival advantage of married group still exists, indicating that spousal support from other aspects may also play an important role.

  17. Cancer survival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a national study of survival rates and excess mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Baade, Peter; Griffiths, Kalinda; Cunningham, Joan; Roder, David M; Coory, Michael; Jelfs, Paul L; Threlfall, Tim

    2014-01-31

    National cancer survival statistics are available for the total Australian population but not Indigenous Australians, although their cancer mortality rates are known to be higher than those of other Australians. We aimed to validate analysis methods and report cancer survival rates for Indigenous Australians as the basis for regular national reporting. We used national cancer registrations data to calculate all-cancer and site-specific relative survival for Indigenous Australians (compared with non-Indigenous Australians) diagnosed in 2001-2005. Because of limited availability of Indigenous life tables, we validated and used cause-specific survival (rather than relative survival) for proportional hazards regression to analyze time trends and regional variation in all-cancer survival between 1991 and 2005. Survival was lower for Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians for all cancers combined and for many cancer sites. The excess mortality of Indigenous people with cancer was restricted to the first three years after diagnosis, and greatest in the first year. Survival was lower for rural and remote than urban residents; this disparity was much greater for Indigenous people. Survival improved between 1991 and 2005 for non-Indigenous people (mortality decreased by 28%), but to a much lesser extent for Indigenous people (11%) and only for those in remote areas; cancer survival did not improve for urban Indigenous residents. Cancer survival is lower for Indigenous than other Australians, for all cancers combined and many individual cancer sites, although more accurate recording of Indigenous status by cancer registers is required before the extent of this disadvantage can be known with certainty. Cancer care for Indigenous Australians needs to be considerably improved; cancer diagnosis, treatment, and support services need to be redesigned specifically to be accessible and acceptable to Indigenous people.

  18. Occupational risk for oral cancer in nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. Materials and Methods: The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol...... consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Results: Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx...... chemical exposures, increased consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, or infection with human papilloma virus....

  19. Smad2 and Smad6 as predictors of overall survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snitcovsky Igor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test if the expression of Smad1-8 mRNAs were predictive of survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Patients and Methods We analyzed, prospectively, the expression of Smad1-8, by means of Ribonuclease Protection Assay in 48 primary, operable, oral SCC. In addition, 21 larynx, 10 oropharynx and 4 hypopharynx SCC and 65 matched adjacent mucosa, available for study, were also included. For survival analysis, patients were categorized as positive or negative for each Smad, according to median mRNA expression. We also performed real-time quantitative PCR (QRTPCR to asses the pattern of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TGFβ3 in oral SCC. Results Our results showed that Smad2 and Smad6 mRNA expression were both associated with survival in Oral SCC patients. Cox Multivariate analysis revealed that Smad6 positivity and Smad2 negativity were both predictive of good prognosis for oral SCC patients, independent of lymph nodal status (P = 0.003 and P = 0.029, respectively. In addition, simultaneously Smad2- and Smad6+ oral SCC group of patients did not reach median overall survival (mOS whereas the mOS of Smad2+/Smad6- subgroup was 11.6 months (P = 0.004, univariate analysis. Regarding to TGFβ isoforms, we found that Smad2 mRNA and TGFβ1 mRNA were inversely correlated (p = 0.05, R = -0.33, and that seven of the eight TGFβ1+ patients were Smad2-. In larynx SCC, Smad7- patients did not reach mOS whereas mOS of Smad7+ patients were only 7.0 months (P = 0.04. No other correlations were found among Smad expression, clinico-pathological characteristics and survival in oral, larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx or the entire head and neck SCC population. Conclusion Smad6 together with Smad2 may be prognostic factors, independent of nodal status in oral SCC after curative resection. The underlying mechanism which involves aberrant TGFβ signaling should be better clarified in the future.

  20. Total, direct, and indirect effects of paan on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-03-01

    Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. We used mediation methods proposed by VanderWeele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct, and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1996 and March 1998. For paan without tobacco, the total effect on oral cancer was OR 7.39, 95 % CI 1.01, 38.11, the natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR 2.48, 95 % CI 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR 3.32, 95 % CI 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco, the total direct effect was OR 15.68, 95 % CI 3.00, 54.90, the natural indirect effect was OR 2.18, 95 % CI 0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR 7.27, 95 % CI 2.15, 20.43. Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco.

  1. Dental patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to oral cancer: the need of a nation-wide oral cancer prevention program

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral cancer (OC) knowledge, including risk factors and clinical symptoms, among patients attending Dental Departments within large Italian University hospitals. Methods: 2200 questionnaires were sent to four hospitals in order to assess patients’ knowledge regarding epidemiological and clinical features of oral cancer; oral cancer knowledge was assessed overall and stratified by oral cancer family history. Associations between exposures of...

  2. Curcumin and metformin-mediated chemoprevention of oral cancer is associated with inhibition of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Gangotri; Kulsum, Safeena; Ravindra, Doddathimmasandra Ramanjanappa; Kumar, Vinay V; Raju, Nalini; Raghavan, Nisheena; Sudheendra, Holalugunda Vittalamurthy; Sharma, Anupam; Sunny, Sumsum P; Jacob, Tina; Kuruvilla, Binu T; Benny, Merina; Antony, Benny; Seshadri, Mukund; Lakshminarayan, Padma; Hicks, Wesley; Suresh, Amritha; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2017-11-01

    Effective chemoprevention is critical for improving outcomes of oral cancer. As single agents, curcumin and metformin are reported to exhibit chemopreventive properties, in vitro as well as in patients with oral cancer. In this study, the chemopreventive efficacy of this drug combination was tested in a 4-nitro quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) induced mice oral carcinogenesis model. Molecular analysis revealed a cancer stem cell (CSC)-driven oral carcinogenic progression in this model, wherein a progressive increase in the expression of CSC-specific markers (CD44 and CD133) was observed from 8th to 25th week, at transcript (40-100-fold) and protein levels (P ≤ 0.0001). Chemopreventive treatment of the animals at 17th week with curcumin and metformin indicated that the combination regimen decreased tumor volume when compared to the control arm (0.69+0.03 vs 6.66+2.4 mm 3 ; P = 0.04) and improved overall survival of the animals (P = 0.03). Assessment of the molecular status showed an overall downregulation of CSC markers in the treatment arms as compared to the untreated control. Further, in vitro assessment of the treatment on the primary cells generated from progressive stages of 4NQO-induced mice tissue showed a concordant and consistent downregulation of the CSC markers following combination treatment (P oral squamous cell carcinoma through a CSC-associated mechanism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The impact of comorbidity on cancer survival: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mette Søgaard,1 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,1 Kristine Skovgaard Bossen,2 Henrik Toft Sørensen,1 Mette Nørgaard1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: A number of studies have shown poorer survival among cancer patients with comorbidity. Several mechanisms may underlie this finding. In this review we summarize the current literature on the association between patient comorbidity and cancer prognosis. Prognostic factors examined include tumor biology, diagnosis, treatment, clinical quality, and adherence. Methods: All English-language articles published during 2002–2012 on the association between comorbidity and survival among patients with colon cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer were identified from PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to identify eligible studies and their main results were then extracted. Results: Our search yielded more than 2,500 articles related to comorbidity and cancer, but few investigated the prognostic impact of comorbidity as a primary aim. Most studies found that cancer patients with comorbidity had poorer survival than those without comorbidity, with 5-year mortality hazard ratios ranging from 1.1 to 5.8. Few studies examined the influence of specific chronic conditions. In general, comorbidity does not appear to be associated with more aggressive types of cancer or other differences in tumor biology. Presence of specific severe comorbidities or psychiatric disorders were found to be associated with delayed cancer diagnosis in some studies, while chronic diseases requiring regular medical visits were associated with earlier cancer detection in others. Another finding was that patients with comorbidity do not receive standard cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy as often as patients without comorbidity, and their chance of

  4. Pretreatment oral hygiene habits and survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemel, Juliane; Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Kathrin; Heibeck, Mathias; Günther, Frauke; Pflueger, Maren; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Behrens, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Nimzyk, Rolf; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2016-03-11

    The survival time of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is related to health behavior, such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Poor oral health (OH), dental care (DC) and the frequent use of mouthwash have been shown to represent independent risk factors for head and neck cancerogenesis, but their impact on the survival of HNSCC patients has not been systematically investigated. Two hundred seventy-six incident HNSCC cases recruited for the ARCAGE study were followed through a period of 6-10 years. Interview-based information on wearing of dentures, gum bleeding, teeth brushing, use of floss and dentist visits were grouped into weighted composite scores, i.e. oral health (OH) and dental care (DH). Use of mouthwash was assessed as frequency per day. Also obtained were other types of health behavior, such as smoking, alcohol drinking and diet, appreciated as both confounding and study variables. Endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival and tumor-specific survival. Prognostic values were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models. A good dental care score, summarizing annual dental visits, daily teeth cleaning and use of floss was associated with longer overall survival time (p = .001). The results of the Cox regression models similarly suggested a higher risk of tumor progression and shortened overall survival in patients with poor dental care, but the results lost their statistical significance after other types of health behavior had been controlled for. Frequent use of mouthwash (≥ 2 times/day) significantly increased the risk of tumor-specific death (HR = 2.26; CI = 1.19-4.32). Alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were dose-dependently associated with tumor progression and shorter overall survival. Frequent mouthwash use of ≥ 2 times/day seems to elevate the risk of tumor-specific death in HNSCC patients. Good dental care scores are associated with longer overall

  5. Viruses and oral cancer. Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Lars; Jalouli, Jamshid

    2014-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumour of the oral cavity. The aetiology of epithelial cancer of the head and neck is considered to be a multifactorial, sequential process. DNA viruses are found in many different cancers and are also capable of transforming cells to a malignant phenotype. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been proposed as risk factors in OSCC development and HPV type 16 is the most important subtype. Other oncogenic virus species i.e., Epstein-Barr Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 have been proposed to be involved in oral carcinogenesis. However, no convincing evidence exist that they are an established risk factor in OSCC. Therefore more studies are needed in order to clarify the different aspects of virus involvement. Here, we review the existing literature on viral involvement in oral cancer. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Overview of surgery for oral cavity cancer in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskander, Antoine; Irish, Jonathan; Gullane, Patrick; Gilbert, Ralph; de Almeida, John R; Freeman, Jeremy; Giuliani, Meredith; Urbach, David R; Goldstein, David P

    2016-07-01

    The pupose of this study was to describe variations in incidence and resection rates of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Ontario. All oral cavity SCCs in Ontario between 2003 and 2010 were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry. Incidence and resection rates along with variations in care were compared by sociodemographic factors and Ontario health regions. The 8-year incidence rates for oral cavity SCC was 21.3 per 100,000 with variations by sex, age group, neighborhood income, and community size. Seventy-four percent of patients underwent an oral cavity cancer resection, of which 91% were at a regional head and neck cancer center. Variations in resection rates existed by region of residence and treatment. Oral cavity cancer incidence rates vary by sex, age, neighborhood income, community size, and health region. Resection rates vary by age and health region. Oral cavity cancer care is highly regionalized in Ontario. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1113-1118, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of survival of patients with metastases from known versus unknown primaries: survival in metastatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riihimäki Matias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP is considered an aggressive metastatic disease but whether the prognosis differs from metastatic cancers of known primary site is not known. Such data may give insight into the biology of CUP and the metastatic process in general. Methods 6,745 cancer patients, with primary metastatic cancer at diagnosis, were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry, and were compared with 2,881 patients with CUP. Patients were diagnosed and died between 2002 and 2008. The influence of the primary site, known or unknown, on survival in patients with metastases at specific locations was investigated. Hazard ratios (HRs of death were estimated for several sites of metastasis, where patients with known primary sites were compared with CUP patients. Results Overall, patients with metastatic cancers with known primary sites had decreased hazards of death compared to CUP patients (HR = 0.69 [95% CI = 0.66–0.72]. The exceptions were cancer of the pancreas (1.71 [1.54–1.90], liver (1.58 [1.36–1.85], and stomach (1.16 [1.02–1.31]. For individual metastatic sites, patients with liver or bone metastases of known origin had better survival than those with CUP of the liver and bone. Patients with liver metastases of pancreatic origin had an increased risk of death compared with patients with CUP of the liver (1.25 [1.06–1.46]. The median survival time of CUP patients was three months. Conclusions Patients with CUP have poorer survival than patients with known primaries, except those with brain and respiratory system metastases. Of CUP sites, liver metastases had the worst prognosis. Survival in CUP was comparable to that in metastatic lung cancer. The aggressive behavior of CUP may be due to initial immunosuppression and immunoediting which may allow accumulation of mutations. Upon escape from the suppressed state an unstoppable tumor spread ensues. These novel data on the epidemiology of the

  8. Rising population of survivors of oral squamous cell cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira A; Blackford, Amanda L; Rettig, Eleni M; Richmon, Jeremy D; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and a subset of oral cavity cancer (OCC) is increasing in the United States. To the authors' knowledge, the presumed growing prevalence of survivors of OPC and OCC has not been investigated to date. Retrospective analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data (1975-2012) estimated changes in incidence, 5-year cause-specific survival, and prevalence for OPC and OCC. Changes in incidence, cause-specific survival and prevalence were estimated by linear regression and expressed as the percentage change (B). Differences in incidence trends over time were determined by joinpoint analysis. The incidence of OPC increased by 62.6% from 1975 through 2012. Notable increases in OPC incidence were observed among men, white individuals, and those of younger ages. The 5-year survival for OPC increased significantly for all sexes, races, and individuals aged >30 years, with white individuals and males experiencing the largest increase in survival. By contrast, the incidence of OCC declined by 22.3% during the same time period. OCC incidence decreased across all groups but increased among individuals aged 30 to 39 years. Significant increases in survival were observed for OCC, except for those who were female, black, and aged American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Association of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with breast cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Damali N; Boersma, Brenda J; Howe, Tiffany M; Goodman, Julie E; Mechanic, Leah E; Chanock, Stephen J; Ambs, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, C677T and A1298C, lead to decreased enzyme activity and affect chemosensitivity of tumor cells. We investigated whether these MTHFR SNPs were associated with breast cancer survival in African-American and Caucasian women. African-American (n = 143) and Caucasian (n = 105) women, who had incident breast cancer with surgery, were recruited between 1993 and 2003 from the greater Baltimore area, Maryland, USA. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between MTHFR SNPs and disease-specific survival. We observed opposite effects of the MTHFR polymorphisms A1298C and C677T on breast cancer survival. Carriers of the variant allele at codon 1298 (A/C or C/C) had reduced survival when compared to homozygous carriers of the common A allele [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–4.00]. In contrast, breast cancer patients with the variant allele at codon 677 (C/T or T/T) had improved survival, albeit not statistically significant, when compared to individuals with the common C/C genotype (HR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.31–1.35). The effects were stronger in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (HR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.17–6.23 for A/C or C/C versus A/A at codon 1298; HR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.12–1.04 for C/T or T/T versus C/C at codon 677). Interactions between the two MTHFR genotypes and race/ethnicity on breast cancer survival were also observed (A1298C, p interaction = 0.088; C677T, p interaction = 0.026). We found that the MTHFR SNPs, C677T and A1298C, were associated with breast cancer survival. The variant alleles had opposite effects on disease outcome in the study population. Race/ethnicity modified the association between the two SNPs and breast cancer survival

  10. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330

  12. Current management of oral cancer. A multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, R A; Blanchaert, R H

    2001-11-01

    Recent basic science discoveries have contributed to our understanding of the etiology of oral cancer and allowed us to consider innovative approaches to therapy. The authors evaluated and summarized current approaches to the management of oral cancer, emphasizing the multidisciplinary team approach to coordinate surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Current concepts in management, including complications of therapy, are described. State-of-the-art surgical techniques can spare patients with oral cancer from much of the morbidity and complications common in the past. The refinement of treatment strategies reduces complications and improves efficacy. Many exciting new clinical trials in the areas of gene therapy and immunomodulation are showing promise. Management of oral cancer has undergone radical change in the past 10 years and continues to evolve rapidly. Discoveries in molecular biology, diagnosis, surgery, radiation therapy and medical oncology have altered many traditional concepts and practices. General dental practitioners need to understand current treatment modalities for oral and pharyngeal cancers to determine to whom they should refer patients for the most appropriate treatment, and to make recommendations regarding complications associated with these cancers.

  13. Identification of novel genetic markers of breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Kraft, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We conducted a large meta-analysis ......BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We conducted a large meta......-analysis of studies in populations of European ancestry, including 37954 patients with 2900 deaths from breast cancer. Each study had been genotyped for between 200000 and 900000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome; genotypes for nine million common variants were imputed using a common reference...... panel from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also carried out subtype-specific analyses based on 6881 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients (920 events) and 23059 ER-positive patients (1333 events). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified one new locus (rs2059614 at 11q24...

  14. Novel liposomal combination treatments using dual genes knockdown in oral cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Sian; Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used to treat tumor because it can effectively knockdown target oncoprotein expression and it leads to cancer cell death and apoptosis. Hypoxia-inducible factors-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor gene. Its high expression of tumor hypoxia cells, activation of transcription factor HIF-1α and angiogenesis found in most cancerous tissues. HIF-1α protein in cancer cells are critical to cell survival, tumor growth and proliferation. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is another common head and neck oncogene. The dual self-designed siRNA sequences were encapsulated in the lipid-calcium-phosphate (LCP) and targeted to sigma receptors on the surface of cancer cells via binding to amino ethyl anisamide (AEAA). We used human oral cancer cells to establish the xenograft animal model to study the combination therapy for therapeutic results.

  15. Investigating a case of possible field cancerization in oral squamous cell carcinoma by the use of next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Larsen, Martin J.; Larsen, Stine R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Local recurrence and the development of second primary tumors (SPT) are important factors that can influence the survival rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. We investigate the concept of field cancerization which proposes that normal tissue adjacent to the primary...

  16. Survival after bone metastasis by primary cancer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Christian F; Ulrichsen, Sinna P

    2017-01-01

    %, 11% to 14%). The risk of mortality was increased for the majority of cancer types among patients with bone and synchronous metastases compared with bone only (adjusted relative risk 1.29-1.57), except for cervix, ovarian and bladder cancer. CONCLUSIONS: While patients with bone metastases after most......OBJECTIVE: In the 10 most common primary types with bone metastases, we aimed to examine survival, further stratifying on bone metastases only or with additional synchronous metastases. METHODS: We included all patients aged 18 years and older with incident hospital diagnosis of solid cancer...... between 1994 and 2010, subsequently diagnosed with BM until 2012. We followed patients from date of bone metastasis diagnosis until death, emigration or 31 December 2012, whichever came first. We computed 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival (%) and the corresponding 95% CIs stratified on primary cancer...

  17. CASAS: Cancer Survival Analysis Suite, a web based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupji, Manali; Zhang, Xinyan; Kowalski, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    We present CASAS, a shiny R based tool for interactive survival analysis and visualization of results. The tool provides a web-based one stop shop to perform the following types of survival analysis:  quantile, landmark and competing risks, in addition to standard survival analysis.  The interface makes it easy to perform such survival analyses and obtain results using the interactive Kaplan-Meier and cumulative incidence plots.  Univariate analysis can be performed on one or several user specified variable(s) simultaneously, the results of which are displayed in a single table that includes log rank p-values and hazard ratios along with their significance. For several quantile survival analyses from multiple cancer types, a single summary grid is constructed. The CASAS package has been implemented in R and is available via http://shinygispa.winship.emory.edu/CASAS/. The developmental repository is available at https://github.com/manalirupji/CASAS/.

  18. Oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferative phenotype is modulated by proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapp Aaron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recently reported drop in the overall death rate from cancer, the estimated survival rate and number of deaths from oral cancer remain virtually unchanged. Early detection efforts, in combination with strategies for prevention and risk-reduction, have the potential to dramatically improve clinical outcomes. The identification of non-toxic, effective treatments, including complementary and alternative therapies, is critical if the survival rate is to be improved. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a protective effect from certain plant-derived foods and extracts; however, it has been difficult to isolate and identify the compounds most responsible for these observations. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the response of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC to proanthocyanidin (PAC, a plant-derived compound that may inhibit the progression of several other cancers. Methods Using a series of in vitro assays, we sought to quantify the effects of PAC on OSCC, cervical carcinoma, and non-cancerous cell lines, specifically the effects of PAC on cell proliferation. Recent data suggest that infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV may also modulate the proliferative potential of OSCC; therefore, we also measured the effects of PAC administration on HPV-transfected OSCC proliferation. Results Our results demonstrated that PAC administration was sufficient to significantly suppress cellular proliferation of OSCC in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the increased proliferation of OSCC after transfection with HPV 16 was reduced by the administration of PAC, as was the proliferation of the cervical cancer and non-cancerous cell lines tested. Our results also provide preliminary evidence that PAC administration may induce apoptosis in cervical and oral cancer cell lines, while acting merely to suppress proliferation of the normal cell line control. Conclusion These results signify that PAC may be

  19. Survival chance in papillary thyroid cancer in Hungary: individual survival probability estimation using the Markov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esik, Olga; Tusnady, Gabor; Daubner, Kornel; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Fuezy, Marton; Szentirmay, Zoltan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The typically benign, but occasionally rapidly fatal clinical course of papillary thyroid cancer has raised the need for individual survival probability estimation, to tailor the treatment strategy exclusively to a given patient. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was performed on 400 papillary thyroid cancer patients with a median follow-up time of 7.1 years to establish a clinical database for uni- and multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors related to survival (Kaplan-Meier product limit method and Cox regression). For a more precise prognosis estimation, the effect of the most important clinical events were then investigated on the basis of a Markov renewal model. The basic concept of this approach is that each patient has an individual disease course which (besides the initial clinical categories) is affected by special events, e.g. internal covariates (local/regional/distant relapses). On the supposition that these events and the cause-specific death are influenced by the same biological processes, the parameters of transient survival probability characterizing the speed of the course of the disease for each clinical event and their sequence were determined. The individual survival curves for each patient were calculated by using these parameters and the independent significant clinical variables selected from multivariate studies, summation of which resulted in a mean cause-specific survival function valid for the entire group. On the basis of this Markov model, prediction of the cause-specific survival probability is possible for extrastudy cases, if it is supposed that the clinical events occur within new patients in the same manner and with the similar probability as within the study population. Results: The patient's age, a distant metastasis at presentation, the extent of the surgical intervention, the primary tumor size and extent (pT), the external irradiation dosage and the degree of TSH suppression proved to be

  20. Cancer of Oral Cavity Abutting the Mandible; Predictors of Loco-regional Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, T.K.; Hussein, H.A.; Mebeed, A.H.; El Sebai, H.I.; Sami, I.; Farahat, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the causes of Loco-regional failure in 51 patients with tumors of the oral cavity abutting the mandible. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study (27 patients were operated upon in the retrospective section and 24 patients in the prospective section of the study) was done in the department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, from January 2003 to January 2008. Fifty-one patients, with oral cavity cancerous lesions abutting the mandible, were operated upon by segmental mandibulectomy en-bloc with primary tumor resection in addition to modified radical or selective neck dissection according to the status of the cervical lymph nodes. Results: During a median follow-up of 2 years, 29 patients (56.8%) had local recurrences, the incidence of nodal recurrence after neck dissection was detected in 4 patients (7.8%). On multivariate analysis, tumor depth, tumor grade, oral mucosa, soft tissue and bone surgical margins in addition to metastatic lymphadenopathy were independent prognostic factors of loco-regional failure and disease-free survival. Conclusion: Oral cavity cancers abutting the mandible should be treated with great caution by a multidisciplinary oncology team (resection and reconstruction surgeons) as it has a very aggressive biologic behavior. Negative intraoperative pathological margins should be attempted since this is the critical point for patients with cancers abutting the mandible? Further research on the biologic margin and genetic study is required

  1. Time dependent ethnic convergence in colorectal cancer survival in hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundahl Scott A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer death rates have been declining, this trend is not consistent across all ethnic groups. Biological, environmental, behavioral and socioeconomic explanations exist, but the reason for this discrepancy remains inconclusive. We examined the hypothesis that improved cancer screening across all ethnic groups will reduce ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods Through the Hawaii Tumor Registry 16,424 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were identified during the years 1960–2000. Cox regression analyses were performed for each of three cohorts stratified by ethnicity (Caucasian, Japanese, Hawaiian, Filipino, and Chinese. The models included stage of diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex as predictors of survival. Results Mortality rates improved significantly for all ethnic groups. Moreover, with the exception of Hawaiians, rates for all ethnic groups converged over time. Persistently lower survival for Hawaiians appeared linked with more cancer treatment. Conclusion Ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer mortality rates appear primarily the result of differential utilization of health care. If modern screening procedures can be provided equally to all ethnic groups, ethnic outcome differences can be virtually eliminated.

  2. Systematic review of oral cryotherapy for management of oral mucositis caused by cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Douglas E; Ohrn, Kerstin; Bowen, Joanne; Fliedner, Monica; Lees, Judith; Loprinzi, Charles; Mori, Takehiko; Osaguona, Anthony; Weikel, Dianna S; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review analyzed the strength of the literature and defined clinical practice guidelines for the use of oral cryotherapy for the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis caused by cancer therapy. A systematic review on relevant oral cryotherapy studies indexed prior to 31 December 2010 was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society for Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) using OVID/MEDLINE, with publications selected for review based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings from the reviewed studies were integrated into guidelines based on the overall level of evidence for each intervention. Guidelines were classified into three types: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible. Twenty-two clinical studies and two meta-analyses were analyzed. Results were compared with the MASCC/ISOO guidelines published in 2007. The recommendation for the use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving bolus fluorouracil (5-FU) was maintained, in agreement with the 2007 guidelines. A suggestion for use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving high-dose melphalan as conditioning regimen with or without total body irradiation for HCST was revised from the 2007 guidelines. No guideline was possible for any other intervention, due to insufficient evidence. The evidence continues to support the use of oral cryotherapy for prevention of oral mucositis in patients receiving bolus 5-FU chemotherapy or high-dose melphalan. This intervention is consistent with the MASCC/ISOO guidelines published in 2007. The literature is limited by the fact that utilization of a double-blind study design is not feasible. Future studies that compare efficacy of oral cryotherapy with other mucositis agents in patients receiving chemotherapy with relatively short plasma half-lives would be useful.

  3. Oral cancer in the UAE: a multicenter, retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Raeefa; Gaballah, Kamis

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of various malignant oral lesions in the UAE and correlate cases of squamous cell carcinomas with age, gender, site, grade, clinical presentations at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of neck metastasis. Materials and methods A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted at four major hospitals in the UAE. The study was based on histopathology reports of biopsies of oral tissues. Results Of the 992 oral biopsy reports retrieved, 147 cases of malignant tumors were found which accounted for 14.9% of the total biopsies. Fifteen different types of malignant lesions were diagnosed, of which oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was the most prevalent and made up 11.4% of the overall oral biopsies retrieved. The commonest presentation of cancer was ulceration (31.17%), followed by lumps and white lesions. The most common site where the lesions were diagnosed was the tongue (51.9%), followed by the cheeks and lips. OSCC accounted for 77% of all malignancies reported. Neck dissections were conducted in only 20.8% of all OSCC cases diagnosed at Mafraq and Tawam hospitals, of which 43.75% showed evidence of neck metastasis. Conclusion Oral cancer is not an uncommon disease in the UAE. This may mandate more awareness campaigning, including screening procedures for early detection of cancerous lesions and other potentially malignant oral diseases. Elective neck dissections to detect lymph node metastasis should be more routinely performed, in particular for tongue carcinomas because of the early neck involvement potential. PMID:23985381

  4. Conservative neck dissection in oral cancer patients: A 5 years retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mahadzir Wan Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ablative oral cancer surgery was studied, with reference to recurrence and nodal metastasis,  survival probability and prognostic indicators and to determine if ethnicity influences the survival of patients. Patients who underwent major ablative surgery of the head and neck region with neck dissection were identified and assessed. Those with stage I-IV oral and oropharyngeal malignancies necessitating resection with or without radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 were included in this study. All individuals had a pre-operative assessment and post operative assessment. Survival distributions were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Eighty seven patients (males: 38%; females: 62% were included in this study, with an age range of 21-85 years. Some 78% underwent neck dissections while 63% had surgery and radiotherapy. Nodal and primary site recurrence was 5.7% and 20.5%. The median survival time was 57 months. One year Overall Survival (OS rate was 72.7% and three year overall survival rate 61.5%. The log-rank test showed a significant difference of survival between Malay and Chinese patients (Bonferroni correction p=0.033. Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS analysis revealed that 25% of the patients have reached the event of recurrence at 46 months. The three year survival rate was 76.1%. In the RFS analysis, the log-rank test showed a significant difference in the event of recurrence and nodal metastasis (p<0.001. Conservative neck effectively controls neck metastases. Ethnicity influence  survival.

  5. In vivo subsite classification and diagnosis of oral cancers using Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Sahu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancers suffer from poor disease-free survival rates due to delayed diagnosis. Noninvasive, rapid, objective approaches as adjuncts to visual inspection can help in better management of oral cancers. Raman spectroscopy (RS has shown potential in identification of oral premalignant and malignant conditions and also in the detection of early cancer changes like cancer-field-effects (CFE at buccal mucosa subsite. Anatomic differences between different oral subsites have also been reported using RS. In this study, anatomical differences between subsites and their possible influence on healthy vs pathological classification were evaluated on 85 oral cancer and 72 healthy subjects. Spectra were acquired from buccal mucosa, lip and tongue in healthy, contralateral (internal healthy control, premalignant and cancer conditions using fiber-optic Raman spectrometer. Mean spectra indicate predominance of lipids in healthy buccal mucosa, contribution of both lipids and proteins in lip while major dominance of protein in tongue spectra. From healthy to tumor, changes in protein secondary-structure, DNA and heme-related features were observed. Principal component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV was used for data analysis. Findings indicate buccal mucosa and tongue are distinct entities, while lip misclassifies with both these subsites. Additionally, the diagnostic algorithm for individual subsites gave improved classification efficiencies with respect to the pooled subsites model. However, as the pooled subsites model yielded 98% specificity and 100% sensitivity, this model may be more useful for preliminary screening applications. Large-scale validation studies are a pre-requisite before envisaging future clinical applications.

  6. Combining Gene Signatures Improves Prediction of Breast Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi; Naume, Bjørn; Langerød, Anita; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lingjærde, Ole Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n = 123) and test set (n = 81), respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. Principal Findings To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p = 0.005; breast cancer death: p = 0.014). Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p = 0.003; breast cancer death: p = 0.001). The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. Conclusion Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves prediction of breast

  7. Combining gene signatures improves prediction of breast cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n = 123 and test set (n = 81, respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p = 0.005; breast cancer death: p = 0.014. Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p = 0.003; breast cancer death: p = 0.001. The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. CONCLUSION: Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves

  8. Oral cancer via the bargain bin: The risk of oral cancer associated with a smokeless tobacco product (Naswar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib; Dreger, Steffen; Shah, Syed Majid Hussain; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Khan, Sheraz; Ullah, Zakir; Rehman, Basheer; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of smokeless tobacco (SLT) being advocated as a mean of tobacco harm reduction, it is pertinent to establish individual health risks associated with each SLT product. This case-control study was aimed at assessing the risk of oral cancer associated with a smokeless tobacco product (Naswar). The study was conducted from September 2014 till May 2015 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Exposure and covariate information was collected through a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). 84 oral cancer cases (62% males) and 174 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Ever users of Naswar had more than a 20-fold higher risk of oral cancer compared to never-users (OR 21.2, 95% CI 8.4-53.8). Females had a higher risk of oral cancer with the use of Naswar (OR 29.0, 95% CI 5.4-153.9) as compared to males (OR 21.0, 95% CI 6.1-72.1). Based on this result, 68% (men) and 38% (women) of the oral cancer burden in Pakistan is attributable to Naswar. The risk estimates observed in this study are comparable to risk estimates reported by previous studies on other forms of SLT use and the risk of oral cancer in Pakistan. The exposure-response relationship also supports a strong role of Naswar in the etiology of oral cancer in Pakistan. Although still requiring further validation through independent studies, these findings may be used for smokeless tobacco control in countries where Naswar use is common.

  9. The Patient Care During Before Radiotherapy in Oral Cavity Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byeong Chul; Park, Jae Il

    1995-01-01

    All patients who will Undergo irradiation of the oral cavity cancer will need dental before and during Radiotherapy. The extent of the region and the presence of numerous critical normal tissues(mucosa, gingiva, teeth and the alveolar ridge, alveolar bony structure, etc) in the oral cavity area, injury to which could result in serious functional impairment. Therefore I evaluate the Usefulness of custom-made intraoral shielding device before and during Radiotherapy in oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods (1): Manufacture process of Custom-made intraoral shielding device Containing Cerroband. A. Acquisition of impression B. Matrix Constitution C. Separation by Separator D. Sprinkle on method E. Trimming F. Spacing G. Fill with Cerroband Materials and Methods (2):A. Preannealing B. TLD Set up C. Annealing D. TLD Reading Results = Therefore dosimetric characteristics in oral cavity by TLD Compared to isodose curve dose distribution Ipsilateral oral mucosa, Contralateral oral mucosa, alveolar ridge, tongue, dose was reduced by intraoral shielding device containing Cerroband technique Compared to isodose plan. The custom-made intra-oral shielding device containing Cerroband was useful in reducing the Contralateral oral mucosa dose and Volume irradiated.

  10. Oral cancer in Fanconi anemia: Review of 121 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquim, Camila Pinheiro; Pivovar, Allana; Amenábar, José Miguel; Bonfim, Carmem; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho

    2018-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by aplastic anemia, progressive pancytopenia, congenital anomalies, and increased risk of cancer development. After hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), patients have an estimated 500-fold increase in the risk of developing head and neck cancer compared to a non-affected, and the oral cavity is affected in one-third of cases. Thus, this study aimed to better understand the natural history of oral cavity cancer in patients affected by FA. After conducting a keyword search on MEDLINE, we found 121 cases of oral cavity cancer in patients who had been affected by FA. In conclusion, HSCT may increase the risks of oral cancer development, especially after 5 years after the transplant. In the normal population, the tongue is the most affected area. FA patients should be informed of the risks of oral malignant transformation and encouraged to be undergo medical surveillance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of socioeconomic status on survival of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Yufu; Hu, Hanqing; Huang, Rui; Xie, Lei; Liu, Enrui; Chen, Ying-Gang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has an impact on the survival of various cancers, but it has not been fully understood in colorectal cancer (CRC). The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was adopted to detect the role of SES in the survival outcomes of CRC. A total of 184,322 eligible patients were included and SES status was analyzed. The multivariable analysis showed that Non-Hispanic Black (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24), being widowed (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07), any Medicaid (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.33-1.39) and the lowest education level group patients had relative poorer prognosis. Besides, sex, tumor location, age, differentiation level and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage also had significant effects on overall survival of CRC. The individuals were further divided into five groups according to the number of survival-adverse factors. All of the four groups containing adverse factors showed impaired survival outcomes compared with the group containing no adverse factor.

  12. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  13. Metastatic breast cancer - age has a significant effect on survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data on 217 elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) and 209 middleaged postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, from 1976 to 1985 were analysed to determine the effect of age on survival. When considered as a group, the elderly have a more ...

  14. Effect of cimetidine on survival after gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Knigge, U; Bülow, Steffen

    1988-01-01

    The effect of cimetidine on survival was investigated in 181 patients with gastric cancer. Immediately after operation or the decision not to operate, the patients were randomised in double-blind fashion to placebo or cimetidine 400 mg twice daily for two years or until death, with review every t...

  15. Effect of Thoracic Surgeons on Lung Cancer Patients’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning LI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Surgeons are the direct decision-makers and performers in the surgical treatment of patients with lung cancer. Whether the differences among doctors affect the survival of patients is unclear. This study analyzed the five-year survival rates of different thoracic surgeries in patients undergoing surgery to assess the physician's impact and impact. Methods A retrospective analysis of five years between 2002-2007 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, for surgical treatment of lung cancer patients. According to different surgeons grouping doctors to compare the basic information of patients, surgical methods, short-term results and long-term survival differences. Results A total of 712 patients treated by 11 experienced thoracic surgeons were included in this study. The patients have nosignificant difference with gender, age, smoking, pathological type between groups. There were significant differences in clinical staging, surgery type, operation time, blood transfusion rate, number of lymph node dissection, palliative resection rate, postoperative complications and perioperative mortality. There was a significant difference in five-year survival rates among patients treated by different doctors. This difference can be seen in all clinical stage analyzes with consistency. In the multivariate analysis, it was suggested that surgeon was an independent factor influencing the prognosis of patients. Conclusion Thoracic surgeon has a significant effect on the therapeutic effect of lung cancer patients.

  16. Effect of cimetidine on survival after gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Knigge, U; Bülow, Steffen

    1988-01-01

    The effect of cimetidine on survival was investigated in 181 patients with gastric cancer. Immediately after operation or the decision not to operate, the patients were randomised in double-blind fashion to placebo or cimetidine 400 mg twice daily for two years or until death, with review every...

  17. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paximadis, Peter, E-mail: ppaximad@med.wayne.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Yoo, George; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Jacobs, John [Department of Otolaryngology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Sukari, Ammar [Department of Medical Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Dyson, Greg [Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Christensen, Michael; Kim, Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our institutional experience with hypopharyngeal carcinoma with respect to treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for functional and survival outcomes. The treatments included surgery alone (n = 5), surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) (n = 3), surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 13), RT alone (n = 2), CRT alone (n = 22), induction chemotherapy followed by RT (n = 3), and induction chemotherapy followed by CRT (n = 22). Results: The median follow-up was 18 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients was 28.3 and 17.6 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year local control rate for all patients was 87.1% and 80%. CRT, given either as primary therapy or in the adjuvant setting, improved overall survival and disease-free survival compared with patients not receiving CRT. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for patients treated with CRT was 36.7 and 17.6 months vs. 14.0 and 8.0 months, respectively (p < .01). Of the patients initially treated with an organ-preserving approach, 4 (8.2%) required salvage laryngectomy for local recurrence or persistent disease; 8 (16.3%) and 12 (24.5%) patients were dependent on a percutaneous gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube, respectively. The 2-year laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival rate for patients treated with an organ-preserving approach was estimated at 31.7%. Conclusions: Concurrent CRT improves survival in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. CRT given with conventional radiation techniques yields poor functional outcomes, and future efforts should be directed at determining the feasibility of pharyngeal-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with hypopharyngeal tumors.

  18. Systematic reviews of oral complications from cancer therapies, Oral Care Study Group, MASCC/ISOO : methodology and quality of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate

  19. Prospects in the Application of Photodynamic Therapy in Oral Cancer and Premalignant Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajan; Lee, Nathan V.; Liu, Kelly Y. P.; Poh, Catherine F.

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a global health burden with significantly poor survival, especially when the diagnosis is at its late stage. Despite advances in current treatment modalities, there has been minimal improvement in survival rates over the last five decades. The development of local recurrence, regional failure, and the formation of second primary tumors accounts for this poor outcome. For survivors, cosmetic and functional compromises resulting from treatment are often devastating. These statistics underscore the need for novel approaches in the management of this deadly disease. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that involves administration of a light-sensitive drug, known as a photosensitizer, followed by light irradiation of an appropriate wavelength that corresponds to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of tissue oxygen, cytotoxic free radicals that are produced cause direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature, and induction of inflammatory reactions at the target sites. PDT offers a prospective new approach in controlling this disease at its various stages either as a stand-alone therapy for early lesions or as an adjuvant therapy for advanced cases. In this review, we aim to explore the applications of PDT in oral cancer therapy and to present an overview of the recent advances in PDT that can potentially reposition its utility for oral cancer treatment. PMID:27598202

  20. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  1. Simplified Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient after Oral Cancer Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjčić, Josip; Džakula, Nikola; Vojvodić, Denis

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of patients with oral cancer is complex: a multidisciplinary approach needs to be taken and maxillofacial and oral surgeons, an oncologist, a prosthodontist should be included, and a psychologist is often needed. This case report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient after surgical removal of oral cancer with obturator prosthesis. Resection cavity was located in central part of the hard palate and the condition belonged to Aramany class 3 maxillary defects. The two-step impression technique of denture bearing area was used and the resection of cavity was performed. A primary impression-the impression of denture bearing area was made using irreversible hydrocolloid material, while the second impression - the impression of resection cavity was made using condensation silicone material and obturator prosthesis framework. The obturator prosthesis replaced lost teeth, improved oral function and esthetics at minimal costs.

  2. Simplified Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient after Oral Cancer Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Džakula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with oral cancer is complex: a multidisciplinary approach needs to be taken and maxillofacial and oral surgeons, an oncologist, a prosthodontist should be included, and a psychologist is often needed. This case report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient after surgical removal of oral cancer with obturator prosthesis. Resection cavity was located in central part of the hard palate and the condition belonged to Aramany class 3 maxillary defects. The two-step impression technique of denture bearing area and the resection cavity was performed. A primary impression- the impression of denture bearing area was made using irreversible hydrocolloid material, while the second impression – the impression of resection cavity was made using condensation silicone material and obturator prosthesis framework. The obturator prosthesis replaced lost teeth, improved oral function and esthetics at minimal costs.

  3. Comparison of Practices, Knowledge, Confidence, and Attitude toward Oral Cancer among Oral Health Professionals between Japan and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresaku, Satoru; Makino, Michiko; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Naito, Toru; Mariño, Rodrigo Jose

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the practices, knowledge, confidence, and attitude toward oral cancer among Japanese oral health professionals (J-OHPs) and to identify Japanese-specific problems in oral cancer practices by comparing them between Japan and Australia. A questionnaire survey regarding oral cancer practices among Australian oral health professionals (Au-OHPs) was conducted in Australia in 2014-2015. The questionnaire was translated into Japanese, and a Web-based questionnaire survey was conducted among 131 Japanese dentists (J-Dentists) and 131 dental hygienists (J-DHs) in 2016. To compare the J-OHPs' findings with the Au-OHPs', the data of Australian dentists (Au-dentists) and Australian dental hygienists (Au-DHs) were extracted from the Australian survey. Those findings were then compared via a statistical analysis. Eighty-two J-Dentists, 55 J-DHs, 214 Au-Dentists, and 45 Au-DHs participated in this study. Only 34.1 % of J-Dentists and 36.4 % of J-DHs performed oral cancer screenings on their patients; J-OHPs were significantly less likely to perform them than Au-OHPs. The level of knowledge and confidence regarding oral cancer among JOHPs were significantly lower than among Au-OHPs. About 90 % of J-OHPs felt that they needed additional training in oral cancer practices. Less than 40 % of J-OHPs performed oral cancer screenings in their patients. The low level of knowledge and confidence regarding oral cancer among JOHPs may contribute to their low performance of oral cancer practices. Therefore, further education and training programs for oral cancer practices should be provided to Japanese OHPs for the prevention and early detection of oral cancer.

  4. Oral cancer: exploring the stories in United Kingdom newspaper articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C M; Johnson, I G; Morgan, M Z

    2016-09-09

    Objective Reports suggest that patients with oral cancer delay seeking help because they are unaware of the symptoms. The majority of adults (95%) engage with news reports and 40% read newspapers. Newspaper oral cancer stories may influence awareness and health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore how oral cancer is portrayed in UK newspaper print media.Design Qualitative content analysis of articles from ten newspapers with the widest UK print circulation. All articles using the terms 'mouth cancer' and 'oral cancer' over a three year period were retrieved. Duplicates, non-cancer and non-human articles were excluded.Results 239 articles were analysed. Common topics included 'recent research', 'survivor stories', 'health information' and 'celebrity linkage'. Articles were often emotive, featuring smoking, alcohol, sex and celebrity. Articles lacked a proper evidence base and often failed to provide accurate information about signs and symptoms, information about prevention and signposting to treatment.Conclusions Opportunities to save lives are being missed. Further work to improve social responsibility in the media and develop guidance to enhance the quality of information, health reporting and signposting to help are indicated.

  5. MR images of oral cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Kojiro; Niitsu Mamoru; Yusa, Hiroshi; Yanagawa, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the effect of preoperative radiotherapy for oral cancer and the changes of signal intensity with MR images. T2-weighted images were compared before and after radiotherapy in 18 patients with primary oral cancer, and the effect on the lesions was histologically evaluated in surgically resected specimens obtained four weeks after the therapy. The MR images showed significantly decreased signal intensity of the lesions. The decrease of signal intensity was remarkable starting at two weeks after completion of the radiotherapy, compared with the decrease at less than two weeks after the therapy. The change of signal intensity was more obvious in tongue cancer than in other oral cancers. There was no significant difference in the change of the signal intensity between cancers with histologically poor response to the therapy and those with good response. These results suggested that signal intensity of oral cancer on T2-weighted images showed a significant decrease after preoperative radiotherapy, and that the intensity could be affected by duration after radiotherapy and primary sites. (author)

  6. Effect of hydronephrosis on survival in advanced stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goklu, Mehmet Rıfat; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Togrul, Cihan; Goklu, Yasemin; Tahaoglu, Ali Emre; Oz, Murat; Ertas, Ibrahim Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is frequently encountered in advanced stage cervical cancers, and may be associated with mortality. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the effect of hydronephrosis on survival in patients with inoperable advanced stage cervical cancer. The study data were acquired by retrospective analysis of the patient records belonging to 165 women with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage-IIIB or more advanced cervical cancer, which were not surgical candidates. Parameters including patient age, pathological diagnosis, disease stage, pelvic sidewall extension, presence of hydronephrosis and administration of chemoradiation were analyzed. Further, the effects of these variables on survival were assessed. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The distribution of the study patients according to disease stage was as follows: 131 (79.4%) had stage-IIIB, 18 (10.9%) had stage-IVB and 16 (% 9.7) patients had stage-IVA disease. Hydronephrosis was not evident in 91 (55.2%) of these patients, whereas 41 (24.8%) had unilateral and 33 (20%) patients had bilateral hydronephrosis. When compared to mean survival in patients who did not have hydronephrosis, survival was significantly shortened in patients who had bilateral and unilateral hydronephrosis (phydronephrosis (p>0.05). Although patient age, pathological type, pelvic involvement, and chemotherapy treatment rates were similar (p>0.05), radiotherapy requirement rate and disease stage were significantly different among the study groups (pHydronephrosis was found to be a significant predictor of poor survival in patients with advanced stage cervical cancer, irrespective of unilateral or bilateral involvement.While waiting for future studies with larger sample sizes, we believe that the FIGO stages in advanced cervical cancer could further be stratified into subgroups according to presence or absence of hydronephrosis.

  7. Impact of PINCH expression on survival in colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lööf, Jasmine; Rosell, Johan; Bratthäll, Charlotte; Doré, Siv; Starkhammar, Hans; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The adaptor protein PINCH is overexpressed in the stroma of several types of cancer, and is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. In this study we further investigate the relationship of PINCH and survival regarding the response to chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 251 primary adenocarcinomas, 149 samples of adjacent normal mucosa, 57 samples of distant normal mucosa and 75 lymph node metastases were used for immunohistochemical staining. Stromal staining for PINCH increased from normal mucosa to primary tumour to metastasis. Strong staining in adjacent normal mucosa was related to worse survival independently of sex, age, tumour location, differentiation and stage (p = 0.044, HR, 1.60, 95% CI, 1.01-2.52). PINCH staining at the invasive margin tended to be related to survival (p = 0.051). In poorly differentiated tumours PINCH staining at the invasive margin was related to survival independently of sex, age and stage (p = 0.013, HR, 1.90, 95% CI, 1.14-3.16), while in better differentiated tumours it was not. In patients with weak staining, adjuvant chemotherapy was related to survival (p = 0.010, 0.013 and 0.013 in entire tumour area, invasive margin and inner tumour area, respectively), but not in patients with strong staining. However, in the multivariate analysis no such relationship was seen. PINCH staining in normal adjacent mucosa was related to survival. Further, PINCH staining at the tumour invasive margin was related to survival in poorly differentiated tumours but not in better differentiated tumours, indicating that the impact of PINCH on prognosis was dependent on differentiation status

  8. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  9. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi, E-mail: kasamatsua@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Uzawa, Katsuhiro, E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori [Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi [Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  10. FADS1 rs174549 Polymorphism May Predict a Favorable Response to Chemoradiotherapy in Oral Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Yan, Lingjun; Qiu, Yu; Lin, Lisong; Cai, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene variant is a novel susceptibility marker for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma identified by a recent genome-wide association study, but it is still unclear whether this genetic variant continues to influence oral cancer recurrence or death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism and its interaction with postoperative chemoradiotherapy in the prognosis of oral cancer. A prospective cohort study involving 304 oral cancer patients with surgical resection was conducted in Fujian, China. Demographic and clinical data (adjuvant therapy types, histologic types, clinical stage, etc.) were extracted from medical records, and follow-up data were obtained by telephone interviews. We collected 5 to 8 mL of venous blood from all patients for DNA extraction, and rs174549 genotypes were determined by TaqMan assays (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). A Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to assess the association between FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as overall survival, in oral cancer. Carrying the AA genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PFS: The hazard ratio was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.93) for the codominant model and 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.94) for the recessive model. Moreover, better PFS was particularly obvious in patients who had received chemoradiotherapy. A positive multiplicative interaction between FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism and chemoradiotherapy was observed for PFS (P = .036). No significant association was found between FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism and overall survival. Our study suggests, for the first time, that FADS1 rs174549 polymorphism is a potentially independent and favorable factor in predicting oral cancer PFS especially for patients who undergo chemoradiotherapy, and it may serve as a potential target for individualized treatment in the future

  11. Oral rehabilitation of the cancer patient: A formidable challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Ivana; Rosen, Evan B; Matros, Evan; Huryn, Joseph M; Shah, Jatin P

    2018-05-03

    Rehabilitation of oral functions following surgery on the jaws is a goal that is often difficult to achieve. Removable dentures supported by remaining teeth or gum are often unstable and seldom satisfactory. On the other hand, endosseous (dental) implants offer a mechanism to provide stability to the dentures. This review, discusses factors related to the tumor, patient, treatment, and physicians which impact upon the feasibility and success of dental implants in patients with oral cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Oral cavity and lip cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerawala, C; Roques, T; Jeannon, J-P; Bisase, B

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. It provides recommendations on the assessment and management of patients with cancer of the oral cavity and the lip. Recommendations • Surgery remains the mainstay of management for oral cavity tumours. (R) • Tumour resection should be performed with a clinical clearance of 1 cm vital structures permitting. (R) • Elective neck treatment should be offered for all oral cavity tumours. (R) • Adjuvant radiochemotherapy in the presence of advanced neck disease or positive margins improves control rates. (R) • Early stage lip cancer can be treated equally well by surgery or radiation therapy. (R).

  13. Discrimination of premalignant conditions of oral cancer using Raman spectroscopy of urinary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Brindha; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-03-01

    Oral cancers are considered to be one of the most commonly occurring malignancy worldwide. Over 70% of the cases report to the doctor only in advanced stages of the disease, resulting in poor survival rates. Hence it is necessary to detect the disease at the earliest which may increase the five year survival rate up to 90%. Among various optical spectroscopic techniques, Raman spectroscopy has been emerged as a tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Around 30 - 80% of the malignancies of the oral cavity arise from premalignant lesions. Hence, understanding the molecular/spectral differences at the premalignant stage may help in identifying the cancer at the earliest and increase patient's survival rate. Among various bio-fluids such as blood, urine and saliva, urine is considered as one of the diagnostically potential bio-fluids, as it has many metabolites. The distribution and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary due to the changes associated with the pathologic conditions. The present study is aimed to characterize the urine of 70 healthy subjects and 51 pre-malignant patients using Raman spectroscopy under 785nm excitation, to know the molecular/spectral differences between healthy subjects and premalignant conditions of oral malignancy. Principal component analysis based Linear discriminant analysis were also made to find the statistical significance and the present technique yields the sensitivity and specificity of 86.3% and 92.9% with an overall accuracy of 90.9% in the discrimination of premalignant conditions from healthy subjects urine.

  14. Oral ketamine for radiotherapy in children with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewale, S.; Saxena, Abha; Trikha, Anjan; Singh, Manorama; Sharief, Abeda

    2000-01-01

    Children coming for radiotherapy under sedation usually get repeated injections, which cause distress to both the child and the parents. A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of oral ketamine for sedation for radiotherapy (RT) in children with cancer. Ten children who received 49 sittings of RT were given 8-15 mg/kg body weight of oral ketamine. The onset time, recovery time, efficacy of sedation and incidence of abnormal movements were compared with another group of 8 children, who received intramuscular ketamine in the dose of 6 mg/kg for a total of 28 sittings of RT. Onset time and recovery time were significantly longer in oral ketamine group as compared to the intramuscular group (p<0.001). Limb movements in patients receiving oral ketamine necessitated further supplement of sedation and interruption of RT. These drawbacks discourage use of oral ketamine as a good sedative for radiotherapy treatment in paediatric oncology patients. (author)

  15. 5-Fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in cultured oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D; Poot, M; Hu, D; Oda, D

    2000-03-01

    Chemotherapy is commonly used to treat advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and is known to kill cancer cells through apoptosis. Our hypothesis states that 5-fluorouracil (5FU) also kills cultured oral epithelial cells through programmed cell death or apoptosis. Cultured oral cancer cells were exposed to an optimum dose of 20 mg/ml of 5FU. Cells were analyzed for changes in cell cycle distribution and induction of cell death including apoptosis. Normal control, human papilloma virus-immortalized (PP), ATCC SCC cell line (CA1) and two primary oral SCC cell lines (CA3 and -4) were studied. Inhibition of apoptosis by a pan-caspase inhibitor was used. SYTO 11 flow cytometry showed increased apoptosis in all 5FU-treated cell cultures compared to untreated controls. The results show biological variation in apoptotic response. CA1 had the lowest apoptotic rate of the cancer cell lines at 1.5%. Next lowest was CA3, followed by CA4 and PP. In addition, alteration in the G1 and S phase fractions were found. Untreated CA1 showed 28% G1, 53% S compared to 43% G1, and 40% S of treated. We investigated the pathway of apoptosis using the pan-caspase inhibitor IDN-1529 by methylthiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric analysis. Results showed mild inhibition of cell death when cells were incubated with 50 microM IDN-1529 for 24 h. This suggests a probable caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, our data suggest that 5FU induces oral cancer cell death through apoptosis and that biological variation exists between normal and cancer cells and between different types of cancer cells themselves. Our data indicate that cultures of a useful in vitro model for chemosensitivity assays are possible. Our results also suggest a caspase-dependent pathway for chemocytotoxicity in oral SCC.

  16. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  17. Portable LED-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Yung-Jiun; Yang, Chin-Siang; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2017-04-01

    Oral cancer is a serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. To improve the cancer screening procedure, we developed a portable light-emitting-diode (LED)-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager that contains two wavelength LED excitation light sources and multiple filters to capture ex vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Compared with conventional means of oral cancer diagnosis, the LIAF imager is a handier, faster, and more highly reliable solution. The compact design with a tiny probe allows clinicians to easily observe autofluorescence images of hidden areas located in concave deep oral cavities. The ex vivo trials conducted in Taiwan present the design and prototype of the portable LIAF imager used for analyzing 31 patients with 221 measurement points. Using the normalized factor of normal tissues under the excitation source with 365 nm of the central wavelength and without the bandpass filter, the results revealed that the sensitivity was larger than 84%, the specificity was not smaller than over 76%, the accuracy was about 80%, and the area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was achieved at about 87%, respectively. The fact shows the LIAF spectroscopy has the possibilities of ex vivo diagnosis and noninvasive examinations for oral cancer.

  18. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  19. Sigmund Freud: smoking habit, oral cancer and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, W L

    2004-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis had a well-known love of the cigar. The natural progression of this vice was the development of oral cancer for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal. An account is given in this article of Sigmund Freud's illness and care following the diagnosis of his oral cancer. The role of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is also discussed. A review of relevant literature on Sigmund Freud's illness, risk factors for oral cancer and euthanasia was undertaken. Sigmund Freud was a heavy smoker with a 20-cigar/day habit. In 1923, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the palate was made, for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal which span a total of 16 years. During this period, he bluntly refused to quit smoking. Freud consulted many specialists (otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, prosthodontists and general surgeons), during the course of his ordeal with oral cancer. He underwent 34 surgical procedures before his eventual death in 1939 through euthanasia. Continued indulgence in smoking and procrastination on the part of Freud, as well as mediocrity, negligence and incompetence on the part of the first surgeon that operated on Freud, could partly be responsible for his lengthy ordeal.

  20. Population Survey of Knowledge about Oral Cancer and Related Factors in the Capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Ghorbani, Zahra; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Safiaghdam, Hannaneh; Rafieian, Nasrin

    2017-08-24

    Knowledge about oral cancer risk factors and signs is thought to improve prevention and early diagnosis, and in turn, increases survival. In this population-based survey, knowledge about oral cancer was assessed in Iran. A total of 1800 self-administered questionnaires (collecting sociodemographic data and questions regarding oral cancer risk factors and signs) were distributed through random sampling. Final scores ranged between 0 and 15 for the risk factors and 0-11 for the signs. Scores below the median indicated a low level of knowledge, scores representing the third quartile of correct answers indicated a moderate level of knowledge, and scores representing the upper quartile indicated a high level of knowledge. Statistical tests were used for analysis of knowledge level in different sociodemographic categories. A total of 1312 participants completed the questionnaires. The average of knowledge scores for risk factors was 5.3 ± 3.0 and for signs was 4.5 ± 2.9. Overall, 75 and 56% respectively were able to identify major risk factors (smoking and alcohol); 23.5% could not define any related signs and symptoms. Dividing scores into quartiles indicated that three out of four people had "low" knowledge about risk factors and 58% had "low" knowledge about signs and symptoms. Females and highly educated people had more knowledge of oral cancer. Significant difference was found between job and level of knowledge (P = 0.001). This survey revealed that public knowledge of oral cancer was not satisfactory in Iran. Efforts should be done to inform and educate people with risk factors, initial clinical presentation, and symptoms, in order to improve prevention and promote early diagnosis.

  1. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intraarterial infusion via superficial temporal artery for stage III, IV oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohnai, Iwai; Shigetomi, Toshio [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Hayashi, Yasushi [Nagoya Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-03-01

    Thirty-eight patients with stage III, IV oral cancer were treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intraarterial infusion via the superficial temporal artery. Radiotherapy (total dose: 40 Gy) and chemotherapy using CBDCA (total dose: 460 mg/m{sup 2}) were performed daily, followed by surgery. Catheter-insertion of 34 patients was done successfully. Four catheter insertions were not done successfully because of the anomaly of the artery such as common trunk of the lingual artery and the facial artery. The clinical effects were CR in 9 patients (26.5%) and PR in 25 (73.5%), and histopathological effects after surgery were grade III, IV in 10 (29.4%), grade IIb in 23 (67.6%), and grade IIa in 2 (5.8%). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 67.8%. This superselective intra arterial infusion method could be the technique of choice for the treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  2. Clinical study of concurrent chemoradiation with superselective intra-arterial docetaxel-nedaplatin for oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Wataru; Sakaki, Hirotaka; Sato, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kosei; Kimura, Hiroto; Teh, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy has become popular in advanced head and neck carcinoma treatment. Twenty patients with advanced oral cancers were treated by radiation (66 Gy) and chemotherapy with superselective intra-arterial docetaxel (40 mg/mm 2 )-nedaplatin (80 mg/mm 2 ) infusion between 2003 and 2009. Complete response in the primary and regional cervical region was obtained in 17 (85%) out of the 20 patients. Five-year survival rate was 74.1% and major adverse effects were leukopenia and mucositis. Five patients (25%) developed distant metastasis post-treatment. Intra-arterial docetaxel-nedaplatin infusion concurrent with radiotherapy is an effective treatment for advanced oral cancers but severe complications and distant metastasis are problems that need to be solved. (author)

  3. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intraarterial infusion via superficial temporal artery for stage III, IV oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohnai, Iwai; Shigetomi, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with stage III, IV oral cancer were treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intraarterial infusion via the superficial temporal artery. Radiotherapy (total dose: 40 Gy) and chemotherapy using CBDCA (total dose: 460 mg/m 2 ) were performed daily, followed by surgery. Catheter-insertion of 34 patients was done successfully. Four catheter insertions were not done successfully because of the anomaly of the artery such as common trunk of the lingual artery and the facial artery. The clinical effects were CR in 9 patients (26.5%) and PR in 25 (73.5%), and histopathological effects after surgery were grade III, IV in 10 (29.4%), grade IIb in 23 (67.6%), and grade IIa in 2 (5.8%). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 67.8%. This superselective intra arterial infusion method could be the technique of choice for the treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  4. Alcohol concentration and risk of oral cancer in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yi; Winn, Deborah M; Brown, Linda M; Gridley, Gloria; Bravo-Otero, Eleuterio; Diehl, Scott R; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hayes, Richard B

    2003-05-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (oral cancer), but the differential risks by beverage type are unclear. In this 1992-1995 study, the authors examined oral cancer risk in Puerto Rico, comparing alcohol intake among 286 male cases aged 21-79 years and 417 population-based male controls, frequency matched by age. Heavy consumers of liquor (>/=43 drinks per week) had strongly increased risks of oral cancer (odds ratio = 6.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 16.8); beer/wine showed only modest effects. Among liquor drinkers, risks were consistently greater for those who drank straight (undiluted) liquor than for those who usually drank mixed (diluted) liquor (odds ratio = 4.0, 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 6.7). Risks associated with combined exposure to tobacco were also more pronounced when subjects drank liquor straight. The elevated risks associated with drinking homemade rum were similar to those for other types of liquor. These results suggest that alcohol concentration is a risk factor for oral cancer independent of the total quantity of alcohol consumed.

  5. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  6. Oral tegafur-uracil as metronomic therapy following intravenous FOLFOX for stage III colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Huang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of metronomic therapy with oral tegafur-uracil (UFUR following an intravenous FOLFOX regimen as surgical adjuvant chemotherapy on the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS of stage III colon cancer patients. From the retrospective database of patients who underwent a surgical resection for colorectal cancer at the Tri-Service General Hospital from October 2008 through December 2014, stage III colon carcinomas treated with radical R0 resection were reviewed. One hundred thirty two patients were treated with a FOLFOX regimen (comparison group, and 113 patients were treated with the same regimen followed by additional oral UFUR (UFUR group. The clinical characteristics and mean age of the comparison and UFUR groups were similar. Furthermore, for all study patients, DFS was not significantly different between the two groups. However, 5-year OS rates were 86.8% and 68.5% in the UFUR and comparison groups, respectively (p = 0.0107. Adding UFUR to a FOLFOX regimen was found to significantly improve the OS in patients with stage III colon cancer. UFUR as a maintenance therapy following FOLFOX regimen as an alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of stage III colon cancer patients.

  7. Oral tegafur-uracil as metronomic therapy following intravenous FOLFOX for stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Hsiao, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Chang-Chieh; Jao, Shu-Wen; Yang, Jen-Fu; Lo, Cheng-Hsiang; Chen, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of metronomic therapy with oral tegafur-uracil (UFUR) following an intravenous FOLFOX regimen as surgical adjuvant chemotherapy on the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of stage III colon cancer patients. From the retrospective database of patients who underwent a surgical resection for colorectal cancer at the Tri-Service General Hospital from October 2008 through December 2014, stage III colon carcinomas treated with radical R0 resection were reviewed. One hundred thirty two patients were treated with a FOLFOX regimen (comparison group), and 113 patients were treated with the same regimen followed by additional oral UFUR (UFUR group). The clinical characteristics and mean age of the comparison and UFUR groups were similar. Furthermore, for all study patients, DFS was not significantly different between the two groups. However, 5-year OS rates were 86.8% and 68.5% in the UFUR and comparison groups, respectively (p = 0.0107). Adding UFUR to a FOLFOX regimen was found to significantly improve the OS in patients with stage III colon cancer. UFUR as a maintenance therapy following FOLFOX regimen as an alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of stage III colon cancer patients.

  8. An assessment of oral cancer curricula in dental hygiene programmes: implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, K K; Kaste, L M; Homsi, K D; LeHew, C W

    2016-11-01

    To assess oral cancer prevention and early detection curricula in Illinois associate-degree dental hygiene programmes and highlight global health applications. An email invitation was sent to each Illinois associate-degree granting dental hygiene programme's oral cancer contact to participate in a survey via a SurveyMonkey™ link to a 21-item questionnaire. Questions elicited background information on each programme and inquired about curriculum and methods used for teaching oral cancer prevention and early detection. Eight of the 12 (67%) programmes responded. Three (37.5%) reported having a specific oral cancer curriculum. Five (62.5%) require students to perform examinations for signs and symptoms of oral cancer at each clinic visit. Variations exist across the programmes in the number of patients each student sees annually and the number of oral cancer examinations each student performs before graduation. Seven programmes (87.5%) conduct early detection screening in community settings. All programmes included risk assessment associated with tobacco. All other risk factors measured were treated inconsistently. Significant differences in training and experience were reported across Illinois dental hygiene programmes. Training is neither standardized nor uniformly comprehensive. Students' preparation for delivering prevention and early detection services to their patients could be strengthened to ensure competence including reflection of risk factors and behaviours in a global context. Regular review of curricular guidelines and programme content would help dental hygienists meet the expectations of the Crete Declaration on Oral Cancer Prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Breast cancer oral anti-cancer medication adherence: a systematic review of psychosocial motivators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheryl; Clark, Rachel; Tu, Pikuei; Bosworth, Hayden B; Zullig, Leah L

    2017-09-01

    In the past decade, there has been an increase in the development and use of oral anti-cancer medications (OAMs), especially for breast cancer-the most prevalent cancer in women. However, adherence rates for OAMs are often suboptimal, leading to lower survival rate, increased risk of recurrence, and higher healthcare costs. Our goal was to identify potentially modifiable psychosocial facilitators and barriers that may be targeted to increase OAM adherence for breast cancer patients. We systematically searched PubMed for studies published in the U.S. by June 15, 2016 that addressed the following: (1) OAMs for breast cancer; (2) medication adherence; and (3) at least one psychosocial aspect of adherence. Of the 1752 papers screened, 21 articles were included and analyzed. The most commonly reported motivators for adherence are patient-provider relationships (n = 11 studied, 82% reported significant association) and positive views and beliefs of medication (n = 9 studied, 89% reported significant association). We also identified consistent evidence of the impact of depression and emotions, perception of illness, concern of side effects, self-efficacy in medication management and decision making, knowledge of medication, and social support on OAM adherence. Compared to traditional demographic, system, and clinical-related factors that have been well documented in the literature but are not easily changed, these cognitive, psychological, and interpersonal factors are more amendable via intervention and therefore could generate greater benefit in improving patient compliance and health outcomes. As OAMs shift treatment administration responsibility onto patients, continuous provider communication and education on illness and regimen are the keys to supporting patients' medication behavior.

  10. Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children’s Oncology Group report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorati, Cesar A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ruble, Kathy; Guilcher, Gregory M. T.; Shah, Ami J.; Castellino, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children’s Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children’s Oncology Group. Methods An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network “Categories of Consensus” system. Results The Children’s Oncology Group oral-dental pan el selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Addition ally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent ma lignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Conclusions Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life. PMID:24781353

  11. Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    of the global burden of cancer. Tobacco and alcohol are regarded as the major risk factors for oral cancer. The population-attributable risks of smoking and alcohol consumption have been estimated to 80% for males, 61% for females, and 74% overall. The evidence that smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer...... national intervention programmes. Epidemiological data on oral cancer (ICD-10: C00-C08) incidence and mortality are stored in the Global Oral Health Data Bank. In 2007, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed a resolution on oral health for the first time in 25 years, which also considers oral cancer...

  12. Blood type, ABO genetic variants, and ovarian cancer survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Gabriella D.; Levinson, Rebecca T.; Toole, Hilary; Snyder, Malcolm-Robert; Deng, Angie; Crispens, Marta A.; Khabele, Dineo; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Objective Blood type A and the A1 allele have been associated with increased ovarian cancer risk. With only two small studies published to date, evidence for an association between ABO blood type and ovarian cancer survival is limited. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Tumor Registry confirmed ovarian cancer cases from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center with blood type from linked laboratory reports and ABO variants from linked Illumina Exome BeadChip data. Associations with overall survival (OS) were quantified by hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) from proportional hazards regression models; covariates included age, race, stage, grade, histologic subtype, and year of diagnosis. Results ABO phenotype (N = 694) and/or genotype (N = 154) data were available for 713 predominantly Caucasian (89.3%) cases. In multivariable models, blood type A had significantly better OS compared to either O (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.60–0.93) or all non-A (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63–0.94) cases. Similarly, missense rs1053878 minor allele carriers (A2) had better OS (HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25–0.99). Among Caucasians, this phenotype association was strengthened, but the genotype association was attenuated; instead, four variants sharing moderate linkage disequilibrium with the O variant were associated with better OS (HR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39–0.99) in unadjusted models. Conclusions Blood type A was significantly associated with longer ovarian cancer survival in the largest such study to date. This finding was supported by genetic analysis, which implicated the A2 allele, although O related variants also had suggestive associations. Further research on ABO and ovarian cancer survival is warranted. PMID:28448592

  13. Blood type, ABO genetic variants, and ovarian cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D Cozzi

    Full Text Available Blood type A and the A1 allele have been associated with increased ovarian cancer risk. With only two small studies published to date, evidence for an association between ABO blood type and ovarian cancer survival is limited.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Tumor Registry confirmed ovarian cancer cases from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center with blood type from linked laboratory reports and ABO variants from linked Illumina Exome BeadChip data. Associations with overall survival (OS were quantified by hazard ratios (HR and confidence intervals (CI from proportional hazards regression models; covariates included age, race, stage, grade, histologic subtype, and year of diagnosis.ABO phenotype (N = 694 and/or genotype (N = 154 data were available for 713 predominantly Caucasian (89.3% cases. In multivariable models, blood type A had significantly better OS compared to either O (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.60-0.93 or all non-A (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63-0.94 cases. Similarly, missense rs1053878 minor allele carriers (A2 had better OS (HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25-0.99. Among Caucasians, this phenotype association was strengthened, but the genotype association was attenuated; instead, four variants sharing moderate linkage disequilibrium with the O variant were associated with better OS (HR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.99 in unadjusted models.Blood type A was significantly associated with longer ovarian cancer survival in the largest such study to date. This finding was supported by genetic analysis, which implicated the A2 allele, although O related variants also had suggestive associations. Further research on ABO and ovarian cancer survival is warranted.

  14. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Chewing tobacco/betel quid is a strong risk factor in the development of PMD and oral cancer. Also age, gender, SES, education, and occupation influence the development of PMD and oral cancer.

  15. Primary Tumor Site as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome for Definitive Radiotherapy of Advanced-Stage Oral Cavity Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. The median dose of RT was 72Gy (range, 62-76Gy). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent salvage surgery after RT failure. Results: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment. The 3-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival were 22%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001). The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012). The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival. The patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated better 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.015 and 53% vs. 24%, p = 0.029, respectively). Subsite group, N+, and salvage surgery were the only significant prognostic factors for survival after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT. The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.

  16. Polarized Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    In India oral cancer ranks the top due to the habitual usage of tobacco in its various forms and remains the major burden. Hence priority is given for early diagnosis as it is the better solution for cure or to improve the survival rate. For the past three decades, optical spectroscopic techniques have shown its capacity in the discrimination of normal and malignant samples. Many research works have conventional Raman in the effective detection of cancer using the variations in bond vibrations of the molecules. However in addition polarized Raman provides the orientation and symmetry of biomolecules. If so can polarized Raman be the better choice than the conventional Raman in the detection of cancer? The present study aimed to found the answer for the above query. The conventional and polarized Raman spectra were acquired for the same set of blood plasma samples of normal subjects and oral malignant (OSCC) patients. Thus, obtained Raman spectral data were compared using linear discriminant analysis coupled with artificial neural network (LDA-ANN). The depolarization ratio of biomolecules such as antioxidant, amino acid, protein and nucleic acid bases present in blood plasma was proven to be the best attributes in the categorization of the groups. The polarized Raman results were promising in discriminating oral cancer blood plasma from that of normal blood plasma with improved efficiency. The results will be discussed in detail.

  17. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  18. Effects and mechanism of GA-13315 on the proliferation and apoptosis of KB cells in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shan; Tang, Jingxia

    2017-08-01

    The present study describes the effects and mechanism of GA-13315 on the proliferation and apoptosis of KB cells in oral cancer. Oral cancer is twice as common in men than women. More than 90% of oral cancers in men and 85% in women are linked to lifestyle and environmental factors. PPP2R2B methylation may be associated with survival and prognosis in patients with gliomas. In tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, the mechanism of PPP2R2B remains unclear. In the present study, we found that PPP2R2B expression of H1299 cells is significantly decreased after being treated by GA-13315. KB cells were isolated from patients with oral cancer and treated with GA-13315 (5 µM). Cells without GA-13315 treatment served as the control group. An MTT experiment was performed to detect the post-treatment cell growth between the groups. A flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods were used for detecting the expression of PPP2R2B. Compared with the control group, the cell proliferation of the treatment group slowed after being treated with GA-13315. The difference was statistically significant (Poral cancer were weakened after being treated by GA-13315. GA-13315 can accelerate the apoptosis of oral cancer cells and presents a dose correlation. The biological effect is exerted through the decrease of PPP2R2B.

  19. Systematic review of basic oral care for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Deborah B; Fulton, Janet S; Park, Jumin; Brown, Carlton G; Correa, M Elvira P; Eilers, June; Elad, Sharon; Gibson, Faith; Oberle-Edwards, Loree K; Bowen, Joanne; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate research in basic oral care interventions to update evidence-based practice guidelines for preventing and treating oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing radio- or chemotherapy. A systematic review of available literature was conducted by the Basic Oral Care Section of the Mucositis Study Group of MASCC/ISOO. Seven interventions--oral care protocols, dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine, and calcium phosphate--were evaluated using the Hadorn (J Clin Epidemiol 49:749-754, 1996) criteria to determine level of evidence, followed by a guideline determination of one of the following: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible, using Somerfield's (Classic Pap Cur Comments 4:881-886, 2000) schema. Fifty-two published papers were examined by treatment population (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant) and by whether the intervention aimed to prevent or treat OM. The resulting practice suggestions included using oral care protocols for preventing OM across all treatment modalities and age groups and not using chlorhexidine mouthwash for preventing OM in adults with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Considering inadequate and/or conflicting evidence, no guidelines for prevention or treatment of OM were possible for the interventions of dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine in patients receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or calcium phosphate. The evidence for basic oral care interventions supports the use of oral care protocols in patient populations receiving radiation and/or chemotherapy and does not support chlorhexidine for prevention of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Additional well-designed research is needed for other interventions to improve the amount and quality of evidence guiding future clinical

  20. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with oral doxifluridine plus low-dose oral leucovorin in unresectable primary rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jinsil; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Nam Kyu; Min, Jin Sik; Suh, Chang Ok

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The use of oral chemotherapeutic agents in chemoradiotherapy provides several advantages. Doxifluridine, an oral 5-FU prodrug, has been shown to be effective in colorectal cancer. We attempted a Phase II trial of preoperative chemoradiotherapy with doxifluridine plus a low-dose oral leucovorin in unresectable primary rectal cancer patients. In this study, toxicity and efficacy were evaluated. Methods and Materials: There were 23 patients with primary unresectable rectal cancer in this trial, 21 of whom were available for analysis. The patients were treated with oral doxifluridine (900 mg/day) plus oral leucovorin (30 mg/day) from days 1 to 35, and pelvic radiation of 45 Gy over 5 weeks. Surgical resection was performed 5-6 weeks after the treatment. Results: Acute toxicity involved thrombocytopenia, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, and skin reaction. All were in Grade 1/2, except diarrhea, which was not only the most frequent (7 patients, 33.3%), but also the only toxicity of Grade 3 (2 patients). The clinical tumor response was shown in 5 patients (23.8%) as a complete response and 13 patients (61.9%) as a partial response. A complete resection with negative resection margin was done in 18 patients (85.7%), in 2 of whom a pathologic complete response was shown (9.5%). The overall downstaging rate in the T- and N-stage groupings was 71.4% (15 patients). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the efficacy and low toxicity of chemoradiotherapy with doxifluridine. Currently, a Phase III randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy is ongoing at our institute to compare the therapeutic efficacy of oral 5-FU with respect to i.v. 5-FU in locally advanced and unresectable rectal cancer

  1. Occupational Risk for Oral Cancer in Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti; Lindqvist, Christian; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparen, Par; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx. These occupations included dentists, artistic workers, hairdressers, journalists, cooks and stewards, seamen and waiters. Several occupational categories, including dentists, had an increased relative risk of tongue cancer. This new finding remains to be explained but could be related to occupational chemical exposures, increased consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, or infection with human papilloma virus. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Oral cancer preventive campaigns: are we reaching the real target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Paladino Nemoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity malignant neoplasms have a high mortality rate. For this reason, preventive campaigns have been developed, both to educate the population and to diagnose lesions at an early stage. However, there are studies that contest the validity of these endeavors, principally because the target audience of the campaigns may not conform to the group at highest risk for oral malignancy. Objective: To describe the profile of patients who avail themselves of the preventive campaign, identify the presence of oral lesions in that population, and compare that data with the epidemiological profile of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional historical cohort study performed by analysis of epidemiological data of the campaign "Abra a Boca para a Saúde" collected in the years from 2008 to 2013. Results: In the years analyzed, 11,965 people were treated and 859 lesions were diagnosed, all benign. There was a female predominance (52.7%, with mean age of 44 years (±15.4 years; 26% were smokers and 29% reported alcohol consumption. It is known that the group at highest risk to develop oral cancer is 60to 70-year-old men, who are alcoholic smokers. Conclusion: The population that seeks preventive campaigns is not the main risk group for the disease. This fact explains the low number of lesions and the lack of cancer detection.

  3. The experience of fatherhood following childhood cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Francis; Higgins, Aiveen; Casey, Maureen; McCarthy, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the experience of becoming a father following childhood cancer survival. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five fathers and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged: 'moving away from and revisiting the experience of cancer', 'making sense of fortune and loss following a life-threatening illness' and 'valuing the opportunity to be a father'. The transition to fatherhood brought unique and specific challenges to fathers. Nevertheless, all appeared to have positively adjusted to this transition. Findings recommended providing information and support to childhood survivors who wish to or who are about to become fathers.

  4. Characterization of transformation related genes in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D D; Park, N H; Denny, C T; Nelson, S F; Pe, M

    1998-04-16

    A cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA-RDA) and an arrayed filter technique were used to characterize transformation-related genes in oral cancer. From an initial comparison of normal oral epithelial cells and a human papilloma virus (HPV)-immortalized oral epithelial cell line, we obtained 384 differentially expressed gene fragments and arrayed them on a filter. Two hundred and twelve redundant clones were identified by three rounds of back hybridization. Sequence analysis of the remaining clones revealed 99 unique clones corresponding to 69 genes. The expression of these transformation related gene fragments in three nontumorigenic HPV-immortalized oral epithelial cell lines and three oral cancer cell lines were simultaneously monitored using a cDNA array hybridization. Although there was a considerable cell line-to-cell line variability in the expression of these clones, a reliable prediction of their expression could be made from the cDNA array hybridization. Our study demonstrates the utility of combining cDNA-RDA and arrayed filters in high-throughput gene expression difference analysis. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study should be informative in studying oral epithelial cell carcinogenesis.

  5. Cartographies of the Voice: Storying the Land as Survivance in Native American Oral Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Native places are made, named, and reconstructed after colonization through storytelling. Storying the land is a process whereby the land is invested with the moral and spiritual perspectives specific to Native American communities. As seen in the oral traditions and written literature of Native American storytellers and authors, the voices of indigenous people retrace and remap cartographies for the land after colonization through storytelling. This article shows that the Americas were storied by Native American communities long before colonial contact beginning in the fifteenth century and demonstrates how the land continues to be storied in the present as a method of decolonization and cultural survivance. The article examines manifestations of the oral tradition in multiple forms, including poetry, interviews, fiction, photography, and film, to demonstrate that the land itself, through storytelling, becomes a repository of the oral tradition. The article investigates oral narratives from precontact and postcolonial time periods and across numerous nations and geographical regions in the Americas, including stories from the Mayan Popol Vuh; Algonkian; Western Apache; Hopi; Haudenosaunee/Iroquois; and Laguna Pueblo stories; and the contemporary poetry and fiction of Joy Harjo (Mvskoke/Creek Nation and Leslie Marmon Silko (Laguna Pueblo.

  6. Pathogenic Dermatophytes Survive in Nail Lesions During Oral Terbinafine Treatment for Tinea Unguium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tomoyuki; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Tinea unguium caused by dermatophyte species are usually treated with oral antimycotic, terbinafine (TBF). To understand the mechanisms of improvement and recalcitrance of tinea unguium by oral TBF treatment, a method of quantifying dermatophyte viability in the nail was developed, and the viability of dermatophytes was analyzed in toenail lesions of 14 patients with KOH-positive tinea unguium treated with oral TBF 125 mg/day for up to 16 weeks. Mycological tests, including KOH examination and fungal culture, and targeted quantitative real-time PCR for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, including rRNA, were demonstrated at the initial visit and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Assays in eight patients showed that average ITS DNA amount significantly decreased, to 44% at 8 weeks and 36% at 16 weeks compared with 100% at initial visit. No significant difference was observed between at 8 and 16 weeks, despite the TBF concentration in the nail supposedly more than 10-fold higher than the minimum fungicidal concentration for dermatophytes. This finding suggests the pathogenic dermatophytes in nail lesions could survive in a dormant form, such as arthroconidia, during oral TBF treatment. Both antimycotic activity and nail growth are important factors in treatment of tinea unguium.

  7. Three cases of radiation-induced cancer in oral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shinoki, Kunihiko; Endo, Yoshitaka; Fujita, Yasushi; Hayashi, Susumu

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of radiation-induced cancer in the oral regions were reported with relation to radiation therapy. One was the general radiation-induced cancer following radiotherapy for the hemangioma. The other two cases, which belonged in the B-1 group of Sakai and his coworker's diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced cancer, were those occurring after radiotherapy for the malignant tumors. Due to the relatively high dosage exposure by the patient in the radiotherapy it is necessary to look out the latency of the radiation-induced cancer. After radiotherapy, careful and periodical observation is important for immediate treatment in an early stage for the radiation-induced cancer to have a favorable prognosis. In addition careful observation of the changes after radiotherapy helps in discovering the precancerous lesions from the therapy. For the radiation-induced cancer, surgical treatment would be the best, however, radiation therapy is also effective in certain cases. (author)

  8. Does stage of cancer, comorbidity or lifestyle factors explain educational differences in survival after endometrial cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Ulla Holten; Ibfelt, Else; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    characteristics, surgery, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status. Information on highest attained education, cohabitation and comorbidity was obtained from nationwide administrative registries. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between level of education and cancer stage and Cox......Background: Several studies have documented an association between socioeconomic position and survival from gynaecological cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between level of education and survival after endometrial cancer among...... Danish women; and whether differences in stage at diagnosis and comorbidity contribute to the educational differences in survival. Methods: Women with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database, with information on clinical...

  9. Survival in Response to Multimodal Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongsook, Naiyarat; Kumar, Aditi; Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Foote, Robert L; Kasperbauer, Jan; Molina, Julian; Garces, Yolanda; Ma, Daniel; Wittich, Michelle A Neben; Rubin, Joseph; Richardson, Ronald; Morris, John; Hay, Ian; Fatourechi, Vahab; McIver, Bryan; Ryder, Mabel; Thompson, Geoffrey; Grant, Clive; Richards, Melanie; Sebo, Thomas J; Rivera, Michael; Suman, Vera; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smallridge, Robert C; Bible, Keith C

    2017-12-01

    Historical outcomes in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) have been dismal. To determine whether an initial intensive multimodal therapy (MMT) is associated with improved ATC survival. MMT was offered to all patients with newly diagnosed ATC treated at the Mayo Clinic from 2003 through 2015; MMT vs care with palliative intent (PI) was individualized considering clinical status and patient preferences. Outcomes were retrospectively analyzed by American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and treatments compared with patient cohort data from 1949 through 1999. Forty-eight patients (60% male; median age, 62 years); 18 treated with PI, 30 with MMT. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival determined by Kaplan-Meier method. Median OS and 1-year survival for the later cohort were 9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4 to 22 months] and 42% (95% CI, 28% to 56%) vs 3 months and 10% for the earlier cohort. Median OS was 21 months compared with 3.9 months in the pooled MMT vs PI groups for the later cohort [hazard ratio (HR), 0.32; P = 0.0006]. Among only patients in the later cohort who had stage IVB disease, median OS was 22.4 vs 4 months (HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.44; P = 0.0001), with 68% vs 0% alive at 1 year (MMT vs PI). Among patients with stage IVC cancer, OS did not differ by therapy. MMT appears to convey longer survival in ATC among patients with stage IVA/B disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Customized mold radiotherapy with prosthetic apparatus for oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tadahide; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Hayasaka, Junichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Takahashi, Satoru; Nakazawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Eight patients (6 males, 2 females; median age, 78 years; age range, 31-94 years) were treated by mold radiotherapy with a prosthetic apparatus for oral cancers between October 2006 and March 2013. The primary sites were the tongue in 3 cases, hard palate and buccal mucosa in 2 cases each, and oral floor in 1 case. The type of treatment consisted of radical radiotherapy and palliative radiotherapy in 2 cases each, and preoperative radiotherapy, postoperative radiotherapy, additional radiotherapy after external beam radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy in 1 case each. Patients received 40-50 Gy in 8-10 fractions with mold radiotherapy. Two patients who received radical radiotherapy showed no signs of recurrence or metastasis. The present therapy contributed to patients' palliative, postoperative, and preoperative therapy. Mold radiotherapy with a prosthetic appliance was performed safely and was a useful treatment for several types of oral cancer. (author)

  11. A review of the relationship between alcohol and oral cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reidy, J

    2011-10-01

    This paper aims to review the current literature regarding the association between alcohol consumption and oral cancer. The authors have discussed the constituents of alcohol-containing beverages, the metabolism of ethanol and its effect on the oral microflora. The local and systemic carcinogenic effects of alcohol have been detailed. The beneficial effects of alcohol consumption on general health have also been considered. A possible relationship between alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer has been suggested in the literature. The authors conclude that this relationship has not yet been firmly established. However, the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses in high-risk populations should be restricted, pending the outcome of further research.

  12. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading.

  13. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  14. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    when compared with (B) step-sectioning and immunostaining of the entire sentinel lymph node at 250 microM levels. METHODS: Forty patients with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were enrolled. Three patients were excluded. In one patient no sentinel lymph node was identified. The remaining two had unidentified...

  15. Oral cancer: a retrospective study of 100 Danish cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Rindum, J; Pindborg, J J

    1997-01-01

    One hundred Danes with oral cancer who were collected consecutively from 1986 to 1991 were evaluated retrospectively. The study included subjective and objective observations in 56% men and in 44% women. M:F ratio was 1.2:1. Fifty percent of the patients were non-smokers. Nine percent were women...

  16. Prognostic and survival analysis of 837 Chinese colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Li, Mo-Dan; Hu, Han-Guang; Dong, Cai-Xia; Chen, Jia-Qi; Li, Xiao-Fen; Li, Jing-Jing; Shen, Hong

    2013-05-07

    To develop a prognostic model to predict survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Survival data of 837 CRC patients undergoing surgery between 1996 and 2006 were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression model to reveal the prognostic factors for CRC. All data were recorded using a standard data form and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, United States). Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess differences in survival. Univariate hazard ratios and significant and independent predictors of disease-specific survival and were identified by Cox proportional hazard analysis. The stepwise procedure was set to a threshold of 0.05. Statistical significance was defined as P analysis suggested age, preoperative obstruction, serum carcinoembryonic antigen level at diagnosis, status of resection, tumor size, histological grade, pathological type, lymphovascular invasion, invasion of adjacent organs, and tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging were positive prognostic factors (P analysis showed a significant statistical difference in 3-year survival among these groups: LNR1, 73%; LNR2, 55%; and LNR3, 42% (P analysis results showed that histological grade, depth of bowel wall invasion, and number of metastatic lymph nodes were the most important prognostic factors for CRC if we did not consider the interaction of the TNM staging system (P < 0.05). When the TNM staging was taken into account, histological grade lost its statistical significance, while the specific TNM staging system showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001). The overall survival of CRC patients has improved between 1996 and 2006. LNR is a powerful factor for estimating the survival of stage III CRC patients.

  17. Survival of lung cancer patients after combined therapy with hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharkov, V.V.; Demidchik, Yu.E.; Khodina, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a randomized study of combined therapy of lung cancer patients including large field radiotherapy (total irradiation of 20 Gy, daily fractionation of 4 Gy) and induced hyperglycemia (22-23 mmol/1) are presented. The use of new variants of combined therapy was shown to increase significantly the survival of patients, however therapeutic efficacy was different depending on the time of hyperglycemia: wheter it was used before radiotherapy sessions of after their discontinuation

  18. Subcellular differential expression of Ep-ICD in oral dysplasia and cancer is associated with disease progression and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somasundaram, Raj Thani; Kaur, Jatinder; Leong, Iona; MacMillan, Christina; Witterick, Ian J.; Walfish, Paul G.; Ralhan, Ranju

    2016-01-01

    Identification of patients with oral dysplasia at high risk of cancer development and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) at increased risk of disease recurrence will enable rigorous personalized treatment. Regulated intramembranous proteolysis of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) resulting in release of its intracellular domain Ep-ICD into cytoplasm and nucleus triggers oncogenic signaling. We analyzed the expression of Ep-ICD in oral dysplasia and cancer and determined its clinical significance in disease progression and prognosis. In a retrospective study, immunohistochemical analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic Ep-ICD and EpEx (extracellular domain of EpCAM), was carried out in 115 OSCC, 97 oral dysplasia and 105 normal oral tissues, correlated with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcome over 60 months for oral dysplasia and OSCC patients. Disease-free survival (DFS) was determined by Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analysis. In comparison with normal oral tissues, significant increase in nuclear Ep-ICD and membrane EpEx was observed in dysplasia, and OSCC (p = 0.013 and < 0.001 respectively). Oral dysplasia patients with increased overall Ep-ICD developed cancer in short time period (mean = 47 months; p = 0.044). OSCC patients with increased nuclear Ep-ICD and membrane EpEx had significantly reduced mean DFS of 33.7 months (p = 0.018). Our study provided clinical evidence for Ep-ICD as a predictor of cancer development in patients with oral dysplasia and recurrence in OSCC patients, suggesting its potential utility in enhanced management of those patients detected to have increased risk of progression to cancer and recurrence in OSCC patients

  19. Overall survival and disease-free survival in endometrial cancer: prognostic factors in 276 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejerizo-García A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Álvaro Tejerizo-García,1 Jesús S Jiménez-López,1 José L Muñoz-González,1 Sara Bartolomé-Sotillos,1 Laura Marqueta-Marqués,1 Gregorio López-González,1 José F Pérez-Regadera Gómez21Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, SpainObjective: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with endometrial cancer and to determine independent factors affecting the prognosis.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of a single-center clinical series of 276 patients (mean age 64 years with histologically confirmed cancer of the corpus uteri. The standard treatments were extrafascial total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with selective pelvic/para-aortic node dissection, according to risk for recurrence. Actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival were estimated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to assess the prognostic significance of the different variables.Results: The estimated median follow-up, determined using the inverse Kaplan–Meier method, was 45 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.2–48.8 for disease-free survival and 46 months (95% CI 43.0–49.0 for overall survival. The statistically significant variables affecting disease-free survival and overall survival were age, serous-papillary and clear-cell histological types, outer-half myometrial invasion, advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage, tumor grades G2 and G3, incomplete surgical resection, positive lymph nodes, lymphovascular space invasion, tumor remnants of >1 cm after surgery, and high-risk group. In the multivariate Cox regression model, predictors of tumor recurrence included advanced FIGO stage (hazard ratio [HR] 4.90, 95% CI 2.57–9.36, P < 0.001 and tumor grades G2 (HR 4.79, 95

  20. Oral yeast carriage in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A N; Brailsford, S; Broadley, K; Beighton, D

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral yeast carriage amongst patients with advanced cancer. Oral rinse samples were obtained from 120 subjects. Yeasts were isolated using Sabouraud's dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida, and were identified using a combination of the API 20 C AUX yeast identification system, species-specific PCR and 26S rDNA gene sequencing. Oral yeast carriage was present in 66% of subjects. The frequency of isolation of individual species was: Candida albicans, 46%; Candida glabrata, 18%; Candida dubliniensis, 5%; others, yeast carriage was associated with denture wearing (P = 0.006), and low stimulated whole salivary flow rate (P = 0.009). Identification of these risk factors offers new strategies for the prevention of oral candidosis in this group of patients.

  1. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Mucosal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The initial effect of anticancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is on the rapidly proliferating cells of the oral epithelium. As a consequence, the epithelium may show atrophy and ulceration. The sites of these alterations are related to the rate of epithelial proliferation. Regions of rapid proliferation, such as the oral lining mucosa, show a greater frequency of ulceration than masticatory mucosa or skin. Subsequent changes in the mucosa reflect damage to connective tissue, including fibroblasts and blood vessels. This results in hyalinization of collagen, hypovascularity, and ischemia. Indirect effects of anticancer therapy may include granulocytopenia and reduced salivary secretion, so that the protective mucin coating of the epithelium is compromised. These changes result in tissue with reduced barrier function and impaired ability to heal and to resist entry of pathogens, thus increasing the risk of systemic infections

  2. Oral Cancer Malnutrition Impacts Weight and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Claudius Gellrich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients’ strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy.

  3. Oral cancer malnutrition impacts weight and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-03-27

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients' strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy.

  4. Comparison of cancer survival in New Zealand and Australia, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Phyu S; Elwood, J Mark; Stevanovic, Vladimir

    2014-12-19

    Previous studies have shown substantially higher mortality rates from cancer in New Zealand compared to Australia, but these studies have not included data on patient survival. This study compares the survival of cancer patients diagnosed in 2006-10 in the whole populations of New Zealand and Australia. Identical period survival methods were used to calculate relative survival ratios for all cancers combined, and for 18 cancers each accounting for more than 50 deaths per year in New Zealand, from 1 to 10 years from diagnosis. Cancer survival was lower in New Zealand, with 5-year relative survival being 4.2% lower in women, and 3.8% lower in men for all cancers combined. Of 18 cancers, 14 showed lower survival in New Zealand; the exceptions, with similar survival in each country, being melanoma, myeloma, mesothelioma, and cervical cancer. For most cancers, the differences in survival were maximum at 1 year after diagnosis, becoming smaller later; however, for breast cancer, the survival difference increased with time after diagnosis. The lower survival in New Zealand, and the higher mortality rates shown earlier, suggest that further improvements in recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer in New Zealand should be possible. As the survival differences are seen soon after diagnosis, issues of early management in primary care and time intervals to diagnosis and treatment may be particularly important.

  5. Machine learning models in breast cancer survival prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Mitra; Montazeri, Mohadeseh; Montazeri, Mahdieh; Beigzadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with a high mortality rate among women. With the early diagnosis of breast cancer survival will increase from 56% to more than 86%. Therefore, an accurate and reliable system is necessary for the early diagnosis of this cancer. The proposed model is the combination of rules and different machine learning techniques. Machine learning models can help physicians to reduce the number of false decisions. They try to exploit patterns and relationships among a large number of cases and predict the outcome of a disease using historical cases stored in datasets. The objective of this study is to propose a rule-based classification method with machine learning techniques for the prediction of different types of Breast cancer survival. We use a dataset with eight attributes that include the records of 900 patients in which 876 patients (97.3%) and 24 (2.7%) patients were females and males respectively. Naive Bayes (NB), Trees Random Forest (TRF), 1-Nearest Neighbor (1NN), AdaBoost (AD), Support Vector Machine (SVM), RBF Network (RBFN), and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) machine learning techniques with 10-cross fold technique were used with the proposed model for the prediction of breast cancer survival. The performance of machine learning techniques were evaluated with accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, and area under ROC curve. Out of 900 patients, 803 patients and 97 patients were alive and dead, respectively. In this study, Trees Random Forest (TRF) technique showed better results in comparison to other techniques (NB, 1NN, AD, SVM and RBFN, MLP). The accuracy, sensitivity and the area under ROC curve of TRF are 96%, 96%, 93%, respectively. However, 1NN machine learning technique provided poor performance (accuracy 91%, sensitivity 91% and area under ROC curve 78%). This study demonstrates that Trees Random Forest model (TRF) which is a rule-based classification model was the best model with the highest level of

  6. Social integration and survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Bao, Ying

    2018-02-15

    Although larger social networks have been associated with lower all-cause mortality, few studies have examined whether social integration predicts survival outcomes among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The authors examined the association between social ties and survival after CRC diagnosis in a prospective cohort study. Participants included 896 women in the Nurses' Health Study who were diagnosed with stage I, II, or III CRC between 1992 and 2012. Stage was assigned using the American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria. Social integration was assessed every 4 years since 1992 using the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index, which included marital status, social network size, contact frequency, religious participation, and other social group participation. During follow-up, there were 380 total deaths, 167 of which were due to CRC. In multivariable analyses, women who were socially integrated before diagnosis had a subsequent reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-0.92) and CRC mortality (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.38-1.06) compared with women who were socially isolated. In particular, women with more intimate ties (family and friends) had lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88) and CRC mortality (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.34-1.03) compared with those with few intimate ties. Participation in religious or community activities was not found to be related to outcomes. The analysis of postdiagnosis social integration yielded similar results. Socially integrated women were found to have better survival after a diagnosis of CRC, possibly due to beneficial caregiving from their family and friends. Interventions aimed at strengthening social network structures to ensure access to care may be valuable programmatic tools in the management of patients with CRC. Cancer 2018;124:833-40. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Predicting the Survival of Gastric Cancer Patients Using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhani Kangi, Azam; Bahrampour, Abbas

    2018-02-26

    Introduction and purpose: In recent years the use of neural networks without any premises for investigation of prognosis in analyzing survival data has increased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) use small processors with a continuous network to solve problems inspired by the human brain. Bayesian neural networks (BNN) constitute a neural-based approach to modeling and non-linearization of complex issues using special algorithms and statistical methods. Gastric cancer incidence is the first and third ranking for men and women in Iran, respectively. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of an artificial neural network and a Bayesian neural network for modeling and predicting of probability of gastric cancer patient death. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used information on 339 patients aged from 20 to 90 years old with positive gastric cancer, referred to Afzalipoor and Shahid Bahonar Hospitals in Kerman City from 2001 to 2015. The three layers perceptron neural network (ANN) and the Bayesian neural network (BNN) were used for predicting the probability of mortality using the available data. To investigate differences between the models, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were generated. Results: In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of the artificial neural network and Bayesian neural network models were 0.882, 0.903 and 0.954, 0.909, respectively. Prediction accuracy and the area under curve ROC for the two models were 0.891, 0.944 and 0.935, 0.961. The age at diagnosis of gastric cancer was most important for predicting survival, followed by tumor grade, morphology, gender, smoking history, opium consumption, receiving chemotherapy, presence of metastasis, tumor stage, receiving radiotherapy, and being resident in a village. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated that the Bayesian neural network is preferable to an artificial neural network for

  8. Application of Fuzzy Logic in Oral Cancer Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrobotă, Ioana; Băciuț, Grigore; Filip, Adriana Gabriela; Todor, Bianca; Blaga, Florin; Băciuț, Mihaela Felicia

    2017-05-01

    The mapping of the malignization mechanism is still incomplete, but oxidative stress is strongly correlated to carcinogenesis. In our research, using fuzzy logic, we aimed to estimate the oxidative stress related-cancerization risk of the oral potentially malignant disorders. Serum from 16 patients diagnosed (clinical and histopathological) with oral potentially malignant disorders (Dept. of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery and Radiology, "Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj Napoca, Romania) was processed fluorometric for malondialdehyde and proton donors assays (Dept. of Physiology,"Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania). The values were used as inputs, they were associated linguistic terms using MIN-MAX method and 25 IF-THEN inference rules were generated to estimate the output value, the cancerization risk appreciated on a scale from 1 to 10 - IF malondialdehyde is very high and donors protons are very low THEN the cancer risk is reaching the maximum value (Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Managerial and Technological Engineering, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania) (2012-2014). We estimated the cancerization risk of the oral potentially malignant disorders by implementing the multi-criteria decision support system based on serum malondialdehyde and proton donors' values. The risk was estimated as a concrete numerical value on a scale from 1 to 10 depending on the input numerical/linguistic value. The multi-criteria decision support system proposed by us, integrated into a more complex computerized decision support system, could be used as an important aid in oral cancer screening and establish future medical decision in oral potentially malignant disorders.

  9. Natural chemopreventive alternatives in oral cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrobota, I; Bolfa, P; Filip, A G; Catoi, C; Alb, C; Pop, O; Tatomir, C; Baciut, G

    2016-02-01

    We studied the effect of grape seed extract Burgund Mare (BM) on oral carcinogenesis and compared it with that of curcumin (CU). Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 10): 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) oral carcinogenesis was induced to groups 1 - 5; groups 2 and 3 received BM and CU respectively during initiation and groups 4 and 5 BM and CU during post-initiation of carcinogenesis; group 6 represented the negative control group. Total malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assayed fluorometrically in oral tissue (gingival, jugal, palatal, lingual mucosa) and serum. Histopathological exam was performed and a dysplasia score given to each oral mucosal lesion. Ki67, cyclin D1, p63, Bcl2 and p53 were immunohistochemically evaluated. BM and CU reduced tissue MDA values elevated by 4NQO (P = 0.000). The difference between CU and BM effect was significant in the initiation (P = 0.02) but not in the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis (P = 0.58). Tissue GSH levels decreased by 4NQO (P < 0.001) were not significantly modified by BM or CU. Serum MDA levels increased by 4NQO (P = 0.000) were significantly lowered by CU (P = 0.04) and BM (P = 0.04) during initiation and by CU during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.01). CU was more potent than BM during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.01). Serum GSH lowered by 4NQO (P = 0.55) was significantly decreased by BM and CU (P < 0.012), with no significant difference between groups receiving BM or CU. Moderate dysplasia was the most advanced dysplasia induced and gingival localization the most frequent. Both BM and CU lowered dysplasia scores, with BM being the most efficient during post-initiation of carcinogenesis (P = 0.001). Ki67, cyclin D1, p63, Bcl2 and p53 expression increased with dysplasia scores. BM showed chemopreventive properties during initiation and post-initiation of oral carcinogenesis, reducing local and general oxidative stress and the intensity of dysplasia

  10. Cancer survival classification using integrated data sets and intermediate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shinuk; Park, Taesung; Kon, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Although numerous studies related to cancer survival have been published, increasing the prediction accuracy of survival classes still remains a challenge. Integration of different data sets, such as microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA, might increase the accuracy of survival class prediction. Therefore, we suggested a machine learning (ML) approach to integrate different data sets, and developed a novel method based on feature selection with Cox proportional hazard regression model (FSCOX) to improve the prediction of cancer survival time. FSCOX provides us with intermediate survival information, which is usually discarded when separating survival into 2 groups (short- and long-term), and allows us to perform survival analysis. We used an ML-based protocol for feature selection, integrating information from miRNA and mRNA expression profiles at the feature level. To predict survival phenotypes, we used the following classifiers, first, existing ML methods, support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), second, a new median-based classifier using FSCOX (FSCOX_median), and third, an SVM classifier using FSCOX (FSCOX_SVM). We compared these methods using 3 types of cancer tissue data sets: (i) miRNA expression, (ii) mRNA expression, and (iii) combined miRNA and mRNA expression. The latter data set included features selected either from the combined miRNA/mRNA profile or independently from miRNAs and mRNAs profiles (IFS). In the ovarian data set, the accuracy of survival classification using the combined miRNA/mRNA profiles with IFS was 75% using RF, 86.36% using SVM, 84.09% using FSCOX_median, and 88.64% using FSCOX_SVM with a balanced 22 short-term and 22 long-term survivor data set. These accuracies are higher than those using miRNA alone (70.45%, RF; 75%, SVM; 75%, FSCOX_median; and 75%, FSCOX_SVM) or mRNA alone (65.91%, RF; 63.64%, SVM; 72.73%, FSCOX_median; and 70.45%, FSCOX_SVM). Similarly in the glioblastoma multiforme data, the accuracy of miRNA/mRNA using IFS

  11. Incidence of and survival after subsequent cancers in carriers of pathogenic MMR variants with previous cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    age 40 to age 70 years were 73% for pathogenic MLH1 (path_MLH1), 76% for path_MSH2 carriers and 52% for path_MSH6 carriers, and for colorectal cancer (CRC) the cumulative incidences were 46%, 48% and 23%, respectively. Crude survival after any subsequent cancer was 82% (95% CI 76% to 87%) and 10-year...

  12. The sex life of women surviving breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizzani, Anna; Bruni, Simone; Luisi, Stefano

    2018-04-27

    The diagnosis of breast cancer elicits diverse emotional responses in patients and partners. Surviving cancer has raised new needs and caretakers must understand the medical and psychological latent effects of oncology therapy. Improving patients' well-being is crucial as 19 million survivors are expected in the next decade in the United States alone. In general, sexuality contributes to one's well-being but when it is disrupted by the occurrence of cancer, women withdraw emotionally, no longer feel desirable due to esthetic damage, and become overwhelmed by the thought of sex. Alopecia and mastectomy elicit feelings of unattractiveness affecting even some women with nipple sparing mastectomy. Couples who share the psychological distress of experiencing cancer should be logically included in survivorship interventions. Hence, any support offered to the couple improves their ability to cope significantly. Treatments causing premature ovarian failure as well as adjuvant endocrine treatments deepen the effects of hypo-estrogenism on the genital modifications of arousal. Sexual rehabilitation with vaginal dilators and sensate focus exercises help to lessen pain, and reduce the couple's anxiety toward sex. In conclusion, caregivers must realize that surviving women are often reluctant to voice their needs, thus, efficient interventions must be available to everyone.

  13. Survival with breast cancer: the importance of estrogen receptor quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, L L; Godolphin, W

    1989-02-01

    The survival of 1184 British Columbian women whose primary breast cancers were diagnosed and assayed for estrogen receptor (ER) between 1975 and 1981 was studied. Median follow-up was 60 months. ER concentrations yielded greater prognostic information than simple positive and negative categories. When ER data were divided into four strata: less than or equal to 1, 2-9, 10-159 and greater than or equal to 160 fmol/mg cytosol protein, the association of higher ER with prolonged survival was highly significant (P less than 0.0001) and independent of TNM stage, nodal status and menopausal status. ER less than or equal to 1 and ER = 2-9 groups were distinct with respect to overall disease-specific survival. Patient age did not predict survival when controlled for ER. Prolonged recurrence-free survival was associated with higher ER (P = 0.0001) for at least 5 years after diagnosis. This significant trend persisted after adjustments for nodal status, TNM stage, menopausal status and the type of systemic adjuvant therapy.

  14. Surgical and cryosurgical salvage of oral and oropharyngeal cancer recurring after radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyza, J.W.; Towpik, E.

    1991-01-01

    The results of salvage surgery or cryosurgery performed in 62 cases or oral or oropharyngeal cancer, recurring or persisting after radical radiotherapy, were analysed retrospectively. Salvage surgery was performed in 33 cases. The relatively high frequency of postoperative complications observed in years 1973-1984 has declined since 1985, concomitant with the introduction of myocutaneous flaps for reconstruction. Twenty-nine patients who were disqualified from major surgery, were treated by cryosurgery. Using both methods, 3-year overall survival was obtained in 24.1% of cases. (author)

  15. Oromandibular reconstruction with chimeric double-skin paddle flap based on peroneal vessel axis for synchronous opposite double oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Tsai; Liu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Synchronous double oral cancer represents the minority of cases of head and neck cancer. After tumor ablation, 2 separate oromandibular defects, even combined with a through-and-through oral defect, pose a serious reconstructive challenge. The ideal method for reconstruction remains controversial. Based on the peroneal vessel axis, a chimeric double-skin paddle peroneal fasciocutaneous or fibular osteomyocutaneous flap could be designed to accomplish the difficult reconstruction. Six male patients, each with 2 separate oromandibular defects after tumor ablation of synchronous double oral cancer, received double-skin paddle flap reconstruction with 3 peroneal fasciocutaneous and 3 fibular osteomyocutaneous flaps. All 6 flaps survived; however, complications included 1 skin paddle lost due to insufficient perfusion of a visible perforator, and 1 superficial necrosis occurring over the tip of a longer skin paddle. One postoperative intraoral infection and 1 donor site infection were also reported. During follow-up, 3 months later, 1 patient succumbed to local recurrence and bony metastasis. One patient developed a new cancer in the maxillary gingiva, and another had osteoradionecrosis 8 months later. Four patients gained acceptable cosmesis with good oral competence. A chimeric flap based on the peroneal artery could provide a segment of fibular bone, 1 or 2 skin paddles, and a cuff of the flexor hallucis longus muscle simultaneously. For 1-stage reconstruction of separate oromandibular defects after tumor ablation of synchronous double oral cancer, this design could provide all components at 1 transfer.

  16. Two Unusual Cases of Oral Lichen Planus Arising After Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Can Oral Cancer Trigger Autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Davide Bartolomeo; Asioli, Sofia; Gabusi, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system fails to recognize self-antigens expressed on the body's own cells and attacks them. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease of the oral cavity characterized by white/red lesions. Considered a potentially malignant disorder, OLP evolution into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still a matter of debate. While chronic autoimmune inflammation is considered a potential risk factor for malignant transformation in many solid tumors, the opposite idea that cancer may trigger autoimmune responses remains controversial. We describe 2 patients who developed lesions clinically suggestive of OLP with histological evidence of lichenoid infiltration some time after OSCC removal, even in areas far from the neoplastic site. Neither patient had OLP before the diagnosis of OSCC, or reported exposure to OLP-associated etiologic factors, and neither. experienced tumor recurrence during follow-up. Our findings suggest that oral cancer remission may be linked to OLP development, but further studies are necessary to unveil the underlying mechanisms and possible prognostic implications.

  17. The impact of complementary and alternative medicines on cancer symptoms, treatment side effects, quality of life, and survival in women with breast cancer--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, S; Koczwara, B; Miller, M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer amongst women. Women with breast cancer frequently consult dietitians for advice, and increasingly advice on complementary alternative medicines (CAM). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of CAM administered orally on cancer-related outcomes. Databases were searched for studies recruiting women with a history of breast cancer reporting on the use of CAM administered orally as tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids for any 1 or more of the following: alleviation of cancer-related symptoms and treatment side effects, improvement to quality of life, physical and emotional wellbeing, survival, and mortality. Twenty-two studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Ten CAM categories were established with no more than 4 articles published in each category. Although the evidence is of varying quality there is some data to support that guarana and Ganoderma lucidum may improve fatigue, whereas glutamine may also be effective in improving oral mucositis symptoms. Overall, the current available evidence is inconclusive to make definitive recommendations regarding the effectiveness for individuals' use of CAM in women with breast cancer. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials exploring safety, toxicity, and other potential adverse effects of CAM are required.

  18. Oral fluoropyrimidine versus intravenous 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of advanced gastric and colorectal cancer: Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Xing, Xiaoli; Meng, Fanlu; Wang, Yan; Zhong, Diansheng

    2018-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) is one of the most commonly prescribed antineoplastic agents against gastric and colorectal cancers. Continuous infusion would be the optimal way of its administration, however, may usually cause thrombosis, infection, and prolonged hospital stay. Oral fluoropyrimidines would be an attractive alternative, but their efficiency and toxicities for the treatment of gastric and colorectal cancer are still obscure as compared with infusion 5-Fu. Literature retrieval, trials selection and assessment, data collection, and statistic analysis were performed according to the Cochrane Handbook. The outcome measures were tumor response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and adverse effects. Twenty-nine randomized controlled trials, comprising totally 15 154 patients, were included. Meta-analysis showed similar overall outcome in terms of response rate (1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.12), progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.00; 95%CI, 0.94-1.06), and overall survival (hazard ratio 0.96; 95%CI, 0.92-1.01) between oral fluoropyrimidine-based and intravenous 5-Fu-based regimens in gastric and colorectal cancer patients. The risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and stomatitis was more prominent in intravenous 5-Fu-based regimens; while more frequent grade 3/4 hand-foot syndrome, diarrhea, and anorexia were detected in oral fluoropyrimidine-based regimens. Oral-fluoropyrimidines showed equivalent response and similar survival outcomes, but different toxicity profiles, as compared with intravenous 5-Fu. Thus, it would be a more convenient and adjustable alternative in treatment of advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Geographical variations in the use of cancer treatments are associated with survival of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Coupland, Victoria H; Tataru, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer outcomes in England are inferior to comparable countries. Patient or disease characteristics, healthcare-seeking behaviour, diagnostic pathways, and oncology service provision may contribute. We aimed to quantify associations between geographic variations in treatment...... and survival of patients in England. METHODS: We retrieved detailed cancer registration data to analyse the variation in survival of 176,225 lung cancer patients, diagnosed 2010-2014. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate survival in the two-year period following...... diagnosis. RESULTS: Survival improved over the period studied. The use of active treatment varied between geographical areas, with inter-quintile ranges of 9%-17% for surgical resection, 4%-13% for radical radiotherapy, and 22%-35% for chemotherapy. At 2 years, there were 188 potentially avoidable deaths...

  20. Quality of Life of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzebo, Senada; Mahmutovic, Jasmina; Erkocevic, Hasiba

    2017-03-01

    In recent years the quality of life of patients is very important in monitoring the treatment and therapeutic procedure success. It has become a significant factor in assessing the therapeutic procedure accomplishment, and for the first time the patient alone can access the success of the respective therapy. Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common cancers of the head and neck, and is one of the ten most common causes of death in the world. In the majority of cases, cancer of the oral cavity is detected in an advanced stage when therapeutic options are reduced, and the prognosis is much worse. Cancer of the oral cavity is 10 times more common in men. Assessment of quality of life should be an indicator of the multidisciplinary treatment success and it should point to areas in which the affected person requires support. To examine the quality of life of patients with oral cavity cancer. The study was conducted at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery of the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo (CCUS), through a survey on patients with verified oral cavity cancer, questionnaire related to socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL). The results were included in the database and statistically processed in the SPSS program, 19.0 version for Windows. Afterwards, the results were thoroughly analyzed and documented, presented in absolute numbers and statistical values using statistical indicators in simple and understandable tables and figures. The study results showed that out of the total score of 100, the median value of quality of life of patients with oral cavity cancer, for the physical health component in the definition of quality was M=69.75 ±29.12 and for social-emotional health M=65.11 ± 27.47. This could be considered as satisfactory quality of life, in the sphere above half of the rating scale, although both values significantly deviate from the UW-QOL scale norm

  1. Clinical outcome of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in patients with oral cavity cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Uk; Cho, Kwan Ho; Moon, Sung Ho; Choi, Sung Weon; Park, Joo Yong; Yun, Tak; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lim, Young Kyung; Jeong, Chi Young

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) in patients with oral cavity cancer. Sixteen patients with oral cavity cancer treated with HDR remote-control afterloading brachytherapy using 192Ir between 2001 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Brachytherapy was administered in 11 patients as the primary treatment and in five patients as salvage treatment for recurrence after the initial surgery. In 12 patients, external beam radiotherapy (50-55 Gy/25 fractions) was combined with IBT of 21 Gy/7 fractions. In addition, IBT was administered as the sole treatment in three patients with a total dose of 50 Gy/10 fractions and as postoperative adjuvant treatment in one patient with a total of 35 Gy/7 fractions. The 5-year overall survival of the entire group was 70%. The actuarial local control rate after 3 years was 84%. All five recurrent cases after initial surgery were successfully salvaged using IBT +/- external beam radiotherapy. Two patients developed local recurrence at 3 and 5 months, respectively, after IBT. The acute complications were acceptable (< or =grade 2). Three patients developed major late complications, such as radio-osteonecrosis, in which one patient was treated by conservative therapy and two required surgical intervention. HDR IBT for oral cavity cancer was effective and acceptable in diverse clinical settings, such as in the cases of primary or salvage treatment.

  2. Uracil-ftorafur: an oral fluoropyrimidine active in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkes, A; Benner, S E; Canetta, R M

    1998-10-01

    This review describes the early clinical development of uracil-ftorafur (UFT), an oral fluoropyrimidine, designed in 1978 by adding uracil to ftorafur. The review focuses on the treatment of colorectal cancer and summarizes the Japanese experience and the phase I and II trials performed in the United States and Europe. Clinical trials of UFT published in the Western world have included 581 patients with colorectal cancer. UFT has been administered in these trials as a single agent or biomodulated by leucovorin (LV). UFT was administered daily in split doses for periods that ranged from 14 to 28 days. The activity of oral UFT in large-bowel cancer when administered with oral LV (approximately 50 mg/dose) has resulted in objective response rates of approximately 40%. Response rates of approximately 25% (range, 17% to 39%) were reported when UFT was administered as a single agent or with lower doses of LV. The highest dose-intensities of UFT are achieved with 28-day schedules of administration. The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of UFT with this schedule, when administered concomitantly with oral LV 150 mg daily, is 300 mg/m2 daily. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of UFT has generally been diarrhea. Other commonly described toxicities include nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and stomatitis. Myelosuppression occurs infrequently. Typically, hand-foot syndrome and neurologic toxicity are lacking. UFT is a fluoropyrimidine active in colorectal cancer. The oral route of administration and improved safety profile represent important advantages over both conventional and infusional fluorouracil (5-FU) regimens.

  3. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Nearly 7,000 women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the trial ...

  4. Serum antioxidant vitamins and the risk of oral cancer in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-05

    Jun 5, 2011 ... This study compared serum antioxidant vitamin levels in oral cancer patients and controls in order to validate ... Key words: Antioxidant vitamins, Nigeria, oral cancer risk. Date of ..... Sex. (MSL±SD) cancer. P1. (MSL±SD) control. P2. Vitamin A. Male. Female .... cancer. J Clin Lab Anal 2001;15:324‑30. 19.

  5. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jatinder; Sawhney, Meenakshi; DattaGupta, Siddartha; Shukla, Nootan K; Srivastava, Anurag; Ralhan, Ranju

    2010-01-01

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  6. Podoplanin emerges as a functionally relevant oral cancer biomarker and therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzbach, Edward P; Sheehan, Stephanie A; Nevel, Evan M; Batra, Amber; Phi, Tran; Nguyen, Angels T P; Kato, Yukinari; Baredes, Soly; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Shienbaum, Alan J; Goldberg, Gary S

    2018-03-01

    Oral cancer has become one of the most aggressive types of cancer, killing 140,000 people worldwide every year. Current treatments for oral cancer include surgery and radiation therapies. These procedures can be very effective; however, they can also drastically decrease the quality of life for survivors. New chemotherapeutic treatments are needed to more effectively combat oral cancer. The transmembrane receptor podoplanin (PDPN) has emerged as a functionally relevant oral cancer biomarker and chemotherapeutic target. PDPN expression promotes tumor cell migration leading to oral cancer invasion and metastasis. Here, we describe the role of PDPN in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression, and how it may be exploited to prevent and treat oral cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is Human Papillomavirus Associated with Prostate Cancer Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosa Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is highly controversial: some studies suggest a positive association between HPV infection and an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa, whereas others do not reveal any correlation. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of HPV infection on survival in 150 primary PCa patients. One hundred twelve (74.67% patients had positive expression of HPV E7 protein, which was evaluated in tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry. DNA analysis on a subset of cases confirmed HPV infection and revealed the presence of genotype 16. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, HPV-positive cancer patients showed worse overall survival (OS (median 4.59 years compared to HPV-negative (median 8.24 years, P=0.0381. In multivariate analysis age (P<0.001, Gleason score (P<0.001, nuclear grading (P=0.002, and HPV status (P=0.034 were independent prognostic factors for OS. In our cohort, we observed high prevalence of HPV nuclear E7 oncoprotein and an association between HPV infection and PCa survival. In the debate about the oncogenic activity of HPV in PCa, our results further confirm the need for additional studies to clarify the possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis.

  8. Inferential Statistics from Black Hispanic Breast Cancer Survival Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz M. R. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the statistical probability models for breast cancer survival data for race and ethnicity. Data was collected from breast cancer patients diagnosed in United States during the years 1973–2009. We selected a stratified random sample of Black Hispanic female patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database to derive the statistical probability models. We used three common model building criteria which include Akaike Information Criteria (AIC, Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC, and Deviance Information Criteria (DIC to measure the goodness of fit tests and it was found that Black Hispanic female patients survival data better fit the exponentiated exponential probability model. A novel Bayesian method was used to derive the posterior density function for the model parameters as well as to derive the predictive inference for future response. We specifically focused on Black Hispanic race. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method was used for obtaining the summary results of posterior parameters. Additionally, we reported predictive intervals for future survival times. These findings would be of great significance in treatment planning and healthcare resource allocation.

  9. Validity of 67Ga scintigraphy in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemura, Hironari; Kondoh, Toshirou; Hamada, Yoshiki; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Sekiya, Hideki; Ito, Ko; Sato, Junichi; Seto, Kanichi

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the diagnostic usefulness of 67 Ga scintigraphy in patients with oral cancer. Fifty-five patients with previously untreated oral cancer were administered in this study. The diagnostic accuracy of 67 Ga scintigraphy for primary cancer, cervical lymph node metastasis, systemic metastasis or double cancer were studied. The relations of the size of lesions to the diagnostic accuracy, and the degree of 67 Ga-citrate accumulation were analyzed. In addition, we discussed what makes it difficult to diagnose the lesions by using 67 Ga scintigrams. As a result, the sensitivity was 44.2% in primary cancer, 28.6% in cervical lymph node metastasis, and 25.0% in systemic metastasis or double cancer. It was suggested that 67 Ga scintigraphy is disadvantageous for the detection of small lesions. In this study, the relation between the size of lesions and the degree of 67 Ga-citrate accumulation was not clarified. The diagnostic problems of 67 Ga scintigraphy were found to be its low reliability in imaging of the lesion's localization, normal biodistribution and non-specific accumulation of 67 Ga-citrate. (author)

  10. Oral Cancer Awareness and Knowledge in the City of Valongo, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís Silva; Salazar, Filomena; Pacheco, Júlio; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey among 602 subjects in order to analyze the awareness and knowledge on oral cancer among residents of the city of Valongo in Portugal. The cancer that most subjects were aware of was breast cancer (99%). Oral cancer was the least mentioned cancer (68.6%). There was awareness of the relationship between oral cancer and smoking among 89.5% subjects, but less of the association with alcohol misuse (63.3%). Nonhealing mouth ulcers were identified as a sign or symptom of oral cancer by 90.0% and red or white patch by only 52.8% subjects. Whereas 94.5% agreed that early detection could improve the treatment outcome, a disheartening 28.1% believed that whether a person developed an oral cancer or not is a matter of luck and therefore is unavoidable. Surprisingly only 1.7% were ever submitted to or had knowledge of receiving a consultation regarding oral cancer. In conclusion, this survey demonstrates a general lack of awareness and knowledge on oral cancer in a population of Valongo. An oral health promotion strategy should involve elements of basic education on oral cancer for this population, and regular oral cancer screenings should be implemented in Valongo. PMID:22919388

  11. Oral Cancer Awareness and Knowledge in the City of Valongo, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Silva Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a questionnaire survey among 602 subjects in order to analyze the awareness and knowledge on oral cancer among residents of the city of Valongo in Portugal. The cancer that most subjects were aware of was breast cancer (99%. Oral cancer was the least mentioned cancer (68.6%. There was awareness of the relationship between oral cancer and smoking among 89.5% subjects, but less of the association with alcohol misuse (63.3%. Nonhealing mouth ulcers were identified as a sign or symptom of oral cancer by 90.0% and red or white patch by only 52.8% subjects. Whereas 94.5% agreed that early detection could improve the treatment outcome, a disheartening 28.1% believed that whether a person developed an oral cancer or not is a matter of luck and therefore is unavoidable. Surprisingly only 1.7% were ever submitted to or had knowledge of receiving a consultation regarding oral cancer. In conclusion, this survey demonstrates a general lack of awareness and knowledge on oral cancer in a population of Valongo. An oral health promotion strategy should involve elements of basic education on oral cancer for this population, and regular oral cancer screenings should be implemented in Valongo.

  12. Exhaled breath and oral cavity VOCs as potential biomarkers in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, M; Gonzalez-Soto, J; Pereiro, R; de Vicente, J C; Sanz-Medel, A

    2017-03-01

    Corporal mechanisms attributed to cancer, such as oxidative stress or the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, seem to be responsible for the generation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that could be used as non-invasive diagnosis biomarkers. The present work presents an attempt to use VOCs from exhaled breath and oral cavity air as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. A total of 52 breath samples were collected (in 3 L Tedlar bags) from 26 OSCC patients and 26 cancer-free controls. The samples were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Different statistical strategies (e.g., Icoshift, SIMCA, LDA, etc) were used to classify the analytical data. Results revealed that compounds such as undecane, dodecane, decanal, benzaldehyde, 3,7-dimethyl undecane, 4,5-dimethyl nonane, 1-octene, and hexadecane had relevance as possible biomarkers for OSCC. LDA classification with these compounds showed well-defined clusters for patients and controls (non-smokers and smokers). In addition to breath analysis, preliminary studies were carried out to evaluate the possibility of lesion-surrounded air (analyzed OSCC tumors are in the oral cavity) as a source of biomarkers. The oral cavity location of the squamous cell carcinoma tumors constitutes an opportunity to non-invasively collect the air surrounding the lesion. Small quantities (20 ml) of air collected in the oral cavity were analyzed using the above methodology. Results showed that aldehydes present in the oral cavity might constitute potential OSCC biomarkers.

  13. Knowledge of Future Dental Practitioners towards Oral Cancer: Exploratory Findings from a Public University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bin Zakaria, Nazrin; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess knowledge and awareness of oral cancer in the early identification of risk factors among undergraduate dental students. Methods. A total of 162 undergraduate (third, fourth, and fifth year) dental students at International Islamic University, Malaysia, were approached to participate in the study, and those who agreed were administered. A 9-item pretested questionnaire contains questions on oral examination, oral cancer risk factors, and requests for further information. Descriptive statistics were conducted using chi-square testing. Results. The response rate of the study was 70.3% (114/162), with 26 (22.8%) males and 88 (77.2%) females. All undergraduate dental students were familiar with examining the oral mucosa of their patients and most were likely to advise patients about the risk factors for developing oral cancer (98.2%). Nearly one-third (32.4%) of students reported examining patients with oral lesions as early signs for oral cancer (P oral cancer (P oral cancer. Further, 61.3% and 14.1% identified tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol as major risk factors for developing oral cancer. Conclusion. This study demonstrated lack of awareness about risk factors among undergraduate dental students regarding oral cancer. Reinforcing awareness and enhancing the benefits of early detection on prevention of oral cancer should be done through training and/or educational intervention. PMID:26839548

  14. [BIPADDLED SPLIT PECTORALIS MAJOR MYOCUTANEOUS FLAPS FOR IMMEDIATE RECONSTRUCTION OF ORAL MUCOSAL DEFECTS AND NECK DEFECTS AFTER RESECTION OF RECURRENT ORAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Jiang, Canhua; Li, Ning; Gao, Zhengyang; Chen, Lichun; Wu, Xiaoshan; Chen, Xinqun; Jian, Xinchun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for immediate reconstruction of oral mucosal defects and neck defects after resection of recurrent oral cancer. Six patients with oral mucosal defects combined with neck defects after recurrent oral cancer resection were treated with bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap between September 2013 and September 2014. There were 5 males and 1 female with an average age of 54.7 years (range, 45-62 years), including 4 cases of recurrent tongue cancer, 1 case of recurrent mandibular gingival cancer, and 1 case of mouth floor carcinoma. All patients underwent local recurrence at 8 to 14 months after first operation, with no distant metastasis. The defects of the intraoral mucosa was 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 3.5 cm and the defect of the neck skin was 5.5 cm x 3.5 cm to 7.5 cm x 5.0 cm. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (14.0 cm x 3.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 5.5 cm) were incised at the level of the 3rd to the 4th rib, and then split down along the muscle fiber till about 2 cm away from the thoracoacromial vessels, forming 2 independent skin paddles with 1-2 branch vessels to the pedicles of the distal ones. The distal skin paddles were used for oral reconstruction while the proximal paddles for repair of neck defects. The chest donor sites were sutured directly. Cervical haematoma and infection happened in 1 patient respectively after operation, and were cured after symptomatic treatment. All 6 split pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps with 12 skin paddles completely survived. All patients were followed up 6 to 18 months (mean, 11 months). One patient died of pulmonary metastasis at 8 months after operation and the other 5 survived without relapse or metastasis during follow-up. The intraoral paddles showed good shape with satisfactory speech function and swallowing recovery. The paddles also healed perfectly on the neck with flat outlooks, and all patients obtained full

  15. Differences in survival outcome between oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in relation to HPV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kenneth; Killingsworth, Murray; Matthews, Slade; Caixeiro, Nicole; Evangelista, Carlyn; Wu, Xiao; Wykes, James; Samakeh, Alan; Forstner, Dion; Niles, Navin; Hong, Angela; Lee, Cheok Soon

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the prognostic significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tissue microarrays were constructed from oropharyngeal and oral cavity SCC (n = 143). The presence of functional HPV in tumour was determined by combined assessments of p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridisation. Oropharyngeal SCC patients presented with more advanced disease in comparison with oral cavity SCC patients (P = 0.001). HPV is present in 60% and 61% of oropharyngeal and oral cavity SCC patients, respectively. HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC patients with advanced TNM stages displayed better overall and disease-free survival outcomes than HPV-negative patients (P = 0.022 and 0.046, respectively). Such survival differences were not observed in oral cavity SCC. HPV is common in both oropharyngeal and oral cavity SCC and is associated with better survival outcome in oropharyngeal SCC but not in oral cavity SCC patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  17. The role of yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L. J.; van Vierzen, P. B.; Brouns, J. J.; Bruaset, I.; Manni, J. J.; Verbeek, A. L.; Ruys, J. H.; van Daal, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 213 patients with oral cancer, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of lung malignancies in patients offered a yearly chest radiography in the follow-up. Three conclusions can be drawn. (1) Metastatic or primary lung cancer was diagnosed in 22 (10.3%) patients. The 2-year

  18. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  19. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Chien; Lee, Yen-Lin; Chuang, Jen-Pin; Lee, Jenq-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. The study is limited by its retrospective nature. This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  20. Nuclear oxidative damage correlates with poor survival in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, J

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative DNA damage results from DNA adducts such as 8-oxo-7, 8 dihydro-2\\'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), which is a pro-mutagenic lesion. No known association between 8-oxo-dG, disease progression and survival exists in colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined levels of 8-oxo-dG in sporadic CRC to determine its relationship with pathological stage and outcome. A total of 143 CRC patients and 105 non-cancer patients were studied. Nuclear and cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorescence using 8-oxo-dG and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) antibodies localised cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG. Apoptosis was detected using TUNEL. Nuclear staining levels were similar in tumour tissue and matched normal mucosa in both epithelial (P=0.22) and stromal (P=0.85) cells. Epithelial cytoplasmic staining was greater in tumour tissue (P<0.001). Double immunofluorescence localised cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG to mitochondria. Epithelial and stromal nuclear 8-oxo-dG decreased with local disease spread, but highest levels were found in distant disease (P<0.01). Survival was related to epithelial nuclear and stromal staining in normal mucosa (P<0.001) and tumour (P<0.01) but was unrelated to cytoplasmic staining. Normal control cells in tissue from cancer patients with high levels of 8-oxo-dG failed to undergo cell death. 8-oxo-dG may be an important biomarker of disease risk, progression and survival for CRC patients.

  1. High risk bladder cancer: current management and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Leliveld

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the pattern of care in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC in the Comprehensive Cancer Center North-Netherlands (CCCN and to assess factors associated with the choice of treatment, recurrence and progression free survival rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 412 patients with newly diagnosed high risk NMIBC. Clinical, demographic and follow-up data were obtained from the CCCN Cancer Registry and a detailed medical record review. Uni and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors related to choice of treatment and 5 year recurrence and progression free survival. RESULTS: 74/412 (18% patients with high risk NMIBC underwent a transurethral resection (TUR as single treatment. Adjuvant treatment after TUR was performed in 90.7% of the patients treated in teaching hospitals versus 71.8 % in non-teaching hospitals (p 80 years OR 0.1 p = 0.001 and treatment in non-teaching hospitals (OR 0.25; p < 0.001 were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. Tumor recurrence occurred in 191/392 (49% and progression in 84 /392 (21.4% patients. The mean 5-years progression free survival was 71.6% (95% CI 65.5-76.8. CONCLUSION: In this pattern of care study in high risk NMIBC, 18% of the patients were treated with TUR as single treatment. Age and treatment in non-teaching hospitals were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. None of the variables sex, age, comorbidity, hospital type, stage and year of treatment was associated with 5 year recurrence or progression rates.

  2. Prostate cancer incidence and survival in immigrants to Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Ankerst, Donna P; Sundquist, Jan; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    The large international variation in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC) is well known but the underlying reasons are not understood. We want to compare PC incidence and survival among immigrants to Sweden in order to explain the international differences. Cancer data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for PC in first-degree immigrants by country of birth. The immigrants were classified into four groups by SIR and area of origin. Survival in PC was assessed by hazard ratio (HR) in the four groups. In some analyses, clinical stage of PC was assessed by the tumor, node, and metastasis classification. The SIR was 0.47 (95% confidence interval 0.43-0.51) for immigrants with the lowest risk, constituting men from Turkey, Middle East, Asia, and Chile. The HR was 0.60 (0.45-0.81) for these men and it was 0.49 if they had stayed 20+ years in Sweden. The SIR in screening detected PC, T1c, was 0.55. Among these men, screening detected PC constituted 34.5% of all PC, compared to 29.0% among Swedes (p = 0.10). The results showed that the non-European immigrants, of mainly Middle East, Asian, and Chilean origin, with the lowest risk of PC, also had the most favorable survival in PC. As the available clinical features of PC at diagnosis or the distribution of known risk factors could not explain the differences, a likely biological mechanism through a favorable androgenic hormonal host environment is suggested as an explanation of the observed effects.

  3. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  4. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  5. Bacteriome and mycobiome associations in oral tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pranab K; Wang, Hannah; Retuerto, Mauricio; Zhang, Huan; Burkey, Brian; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Eng, Charis

    2017-11-14

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral (mobile) tongue (OMTC), a non-human papilloma virus-associated oral cancer, is rapidly increasing without clear etiology. Poor oral hygiene has been associated with oral cancers, suggesting that oral bacteriome (bacterial community) and mycobiome (fungal community) could play a role. While the bacteriome is increasingly recognized as an active participant in health, the role of the mycobiome has not been studied in OMTC. Tissue DNA was extracted from 39 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from patients with OMTC. Microbiome profiling, principal coordinate, and dissimilarity index analyses showed bacterial diversity and richness, and fungal richness, were significantly reduced in tumor tissue (TT) compared to their matched non-tumor tissues (NTT, P <0.006). Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial phylum, which was significantly increased in TT compared to NTT (48% vs. 40%, respectively; P =0.004). Abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were significantly decreased in TT compared to matched NTT ( P ≤0.003 for both). Abundance of 22 bacterial and 7 fungal genera was significantly different between the TT and NTT, including Streptococcus , which was the most abundant and significantly increased in the tumor group (34% vs. 22%, P <0.001). Abundance of fungal genus Aspergillus in TT correlated negatively with bacteria ( Actinomyces, Prevotella , Streptococcus) , but positively with Aggregatibacter . Patients with high T-stage disease had lower mean differences between TT and NTT compared with patients with low T-stage disease (0.07 vs. 0.21, P =0.04). Our results demonstrate differences in bacteriome and mycobiome between OMTC and their matched normal oral epithelium, and their association with T-stage.

  6. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  8. [Human papilloma virus and its association with oral cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell E; Castañeda-Castaneira, Raúl E; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Pérez-Rodríguez, Eréndira

    2006-01-01

    Oral cancer it a pathology of multifactorial etiology, where some factors such as age, sex, race, genetic predisposition, nutrition, and the use of tobacco and alcohol have a bearing on. In the last years, some authors showed the implication of the human papilloma virus (HPV) in the development of precarcinogenic lesions and of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The infection by HPV has been associated to hyperplastic epithelial lesions, papilloma and warty carcinoma in skin and in different types of mucosa, including the anus-genital, cervical, urethral, tracheobronchial, nasal, laryngeal and oral mucosa tracts. The viral high-risk geno-types (oncogenic) such as 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 are frequently associated to leukoplakia and squamous carcinoma. An association of HPV with oral squamous carcinoma in patients that consume tobacco and alcohol has been fundamentally established. It is important to study and to frequently review the role that viral infections and cancer have, and maybe in the future, it would be possible to create a vaccine that diminishes the frequency of oncological problems.