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Sample records for options study problem

  1. Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...

  2. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  3. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  4. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  5. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  6. AFCI Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  7. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  8. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  9. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  10. Cementitious waste option scoping study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This study investigates the nonseparations Cementitious Waste Option (CWO) as a means to achieve this goal. Under this option all liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and existing HLW calcine would be recalcined with sucrose, grouted, canisterized, and interim stored as a mixed-HLW for eventual preparation and shipment off-Site for disposal. The CWO waste would be transported to a Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) located in the southwestern desert of the US on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All transport preparation, shipment, and disposal facility activities are beyond the scope of this study. CWO waste processing, packaging, and interim storage would occur over a 5-year period between 2013 and 2017. Waste transport and disposal would occur during the same time period.

  11. Penalty methods for the numerical solution of American multi-asset option problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik; Skavhaug, Ola; Tveito, Aslak

    2008-12-01

    We derive and analyze a penalty method for solving American multi-asset option problems. A small, non-linear penalty term is added to the Black-Scholes equation. This approach gives a fixed solution domain, removing the free and moving boundary imposed by the early exercise feature of the contract. Explicit, implicit and semi-implicit finite difference schemes are derived, and in the case of independent assets, we prove that the approximate option prices satisfy some basic properties of the American option problem. Several numerical experiments are carried out in order to investigate the performance of the schemes. We give examples indicating that our results are sharp. Finally, the experiments indicate that in the case of correlated underlying assets, the same properties are valid as in the independent case.

  12. Federal Documents in the Online Catalog: Problems, Options, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanbeck, Jan

    1985-01-01

    Examines cost effectiveness and efficiency of using Government Printing Office Cataloging tapes to add records to online catalogs. Several problems, including errors and inconsistencies in tapes and lack of documentation, are identified. Options available for libraries wishing to make use of these tapes are described. (CLB)

  13. Design Options Study. Volume III. Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    would be obtained for a 500,000 lb- or 600,000 lb-payload- aircraft is uncertain. Assesment of De3ign-Option Substitutien TO summnarize the preceding...exhaust smoke and prohibit fuel venting to the atmosphere. In accordance with APR 80-36, as discussed previously in conjunction with the noise...Laboratory in terms of combustor efficiency, specific NO Xvalues, and specific levels Of Visible smoke . In the Most recent EPA proposals. emission

  14. An inverse problem of determining the implied volatility in option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zui-Cha; Yu, Jian-Ning; Yang, Liu

    2008-04-01

    In the Black-Scholes world there is the important quantity of volatility which cannot be observed directly but has a major impact on the option value. In practice, traders usually work with what is known as implied volatility which is implied by option prices observed in the market. In this paper, we use an optimal control framework to discuss an inverse problem of determining the implied volatility when the average option premium, namely the average value of option premium corresponding with a fixed strike price and all possible maturities from the current time to a chosen future time, is known. The issue is converted into a terminal control problem by Green function method. The existence and uniqueness of the minimum of the control functional are addressed by the optimal control method, and the necessary condition which must be satisfied by the minimum is also given. The results obtained in the paper may be useful for those who engage in risk management or volatility trading.

  15. An Efficient Method for Solving Spread Option Pricing Problem: Numerical Analysis and Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Company

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with numerical analysis and computing of spread option pricing problem described by a two-spatial variables partial differential equation. Both European and American cases are treated. Taking advantage of a cross derivative removing technique, an explicit difference scheme is developed retaining the benefits of the one-dimensional finite difference method, preserving positivity, accuracy, and computational time efficiency. Numerical results illustrate the interest of the approach.

  16. Comparatively speaking : a psycholinguistic study of optionality in grammar

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    GRAMMATICAL OPTIONALITY refers to the ability to realize the same meaning using more than one grammatical expression, as in the dative alternation, or the choice between active and passive encodings of a transitive event. Optionality has been studied extensively in the syntactic domain, and has provided numerous insights concerning the kinds of factors that influence production, the functional benefits of speaker choice, and the nature of syntactic development. In the present work, I inaugura...

  17. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  18. Direct cementitious waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafoe, R.E.; Losinski, S.J.

    1998-02-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target data of 2035. This study investigates the direct grouting of all ICPP calcine (including the HLW dry calcine and those resulting from calcining sodium-bearing liquid waste currently residing in the ICPP storage tanks) as the treatment method to comply with the settlement agreement. This method involves grouting the calcined waste and casting the resulting hydroceramic grout into stainless steel canisters. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for grouting treatment will be from 2013 through 2032, and all the HLW will be treated and in interim storage by the end of 2032.

  19. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  20. Parents' perception of child and adolescent mental health problems and their choice of treatment option in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Mubarek; Robbins, Jeffrey M; Tesfaye, Markos

    2015-01-01

    Parents' perception and awareness about psychiatric illness in children and adolescents is an important determinant of early detection and treatment seeking for the condition. However, there has been limited information about the perception and awareness of parents about these issues as well as their preferred treatment options in Ethiopia. This study is, therefore, aimed at assessing the perception of parents about psychiatric illness in children and adolescents and their preferred treatment options in Jimma, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 532 parents in Jimma City, Ethiopia from April to May 2013. Parents from the city were invited to participate in this study to assess their knowledge on causes, and manifestations of psychiatric illness in children and adolescents as well as their preferred treatment options if their children exhibited signs and symptoms of mental illness. Nearly three quarters of the parents identified genetic factors while approximately 20 % of them mentioned neuro-chemical disturbance as possible causes of their children's mental health problems. On the other hand, magic, curse, and sin were mentioned as causes of mental health problems by 93.2, 81.8 and 73.9 % of the parents, respectively. Externalizing behavioral symptoms like "stealing from home, school or elsewhere" and internalizing symptoms like "being nervous in new situations and easily loses confidence" were perceived by 60.9 and 38.2 % of the parents, respectively. The majority (92.7 %) of parents agreed that they would seek treatment either from religious or spiritual healers if their children developed mental illness. The low level of awareness about internalizing symptoms, the widespread traditional explanatory models as well as preference for traditional treatment options might present significant challenges to utilization of child and adolescent mental health services in this population. Public health intervention programs targeting parental attitude

  1. Environmental problems in the People`s Republic of China: Current magnitude and possible control options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadtti, N.; Biang, C.A.; Poch, L.A.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-09-01

    The People`s Republic of China has been undergoing rapid economic development over the past several decades. This development has taken place with little or no attention being paid to its environmental consequences. This situation has resulted in severe contamination of the air, water, and soil resources of China, with attendant damage to human and natural populations. This report determines the major causes of air, water, and soil pollution in China and assesses their extent and magnitude. It then examines the impacts of the pollutants on various components of the human and natural environment. It identifies possible regulatory and ameliorative options available to China to deal with these pollution problems and provides information on specific strategies and the costs associated with their implementation. The objective is to shed light on China`s pollution control and remediation requirements in the near future.

  2. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  3. An ill-posed problem for the Black-Scholes equation for a profitable forecast of prices of stock options on real market data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibanov, Michael V.; Kuzhuget, Andrey V.; Golubnichiy, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    A new empirical mathematical model for the Black-Scholes equation is proposed to forecast option prices. This model includes new interval for the price of the underlying stock, new initial and new boundary conditions. Conventional notions of maturity time and strike prices are not used. The Black-Scholes equation is solved as a parabolic equation with the reversed time, which is an ill-posed problem. Thus, a regularization method is used to solve it. To verify the validity of our model, real market data for 368 randomly selected liquid options are used. A new trading strategy is proposed. Our results indicates that our method is profitable on those options. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of two simple extrapolation-based techniques is much worse. We conjecture that our method might lead to significant profits of those financial insitutions which trade large amounts of options. We caution, however, that further studies are necessary to verify this conjecture.

  4. Unconditional Positive Stable Numerical Solution of Partial Integrodifferential Option Pricing Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakharany, M; Company, R; Jódar, L

    2015-01-01

    ... for the options shows that the geometric Brownian model for the underlying asset leads to underprice or overprice for these options [1]. Several models have been proposed to overcome these shortcomings such as models where the volatility follows a stochastic process like Heston model [2] and models incorporating jumps in the underlying asset following Lev...

  5. Perpetual American vanilla option pricing under single regime change risk: an exhaustive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2009-07-01

    Perpetual American options are financial instruments that can be readily exercised and do not mature. In this paper we study in detail the problem of pricing this kind of derivatives, for the most popular flavour, within a framework in which some of the properties—volatility and dividend policy—of the underlying stock can change at a random instant of time but in such a way that we can forecast their final values. Under this assumption we can model actual market conditions because most relevant facts usually entail sharp predictable consequences. The effect of this potential risk on perpetual American vanilla options is remarkable: the very equation that will determine the fair price depends on the solution to be found. Sound results are found under the optics both of finance and physics. In particular, a parallelism among the overall outcome of this problem and a phase transition is established.

  6. A Study on Fuel Options for Power Generation in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerin Wangjiraniran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of utilizing gas, coal and nuclear for longterm power generation on generation cost, emission and resource availability. A scenario-based energy accounting model has been applied for creating long-term future scenarios. A baseline scenario has been created on the basis of the existing power development plan (PDP. Three alternative scenarios of coal, nuclear and gas options have been projected for the period beyond the PDP, i.e. 2022-2030. The results indicate that nuclear has high potential for GHG mitigation and cost reduction. For coal option, the benefit of cost reduction would be diminished at carbon price above 40 USD/ton. However, clean technology development as well as the momentum of global trend will be the key factor for coal utilization. The results also show the need of fuel diversification in term of the natural gas reserve depletion. It is clearly seen that natural gas supply in Thailand would inevitably depends very much on the LNG import in long-term. Hence, attraction of natural gas in term of cheap domestic resource utilization will be vanished.

  7. On nonlinear ill-posed inverse problems with applications to pricing of defaultable bonds and option pricing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POUZO; Demian

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the estimation of an unknown function h that can be characterized as a solution to a nonlinear operator equation mapping between two infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. The nonlinear operator is unknown but can be consistently estimated, and its inverse is discontinuous, rendering the problem ill-posed. We establish the consistency for the class of estimators that are regularized using general lower semicompact penalty functions. We derive the optimal convergence rates of the estimators under the Hilbert scale norms. We apply our results to two important problems in economics and finance: (1) estimating the parameters of the pricing kernel of defaultable bonds; (2) recovering the volatility surface implied by option prices allowing for measurement error in the option prices and numerical error in the computation of the operator.

  8. On nonlinear ill-posed inverse problems with applications to pricing of defaultable bonds and option pricing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiaoHong; POUZO Demian

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the estimation of an unknown function h that can be characterized as a solution to a nonlinear operator equation mapping between two infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces.The nonlinear operator is unknown but can be consistently estimated, and its inverse is discontinuous,rendering the problem ill-posed. We establish the consistency for the class of estimators that are regularized using general lower semicompact penalty functions. We derive the optimal convergence rates of the estimators under the Hilbert scale norms. We apply our results to two important problems in economics and finance: (1) estimating the parameters of the pricing kernel of defaultable bonds; (2)recovering the volatility surface implied by option prices allowing for measurement error in the option prices and numerical error in the computation of the operator.

  9. Analysing a Numerical Calculation Adequacy of the Recovery Factor for Various Problem Statement Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kliukvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a recovery temperature distribution in a turbulent boundary layer of the compressible gas in a rectangular heat-insulated channel in supersonic flow mode using the numerical methods of gas dynamics. The software package ANSYS Fluent was used for calculation.In the numerical simulation were used SST and k-epsilon turbulence models with two types of thermal boundary conditions on the channel wall: the standard adiabatic condition, provided by the software package, as well as the user boundary condition (UDF based on the empirical dependence of the recovery factor in a turbulent boundary layer on the Prandtl number of the medium.A data analysis showed that an application of the standard boundary condition of a heatinsulated wall, in some cases, results in recovery factor values on the wall, corresponding to the laminar rather than turbulent boundary layer.For all options of the numerical model under consideration was found a non-zero value of the heat flow to the adiabatic wall. In the case of setting the user boundary conditions, this fact is due to the approximate nature of the dependence of the recovery factor on the Prandtl number.For standard boundary condition of an adiabatic wall the most likely explanation for this result is a feature of the numerical solution scheme, according to which, to set the zero heat flow, is used a number of ghost cells, which can lead to the heat pattern distortion in the computational domain in the vicinity of the wall.Correction of boundary conditions using an empirical relationship for the recovery factor enabled us to reduce the heat flows and have a better approximation of the adiabatic boundary condition.Thus, it follows from the data obtained that the calculation of heat exchange in a turbulent boundary layer by means of ANSYS Fluent software physically yet does not provide the adequate results, and for its update at the moment the third party experimental data are required.

  10. Options for the solution of the problem of insulators contamination; Alternativas de solucion al problema de contaminacion en aisladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro Chavez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In accordance with Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) statistics, the insulators contamination is cataloged as the second cause of transmission power lines outages. In this article a revision of the different available options for the solution or diminution of this problem, is presented. The application of these options must be made within a technico-economic and cost-benefit frame. [Espanol] De acuerdo con estadisticas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) la contaminacion del aislamiento esta catalogada como la segunda causa de salidas de las lineas de transmision. En este articulo se presenta una revision de las diferentes alternativas disponibles para solucionar o disminuir este problema. La aplicacion de estas alternativas debe hacerse dentro de un marco tecnicoeconomico y de costo-beneficio.

  11. A Study on the Efficiency of the Market for Dutch Long Term Call Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Veld, C.H.; Wei, J.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the efficiency of the market for 5 year call options which are traded on the European Options Exchange in Amsterdam.We study both delta, delta-vega, and delta-gamma neutral arbitrage portfolios.We do not detect any serious inefficiencies in the market for long term call options.This

  12. Diversifying the Social Studies: The Trend Toward Optional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Developments of alternative schools are reviwed, emphasizing differences in five types of public school options and the similarities of these types in respect to their social education programs. (Author/KM)

  13. Studying Death: Problems of Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The methods and problems of research on the psychology of death include ethical difficulties, the conceptual poverty and oversimplification of most rating systems, and an overemphasis on anxiety and fear. The changes resulting from death education or therapy and their relation to modes of denial should be studied. (Author)

  14. Problem formulation and option assessment (PFOA) linking governance and environmental risk assessment for technologies: a methodology for problem analysis of nanotechnologies and genetically engineered organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristen C; Andow, David A; Banker, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Societal evaluation of new technologies, specifically nanotechnology and genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), challenges current practices of governance and science. Employing environmental risk assessment (ERA) for governance and oversight assumes we have a reasonable ability to understand consequences and predict adverse effects. However, traditional ERA has come under considerable criticism for its many shortcomings and current governance institutions have demonstrated limitations in transparency, public input, and capacity. Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) is a methodology founded on three key concepts in risk assessment (science-based consideration, deliberation, and multi-criteria analysis) and three in governance (participation, transparency, and accountability). Developed through a series of international workshops, the PFOA process emphasizes engagement with stakeholders in iterative stages, from identification of the problem(s) through comparison of multiple technology solutions that could be used in the future with their relative benefits, harms, and risk. It provides "upstream public engagement" in a deliberation informed by science that identifies values for improved decision making.

  15. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  16. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  17. Preferences for different insomnia treatment options in people with schizophrenia and related psychoses: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavie eWaters

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions can be intrusive and unwanted and often remain treatment-resistant. Due to recent progress in basic and clinical sciences, novel approaches such as sleep-based interventions are increasingly becoming offered to address the physical and mental health issues of people with severe mental illness. While the primary outcome is to improve sleep, studies have demonstrated that interventions that target symptoms of insomnia can also produce improvements in the severity of psychotic symptoms, quality of life and functional outcomes. This study presents qualitative data on the attitudes and preferences of people with schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorders to three different types of therapies for insomnia (standard pharmacological, melatonin-based, and cognitive and/or behaviour therapy. Interviews included discussions regarding the perceived advantages and limitations of different therapies, enablers to taking up the preferred option, as well as personal strategies that have helped respondents with sleep problems in the past. Results showed that, when given the choice, these individuals prefer psychological and behavioural-type therapy to other sleep interventions because of its potential to support and empower them in taking responsibility for their own recovery. Pharmacological therapies, by contrast, are viewed as useful in managing acute sleep problems, but only as a short-term solution. Overall, the findings underscore the need for patients’ active engagement when making decisions about treatment options.

  18. Industrial Chemistry Option in MSc Studies in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Arnon

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and development of an industrial chemistry program in chemistry at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. Includes an outline of the recommended 2-year curriculum and list of courses in this industrial chemistry option leading to a master of science degree. (Author/JN)

  19. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Andrew J; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. Method The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family ...

  20. The impact on family functioning of social media use by depressed adolescents: a qualitative analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew James Lewis; Tess eKnight; Galit eGermanov; Michelle Lisa Benstead; Claire Ingrid Joseph; Lucinda ePoole

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for...

  1. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew James Lewis; Tess eKnight; Galit eGermanov; Michelle Lisa Benstead; Claire Ingrid Joseph; Lucinda ePoole

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for...

  2. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  3. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  4. The Impact of the Prior Density on a Minimum Relative Entropy Density: A Case Study with SPX Option Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Neri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of finding probability densities that match given European call option prices. To allow prior information about such a density to be taken into account, we generalise the algorithm presented in Neri and Schneider (Appl. Math. Finance 2013 to find the maximum entropy density of an asset price to the relative entropy case. This is applied to study the impact of the choice of prior density in two market scenarios. In the first scenario, call option prices are prescribed at only a small number of strikes, and we see that the choice of prior, or indeed its omission, yields notably different densities. The second scenario is given by CBOE option price data for S&P500 index options at a large number of strikes. Prior information is now considered to be given by calibrated Heston, Schöbel–Zhu or Variance Gamma models. We find that the resulting digital option prices are essentially the same as those given by the (non-relative Buchen–Kelly density itself. In other words, in a sufficiently liquid market, the influence of the prior density seems to vanish almost completely. Finally, we study variance swaps and derive a simple formula relating the fair variance swap rate to entropy. Then we show, again, that the prior loses its influence on the fair variance swap rate as the number of strikes increases.

  5. The Black-Scholes option pricing problem in mathematical finance: generalization and extensions for a large class of stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Sornette, Didier

    1994-06-01

    The ability to price risks and devise optimal investment strategies in thé présence of an uncertain "random" market is thé cornerstone of modern finance theory. We first consider thé simplest such problem of a so-called "European call option" initially solved by Black and Scholes using Ito stochastic calculus for markets modelled by a log-Brownien stochastic process. A simple and powerful formalism is presented which allows us to generalize thé analysis to a large class of stochastic processes, such as ARCH, jump or Lévy processes. We also address thé case of correlated Gaussian processes, which is shown to be a good description of three différent market indices (MATIF, CAC40, FTSE100). Our main result is thé introduction of thé concept of an optimal strategy in the sense of (functional) minimization of the risk with respect to the portfolio. If the risk may be made to vanish for particular continuous uncorrelated 'quasiGaussian' stochastic processes (including Black and Scholes model), this is no longer the case for more general stochastic processes. The value of the residual risk is obtained and suggests the concept of risk-corrected option prices. In the presence of very large deviations such as in Lévy processes, new criteria for rational fixing of the option prices are discussed. We also apply our method to other types of options, `Asian', `American', and discuss new possibilities (`doubledecker'...). The inclusion of transaction costs leads to the appearance of a natural characteristic trading time scale. L'aptitude à quantifier le coût du risque et à définir une stratégie optimale de gestion de portefeuille dans un marché aléatoire constitue la base de la théorie moderne de la finance. Nous considérons d'abord le problème le plus simple de ce type, à savoir celui de l'option d'achat `européenne', qui a été résolu par Black et Scholes à l'aide du calcul stochastique d'Ito appliqué aux marchés modélisés par un processus Log

  6. Analytic and Experimental Studies of the Errors in Numerical Methods for the Valuation of Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Lin; J. J. H. Miller; G. I. Shishkin

    2008-01-01

    The value of a European option satisfies the Black-Scholes equation with appropriately specified final and boundary conditions. We transform the problem to an initial boundary value problem in dimensionless form. There are two parameters in the coefficients of the resulting linear parabolic partial differential equation. For a range of values of these parameters, the solution of the problem has a boundary or an initial layer. The initial function has a discontinuity in the first-order derivative, which leads to the appearance of an interior layer. We construct analytically the asymptotic solution of the equation in a finite domain. Based on the asymptotic solution we can determine the size of the artificial boundary such that the required solution in a finite domain in x and at the final time is not affected by the boundary. Also, we study computationally the behaviour in the maximum norm of the errors in numerical solutions in cases such that one of the parameters varies from finite (or pretty large) to small values, while the other parameter is fixed and takes either finite (or pretty large) or small values. Crank-Nicolson explicit and implicit schemes using centered or upwind approximations to the derivative are studied. We present numerical computations, which determine experimentally the parameter-uniform rates of convergence. We note that this rate is rather weak, due probably to mixed sources of error such as initial and boundary layers and the discontinuity in the derivative of the solution.

  7. Market Reaction to the Approval of Stock Option Plans: an Event Study of Bovespa Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Finotti Cordeiro Perobelli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify market reactions to Employee Stock Options Plans (ESOP proposals and awards in the Brazilian Stock Exchange from July 1994 to March 2007. In order to achieve such objective, event studies methodology was applied and the original sample (comprised by all companies that adopted ESOP during the survey period was divided according to employees’ eligibility to ESOP and CEOs bargain power. Using non-parametric tests (Sign Test e Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, we could verify that announcements of ESOP proposals and ESOP awards were not related to positive abnormal returns. As the opposite, returns around those announcements dates were negatives, in general. Such pattern could be explained by some theoretical consequences of ESOP plans: increase in the CEOs risky behavior, constrains in the dividend policy and CEOs opportunistic behavior by managing the timing of their voluntary disclosures around stock option awards. We also found evidences suggesting that employees´ eligibility is related to abnormal returns. When all employees are awarded, returns are even more negative. Possible explanations are indirect costs of capital pulverization and increase in the companies cost of capital due to the ESOP. Our findings suggest that an ESOP adoption in a poor governance environment can increase agency problems, instead of aligning CEOs and shareholders interests.

  8. The feasibility study I on the blanket fuel options for the ATW/HYPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok; Meyer, M.K; Hayes, S.L

    2001-01-01

    The choice of a blanket fuel cycle technology and the fuel type for HYPER/ATW are important to develop an ADS with better economics, performance and safety. Even though several fuel types have been considered as an alternative of the blanket fuels for HYPER/ATW, the metal alloy and the dispersion fuels were selected as the candidate fuels for ADS, and the technical feasibilities for both fuels are evaluated in this report. General performance characteristics, fabrication abilities, technical aspects, safety aspects, economics, and non-proliferation aspects for each fuel type are reviewed and evaluated. And some technological problems are addressed in this report, focused on the development strategy, the roadmaps, and the flexibility to meet the missions and specific designs. This study has been performed at the first stage of conceptual design. Since it is under the lack of physical properties for each fuel material, no an attempt is made to select the best fuel option, but the more better fuel options are recommended.

  9. Problem-oriented project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Danielsen, Oluf

    2010-01-01

    This contribution focuses on 'problem based learning' (however we prefer the notion of ‘problem-oriented project studies’) and the role of the teacher in such a context. The classic traditional role as an expert deciding the curriculum, providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments and mark......This contribution focuses on 'problem based learning' (however we prefer the notion of ‘problem-oriented project studies’) and the role of the teacher in such a context. The classic traditional role as an expert deciding the curriculum, providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments...... and marking papers / essays is complemented and in some way overruled by a new role as supervisor and facilitator for the group of students working with a research problem, they themselves have picked. However different dimensions of this new teacher role can be seen – from expert in an academic field (result...

  10. Creative Problem Solving for Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Steve; Kinney, Mark; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses techniques for integrating real problem solving and decision making into secondary social studies programs. Approaches to creative problem solving are presented, and various systematic decision making programs currently available for classroom use are identified. (Author/RM)

  11. Problem-Oriented Project Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Danielsen, Oluf

    2012-01-01

    , providing lectures and seminars, giving assignments, and marking papers and essays is complemented and in some ways overruled by a new role as supervisor and facilitator for the group of students working with a research problem that they have picked themselves. However, different dimensions of this new...... teacher role can be observed – from expert in an academic field to a role that focuses more on processes, methodological dimensions, and the importance of a reflexive approach. In some situations, the role as social mediator is needed questioning and assisting the members of the group in the complex task...

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  13. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  14. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums.

  15. ANALYSIS OF OPTION FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF STUDENTS STUDYING ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, VECHIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is important, entrepreneur plays a major role at micro and maroeconomic level. Entrepreneur is the manager and employee at the same time, is leader and innovator, his company provides products and services that society needs. Europe needs more entrepreneurs and those who want to follow the path of entrepreneurship needs to face multiple challenges that can be overcome when the future entrepreneur benefit from a complex entrepreneurship education. This paper aims, through applied questionnaire, to identify whether future economists are determined to choose the path of entrepreneurship and start a business on their own. Also, we wanted to identify the obstacles that interviewees consider that you have to struggle to start their business. We applied a questionnaire to students, final year bachelor's degree, studying economics. They were chosen because during the three years study several economic disciplines: microeconomics, macroeconomics, management, accounting, finance, law, economic analysis, the national economy, European policy.

  16. Study on distributed energy options in Skaftkaerr testbed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesola, A.; Hagstroem, M.; Vanhanen, J. (Gaia Consulting Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2011-07-01

    In the distributed energy production model electricity or heat is produced near the end-user in relatively small units - using very often local renewable energy sources. These are e.g. solar thermal or photovoltaic applications, wind power, fuel cells or other small-scale CHP technologies using e.g. bio-based fuels. Locally produced intermittent renewable electricity can be optimized by storing produced electricity and using it when electricity price is high. Electricity storage is an important part of smart grid development from the perspective of supply-demand flexibility. Heat can be stored as well using e.g. water tank placed either under or above the ground. Distributed energy production technologies are already utilized in domestic residential areas and the trend is emerging. Designing and planning needs to be emphasized in order to build and maintain technically and economically sustainable energy system. The objective of this study is to present the possibilities of distributed energy production and storage technologies. The study highlights available technologies and services of distributed energy production and helps to build up a testbed solution that could lead to demonstration-scale application in near future. This testbed is a part of developing process of Skaftkaerr area where energy efficiency and environmental issues are emphasized. In this report, feasible production and storage technologies are presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 introduces economical characteristics of studied technologies. Chapter 4 points out suitable technologies for Skaftkaerr area and presents profitability analysis of these technologies via two cases. Domestic actors in technology value chains are also presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 summarizes the study and its findings

  17. ACCOUNTING FOR OPTIONS AND ANALYSIS OF USE OF OPTION COMBINATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Derun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of accounting for options in Ukraine, namely: value expression of initial cost of options, their revaluation, accounting of premiums, financial assets and financial liabilities and variation margin. The paper offers ways of solution of these problems which based on harmonization with IAS 32, IAS 39, IFRS 7 and IFRS 9. The study considers option combination strategies (straddle, strangle, strap, strip and approaches of identification of possible financial results for investors which use these strategies. Examples of possible financial results are provided for buyers and sellers of options which use option combination strategies.

  18. Engineering study of tank fill options for landfill closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, W.A.

    1996-09-27

    To prepare single-shell tanks for closure, it will be necessary to piece some type of load- bearing fill material inside the tanks to support the domes. Provision of internal support permits the simplifying assumption that the combined weight of the dome, the existing operational soil cover, and the surface barrier will eventually transfer to and be carried by the fill. This engineering study provides descriptions and evaluations of four alternative concepts for fitting and stabilizing nominally empty SSTs with fill materials. For this study it is assumed that 99 percent (or more) of tank wastes will be retrieved before closure is undertaken. The alternatives are: Gravel: tanks would be fitted with crushed aggregate using a rotating stinger apparatus installed in the central riser; Grout: tanks would be fitted with a pumpable, ex-situ mixed grout formulation; Hybrid: tanks would be fitted first with coarse aggregate, then with grout, producing a pre-placed aggregate concrete material; or Concrete: tank. would be filled with a highly-flowable, ex-situ mixed concrete formulation.

  19. Studies in the Hyperbolic Circle Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherubini, Giacomo

    In this thesis we study the remainder term e(s) in the hyperbolic lattice point counting problem. Our main approach to this problem is that of the spectral theory of automorphic forms. We show that the function e(s) exhibits properties similar to those of almost periodic functions, and we study d...... distribution for certain integral versions of it. Finally we describe what results can be obtained by application of fractional calculus, especially fractional integration to small order, to the problem....

  20. Studies of Nonlinear Problems. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.; Pasta, J.; Ulam, S.

    1955-05-01

    A one-dimensional dynamical system of 64 particles with forces between neighbors containing nonlinear terms has been studied on the Los Alamos computer MANIAC I. The nonlinear terms considered are quadratic, cubic, and broken linear types. The results are analyzed into Fourier components and plotted as a function of time. The results show very little, if any, tendency toward equipartition of energy among the degrees of freedom.

  1. ART attrition and risk factors among Option B+ patients in Haiti: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; Adler, Michelle; Yuhas, Krista; Myrtil, Martine; Young, Paul; François, Kesner; Grand'Pierre, Reynold; Lowrance, David

    2017-01-01

    In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health endorsed the "Option B+" strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and achieve HIV epidemic control. The objective of this paper is to assess and identify risk factors for attrition from the national ART program among Option B+ patients in the 12 months after ART initiation. This retrospective cohort study included patients newly initiating ART from October 2012-August 2013 at 68 ART sites covering 45% of all newly enrolled ART patients in all regions of Haiti. With data from electronic medical records, we carried out descriptive analysis of sociodemographic, clinical, and pregnancy-related correlates of ART attrition, and used a modified Poisson regression approach to estimate relative risks in a multivariable model. There were 2,166 Option B+ patients who initiated ART, of whom 1,023 were not retained by 12 months (47.2%). One quarter (25.3%) dropped out within 3 months of ART initiation. Protective factors included older age, more advanced HIV disease progression, and any adherence counseling prior to ART initiation, while risk factors included starting ART late in gestation, starting ART within 7 days of HIV testing, and using an atypical ART regimen. Our study demonstrates early ART attrition among Option B+ patients and contributes evidence on the characteristics of women who are most at risk of attrition in Haiti. Our findings highlight the importance of targeted strategies to support retention among Option B+ patients.

  2. Laurent polynomial moment problem: a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Pakovich, F; Zvonkin, A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the so-called polynomial moment problem, motivated by the classical Poincare center-focus problem, was thoroughly studied, and the answers to the main questions have been found. The study of a similar problem for rational functions is still at its very beginning. In this paper, we make certain progress in this direction; namely, we construct an example of a Laurent polynomial for which the solutions of the corresponding moment problem behave in a significantly more complicated way than it would be possible for a polynomial.

  3. 基于期权的承运人集装箱租赁契约研究%Solving Container Leasing Problems with the Options Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 江志斌; 耿娜; 肖斌; 孟峰

    2012-01-01

    The shipping network is becoming more complex and heterogeneous with the rapid development of the container-shipping market. As such, the problem of container capacity planning is also more complex and challenging to be solved. This paper tackles the container planning problem from the carrier's perspective. To well balance a container's supply and random demand, a flexible contract with options is introduced into the one-period, two-echelon container shipping service chain, consisted of one carrier and one rental company for containers. Since the container-shipping market has seasonality, we discuss the container's leasing problem with options contract in two practical scenarios: the peak-season of the market and the off-season of the market. Where options are right, options can give buyer the priority rather than obligation to undertake some business decisions. After the container market demand information is updated, the carrier can obtain the new demand information at the beginning of the selling season. The carrier who purchases a part of options has the right to reconsider the optimal container quantity by leasing more containers or returning a portion of containers with the lower cost. If a carrier can forecast the forthcoming selling season to be the peak-season with large demands, it should purchase call options to reduce the risk of shortage of empty containers. In contrast, if the forthcoming selling season is considered to be the off-season, the solution is given to purchase put options to reduce the holding cost. Thus, the decision processes are divided into two stages: Stage ( 1) The carrier places the initial leasing order and purchases options at the first stage according to the forecasted information; Stage (2) Options exercised decision is made based on the updated demand information towards that at the first stage. In another word, the carrier can exercise a part of options or all of the options at the second stage. Additionally, the shipping

  4. Use, option and externality values: are contingent valuation studies in health care mis-specified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D

    2007-08-01

    A general population sample of Australian respondents completed a contingent valuation (CV) survey that asked them to value six scenarios. These varied according to whether the scenario was seeking to elicit: (i) use value; (ii) externality value; (iii) option value; or (iv) a combination. Results indicate that use plus externality and/or option value was significantly greater than use value alone. As CV studies in health (care) overwhelmingly focus on use value alone - often implicitly through study design rather than explicitly - this raises the possibility of mis-specification in CV research in health (care). The implications for CV in health (care) are considered.

  5. Modeling the Implied Volatility Surface-: A Study for S&P 500 Index Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate a framework to model the implied volatilities of S&P 500 index options and estimate the implied volatilities of stock prices using stochastic processes. In this paper, three models are established to estimate whether the implied volatilities are constant during the whole life of options. We mainly concentrate on the Black-Scholes and Dumas’ option models and make the empirical comparisons. By observing the daily-recorded data of S&P 500 index, we study the volatility model and volatility surface. Results from numerical experiments show that the stochastic volatilities are determined by moneyness rather than constant. Our research is of vital importance, especially for forecasting stock market shocks and crises, as one of the applications.

  6. 带有多折扣选项的滑雪租赁问题的在线和离线算法∗%Online and Offline Algorithms for the Ski-Rental Problem with Multiple Discount Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鸣宇; 沈正翔

    2014-01-01

    研究了带有多折扣选项的滑雪租赁问题(ski-rental problem with multiple discount options,简称多折扣租赁问题)的离线和在线算法.多折扣租赁问题是经典的滑雪租赁问题的一个自然扩展,在现实生活中有着非常广泛的应用.在多折扣租赁问题中,除了租借一次装备和购买滑雪装备的选项以外,还存在多次租借装备的选项,这种多次租借可以得到折扣.一次租借次数越多,折扣就越大.规则价格子问题则是多折扣租赁问题中要求各选项的价格成倍数关系的一类子问题.证明了多折扣租赁问题的离线问题是 NP 难的,但对于规则价格子问题的离线问题,给出了一种线性时间算法.基于对离线问题的算法分析,给出了规则价格子问题的一个2倍竞争比的在线策略,同时证明了该问题的最优竞争比是2.基于规则价格子问题的在线策略,又给出了多折扣租赁问题的一个新的4倍竞争比的在线策略,该竞争比同样达到了最优.最后,通过对现实生活中的数据和随机数据进行实验,说明所给出的在线算法具有实际应用价值.%This paper studies the online and offline algorithms for the ski-rental problem with multiple discount options (multiple-discount ski-rental problem), which is a natural extension of the famous ski-rental problem and has many applications in the real world. In this problem, besides the rental and buy options, there are some other options to rent equipments for a duration with some discount. The longer the duration, the more the discount. A special case of the ski-rental problem with multiple discount options, where for any two options the cost of one is an integral multiple of that of the other one, is called the regular cost subproblem. This study proves the NP-hardness of the off-line version of the ski-rental problem with multiple discount options, and gives a linear algorithm for the regular cost subproblem. Based on the

  7. Study of the Option Ordering Policy concerning Perishable Farm Produce Based on Revenue Sharing Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing; LIU

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the two-echelon supply chain system which consists of single agricultural producers and retailers,and analyzes the impact of sharing ratio on the option ordering quantity,and retailers and producers’ expected profits.Studies have shown that in the case of decentralization,when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0 and 0.3,the option ordering quantity of farm produce is a decreasing function of the sharing ratio; when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0.3 and 1,the option ordering quantity of farm produce is an increasing function of sharing ratio; when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0.421 and 1,the agricultural producers and retailers’ expected profits are an increasing function of sharing ratio.Finally,through the numerical calculation,the applicability of the conclusions is verified,to provide a reference for the supply chain management practices.

  8. A Study of Travelling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is one of the mostdifficult problems that many scholars all over the world are studying. This paper points out the disparity between the definition and the classical solution to TSP and its practical applications, and then presents a new definition of TSP and its effective algorithm conforming to practical applications, thus making TSP practically more valuable.

  9. Feasibility Study for the Ivano-Frankivsk District Heating Repowering: Analysis of Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.; Popelka, A.; Laskarevsky, V.

    2002-03-20

    Part of the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation with the Ukraine Inter-Ministerial Commission on Climate Change, financed by the US Department of Energy. The project was implemented by a team consisting of the US company SenTech, Inc. and the Ukrainian company Esco-West. The main objective of the effort was to assess available alternatives of Ivano-Frankivsk (I-F) District Heating repowering and provide information for I-F's investment decision process. This study provides information on positive and negative technical and economic aspects of available options. Three options were analyzed for technical merit and economic performance: 1. Installation of cogeneration system based on Gas Turbine (GT) and Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger with thermal capacity of 30 MW and electrical capacity of 13.5 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. Equipment in this Option was sized for longest operating hours, about 8000 based on the available summer baseload. 2. Installation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (GTCC) and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) with thermal capacity 45 MW and electrical capacity of 58.7 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. The equipment was sized for medium, shoulder season thermal load, and some cooling was assumed during the summer operation for extension of operating hours for electricity production. 3. Retrofit of six existing boilers (NGB) with total thermal capacity of 255.9 MW by installation of modern control system and minor upgrades. This option assumes only heat production with minimum investment. The best economic performance and the largest investment cost would result from alternative GTCC. This alternative has positive Net Present Value (NPV) with discount rate lower than about 12%, and has IRR slightly above 12%. The

  10. ART attrition and risk factors among Option B+ patients in Haiti: A retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domerçant, Jean Wysler; Adler, Michelle; Yuhas, Krista; Myrtil, Martine; Young, Paul; François, Kesner; Grand’Pierre, Reynold; Lowrance, David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health endorsed the “Option B+” strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and achieve HIV epidemic control. The objective of this paper is to assess and identify risk factors for attrition from the national ART program among Option B+ patients in the 12 months after ART initiation. Design This retrospective cohort study included patients newly initiating ART from October 2012-August 2013 at 68 ART sites covering 45% of all newly enrolled ART patients in all regions of Haiti. Methods With data from electronic medical records, we carried out descriptive analysis of sociodemographic, clinical, and pregnancy-related correlates of ART attrition, and used a modified Poisson regression approach to estimate relative risks in a multivariable model. Results There were 2,166 Option B+ patients who initiated ART, of whom 1,023 were not retained by 12 months (47.2%). One quarter (25.3%) dropped out within 3 months of ART initiation. Protective factors included older age, more advanced HIV disease progression, and any adherence counseling prior to ART initiation, while risk factors included starting ART late in gestation, starting ART within 7 days of HIV testing, and using an atypical ART regimen. Discussion Our study demonstrates early ART attrition among Option B+ patients and contributes evidence on the characteristics of women who are most at risk of attrition in Haiti. Our findings highlight the importance of targeted strategies to support retention among Option B+ patients. PMID:28264045

  11. Problem-Oriented Researches in Literary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A. Razi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Being familiar with research methodology causes an increase in the effectivity and efficiency in research. One of the most valuable subjects in research methodology is to discuss about principles and skill of "Problem-oriented" researches that seems to be less known in literary studies.Propagation of problem-oriented researches in the field of Persian language and literature needs serious considerations to its principles and regulations, changing the viewpoint of literary researches, reconsideration in the curriculum of higher education centers, and finally revision in methods and procedure of doing a research plan in this field.Emphasing the necessity of the further consideration of problem-oriented in literary studies, in this article the characteristics and features of this type of research is discussed. Also the methods and skills of problem-finding in the field of literature are described and types of literary problem are introduced. Moreover the different steps that must be followed by a researcher in order to solve the literary problems are stated.

  12. The problem analysis for empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic methodology for the development of a problem analysis for cross-sectional, empirical research. This methodology is referred to as the 'Annabel approach'. It is suitable both for academic studies and applied (business) studies. In addition it can be used for both

  13. The problem analysis for empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic methodology for the development of a problem analysis for cross-sectional, empirical research. This methodology is referred to as the 'Annabel approach'. It is suitable both for academic studies and applied (business) studies. In addition it can be used for both qu

  14. Tracking Models for Optioned Portfolio Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianfeng

    In this paper we study a target tracking problem for the portfolio selection involving options. In particular, the portfolio in question contains a stock index and some European style options on the index. A refined tracking-error-variance methodology is adopted to formulate this problem as a multi-stage optimization model. We derive the optimal solutions based on stochastic programming and optimality conditions. Attention is paid to the structure of the optimal payoff function, which is shown to possess rich properties.

  15. ADOLESCENT GYNAECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakriti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT/BACKGROUND Adolescence, meaning “To grow up,” is a transitional stage of physical, sexual and mental human development occurring between puberty and legal adulthood. The Government of India in National Youth Policy defines adolescents as individuals between 13 to 19 yrs. of age. AIMS To study the magnitude of different adolescent gynecological problems in patients attending OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Prospective study in patients attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, MP. SAMPLE SIZE: 75 METHODS AND MATERIALS Seventy five adolescent girls in the age group of 13-19 yrs. attending gynecological OPD of GRMC, Gwalior, from November 2013 to October 2014 were included in the study. Detailed history, general examinations and investigations were done to evaluate their health. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS Incidence of gynecological problem in our study was 3.33%. Different gynecological problems were menstrual disorders (60%, leucorrhoea (10.66%, infections (8%, ovarian cyst (5.33%, sexual assault (2.66%, teenage pregnancy (10.66% and infertility (2.66%. Majority of girls with menstrual disorders suffered from puberty menorrhagia (55.55%. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding was diagnosed in 96% of girls suffering from puberty menorrhagia. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease was exclusively seen in married adolescent girls. Vaginal atresia and imperforate hymen were causes of primary amenorrhoea. PCOD was commonest cause of secondary amenorrhoea amongst adolescents. CONCLUSION Menstrual abnormalities are the most common problems of adolescent girls. Setting up adolescent clinics is desirable.

  16. Gifted Teenagers with Problems: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Theresa; Goodner, Jane

    Case studies are presented of three gifted students, indicating the social and academic problems which are standing in the way of their potential development. The students include a Vietnamese-American ninth-grade girl who has difficulty with English and does not feel accepted by other students, an underachieving seventh grade boy who speaks out…

  17. The traveling salesman problem a computational study

    CERN Document Server

    Applegate, David L; Chvatal, Vasek; Cook, William J

    2006-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on one of the most intensely investigated subjects in computational mathematics--the traveling salesman problem. It sounds simple enough: given a set of cities and the cost of travel between each pair of them, the problem challenges you to find the cheapest route by which to visit all the cities and return home to where you began. Though seemingly modest, this exercise has inspired studies by mathematicians, chemists, and physicists. Teachers use it in the classroom. It has practical applications in genetics, telecommunications, and neuroscience.

  18. Study of the Cherokee Nuclear Station: projected impacts, monitoring plan, and mitigation options for Cherokee County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Scharre, P.; Pressman, B.

    1979-07-01

    This report inventories Cherokee County's capabilities and CNS project characteristics, projects expected impacts from the interaction of the two defines four options for Cherokee County decision makers, and presents a range of possible mitigation and monitoring plans for dealing with the problems identified. The four options and general implementation guidelines for each are presented after reviewing pertinent features of other mitigation and monitoring plans. The four options include (1) no action, (2) preventing impacts by preventing growth, (3) selective growth in designated areas as services can be supplied, and (4) maximum growth designed to attract as many in-movers as possible through a major program of capital investiments in public and private services. With the exception of the no action option, all plans deal with impacts according to some strategy determined by how the County wishes to manage growth. Solutions for impact problems depend on which growth strategy is selected and what additional resources are secured during the impact period. A monitoring program deals with the problems of data and projections uncertainty, while direct action is proposed to deal with the institutional problems of delay of the needed access road, timeing and location problems from the tax base mismatch, and lack of local planning capability.

  19. Impact of FFS on farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato: A case study from the Gezira State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mirghani Abdel Rahman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan pests and diseases are the major problem of vegetables production. Tomato crop is considered as the most important vegetable crop in the country according to its economic and nutrition value. There are many pest and diseases retarding tomato production such as whitefly, American bollworm, TYLCV and powdery mildew. Therefore some IPM options for tomato and onion were validated in FFS in order to help farmers in controlling the most important pests and diseases. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of FFS on farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato in the Gezira State, Sudan. Field survey was used to collect data from three Farmer Field Schools in the Gezira State namely: Um Dagarsi, Hantoub and Faris in the 2009/2010 growing season. All FFS participants were used, i.e. 30 FFS- participants from each school. Equal number of non-FFS participants (90 was used for comparison, by using the simple random sampling technique. The collected data were statistically analyzed and interpreted using percentage, frequency distribution and chi-square test. The results showed that the FFS schools were positively affected farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato. It can be concluded that the FFS approach is very efficient in the transfer of farm technology for vegetable farmers through their participation in various activities of FFS schools. Thus, FFS approach must become national policy, share authority of extension organizations in control and execution of FFS activities with farmer unions for more effective participations of clientele in all activities of the schools and More efforts should be exerted in distribution of all inputs to farmers with reasonable prices through various agricultural centres.

  20. "Provoking conversations": case studies of organizations where Option Grid™ decision aids have become 'normalized'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Peter; Elwyn, Glyn; Durand, Marie-Anne

    2017-08-18

    Implementing patient decision aids in clinic workflow has proven to be a challenge for healthcare organizations and physicians. Our aim was to determine the organizational strategies, motivations, and facilitating factors to the routine implementation of Option Grid™ encounter decision aids at two independent settings. Case studies conducted by semi-structured interview, using the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as a framework for thematic analysis. Twenty three interviews with physicians, nurses, hospital staff and stakeholders were conducted at: 1) CapitalCare Medical Group in Albany, New York; 2) HealthPartners Clinics in Minneapolis, Minnesota. 'Coherent' motivations were guided by financial incentives at CapitalCare, and by a 'champion' physician at HealthPartners. Nurses worked 'collectively' at both settings and played an important role at sites where successful implementation occurred. Some physicians did not understand the perceived utility of Option Grid™, which led to varying degrees of implementation success across sites. The appraisal work (reflexive monitoring) identified benefits, particularly in terms of information provision. Physicians at both settings, however, were concerned with time pressures and the suitability of the tool for patients with low levels of health literacy. Although both practice settings illustrated the mechanisms of normalization postulated by the theory, the extent to which Option Grid™ was routinely embedded in clinic workflow varied between sites, and between clinicians. Implementation of new interventions will require attention to an identified rationale (coherence), and to the collective action, cognitive participation, and assessment of value by organizational members of the organization.

  1. Some Problems of the Kazakh Drama Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagymbay Zhumagulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses theoretical and literary problems of national drama in the Kazakh literary of 1960s-1980s, analyzes the most significant works, devoted to the study of innovation in the poetry and the drama of the Kazakh system of genres, comprehensively studies literary tradition in scientific and methodological literature and determined its role in the development of the Kazakh drama

  2. New option for solving the climatic problems with non-thermal laser driven boron fusion and ultrahigh magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the broad stream of sustainable developments on fusion energy, new aspects are developed now by applying ultra-short, ultra-powerful laser pulses in a plasma-block ignition scheme by avoiding the well known difficulties of thermal-pressure instabilities and losses through using electro-dynamic non-thermal energy conversion. A further advantage is given by the new 10 kilo-Tesla magnetic fields for fusion of uncompressed proton-boron fuel which avoids problems of dangerous nuclear radiation.

  3. Liquid–Liquid Mixing Studies in Annular Centrifugal Contactors Comparing Stationary Mixing Vane Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-11-10

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of annular centrifugal contactors showing the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported with selected measurements in a lab-scale 5 cm contactor and 12.5 cm engineering-scale unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixingzone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugal contactors.

  4. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plant’s lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived

  5. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  6. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  7. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, B. J.

    1992-07-01

    Emphasis has been on combustion and flame propagation. The research program was on modeling, analysis and computation of combustion phenomena, with emphasis on transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation were investigated in the transition. Stability of combustion waves, and transitions to complex waves are described. Combustion waves possess large activation energies, so that chemical reactions are significant only in thin layers, or reaction zones. In limit of infinite activation energy, the zones shrink to moving surfaces, termed fronts which must be found during the analysis, so that the problems are moving free boundary problems. The studies are carried out for limiting case with fronts, while the numerical studies are carried out for finite, though large, activation energy. Accurate resolution of the solution in the reaction zones is essential, otherwise false predictions of dynamics are possible. Since the the reaction zones move, adaptive pseudo-spectral methods were developed. The approach is based on a synergism of analytical and computational methods. The numerical computations build on and extend the analytical information. Furthermore, analytical solutions serve as benchmarks for testing the accuracy of the computation. Finally, ideas from analysis (singular perturbation theory) have induced new approaches to computations. The computational results suggest new analysis to be considered. Among the recent interesting results, was spatio-temporal chaos in combustion. One goal is extension of the adaptive pseudo-spectral methods to adaptive domain decomposition methods. Efforts have begun to develop such methods for problems with multiple reaction zones, corresponding to problems with more complex, and more realistic chemistry. Other topics included stochastics, oscillators, Rysteretic Josephson junctions, DC SQUID, Markov jumps, laser with saturable absorber, chemical physics, Brownian movement, combustion

  8. STUDY FOR ADOLESCENT PROBLEM AND PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in adolescents (less than 18 years and compare with college students (18-22years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The permission was taken from the head of the schools and colleges. A questionnaire was made and was distributed and information was collected. Sample 610 collected from school and 700 from college. RESULT: 580 and 669 students from schools and colleges respectively answered data correctly. 18% of school and 15% of college students have witnessed domestic violence in their families. Anxiety and stress was more in school going children than college (might be due to exams i.e.75%: 50% and 46%:41% respectively. Depression rate was almost equal among school and college i.e. 30%. Behavior of our children is influenced by their co-students, on assessing peer pressure it was found that 26-29%(1/3rd from school and college age group submit to peer pressure. In drug abuse alcohol intake was 12% and 19% in school and college group while prevalence of smoking was 4% and 12% respectively. Total number of students who were active in sexual activity was found to be 7.5% in schools and 14.6% in colleges. CONCLUSION: Adolescents constitute 1/5th of our population and prevalence of psychosocial problems along with drug abuse is increasing. With effective counseling by parents and teachers, sex education, stress reduction and improving familial environment, we can ensure a better future and improved adolescent health.

  9. Comparative study of the efficacy of different treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, M; Samudio, M; Fariña, N; Cibils, D; Laspina, F; Sanabria, R; Carpinelli, L; Mino de Kaspar, H

    2015-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of 3 treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis. An experimental, randomized, controlled study was conducted on 45 patients (female 67%; Mean age: 40.5 years) diagnosed with chronic blepharitis, in order to compare the effectiveness of three treatment options. Group 1: eyelid hygiene with neutral shampoo three times/day; group 2: neutral shampoo eyelid hygiene plus topical metronidazole gel 0.75% twice/day; group 3: neutral eyelid hygiene with shampoo plus neomycin 3.5% and polymyxin 10% antibiotic ointment with 0.5% dexamethasone 3 times/day. The symptoms and signs were assessed by assigning scores from 0: no symptoms and/or signs; 1: mild symptoms and/or signs, 2: moderate symptoms and/or signs; and 3: severe symptoms and/or signs. A significant improvement was observed in the signs and symptoms in all 3 treatment groups. While groups 1 and 2 had more improvement in all variables studied (P<.05), Group 3 showed no clinical improvement for itching (P=.16), dry eye (P=.29), eyelashes falling (P=.16), and erythema at the eyelid margin (P=.29). Shampoo eyelid hygiene neutral and neutral shampoo combined with the use of metronidazole gel reported better hygiene results than neutral shampoo lid with antibiotic ointment and neomycin and polymyxin dexamethasone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Problems on Stock Option Incentive in Public Listed Companies%上市公司股权激励问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春雷

    2012-01-01

    以管理学理论及人力资本理论为基础,对上市公司股权激励问题进行研究,发现上市公司在实施股权激励过程中普遍存在的问题是:股权激励实施受限,股权激励对象考核方法单一,激励对象存在辞职套现行为等。问题产生的成因在于股票期权行权价设定不当影响激励效果,企业的业绩评价体系不完善,股权激励约束机制不健全等方面。解决上市公司股权激励问题的对策,主要包括完善公司治理结构,健全独立董事制度,实施企业文化理念激励等措施。%Based on management science and human capital theory,the author analyzes the stock option incentive in listed companies and finds that problems prevail including the implementation limitation of the incentive project,the oversimplified assessment for the incentive parties,and some incentive recipients' resigning and cashing their stock.Causes to these problems are the unsuitable exercise price of stock option,which impacts the incentive result;the imperfect performance assessment system in enterprises;and the unsound incentive restraint mechanism,etc.Coping strategies are proposed in terms of improving the corporate governance structures,setting up a sound systemof independent director of the board,conducting inspiration strategies bymeans of enterprise culture.

  11. Problems in the Study of lineaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmyanskii, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The study of linear objects in upper crust, called lineaments, led at one time to a major scientific results - discovery of the planetary regmatic network, the birth of some new tectonic concepts, establishment of new search for signs of mineral deposits. But now lineaments studied not enough for such a promising research direction. Lineament geomorphology has a number of problems. 1.Terminology problems. Lineament theme still has no generally accepted terminology base. Different scientists have different interpretations even for the definition of lineament We offer an expanded definition for it: lineaments - line features of the earth's crust, expressed by linear landforms, geological linear forms, linear anomalies of physical fields may follow each other, associated with faults. The term "lineament" is not identical to the term "fault", but always lineament - reasonable suspicion to fault, and this suspicion is justified in most cases. The structure lineament may include only the objects that are at least presumably can be attributed to the deep processes. Specialists in the lineament theme can overcome terminological problems if together create a common terminology database. 2. Methodological problems. Procedure manual selection lineaments mainly is depiction of straight line segments along the axes of linear morphostructures on some cartographic basis. Reduce the subjective factors of manual selection is possible, following a few simple rules: - The choice of optimal projection, scale and quality of cartographic basis; - Selection of the optimal type of linear objects under study; - The establishment of boundary conditions for the allocation lineament (minimum length, maximum bending, the minimum length to width ratio, etc.); - Allocation of an increasing number of lineaments - for representative sampling and reduce the influence of random errors; - Ranking lineaments: fine lines (rank 3) combined to form larger lineaments rank 2; which, when combined

  12. Deep UV to NIR Space Telescopes and Exoplanet Coronagraphs: A Trade Study on Throughput, Polarization, Mirror Coating Options and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart; Give'on, Amir; Cady, Eric; Marchen, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet program and the Cosmic Origins program are exploring technical options to combine the visible to NIR performance requirements of a space coronagraph with the general astrophysics requirements of a space telescope covering the deep UV spectrum. Are there compatible options in terms of mirror coatings and telescope architecture to satisfy both goals? In this paper, we address some of the main concerns, particularly relating to polarization in the visible and throughput in the UV. Telescope architectures employing different coating options compatible with current technology are considered in this trade study.

  13. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1992-07-01

    Emphasis has been on combustion and flame propagation. The research program was on modeling, analysis and computation of combustion phenomena, with emphasis on transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation were investigated in the transition. Stability of combustion waves, and transitions to complex waves are described. Combustion waves possess large activation energies, so that chemical reactions are significant only in thin layers, or reaction zones. In limit of infinite activation energy, the zones shrink to moving surfaces, (fronts) which must be found during the analysis, so that (moving free boundary problems). The studies are carried out for limiting case with fronts, while the numerical studies are carried out for finite, though large, activation energy. Accurate resolution of the solution in the reaction zones is essential, otherwise false predictions of dynamics are possible. Since the the reaction zones move, adaptive pseudo-spectral methods were developed. The approach is based on a synergism of analytical and computational methods. The numerical computations build on and extend the analytical information. Furthermore, analytical solutions serve as benchmarks for testing the accuracy of the computation. Finally, ideas from analysis (singular perturbation theory) have induced new approaches to computations. The computational results suggest new analysis to be considered. Among the recent interesting results, was spatio-temporal chaos in combustion. One goal is extension of the adaptive pseudo-spectral methods to adaptive domain decomposition methods. Efforts have begun to develop such methods for problems with multiple reaction zones, corresponding to problems with more complex, and more realistic chemistry. Other topics included stochastics, oscillators, Rysteretic Josephson junctions, DC SQUID, Markov jumps, laser with saturable absorber, chemical physics, Brownian movement, combustion synthesis, etc.

  14. A Preliminary Study on Choosing Sports Tourism as a Leisure Time Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Stancu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It has long been acknowledged that, when speaking about sports tourism, we must consider, on one side, tourism-an economic and social phenomenon that is specific to modern civilization and on the other side sports-the most widely spread social phenomenon in the world. No other events had such a complex unfolding than sports events, and tourism had undoubtedly become one of the world’s greatest industries. Our assumption was that physical education and sports teachers have successfully contributed to the accomplishment of objective of “forming the habit of practicing physical exercise for recreational, emulative and compensatory purposes throughout the life span”. Approach: To test this assumption we have initiated a sociological research: a questionnaire was applied on a sample of 50 persons. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential procedures. Results: The results allowed the confirmation of stated research hypotheses. We have shown that practicing a performance sport is significantly related with preference for risk, adventure tourism (Chi-square = 6,614, d.f. = 1, p = 0,010. Conclusions: Citizen’s option for sports tourism activities were shown to be relevant for physical education and sports teachers, in order to better organize their activities.

  15. Virtual Machines and Networks - Installation, Performance Study, Advantages and Virtualization Options

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ishtiaq; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3101

    2011-01-01

    The interest in virtualization has been growing rapidly in the IT industry because of inherent benefits like better resource utilization and ease of system manageability. The experimentation and use of virtualization as well as the simultaneous deployment of virtual software are increasingly getting popular and in use by educational institutions for research and teaching. This paper stresses on the potential advantages associated with virtualization and the use of virtual machines for scenarios, which cannot be easily implemented and/or studied in a traditional academic network environment, but need to be explored and experimented by students to meet the raising needs and knowledge-base demanded by the IT industry. In this context, we discuss various aspects of virtualization - starting from the working principle of virtual machines, installation procedure for a virtual guest operating system on a physical host operating system, virtualization options and a performance study measuring the throughput obtained ...

  16. A choice experiment analysis for solid waste disposal option: a case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Jamal, Othman

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia, most municipal wastes currently are disposed into poorly managed 'controlled tipping' systems with little or no pollution protection measures. This study was undertaken to assist the relevant governmental bodies and service providers to identify an improved waste disposal management strategy. The study applied the choice experiment technique to estimate the nonmarket values for a number of waste disposal technologies. Implicit prices for environmental attributes such as psychological fear, land use, air pollution, and river water quality were estimated. Compensating surplus estimates incorporating distance from the residences of the respondents to the proposed disposal facility were calculated for a number of generic and technology-specific choice sets. The resulting estimates were higher for technology-specific options, and the distance factor was a significant determinant in setting an equitable solid waste management fee.

  17. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  18. Options of sustainable groundwater supply from safe aquifers in areas with elevated arsenic - a case study from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakariya, M.; Bhattacharya, P.; Bromssen, M. V.

    2008-05-01

    Access to safe drinking water is a basic human right. Several millions of people, mainly in developing countries are affected by arsenic in drinking water and the global impact now makes it a top priority water quality issue. A wide gap between the number of exposed people and the pace of mitigation programmes in rural areas of developing countries is the main problem in providing safe drinking water. The main challenge is to develop a sustainable mitigation option that rural and disadvantaged people can adopt and implement themselves to overcome possible public heath hazards. During the recent years, new approaches have emerged in Bangladesh, primarily emerging out of people's own initiative. The local drillers target presumed safe aquifers on the basis of colour and texture of the sediments. A recent study by our research group revealed a distinct correlation between the colour characteristics of the sediments and the groundwater redox conditions. The coupling between the colour of sediments and the redox characteristics of groundwater may thus be used as a tool to assess the risk for As mobilization from the aquifers. The study showed that it is possible to assess the relative risk of high concentrations of As in aquifers if the colour characteristics of the sediments are known and thus, local drillers may target safe aquifers. For validating the sustainability of this mitigation option geological, hydrogeological and microbiological investigations are needed. The sustainability of the aquifers needs to be assessed by combining results from various field and laboratory investigations and by running predictive models. There is also a need to raise the awareness and thereby create a platform for motivating the local drillers to be educated in installing safe tubewells. Awareness raising and community mobilisation are two top priorities for implementing a sustainable safe water project in rural village areas. Significant preparation, attention, and focus must be

  19. Treatment Options for Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem and its prevalence may be increasing over time. The main treatment options of single vision spectacle lenses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery do not slow the accompanying eye growth or retard the physiological changes associated with excessive axial elongation. High myopia is a predisposing factor for retinal detachment, myopic retinopathy, and glaucoma, contributing to loss of vision and blindness. The high prevalence of myopia and its prominence as a public health problem emphasize the importance of finding effective treatments that slow myopia progression and axial elongation. Treatments that have been investigated include various types of spectacle lenses and contact lenses, as well as pharmaceutical agents such as atropine and pirenzepine. The bulk of evidence from well-conducted studies shows that overall, most therapies for myopia have small treatment benefits that last for a relatively short period of time or have significant side effects. Some therapies may be more effective in subsets of myopic children. This review of treatment options for myopia will emphasize recent results from well-designed clinical studies and will suggest possible future therapies. PMID:19390466

  20. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  1. Expanding contraceptive options for PMTCT clients: a mixed methods implementation study in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Theresa; Harries, Jane; Crede, Sarah; Green, Mackenzie; Constant, Deborah; Petruney, Tricia; Moodley, Jennifer

    2014-01-10

    Clients of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services in South Africa who use contraception following childbirth rely primarily on short-acting methods like condoms, pills, and injectables, even when they desire no future pregnancies. Evidence is needed on strategies for expanding contraceptive options for postpartum PMTCT clients to include long-acting and permanent methods. We examined the process of expanding contraceptive options in five health centers in Cape Town providing services to HIV-positive women. Maternal/child health service providers received training and coaching to strengthen contraceptive counseling for postpartum women, including PMTCT clients. Training and supplies were introduced to strengthen intrauterine device (IUD) services, and referral mechanisms for female sterilization were reinforced. We conducted interviews with separate samples of postpartum PMTCT clients (265 pre-intervention and 266 post-intervention) to assess knowledge and behaviors regarding postpartum contraception. The process of implementing the intervention was evaluated through systematic documentation and interpretation using an intervention tracking tool. In-depth interviews with providers who participated in study-sponsored training were conducted to assess their attitudes toward and experiences with promoting voluntary contraceptive services to HIV-positive clients. Following the intervention, 6% of interviewed PMTCT clients had the desired knowledge about the IUD and 23% had the desired knowledge about female sterilization. At both pre- and post-intervention, 7% of clients were sterilized and IUD use was negligible; by comparison, 75% of clients used injectables. Intervention tracking and in-depth interviews with providers revealed intervention shortcomings and health system constraints explaining the failure to produce intended effects. The intervention failed to improve PMTCT clients' knowledge about the IUD and sterilization or to increase use of

  2. SURGICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN PRESSURE ULCERS- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE WORKHORSE FLAP OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja Rajan T. M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pressure ulcers can significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality by chronic infections. Radical debridement of all devitalised and infected tissues followed by a reconstructive algorithm for soft tissue padding over bony prominences to prevent recurrent breakdown are the mainstay of surgical management of pressure ulcers. Choice of the soft tissue flap for reconstruction is influenced by the dimensions of ulcers, local tissue availability and surgeon’s preferences. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective study includes 140 patients with spinal injuries having pressure ulcers of NPUAP grade III and IV treated surgically over a period of four years. The demographics of pressure ulcers, the workhorse flap options as well as the outcome were analysed. RESULTS The pressure ulcers were seen predominantly in males (93.6% of 40-49 years’ age group (42.8%. Ischial pressure ulcers (n=104 constituted 74.2% followed by sacral pressure ulcers (n=24 that is 17.1% and trochanteric pressure ulcers (n=12 in 8.6%. Debridement and direct closure of wound were possible only in 10 cases. Majority (92.8% of patients needed additional tissues for wound coverage. Our workhorse fasciocutaneous flaps were rotation flaps from the gluteal region or posterior thigh with medial or lateral based designs (34.2%. Local muscle tissue was used in 64 cases (46% either as gluteal, tensor fascia lata and biceps femoris myocutaneous flaps or gluteus maximus, hamstring or gracilis muscle fillers in myoplasty. CONCLUSIONS Rotation flap along with myoplasty were our workhorse flap options in majority of the pressure ulcers. But, our future perspective is to spare muscle and use more fasciocutaneous perforator flaps for reconstruction according to evidence-based clinical practice.

  3. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  4. Public meeting: Western New York Nuclear Service Center options study. [Problem of West Valley plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This document is a transcript of the meeting, with additional written comments. The main topic is the West Valley Processing Plant and how to dispose of it and its high-level wastes. Objective is to get public input on this topic. (DLC)

  5. The study of cuckoo optimization algorithm for production planning problem

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarzadeh, Afsane; Shadkam, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Constrained Nonlinear programming problems are hard problems, and one of the most widely used and common problems for production planning problem to optimize. In this study, one of the mathematical models of production planning is survey and the problem solved by cuckoo algorithm. Cuckoo Algorithm is efficient method to solve continues non linear problem. Moreover, mentioned models of production planning solved with Genetic algorithm and Lingo software and the results will compared. The Cucko...

  6. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1990-11-01

    We carry out a research program with primary emphasis on the applications of Bifurcation and Stability Theory to Problems of energy, with specific emphasis on Problems of Combustion and Flame Propagation. In particular we consider the problem of transition from laminar to turbulent flame propagation. A great deal of progress has been made in our investigations. More than one hundred and thirty papers citing this project have been prepared for publication in technical journals. A list of the papers, including abstracts for each paper, is appended to this report.

  7. Factors associated with retention in Option B+ in Malawi: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa M Hoffman

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Interventions that address partner disclosure and strengthen pre-ART education around the benefits of ART for maternal and child health should be evaluated to improve retention in Malawi’s Option B+ programme.

  8. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1) natural and living environment; (2) built environment; (3) natural resource development; and (4) governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and o...

  9. A Case Study on Primary Problem Student in Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Hui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, problem student is a common phenomenon exiting in primary and secondary school, Yemen. However, current unknown is why problem students appear and how to make an effective intervention way for reducing the problem behaviors. Although there have been many researches about problem student's problem behaviors researches on causes, developmental mechanism and educational strategies of problem students mainly stay on the theoretical research stage. This study aimed to investigate main reason for the formation of problem students and then make an effective intervention way and examine the invention effect.Firstly, combining existing research literature and teaching experience, this study sums up that problem behavior of problem students is mainly learning problem, interpersonal problem and willpower problem.Secondly, this study selected ten“problem students”of primary school as the participants. They are simply classified into three categories in accordance with the severity of the problem behaviors of problem students. I summarized various causes and affecting factors of problem behaviors through observing their performances and behaviors, and conduct in-depth interviews and explorations throughout the whole research process.Thirdly, on the basis of kind and severity of problems, various flexibly methods were used for the intervention study of problem behaviors. After that, I conducted interviews with the study cases, parents and teachers once again and made tracked records for the intervention effect. The intervention achieves marked improvement. For example, most students greatly improve their behaviors in class.Finally, I reflect the research process itself, considering that the case study is necessary method for the issue of"problem students". The use of qualitative research method is more conducive to enter the inner world of the studying cases, and better understand their true conditions as well. And on this basis, it is easier to find a breakthrough

  10. Studies of Cs3Sb cathodes for the CLIC drive beam photo injector option

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Irene; Doebert, Steffen; Fedosseev, Valentine; Hessler, Christoph; Martyanov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Within the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project, feasibility studies of a photo injector option for the drive beam as an alternative to its baseline design using a thermionic electron gun are on-going. This R&D program covers both the laser and the photocathode side. Whereas the available laser pulse energy in ultra-violet (UV) is currently limited by the optical defects in the 4thharmonics frequency conversion crystal induced by the0.14 ms long pulse trains, recent measurements of Cs3Sbphotocathodes sensitive to green light showed their potential to overcome this limitation. Moreover, using visible laser beams leads to better stability of produced electron bunches and one can take advantages of the availability of higher quality optics. The studied Cs3Sbphotocathodes have been produced in the CERN photo emission laboratory using the co-deposition technique and tested in a DC gun set-up. The analysis of data acquired during the cathode production process will be presented in this paper, as well as the r...

  11. Outcomes and satisfaction of two optional cadaveric dissection courses: A 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Barata, Pedro; Moxham, Bernard J; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-03-01

    Teaching time dedicated to anatomy education has been reduced at many medical schools around the world, including Nova Medical School in Lisbon, Portugal. In order to minimize the effects of this reduction, the authors introduced two optional, semester-long cadaveric dissection courses for the first two years of the medical school curriculum. These courses were named Regional Anatomy I (RAI) and Regional Anatomy II (RAII). In RAI, students focus on dissecting the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and perineum. In RAII, the focus shifts to the head, neck, back, and upper and lower limbs. This study prospectively analyzes students' academic achievement and perceptions within the context of these two, newly-introduced, cadaveric dissection courses. Students' satisfaction was assessed anonymously through a questionnaire that included items regarding students' perception of the usefulness of the courses for undergraduate teaching, as well as with regards to future professional activity. For each of the three academic years studied, the final score (1 to 20) in General Anatomy (GA), RAI, and RAII was on average 14.26 ± 1.89; 16.94 ± 1.02; 17.49 ± 1.01, respectively. The mean results were lower in GA than RAI or RAII (P Educ 10: 127-136. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Mineral carbonation: energy costs of pretreatment options and insights gained from flow loop reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Larry R.; O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of carbon as a stable mineral carbonate has been proposed to mitigate environmental concerns that carbon dioxide may with time escape from its sequestered matrix using alternative sequestration technologies. A method has been developed to prepare stable carbonate products by reacting CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals in aqueous bicarbonate/chloride media at high temperature and pressure. Because this approach is inherently expensive due to slow reaction rates and high capital costs, studies were conducted to improve the reaction rates through mineral pretreatment steps and to cut expenses through improved reactor technology. An overview is given for the estimated cost of the process including sensitivity to grinding and heating as pretreatment options for several mineral feedstocks. The energy costs are evaluated for each pretreatment in terms of net carbon avoided. New studies with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow-loop reactor have yielded information on overcoming kinetic barriers experienced with processing in stirred autoclave reactors. Repeated tests with the flow-loop reactor have yielded insights on wear and failure of system components, on challenges to maintain and measure flow, and for better understanding of the reaction mechanism.

  13. Synthesis of the study performed by the IRSN regarding safety options of the ATMEA1 reactor; Synthese de l'examen mene par l'IRSN au sujet des options de surete du reacteur ATMEA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The ATMEA1 reactor is a new concept for next generation 1000 MWe pressurized water reactors. This report first recalls the context of the IRSN study of safety options regarding this reactor: a first phase for the examination of these options, and a second phase for the examination of the safety option report and complementary reports on topics identified in phase 1. The main conclusions of phase 1 are recalled, as well as the topics addressed during the several meetings. Then, it lists the significant issues addressed in the different reports associated with these meetings

  14. Decontamination options for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated drinking water determined from spore surrogate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; Burklund, Alison

    2010-10-01

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination alternatives for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were as follows: (i) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus), (ii) spore concentration in suspension (10(2) and 10(6) spores/ml), (iii) chemical characteristics of the decontaminant (sodium dichloro-S-triazinetrione dihydrate [Dichlor], hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate [Oxone], sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS), (iv) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%), and (v) exposure time to decontaminant (10 min to 1 h). Results from 138 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5% and Dichlor or sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2% were highly effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and a more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting the EPA biocide standard of greater than a 6-log kill after a 10-min exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS and Oxone were less effective as decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for a biocide, although they were found to be as effective for concentrations of 10(2) spores/ml. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  15. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1 natural and living environment; (2 built environment; (3 natural resource development; and (4 governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and often unstructured datasets’ that ‘usually receive minimal data management consideration’,as observed in the 2013 Communiqué from the International Forum on Polar Data Activities in Global Data Systems.

  16. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family based interventions for adolescent depression (12-18 years old) in Melbourne, Australia (2012-2014). Inclusion in the trial required adolescents to meet diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders. The transcripts of sessions were examined using qualitative thematic analysis. The transcribed sessions consisted of 56 h of recordings in total from 39 parents who took part in the interventions. The thematic analysis explored parental perceptions of their adolescent's use of social media (SM) and access to Internet content, focusing on the possible relationship between adolescent Internet use and the adolescent's depressive disorder. Two overarching themes emerged as follows: the sense of loss of parental control over the family environment and parents' perceived inability to protect their adolescent from material encountered on the Internet and social interactions via SM. Parents within the context of family based treatments felt that prolonged exposure to SM exposed their already vulnerable child to additional stressors and risks. The thematic analysis uncovered a sense of parental despair and lack of control, which is consistent with their perception of SM and the Internet as relentless and threatening to their parental authority and family cohesion.

  17. The impact on family functioning of social media use by depressed adolescents: a qualitative analysis of the Family Options Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for adolescent depression (12-18 years old in Melbourne (2012-2014. Inclusion in the trial required meeting diagnosis for a Major depressive disorder via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders (KID-SCID. The transcripts of sessions from 7 group treatments were examined using qualitative thematic analysis. The transcribed sessions consisted of 56 hours of recordings in total from 39 parents who took part in the interventions.Results: The thematic analysis explored parental perceptions of their adolescent’s use of social media and access to Internet content, focusing on the possible relationship between adolescent Internet use and the adolescent’s depressive disorder. Two overarching themes emerged: The sense of loss of parental control over the family environment, and parents’ perceived inability to protect their adolescent from material encountered on the Internet and social interactions via social media.Conclusions: The excessive use of social media often interacted with cyber-bullying and altered the adolescent’s understanding of friendship. Parents within the context of family based treatments felt that prolonged exposure to social media exposed their already vulnerable child to cyber-bullying. The thematic analysis uncovered a sense of parental despair and lack of control, which is consistent with their perception of social media and the internet as relentless and threatening to their parental authority and family cohesion.

  18. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  19. Problem Finding in Professional Learning Communities: A Learning Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Caleon, Imelda Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study marries collaborative problem solving and learning study in understanding the onset of a cycle of teacher professional development process within school-based professional learning communities (PLCs). It aimed to explore how a PLC carried out collaborative problem finding--a key process involved in collaborative problem solving--that…

  20. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  1. Outcomes and Satisfaction of Two Optional Cadaveric Dissection Courses: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Barata, Pedro; Moxham, Bernard J.; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-01-01

    Teaching time dedicated to anatomy education has been reduced at many medical schools around the world, including Nova Medical School in Lisbon, Portugal. In order to minimize the effects of this reduction, the authors introduced two optional, semester-long cadaveric dissection courses for the first two years of the medical school curriculum.…

  2. Recent Studies on Feeding Problems in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Vaz, Petula C. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on behavioral interventions for children with autism and feeding problems. The applicability of interventions that have been tested with other populations of children with feeding problems is discussed, as well as directions for future research.

  3. Evaluation of the Individualized Study Program: Reduced Study Load Option and Basic Skills Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Celeste M.

    The Individualized Study Program (ISP) at the University of California, Davis, which is designed to enhance retention of students with academic skill deficiencies, was evaluated. The target group was disadvantaged students who had not met the university's entrance requirements. Attention was focused on two aspects of the program: allowing students…

  4. Option generation in decision making: Ideation beyond memory retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eDel Missier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to prescriptive decision theories, the generation of options for choice is a central aspect of decision making. A too narrow representation of the problem may indeed limit the opportunity to evaluate promising options. However, despite the theoretical and applied significance of this topic, the cognitive processes underlying option generation are still unclear. In particular, while a cued recall account of option generation emphasizes the role of memory and executive control, other theoretical proposals stress the importance of ideation processes based on various search and thinking processes. Unfortunately, relevant behavioral evidence on the cognitive processes underlying option generation is scattered and inconclusive. In order to reach a better understanding, we carried out an individual-differences study employing a wide array of cognitive predictors, including measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, cognitive control, and ideation fluency. The criterion tasks consisted of three different poorly-structured decision-making scenarios, and the participants were asked to generate options to solve these problems. The main criterion variable of the study was the number of valid options generated, but also the diversity and the quality of generated options were examined. The results showed that option generation fluency and diversity in the context of ill-structured decision making are supported by ideation ability even after taking into account the effects of individual differences in several other aspects of cognitive functioning. Thus, ideation processes, possibly supported by search and thinking processes, seem to contribute to option generation beyond basic associative memory retrieval. The findings of the study also indicate that generating more options may have multifaceted consequences for choice, increasing the quality of the best option generated but decreasing the mean quality of the options in the generated set.

  5. Our Energy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  6. Essay on Option Pricing, Hedging and Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel

    Quantitative finance is concerned about applying mathematics to financial markets.This thesis is a collection of essays that study different problems in this field: How efficient are option price approximations to calibrate a stochastic volatilitymodel? (Chapter 2) How different is the discretely...... sampled realized variance from the continuouslysampled realized variance? (Chapter 3) How can we do static hedging for a payoff with two assets? (Chapter 4) Can we apply fast Fourier Transform methods to efficiently use interest rateMarkov-functional models? Can we extend them to accommodate othertypes...... stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005 to 2009. Discretely Sampled Variance Options: A Stochastic Approximation Approach In this paper, we expand Drimus and Farkas (2012) framework to price variance options on discretely sampled...

  7. Numerical Studies of the Gauss Lattice Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    The difference between the number of lattice points N(R) that lie in x^2 + y^2 ≤ R^2 and the area of that circle, d(R) = N(R) - πR^2, can be bounded by |d(R)| ≤ KR^θ. Gauss showed that this holds for θ = 1, but the least value for which it holds is an open problem in number theory. We have sought numerical evidence by tabulating N(R) up to R ≈ 55,000. From the convex hull bounding log |d(R)| versus log R we obtain the bound θ ≤ 0.575, which is significantly better than the best analyti...

  8. Problems of contamination in 36Cl studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. R.; Shahgholi, N.; Jenkinson, A.; Smith, A.; Fifield, L. K.; Ophel, T.; Allan, G.

    1990-12-01

    The joint ANSTO/ANU 36Cl program has now measured more than 700 samples from many different locations. During the course of this work, a variety of contamination problems have affected a small number of results which have provided valuable information on the effects of ion source cross-talk, sample preparation and storage procedures and sources of high- 36Cl material. A sample of Weeks Island halite is processed along with every batch of field samples and the observed ratio provides a clear distinction between normal batches and those subject to contamination. Over three years, the long-term average ratio of {36Cl}/{Cl} for normal halite samples is (1 ± 1) × 10 -15. The sample handling procedures developed during the course of this work provide a useful guide to the techniques that must be used to achieve the sensitivity limits which are potentially available using AMS.

  9. A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Paul Aanond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…

  10. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  11. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  12. Negative emissions—interactions with other mitigation options: a case study for South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowargana, Ping; Leduc, Sylvain; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Fuss, Sabine; Patrizio, Piera; Mesfun, Sennai; Kraxner, Florian

    2017-04-01

    BECCS (here the combination of forest-based bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) is seen as a promising tool to deliver large quantities of negative emissions needed to comply with ambitious climate stabilization targets. In many IPCC AR5 scenarios to stabilize GHG concentration at levels consistent with 2°C above pre-industrial levels, BECCS is an important feature contributing to more than 5% of global energy supply. However, a land-based mitigation option such as large-scale bioenergy production (w/o CCS) might interfere with other land-based mitigation options popular for their large co-benefits such as reforestation and reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+). We develop a systems approach to identify and quantify possible tradeoffs between REDD+ and BECCS with the help of remote sensing and engineering modeling and apply this for illustration to South East Asia. First results indicate that prioritizing REDD+ does imply that the BECCS potential remains limited. However, reforestation has the chance to be developed into a larger portfolio of land-based mitigation options such as bioenergy and BECCS, which still have a very good mitigation potential in terms of emissions, but at the same time help to conserve and restore ecosystems.

  13. Survey Probability and Factors affecting Farmers Participation in Future and Option Markets Case Study: Cotton product in Gonbad kavos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. sakhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Farmers are facing with a variety of natural and unnatural risks in agricultural activities, and thus their income is unstable. A wide range of risks such as risks of production, price risk, financial and human risks, influence the income of agricultural products. One of the major risks that farmers faced is the risk of price volatility of agricultural products. Cotton is one of the agricultural products with high real price volatility. Numerous tools for marketing and risk management for agricultural products in the face of price risks are available. Futures and options contracts may be the most important available tools (to reduce price volatility in agricultural products. The purpose of the current study was to look at the possibility of farmers participations in the future and option markets that presented as a means to reduce the cotton prices volatility. The dependent variable for this purpose had four categories and these included: participate in both the market, participation in the future market, participation in the option market and participation in both future and option markets. Materials and Methods: data gathered with interview and completing 200 questionnaires of cotton growers using simple random sampling. Multinomial Logit Regression Model was used for data analysis. Results and Discussion: To measure content validity of the preliminary study the validity of confirmatory factor analysis were used. For calculating reliability, the pre-test done with 30 questionnaires and reliability, coefficient Cronbach alpha was 0.79. The independence of dependent variables categories was confirmed by Hausman test results. The Likelihood ratio and Wald showed these categories are not combinable. Results indicated into period 2014 -2015 and the sample under study, 35% of cotton growers unwilling to participate in future and option markets. Farmers willingness to participate in future and option market was 19% and %21

  14. Problems in the Study of Canadian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Barry

    1980-01-01

    Considers reasons for studying Canadian literature. Notes the relative infancy of Canadian literature and the need for maintaining objectivity in the study of Canadian literature. Proposes that teachers of Canadian literature focus on individual, contemporary works, examining language, form, and craftsmanship. (RL)

  15. Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum problems: a longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group defined as having Autism Spectrum Problems (ASP) if they scored above a strict threshold on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). Twenty-eight (0.8%) of 3700 children fulfilled the selected criteria for ASP at both waves, and the prevalence of chronic insomnia was more than ten times higher in these children compared to the controls. Children with ASP developed more sleep problems over time, with an incidence rate at wave 2 of 37.5% compared to 8.6% in the controls. The sleep problems were more persistent over time, with a remission rate of 8.3% compared to 52.4% in the controls. ASP was a strong predictor of sleep problems at wave 2 (OR = 12.44), and while emotional and behavioural problems explained a large proportion of this association, the effect of ASP on insomnia remained significant in the fully adjusted model (OR = 3.25). These findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems in children with ASP.

  16. Attentional bias in non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers, and abstinent pathological gamblers: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Nigro, Giovanna; Griffiths, Mark D; Cosenza, Marina; D'Olimpio, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    Attentional biases have been recognized as factors responsible for the maintenance of gambling problems. To date, no study has ever assessed the attentional biases among problem gamblers that have discontinued gambling (e.g., abstinent gamblers in treatment). The sample consisted of 75 participants comprising three groups: non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers, and abstinent pathological gamblers undergoing treatment. The groups were discriminated using South Oaks Gambling Screen scores, with the exception of the abstinent pathological gamblers that already had a DSM-5 diagnosis for gambling disorder. Participants carried out a modified Posner Task for the assessment of attentional bias for gambling stimuli and completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Gambling Craving Scale. Abstinent pathological gamblers showed an avoidance bias in the maintenance of attention, whereas problem gamblers exhibited a facilitation in detecting gambling stimuli. No biases were detected in non-problem gamblers. The results also demonstrated that compared to the other groups, abstinent pathological gamblers showed high emotional stress and problem gamblers reported a higher level of craving. The sample size limits the generalizability of results. The present study demonstrated that attentional biases affect the maintenance and the discontinuation of gambling activities, and that the subjective feeling of craving for gambling may facilitate problem gamblers' attention towards gambling stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Pilot Study of Problem Formulation and Resolution in an Online Problem-based Learning Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Kenny

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an exploratory study to investigate the existence, and nature, of student problem formulation and resolution processes in an undergraduate online Problem-Based Learning (PBL course in Agricultural Sciences. We report on the use of a content analysis instrument developed to measure problem formulation and resolution (PFR processes in online asynchronous discussions (Murphy, 2004a, 2004b to analyze students' text-based, online discussions. The results offer evidence that students do engage in problem formulation and resolution and that these processes appear to be consistent with the PBL process carried out in this course. However, the nature of the PBL pedagogy, at least in this instructional context, ties the PBL problems to be solved tightly to a marked assignment structure and, therefore, appears to restrict the PFR process in its early and late stages.

  18. NAFTA as an agricultural "policy option" for Mexico : a case study within a two-level framework

    OpenAIRE

    Røssaak, Camilla

    1996-01-01

    NAFTA AS AN AGRICULTURAL 'POLICY OPTION' FOR MEXICO: A CASE STUDY WITHIN A TWO- LEVEL FRAMEWORK The main focus of the thesis was the agricultural negotiation process between Mexico and the United States within the NAFTA process. I wanted to investigate to what extent this process led to changes in Mexican agricultural policy. Furthermore I wanted to find out whose interests were taken into consideration when Mexico negotiated agriculture in NAFTA. If so, was this done at the expense o...

  19. Homeless Mentally Ill: Problems and Options in Estimating Numbers and Trends. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    In response to a request by the United States Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, the General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the methodological soundness of current population estimates of the number of homeless chronically mentally ill persons, and proposed several options for estimating the size of this population. The GAO reviewed…

  20. Phenomenographic study of students’ problem solving approaches in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Walsh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the students’ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.

  1. Problem Definition Study: Lead Beta-Resorcylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Otto Barlocher GmbH Metallgesellschaft AG ITALY Stabilital SpA Spain Industrias Quimicas de Parets. SA UNITED KINGDOM Akzo Chemie UK Ltd...appears to be the motor activity of the bowel. In his studies with human «subjects, Kehoe (1942) found nc effect of dietary changes in calcium or...increase in cerebrocortical acetylchollne and a decrease in brain stem noreplnephrine. The changes in the regional levels of these biogenlc amines

  2. Patient INformation about Options for Treatment (PINOT): a prospective national study of information given to incident CKD Stage 5 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Rachael L; Howard, Kirsten; Webster, Angela C; Snelling, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Informed decision-making requires the presentation of all possible courses of action; however, it is unclear what proportion of Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are routinely informed of all their treatment options. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of patient and unit characteristics on the type and timing of information provided. A prospective national multi-centre study of information was given to incident pre-emptive transplant, dialysis and conservatively managed patients in Australian renal units, over a 3-month period. Sixty-six of 73 renal units participated in the study. Seven hundred and twenty-one incident CKD Stage 5 patients including 102 who chose not to dialyse were identified. Of these, 603 (84%) were presented with information about their options prior to commencing treatment. Three quarters (n = 543) were presented with home dialysis, one-third (n = 230) pre-emptive transplantation and 65% (n = 470) were informed about conservative care as an option. Patients were more likely to receive information prior to commencing treatment if they were known to a nephrologist for more than 3 months (OR 7.29, 95% CI 3.86-13.79) or were treated in small units with < 100 dialysis patients (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.60). The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate at the time information was first presented was 13.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI 12.7-13.8) and mean serum creatinine was 449 μmol/L (95% CI 431-467). Most Australian patients were informed of their treatment options prior to starting treatment, albeit in late stage CKD. Earlier education and support for informed decision-making may help optimize the uptake of pre-emptive transplantation and home dialysis therapies.

  3. Modeling studies of water consumption for transportation fuel options: Hawaii, US-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. W.; Webber, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    flow restoration that has already been ordered requires that an additional 18.5 Mgal/d from East Maui streams and 12.5 Mgal/d from West Maui streams not be diverted for irrigation or other uses. Further environmental flow requirements based on a habitat-protective standard enumerated by the Department of Aquatic Resources could be an additional 45 Mgal/d. Thus, it is conceivable that over the next several years a total of 76 Mgal/d, which is 20%-30% of the irrigation water at existing sugarcane farms, could be appropriated away from agriculture on Maui. Many locals have never viewed the large-scale diversion of stream flow for agriculture as legitimate. Now that much of the plantation agriculture in Hawai'i has shut down due to lack of competitive economics, the discussion of the priority for use of 'old' agricultural water is prompting more water to be left in streams. At the same time, Hawai'i has goals for energy sustainability that include producing biofuels. Thus, Maui is a microcosm of the struggle for energy and water sustainability. Brief discussions of other studies on the water needs for transportation fuel options for the continental 48 U.S. states will also be presented.

  4. More options lead to more searching and worse choices in finding partners for romantic relationships online: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-06-01

    It is not surprising that the Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Almost every online-dating Web site provides members with search tools. However, do users truly benefit from more complete searches of a large pool of possibilities? The present study, based on the cognitive perspective, examined whether more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to worse choices and poorer selectivity. We argue that more search options lead to less selective processing by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A total of 128 Taiwanese late adolescents and adults with experience in online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. After entering the characteristics they found desirable in a partner in such a relationship, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of available profiles. The dependent measures consisted of the number of profiles searched, the average preference difference for all profiles viewed, the preference difference for the chosen profile, and the degree of selectivity. These measures were used to determine whether more attention was devoted to better alternatives and less attention to worse alternatives. The data supported the predictions. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  5. Diffuse interface methods for inverse problems: case study for an elliptic Cauchy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Løseth Elvetun, Ole; Schlottbom, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Many inverse problems have to deal with complex, evolving and often not exactly known geometries, e.g. as domains of forward problems modeled by partial differential equations. This makes it desirable to use methods which are robust with respect to perturbed or not well resolved domains, and which allow for efficient discretizations not resolving any fine detail of those geometries. For forward problems in partial differential equations methods based on diffuse interface representations have gained strong attention in the last years, but so far they have not been considered systematically for inverse problems. In this work we introduce a diffuse domain method as a tool for the solution of variational inverse problems. As a particular example we study ECG inversion in further detail. ECG inversion is a linear inverse source problem with boundary measurements governed by an anisotropic diffusion equation, which naturally cries for solutions under changing geometries, namely the beating heart. We formulate a regularization strategy using Tikhonov regularization and, using standard source conditions, we prove convergence rates. A special property of our approach is that not only operator perturbations are introduced by the diffuse domain method, but more important we have to deal with topologies which depend on a parameter \\varepsilon in the diffuse domain method, i.e. we have to deal with \\varepsilon -dependent forward operators and \\varepsilon -dependent norms. In particular the appropriate function spaces for the unknown and the data depend on \\varepsilon . This prevents the application of some standard convergence techniques for inverse problems, in particular interpreting the perturbations as data errors in the original problem does not yield suitable results. We consequently develop a novel approach based on saddle-point problems. The numerical solution of the problem is discussed as well and results for several computational experiments are reported. In

  6. Use of the Paid Open Access Option in Hybrid Open Access Journals in Agriculture: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kocher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use and usefulness of the hybrid open access publishing model in agricultural sciences using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. To ascertain the level of usage of the paid open access option in hybrid open access journals in agriculture, we studied the agriculture-related journals published by six commercial publishers. These publishers offer authors the option of paying a fee, often close to $3,000 per article, to make their article immediately freely available, usually with a Creative Commons license. We defined agriculture broadly but also assigned each journal to a subspecialty (e.g., animal science in order to see if there were differences based on these subdivisions. For each journal we gathered data for 2014-2015 and noted the total number of research articles and the number of those that were made freely available by authors paying the open access fee. To give context to our results we also surveyed local faculty in agricultural sciences, asking their reasons for considering the paid open access options and the sources of the funds to pay for it. Survey respondents were asked about their academic position and rank to see if there were differences to be noted. We also investigated the findability of the open access articles, noting if each individual publisher offered a way to easily locate all the freely available articles in a particular journal and if there are other avenues to easily locate these articles.

  7. Developing and Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Options in Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study in Southwestern Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will likely have significant effects on forest ecosystems worldwide. In Mediterranean regions, such as that in southwestern Oregon, USA, changes will likely be driven mainly by wildfire and drought. To minimize the negative effects of climate change, resource managers require tools and information to assess climate change vulnerabilities and to develop and implement adaptation actions. We developed an approach to facilitate development and implementation of climate change adaptation options in forest management. This approach, applied in a southwestern Oregon study region, involved establishment of a science–manager partnership, a science-based assessment of forest and woodland vulnerabilities to climate change, climate change education in multiple formats, hands-on development of adaptation options, and application of tools to incorporate climate change in planned projects. Through this approach, we improved local manager understanding of the potential effects of climate change in southwestern Oregon, and enabled evaluation of proposed management activities in the context of climatic stressors. Engaging managers throughout the project increased ownership of the process and outcomes, as well as the applicability of the adaptation options to on-the-ground actions. Science–management partnerships can effectively incorporate evolving science, regardless of the socio-political environment, and facilitate timely progress in adaptation to climate change.

  8. [Strategic options for the relationship-management between hospital and statutory health insurance - an explorative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, V; Rossbach, C

    2010-05-01

    This investigation examines the specific demands of statutory health insurance organisations on hospitals. The need for such an analysis is determined by the increasing competition in the German health care system in the past years. Hospitals are confronted with growing and perhaps conflictual demands on the hospital's stakeholders. An empirical investigation should provide first insight into the widely unexplored relationship between statutory health insurances and hospitals. For this reason, 23 explorative interviews with managers of hospitals and statutory health insurance organisations were conducted. The resulting demands are structured and assigned to identified areas of demand. Aspects which are important for statutory health insurance organisations and aspects that hospitals assume are important were compared. Thus, an existing gap was identified. Furthermore, options for statutory health insurance (dis-)satisfaction are shown. Such an analysis is essential for hospitals to develop and maintain a positive relationship to the statutory health insurances and to achieve competitive advantages. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  9. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foot problems such as swelling, pain, and Raynaud's phenomenon. article Access to care: What is being done, ... lupus. article How lupus treatments can affect your child's vision Antimalarials can affect the retina, so an ...

  10. What students learn when studying physics practice exam problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witat Fakcharoenphol,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed a web-based tool to provide students with access to old exam problems and solutions. By controlling the order in which students saw the problems, as well as their access to solutions, we obtained data about student learning by studying old exam problems. Our data suggest that in general students learn from doing old exam problems, and that having access to the problem solutions increases their learning. However, the data also suggest the depth of learning may be relatively shallow. In addition, the data show that doing old exam problems provides important formative assessment about the student’s overall preparedness for the exam and their particular areas of strength and weakness.

  11. Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekini Shehu

    2010-01-01

    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  12. Organizational justice and sleeping problems: The Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Ferrie, Jane E; Gimeno, David; De Vogli, Roberto; Shipley, Martin; Brunner, Eric J; Kumari, Meena; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that organizational injustice contributes to sleeping problems. Poor sleep quality can be a marker of prolonged emotional stress and has been shown to have serious effects on the immune system and metabolism. Data were from the prospective Whitehall II study of white-collar British civil servants (3143 women and 6895 men, aged 35-55 years at baseline). Age, employment grade, health behaviors, and depressive symptoms were measured at Phase 1 (1985-1988) and baseline sleeping problems were assessed at Phase 2 (1989-1990). Organizational justice was assessed twice, at Phases 1 and 2. The outcome was mean of sleeping problems during Phases 5 (1997-1999) and 7 (2003-2004). In men, low organizational justice at Phase 1 and Phase 2 were associated with overall sleeping problems, sleep maintenance problems, sleep onset problems, and nonrefreshing sleep at Phases 5 and 7. In women, a significant association was observed between low organizational justice and overall sleeping problems and sleep onset problems. These associations were robust to adjustments for age, employment grade, health behaviors, job strain, depressive symptoms, and sleeping problems at baseline. This study shows that perceived unfair treatment at workplace is associated with increased risk of poor sleep quality in men and women, one potential mechanism through which justice at work may affect health.

  13. Development of the gagging problem assessment : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvell, G. F. E. C. van Linden; Ter Pelkwijk, B. J.; Stegenga, B.

    An accepted management strategy for gagging problems appears not to exist. A reliable and valid instrument is needed to develop an evidence based treatment for this clinical problem. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a newly developed measurement tool for

  14. Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…

  15. Evaluating Students' Beliefs in Problem Solving Process: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Guven, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is not simply a process that ends when an answer is found; it is a scientific process that evolves from understanding the problem to evaluating the solution. This process is affected by several factors. Among these, one of the most substantial is belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the beliefs of high school students…

  16. Development of the gagging problem assessment : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvell, G. F. E. C. van Linden; Ter Pelkwijk, B. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2008-01-01

    An accepted management strategy for gagging problems appears not to exist. A reliable and valid instrument is needed to develop an evidence based treatment for this clinical problem. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a newly developed measurement tool for de

  17. Climate change and maritime transport on the Saint Lawrence : exploratory study of adaptation options; Changements climatiques et transport maritime sur le Saint-Laurent : etude exploratoir d'options d'adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arcy, P. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Quebec Region, PQ (Canada); Bibeault, J.F. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Raffa, R. [Transport Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Some climate change scenarios envisage a decrease in water levels in the Saint Lawrence Seaway, which could have appreciable impacts on commercial navigation. This study focused on climate adaptation options that would allow maritime and harbour activities to remain at their current level. The study was divided into two parts. The first part evaluated the modelled water levels in the river part of the St. Lawrence from Montreal to Quebec City. The evaluation was carried out using a numerical hydraulic model which integrated the results of the most recent climatic scenarios for the Great Lakes Basin, the Ottawa River and apprehended rising ocean levels. According to the worst case climatic scenario, the decrease in water levels could reach 1 meter in Montreal and 30 centimetres at Trois-Rivieres. Simulations identified the area around Becancour as the limit for the effect of water level decrease. New regulations to be adopted by the International Joint Committee will seek to share the impacts between the upstream, Great Lakes and the downstream, Saint Lawrence Seaway. The paper emphasized the complexity of predicting the recurrence of hydrological events of this magnitude because of the uncertainty of climatic conditions. The second part of the study presented 2 options for commercial navigation in changing water levels. The first option excluded any physical modification from the river, while the second included alteration work. The economic, environmental and social impacts of both options were discussed. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. A quasi-experimental study on a new service option for short-term residential care of older stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau PH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pui-hing Chau,1 Fannie Yeung,2 Tsz-wai Chan,1 Jean Woo2 1School of Nursing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Abstract: We conducted a quasi-experimental study to compare the effectiveness of a new short-term residential care option for stroke rehabilitation with that of usual day hospital care. Primary data were collected from stroke patients and their caregivers from June 2009 to May 2012. New service option users and their caregivers were recruited for the intervention group, while users of usual public geriatric day hospital care and their caregivers were recruited for the control group. The primary outcome measures were Modified Barthel Index (MBI and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE scores. Trained research assistants assessed the outcome measures at the beginning of the rehabilitation program (baseline and at a 4-month follow-up. Sixty and 128 stroke patients were recruited for the intervention and control groups, respectively; 50 and 105 participants, respectively, completed the 4-month follow-up. At 4-month follow-up, the intervention group had an increased MBI score of 15.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8–19.8 and an MMSE score of 1.3 (95% CI 0.4–2.1. In comparison, the control group had an increased MBI score of 13.3 (95% CI 9.7–16.8 and an MMSE score of 1.1 (95% CI 0.4–1.9. Both groups showed a significant improvement in MBI and MMSE scores after 4 months, and there was no significant between-group difference. To conclude, the new service option and the usual care option showed similar improvement in rehabilitation outcomes at 4 months after baseline. Initiatives to provide alternative care options on a user-pay model should be encouraged to ensure a sustainable health care system. Keywords: rehabilitation, residential care, day hospital, stroke, elderly, Hong Kong

  19. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life. The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life. It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2

  20. Alternative fuel options for urban bus application in the Netherlands: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleuanus, W.A.J.; Hartikka, T.S.; Lange, R. de; Ligterink, N.E.; Breunesse, R.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2008-01-01

    Today, a large number of urban areas in the Netherlands face significant local air quality problems. One source of this local pollution is road traffic and, in urban areas, public transport by city bus. For this reason, there is a lot of interest in different opportunities to lower the harmful emiss

  1. Study on Venture Capital Investment Risk Avoiding Base on Option Pricing in Agricultural Production and Processing Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper uses the approaches and models of option theory to analyze two-stage venture capital investment in agricultural production and processing enterprises decision-making under uncertainty. Mathematics expressions of this two-stage venture capital investment decision-making are presented. An option value model about two-stage venture capital investment decision-making base on options pricing theory under the uncertainty is presented. Get the solution of option pricing model which we present.

  2. Studies on nonsense mediated decay reveal novel therapeutic options for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyam, Murali D

    2009-01-01

    Scientific breakthroughs have often led to commercially viable patents mainly in the field of engineering. Commercialization in the field of medicine has been restricted mostly to machinery and engineering on the one hand and therapeutic drugs for common chronic ailments such as cough, cold, headache, etc, on the other. Sequencing of the human genome has attracted the attention of pharmaceutical companies and now biotechnology has become a goldmine for commercialization of products and processes. Recent advances in our understanding of basic biological processes have resulted in the opening of new avenues for treatment of human genetic diseases, especially single gene disorders. A significant proportion of human genetic disorders have been shown to be caused due to degradation of transcripts for specific genes through a process called nonsense mediated decay (NMD). The modulation of NMD provides a viable therapeutic option for treatment of several genetic disorders and therefore has been a good prospect for patenting and commercialization. In this review the molecular basis for NMD and attempts to treat genetic diseases which result from NMD are discussed.

  3. Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165947.html Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests Work with monkeys indicates birth ... 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists exploring how the Zika virus passes from pregnant monkeys to their fetuses ...

  4. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160159.html Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests Gender-related differences seem to start ... are more likely when women are carrying baby boys, new research suggests. After analyzing more than half ...

  5.  Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger: An Empirical Study of EU15 Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    ) to exercise real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The results are robust after controlling for the size of the firms and their sales in the Euro-area. The results go beyond what......This empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the EU15 countries shows that the introduction of the Euro has made Euro firms (firms based in one of the twelve Euro countries) more inclined than non-Euro firms (firms based in one of the three non-Euro countries: UK, Sweden and Denmark...

  6. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Podgorney, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelkar, Sharad M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McClure, Mark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Danko, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghassemi, Ahmad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Pengcheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bahrami, Davood [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barbier, Charlotte [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Qinglu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chiu, Kit-Kwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detournay, Christine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsworth, Derek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Furtney, Jason K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gao, Qian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guo, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, Yue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horne, Roland N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Norbeck, Jack [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Safari, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sesetty, Varahanaresh [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tao, Qingfeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Signe K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wong, Yang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xia, Yidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-02

    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems

  7. Essay on Option Pricing, Hedging and Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel

    Quantitative finance is concerned about applying mathematics to financial markets.This thesis is a collection of essays that study different problems in this field: How efficient are option price approximations to calibrate a stochastic volatilitymodel? (Chapter 2) How different is the discretely...... sampled realized variance from the continuouslysampled realized variance? (Chapter 3) How can we do static hedging for a payoff with two assets? (Chapter 4) Can we apply fast Fourier Transform methods to efficiently use interest rateMarkov-functional models? Can we extend them to accommodate othertypes...... variance. We investigated the impact of their assumptions and we present an adjustment for their formula. Our adjustment provides a better approximation to price discretely sampled realized variance options under different market scenarios Static Hedging for Two-Asset Options In this paper we derive...

  8. Regionally contaminated aquifers--toxicological relevance and remediation options (Bitterfeld case study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Susanne; Schirmer, Mario; Weiss, Holger; Wycisk, Peter; Grossmann, Jochen; Kaschl, Arno

    2004-12-15

    Large-scale contaminated megasites like Bitterfeld in eastern Germany are characterized by a regional contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater as a result of a long and varied history of chemical production. While the contaminants in soils and sediments mostly represent a localized problem, pollutants in groundwater may spread to uncontaminated areas and endanger receptors like surface water and drinking water wells according to the site-specific hydrologic regime. From the toxicological point of view, the contaminants at the Bitterfeld megasite represent a dangerous cocktail of various harmful substances coming from a multitude of sources. Appropriate remediation techniques must be able to remedy the specific problems arising from hot spot areas within the megasite in addition to preventing a further extension of the contaminated zone towards uncontaminated compartments. Therefore, a combination of specifically designed remediation technologies based on the pump and treat-principle with in situ technologies, such as reactive walls and monitored/enhanced natural attenuation, is necessary to efficiently address the miscellaneous challenges at this megasite. In this paper, the currently known contaminant distribution, the associated problems for human health and the environment and possible remediation strategies are presented for the Bitterfeld megasite.

  9. [A study on origin of genetic ethics problem and countermeasure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2008-03-01

    The genetic ethical problem is one of problems which are the most disputable or difficult to resolve perfectly in the fields of life science. In these years the research for the problems is being concentrated on the types of genetic ethical problem and the ways to resolve them. But the systematic research for origin of genetic ethical problem is rare to be known. Thus it seems to be short of theoretical support to bring forward corresponding countermeasure. In this paper we focus on the evolving germ of genetic ethical problem and its evolving rule from the twofold views of human biological evolution and cultural evolution. A human being is a double offspring with biological evolution and cultural evolution . And he is a species which has both biological and cultural attribute on the earth. Through comparing and studying human biological evolution , cultural evolution, and characteristics of both biological attribute and cultural attribute, we bring forward a viewpoint that all ethical problems originate from a conflict originating from interplay of human biological evolution and cultural evolution. We intend to seek for the gist of theory and practice in order to research for genetic ethical problem and put forward some corresponding countermeasures. At the same time we'll advance a series of corresponding countermeasures of genetic ethical problem. The final aim in the paper is that not only some of our opinions will be admitted, but also through learning and understanding genetic ethical problem and its origin, the decision-makers and investigators in genetics field will be promoted to have more sense of fate and responsibility , so that the average public are able to misunderstand less and understand more for studying and genetics applying. We all work hard for genetics career to make it in healthy and continuing development and give a lot of happiness to human beings.

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia Ingrid, Keller

    2012-01-01

    .... So for the present study we researched the possible strategies, identifying those options to successfully integrate the dimensions of sustainability into organizational development from a systems...

  11. Watermark options

    OpenAIRE

    Rodosthenous, Neofytos; Zervos, Mihail

    2017-01-01

    We consider a new family of derivatives whose payoffs become strictly positive when the price of their underlying asset falls relative to its historical maximum. We derive the solution to the discretionary stopping problems arising in the context of pricing their perpetual American versions by means of an explicit construction of their value functions. In particular, we fully characterise the free-boundary functions that provide the optimal stopping times of these genuinely two-dimensional pr...

  12. Watermark Options

    OpenAIRE

    Rodosthenous, Neofytos; Zervos, Mihail

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new family of derivatives whose payoffs become strictly positive when the price of their underlying asset falls relative to its historical maximum. We derive the solution to the discretionary stopping problems arising in the context of pricing their perpetual American versions by means of an explicit construction of their value functions. In particular, we fully characterise the free-boundary functions that provide the optimal stopping times of these genuinely two-dimensional pr...

  13. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, a ground breaking paper titled, "Feasibility of Rocket Propellant Production on Mars" by Ash, Dowler, and Varsi discussed how ascent propellants could be manufactured on the Mars surface from carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere to reduce launch mass. Since then, the concept of making mission critical consumables such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables from local resources, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), for robotic and human missions to Mars has been studied many times. In the late 1990's, NASA initiated a series of Mars Human Design Reference Missions (DRMs), the first of which was released in 1997. These studies primarily focused on evaluating the impact of making propellants on Mars for crew ascent to Mars orbit, but creating large caches of life support consumables (water & oxygen) as a backup for regenerative life support systems for long-duration surface stays (>500 days) was also considered in Mars DRM 3.0. Until science data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter and subsequent robotic missions revealed that water may be widely accessable across the surface of Mars, prior Mars ISRU studies were limited to processing Mars atmospheric resources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and water vapor). In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study which considered water on Mars as a potential resource for the first time in a human mission architecture. While knowledge of both water resources on Mars and the hardware required to excavate and extract the water were very preliminary, the study concluded that a significant reduction in mass and significant enhancements to the mission architecture were possible if Mars water resources were utilized. Two subsequent Mars ISRU studies aimed at reexamining ISRU technologies, processing options, and advancements in the state-of-the-art since 2007 and to better understand the volume and packaging associated

  14. Concurrent adversities among adolescents with conduct problems: the NAAHS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Bjørn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have confirmed that maltreatment and abuse in childhood are related to conduct problems. Less is known about such relationships with concurrent adversities in adolescence and, also, when compared with other severe adversities and possible multiple additive effects. The study encompassed a community population of 4881 adolescents 15-16 years of age 50.1 % boys and 49.9 % girls. Youth with and without conduct problem scores within the deviant range on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was compared on 12 concurrent adversities. Based on self-reports, 4.4 % of the adolescents had conduct problem scores within the deviant range and more girls (5.1 %) than boys (3.7 %). In the deviant conduct problem group, 65.1 % had experienced two or more concurrent adversities compared with 26.3 % of youths in the non-deviant group (OR 5.23, 95 % CI 3.91-7.01). Likewise, the deviant conduct problem group was from 1.71 to 8.43 times more at the risk of experiencing the different adversities. Parental mental health problems and experiences of violence were multivariately strongest associated with conduct problem scores within the deviant range on the SDQ. A strong multiple additive relationship with adversities was found. Two-thirds of youth with SDQ conduct problem scores within the deviant range reported two or more concurrent adversities. Clinicians should seek information about kinds and amount of possible traumatic adversities in youth with conduct problems and offer evidence based treatment.

  15. Pricing Arithmetic Asian Options under Hybrid Stochastic and Local Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ku Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, hybrid stochastic and local volatility models have become an industry standard for the pricing of derivatives and other problems in finance. In this study, we use a multiscale stochastic volatility model incorporated by the constant elasticity of variance to understand the price structure of continuous arithmetic average Asian options. The multiscale partial differential equation for the option price is approximated by a couple of single scale partial differential equations. In terms of the elasticity parameter governing the leverage effect, a correction to the stochastic volatility model is made for more efficient pricing and hedging of Asian options.

  16. Making real options really work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets.

  17. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-08-01

    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  18. Mother’s perceptions of child mental health problems and services: A cross sectional study from Lahore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Ashraf, Sania; Shoukat, Rabia; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of mothers regarding child mental health problems, its causes, preferred treatment options, and to determine whom they would consult, if their child had a psychiatric illness. Methods: Following informed consent, a questionnaire covering perceptions regarding various aspects of child mental illness was used for data collection from mothers. They were asked to identify the symptoms and behaviours they considered psychopathological in children, which treatments they would prefer, where they would turn for help with a mentally ill child, and their understanding of the causes of child psychiatric disorders in addition to ways to increase awareness of child psychiatric issues in the society. Results: Ninety one mothers participated in the study. They equally perceived emotional, behavioural and cognitive symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, economic difficulties, social adversity and possession by evil spirits. A substantial proportion preferred medication, recitation of Holy Quran and psychotherapy as the preferred treatment options. Overall, mothers preferred consulting health professionals than religious scholars and faith healers. They were keen for steps to increase mental health awareness within their society. Conclusion: Despite different cultural perspective, mothers exhibit good understanding of symptoms of child mental health issues and appear open to various services and treatment options. Understanding parental perceptions and expectations from child psychiatric services are crucial in increasing families’ engagement in treatment. PMID:27375732

  19. Studying Problem Solving through Group Discussion in Chat Rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kozlova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we use a chat conversations’ corpus to study the process of resolving language problems. Our corpus includes chat conversations which took place between LSP students engaged in correcting errors in their peers’ summaries. The participants worked in groups and used the Windows Messenger program for communication within the group. Their task also included making use of electronic dictionaries and other reference materials. The conversations’ corpus obtained as a result of this exercise was analyzed holistically for possible indicators of each particular stage of the problem solving process. Later these indicators were validated throughout the entire corpus. Each problem solving process was thus represented as a chain of indicators and acceptability was determined for each error correction. The resulting problem solving chains were used to prove our hypotheses concerning internal and external support in text reproduction.

  20. Study on model and algorithm of inventory routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fengjiao

    Vehicle routing problem(VRP) is one of important research in the logistics system. Nowadays, there are many researches on the VRP, but their don't consider the cost of inventory. Thus, the conclusion doesn't meet reality. This paper studies on the inventory routing problem (IRP)and uses one target function to describe these two conflicting problems, which are very important in the logistics optimization. The paper establishes the model of single client and many clients' inventory routing problem. An optimizing iterative algorithm is presented to solve the model. According to the model we can confirm the best quantity, efficiency and route of delivery. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the efficiency of model and algorithm.

  1. A study of MLFMA for large-scale scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastriter, Michael Larkin

    This research is centered in computational electromagnetics with a focus on solving large-scale problems accurately in a timely fashion using first principle physics. Error control of the translation operator in 3-D is shown. A parallel implementation of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) was studied as far as parallel efficiency and scaling. The large-scale scattering program (LSSP), based on the ScaleME library, was used to solve ultra-large-scale problems including a 200lambda sphere with 20 million unknowns. As these large-scale problems were solved, techniques were developed to accurately estimate the memory requirements. Careful memory management is needed in order to solve these massive problems. The study of MLFMA in large-scale problems revealed significant errors that stemmed from inconsistencies in constants used by different parts of the algorithm. These were fixed to produce the most accurate data possible for large-scale surface scattering problems. Data was calculated on a missile-like target using both high frequency methods and MLFMA. This data was compared and analyzed to determine possible strategies to increase data acquisition speed and accuracy through multiple computation method hybridization.

  2. Problem roulette: Studying introductory physics in the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, August E.; Mills, Michael; Winn, David; Jones, Kathryn; Tritz, Jared; McKay, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Problem Roulette (PR), a web-based study service at the University of Michigan that offers random-within-topic access to a large library of past exam problems in introductory physics courses. Built on public-private cloud infrastructure, PR served nearly 1000 students during Fall 2012 term, delivering more than 60,000 problem pages. The service complements that of commercial publishing houses by offering problems authored by local professors and by explicitly aligning topics with exam content. We describe the service architecture, including reporting and analytical capabilities, and present an initial evaluation of the impact of its use. Among roughly 500 students studying electromagnetism, we find that the 229 students who worked fifty or more problems over the term outperformed their complement by 0.40 grade points (on a 4.0 scale). This improvement partly reflects a selection bias that academically stronger students used the service more frequently. Adjusting for this selection bias, we find a grade point improvement of 0.22, significantly above the random noise level of 0.04. The simple message to students is that working five or more additional problems per week can lead to a quarter-letter grade improvement in introductory physics. Student comments emphasize the importance of randomness in helping them to synthesize concepts. The PR source code is publicly available.

  3. Cross - Currency Hedging Using Options

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Akshay

    2006-01-01

    In today's competitive global markets, most firms are vulnerable to increasing fluctuation in foreign exchange, which is leading them to make use of Currency Derivatives to hedge their risks. Among the several derivatives available, Currency Options are the second most popular instrument used to hedge currency risk. Options are a very distinctive set of instruments that are available to hedge Currency risk. This study provides empirical evidence on why companies employ Currency Options to hed...

  4. Problems and Methods of Source Study of Cinema Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory N. Lanskoy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to basic problems of analysis and interpretation of cinema documents in historical studies, with the possibility of shared approach to the study of cinema and paper documents, the using of art studies principles to the analysis of cinema documents and the efficacy of textual approach to the study of cinema documents among them. The forms of applying different scientific methods to the evaluation of cinema documents as historical sources are also discussed in the article.

  5. The Study on the in Advance of Default Options with a Jump-Diffusion%带跳扩散的可提前到期的违约期权研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方开娟; 傅毅; 张寄洲

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, by the method of partial differential equation, we study the pricing problems of the stock option when the subsidiary corporation defaults. With the jump-diffusion assumption, the acceleration of maturity of the option will be considered.The stock option of the time-interval has been analyzed by the structured form method.The mathematical model of the the stock option and the expression of the solution are obtained.%用偏微分方程的方法,研究子公司是否违约,对母公司的股票期权的定价 的影响问题.在跳扩散的前提假设下,利用结构化方法,考虑当子公司违约时,母公司股票期权的可提前到期性,分时段进行分析,并给出了母公司期权定价的数学模型和解的表达式.

  6. Computational Study on a PTAS for Planar Dominating Set Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Ping Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominating set problem is a core NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization and graph theory, and has many important applications. Baker [JACM 41,1994] introduces a k-outer planar graph decomposition-based framework for designing polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS for a class of NP-hard problems in planar graphs. It is mentioned that the framework can be applied to obtain an O(2ckn time, c is a constant, (1+1/k-approximation algorithm for the planar dominating set problem. We show that the approximation ratio achieved by the mentioned application of the framework is not bounded by any constant for the planar dominating set problem. We modify the application of the framework to give a PTAS for the planar dominating set problem. With k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS has an approximation ratio (1 + 2/k. Using 2k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS achieves the approximation ratio (1+1/k in O(22ckn time. We report a computational study on the modified PTAS. Our results show that the modified PTAS is practical.

  7. Integrating futures studies with organizational development : design options for the scenario project "RSW2020"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twist, van M.J.W.; Steen, van der M.; Vlist, van der M.J.; Demkes, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most futures studies are not used by managers and strategists and do not influence the direction of organizational development. Although the contribution of future studies to management is in theory all but self-evident, the practice in organizations is that futures knowledge is hardly used, or at m

  8. Pricing of swing options: A Monte Carlo simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Kai-Siong

    We study the problem of pricing swing options, a class of multiple early exercise options that are traded in energy market, particularly in the electricity and natural gas markets. These contracts permit the option holder to periodically exercise the right to trade a variable amount of energy with a counterparty, subject to local volumetric constraints. In addition, the total amount of energy traded from settlement to expiration with the counterparty is restricted by a global volumetric constraint. Violation of this global volumetric constraint is allowed but would lead to penalty settled at expiration. The pricing problem is formulated as a stochastic optimal control problem in discrete time and state space. We present a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm which is based on piecewise linear concave approximation of value functions. This algorithm yields the value of the swing option under the assumption that the optimal exercise policy is applied by the option holder. We present a proof of an almost sure convergence that the algorithm generates the optimal exercise strategy as the number of iterations approaches to infinity. Finally, we provide a numerical example for pricing a natural gas swing call option.

  9. Models for S&P500 Dynamics: Evidence from Realized Volatility, Daily Returns, and Option Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Mimouni, Karim

    in the search for alternative specifications. We then estimate the models using maximum likelihood on S&P500 returns. Finally, we employ nonlinear least squares on a panel of option data. In comparison with earlier studies that explicitly solve the filtering problem, we analyze a more comprehensive option data...

  10. A Comparison of Platform Options for Deep-water Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: An Initial Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Fowler, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    This analysis utilizes a 5 - MW VAWT topside design envelope created by Sandia National Laborator ies to compare floating platform options fo r each turbine in the design space. The platform designs are based on two existing designs, the OC3 Hywind spar - buoy and Principal Power's WindFloat semi - submersible. These designs are scaled using Froude - scaling relationships to determine an appropriately sized spar - buoy and semi - submersible design for each topside. Both the physical size of the required platform as well as mooring configurations are considered. Results are compared with a comparable 5 - MW HAWT in order to identify potential differences in the platform and mooring sizing between the VAWT and HAWT . The study shows that there is potential for cost savings due to reduced platform size requirements for the VAWT.

  11. Problem Roulette: Studying Introductory Physics in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, August E; Winn, David; Jones, Kathryn; Tritz, Jared; McKay, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    Problem Roulette (PR) is a web-based study service at the University of Michigan that offers random-within-topic access to a large library of past exam problems in introductory physics courses. Built on public-private cloud computing infrastructure, PR served nearly 1000 students during Fall 2012 term, delivering more than 60,000 problem pages. The service complements that of commercial publishing houses by offering problems authored by local professors. We describe the service architecture, including reporting and analytical capabilities, and present an initial evaluation of the impact of its use. Among roughly 500 students studying electromagnetism, we find that the 229 students who worked fifty or more problems over the term outperformed their complement by 0.40 grade points (on a 4.0 scale). This improvement partly reflects a selection bias that better students used the service more frequently. Adjusting for this selection bias by using overall grade point average (GPA) as a classifier, we find a grade po...

  12. A study of symplectic integrators for planetary system problems: error analysis and comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David M.; Dehnen, Walter

    2017-07-01

    The symplectic Wisdom-Holman map revolutionized long-term integrations of planetary systems. There is freedom in such methods of how to split the Hamiltonian and which coordinate system to employ, and several options have been proposed in the literature. These choices lead to different integration errors, which we study analytically and numerically. The Wisdom-Holman method in Jacobi coordinates and the method of Hernandez, H16, compare favourably and avoid problems of some of the other maps, such as incorrect centre-of-mass position or truncation errors even in the one-planet case. We use H16 to compute the evolution of Pluto's orbital elements over 500 million years in a new calculation.

  13. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  14. Usability problem reports for comparative studies: consistency and inspectability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Attema, J.; Akar, E.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Erburg, Ç.; Berkman, A.E.; Maguire, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores issues of consistency and inspectability in usability test data analysis processes and reports. Problem reports resulting from usability tests performed by three professional usability labs in three different countries are compared. Each of the labs conducted a usability test on

  15. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  16. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  17. Embracing Wicked Problems: The Turn to Design in Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marback, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Recent appeal to the concept of design in composition studies benefits teaching writing in digital media. Yet the concept of design has not been developed enough to fully benefit composition instruction. This article develops an understanding of design as a matter of resolving wicked problems and makes a case for the advantages of this…

  18. A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck

    2013-01-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…

  19. A Genetic Study of Problem Behaviors in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral/emotional problems are common among children of preschool and school age. Verhulst, and Koot (1992, p. 130) reviewed prevalence studies published since 1965. They reported a median prevalence rate for general psychiatric dysfunction in children and adolescents of l3%. This num

  20. Classroom Learning Communities in Educational Leadership: A Comparison Study of Three Delivery Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Carol; Polnick, Barbara; Fink, Raymond, II; Oescher, Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated the perceptions of educational leadership graduate students with regard to how well their face-to-face, online and hybrid classes built a sense of classroom community. Perceptions were measured using the Classroom Community Scale (CCS), which included three measures: total classroom community, connectedness,…

  1. Assessment of cleaner process options : a case study from petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, N. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom); Clift, R.; Basson, L. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Pouton, A.; White, N. [Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    A case study was used to illustrate the challenge of evaluating clean technologies and making modifications to an alkylation unit at a refinery in the United Kingdom. The alkylation unit used hydrogen flouride as an alkylation catalyst and generated fluoridic wastes that required further treatment. The alkylation process is used to produce a high value petroleum blend used for transport fuels. Acidic catalysts are used to eliminate the need for high temperatures and pressures. The study identified possible alterations to enable partial recycling. Different system boundaries were identified. The study considered technological, social, environmental and economic changes associated with the implementation of the process. A life cycle inventory of various processes considered for the refinery was presented. Possible technological changes that could avoid, reduce, or enable partial recycling waste were presented. Losses to relief systems, defluorinators, potassium hydroxide (KOH) treaters, and neutralization systems were also considered. Results of the study showed that the decision-making process involved trade-offs between costs and benefits with considerable uncertainties. It was concluded that the financial scale of projects cannot be used as a guide to systematic sustainability assessment. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  3. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  4. Feasibility Study on: Reforestation of Degraded Grasslands in Indonesia as a Climate Change Mitigation Option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, A.; Naess, L.O.; Sutamihardja, R.T.M.; Gintings, N.

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with a cooperation project between Norway and Indonesia dealing with a feasibility study on sustainable reforestation of degraded grasslands in Indonesia. Poor forest management and uncontrolled land use changes contribute a significant share anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO{sub 2}, and one of many ways to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission is to encourage reforestation and better forest management. The report contains a brief overview of the issue of Imperata (alang-alang) grasslands, an outline of the present status, a discussion of potential costs and benefits associated with reforestation, and suggestions of strategies which could be applied to reach the desired goals. Case studies are presented from three locations where field work has been undertaken. The case studies provide baseline data about the sites and the imperata grasslands, experiences from earlier efforts to rehabilitate the grasslands, the common attitude to reforestation among the local communities, a discussion of the feasibility of reforestation, and finally, recommendations for the future. 142 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Special performing problems of female musicians: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz-Bilfinger, D

    2012-01-01

    Female instrumentalists can encounter serious performing problems because of their physiology that is not regarded as being significant in medical terms, but which nevertheless may seriously hinder or even prevent them from playing their instruments. Music-related medical advice is based on fundamental medical procedures, and includes taking a detailed case history, instrumental biography and, above all, player observation. Three case studies from a medical information center for professional and lay musicians show the importance of gender-specific problems in female musicians: A pianist with "pseudo short-arm syndrome" due to circumference of the abdomen as a result of pregnancy; a violinist with pain in the shoulder girdle due to heavy mammae; and a young oboist with "pseudo breathing- problems" during menstruation.

  6. Development of Carbon Sequestration Options by Studying Carbon Dioxide-Methane Exchange in Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Kristine Nicole

    Gas hydrates form naturally at high pressures (>4 MPa) and low temperatures (climate change point of view, a 100 ppm increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels over the past century is of urgent concern. A potential solution to both of these issues is to simultaneously exchange CH4 with CO 2 in natural hydrate reserves by forming more stable CO2 hydrates. This approach would minimize disturbances to the host sediment matrix of the seafloor while sequestering CO2. Understanding hydrate growth over time is imperative to prepare for large scale CH4 extraction coupled with CO2 sequestration. In this study, we performed macroscale experiments in a 200 mL high-pressure Jerguson cell that mimicked the pressure-temperature conditions of the seafloor. A total of 13 runs were performed under varying conditions. These included the formation of CH4 hydrates, followed by a CO2 gas injection and CO2 hydrate formation followed by a CH4 gas injection. Results demonstrated that once gas hydrates formed, they show "memory effect" in subsequent charges, irrespective of the two gases injected. This was borne out by the induction time data for hydrate formation that reduced from 96 hours for CH4 and 24 hours for CO2 to instant hydrate formation in both cases upon injection of a secondary gas. During the study of CH4-CO2 exchange where CH4 hydrates were first formed and CO2 gas was injected into the system, gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the cell indicated a pure CH4 gas phase, i.e., all injected CO2 gas entered the hydrate phase and remained trapped in hydrate cages for several hours, though over time some CO2 did enter the gas phase. Alternatively, during the CH 4-CO2 exchange study where CO2 hydrates were first formed, the injected CH4 initially entered the hydrate phase, but quickly gaseous CO2 exchanged with CH4 in hydrates to form more stable CO2 hydrates. These results are consistent with the better thermodynamic stability of CO2 hydrates, and this appears to be a

  7. Study of psychosocial problems among adolescent students in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Bhosale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psychosocial health problems are highly prevalent and one of the hidden public health problems amongst the children and adolescents. Early diagnosis by primary care physicians and prompt referral to the specialist is very important for controlling it. Objectives: To screen all school going children for the risk of psychosocial problems, identify risk factors and refer at risk children to the psychiatrist for counseling. Material and Methods: A Cross sectional study in urban and rural field practice area of a teaching hospital in Pune. A screening tool-the youth report of pediatric symptom checklist (Y-PSC was used .Statistical analysis by Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression was used as the test for significance. Results: Out of the total 2154 children, 328 (15.2% were found to be at risk of psychosocial problems. Statistically significant difference was observed as per type of management, medium of education, location of the school, age group, class of the student, total members in the family and socioeconomic status. No significant difference was observed as per gender or the type of the family. However after the application of multinomial logistic regression, significant statistical difference was observed only for the type of management running the schools with significantly more number of proportions of psychological disorders seen in students studying in government run schools. Conclusions: Our study clearly brings out the role of management in psychosocial impairment. The psychosocial impairment is about 15.2% with more impairment seen amongst government schools.

  8. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  9. Options for preventing postlaminectomy adhesion:a comparative study in rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞军; 周跃

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To compare the various methods for prevention of peridural adhesion.Methods:Laminectomy was performed in lumbar1,3and 5segments in 30adult rabbits that were divided into5groups.A10mm×5mm dura was exposed,and then covered with autogenou puriffieds pearl fat(APPF)mixed with basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF)in Group A,with APPE treated with insulin in GroupB,with APPF in Group C,with2%sodium hyaluronate(SHA)in Group D,and uncovered in GroupE.The slide sections for histological study were observed at2,4,6,8and 12weeks postoperatively,The speciment were observed with a computed imaging analysis system at 4and8weeks postoperatively.

  10. Studies of Short Time Response Options for Potentially Hazardous Objects: Current and Forthcoming Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Greenaugh, Kevin C.; Seery, Bernard D.; Bambacus, Myra; Leung, Ronald Y.; Finewood, Lee; Dearborn, David S. P.; Miller, Paul L.; Weaver, Robert P.; Plesko, Catherine; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) are collaborating on Planetary Defense Research. The research program is organized around three case studies: 1. Deflection of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 101955 Bennu (1999 RQ36)[OSIRIS-REx mission target], 2. Deflection of the secondary member of the PHA 65803 Didymos (1996 GT) [DART mission target], 3. Deflection of a scaled-down version of the comet 67PChuryumov-Gerasimenko [Rosetta mission target]. NASAGSFC is providing astrodynamics and spacecraft mission design expertise, while NNSA, DOE, LLNL, LANL and SNL are providing expertise in modeling the effects of kinetic impactor spacecraft and nuclear explosive devices on the target objects.

  11. Policy Options for Private Forest Owners in Western Balkans: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersudin AVDIBEGOVIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Private forest owners start to play an important role in Western Balkans’ forestry and they are essential to the successful implementation of environmental policies. Little is known about how forest policy can support private forest owners in these countries and therefore this study was conducted though a qualitative method, based on personal interviews with representatives of 54 stakeholders that include state forest authorities and administration, private forest owners associations, forest science and research and private sector in Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The results show significant homogeneity across the region towards creation of independent interest forest owners associations based on financial support. Regression analysis identified stakeholder attitudes as significant predictors of policy preferences and also identified owners of production forest as more supportive of such policies

  12. Option of the European Steppe Frontier in Modern Russian and Ukrainian Cossacks Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslak V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to research the specific using of the frontier paradigm in the study on Cossack history by contemporary Russian and Ukrainian historiography. There are examined views of Russian and Ukrainian historians on the following issues: the genesis of the views on the Cossack communities as a special ethno-social organisms at Europe’s Great Frontier, the characteristics of the inter-ethnic contact zone in the stretch of steppes from the Dnipro to the Terek, the views on the interaction between Cossack communities and the non-Christian Cossack formations on the other side of the Christian-Muslim frontier, the emergence of the research approach based on the conception of the balance of confrontational and non-confrontational contacts and mutual impacts.

  13. Deterministic versus Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis in Investment Problems : An Environmental Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groenendaal, W.J.H.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis in investment problems is an important tool to determine which factors can jeopardize the future of the investment.Information on the probability distribution of those factors that affect the investment is mostly lacking.In those situations the analysts have two options: (i) app

  14. Deterministic versus Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis in Investment Problems : An Environmental Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groenendaal, W.J.H.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis in investment problems is an important tool to determine which factors can jeopardize the future of the investment.Information on the probability distribution of those factors that affect the investment is mostly lacking.In those situations the analysts have two options: (i)

  15. Inverse Problem in the Surface EMG: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the arm containing the studied muscle is modelised (figure 1). The multi- electrode recording system is composed of 16 electrodes regularly...nature of this study (feasibility of the inverse problem in SEMG), the modelisation was made with a few simplifying hypotheses in mind to facilitate the...implementation of the localisation algorithm. This modelisation is nevertheless inspired by previous works [6], and the shapes of the synthetic MUAPs

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles.

  17. Tropical Peat Swamp Management Options: A Case Study Using System Dynamic in Southern Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat forest ecosystems have multiple benefits as regulating hydrological system, carbon storage, timber and non-timber products, and protecting the biodiversity. Lack of understanding of these functions, short-term economic benefits is more preferable despite reducing its ecological benefits. This study proposed a system dynamics model of tropical peat forest ecosystem in determining its optimum management for extractive utilizations (timber and non-timber forest products, environmental services, and biodiversity. A dynamics model was used to describe changes in peatland and forest cover, biomass accumulation and carbon storage, and total economic value of tropical peat forest ecosystem in Trumon and Singkil, Southern Aceh. The projection showed that peat forest ecosystem benefits would decline in the long term if degradations continue at the same rate over last decade. Efforts to change the primary peat forest to plantation would reduce the total economic value of ecosystem and biodiversity values at level -19.63% and -26.28% from current conditions. Carbon emissions were increased at 117.32 ton CO2 eq ha-1 year-1, higher than average of carbon losses from peatland oxidation. Preserving 50% of forest vegetation on moderate depth and protection very deep peatlands would reduce emission -6.96% to -35.06% and increase forest carbon storage at significant rate +15.06% to +63.32%, respectively. These mitigation schemes would improve the biodiversity and hydrological function. Forest rehabilitation with agroforestry practices will enhance carbon uptake, especially on degraded lands.

  18. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy option: A case study in development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.; Pate, R.; Hill, R.

    Renewable energy technologies, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaics (PV), and wind energy have made significant gains in cost and performance in the past decades. As a result, there have been high expectations on the part of the public for these sources to play a major role in future energy supply, especially as environmental concerns about conventional sources increase. Despite these past gains and high expectations, the global potential of renewable energy technologies still remains largely untapped, principally because of issues of industrialization and user acceptance. There is increasing recognition that government energy programs must incorporate a broader strategy than the traditional basic research role if they are to address these issues. Essential elements of this strategy are affordable technology, a healthy industry, sustained market growth, user acceptance, and equitable policy and financial environments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in solar electric conversion have already started the development of the required broader based effort. This paper presents the status of that work, using the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program as a case study.

  19. Preliminary study of impact of fuel options on performance of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Montanez, P.; Bezler, P.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the sensitivity to fuel type and composition on the performance of two Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concepts is presented. The performance measures are the specific impulse and the thrust/weight (T/W) ratio, and the concepts considered are based on the NERVA and ESCORT reactors. For the NERVA concept use of alternative fissile materials showed significant reductions in core mass which improves the values of T/W. However, launch safety considerations may be the dominant factor in selection of fissile material. The use of ternary carbide based fuels allows higher exhaust temperatures, but due to their higher density reduces T/W. The use of molybdenum based cermets, and cermets which use UN or UC2 fuel allow for significant reductions in the reactor mass, and thus an increase in T/W. However, the use of molybdenum reduces the exhaust temperature. Both these results for the NERVA and ESCORT based systems indicate the need to axially zone the core. The lower temperature but lighter material should be used in the cooler (<2500 K) parts of the core, and the heavier, higher temperature material should be used in the outlet end of the core. In addition, the thermal response, and implied stress is estimated for the NERVA concept. .

  20. Retrospective study on therapy options of brain metastases surgery versus stereotactic radiotherapy with the linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunati, M K S

    2001-01-01

    Background: in the therapy of brain metastases there has been a great progress in the last years. It was shown, that more aggressive therapies can not only extend the survival of the patients, but also improve quality of life. The major question of this study was, whether surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy with the linear accelerator show better results in behalf of the survival. Beside this major question many parameters regarding the patient or his primary cancer were examined. Methods: from the 1st of January 1995 until the 30th of June 2000 233 patients with one or more brain metastases have been treated in the Wagner Jauregg Landesnervenkrankenhaus Oberoesterreich (WJ LNKH OeO). The LINAC has been established on the 1st of July 1997. The patients have been distributed in three groups: 1. LINAC-group: 81 patients have been treated from the 1st of July 1997 until the 30th of June 2000 with the LINAC. 2. Surgery-group: 81 patients have been operated from the 1st of July 1997 until the 30th June 2000. 3 Co...

  1. Evaluation of organics removal options. A case study from a zero liquid discharge power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quagraine, Emmanuel K.; Hill, Keith Dean; Omorogbe, Fredrick [Shand Power Station, Estevan (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Although the role of organics in power plant cycle chemistry still appears to be controversial, their adverse effects in the course of makeup water treatment are very familiar and include fouling of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the organic/bio-fouling experience in a boiler makeup water treatment train for a zero liquid discharge plant, which draws on treated sewage water and surface water for cooling and utilizes the cooling tower blowdown to make distillate water from an evaporator prior to final treatment with a mixed bed demineralizer. In a case study, which is the focus of this paper, the performance of the pilot plants of two recommended organic removal techniques (i.e. reverse osmosis and organic trap resin) were compared to the existing activated carbon bed for organic removal prior to the mixed beds. Parameters evaluated for these three techniques (before and after each unit) include bacteria plate counts, organic carbons, inorganic nutrients (e.g. NH{sub 3}-N, [NO{sub 3}{sup -}+ NO{sub 2}{sup -}]-N, P, Mn, and Fe), known parameters that could significantly impact on the performance of the mixed beds (i.e. SiO{sub 2}, Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}), and various others like pH, conductivity, turbidity, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} etc. The effects of oxidizing (i.e. bleach) and non-oxidizing (glutaraldehyde) biocides on the performance of the activated carbon filter were also evaluated.

  2. Studies on prevalence, risk indicators and control options for tick infestation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nady M. Asmaa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was conducted at Benisuef district to determine the current situation and associated determinants of tick infestations in ruminants and to assess the efficacy of three different types of insecticides against tick infestation under field conditions. Total of (1082 animals of different species (540 cattle, 230 buffaloes, 108 of each sheep & goats and 96 camels were selected randomly and examined carefully for tick infestation. About (30.1% of total observed animals were found tick infested with highest rate in cattle (60.5% followed by goats (25.9%, buffaloes (17.8%, sheep (14.8% while no tick infestation recorded in camels. The most prevalent tick's species affecting ruminants was Boophilus annulatus (26.5% followed by Hyalomma anatolicum (6.1% then Rhipicephalus turanicus (3.4%. Regarding the associated risk factors, tick infestation was found statistically significant (P 3 years (78.8% followed by at age, ≤2 months (57.8% and during summer months were found highly significant (P < 0.01 in cattle ( 76.5% followed by goats and sheep (33.3% & 22.9% resp., comparing with results in winter. The preferred sites of ticks' attachment to infested animals were udders and external genitalia (70.7% of each then Neck & chest (63.0% of each, inner thighs (61.1%, perineum (41.7%, ears (14.6%, around eyes (11.7%. The obtained results revealed that poor husbandry practices of small holder farmers be a determinant making the animals more prone to tick infestation in this district. Improving the hygienic conditions associated with treatment of infested cattle with Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.wt, S/C and spraying of Deltamethrin (1% for surrounding environment twice every 14 days are recommended for control of tick infestation under field condition.

  3. Does Problem-Based Learning Improve Problem Solving Skills?--A Study among Business Undergraduates at Malaysian Premier Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Z. Abdul; Abdullah, N. H.; Anthony, E.; Salleh, B. Mohd; Kamarulzaman, R.

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach has been widely used in various disciplines since it is claimed to improve students' soft skills. However, empirical supports on the effect of PBL on problem solving skills have been lacking and anecdotal in nature. This study aimed to determine the effect of PBL approach on students' problem solving skills…

  4. Control options for river water improvement: a case study of TDS and inorganic nitrogen in the Crocodile river (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deksissa, T

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available . This study focusedon two water quality problems: Progressive increases in the concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) as a measure of salinity, and the concentrations of nitrate-plus-nitrite and ammonia (as inorganic nitrogen) as a measure...

  5. Pain alleviation during castration of piglets: a comparative study of different farm options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, F; Scollo, A; Contiero, B; Ravagnani, A; Tavella, G; Bernardini, D; De Benedictis, G M; Edwards, S A

    2016-12-01

    Pain alleviation associated with castration of piglets is an important welfare issue. The present study compares the effect of different approaches and products suitable for farmer use, with the aim to alleviate pain due to castration in piglets. A randomized within-litter design, with 28 replicate litters, compared 7 treatments: handling () restraint of the piglet and manipulation of the scrotum, castration without pain relief (), 2 treatments (, ) with different concentrations of tetracaine (2 and 6%) applied topically 10 min before and immediately post-surgery, and 3 treatments with i.m. injection of different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs () 10 min prior to surgery (-meloxicam, -ketoprofen, -tolfenamic acid). Efficacy of pain relief was assessed during a 300 min period after castration by serum cortisol, behavior (walking, lying, suckling, in the nest, isolated and pain related: tremors, rubbing the rear, hunching, wagging of the tail), facial expression and scrotal skin pressure sensitivity. C pigs had greater serum cortisol concentration than all other groups at 60 min post-surgery ( < 0.001), while H pigs had lower concentrations than pigs given topical anesthesia ( < 0.001) though not injected analgesia. No treatment differences were significant at 180 min, but at 300 min cortisol concentration was greater in T2 and T6 piglets than those given NSAIDs ( = 0.03). These treatment differences were mirrored by the pressure sensitivity of the scrotum; in comparison with C piglets, those given NSAIDs showed a reduced sensitivity ( 0.003) but those given local anesthesia did not ( = 0.15). C pigs showed increased frequency of pain-related behavior in the first 30 min in comparison with all other treatments, more time isolated than H or NSAID treatments, and more time standing inactive than H or K treatments. No behavioral differences were apparent after 60 min. No differences in facial expressions were observed among treatments. In conclusion, on

  6. Fighting Forest Fires - An Assessment of Policy Options in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi Fatah; Udiansyah

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled forest fires are one of the key causes of habitat destruction in Indonesia. The haze they produce causes significant pollution problems for people in the country and in surrounding nations. This study has highlighted the root causes of the fires and assessed a range of potential new policy options to improve the situation. The study finds that the weak enforcement of forest conservation rules and regulations is a key problem and that this is caused by wide range of resource and i...

  7. SOME PROBLEMS IN MAINTAINING SUSTAINABILITY OF INDONESIA'S FORESTS: DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Handoko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's forests have economic, social, and environmental benefits. Some national efforts, as well as support from the global community for sustaining forest development in Indonesia have been done. However, some problems were still reported during the implementation of the forest development. Thorough analysis was needed to formulate the root of the problems, and to identify solutions/supports to the current forest development to achieve its sustainability. Descriptive analysis was used in this study. The results indicated that sustainable forest development in Indonesia was still faced with the problems of uncertainty of management, insufficient management capacity, and lack of law enforcement. These conditions were indicated by high conflict of interests as well as lack of support from stakeholders, not enough forest management actions at site-level, and high forest degradation. Aiming at overcoming problems of sustainable forest development and maintaining sustainability of Indonesia's forest, national forest management needs to embrace more space for communication, openness, mutual learning, collaboration in addressing forest conflicts, and determining the future direction of its sustainability goal of management.

  8. Numerical and analytic study of problems of photonic crystals theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyansky, Leonid Arkadievich

    1998-11-01

    Theory of classical waves in periodic high contrast photonic and acoustic media leads to the following spectral problem:-/Delta u = /lambda/varepsilon u,where ɛ(x) is a periodic function (dielectric constant) which assumes a large value ɛ near a periodic graph Σ in IR2 and is equal to 1 otherwise. In this thesis we conduct numerical and analytical study of this problem. The high contrast asymptotics for the second problem naturally leads to pseudo-differential operators of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann type on graphs and on more general structures. We have discovered several new spectral effects for these operators. Among them 'almost discreteness' of the spectrum in the case of a disconnected graph and existence of 'almost localized' waves in some connected purely periodic structures. Numerical results of the above problems is carried out in this work using an algorithm closely related to the family of the indirect boundary element methods. The results of this research were presented at AMS Meetings in Columbia, MO (November, 1996), Corvallis, OR (April, 1997), Albuquerque, NM (November, 1997), Louisville, KY (March, 1998), and Conference on Applied Mathematics, Edmond, OK (February, 1998). They are also partially described in the forthcoming publication (34).

  9. Problem-based learning in optical engineering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is one of the most prospective educational technologies. PBL is based on evaluation of learning outcomes of a student, both professional and personal, instead of traditional evaluation of theoretical knowledge and selective practical skills. Such an approach requires changes in the curricula development. There should be introduced projects (cases) imitating real tasks from the professional life. These cases should include a problem summary with necessary theoretic description, charts, graphs, information sources etc, task to implement and evaluation indicators and criteria. Often these cases are evaluated with the assessment-center method. To motivate students for the given task they could be divided into groups and have a contest. Whilst it looks easy to implement in social, economic or teaching fields PBL is pretty complicated in engineering studies. Examples of cases in the first-cycle optical engineering studies are shown in this paper. Procedures of the PBL implementation and evaluation are described.

  10. Study of behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children

    OpenAIRE

    Hongally, Chandrashekar; Benakappa, Asha D; Reena, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beta-thalassemia major is a chronic disorder of blood, having an extensive impact on the affected child. It involves lifelong therapeutic regime, with repeated blood transfusions. With improved life expectancy, due to improved medical management psychosocial aspects of thalassemia are gaining importance. Objective: To assess the behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children and psychosocial factors affecting them. Setting: The study was conducted in a tertiary care ...

  11. Menopause: Weighing Your Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause Weighing Your Treatment Options Past Issues / Winter 2017 ... What led you to study older women and menopause? I started studying women's health many years ago ...

  12. Decision-Making, Cognitive Distortions and Alcohol Use in Adolescent Problem and Non-problem Gamblers: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2016-12-01

    In the psychological literature, many studies have investigated the neuropsychological and behavioral changes that occur developmentally during adolescence. These studies have consistently observed a deficit in the decision-making ability of children and adolescents. This deficit has been ascribed to incomplete brain development. The same deficit has also been observed in adult problem and pathological gamblers. However, to date, no study has examined decision-making in adolescents with and without gambling problems. Furthermore, no study has ever examined associations between problem gambling, decision-making, cognitive distortions and alcohol use in youth. To address these issues, 104 male adolescents participated in this study. They were equally divided in two groups, problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers, based on South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents scores. All participants performed the Iowa gambling task and completed the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale and the alcohol use disorders identification test. Adolescent problem gamblers displayed impaired decision-making, reported high cognitive distortions, and had more problematic alcohol use compared to non-problem gamblers. Strong correlations between problem gambling, alcohol use, and cognitive distortions were observed. Decision-making correlated with interpretative bias. This study demonstrated that adolescent problem gamblers appear to have the same psychological profile as adult problem gamblers and that gambling involvement can negatively impact on decision-making ability that, in adolescence, is still developing. The correlations between interpretative bias and decision-making suggested that the beliefs in the ability to influence gambling outcomes may facilitate decision-making impairment.

  13. An Integrative Study on Bioinformatics Computing Concepts, Issues and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zakarya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is the permutation and mishmash of biological science and 4IT. The discipline covers every computational tools and techniques used to administer, examine and manipulate huge sets of biological statistics. The discipline also helps in creation of databases to store up and supervise biological statistics, improvement of computer algorithms to find out relations in these databases and use of computer tools for the study and understanding of biological information, including DNA, RNA, protein sequences, gene expression profiles, protein structures, and biochemical pathways. The study of this paper implements an integrative solution. As we know that solution to a problem in a specific discipline may be a solution to another problem in a different discipline. For example entropy that has been rented from physical sciences is solution to most of the problems and issues in computer science. Another example is bioinformatics, where computing method and applications are implemented over biological information. This paper shows an initiative step towards that and will discuss upon the needs for integration of multiple discipline and sciences. Similarly green chemistry gives birth to a new kind of computing i.e. green computing. In next versions of this paper we will study biological fuel cell and will discuss to develop a mobile battery that will be life time charged using the concepts of biological fuel cell. Another issue that we are going to discuss in our series is brain tumor detection. This paper is a review on BI i.e. bioinformatics to start with.

  14. Numerical study of polaron problem in the adiabatic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglio, Frank; Li, Zhou; Blois, Cindy; Baillie, Devin

    2010-03-01

    We study the polaron problem in a one dimensional chain and on a two dimensional square lattice. The models we have used are the Holstein model and the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. By a variational procedure based on the Lanczos method, we are able to examine the polaron problem in the limit when the mass of the ion is very large, i.e. close to the adiabatic limit. It is known that for the Holstein model there is no phase transition [1] for any nonzero phonon energy. It is also known that for the one dimensional Holstein or SSH model there will be long range order [2] (e.g. dimerization) in the adiabatic limit at half-filling. It is then interesting to study the long range order on a two dimensional square lattice in and away from the adiabatic limit. Moreover, recent progress for the single polaron near an impurity (disorder) [3] make it an interesting problem for studying bond length disorder which can change the hopping energy in a specific direction in the Holstein model. Reference: [1] H. Lowen, Phys.Rev.B 37, 8661 (1988) [2] J.E.Hirsch and E. Frandkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 402 (1982) [3]A.S.Mishchenko et.al Phys.Rev.B 79(2009) 180301(R)

  15. Study quantifies problem of abortion in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Findings of a multicenter study that was discussed during the 1993 Health Ministers' Conference showed that about 30% of maternal deaths in east, central, and southern Africa were associated with complications of unsafe abortion. The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat in collaboration with the Support for Analysis and Research in Africa, a project funded by USAID and the Johns Hopkins Program on Training in Reproductive Health, has coordinated a study that will help guide the development of better policies on unsafe abortion. One phase involved the collection and analysis of all published and unpublished information from computer data bases dealing with the problem. The other phase involved interviews with health care workers, patients, and managers of health care facilities in Zambia, Malawi, and Uganda. In each of the 3 countries primary data was collected from a tertiary care hospital in the capital city, a provincial hospital, and 2 rural district hospitals. The results of the primary data component showed that services for the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and treatment of complications of abortion in this region are inadequate. Unsafe abortion was also a major public health problem in the region, costing national governments a lot of resources. Findings revealed that unsafe abortion is an enormous public health problem with staggering consequences for women and the health care system, which spend an inordinate amount of money, time, and other resources to treat the consequences of unsafe abortion. Complications leading to acute and chronic injuries and sometimes death, as a result of unsafe abortion, affect women at the prime of their lives. Postabortion family planning services, health care facilities, and counseling are lacking. The Recommendations and Policy Implications of the study will be discussed by the 22nd Conference of Health Ministers with a view to developing specific actions to avert the problem.

  16. Study of behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongally, Chandrashekar; Benakappa, Asha D; Reena, Shankar

    2012-10-01

    Beta-thalassemia major is a chronic disorder of blood, having an extensive impact on the affected child. It involves lifelong therapeutic regime, with repeated blood transfusions. With improved life expectancy, due to improved medical management psychosocial aspects of thalassemia are gaining importance. To assess the behavioral problems in multi-transfused thalassemic children and psychosocial factors affecting them. The study was conducted in a tertiary care level hospital and research institute catering mainly to a population of low socioeconomic status. The study was a cross-sectional study involving 50 multi-transfused thalassemic children of age 5-10 years. Fifty multi-transfused thalassemic children, aged 5-10 years, not suffering from any other major medical illness, were included. Child Behavior Check List (Achenbach) (CBCL) was used to collect data from each parent regarding the child's behavior. Parental Attitude Scale (Rangaswamy 1989) was applied. Descriptive statistical analysis was used with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t test to find the significance of data. The CBCL total scores were high in 32% patients, indicating the presence of behavioral problems. Higher CBCL scores were found in children of older age group, those with poor school performance, whose mothers' education was more than eighth standard, had history of death of thalassemic relative in family, greater duration of diagnosed illness, poor pre-transfusion hemoglobin level, and who had longer periods of school absenteeism. Behavioral problems are common in multi-transfused thalassemic children. Early diagnosis and intervention of behavioral problems in these children would make them cope with thalassemia better.

  17. STUDI TENTANG TRAVELLING SALESMAN DAN VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM DENGAN TIME WINDOWS

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Sutapa; I Gede Agus Widyadana; Christine Christine

    2003-01-01

    The article shows the study of model development of travelling salesman problem. Three models are studied, i.e. travelling salesman problem with time windows, vehicle routing problem, and vehicle routing problem with time windows. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam artikel ini dipaparkan kajian mengenai pengembangan model travelling salesman problem. Ada tiga model yang dikaji yaitu travelling salesman problem dengan time windows, vehicle routing problem, serta vehicle routing problem denga...

  18. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    participants to evaluate and choose between several options tend to lead to pseudo-opinions, incorrect assumptions and isolated responses. In order to address these methodological issues, researchers in the Netherlands created an Information Choice Questionnaire (ICQ). The ICQ provides the respondent with: (1) the entire (complex) policy problem, (2) expert information that is independent and balanced, (3) in a way that is understandable for the general public, (4) is a comparative process, and (5) asks for an evaluation. The aim of this research was to develop an online decision guide to aid public awareness, knowledge, deliberation and choice around carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) compared with other greenhouse gas mitigation options. More specifically, the objectives were to: (a) compare the Australian survey results to Dutch respondents; and (b) examine the most effective way to make online information and opinion formation more interactive and engaging. The following research questions are addressed: (1) How do Australian opinions on energy options differ from the Dutch when measured using the ICQ? ; (2) Is it possible to enhance the quality of the original ICQ by making the questionnaire an interactive application?.

  19. Pricing of American Put Option under a Jump Diffusion Process with Stochastic Volatility in an Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the pricing of American options in an incomplete market in which the dynamics of the underlying risky asset is driven by a jump diffusion process with stochastic volatility. By employing a risk-minimization criterion, we obtain the Radon-Nikodym derivative for the minimal martingale measure and consequently a linear complementarity problem (LCP for American option price. An iterative method is then established to solve the LCP problem for American put option price. Our numerical results show that the model and numerical scheme are robust in capturing the feature of incomplete finance market, particularly the influence of market volatility on the price of American options.

  20. CONDITIONAL ASIAN OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runhuan Feng; Volkmer, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Conditional Asian options are recent market innovations, which offer cheaper and long-dated alternatives to regular Asian options. In contrast with payoffs from regular Asian options which are based on average asset prices, the payoffs from conditional Asian options are determined only by average prices above certain threshold. Due to the limited inclusion of prices, conditional Asian options further reduce the volatility in the payoffs than their regular counterparts and have been promoted i...

  1. THE PROBLEM OF INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN LEARNING PROCESS STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The process of convergence and integration of scientific disciplines involves research in the field of education. Polydisciplinary studies wherein the knowledge is integrated from various scientific disciplines, do not meet the requirements of the solution of complex didactic problems, such as organization of the educational process in the information and educational environment, the construction of education for sustainable development of society, education in modern geopolitical conditions, etc. Thus, the importance of interdisciplinary research with a single subject matter, complementarity of research methods, integrated theoretical grounds and results, will make the contribution to all those scientific fields that are involved in assigned task solution.The aim of the article is to present intermediate results on identification and characteristic features of interdisciplinary studies in the field of education.Methodology and research methods. General scientific theoretical methods of research were used: analysis, comparison, fact-finding, generalization.Results and scientific novelty. An attempt to differentiate the concepts of interdisciplinarity, polydisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is made. In spite of the fact that these issues are actively discussed in the field of philosophy, there are no precise and unambiguous definitions of these terms; though, there is a research framework, the author of the article makes reference to. The features of an interdisciplinary study are formulated.The functions of didactics as a scientific field are specified. Updating of interdisciplinary studies in education, need of formation of their specific methodologies and expansion of the research field of didactics by means of other interdisciplinary studies and scientific directions are proved. Psycho-didactic and cognitivedidactic studies are considered. Cognitive didactics at the moment does not seem to claim the status of independent

  2. STUDY OF SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vorobyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive urban and economic development leads to changes in functional planning of the territory. Comprehensive study of the existing use and ecology of the urban environment is necessary for making decisions on urban space optimization. This study can detect the negative effects of human impact and solve social and economic problems within the city. The socio-ecological assessment of the urban area within the developing zone carried out on the ground of the GIS, developed and compiled by the authors. The database of GIS consists of six blocks, including cartographic and attribute information with characteristics of the environment, functional planning and socio-demographic features of the territory.

  3. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2015-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  4. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Stefka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO in 1993 as ‘a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures’. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  5. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  6. Examining mutable reform options for urban schools with multilevel analysis in the National Educational Longitudinal Study:88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John Kyle

    2000-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of science course taking and school urbanicity on students' science achievement levels. More specifically, this study analyzed the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) with multilevel techniques to investigate mutable reform options for urban schools in the area of science achievement. This study provided a unique insight into current research because all analyses were conducted with both ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and multilevel modeling techniques. Results from the comparison of OLS and multilevel techniques showed little effect on either overestimation or underestimation between the OLS weighted sample and the multilevel analysis. Although the differences between these two analyses were small, the multilevel techniques were optimized when the differences between schools was largest. Results from the multilevel and weighted analyses produced large differences when compared against the unweighted analysis. The unweighted sample consistently overestimated the coefficients of slope for each of the predictor variables. Because of these findings, researchers should be strongly cautioned against interpreting analyses run with the NELS:88 dataset without a weighted sample or without multilevel techniques. The results from the multiple regression analysis in both multilevel modeling and weighted OLS indicated that students who had parents who attended a school event, were not afraid to ask questions in science class, spent more time on homework each week, did not attend a school where science was taught in a non-English language, and had parents who belonged to a parent/teacher organization scored higher in terms of student science achievement than did their urban counterparts who did not meet these qualifications. From these results, several recommendations were made for schools concerning ways they could improve science education, including fostering attitudes of inquiry in science, increasing the

  7. Interferon Beta-1a (AVONEX® as a Treatment Option for Untreated Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (AXIOM: A Prospective, Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of first-line disease-modifying therapies (DMT for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS has been demonstrated in pivotal, randomized trials, but these studies do not reflect the routine care setting where treatment gaps or switches are common. The Avonex as Treatment Option for Untreated MS Patients (AXIOM trial assessed the efficacy of newly-initiated intramuscular interferon beta-1a (IM IFNb-1a after a treatment-free interval, with particular consideration of the previous course of disease and therapy. The AXIOM trial was an open, 12-month, observational, non-interventional study with a retrospective and a prospective part conducted in Germany. RRMS patients with a treatment-free interval of at least three months were included and treated with IFNb-1a for up to 12 months. Relapse rate, disability progression, injection-related parameters and quality of life observed during the prospective part were compared with retrospectively-collected data. Two hundred and thirty five RRMS patients participated in AXIOM. The mean relapse rate decreased from 1.1 in the three months before baseline to 0.2 per quarter during the twelve-month observational period; the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score improved during twelve months of IM IFNb-1a treatment, while the Expanded Disability Status Scale score did not change over the course of this study. Compared to previous DMTs (IM IFNb-1a, subcutaneous IFNb-1a (SC IFNb-1a, SC IFNb-1b, glatiramer acetate, the patients experienced less injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms, with a stated improved quality of life. IM IFNb-1a was effective and well accepted in RRMS patients with no or discontinued previous therapy. These results from the routine care setting may inform optimization of DMT treatment in RRMS, but need confirmation in further studies.

  8. What's the problem?: studies on identifying usability problems in user tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.

    2009-01-01

    During the process of developing products difficulties in use (usability problems) are hard to predict. This especially holds for interactive products with embedded software. In user tests conducted during the design process analysts try to foresee which problems people will run into when using a

  9. A Case Study to Test Mozaik for Different Optimization Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Azmy, Yousry [North Carolina State University; Unlu, Kenan [Pennsylvania State University; BrenizerJr., Jack [Pennsylvania State University

    2009-01-01

    We present four different shape optimization problems based on the existing beam port facility of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor and their results obtained by the modular optimization code package, MOZAIK. Each model problem has a different beam tube configuration with the same optimization goal: to determine an optimal D2O moderator tank shape for the given beam tube arrangement that maximizes the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit end. In this study, the power of the automated search process was demonstrated and its capabilities were tested. In addition, the performance of the beam port was analyzed using alternative beam tube arrangements. All alternative arrangements indicate that higher thermal neutron beam intensity can be obtained at the beam tube exit end using a smaller volume of D2O in the system than is used in the existing beam port configuration. Moreover, the results show that MOZAIK is ready for deployment to address shape optimization problems involving radiation transport in nuclear engineering applications.

  10. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Kenneth M; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-08

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N(2) to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  11. Nature Conservation and Veterinary Problems : Issues and Options. With case studies of foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, Maureen E.; Prent, K.

    2005-01-01

    Large herbivores in nature suffer from veterinary law In the Habitat Directive, Natura 2000, the EU aims at preservation, restoration and interconnection of large-scale nature reserves throughout the union. Such a network of interconnected wilderness will provide dearly needed space to large wild an

  12. Nature Conservation and Veterinary Problems: Issues and Options. With case studies of foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Large herbivores in nature suffer from veterinary law In the Habitat Directive, Natura 2000, the EU aims at preservation, restoration and interconnection of large-scale nature reserves throughout the union. Such a network of interconnected wilderness will provide dearly needed space to large wild animals, many of which are declining or even in danger of extinction. A thousand years ago most of Europe was nature, providing space for aurochs, moose, wild horse, reindeer, wild boar, bear, wolf a...

  13. Nature Conservation and Veterinary Problems : Issues and Options. With case studies of foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, Maureen E.; Prent, K.

    2005-01-01

    Large herbivores in nature suffer from veterinary law In the Habitat Directive, Natura 2000, the EU aims at preservation, restoration and interconnection of large-scale nature reserves throughout the union. Such a network of interconnected wilderness will provide dearly needed space to large wild an

  14. Nature Conservation and Veterinary Problems : Issues and Options. With case studies of foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, Maureen E.; Prent, K.

    2005-01-01

    Large herbivores in nature suffer from veterinary law In the Habitat Directive, Natura 2000, the EU aims at preservation, restoration and interconnection of large-scale nature reserves throughout the union. Such a network of interconnected wilderness will provide dearly needed space to large wild

  15. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  16. Emergency power supply for households. A study on wishes and options; Noodstroomvoorziening voor huishoudens. Een onderzoek naar wensen en mogelijkheden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouwels, W.

    2007-03-04

    The objective of this study is to list the options and desirability of emergency power supply for households. The study maps practical information in relation to emergency power supply and contributes to insight in the development of security of supply. Moreover, research has been conducted among consumers, the outcome of which contributes to the existing scientific knowledge in relation to the theory of planned behavior and risk perception. Moreover, the study provides insight in the consumers' purchase intentions with regard to emergency power supply and the coming about of this intention. The first part addresses the technical aspects of this project, i.e. the need for and the solutions regarding emergency power supply. In the second part, the human aspect in this project is addressed, with main focus on the theory of planned behavior and risk perception. [mk]. [Dutch] Het doel van het huidige onderzoek is het inventariseren van de mogelijkheden en wenselijkheid van noodstroomvoorziening voor huishoudens. In het onderzoek is praktische informatie met betrekking tot noodstroomvoorzieningen in kaart gebracht en een bijdrage geleverd aan het inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de leveringszekerheid. Tevens is er onderzoek gedaan onder consumenten waarvan de uitkomsten een bijdrage leveren aan de reeds aanwezige wetenschappelijke kennis met betrekking tot de theorie van gepland gedrag en risicoperceptie. Daarnaast geeft het onderzoek inzicht in de aanschafintentie voor een noodstroomvoorziening door consumenten en de totstandkoming van deze intentie. Het eerste deel gaat in op de technische aspecten van dit project, te weten de noodzaak en de oplossingen met betrekking tot noodstroomvoorzieningen. In het tweede deel wordt ingegaan op het menselijke aspect binnen dit project, met als speerpunt de theorie van gepland gedrag en risicoperceptie.

  17. The Relationship between Students' Problem Posing and Problem Solving Abilities and Beliefs: A Small-Scale Study with Chinese Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limin, Chen; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between pupils' problem posing and problem solving abilities, their beliefs about problem posing and problem solving, and their general mathematics abilities, in a Chinese context. Five instruments, i.e., a problem posing test, a problem solving test, a problem posing…

  18. Option pricing with transaction costs and stochastic volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Florescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a realistic market with transaction costs, the option pricing problem is known to lead to solving nonlinear partial differential equations even in the simplest model. The nonlinear term in these partial differential equations (PDE reflects the presence of transaction costs. In this article we consider an underlying general stochastic volatility model. In this case the market is incomplete and the option price is not unique. Under a particular market completion assumption where we use a traded proxy for the volatility, we obtain a non-linear PDE whose solution provides the option price in the presence of transaction costs. This PDE is studied and under suitable regularity conditions, we prove the existence of strong solutions of the problem.

  19. The Interaction between Real Options and Financial Hedging: An Empirical Study of Danish Non-Financial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    The interaction between real options and financial hedging is analyzed empirically. A majority of Danish non-financial companies either (1) chooses at times not to hedge an exchange rate operating exposure financially due to the possibility of the company to react to changes in exchange rates...... by undertaking real actions (exercising real options) such as to abandon a market or establish production in a foreign country or (2) thinks it is likely that they will actually react to changes in exchange rates by undertaking such real actions. The role of real options in actual management of exchange rate...... exposures depends on the economic sector in which the company operates and the size of the company. Companies in Materials (and Consumer Discretionary) are significantly more inclined to undertake various real actions than is the case with companies in Industrials. The same holds for small and large...

  20. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  1. Comparative study of different treatment options of grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcers to reduce the incidence of amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the efficacy of antiseptic dressings, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and recombinant human platelet derived growth factor (rhPDGF for two reasons: i to reduce the incidence of lower limb amputations in diabetic foot ulcer; ii to limit the duration of stay in the hospital. A prospective randomized trial was conducted on 60 patients with stage III and IV diabetic foot ulcers (International Association of Enterostomal Therapy classification and patients were divided randomly in three different therapy groups - antiseptics, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, recombinant platelet derived growth factor, with 20 patients in each group. Patients were managed initially on inpatient and then on outpatient basis till the ulcer healed completely. Results among three groups were compared using unpaired T test and the level of significance was set at P<0.05 using ANOVA. This study compares the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, antiseptic dressings, and rhPDGF in grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcers. P value (0.0348 was significant for complete wound contraction while p value healing time (0.6534 and ulcer size (0.0593 in the groups was not significant. PDGF is safe, effective and easy to apply. Results are comparable with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy and cost of treatment is lower than other therapies. Diabetic foot ulcer management requires multidisciplinary and aggressive approach. PDGF should be recommended for all grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcer at least 8 weeks old. HBO is equally good an option but has limitations and side effects.

  2. The Early Exercise Premium Representation for American Options on Multiply Assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimsiak, Tomasz, E-mail: tomas@mat.umk.pl; Rozkosz, Andrzej, E-mail: rozkosz@mat.umk.pl [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    In the paper we consider the problem of valuation of American options written on dividend-paying assets whose price dynamics follow the classical multidimensional Black and Scholes model. We provide a general early exercise premium representation formula for options with payoff functions which are convex or satisfy mild regularity assumptions. Examples include index options, spread options, call on max options, put on min options, multiply strike options and power-product options. In the proof of the formula we exploit close connections between the optimal stopping problems associated with valuation of American options, obstacle problems and reflected backward stochastic differential equations.

  3. The safety problem of the existing swimming lesson options and solutions%游泳选项课现存的安全问题及解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉珠

    2015-01-01

    Swimming lesson options are students like a physical training program, but there is some security issues, in the swimming lesson options, students in after-school whether to leave the swimming pool, several classes in the same class, how to identify their class students, how to overcome students for the first time into the water to produce the fear, How to avoid students in swimming technology is not mature into the deep water area and other issues has been plagued by a swimming class teacher, this article through the literature, expert interviews and other methods combined with my 10 years of teaching experience summed up the countermeasures to solve the above problems.%游泳选项课是学生喜欢的一个体育课项目,但存在着一定的安全问题,在游泳选项课上,学生在课后是否离开游泳馆,几个班级在一起上课,如何识别出自己班级的学生,如何克服学生首次入水产生的恐惧心理,如何避免学生在游泳技术没有成熟时进入深水区等问题一直困扰着游泳课教师,本文通过文献资料,专家访谈等方法并结合本人十多年的教学经验总结出了解决以上问题的对策.

  4. Evaluation of call options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道平

    2002-01-01

    The European and American call options,for which the prices of their underlying asset follow compound Poisson process,are evaluated by a probability method.Formulas that can be used to evaluate the options are obtained,which include not only the elements of an option:the price of the call option,the exercise price and the expiration date,but also the riskless interest rate,nevertheless exclude the volatility of the underlying asset.In practice,the evaluated results obtained by these formulas can proved references of making strategic decision for an investor who buys the call option and a company who sells the call option.

  5. Bacteriophages as potential treatment option for antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Robert; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Lee, Ji-Yun; Coetsee, Elke; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The world is facing an ever-increasing problem with antibiotic resistant bacteria and we are rapidly heading for a post-antibiotic era. There is an urgent need to investigate alterative treatment options while there are still a few antibiotics left. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically target bacteria. Before the development of antibiotics, some efforts were made to use bacteriophages as a treatment option, but most of this research stopped soon after the discovery of antibiotics. There are two different replication options which bacteriophages employ. These are the lytic and lysogenic life cycles. Both these life cycles have potential as treatment options. There are various advantages and disadvantages to the use of bacteriophages as treatment options. The main advantage is the specificity of bacteriophages and treatments can be designed to specifically target pathogenic bacteria while not negatively affecting the normal microbiota. There are various advantages to this. However, the high level of specificity also creates potential problems, the main being the requirement of highly specific diagnostic procedures. Another potential problem with phage therapy includes the development of immunity and limitations with the registration of phage therapy options. The latter is driving research toward the expression of phage genes which break the bacterial cell wall, which could then be used as a treatment option. Various aspects of phage therapy have been investigated in studies undertaken by our research group. We have investigated specificity of phages to various avian pathogenic E. coli isolates. Furthermore, the exciting NanoSAM technology has been employed to investigate bacteriophage replication and aspects of this will be discussed.

  6. Assessments of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in decision making: a systematic review of studies using the OPTION instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couet, N.; Desroches, S.; Robitaille, H.; Vaillancourt, H.; Leblanc, A.; Turcotte, S.; Elwyn, G.; Legare, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have no clear overview of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in the decision-making process during consultations. The Observing Patient Involvement in Decision Making instrument (OPTION) was designed to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies t

  7. STUDI TENTANG TRAVELLING SALESMAN DAN VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM DENGAN TIME WINDOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sutapa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the study of model development of travelling salesman problem. Three models are studied, i.e. travelling salesman problem with time windows, vehicle routing problem, and vehicle routing problem with time windows. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam artikel ini dipaparkan kajian mengenai pengembangan model travelling salesman problem. Ada tiga model yang dikaji yaitu travelling salesman problem dengan time windows, vehicle routing problem, serta vehicle routing problem dengan time windows. Kata-kunci: travelling salesman problem, vehicle routing problem, time windows.

  8. Accounting treatment of currency options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currency options are often used to mitigate currency risk resulting from corporate activities. Their implementation can be complex, and there could be problems if the essential elements and principles are not fully understood. Although they are not the simplest financial products, currency options are interesting and useful to those who are trying to make a step forward in the area of currency risk management. This paper aims to present the general principles and specifics of accounting records and valuation of currency options used for hedging against risk. It is a complex process which, in addition to numerous conditions, also involves the implementation of accounting rules that deviate from the generally accepted accounting principles.

  9. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  10. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Final briefing: Cost working group discussion session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The economic factors involved in the design and utilization of the space station are investigated. Topics include the economic benefits associated with research and production, the orbit transfer vehicle, and satellite servicing. Program costs and design options are examined. The possibilities of financing from the private sector are discussed.

  11. Quelques applications du contrôle stochastique aux options réelles et au risque de liquidité.

    OpenAIRE

    Ly Vath, Vathana

    2006-01-01

    We study stochastic control applications to real options and to liquidity risk model. More precisely, we investigate, in the first part, a model of optimal portfolio selection under liquidity risk and price impact, then, in the second part, two real option problems: an optimal switching problem and a mixed singular/switching control problem for a dividend policy with reversible investment, and finally, in the third part, a competitive market equilibrium problem under asymmetric information. I...

  12. 2. A Study to Assess Problems Encountered by Immediate Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    the problems experienced by immediate families in caring for ... between monthly income and experiencing financial problems by the ... enable them have an improved quality of life. ..... developing liaison services to meet the health needs.

  13. A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Sara Anne

    Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

  14. THE PROBLEM OF STUDYING BELLETRISTIC LITERATURE (HUMANITIES EPISTEMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolaevich Zotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main flaw of modern education in the study of belletristic literature associated with the understanding of imitative nature of literature. The tradition of teaching the humanities is based on the ancient view on the concept of mimesis, which in the sequel lost its Aristotelian creativity. Humanities are apprehended mainly as an instrument of cognition or reflection of the problems of the reality. At the same time, it is forgotten that the word not only reflects the world, but discovers the specificity of human existence. The article discusses some aspects of the newly emerging scientific discipline, called humanitarian epistemology, which allows comprehending the humanitarian knowledge, in particular knowledge of literature, dialogically, according to certain provisions of Bakhtin’s theory. As a result, the study of literature should be an effective form of comprehension of historical life.

  15. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  16. Epidemiological Study of Mental Health Problems among Handicapped School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur Singh, Tej

    1988-01-01

    Indian teachers rating the prevalence of psychiatric problems in 79 school children with visual handicaps, 91 with hearing handicaps, and 105 nonhandicapped identified a higher prevalence than did psychiatrists. Although similar percentages of children in the 3 groups were diagnosed as having psychiatric problems, the types of problems experienced…

  17. Elastoplastic frictional contact problem study on interference fits of compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwu ZHANG; Aihua LIAO; Changhua WU

    2008-01-01

    The FE parametric quadratic programming (PQP) method developed from the parametric variational principle (PVP) was used for the analysis of the stress distribution of the 3D elastoplastic frictional contact of an impeller-shaft sleeve-shaft. A locomotive-type turbo-charger compressor with 24 blades under combined cen-trifugal and interference-fit loading was considered in the numerical analysis. The solution of elastoplastic frictional contact problems belongs to unspecified boundary pro-blems where the interaction between two kinds of nonli-nearities should occur. To save time in the numerical computation, a multi-substructure technique was adopted in the structural modeling. The effect of fit tolerance, wall thickness of the shaft sleeve, and rotational speed on the contact stress was discussed in detail in the numerical computation. To decrease the difficulty of the assembly process and ensure the safety of the working state, the amount of interference between the shaft sleeve and shaft by press-fitting should be controlled strictly to avoid the rapid increase of contact stress. The numerical results show that the algorithm has high accuracy and good con-vergence. The study can be referred to in deciding the proper fit tolerance and improving the design and man-ufacturing technology of compressor impellers.

  18. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  19. Case study feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply options for small to medium-sized tourist accommodations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, G.J.; Lockington, D.A.; Baldock, T.E. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Queensland, 3rd Floor, Hawken Building, Brisbane, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper outlines a feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply (RES) for small to medium-scale tourist operations (less than 100 beds) dependent on stand-alone supplies. The analysis utilised the power load data from three accommodation case studies that had RES/hybrids already installed. The accommodation sites, chosen from diverse locations within Australia, varied in both climatic and geographic characteristics. The assessment criteria for the analysis were net present cost (NPC), renewable factor (RF) and payback time. The specific operational characteristics of the tourism accommodation sector, such as 24-h operation, comfort provision and low tolerance for failure, necessitates a separate assessment of RES viability for this sector, rather than relying on similar assessments from other commercial and domestic sectors, which may not be representative. This study utilised RES assessment software, HOMER (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US) in order to compare the present RES/hybrid configuration to diesel generator-only (genset-only), RES-only and optimised RES/hybrid configurations. Analysis of both actual data and modeling results demonstrated that RES can adequately and reliably meet the power demand for stand-alone small to medium-scale tourist accommodations. Optimisation, achieved by further addition of RES to the existing configurations, reduced NPC in the majority of cases, with the added benefit of increased RF. Furthermore, NPC for these optimised RES/hybrid configurations were comparable to the optimised genset-only configurations. Modeling of conversions to RES-only configurations demonstrated this option as uneconomical unless existing RF was already high. Results indicated that wind energy conversion systems (WECS), rather than photovoltaics, were the most economical RES for sampled hybrid systems. For example, the payback time of the WECS/hybrids was approximately 3-4 years compared to PV/hybrids at 6-7 years. Hydrogen fuel cells and

  20. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians.

  1. Exit problems of Lévy processes with applications in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we study the pricing of options of American type in a continuous time setting. We begin with a general introduction where we briefly sketch history and different aspects of the option pricing problem. In the first chapter we consider four perpetual options of American type driven by a

  2. Communication Problems in Requirements Engineering: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawas, Amer; Easterbrook, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The requirements engineering phase of software development projects is characterized by the intensity and importance of communication activities. During this phase, the various stakeholders must be able to communicate their requirements to the analysts, and the analysts need to be able to communicate the specifications they generate back to the stakeholders for validation. This paper describes a field investigation into the problems of communication between disparate communities involved in the requirements specification activities. The results of this study are discussed in terms of their relation to three major communication barriers: (1) ineffectiveness of the current communication channels; (2) restrictions on expressiveness imposed by notations; and (3) social and organizational barriers. The results confirm that organizational and social issues have great influence on the effectiveness of communication. They also show that in general, end-users find the notations used by software practitioners to model their requirements difficult to understand and validate.

  3. Study on Fleet Assignment Problem Model and Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohua Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fleet Assignment Problem (FAP of aircraft scheduling in airlines is studied, and the optimization model of FAP is proposed. The objective function of this model is revenue maximization, and it considers comprehensively the difference of scheduled flights and aircraft models in flight areas and mean passenger flows. In order to solve the model, a self-adapting genetic algorithm is supposed to solve the model, which uses natural number coding, adjusts dynamically crossover and mutation operator probability, and adopts intelligent heuristic adjusting to quicken optimization pace. The simulation with production data of an airline shows that the model and algorithms suggested in this paper are feasible and have a good application value.

  4. A simulation study of the energy-efficient options for upgrading and retrofitting a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Zbigniew; Mikosz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Many municipal wastewater treatment plants are retrofitted with membrane filtration that replaces secondary clarification. Such a solution saves space and improves overall treatment efficiency but at the cost of increased energy consumption and reduced potential for energy recovery from sewage sludge. Thus, the plant takes a step back from reaching energy self-sufficiency. In the presented case study, two alternative upgrade options were simulated for a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant in Poland: the first one assumed optimization of the existing bioreactor, and the other - installation of microfiltration membrane units inside the bioreactor. In both cases, anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with biogas utilization is planned. The results have shown that while under both upgrade options, the plant's capacity can be effectively increased by approximately 50%, their effects on the plant's energy balance will be very different. Although the installation of membrane modules accompanied by the construction of anaerobic digestion tanks improves the plant's energy balance, it will remain negative. The option of optimizing the existing biological treatment system produces a positive energy balance with more energy produced from biogas than consumed. Thus, the plant is able to approach energy self-sufficiency. It has been concluded that retrofitting the plants with membrane filtration is not always the best option from the energy balance point of view and it should be preceded with a detailed analysis on a case-by-case basis.

  5. Option pricing, Bayes risks and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    A statistical decision problem is hidden in the core of option pricing. A simple form for the price C of a European call option is obtained via the minimum Bayes risk, R_B, of a 2-parameter estimation problem, thus justifying calling C Bayes (B-)price. The result provides new insight in option pricing, among others obtaining C for some stock-price models using the underlying probability instead of the risk neutral probability and giving R_B an economic interpretation. When logarithmic stock p...

  6. A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyung; Labrie, Richard A; Rhee, Hak Seung; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-05-01

    Casino employees are exposed to disproportionately high levels of gambling, drinking and smoking compared to other occupations. Because of their occupation, they have the opportunity to detect and prevent pathological gambling (PG). To identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes towards PG among casino workers in South Korea depending upon whether they report any gambling problems. Data were collected from 388 full-time casino employees. This data provided information about the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and those employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems (Group NP: SOGS = 0) and those who reported any gambling problems (Group P: SOGS > 0) were compared. An exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems (Group P) reported a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol problems and depression (P employees who did not report gambling problems (Group NP). The primary employee social attitude towards gambling was identified by the factor of 'Disease concept/social awareness'. Group NP reported more positive attitudes in this domain than Group P (P Employees who reported any gambling problems reported a less positive attitude towards developing the public health system to be responsive to gambling problems. These findings indicate a need to develop health education programmes that focus more specifically on casino employees with gambling problems.

  7. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  8. A Study of Urgency Vehicle Routing Disruption Management Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available If a transit vehicle breaks down on a schedule trip, there are some vehicles in the system need to serve this trip and the former plan must be changed. For solving the urgency vehicle routing problem with disruption that may be vehicle breakdowns or traffic accidents in the logistics distribution system, through the analysis of the problem and the disruption measurement, the mathematics model is given based on the thought of disruption management. For the characteristics of the problem, a Lagrangian relaxation is given to simplify the model, and decompose the problem into two parts. The Lagrangian multiplier is given by subgradient method and the subproblems are solved by saving approach to gain the initial solution. A fast insertion algorithm is given to obtain a feasible solution for the primal problem. The results show that the algorithm designed in this paper performs very well for solving the urgency vehicle routing disruption management problem.

  9. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  10. Evaluation of Dairy Effluent Management Options Using Multiple Criteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Wheeler, Sarah A.

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Database-Assisted Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Friedman, Charles P.; Keyes, John; Downs, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of database assistance on clinical problem solving across three cohorts of medical students and two database interfaces. Discusses the relationship between personal domain knowledge and problem solving, personal domain knowledge and database searching, and comparisons of different interface styles in information retrieval…

  12. A Case Study of Dynamic Visualization and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Ilana

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports an example of a situation in which university students had to solve geometrical problems presented to them dynamically using the interactive computerized environment of the "MicroWorlds Project Builder". In the process of the problem solving, the students used ten different solution strategies. The unsuccessful…

  13. Child dental fear and general emotional problems: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: This was to investigate the relation between general emotional and behavioural problems of the child and dental anxiety and dental behavioural management problems. BACKGROUND: Dental treatment involves many potentially unpleasant stimuli, which all may lead to the development of dental anxiety

  14. The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…

  15. Child dental fear and general emotional problems: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Krikken; J.M. ten Cate; J.S.J. Veerkamp

    2010-01-01

    AIM: This was to investigate the relation between general emotional and behavioural problems of the child and dental anxiety and dental behavioural management problems. BACKGROUND: Dental treatment involves many potentially unpleasant stimuli, which all may lead to the development of dental anxiety

  16. Study of optimal control problems for hybrid dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Rui; Wang Lei; Wang Yuzhen

    2006-01-01

    From the viewpoint of continuous systems, optimal control problem is proposed for a class of controlled Hybrid dynamical systems. Then a mathematical method- HDS minimum principle is put forward, which can solve the above problem. The HDS minimum principle is proved by means of Ekeland's variational principle.

  17. Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…

  18. The Effect of Strategy on Problem Solving: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…

  19. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  20. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  1. Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood : findings from the ALSPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafo, Marcus R.; Heron, Jon

    Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior

  2. Spent fuel verification options for final repository safeguards in Finland. A study on verification methods, their feasibility and safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautamaeki, J.; Tiitta, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    The verification possibilities of the spent fuel assemblies from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa NPPs and the fuel rods from the research reactor of VTT are contemplated in this report. The spent fuel assemblies have to be verified at the partial defect level before the final disposal into the geologic repository. The rods from the research reactor may be verified at the gross defect level. Developing a measurement system for partial defect verification is a complicated and time-consuming task. The Passive High Energy Gamma Emission Tomography and the Fork Detector combined with Gamma Spectrometry are the most potential measurement principles to be developed for this purpose. The whole verification process has to be planned to be as slick as possible. An early start in the planning of the verification and developing the measurement devices is important in order to enable a smooth integration of the verification measurements into the conditioning and disposal process. The IAEA and Euratom have not yet concluded the safeguards criteria for the final disposal. E.g. criteria connected to the selection of the best place to perform the verification. Measurements have not yet been concluded. Options for the verification places have been considered in this report. One option for a verification measurement place is the intermediate storage. The other option is the encapsulation plant. Crucial viewpoints are such as which one offers the best practical possibilities to perform the measurements effectively and which would be the better place in the safeguards point of view. Verification measurements may be needed both in the intermediate storages and in the encapsulation plant. In this report also the integrity of the fuel assemblies after wet intermediate storage period is assessed, because the assemblies have to stand the handling operations of the verification measurements. (orig.)

  3. Study of polypharmacy and associated problems among elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at the assessment of prescribing pattern for elderly patients, since they are more prone to prescription of multiple medications. The prescription of multiple medications leads to polypharmacy, more adverse drug reactions and non-adherence to treatment. The study was conducted on OPD basis in a rural health centre for a period of six months. Information pertaining to the age, sex, religion, monthly income, education level, any previous illnesses, or any chronic diseases, any drug treatment, adherence to the treatment, and self medication or non-allopathic treatment was collected. The study included 310 elderly patients, among which 51.9% were males and 48.1% were females. The prevalence of polypharmacy was 25.20%, more among elderly men (26.10% than women (24.20%, the odds ratio (OR was 1.11. The major fraction 35.81% of the patients was in the age group of 60-64 years. Only 59.3% were literate. 64.41% belonged to lower socioeconomic status. The cardiovascular diseases 139 (44.83 % followed by arthritis 121 (39.03%, and diabetes 58 (18.71% were the most common ailments. Anti-hypertensive drugs were prescribed in 26.13%, analgesics/antipyretics in 19.68%, and anti-diabetic drugs in 18.71%. Non-adherence to therapy was seen in 49.68%. Self medication habits were seen in 23.90% patients, who most commonly used analgesics/antipyretics and antacids/anti-ulcer drugs. Polypharmacy is very common among elderly and interventions to improve the optimal use of medication in elderly could lead to reduction in the problems associated with polypharmacy.

  4. Validation study of the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems (QSMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Roda, María Dolores; Trianes Torres, María Victoria

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the exploratory and confirmatory structure, as well as other psychometric properties, of the Cuestionario de Problemas de Convivencia Escolar (CPCE; in Spanish, the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems [QSMP]), using a sample of Spanish adolescents. The instrument was administered to 60 secondary education teachers (53.4% females and 46.6% males) between the ages of 28 and 54 years (M= 41.2, SD= 11.5), who evaluated a total of 857 adolescent students. The first-order exploratory factor analysis identified 7 factors, explaining a total variance of 62%. A second-order factor analysis yielded three dimensions that explain 84% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed in order to reduce the number of factors obtained in the exploratory analysis as well as the number of items. Lastly, we present the results of reliability, internal consistency, and validity indices. These results and their implications for future research and for the practice of educational guidance and intervention are discussed in the conclusions.

  5. An electronic study guide for problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, G A; Bligh, J G; Leinster, S F; Warenius, H M

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the development and structure of an Electronic Study Guide for Oncology (LETSGO) for undergraduate medical students. LETSGO is aimed at clinical students learning about cancer. The subject of the guide is breast cancer and learning objectives cover structure and function, behavioural science, public health and epidemiology and professional and personal values. LETSGO is designed to follow the steps used in problem-based learning. The student is encouraged to carry out individual brainstorming around cases with the issues identified acting as the first step in an educational audit loop. Clear definition of prior knowledge is available by way of interactive features, and hyper-text links to core text and diagrams (including microscopic sections) precede definition of both broad aims and objectives for the module and specific objectives for assessment purposes. Core knowledge is available via hyper-text links. Assessment has three components: open ended questions asking for free text responses linking to 'model' answers; extended matching items linking to 'model' answers and providing peer-referenced feedback as a bar-chart distribution, and an educational audit loop referring back to the original issues identified at the beginning of the package in brainstorming. Clear mapping throughout the guide is a major feature and the student's progress is clearly displayed at each stage of the guide. The program provides dynamic access to the student's existing knowledge base and stimulates new learning based on the student's own learning needs.

  6. CIVIL MOVEMENT IN POLAND – ORIGINS, PROBLEMS, STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pirog

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the problem of increasing importance of the citizen and citizeninstitutions in the modern developed societies and different operative areas of the non--governmental organisations. The paper also presents the main Polish centres involved in the studies of the third sector. New issues such as: political-industrial changes (globalisation, social security crisis and the state of prosperity, increase in the individuals’ consciousness of their role in the formation of social order and the crisis of legitimating of democratic institutions led to a broader inclusion of the citizens in the decisive processes. The supported ideas are: subsidising, new public governance and social economy, all of which lead to the best use of the potential in the independent and cooperating subjects. In this movement the new citizen organisations appear and actively participate in the political areas previously led by governmental institutions (ecology, industry, social benefits. Viatheir creativity, and the ability to mobilise the capital embedded in the local communities they contribute to the increasing quality of life and strengthening of the social bonds. However, a strong non-governmental sector does not necessarily mean a strong citizen society, especially when it is governed by the superior regulations.

  7. 31 OBJECTIVE ORIENTED PROBLEM SOLVING A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of chain reasoning which goes by the rules of logical and mathematical ..... feeders, improper quantity of raw material supply, operational .... jumping of waste gate technical .... Time and energy spent in solving real eXJstmg problems at the ...

  8. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations.

  9. Market segmentation for multiple option healthcare delivery systems--an application of cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, G R; Gates, R H; McDaniel, C D

    1990-01-01

    Healthcare providers of multiple option plans may be confronted with special market segmentation problems. This study demonstrates how cluster analysis may be used for discovering distinct patterns of preference for multiple option plans. The availability of metric, as opposed to categorical or ordinal, data provides the ability to use sophisticated analysis techniques which may be superior to frequency distributions and cross-tabulations in revealing preference patterns.

  10. Recent progress in study of singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Jia-qi; NI Ming-kang

    2009-01-01

    Some results for the singular perturbation theory, methods and applications in the new century are reviewed in this paper. It could be found that in the recent decade, many approximate methods have been developed and refined, including the method of averaging, boundary layer methods, methods of matched asymptotic expansion and methods of multiple scales. An overview is given on the new work about various problems, such as the reaction diffusion, turning points, boundary layers, shock waves, stability problem, solitons, attractors, canard solution, scattering light wave and neuron network, etc. And then, a great number of applied problems are solved in applied mathematics, computational mathematics, fluid mechanics, elastic mechanics, optics, thermophysics, quantum mechanics, plasm physics, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, neurology, engineering science, environment science, bionomics, atmosphere physics, ocean climate, aeronautics and astrnatics and so on, from which only some examples are extracted and described in this review.

  11. On the microeconomic problems studied by portfolio theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Oleg; Medvedeva, Marina

    2012-09-01

    In the paper we consider economically motivated problems, which are treated with the help of methods of portfolio theory that goes back to the papers by H. Markowitz [1] and J. Tobin [2]. We show that the portfolio theory initially developed for risky securities (stocks) could be applied to other objects. In the present paper we consider several situations where such an application is reasonable and seems to be fruitful. Namely, we consider the problems of constructing the efficient portfolio of banking services and the portfolio of counteragents of a firm.

  12. Perceptions of entrepreneurship as a career option in South Africa: An exploratory study among grade 12 learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Burger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Job creation and poverty alleviation are two pressing challenges facing South Africa today. South Africa’s capacity to address the high unemployment and poverty levels are partly hampered by a poorly developed entrepreneurial culture. An entrepreneurial culture that enhances the supply of effective entrepreneurs at all age and population groups could contribute to economic growth and address both unemployment and poverty. This article investigates the perceptions of entrepreneurship as career option by Grade 12 learners in a specific region in South Africa, as the youth could be viewed as the logical group from which new entrepreneurs should emerge in future. The majority of the surveyed learners seem to have a positive disposition towards small business entrepreneurship as an eventual career, although considerable differences exist in terms of self-image, locality and ethnic backgrounds.

  13. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  14. Informed Option Trading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe use a sequential trade model to clarify two mechanisms following the introduction of an option that may lead to increased efficiency in the underlying. On the one hand, market makers learn from trades in the option market and set more accurate prices. On the other hand, the proportion

  15. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  16. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  17. The Research State and Problems Needing Study of Green Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According with the request of sustainable development for asset maintenance, in this paper the research state of China and other countries are indexed, then the contents of green maintenance were described and a system model of green maintenance was established. This paper discussed in brief the problems needing research, key techniques and adoptable methods of green maintenance.``

  18. Strategies for Promoting Problem Solving and Transfer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Problem solving allows students to use what they know to achieve a goal when no solution is apparent. Traditional educational models evolved from an earlier system, based on rote memorization and designed to produce employees for industry. The workforce of tomorrow must move beyond rote learning by both applying current knowledge and using…

  19. The Problem is People, Social Studies: 6425.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchford, Frank

    Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…

  20. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  1. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  2. A Study of Alternative Quantile Estimation Methods in Newsboy-Type Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    early in 1950 [1]. This problem has been presented in the literature under a variety of names, including newsvendor problem , Christmas tree problem ...quantile estimation methods in newsboy-type problems . Sok, Yong-u Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/19069...Downloaded from NPS Archive: Calhoun A STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE QUANTILE ESTIMATION METHODS IN NEWSBOY-TYPE PROBLEMS Yong-u Sok sss- 939434 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE

  3. [Analysis of psychic problems of university students continuing their studies for a significantly longer time than the average].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvay, Katalin

    2010-01-01

    Keniston introduced the term 'postadolescence' to describe the spreading phenomenon of young people not seceding from their parents and remaining in a functional child role longer. One aspect of this phenomenon is the increased time of studies. Research about postadolescent students struggling with their studies is scarce. I analysed the psychopathological features, family dynamic specialties, cognitive style of 12 university students characterised by significant delay in the duration of their studies as a major problem, or associated with other symptoms, whom I examined and/or treated between 01/01/2004 and 12/31/2009. I analysed the data of students who could not finish the first 2 study years in 4 years, or could not complete their studies during the recommended duration within 2 extra years. 9 of the 12 (7 male, 5 female) examined students had an Axis I. diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR., with high comorbidity. 8 patients suffered from personality disorder. The family environment as well as parents' and partners' attitudes were often pathological: they either had irrealistic expectations about the students' performance, or played an important role in maintaining the pathological balance by not setting any requirements, hereby maintaining the pathological state. The students, partners and parents were often characterised by dysfunctional attitudes, maladaptive cognitive schemas. Behind delayed studies there is often severe mental disorder with marked dysfunctional cognitive functioning which needs to be treated. The treatment options of the students' mental problems include pharmacotherapy and/or individual psychotherapy, often accompanied by systemic interventions.

  4. Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.

  5. Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.

  6. Early Predictors of Eating Problems in Preadolescence-A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The epidemiology of childhood eating problems is far from being fully described. The present study aims to explore early predictors of eating behavior problems in preadolescence. Methods: The study sample comprised 1,939 children from the birth cohort study, the Copenhagen Child Cohort...... (CCC2000). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations among infancy health, developmental and relational factors, maternal mental health problems, socioeconomic factors, parental reported eating behavior patterns in preschool age and eating behavior problems in preadolescence...

  7. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  8. European Geothermal Drilling Experience-Problem Areas and Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, G.; Ungemach, P.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal drilling has long been restricted in Western Europe to the sole dry steam field of Larderello in Italy. In the last few years, a wider experience is building up as a consequence of intensified exploration and development programs carried out for evaluation and production of both low- and high-enthalpy geothermal resources. A sample of some 40 boreholes indicates the problem areas which are given.

  9. A Brief Study of the Problems of NMET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaopei

    2009-01-01

    As an inseparabte pert of Language teaching, language testing will dther foster or impede language teaching, depending on whether it is appropriately employed or not. Nevertheless, language testing and assessment system in China leaves much to be desired. The author takes the case of National Matriculation English Test (NMET) which boasts an annual testing population of millions and exerts tremendous impact on high school teaching and learning in China to discover the problems of Chinese Language Testing and offers some suggestions for improvement.

  10. Real Time Pricing as a Default or Optional Service for C&ICustomers: A Comparative Analysis of Eight Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper,Nicole; Ting, Michael; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-08-01

    Demand response (DR) has been broadly recognized to be an integral component of well-functioning electricity markets, although currently underdeveloped in most regions. Among the various initiatives undertaken to remedy this deficiency, public utility commissions (PUC) and utilities have considered implementing dynamic pricing tariffs, such as real-time pricing (RTP), and other retail pricing mechanisms that communicate an incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their usage during periods of high generation supply costs or system reliability contingencies. Efforts to introduce DR into retail electricity markets confront a range of basic policy issues. First, a fundamental issue in any market context is how to organize the process for developing and implementing DR mechanisms in a manner that facilitates productive participation by affected stakeholder groups. Second, in regions with retail choice, policymakers and stakeholders face the threshold question of whether it is appropriate for utilities to offer a range of dynamic pricing tariffs and DR programs, or just ''plain vanilla'' default service. Although positions on this issue may be based primarily on principle, two empirical questions may have some bearing--namely, what level of price response can be expected through the competitive retail market, and whether establishing RTP as the default service is likely to result in an appreciable level of DR? Third, if utilities are to have a direct role in developing DR, what types of retail pricing mechanisms are most appropriate and likely to have the desired policy impact (e.g., RTP, other dynamic pricing options, DR programs, or some combination)? Given a decision to develop utility RTP tariffs, three basic implementation issues require attention. First, should it be a default or optional tariff, and for which customer classes? Second, what types of tariff design is most appropriate, given prevailing policy objectives, wholesale market

  11. Studies of Inviscid Flux Schemes for Acoustics and Turbulence Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Five different central difference schemes, based on a conservative differencing form of the Kennedy and Gruber skew-symmetric scheme, were compared with six different upwind schemes based on primitive variable reconstruction and the Roe flux. These eleven schemes were tested on a one-dimensional acoustic standing wave problem, the Taylor-Green vortex problem and a turbulent channel flow problem. The central schemes were generally very accurate and stable, provided the grid stretching rate was kept below 10%. As near-DNS grid resolutions, the results were comparable to reference DNS calculations. At coarser grid resolutions, the need for an LES SGS model became apparent. There was a noticeable improvement moving from CD-2 to CD-4, and higher-order schemes appear to yield clear benefits on coarser grids. The UB-7 and CU-5 upwind schemes also performed very well at near-DNS grid resolutions. The UB-5 upwind scheme does not do as well, but does appear to be suitable for well-resolved DNS. The UF-2 and UB-3 upwind schemes, which have significant dissipation over a wide spectral range, appear to be poorly suited for DNS or LES.

  12. Tackling 'wicked' health promotion problems: a New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Louise N; Walton, Mat D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph; Bowers, Sharron G; Carter, Kristie N; Gorton, Delvina; Heta, Craig; Lanumata, Tolotea S; McKerchar, Christina W; O'Dea, Des; Pearce, Jamie

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a complex environmental approach to addressing 'wicked' health promotion problems devised to inform policy for enhancing food security and physical activity among Māori, Pacific and low-income people in New Zealand. This multi-phase research utilized literature reviews, focus groups, stakeholder workshops and key informant interviews. Participants included members of affected communities, policy-makers and academics. Results suggest that food security and physical activity 'emerge' from complex systems. Key areas for intervention include availability of money within households; the cost of food; improvements in urban design and culturally specific physical activity programmes. Seventeen prioritized intervention areas were explored in-depth and recommendations for action identified. These include healthy food subsidies, increasing the statutory minimum wage rate and enhancing open space and connectivity in communities. This approach has moved away from seeking individual solutions to complex social problems. In doing so, it has enabled the mapping of the relevant systems and the identification of a range of interventions while taking account of the views of affected communities and the concerns of policy-makers. The complex environmental approach used in this research provides a method to identify how to intervene in complex systems that may be relevant to other 'wicked' health promotion problems.

  13. Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood: findings from the ALSPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon

    2014-07-01

    Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior problems in early adulthood using a general population sample. Based on 7,218 individuals from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, a three-step approach was used to model childhood conduct problem development and identify differences in early adult health and behavior problems. Childhood conduct problems were assessed on six occasions between age 4 and 13 and health and behavior outcomes were measured at age 18. Individuals who displayed early-onset persistent conduct problems throughout childhood were at greater risk for almost all forms of later problems. Individuals on the adolescent-onset conduct problem path consumed more tobacco and illegal drugs and engaged more often in risky sexual behavior than individuals without childhood conduct problems. Levels of health and behavior problems for individuals on the childhood-limited path were in between those for stable low and stable high trajectories. Childhood conduct problems are pervasive and substantially affect adjustment in early adulthood both in at-risk samples as shown in previous studies, but also in a general population sample. Knowing a child's developmental course can help to evaluate the risk for later maladjustment and be indicative of the need for early intervention.

  14. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  15. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  16. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  17. Chronic conditions and sleep problems among adults aged 50 years or over in nine countries: a multi-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Koyanagi

    Full Text Available Data on the association between chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems in low- or middle-income countries is scarce, and global comparisons of these associations with high-income countries have not been conducted.Data on 42116 individuals 50 years and older from nationally-representative samples of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (Finland, Poland, Spain and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa conducted between 2011-2012 and 2007-2010 respectively were analyzed.The association between nine chronic conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke and self-reported severe/extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days was estimated by logistic regression with multiple variables. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep problems ranged from 2.8% (China to 17.0% (Poland. After adjustment for confounders, angina (OR 1.75-2.78, arthritis (OR 1.39-2.46, and depression (OR 1.75-5.12 were significantly associated with sleep problems in the majority or all of the countries. Sleep problems were also significantly associated with: asthma in Finland, Spain, and India; chronic lung disease in Poland, Spain, Ghana, and South Africa; diabetes in India; and stroke in China, Ghana, and India. A linear dose-dependent relationship between the number of chronic conditions and sleep problems was observed in all countries. Compared to no chronic conditions, the OR (95%CI for 1,2,3, and ≥ 4 chronic conditions was 1.41 (1.09-1.82, 2.55 (1.99-3.27, 3.22 (2.52-4.11, and 7.62 (5.88-9.87 respectively in the overall sample.Identifying co-existing sleep problems among patients with chronic conditions and treating them simultaneously may lead to better treatment outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk for sleep problems among patients with multimorbidity. Future studies

  18. [Fingolimod compassionate use program: case study on the concept of a therapy option for multiple sclerosis prior to marketing approval].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J; Linker, R A; Hartung, H P; Meergans, M; Ortler, S; Tracik, F

    2012-12-01

    In order to meet the needs of therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS) new immune therapies with a user-friendly application and better effectiveness together with good tolerability are necessary. With respect to its potential to improve MS therapy, patients with a high medical need were given access to Fingolimod even before marketing approval. Therefore, a compassionate use program unique in the field of MS was initiated. In total 137 centers participated (75 % outpatient neurologists and 25 % hospitals). Within 19 weeks 135 patients were enrolled to receive Fingolimod. The patients in the compassionate use program can be representatively described as showing hardly controllable disease activity and progression with currently available, often poorly tolerated therapy. The compassionate use program for these patients offered better control of the disease with Fingolimod. The adverse events were as expected. The Fingolimod compassionate use program demonstrated the need for this new therapeutic option. Patients who were not yet sufficiently treated were provided with an effective therapy with a good safety profile and a user-friendly administration form.

  19. An optional focusing SELENE extension to conventional neutron guides: A case study for the ESS instrument BIFROST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U. B.; Bertelsen, M.; Stahn, J.; Lefmann, K.

    2017-04-01

    The high brilliance at the European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with much smaller samples than at present neutron facilities and in much more complex sample environments. However the higher flux also results in higher background from unwanted neutrons not originating from scattering of the sample. We here present a new design idea for beam delivery, where a 165 m ballistic guide system with good transport properties is followed by a 4-8 m SELENE guide system similar to Montel optics used for X-ray optics. We have investigated the system by detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using McStas. We show that under certain conditions, this set-up works surprisingly well, with a brilliance transfer of 20-60% for neutrons of wavelength 4 Å and above. We demonstrate that the guide system is able to focus the beam almost perfectly onto samples sizes in the range of 0.1-2 mm. We furthermore show that our SELENE system is insensitive to gravity and to realistic values of guide waviness. We argue that this guide system can be useful as an optional guide insert when small samples are used in the vicinity of bulky sample environment, e.g. for high-field or high-pressure experiments.

  20. Implementation of a real option in a sustainable supply chain: an empirical study of alkaline battery recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2014-06-01

    Green supply chain management (GSCM) has emerged as a key approach for enterprises seeking to become environmentally sustainable. This paper aims to evaluate and describe the advantages of a GSCM approach by analysing practices and performance consequences in the battery recycling sector. It seeks to integrate works in supply chain management (SCM), environmental management, performance management and real option (RO) theory into one framework. In particular, life cycle assessment (LCA) is applied to evaluate the environmental impact of a battery recycling plant project, and life cycle costing (LCC) is applied to evaluate its economic impact. Firms, also understanding the relevance of GSCM, have often avoided applying the green principles because of the elevated costs that such management involved. Such costs could also seem superior to the potential advantages since standard performance measurement systems are internally and business focused; for these reasons, we consider all the possible value deriving also by uncertainty associated to a green project using the RO theory. This work is one of the few and pioneering efforts to investigate GSCM practices in the battery recycling sector.

  1. On option pricing in the large risk aversion, small transaction cost limit

    CERN Document Server

    Hynd, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    G. Barles and H. Soner considered the problem of option pricing in the large risk aversion, small transaction cost limit within the framework of indifference pricing. This problem turns out to be one of asymptotic analysis of nonlinear parabolic PDE and the interesting feature is the role of an ODE eigenvalue problem. Solving the eigenvalue problem almost explicitly helped these authors characterize the limiting option price as a solution of a nonlinear PDE. We study a model problem in the multi-asset setting where it is necessary to develop new methods as the corresponding PDE eigenvalue problem cannot be solved by trivial means. We deduce important properties of the eigenvalue function which aids us in proving a convergence theorem analogous to the aforementioned result in the single-asset case.

  2. Meta- analysis of carried out studies in the field of Iranian of social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Moeidfar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study of social problems in Iranian scientific communities has been the center of attentionin the past two decades. Understanding these problems needs contemplation and consultation with scholars.The meta-analysis of studies can help to recognize social problems in Iran.Method: in this study, the method of research is qualitative meta- analysis. This method is to analysis studiesFindings: unemployment of university graduates is the most important problem in Iranian society. Theperspective of social disorganization is the most important theorical perspective that has been used forexplanation of social problems in Iran.Results: considering the complex and multidimential social problems in Iranian society, understanding ofthese problems needs contemplation of scholar. theorical perspective of social disorganization from theviewpoint of authors of analyzed articles is the suitable perspective to find out and explain social problems inIran.

  3. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  4. A genetic study on attention problems and academic skills: results of a longitudinal study in twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several studies reported a negative association between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement. We investigated the etiology of the association between Attention Problems (AP, one of the core symptoms in ADHD) in early childhood and four academic skills across childhood in a genetically in

  5. Atomic Study on Some Problems in Nanometric Cutting Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of some problems such as chip formation and surface generation in nanometric cutting mechanism based on molecular dynamics(MD) simulation is presented.It shows that chip formation is similar to that observed in macro-scale cutting.The movement of some micro-dislocation is the main cause of formation of chip and surface.Surface generation is notably affected by very small cutting force vibration.The highest stress appears in tool cutting edge,and it may cause wear,so it is necessary to build a MD model of tool wear.

  6. Some Key Problems and Thinkings on Gerontological Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ke-ji

    2005-01-01

    @@ The coming age wave has been a major concern of the society. As it was said in adage that "One should think about old during young", any one, however, will think in spare time on "How many years are left?" As for the academic circle of gerontology, more contributions to the senior citizens who make up 10% of the total population, also to the people who are going forth to the aged should be put in consideration. Problems of various disciplines are involved there among, demographic and sociologic, also those of natural sciences and specific medical sciences. Furthermore,it is also an issue of global concern that requires global strategic planning.

  7. The vehicle routing problem with time windows and temporal dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg; Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Larsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we formulate the vehicle routing problem with time windows and temporal dependencies. The problem is an extension of the well studied vehicle routing problem with time windows. In addition to the usual constraints, a scheduled time of one visit may restrain the scheduling options...

  8. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag; Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ovidiu Călin Safirescu; Mihaela Hetvary; Ioan Gheorghe Oroian; Dumitru Vâju

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green tech...

  9. Housing Options for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different services. The services are based on the lifestyle and health care needs of the residents. Below are some options for senior living. Active adult communitiesActive adult communities are neighborhoods made for older ...

  10. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  11. New Approaches to Studying Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Methods for Modeling Longitudinal, Categorical Adolescent Drinking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Betsy J.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing problem-behavior trajectories can be difficult. The data are generally categorical and often quite skewed, violating distributional assumptions of standard normal-theory statistical models. In this article, the authors present several currently available modeling options, all of which make appropriate distributional assumptions for the…

  12. Problems of process-efficiency studies in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A E

    1996-01-01

    Three areas of psychotherapy research can be delimited of which differential efficiency research promises to be the most fruitful, because it will eventually inform us which interventions with what kind of patient and what kind of problem will be the most constructive. One problem it can solve is the so-called equivalence paradox. This epitheton designates the fact, that in spite of the enormous differences in theory and interventions between the different kinds of psychotherapies, their results are not remarkably divergent. One quite popular hypothesis is that this is due to common factors, commun to any and every kind of psychotherapy. Our results indicate that this explanation is too simplistic because it uses a monosubstance-doses-effect-relationship model and disregards interaction. One other avenue is the relevant events approach. Our examples yield equivocal results. Nevertheless this remains a promising field of investigation. Finally there are time series analyses which are probably most germane to the field of psychotherapies. One illustration with a case of negative psychotherapy outcome is presented. Time series analysis is able to show that the patient changed to a negativistic attitude in the middle of session, whereas the psychoanalyst only changed at the beginning of session 10 respectively in its middle.

  13. A Simulation Study of Solving Material Substitution Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsin Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The material substitution problem is a critical decision issue in the assembly industry. In practice, this problem is usually solved with managers’ experiences. However, the management objectives of material substitution are various and sometimes there are conflicts between different departments. Therefore, it needs a comprehensive analysis to assess the effectiveness of adopting substitution material under different management objectives. This research uses simulation model to analyze the effectiveness of material substitution policy which includes external substitution, internal substitution and general use of material. Full factorial experimental design was applied to find the performance of proposed material substitution policy, and order quantity, purchase lead-time, due-date variance, order arrival interval, and delay cost were chosen as independent variables. The average flow time, order delay time, order fulfillment rate, and system cost were chosen as dependent variables. Experimental results showed that material substitution policies are significant on all dependent variables. Especially the external substitution policy performed better than the others in the observed four performance indices. Through external substitution policy can improve order fulfillment rate and reduce average flow time. That is, applying external substitution policy can make a great improvement in customer satisfaction which is the most impact factor in satisfying customers under the mass customization environment.

  14. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  15. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  16. Study on mining investment decisions based on delay options and expansion options%基于延迟期权和扩张期权的矿业投资决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 郑明贵; 木日根

    2012-01-01

    矿业项目投资回收期长,不确定因素多,传统评价方法在评价策略性选择权时完全不考虑投资过程中实际存在的不确定性,造成短视决策.文中首先介绍了实物期权的概念、主要类型及定价方法;其次建立了基于延迟期权和扩张期权的矿业投资决策模型;最后以江西省某钼矿投资项目为例进行应用.结果表明:所建立的模型比较全面地反映了矿业投资项目的总体价值,为矿业投资决策提供了一种较好的思路与方法.%Mining projects have long payback period and much uncertainty. For traditional evaluation method, the uncertainty in evaluating strategic options is riot taken into account, resulting in short-sighted decision -makings. First, the concept of real options, the main types and pricing methods are introduced in the paper; then, a mining investment decision-making model based on the delay options and the expansion options is established; finally, the model is interpreted with the case of a molybdenum mine in Jiangxi Province. The results indicate that the models reflect the overall value of the mining investment projects, and provide better ideas and methods for mining investment decisions.

  17. Is reverse total shoulder arthroplasty a feasible treatment option for failed shoulder arthroplasty? A retrospective study of 44 cases with special regards to stemless and stemmed primary implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschen, M; Franetzki, B; Witt, K-A; Liem, D; Steinbeck, J

    2017-08-01

    Is reverse total shoulder arthroplasty a feasible treatment option for failed shoulder arthroplasty? A retrospective study of 44 cases with special regards to stemless and stemmed primary implants. Due to humeral or glenoid bone-loss and rotator cuff insufficiency reverse total shoulder arthroplasty often means the only remaining treatment option in revision shoulder arthroplasty. This study investigates the clinical outcome of patients treated with a reverse total shoulder in revision cases with special regard to stemless and stemmed primary implants. From 2010 to 2012 60 failed shoulder arthroplasties were converted to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Forty-four patients were available for follow-up after a mean of 24 months. Patients were assessed with X-rays, Constant- and ASES Score and a questionnaire about their subjective satisfaction. The total number of observed complications was seven (16%). Ninety-eight percent of the patients were satisfied with their clinical result. Patients achieved a mean normalized constant score of 70.2% and a mean ASES Score of 65.3. Patients with stemless primary implants achieved a higher normalized constant score than patients with stemmed primary implants (82 vs. 61.8%; p = 0009). Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty provides satisfactory clinical results and a high patient satisfaction in revision shoulder arthroplasty. The complication rate needs to be considered and discussed with the patient prior to surgery. Presence or absence of a stem of revised shoulder arthroplasties interferes with the outcome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: (Retrospective study).

  18. Agricultural vulnerability in Bangladesh to climate change induced sea level rise and options for adaptation: a study of a coastal Upazila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowarul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the vulnerabilities of agriculture in coastal regions of Bangladesh to the different adverse effects of sea level rise induced hazards, and also identifies option for future agricultural adaptations. It reveals that due to sea level rise, agriculture of the study area has already experienced noticeable adverse impacts especially in terms of area of inundation, salinity intrusion and reduction in crop production. The study is conducted based on both primary and secondary data. A total 303 out of 1200 respondents from three coastal villages were randomly interviewed. Samples are drawn proportionately from three villages. Descriptive and inferential statistics and logistic regression have been done to analysis data. The study find that the agricultural land, production of crops, local crop varieties, income and employment facilities of the farmers is highly vulnerable to various SLR induced hazards. Selection of various adaptive options such as control of saline water intrusion into agricultural land, coastal afforestation, cultivation of saline tolerant crops, homestead and floating gardening, embankment cropping and increase of income through alternative livelihoods are emerging need for sustainable coastal agricultural development. Therefore, this paper argues that further development and implementation of such adaptive measures could help to minimize vulnerabilities of agriculture in the long run.

  19. Study of Problems Arising during Perioperative Care of Postoperative Endophthalmitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyi Lin; Yue Cai; Jiehui Huang; Ronghua Ye

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To discuss the problems in perioperative nursing care for patients with postoperative infectious endophthalmitis. Methods: The medical records of 34 patients (35 eyes) pre-senting with infectious endophthalmitis at Zhongshan Oph-thalmic Center,.Sun Yat-sen University between April 2002 and December 2013 were collected to analyze preoperative and postoperative nursing care for endophthalmitis after ocular surgery. Results:Thirty-four patients (35 eyes) developed complications of infectious endophthalmitis after surgery..Thirty-three cases were successfully cured and only one patient (1 eye) was un-treated due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Conclusion: Perioperative nursing care plays a pivotal role in preventing and controlling the incidence and development of postoperative infectious endophthalmitis.

  20. The Optional VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Vena Cava Filter: Experimental Study in Sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanche, Alain F., E-mail: le_blanche.alain@chu-amiens.fr [University of Picardie-Jules Verne (France); Ricco, Jean-Baptiste [University of Poitiers (France); Bonneau, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (I.N.R.A.) and Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP), Centre of Research in Interventional Imaging - CRII (France); Reynaud, Philippe [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP) APHP, Department of Respiratory Diseases (France)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Retrieval of optional caval filters may be impaired by filter tilting, migration, fracture, or embedding in the IVC wall. The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate a new optional filter, convertible by unlocking and removing the filter head. Methods: Forty-nine Pre-Alp sheep (average weight, 55 kg) were anesthetized. IVC was catheterized via the right femoral vein (n = 46) or via the internal jugular vein (n = 3) with a 12.9-F sheath. VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} IVC filters were inserted as either permanent filters (n = 14) or as filters to be converted. Conversion was immediately after deployment (n = 19) or delayed after 1, 3, or 6 months (n = 20). Filter delivery, deployment, and conversion with measurement of migration and tilting were evaluated by cavography. Incorporation of the filter's stabilizers and arms in the IVC wall was assessed by gross anatomy. Results: Delivery system insertion, filter release, and immediate conversion were successful in all cases. Delayed conversion was completed in all but one sheep, due to insufficient snare tension. Complimentary balloon-catheter inflation was required in 12 of 20 delayed conversions to achieve filter opening. In all 49 sheep, no thrombosis, migration, or significant tilting occurred. Within 4 weeks of conversion, the filter's stabilizers and arms were incorporated into the IVC wall. Upon removal, the filter head was free of intimal growth. Conclusions: The VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} optional IVC filter was successfully implanted in all sheep with no migration or tilting. Conversion at various dates by filter head removal was feasible in all but one case.

  1. Longitudinal study of religiosity and mental health of adolescents with psychiatric problems. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, W; de Vries-Schot, M; Scheepers, P; van Deurzen, P A M; Klip, H; Buitelaar, J K

    2017-06-15

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the influence of the religiosity of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems on the course of mental health during adolescence. In the TRAILS clinical cohort of 543 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report at baseline, T2 (12-14 years), T3 (14-17 years), and T4 (17-21 years). The Youth Self Report (YSR) was used at baseline, T2, and T3, and the Adult Self Report (ASR) was used at T4. Religiosity was assessed at baseline using self-report and information from mothers and fathers, resulting in three categorical religiosity variables and six SOCON (Social Cultural Developments Questionnaire) religiosity scales that assess religiosity in greater detail. Repeated measure ANOVA analyses were performed for each independent religiosity variable with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior as dependent variables, gender as a factor and time (T1, T2, T3 and T4) as within factor. Results were adjusted for marital status of parents and socioeconomic status and corrected for multiple testing. There were main effects of the self-report SOCON scale "Humanistic beliefs" and gender and gender "by Humanistic beliefs" interaction effect on internalizing problems. Follow-up tests revealed that among females "high" scores on "Humanistic beliefs" were associated with increased internalizing problems. There were hardly any associations between religiosity and mental health in a clinical cohort of pre-adolescents up to adolescence. The exception being that among females strong humanistic beliefs were associated with internalizing problems. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Management of sleeping problems with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curfs, L.M.G; Didden, H.C.M.; Sikkema, S.P.E.; Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de

    1999-01-01

    Sleeping problems are common among children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Extinction may be effective if sleeping problems have been shaped and are positively reinforced by parental attention. The present study shows that extinction was effective in the treatment of severe sleeping problems in a si

  3. A Study of Inverse Problems Based on Two Kinds of Special Matrix Equations in Euclidean Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two special classes of symmetric coefficient matrices were defined based on characteristics matrix; meanwhile, the expressions of the solution to inverse problems are given and the conditions for the solvability of these problems are studied relying on researching. Finally, the optimal approximation solution of these problems is provided.

  4. Main problems experienced by children with epidermolysis bullosa : A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, Corinne; Lettinga, Ant T.; Duipmans, Jose C.; Maathuis, Care G. B.; Jonkman, Marcel F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and specify the problems of children with epidermolysis bullosa. The questions explored were: (i) What do children with epidermolysis bullosa experience as the most difficult problems; (it) What is the impact of these problems on their daily life; and (iii

  5. Well, that's what came with it. A qualitative study of U.S. mothers' perceptions of healthier default options for children's meals at fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Holly K M; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2015-04-01

    Using a qualitative design, this study investigated mothers' perceptions of food choices and default options, for children, at fast-food restaurants. Mothers of 3- to 8-year-old children (n = 40) participated in phone interviews. Mothers praised fast-food restaurants for offering healthier choices, but voiced concerns about quality of the food. Half worried about meat products and several were distressed by the processing involved with food and beverages. Many said that their children wanted to visit fast-food restaurants because of advertised toys and not food offerings. Half liked bundled meals, as long as they could choose the specific items that were included. Having healthier defaults might eliminate battles, reduce forgetfulness and facilitate ordering. Most mothers favored healthier defaults because it would help "other parents." This small study provides strong support for offering healthier options at fast-food restaurants. Restaurants, schools and other food venues should design children's meals that make the healthy choice the easy choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric Glaucoma: Pharmacotherapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Monica; Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2016-06-01

    Childhood glaucoma is a major therapeutic challenge for pediatric ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists worldwide. Management depends on the etiology and age at presentation. A variety of drugs are available for the control of intraocular pressure in children; however, none of these drugs have been licensed by the regulatory agencies for use in children. Furthermore, evidence gained from randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population is sparse, and little is known regarding the use of newer anti-glaucoma preparations. This evidence-based review aims to discuss the available pharmacotherapeutic options for glaucoma in children. Topical adrenoceptor blockers, topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin (PG) analogs, adrenoceptor agonists, parasympathomimetics, and combined preparations are available for use in children, but usually as an off-label indication. Therefore, it is important to recognize that serious side effects have been reported, even with topical drops, and measures to reduce systemic absorption should be taken. Most drugs have been shown to have comparable ocular hypotensive effects, with the lowest occurrence of systemic side effects with PG analogs. Whereas a newly introduced prostaglandin analog, tafluprost, and some other preservative-free preparations have shown promising results in adult glaucoma patients, no pediatric reports are available as yet. Future studies may describe their role in treating pediatric glaucoma. This review also shares some suggested treatment pathways for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), developmental glaucoma, aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma.

  7. Problems and Limitations in Studies on Screening for Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Marten; Westerlund, Monica; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses six common methodological limitations in screening for language delay (LD) as illustrated in 11 recent studies. The limitations are (1) whether the studies define a target population, (2) whether the recruitment procedure is unbiased, (3) attrition, (4) verification bias, (5) small sample size and (6) inconsistencies in choice…

  8. Strategic Options Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin

    Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) enables a group or individual to construct a graphical representation of a problematic situation, and thus explore options and their ramifications with respect to a complex system of goals or objectives. In addition the method aims to help groups arrive at a negotiated agreement about how to act to resolve the situation. It is based upon the use of causal mapping - a formally constructed means-ends network - as representation form. Because the picture has been constructed using the natural language of the problem owners it becomes a model of the situation that is ‘owned' by those who define the problem. The use of formalities for the construction of the model makes it amenable to a range of analyses as well as encouraging reflection and a deeper understanding. These analyses can be used in a ‘rough and ready' manner by visual inspection or through the use of specialist causal mapping software (Decision Explorer). Each of the analyses helps a group or individual discover important features of the problem situation, and these features facilitate agreeing agood solution. The SODA process is aimed at helping a group learn about the situation they face before they reach agreements. Most significantly the exploration through the causal map leads to a higher probability of more creative solutions and promotes solutions that are more likely to be implemented because the problem construction process is wider and more likely to include richer social dimensions about the blockages to action and organizational change. The basic theories that inform SODA derive from cognitive psychology and social negotiation, where the model acts as a continuously changing representation of the problematic situation - changing as the views of a person or group shift through learning and exploration. This chapter, jointly written by two leading practitioner academics and the original developers of SODA, Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann

  9. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory;

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness a...... able to reflect sudden changes in the structure of the underlying company....

  10. Study of Profile, Knowledge and Problems of Anganwadi Workers in ICDS Blocks: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip B. Patil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the profile of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs. To assess knowledge of AWWs & problems faced by them while working. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Anganwadi centres were selected by stratified sampling technique. From each block 10% AWWs were enrolled into study. The functioning of AWWs was assessed by interviewing Anganwadi workers for their literacy status, years of experience, their knowledge about the services rendered by them and problems faced by them. Result: Most of AWWs were from the age group of between 41-50 years; more than half of them were matriculate and 34(69.38% workers had an experience of more than 10 years. Majority (81.63 % of AWWs had a knowledge assessment score of above 50%. They had best knowledge about nutrition and health education (70%. Of the workers 87.7% complained of inadequate honorarium, 28.5% complained of lack of help from community and other problems reported were infrastructure related supply, excessive work overload and record maintenance. Conclusions: Majority of AWWs were beyond 40 years of age, matriculate, experienced, having more than 50% of knowledge related to their job. Complaints mentioned by them were chiefly honorarium related and excessive workload.

  11. Methodological problems with population cancer studies: The forgotten confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Among clinical physicians it is the population study that is considered to be the "gold standard" of medical evidence concerning acceptable treatments. As new information comes to light concerning the many variables and confounding factors that can affect such studies, many older studies lose much of their original impact. While newer population studies take into consideration a far greater number of confounding factors many are still omitted and a number of these omitted factors can have profound effects on interpretation and validity of the study. In this editorial, I will discuss some of the omitted confounding factors and demonstrate how they can alter the interpretation of these papers and their clinical application.

  12. Cross-sectoral assessment of mitigation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.

    1997-01-01

    options and polity areas where there may be synergistic effects between climate change mitigation and national development objectives, The country study for Tanzania has identified forestry and land use activities and the agricultural sectors as some of the main drivers in the future growth of greenhouse...... gas emissions, Forestry, land use and agriculture are at the same time key economic and social development areas, This means that options leading to improved performance of these activities can reduce future greenhouse gas emissions and imply increasing welfare, A potential for win-win options has...... similarly been assessed in the country study for Zimbabwe, The options include in particular efficiency improvements in industrial plants and in the energy sector, A new methodological issue in the country study for Zimbabwe is the comparable assessment of greenhouse gas reductions options for multiple...

  13. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to face many of problems in social aspects. Some of the problems namely, absence of social security, education problem, bad habits, health problem, stigma and discrimination, access to information and service problem, violence, Hijra community issues, and sexual behavior problem are considered in this study. Based on the expert’s opinion and the notion of indeterminacy, we formulate neutrosophic cognitive map. Then we studied the effect of two instantaneous state vectors separately on connection matrix E and neutrosophic adjacency matrix N(E.

  14. Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

    2013-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

  15. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  16. A Genetic Study on Attention Problems and Academic Skills: Results of a Longitudinal Study in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Polderman TJ; Huizink AC; Verhulst FC; van Beijsterveldt CE; Boomsma DI; Bartels M

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several studies reported a negative association between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement. We investigated the etiology of the association between Attention Problems (AP, one of the core symptoms in ADHD) in early childhood and four academic skills across childhood in a genetically informative design. Method Academic skills (mathematics, spelling, reading and comprehension) were measured with standardized tests performed at school in grade 2, 4, and 6. AP were measured with mot...

  17. Warranty of Misinforming as an Option in Product Utilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Grozdanov Christozov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following definition of “option” is given in Wikipedia - “In finance, an option is a contract, which gives the buyer (the owner or holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on or before a specified date, depending on the form of the option” (“Option,” n.d.. Option as a risk management (mitigation tool is broadly used in finance and trade. At the same time, it introduces asymmetry in the sense that, probabilistically, it limits the level of losses (e.g., the price of the option and allows for unlimited gains. In the market of sophisticated devices (as smart phones, tablets, etc., where technologies are rapidly advancing, customers usually do not have the experience to use all features of the device at the time of the purchase. Due to the lack of appropriate expertise, the risk of misinforming, leading to not purchasing the “right” device is high, but given enough time to learn the capabilities of the device and map these to the needs and tasks that device will be used for, could provide the client with substantial long term benefits. Warranty of misinforming is a mechanism that provides the client with the opportunity to explore the device and master its features under limited risk of financial losses. Thus, the warranty of misinforming could be considered as an option - the custom-ers buy it (at a fixed cost and may gain (theoretically unlimited benefit by realizing (within the terms of the warranty that the device can be used to solve a variety of problems not envisaged at the time of purchase. In this study we present the idea of treating the warranty of misinforming as an option in finances and provide examples to illustrate our viewpoint.

  18. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  19. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  20. Teaching problem-solving competency in Business Studies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10218122

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 35, Number 3, August 2015. 1 ... subject does not exist in South Africa, the best way of achieving this awareness is by incorporating practical .... isolated from the standard Business Studies class.

  1. STUDYING FOREST ROOT SYSTEMS - AN OVERVIEW OF METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of tree root systems is central to understanding forest ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles, nutrient and water uptake, C allocation patterns by trees, soil microbial populations, adaptation of trees to stress, soil organic matter production, etc. Methodological probl...

  2. Thermal test options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  3. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  4. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  5. Problem solving ability and repetition of deliberate self-harm: a multicentre study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAuliffe, C.; Corcoran, P.; Keeley, H.S.; Arensman, E.; Bille Brahe, U.; Leio, de D.; Fekete, S.; Hawton, K.; Hjelmeland, H.; Kelleher, M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Michel, K.; Salander Renberg, E.; Schmidtke, A.; Heeringen, van K.; Wasserman, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background. While recent studies have found problem-solving impairments in individuals who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH), few studies have examined repeaters and non-repeaters separately. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific types of problem-solving are associated

  6. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  7. Social desirability bias in family planning studies: a neglected problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Grimes, David A

    2009-08-01

    Studies on family planning methods traditionally have relied on self-reports of unknown validity and reproducibility. Social desirability bias, a type of information bias, occurs when study participants respond inaccurately - but in ways that will be viewed favorably by others. Several lines of evidence reveal that this bias can be powerful in sexual matters, including reports of coitus, use of contraceptives and induced abortion. For example, studies using vaginal prostate-specific antigen testing reveal underreporting of unprotected coitus and overreporting of barrier contraceptive use. Medication Event Monitoring System studies, which electronically record the time of pill dispensing from a bottle or pack, indicate widespread exaggeration of adherence to pill-taking regimens, including oral contraceptives. Comparisons of provider data and self-reports of induced abortions reveal extensive underreporting of induced abortion. Reliance on self-reported data underestimates contraceptive efficacy. Although techniques to minimize this bias exist, they are infrequently used in family planning studies. Greater skepticism about self-reports and more objective means of documenting coitus and contraceptive use are needed if contraceptive efficacy is to be accurately measured.

  8. 基于鞅方法下分数布朗运动欧式回望期权的定价%Study on the Valuation of Look-back Options in Fractional Brownian Motion by the Martingale Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑利恒; 杜雪樵

    2012-01-01

    利用分数布朗运动研究了一种强路径依赖型期权—回望期权的定价问题.首先列出了有关的定义和引理;其次利用该定义和引理建立了分数布朗运动情况下的价格模型,通过鞅方法,得到了回望期权价格所满足的方程;最后分别给出了看跌回望期权和看涨回望期权的定价公式的显式解.%This paper mainly deals with the pricing problem of the look-back option using the fractional Berownian motion, which is a kind of path dependent option. First of all the paper Lists in the definition and lemma; and secondly by the use of the definition and lemma established under fractional Brownian motion model of the price, look-back options pricing has been met by the differential equation; the final shows look-back put option and look-back call option pricing formula of the explicit solution respectively by using the random differential equation and the martingale methods.

  9. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  10. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  11. A Dexterous Optional Randomized Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarray, Tanveer A.; Singh, Housila P.; Yan, Zaizai

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of estimating the proportion Pi[subscript S] of the population belonging to a sensitive group using optional randomized response technique in stratified sampling based on Mangat model that has proportional and Neyman allocation and larger gain in efficiency. Numerically, it is found that the suggested model is…

  12. Paper Document Storage: A Summary of Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Discusses problems with paper storage; considers organizational requirements for storage, including access, cost, and security; describes storage options, including filing cabinets, open shelving, cabinets, carousels, mobile racking, and rotary storage; and examines paper storage as part of a records management strategy. (LRW)

  13. [Value of blink reflex studies in neurosurgical problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Z; Nahser, H C; Nau, H E

    1983-09-01

    Blinking reflex studies were done in neurosurgical patients with processes in the posterior fossa and idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Alterations were found in space occupying, ischemic, and traumatic lesions of the trigemino-facial system. The analysis of the components of the blinking reflex can give hints to the site of the lesion and also to the prognosis of the underlying process.

  14. [The contamination under polymerase chain reaction studies: problems and solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Ameliushkina, V A; Rozhkova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine risk factors of false positive and false negative results under polymerase chain reaction-analysis of clinical material. The samples with high viral load can be the source of false positive results. The contamination with nucleic acids can occur at any section of polymerase chain reaction analysis. The study data permitted to establish that the most sensitive stage is isolation and purification of nucleic acids especially under manual mode of operation. The detection of positive signal in most samples of one setting indicates total contamination. The cases when only several samples are polluted are special challenge. The presence of sample with high concentration of viral nucleic acid and several samples with low concentration in one setting means necessity of repeated analysis beginning with stage of isolation of nucleic acid. The analysis of curves of accumulation of products of amplification, their forms and positioning on chart is the obligatory stage of polymerase chain reaction study in real time regimen. These actions permit to exclude the readouts of false negative testing results to departments. The study conclusions are equipotent for polymerase chain reaction testing of any nucleic acid targets.

  15. Going Critical: The Problem of Problematizing Knowledge in Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of what it is to be "critical" in education studies and in social theory more generally. It argues that this idea has for a long time been associated with forms of social constructionism and sociological reductionism. These understand the idea that knowledge is social in terms of reducing it to the experiences and…

  16. The problem of studying the best educational experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach A.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the peculiarities of the views of scientists on the issues of determining the essence of good teaching experience, its dissemination and implementation in practice of education. The main stages of studying advanced pedagogical experience. It is shown the features of each stage. It is given the definition of best educational experience. Highlighted key terms that are used in the theory and practice work with the best educational experience.

  17. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  18. Implementing the Instructional Coach Role as a Professional Development Option: A Case Study of the Change Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubek, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes and participation in professional development activities of key stakeholders as related to the change of position from an Instructional Support Teacher to an Instructional Coach. Specifically, this study aimed to provide a detailed and extensive review of the implementation process and…

  19. The Effects of Schema-Broadening Instruction on Second Graders’ Word-Problem Performance and Their Ability to Represent Word Problems with Algebraic Equations: A Randomized Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Schumacher, Robin Finelli; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of schema-broadening instruction (SBI) on second graders’ word-problem-solving skills and their ability to represent the structure of word problems using algebraic equations. Teachers (n = 18) were randomly assigned to conventional word-problem instruction or SBI word-problem instruction, which taught students to represent the structural, defining features of word problems with overarching equations. Intervention lasted 16 weeks. We pretested and posttested 270 students on measures of word-problem skill; analyses that accounted for the nested structure of the data indicated superior word-problem learning for SBI students. Descriptive analyses of students’ word-problem work indicated that SBI helped students represent the structure of word problems with algebraic equations, suggesting that SBI promoted this aspect of students’ emerging algebraic reasoning. PMID:20539822

  20. Resistance surveillance studies: a multifaceted problem--the fluoroquinolone example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, A

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes data on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology published in the previous 5 years. The data reviewed are stratified according to the different prescription patterns by either primary- or tertiary-care givers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone- resistance rates increased in the past several years in almost all bacterial species except Staphylococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs), as well as Enterobacteriaceae causing community-acquired urinary tract infections. Geographically and quantitatively varying fluoroquinolone resistance rates were recorded among Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens causing healthcare-associated respiratory tract infections. One- to two-thirds of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were fluoroquinolone resistant too, thus, limiting the fluoroquinolone use in the treatment of community- as well as healthcare-acquired urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections. The remaining ESBL-producing or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms harboring Enterobacteriaceae were low-level quinolone resistant. Furthermore, 10-30 % of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae causing CARTIs harbored first-step quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) mutations. These mutants pass susceptibility testing unnoticed and are primed to acquire high-level fluoroquinolone resistance rapidly, thus, putting the patient at risk. The continued increase in fluoroquinolone resistance affects patient management and necessitates changes in some current guidelines for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections or even precludes the use of fluoroquinolones in certain indications like gonorrhea and pelvic inflammatory diseases in those geographic areas in which fluoroquinolone resistance rates and/or ESBL production is high. Fluoroquinolone resistance has been selected among the commensal

  1. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    literature; how- S ever, Sander et al. (1975a, b) studied the effect of N-nitrosomorpholine in a series of experiments with cress plants (Lepidiwu sativum...Adenomas by Amines or Ureas Plus Nitrite and by N-Nitroso Compounds: Effect of Ascorbate, Gallic Acid, Thiocyanate, and Caffine ," j. Nat’l Cancer instit...Washington, D.C. Garber, K. (1970), "Air Pollution by Heavy-Metal-Containing Dusts. Effects on Plants ." LandAirt, Forsch, Sonderh., 25, 59-68

  2. Healthy option preferences of rural restaurant customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Snetselaar, Linda; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Hradek, Christine; Sepulveda, Marisol

    2010-11-01

    In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults.

  3. Flyash disposal problems at thermal power stations - an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, E.S.; Peter, E.C. Nirmala; Sastri, K. Rama [JNTU Coll. of Engineering, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Hyderabad (India); Kura, Bhaskar [New Orleans Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Disposal of flyash at thermal power stations is carried out in the form of ash slurry by mixing the ash with water. The ash slurry is stored in an ash pond. The water in the slurry is gradually drained out, through decanting wells, earthen embankments and over spillways, leaving the ash to deposit in the pond. It is observed that, the design of decanting wells presently being used allows a considerable amount of flyash to flow out with water, leading to the contamination of soil and the water courses. Further, it is observed that, the failure of earthen bunds of ash ponds, which results in a major damage to the environment, is mainly due to ineffective functioning of filters in the bunds. This paper presents the details of an experimental investigation carried out to study the role of geotextiles in improving the performance of decanting wells and earthen bunds. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series two model decanting wells were tested with geotextile lining. In the second series, a number of model earthen bunds were tested with and without geotextiles. Economics of providing geotextiles in earthen bunds is studied. The results indicated that, the use of geotextiles is economical and effective improving the performance of decanting wells and the earthen bunds of an ash pond. (Author)

  4. Flyash disposal problems at thermal power stations - an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, E.S.; Peter, E.C.N.; Sastri, K.R.; Kura, B. [JNTU College of Engineering, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1999-06-10

    Disposal of fly ash at coal-fired power stations is carried out in the form of ash slurry by mixing the ash with water. The ash slurry is stored in an ash pond. The water in the slurry is gradually drained out, through decanting wells, earthen embankments and over spillways, leaving the ash to deposit in the pond. The design of decanting wells presently being used in power stations, such as Vijayawada in India allows a considerable amount of flyash to flow out with water, leading to the contamination of soil and the water courses. Further, the failure of earthen bunds of ash ponds, which results in a major damage to the environment, is mainly due to ineffective functioning of filters in the bunds. This paper presents the details of an experimental investigation carried out to study the role of geotextiles in improving the performance of decanting wells and earthen bunds. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series two model decanting wells were tested with geotextile lining. In the second series, a number of model earthen bunds were tested with and without geotextiles. Economics of providing geotextiles in earthen bunds is studied. The results indicated that, the use of geotextiles is economical and effective in improving the performance of decanting wells and the earthen bunds of an ash pond. 15 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Homophobic Bullying and Cyberbullying: Study of a Silenced Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elipe, Paz; de la Oliva Muñoz, María; Del Rey, Rosario

    2017-06-01

    Bullying and cyberbullying have been studied extensively. In lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) students, these phenomena seem to be overrepresented so that, although they share some common elements, homophobic bullying and cyberbullying could be considered as specific phenomena. This study analyzed homophobic bullying and cyberbullying, with the participation of 533 Spanish secondary school students aged from 12 to 20 (M = 14.9, SD = 1.7). The results showed that students identified as non-heterosexual experienced a higher level of being targeted with bullying and cyberbullying, almost one half of them declaring that they had been victimized and more than 20% cybervictimized. Many stated they had suffered both kinds of harassment. In addition, the prevalence of all kinds of bullying was higher among non-heterosexual students. Regression analyses showed that sexual orientation could be considered a risk factor for suffering these aggressions. We discuss results in relation to previous research and look at their practical implications.

  6. Studies into the averaging problem: Macroscopic gravity and precision cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijenayake, Tharake S.

    2016-08-01

    With the tremendous improvement in the precision of available astrophysical data in the recent past, it becomes increasingly important to examine some of the underlying assumptions behind the standard model of cosmology and take into consideration nonlinear and relativistic corrections which may affect it at percent precision level. Due to its mathematical rigor and fully covariant and exact nature, Zalaletdinov's macroscopic gravity (MG) is arguably one of the most promising frameworks to explore nonlinearities due to inhomogeneities in the real Universe. We study the application of MG to precision cosmology, focusing on developing a self-consistent cosmology model built on the averaging framework that adequately describes the large-scale Universe and can be used to study real data sets. We first implement an algorithmic procedure using computer algebra systems to explore new exact solutions to the MG field equations. After validating the process with an existing isotropic solution, we derive a new homogeneous, anisotropic and exact solution. Next, we use the simplest (and currently only) solvable homogeneous and isotropic model of MG and obtain an observable function for cosmological expansion using some reasonable assumptions on light propagation. We find that the principal modification to the angular diameter distance is through the change in the expansion history. We then linearize the MG field equations and derive a framework that contains large-scale structure, but the small scale inhomogeneities have been smoothed out and encapsulated into an additional cosmological parameter representing the averaging effect. We derive an expression for the evolution of the density contrast and peculiar velocities and integrate them to study the growth rate of large-scale structure. We find that increasing the magnitude of the averaging term leads to enhanced growth at late times. Thus, for the same matter content, the growth rate of large scale structure in the MG model

  7. Skin problems in ostomy patients: a case-control study of risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybaek, Hanne; Bang Knudsen, Dorte; Nørgaard Laursen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    %) of patients with a skin problem were aware of the skin problems, and less than 1 in 5 (16%) had sought treatment for their skin problem. Ileostomies, ostomies with leakage and ostomies in patients with body mass index >30 were associated with skin problems. In conclusion, ileostomy, leakage and obesity...... patients broadly selected from the gene-ral population. All patients with permanent ostomies living in Roskilde County, Denmark, were invited to participate in the study. A total of 338 responded and 199 agreed to participate. Forty-five percent of all patients presented a skin problem. Less than half (43...... predisposed patients to peristomal skin problems. Other suggested risk factors appear to be weak or insignificant. Patients under-report the presence of peristomal skin problems and therefore it is suggested that they need to be assessed by a professional on a routine basis in order to avoid or better manage...

  8. The seasickness as marine problem-case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rodrigo Perez

    2013-03-01

    Motion sickness is one of the main reasons why travelling by sea becomes a bad memory for a number of people, mainly due to a nauseating symptom. The aim of this paper is to characterize a condition called seasickness that has affected many people from a mathematical and psychological point of view. Based on the mathematical characterization, an existing model will be reviewed and described. In the psychological aspects, a statistical study of two hundred and thirteen people was performed in order to provide a comprehensive view of the different psychological factors affecting the passengers. Motion sickness also impacts onboard safety, as it reduces the effectiveness and the operating capability of the crew when responding to hazardous situations.

  9. Consolidated View on Space Software Engineering Problems - An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N.; Vieira, M.; Ricci, D.; Cotroneo, D.

    2015-09-01

    Independent software verification and validation (ISVV) has been a key process for engineering quality assessment for decades, and is considered in several international standards. The “European Space Agency (ESA) ISVV Guide” is used for the European Space market to drive the ISVV tasks and plans, and to select applicable tasks and techniques. Software artefacts have room for improvement due to the amount if issues found during ISVV tasks. This article presents the analysis of the results of a large set of ISVV issues originated from three different ESA missions-amounting to more than 1000 issues. The study presents the main types, triggers and impacts related to the ISVV issues found and sets the path for a global software engineering improvement based on the most common deficiencies identified for space projects.

  10. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...

  11. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  12. ICARUS-4 : a database of energy reduction options for the Netherlands, 1995-2020 : sector study for the non-ferrous metals industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this report we describe the energy consumption in 1995 and the energy saving options that exist within the non-ferro base metal industry (SBI/NACE 27.4-5) in the Netherlands. The data will be included in the ICARUS-4 database which gives an inventory of the technological options for energy saving

  13. ICARUS-4 : a database of energy reduction options for the Netherlands, 1995-2020 : sector study for the non-ferrous metals industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we describe the energy consumption in 1995 and the energy saving options that exist within the non-ferro base metal industry (SBI/NACE 27.4-5) in the Netherlands. The data will be included in the ICARUS-4 database which gives an inventory of the technological options for energy saving

  14. Designing Undergraduate-Level Organic Chemistry Instructional Problems: Seven Ideas from a Problem-Solving Study of Practicing Synthetic Organic Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    The development of curricular problems based on the practice of synthetic organic chemistry has not been explored in the literature. Such problems have broadly been hypothesized to promote student persistence and interest in STEM fields. This study reports seven ideas about how practice-based problems can be developed for sophomore-level organic…

  15. Designing Undergraduate-Level Organic Chemistry Instructional Problems: Seven Ideas from a Problem-Solving Study of Practicing Synthetic Organic Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    The development of curricular problems based on the practice of synthetic organic chemistry has not been explored in the literature. Such problems have broadly been hypothesized to promote student persistence and interest in STEM fields. This study reports seven ideas about how practice-based problems can be developed for sophomore-level organic…

  16. Treatment options for hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Amy; Miller, Emily S; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-01-09

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a severe and prolonged form of nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. HG affects 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is defined by dehydration, ketonuria, and more than 5% body weight loss. Initial pharmacologic treatment for HG includes a combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine. Additional interventions include ondansetron or dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide or promethazine. The options are limited for women who are not adequately treated with these medications. We suggest that mirtazapine is a useful drug in this context and its efficacy has been described in case studies. Mirtazapine acts on noradrenergic, serotonergic, histaminergic, and muscarinic receptors to produce antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiemetic, sedative, and appetite-stimulating effects. Mirtazapine is not associated with an independent increased risk of birth defects. Further investigation of mirtazapine as a treatment for HG holds promise to expand treatment options for women suffering from HG.

  17. Study on the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Cipriano, L Toribio San; Domínguez-Guzmán, G; García-Rojas, J

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundances of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from deep and high-quality optical spectra of HII regions. The data have been taken using the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope with the goal of detecting the faint CII and OII recombination lines. For all the objects of the sample, we determine C^2+ abundances from recombination lines and O^2+ abundances from recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. In addition, we calculate the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^2+ and C^2+, as well as the O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We study the behaviour of the ADF comparing the values obtained in the Magellanic Clouds with those obtained for other HII regions in different galaxies. We also compare the nebular and stellar abundances in two regions of the sample. Finally, we discuss the chemical evolution of the MCs through the O/H, C/H and C/O radial gradients and the changes of the C/O ratio as a function of O/H.

  18. Pattern of clustering of menopausal problems: A study with a Bengali Hindu ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Pal, Baidyanath; Ray, Subha

    2016-01-01

    We attempted to find out how menopausal problems cluster with each other. The study was conducted among a group of women belonging to a Bengali-speaking Hindu ethnic group of West Bengal, a state located in Eastern India. We recruited 1,400 participants for the study. Information on sociodemographic aspects and menopausal problems were collected from these participants with the help of a pretested questionnaire. Results of cluster analysis showed that vasomotor, vaginal, and urinary problems cluster together, separately from physical and psychosomatic problems.

  19. Options and futures in the fishpool market : a brief analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lattanzio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, FishPool ASA has been operating as a regulated market place for the trading of futures and options written on the spot price of fresh farmed salmon. The impressive increase of the trading volums experienced by this young has not been homogenous, leading to a well-developed market for futures contracts, while the options market still suffer significant liquidity problem. It is difficult to identify the reasons behind the different trend characterizing options and futures markets, b...

  20. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  1. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  2. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and i...

  3. Options for laser compression of matter to study dense-plasma phases at low entropy, including metallization of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Oparin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aoki, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-Ku, Yokohama 227 (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The potential of high-power lasers for detailed studies of strongly coupled plasmas at low entropy is discussed, emphasizing multiple-shock techniques. Some outstanding features like metallization in solids and related ionization phase transitions in the fluid phase{emdash}predicted theoretically, but not yet observed experimentally{emdash}are reviewed. Planar multiple shock compression of solid hydrogen is described, using reverberating shocks between massive liners and, alternatively, a stepped pressure pulse acting from one side. In the latter case, shock splitting and a rarefaction shock show up at the metallic phase transition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a novel treatment option for infective endocarditis: a retrospective clinical study in 32 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Aviva; Krymko, Hanna; Richardson, Justin; Zalzstein, Eli; Ioffe, Viktoriya

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infectious syndrome, with high morbidity and mortality. Current treatments for infective endocarditis include intravenous antibiotics, surgery, and involve a lengthy hospital stay. We hypothesised that adjunctive recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment for infective endocarditis may facilitate faster resolution of vegetations and clearance of positive blood cultures, and therefore decrease morbidity and mortality. This retrospective study included follow-up of patients, from 1997 through 2014, including clinical presentation, causative organism, length of treatment, morbidity, and mortality. We identified 32 patients, all of whom were diagnosed with endocarditis and were treated by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Among all, 27 patients (93%) had positive blood cultures, with the most frequent organisms being Staphylococcus epidermis (nine patients), Staphylococcus aureus (six patients), and Candida (nine patients). Upon treatment, in 31 patients (97%), resolution of vegetations and clearance of blood cultures occurred within hours to few days. Out of 32 patients, one patient (3%) died and three patients (9%) suffered embolic or haemorrhagic events, possibly related to the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. None of the patients required surgical intervention to assist vegetation resolution. In conclusion, it appears that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator may become an adjunctive treatment for infective endocarditis and may decrease morbidity as compared with current guidelines. Prospective multi-centre studies are required to validate our findings.

  5. Correlated continuous time random walk and option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Longjin; Xiao, Jianbin; Fan, Liangzhong; Ren, Fuyao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study a correlated continuous time random walk (CCTRW) with averaged waiting time, whose probability density function (PDF) is proved to follow stretched Gaussian distribution. Then, we apply this process into option pricing problem. Supposing the price of the underlying is driven by this CCTRW, we find this model captures the subdiffusive characteristic of financial markets. By using the mean self-financing hedging strategy, we obtain the closed-form pricing formulas for a European option with and without transaction costs, respectively. At last, comparing the obtained model with the classical Black-Scholes model, we find the price obtained in this paper is higher than that obtained from the Black-Scholes model. A empirical analysis is also introduced to confirm the obtained results can fit the real data well.

  6. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  7. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  8. Feasibility study in aspect of thermal integrity on the dry storage expansion options for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y.; Song, M. J. [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, K. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    In order to expand the capability of the CANDU spent fuel dry storage facilities of the at Wolsong, the alternative concepts based on MACSTOR are suggested to replace with existing concrete silo of Wolsong. For this, the feasibility of its design changes from original MACSTOR is examined in term of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic. In this study, the configuration of the module was conceptually changed from its original 2 rows to 3 and 4 rows for review. Under normal operation, the results of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic shows that storage module can feasibly accomodate four rows of storage cylinders within allowable range in terms of maximum allowable temperature of the fuel basket.

  9. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a ...

  10. First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis: current fixation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jared L; McGlamry, Michael C

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the current literature on first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis rates using various forms of fixation, as well as reviewing biomechanical studies comparing the strengths of the different fixation options that are available.

  11. A STUDY ON INFORMAL MARKET CLUSTER ACTIVITIES CONCENTRATING AROUND MENDI MARKET AREA: IS RELOCATION THE BEST OPTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undiri Kima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The market provides a means of survival for the local and urban communities. The local farmers, local artisans, and other informal sectors find the market as their source of income and food and a place of relaxation. They find the market as a place where they meet friends. The article seeks to understand and analyze how informal sectors cluster groups agglomerate in and around the Mendi Local Market (LM area of Papua New Guinea. This research has made particular reference to Street Vendors (SV who are operating their daily activities in and along the market corridor and exert their influences to the LM and the public. The study provides the scenario to understand the impact of the social relations of the informal street vendors and their daily associated influences on LM. This article seeks to trace and to understand how informal market clusters are operating and concentrating around the local market. The conclusion suggests that the relationships of the informal sector, street vendors, and local market should be promoted through an appropriate inclusive policy and regulatory environment.The market provides a means of survival for the local and urban communities. The local farmers, local artisans, and other informal sectors find the market as their source of income and food and a place of relaxation. They find the market as a place where they meet friends. The article seeks to understand and analyze how informal sectors cluster groups agglomerate in and around the Mendi Local Market (LM area of Papua New Guinea. This research has made particular reference to Street Vendors (SV who are operating their daily activities in and along the market corridor and exert their influences to the LM and the public. The study provides the scenario to understand the impact of the social relations of the informal street vendors and their daily associated influences on LM. This article seeks to trace and to understand how informal market clusters are operating

  12. Novel operative treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Organizational options for preventing work-related stress in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed...... productivity. Relevance to industry: The paper identifies organizational options on which managers, employees and ergonomists can focus when initiating new stress management practices and preventive changes aimed at redesigning knowledge work. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  15. Are PEEK-on-Ceramic Bearings an Option for Total Disc Arthroplasty? An In Vitro Tribology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskey, Ryan; Ciccarelli, Lauren; Lui, Melissa K C; Kurtz, Steven M

    2016-11-01

    endplates were the primary sources of wear and demonstrated an abrasive wear mechanism. Under idealized and impingement conditions, the ceramic core also demonstrated slight polishing of the articulating surface but the change in mass was unmeasurable. During abrasive testing, the titanium transfer on the core was shown to polish over 5 MC of testing. In all cases and consistent with previous studies of other PEEK bearing couples, the particle size was primarily ceramic wear rate (0.7 ± 0.1 mm(3)/MC) appears comparable to the published wear rates for other polymer-on-hard bearing couples (0.3-6.7 mm(3)/MC) and within the range of 0.2 to 1.9 mm(3)/MC reported for PEEK-on-PEEK cervical disc designs. The particles, based on size and morphology, also suggest the wear mechanism is comparable between the PEEK-on-ceramic couple and other polymer-on-ceramic orthopaedic couples. The PEEK-on-ceramic bearing considered in this study is a novel bearing couple for use in total disc arthroplasty devices and will require clinical evaluation to fully assess the bearing couple and total disc design. However, the wear rates under idealized and adverse conditions, and particle size and morphology, suggest that PEEK-on-ceramic bearings may be a reasonable alternative to polyethylene-on-CoCr and metal-on-metal bearings currently used in cervical TDRs.

  16. Dialysis access, infections, and hospitalisations in unplanned dialysis start patients: results from the OPTiONS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark D; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul R; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter

    2017-03-16

    Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient outcomes and healthcare utilisation depending on initial dialysis access (CVC or PD catheter) and subsequent pathway of UPS patients. In this study patient demographics, access procedures, hospitalisations, and major infectious complications were analysed over 12 months in 270 UPS patients. PD technique survival and impact of switching from HD to PD was examined along with logistic regression to investigate factors predicting AV fistula formation. 72 UPS patients started with PD catheter and 198 with CVC. PD patients were older and more comorbid but had a significantly lower number of access procedures while there was no difference in hospitalisation or major infections. 13/72 initial PD patients switched to HD and 1-year technique survival was 79%. 158/198 patients remained on HD and 73/158 reported permanent access formation. Older age, OR = 0.34 (CI,0.17-0.68) and cardiac failure, OR = 0.31(CI,0.13-0.78), were significant negative predictors of receiving fistula. Younger patients, OR = 0.29 (CI, 0.11-0.79) and those who received AVF, OR = 0.11 (CI,0.03-0.38), had significantly lower odds of death. UPS with initial PD was possible in many patients and was associated with lower requirement for access procedures. AVF formation in UPS patients starting on HD was associated with better 1-year survival. Modality switching in UPS patients requires careful clinical management, including clinical practice patterns promoting permanent HD access formation.

  17. Methods and scales in soil erosion studies in Spain: problems and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in some areas of Spain. Research groups have studied a variety of aspects of this problem indifferent environments, and at a range of scales using a diversity of methods, from piquettes and rainfall simulation to experimental plots, catchment and large regional areas. This has increased knowledge and identified the main problems: farmland abandonment, badlands erosion, the effects of land use changes, and the role of extreme events and erosion in certain crops (particularly vineyards). However, comparison of results among various research groups has been difficult, posing problems in developing solutions from State and Regional administrators. (Author) 73 refs.

  18. Electronic collection of solved physics problems to encourage students’ active approach (not only to self study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupilová, Zdeňka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of Fully Solved Problems aimed at introductory undergraduate and high school level students. The collection is specially designed to encourage students in an active approach to problem solving, e.g. to solve at least some parts of a problem on their own. Nowadays the Collection contains about 800 fully solved problems in physics in Czech and nearly 180 problems in English. It has several hundreds of unique visitors per school day. Based on user feedback, the collection is used by students mainly for their home study and by teachers as a supplementary material. The creation of the structured solution of the physics problems has proved to be a beneficial activity for prospective physics teachers (students of our department).

  19. Problem-based case study to enhance critical thinking in student nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Mogale

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional teaching methods, for example the lecture method, does not stimulate critical thinking in student nurses. This problem can be solved by the utilisation of problem-based case study in the classroom/clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to describe guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study in a clinical setting among first year, comprehensive course students at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus. The research design of this study was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual and was conducted in the following phases: Phase 1: The development and implementation of a program for problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase II: The experiences of student nurses who were exposed to problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase III: The perceptions of tutors regarding the implementation of problem-based case study in the clinical setting (focus group, and; ase IV: Guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The data from Phases I, II and III were used to formulate guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The sample group consisted of all 69 first year student nurses at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus and ten tutors teaching clinical courses at the same campus. The Tesch (1990 approach is used for data analysis. Nine guidelines for the implementation of a problem-based case study approach were formulated and recommendations for development of an instrument to measure critical thinking in nursing were recommended.

  20. Strengthening evaluation through interactive problem structuring: a case study of hospital care after attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Harman, M.; Reuzel, R.; Grin, J.; Kramers, C.; van der Wilt, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of an evaluation largely depends on the quality of the underlying problem definition and the quality of the problem definition often improves as stakeholder involvement increases. By means of a study on the management of attempted suicides by drug overdose, we explored whether an

  1. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  2. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  3. Strengthening evaluation through interactive problem structuring: a case study of hospital care after attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Harman, M.; Reuzel, R.; Grin, J.; Kramers, C.; van der Wilt, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of an evaluation largely depends on the quality of the underlying problem definition and the quality of the problem definition often improves as stakeholder involvement increases. By means of a study on the management of attempted suicides by drug overdose, we explored whether an interac

  4. A Micro-Developmental Approach to Studying Young Children's Problem Solving Behavior in Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsina, Chronoula

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study that investigated the process of change in 5-6-year-old children's successful problem-solving approaches when tackling a multiple-step task in elementary arithmetic. Micro-developmental changes in children's successful problem-solving behavior were analyzed using Karmiloff-Smith's model of representational redescription…

  5. Exploring the Impact of Gambling Advertising: An Interview Study of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2009-01-01

    This study qualitatively explored the impact of gambling advertising on problem gambling by interviewing twenty-five people with current or past gambling problems. Interviews were relatively long and involved the participants' viewing numerous examples of gambling advertising. A quarter of the participants reported that gambling advertising had no…

  6. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal Parenting and Children's Peer Problems: A Longitudinal Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2013-01-01

    This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin…

  7. Practical problems with medication use that older people experience : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, Kim; Beers, Erna; Van Riet-Nales, Diana A.; Egberts, Toine C G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/162850050; Leufkens, Hubert G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075255049; Jansen, Paul A F; Bouvy, Marcel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/153182210

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify the practical problems that older people experience with the daily use of their medicines and their management strategies to address these problems and to determine the potential clinical relevance thereof. Design Qualitative study with semistructured face-to-face interviews.

  8. Behaviour problems in childhood and adolescence in psychotic offenders: an exploratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, K.; Willigenburg, L.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Marle, H Van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that adults who develop schizophrenia and commit a criminal offence may already have shown behaviour problems in childhood or adolescence. It is less clear whether such problems follow a particular pattern in such patients. AIMS: To examine the utility of the C

  9. Practical problems with medication use that older people experience : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, Kim; Beers, Erna; Van Riet-Nales, Diana A.; Egberts, Toine C G; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Jansen, Paul A F; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify the practical problems that older people experience with the daily use of their medicines and their management strategies to address these problems and to determine the potential clinical relevance thereof. Design Qualitative study with semistructured face-to-face interviews.

  10. A Descriptive Study of a Building-Based Team Problem-Solving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Alexander B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate Building-Based Teams for General Education Intervention or BBT for GEI. BBT for GEI is a team problem-solving process designed to assist schools in conducting research-based interventions in the general education setting. Problem-solving teams are part of general education and provide support…

  11. Strengthening evaluation through interactive problem structuring: a case study of hospital care after attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Harman, M.; Reuzel, R.; Grin, J.; Kramers, C.; van der Wilt, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of an evaluation largely depends on the quality of the underlying problem definition and the quality of the problem definition often improves as stakeholder involvement increases. By means of a study on the management of attempted suicides by drug overdose, we explored whether an interac

  12. Problem-Based Learning in an Online Course: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaney, James D.; Ingebritsen, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is the use of a "real world" problem or situation as a context for learning. The present study explores the use of PBL in an online biotechnology course. In the PBL unit, student groups dealt with the ethical, legal, social, and human issues surrounding pre-symptomatic DNA testing for a genetic disease. Issues…

  13. An Empirical Study of Personality Disorders Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Oldenhof, E; Allen, J S; Dowling, N A

    2016-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology. Participants were 168 consecutively admitted problem gamblers seeking treatment from a specialist outpatient gambling service in Australia. The prevalence of personality disorders using the self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorders Screen was 43.3 %. Cluster B personality disorders, but not Cluster A or C personality disorders, were associated with problem gambling severity. All psychological symptoms, except alcohol and drug use, were significantly higher among participants with personality disorder pathology compared to those without. Finally, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for problem gamblers with personality disorder pathology, while impulsivity, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for those without personality disorder pathology. High rates of comorbid personality disorders, particularly Cluster B disorders, necessitate routine screening in gambling treatment services. More complex psychological profiles may complicate treatment for problem gamblers with comorbid personality disorders. Future research should examine the applicability of the biosocial developmental model to problem gambling in community studies.

  14. Numerical Methods for Pricing American Options with Time-Fractional PDE Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Zhiqiang; Gao, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

      In this paper we develop a Laplace transform method and a finite difference method for solving American option pricing problem when the change of the option price with time is considered as a fractal...

  15. Problems and benefits reported by stroke family caregivers: results from a prospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, William E; Allen, Jessica Y; Grant, Joan S; Clay, Olivio J; Perkins, Martinique; Roth, David L

    2009-06-01

    Stroke symptoms can be very stressful for family caregivers, but most knowledge about the prevalence and stressfulness of stroke-related patient problems is derived from convenience samples. In addition, little is known about perceived benefits of the stroke caregiving experience. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and stressfulness of stroke-related problems, and perceived benefits of caregiving, as reported by an epidemiologically derived sample of caregivers of stroke survivors. Stroke survivors (N=75) from a prospective epidemiological study of stroke, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, and their family caregivers were followed. Caregivers were given a comprehensive telephone interview 8 to 12 months after the stroke, using measures of stroke patient problems, caregiver appraisals of the stressfulness of these problems, and perceived benefits of caregiving. Caregivers rated patient problems with mood (depression, loneliness and anxiety), memory, and physical care (bowel control), as the most stressful, but reported prevalence of these problems was lower than those reported previously in studies using clinical samples. Caregivers also reported many benefits from caregiving, with over 90% reporting that caregiving enabled them to appreciate life more. Epidemiologically based studies of stroke caregiving provide a unique picture of caregiver strains and benefits compared with clinical studies, which tend to over-represent more impaired patients. Support for caregivers should include interventions to aid their coping with highly stressful mood, physical care, and cognitive problems of stroke patients, but should also attend to perceived benefits of caregiving.

  16. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  17. Dupuytren Contracture Recurrence Following Treatment With Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CORDLESS [Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren Long-Term Evaluation of Safety Study]): 5-Year Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Clayton A; Blazar, Philip; Coleman, Stephen; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Smith, Ted; Lindau, Tommy

    2015-08-01

    Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren Long-Term Evaluation of Safety Study was a 5-year noninterventional follow-up study to determine long-term efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) treatment for Dupuytren contracture. Patients from previous CCH clinical studies were eligible. Enrolled patients were evaluated annually for contracture and safety at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after their first injection (0.58 mg) of CCH. In successfully treated joints (≤ 5° contracture following CCH treatment), recurrence was defined as 20° or greater worsening (relative to day 30 after the last injection) with a palpable cord or any medical/surgical intervention to correct new/worsening contracture. A post hoc analysis was also conducted using a less stringent threshold (≥ 30° worsening) for comparison with criteria historically used to assess surgical treatment. Of 950 eligible patients, 644 enrolled (1,081 treated joints). At year 5, 47% (291 of 623) of successfully treated joints had recurrence (≥ 20° worsening)-39% (178 of 451) of metacarpophalangeal and 66% (113 of 172) of proximal interphalangeal joints. At year 5, 32% (198 of 623) of successfully treated joints had 30° or greater worsening (metacarpophalangeal 26% [119 of 451] and proximal interphalangeal 46% [79 of 172] joints). Of 105 secondary interventions performed in the successfully treated joints, 47% (49 of 105) received fasciectomy, 30% (32 of 105) received additional CCH, and 23% (24 of 105) received other interventions. One mild adverse event was attributed to CCH treatment (skin atrophy [decreased ring finger circumference from thinning of Dupuytren tissue]). Antibodies to clostridial type I and/or II collagenase were found in 93% of patients, but over the 5 years of follow-up, this did not correspond to any reported clinical adverse events. Five years after successful CCH treatment, the overall recurrence rate of 47% was comparable with published recurrence rates after

  18. Factors Affecting the Identification of Research Problems in Educational Administration Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Mikail; Bektas, Fatih; Öztekin, Özge; Karadag, Engin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the factors that affect the identification of research problems in educational administration studies. The study was designed using the case study method. Criterion sampling was used to determine the work group; the criterion used to select the participants was that of having a study in the field of…

  19. The price of correlation risk: evidence from equity options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Maenhout, P.J.; Vilkov, G.

    2009-01-01

    We study whether exposure to marketwide correlation shocks affects expected option returns, using data on S&P100 index options, options on all components, and stock returns. We find evidence of priced correlation risk based on prices of index and individual variance risk. A trading strategy

  20. Mental health problems of Iranian female adolescents and its association with pubertal development: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Ali; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohammad, Kazem; Ardalan, Gelayol; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Shahryari, Safiyeh; Khodaei, Shahnaz; Sotoudeh, Aria; Ziaaldini, Hassan; Kamali, Kobra; Motaghian, Molouk

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 ± 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 ± 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  1. Mental Health Problems of Iranian Female Adolescents and Its Association with Pubertal Development: A Nationwide Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Sotoudeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  2. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik A; Willert, Morten Vejs; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours per week spent on LTPA estimated the degree of physical activity. Workplace bullying at baseline (T1) was associated with awakening problems and lack of restful sleep at follow-up (T2) but not with overall sleep problems and disturbed sleep. T1-LTPA did not moderate the association between T1-workplace bullying and T2-sleep problems. We found support that workplace bullying is related to development of T2-sleep problems, but this association seems not to be modified by LTPA.

  3. Achilles tendinosis: treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L; Jung, Hong-Geun

    2015-03-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options.

  4. Case study: use of problem-based learning to develop students' technical and professional skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, 'Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?' The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem solving and self-directed learning. Forty-seven students enrolled in a biomedical materials course participated in the case study. Students worked in teams to complete a series of problems throughout the semester. The results showed that students made significant improvements in their problem-solving skills, written communication and self-directed learning. Students also demonstrated an ability to work in teams and communicate orally. In conclusion, this case study provides empirical evidence of the efficacy of PBL on student learning. We discuss findings from our study and provide observations of student performance and perceptions that could be useful for faculty and researchers interested in PBL for biomedical engineering education.

  5. The link between resource problems and interorganisational relationships : A quantitative study of Western European sport clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicker, Pamela; Vos, Steven; Scheerder, Jeroen; Breuer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    According to the resource dependence theory, organisations draw upon interorganisational relationships to address the need for additional resources. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether sport clubs with serious resource problems regarding members, human resources (volunteers and coaches)

  6. Problems in the geographic source of historical and geographical regional studies (for example, Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trocenko O.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined information potential source base of the territory of modern Dnipropetrovsk region, outlined the problems of using historical sources in historical and geographical studies at the regional level.

  7. Multidisciplinary behavioral treatment of defecation problems: a controlled study in children with anorectal malformations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyk, E.M. van; Wissink-Essink, M.; Brugman-Boezeman, A.T.M.; Oerlemans, H.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.; Festen, C.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The most frequent consequences of being born with an anorectal malformation (ARM) are problems with fecal continence and constipation, which can have various negative implications. In this prospective, controlled study the effect of multidisciplinary behavioral treatment dealing

  8. Problem-based learning in dentistry and interfiled comparison: a citation analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Hazrati

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion ― These findings indicate gap Problem-based learning in the fields of medical sciences and future studies need to establish differences other fields and suggest appropriate solutions to resolve the dispute.

  9. THE REAL OPTIONS OF CAPITAL BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martins

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional techniques of capital budget, as the deducted cash flow and the net value present, do not incorporate existing flexibilities in an investment project, they tend to distort the value of certain investments, mainly those that are considered in scenes of uncertainty and risk. Therefore, this study intends to demonstrate that the Real Options Theory (TOR is a useful methodology to evaluate and to indicate the best option for project of expansion investment. To reach the considered objective the procedure method was used a case study, having as unit of case the Resort Praia Hotel do Litoral Norte of Salvador. This study was developed of the following form: first it identified the traditional net value present and later it was incorporated the volatileness of each analyzed uncertainty. Second, as the real options are analogous to the financial options, it was necessary to identify elements that composed the terminologies of the financial options with intention to get the value of the real option. For this model of options pricing of Black & Scholes jointly with a computational simulator was used (SLS to get the expanded net value present. As a result of this study it was possible to evidence that using the traditional tool of capital budget Net Value Present (VPL is negative, therefore the project of expansion of the Hotel would be rejected. While for the application of methodology TOR the project presents positive Expanded Present Value which would represent an excellent chance of investment. Key-word: Capital budget, Real options, Analysis of investments.

  10. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  11. Solving the E-waste problem (StEP) green paper. E-waste country study Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhart, Andreas [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Amera, Tadesse; Belay, Mehari [PAN (Ethiopia)

    2013-04-10

    The generation and management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) is an increasing concern in many African countries. Attempts to bridge the digital divide as well as rapid economic development continue to boost the market penetration of many types of electricity powered devices. This also leads to rapidly increasing e-waste volumes, which are mostly not yet managed in an environmentally sound manner. In order to build a strong foundation for the development of Ethiopia's e-waste management strategy, it was deemed necessary to generate reliable data on e-waste volumes and current management practices and options, as well as to investigate possibilities for improved e-waste management and other relevant aspects. This study, financed by the Solving the E-waste Problem (StEP) Initiative under a grant of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), was jointly carried out by the Oeko-Institut e.V. and PAN-Ethiopia. It aims to fill key knowledge gaps and provide a more solid base for further decision making for both, national decision-makers and co-operation projects in this field. The information contained in this report is derived from existing literature sources and statistics, interviews conducted in Ethiopia, and field assessments in Addis Ababa in August 2012.

  12. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  13. The effect of community stress and problems on psychopathology: A structural equation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Juncheng; Shi, Hong; Wang, Suzhen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This research aimed to estimate the effect of perceived social factors in the community stress and problems on the residents' psychopathology such as depression and suicidal behaviors. Subjects of this study were the informants (N=1618) in a psychological autopsy (PA) study with a case-control design. We interviewed two informants (a family member and a close friend) for 392 suicides and 416 living controls, which came from 16 rural counties randomly selected from three provinces of China. Community stress and problems were measured by the WHO SUPRE-MISS scale. Depression was measured by CES-D scale, and suicidal behavior was assessed by NCS-R scale. Multivariable liner and logistic regression models and the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were applied to probe the correlation of the depression and the suicidal behaviors with some major demographic variables as covariates. It was found that community stress and problems were directly associated with rural Chinese residents' depression (Path coefficient=0.127, Pstress and problem and suicidal behaviors, but community stress and problem can affect suicidal behaviors indirectly through depression. The path coefficient between depression and suicidal behaviors was 0.975. The current study predicts a new research viewpoint, that is, the depression is the intermediate between community stress and problem and suicidal behaviors. It might be an effective route to prevent depression directly and suicidal behaviors indirectly by reducing the community stress and problems.

  14. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Yu, Shuli; Cottrell, Lesley; Lunn, Sonja; Deveaux, Lynette; Brathwaite, Nanika V; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-07-02

    Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54%) reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p values (self-transcendence and conservation) were low or modestly correlated with youth' values (openness to change and self-enhancement). Parental-reported values documented limited association on adolescents' reported values and behaviors. In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  15. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  16. On bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MURAD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the optimum distribution of goods between sources and destinations is one of the important topics in projects economics. This importance comes as a result of minimizing the transportation cost, deterioration, time, etc. The classical transportation problem constitutes one of the major areas of application for linear programming. The aim of this problem is to obtain the optimum distribution of goods from different sources to different destinations which minimizes the total transportation cost. From the practical point of view, the transportation problems may differ from the classical form. It may contain one or more objective function, one or more stage to transport, one or more type of commodity with one or more means of transport. The aim of this paper is to construct an optimization model for transportation problem for one of mill-stones companies. The model is formulated as a bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem with a special structure depending on the capacities of suppliers, warehouses and requirements of the destinations. A solution algorithm is introduced to solve this class of bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem to obtain the set of non-dominated extreme points and the efficient solutions accompanied with each one that enables the decision maker to choose the best one. The solution algorithm mainly based on the fruitful application of the methods for treating transportation problems, theory of duality of linear programming and the methods of solving bi-criteria linear programming problems.

  17. Child involvement in interparental conflict and child adjustment problems: a longitudinal study of violent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents' conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children's involvement in their parents' conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children's involvement in their parents' conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families.

  18. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  19. MODEL STUDY OF THE SIGN PROBLEM IN A MEAN-FIELD APPROXIMATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIDAKA,Y.

    2007-07-30

    We study the sign problem of the fermion determinant at nonzero baryon chemical potential. For this purpose we apply a simple model derived from Quantum Chromodynamics, in the limit of large chemical potential and mass. For SU(2) color, there is no sign problem and the mean-field approximation is similar to data from the lattice. For SU(3) color the sign problem is unavoidable, even in a mean-field approximation. We apply a phase-reweighting method, combined with the mean-field approximation, to estimate thermodynamic quantities. We also investigate the meanfield free energy using a saddle-point approximation [1].

  20. Data science in R a case studies approach to computational reasoning and problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Access, Transform, Manipulate, Visualize, and Reason about Data and ComputationData Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving illustrates the details involved in solving real computational problems encountered in data analysis. It reveals the dynamic and iterative process by which data analysts approach a problem and reason about different ways of implementing solutions. The book's collection of projects, comprehensive sample solutions, and follow-up exercises encompass practical topics pertaining to data processing, including: Non-standar

  1. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY RESIDING IN URBAN AREAS, KATHMANDU: PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  2. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie

    2015-01-01

    whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying......OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours...

  3. Promoting Experimental Problem-Solving Ability in Sixth-Grade Students through Problem-Oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an Intervention Study in a Complex Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…

  4. Promoting Experimental Problem-Solving Ability in Sixth-Grade Students through Problem-Oriented Teaching of Ecology: Findings of an Intervention Study in a Complex Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Frank; Nerb, Josef; Riess, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Our study investigated whether problem-oriented designed ecology lessons with phases of direct instruction and of open experimentation foster the development of cross-domain and domain-specific components of "experimental problem-solving ability" better than conventional lessons in science. We used a paper-and-pencil test to assess…

  5. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  6. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Problems in Children: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Prinzie, Peter; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A recent meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies examining correlations between peer victimization and indices of internalizing problems indicates that victims of bullying are highly distressed. However, the reliance on cross-sectional studies precludes interpretation of the direction of effects. The present study was designed…

  7. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including...... ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  8. Obstacles to the discussion of sexual problems in menopausal women: a qualitative study of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masoumeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mehdi Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore issues that challenge menopausal women in discussions of their sexual problems with a physician. This was done from the perspective of healthcare providers. In a descriptive exploratory qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview and purposive sampling, a sample set of 12 midwives and 13 general practitioners aged 25-70 years were selected in order to elicit meaning behind their experiences about the subject under study. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. Results were used to identify a number of obstacles that hindered women from seeking help for sexual problems from GPs and midwives. These obstacles included the following: (1) traditional and cultural beliefs; (2) religious belief; (3) individuals' beliefs and (4) access to services. More research is needed to explore effective strategies to overcome these problems. Impact statement Current knowledge on the subject: In the literature, many reasons have been identified for the unwillingness of Iranian women to discuss their sexual problems with health providers. These include lack of time, feelings of shame and an expectation that a doctor cannot help. However, no qualitative study has addressed barriers held by menopausal women for seeking treatment for sexual problems. The contribution made by the results of this study: The results of this study add to the growing body of research on reasons that determine why most postmenopausal women rarely visit a doctor unless they were in tremendous physical or emotional pain. Also, menopausal women thought that an unmarried health provider would be less understanding about sexual and marital problems and they felt guilty about sharing such issues with them. Patients' opinions on the nature of menopause (a pathological vs. physiological process) affect the way in which the symptoms of menopause and sexual problems are handled by patient. The implications are of these findings for clinical

  9. A Comparative Study of Meta-heuristic Algorithms for Solving Quadratic Assignment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal Abd El-Nasser A. Said; Mahmoud, Abeer M.; El-Horbaty, El-Sayed M.

    2014-01-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, therefore, solving the QAP requires applying one or more of the meta-heuristic algorithms. This paper presents a comparative study between Meta-heuristic algorithms: Genetic Algorithm, Tabu Search, and Simulated annealing for solving a real-life (QAP) and analyze their performance in terms of both runtime efficiency and solution quality. The results show that Genetic Algorithm has a better solution quality wh...

  10. Emotional, behavioural problems and cigarette smoking in adolescence: findings of a Greek cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotsika Vasiliki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere.

  11. A Study on the Enhanced Best Performance Algorithm for the Just-in-Time Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivashan Chetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Just-In-Time (JIT scheduling problem is an important subject of study. It essentially constitutes the problem of scheduling critical business resources in an attempt to optimize given business objectives. This problem is NP-Hard in nature, hence requiring efficient solution techniques. To solve the JIT scheduling problem presented in this study, a new local search metaheuristic algorithm, namely, the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm (eBPA, is introduced. This is part of the initial study of the algorithm for scheduling problems. The current problem setting is the allocation of a large number of jobs required to be scheduled on multiple and identical machines which run in parallel. The due date of a job is characterized by a window frame of time, rather than a specific point in time. The performance of the eBPA is compared against Tabu Search (TS and Simulated Annealing (SA. SA and TS are well-known local search metaheuristic algorithms. The results show the potential of the eBPA as a metaheuristic algorithm.

  12. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  13. A prospective study of weight development and behavior problems in toddlers: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagtvet Knut A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that overweight children have a higher risk of behavior problems, but the causal direction of this relationship remains unclear. In a large prospective population study, we investigated whether child behavior problems and body mass index are associated in toddlers and whether overweight is a risk for behavior problems or vice versa. Methods The study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The sample consisted of 10 860 toddlers, followed up to age 36 months. We used data from maternal questionnaires from gestation week 17 and at child ages 18 and 36 months, and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Child height and weight were assessed at child health stations and recorded by mothers. Behavior problems were assessed using shortened subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist. Statistical analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Results Behavior problems in toddlers were not associated with higher body mass index cross-sectionally at either age 18 or 36 months, and there was no indication that behavior problems caused increasing body mass index over time or vice versa. Conclusions The association between behavior problems and body mass index found in older children did not appear in toddlers up to age 36 months. Future studies should focus on the age span from 3 to 6 years, which includes the period of adiposity rebound.

  14. Vasomotor and urogenital problems at midlife: a study on rural and urban women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Ray, Subha

    2015-01-01

    During the transition to menopause, women experience symptoms which vary widely. This variation is attributed not only to the hormonal change, but also to the effect of socio-demographic and reproductive factors. The present research aimed to (a) find out the rural-urban difference in experiencing menopausal problems at peri-menopausal and post-menopausal stages and (b) to identify the factors associated with these problems. In total, 1400 Bengali speaking, Hindu women, aged 40-55 years were selected from rural and urban areas of West Bengal. Data on socio-demographic and reproductive variables and menopausal problems were collected using appropriate tools. Bivariate analysis finds a rural-urban difference for vasomotor, urinary and vaginal problems (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed socio-demographic and reproductive factors were significantly (p ≤ 0.005) associated with vasomotor (age at menarche, menopausal and residential status, duration of breastfeeding, menstrual discharge type, use of OCP, sterilization and BMI), urinary (ages at menarche and marriage, menstrual bleeding length, use of OCP, menopausal status, monthly household expenditure and BMI) and vaginal (type of menstrual discharge, menopausal status, educational level, monthly household expenditure and BMI) problems for this study group. Socio-demographic and reproductive factors seem to be significantly associated with menopausal problems. Residential status appears to be a confounder variable for menopausal problems.

  15. An adaptation of the Interpersonal Problem Areas Rating Scale: pilot and interrater agreement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Ana Claudia Fontes; Frank, Ellen; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Houck, Patricia R

    2012-01-01

    Objective This article describes the adaptation of a rating scale of interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas to include a fifth problem area appropriate to bipolar disorder and an interrater agreement study in identifying interpersonal problem areas and selecting a primary treatment focus if patients were to engage in treatment. Method Five research interpersonal psychotherapists assessed nine audiotapes of a single interview with five bipolar and four unipolar patients in which the interpersonal inventory and identification of problem areas were undertaken. Results Raters agreed on presence and absence of problem areas in seven tapes. Kappas for identification of problem areas were 1.00 (grief), 0.77 (role dispute), 0.61 (role transition), 0.57 (interpersonal deficits) and 1.00 (loss of healthy self). Kappa for agreement on a primary clinical focus if patients were to engage in interpersonal psychotherapy treatment was 0.64. Conclusions The adaptation of the original scale to include an area pertinent to bipolar disorder proved to be applicable and relevant for use with this population. The results show substantial interrater agreement in identifying problem areas and potential treatment focus. PMID:19142412

  16. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change.

  17. Performance in chemistry problem solving: A study of expert/novice strategies and specific cognitive factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engemann, Joseph Francis

    The purpose of this study was (a) to determine whether any relationships exist between chemistry problem-solving performance and field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, age, gender, and/or academic level, and (b) to compare the problem-solving strategies employed by novices, advanced novices, and experts in chemistry. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), and the Figural Intersection Test (FIT) were administered to 29 freshman and junior university chemistry students and 19 Regents and Advanced Placement high school chemistry students. In addition, six mole concept problems were given to these participants, as well as to another 25 participants classified as advanced novices or experts in chemistry. All six solutions for each participant were evaluated in order to obtain a problem-solving performance score. Participants were audiotaped as they "talked aloud" during the problem-solving session. Tapes were transcribed into protocols, 37 of which were selected and analyzed for choice of problem-solving strategy and time to solution. Analyses of variance were conducted to look for significant effects of gender or academic level on field dependent-independent cognitive style, logical reasoning ability, mental capacity, and problem-solving performance. These analyses provided evidence of a significant relationship between the conservation subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), between the proportional reasoning subtest of the GALT and gender (p < .05), and between mental capacity and academic level (p < .01). A multiple regression analysis reported that problem-solving performance is related to an interaction between logical reasoning ability and mental capacity. A relationship between academic level and chemistry problem-solving performance was also reported. From an analysis of verbal protocols of successful problem solvers at all three levels of experience, the

  18. Preliminary Study of the Feasibility of Inverse Problem Algorithms Used for Arc Magnetic Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Xingwen; Song, Haoyong; Rong, Mingzhe

    2010-04-01

    Non-contact magnetic measurement method is an effective way to study the air arc behavior experimentally One of the crucial techniques is to solve an inverse problem for the electromagnetic field. This study is devoted to investigating different algorithms for this kind of inverse problem preliminarily, including the preconditioned conjugate gradient method, penalty function method and genetic algorithm. The feasibility of each algorithm is analyzed. It is shown that the preconditioned conjugate gradient method is valid only for few arc segments, the estimation accuracy of the penalty function method is dependent on the initial conditions, and the convergence of genetic algorithm should be studied further for more segments in an arc current.

  19. Working parents of children with behavioral problems: a study on the family-work interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the process by which child behavioral problems are related to parents' well-being. We developed a family-work spillover model that was tested among 225 working parents. It was hypothesized that family-self conflict (FSC) mediates the relationship between child behavioral problems and parental strain, and that family-work conflict (FWC) mediates the relationship between parental strain and work engagement. Further, it was hypothesized that social support moderates the relationship between child behavioral problems and FSC. The results of (moderated) structural equation modeling supported the mediating role of FSC and FWC and the moderating role of social support. These findings suggest that the negative effects of raising a child with behavioral problems on parental well-being can be buffered by social support.

  20. Health problems among detainees in Switzerland: a study using the ICPC-2 classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health status of prisoners in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by detainees in Switzerland's largest remand prison. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study we reviewed the health records of all detainees leaving Switzerland's largest remand prison in 2007. The health problems were coded using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2. Analyses were descriptive, stratified by gender. Results A total of 2195 health records were reviewed. Mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.5; 95% were male; 87.8% were migrants. Mean length of stay was 80 days (SD 160. Illicit drug use (40.2% and mental health problems (32.6% were frequent, but most of these detainees (57.6% had more generic primary care problems, such as skin (27.0%, infectious diseases (23.5%, musculoskeletal (19.2%, injury related (18.3%, digestive (15.0% or respiratory problems (14.0%. Furthermore, 7.9% reported exposure to violence during arrest by the police. Conclusion Morbidity is high in this young, predominantly male population of detainees, in particular in relation to substance abuse. Other health problems more commonly seen in general practice are also frequent. These findings support the further development of coordinated primary care and mental health services within detention centers.