WorldWideScience

Sample records for optimized reference standards

  1. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  2. Vehicle occupancy detection camera position optimization using design of experiments and standard image references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Peter; Hoover, Martin; Rabbani, Mojgan

    2013-03-01

    Camera positioning and orientation is important to applications in domains such as transportation since the objects to be imaged vary greatly in shape and size. In a typical transportation application that requires capturing still images, inductive loops buried in the ground or laser trigger sensors are used when a vehicle reaches the image capture zone to trigger the image capture system. The camera in such a system is in a fixed position pointed at the roadway and at a fixed orientation. Thus the problem is to determine the optimal location and orientation of the camera when capturing images from a wide variety of vehicles. Methods from Design for Six Sigma, including identifying important parameters and noise sources and performing systematically designed experiments (DOE) can be used to determine an effective set of parameter settings for the camera position and orientation under these conditions. In the transportation application of high occupancy vehicle lane enforcement, the number of passengers in the vehicle is to be counted. Past work has described front seat vehicle occupant counting using a camera mounted on an overhead gantry looking through the front windshield in order to capture images of vehicle occupants. However, viewing rear seat passengers is more problematic due to obstructions including the vehicle body frame structures and seats. One approach is to view the rear seats through the side window. In this situation the problem of optimally positioning and orienting the camera to adequately capture the rear seats through the side window can be addressed through a designed experiment. In any automated traffic enforcement system it is necessary for humans to be able to review any automatically captured digital imagery in order to verify detected infractions. Thus for defining an output to be optimized for the designed experiment, a human defined standard image reference (SIR) was used to quantify the quality of the line-of-sight to the rear seats of

  3. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  4. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  5. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  6. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiner, J.L.; Blaine, A.C.; Higgins, C.P.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, method validation, and m

  7. Dirt reference standard for surface cleanliness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzi, D. J. O.; Bilmes, G. M.

    2016-08-01

    Thin films based on polymer poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PIBMA), doped with carbon black particles deposited on steel plate substrates are proposed as dirt reference standards for cleanliness accreditation methods, particularly for instruments based on laser ablation. The films were made with the spin-coating method, obtaining layers with thickness between 4 and 17 μm. Carbon black particles with sizes smaller than 100 nm and concentrations between 1 and 27.6 mgr/cm3 were used. Characterization of the films was made by using absorbance measurements and laser ablation-induced photoacoustic.

  8. Strategies for building reference standards for autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eSheldon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Producing robust, certified, traceable reference material for autoantibody testing is a vital element in maintaining the validity of results that are generated in the daily clinical laboratory routine. This is a huge challenge because of the high number of variables involved in the detection and measurement of the autoantibodies. The production of such materials is time consuming and needs rigorous attention to detail; this is best achieved by an overarching independent body who will oversee the process in a not for profit manner.Much effort has been made to build international standards for quantitative and qualitative assays based on monoclonal antibodies, obtained from affinity purification and plasmapheresis. The big challenge is to respect individual differences in immune response to the same antigen. A promising ongoing initiative is the construction of pools with monospecific samples from different individuals.

  9. Electrothermal frequency references in standard CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kashmiri, S Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    This book describes an alternative method of accurate on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS IC processes. This method exploits the thermal-diffusivity of silicon, the rate at which heat diffuses through a silicon substrate.  This is the first book describing thermal-diffusivity-based frequency references, including the complete theoretical methodology supported by practical realizations that prove the feasibility of the method.  Coverage also includes several circuit and system-level solutions for the analog electronic circuit design challenges faced.   ·         Surveys the state-of-the-art in all-silicon frequency references; ·         Examines the thermal properties of silicon as a solution for the challenge of on-chip accurate frequency generation; ·         Uses simplified modeling approaches that allow an electronics engineer easily to simulate the electrothermal elements; ·         Follows a top-down methodology in circuit design, in which system-level des...

  10. Area Optimized Advanced Encryption Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sandip R. Aher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of the Advanced Encryption Standard candidates has become led to intensive study of both hardware and software implementations. However, number of papers presents various implementation results, it shows that efficiency could still be greatly improved by applying effective design rules adapted to devices and algorithms. This paper shows various approaches for efficient FPGA implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. For different applications of the AES algorithm may require different s peed/area tradeoffs, we propose a vital study of the possible implementation schemes, but also the discussion of design methodology and algorithmic optimization in order to improve previous reported results. We propose system to evaluate hardware efficiency at different steps of the design process. We also use an optimal pipeline that takes the place and route constraints into account. Resulting circuits significantly improve the previous reported results: throughput has been up to 18.5 Gbits/sec and the area requirements can be limited to 542 slices and 10 RAM blocks with a ratio throughput/area improved by minimum 25% of the best-known designs in the Xilinx Virtex- E technology.

  11. First steps towards a scatterometry reference standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodermann, Bernd; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Burger, Sven; Henn, Mark-Alexander; Gross, Hermann; Bär, Markus; Scholze, Frank; Endres, Johannes; Wurm, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has recently started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology and to establish scatterometry as a traceable and absolute metrological method for dimensional measurements. This requires a thorough investigation of the influence of all significant sample, tool and data analysis parameters, which affect the scatterometric measurement results. For this purpose and to improve the tool matching between scatterometers, CD-SEMs and CD-AFMs, experimental and modelling methods will be enhanced. The different scatterometry methods will be compared with each other and with specially adapted atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement systems. Additionally novel methods for sophisticated data analysis will be developed and investigated to reach significant reductions of the measurement uncertainties in critical dimension (CD) metrology. To transfer traceability to industrial applications of scatterometry an important step and one final goal of this project is the realisation of different waferbased reference standard materials for calibration of scatterometers. The approaches to reach these goals and first design considerations and preliminary specification of the scatterometry standards are presented and discussed.

  12. Optimization algorithm that generates the lowest ΔEab values to a reference standard based on spectral measurements of solid inks in offset lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Tapdrup

    to help him or her make decisions on how to reach the primary and secondary aim points for an OK sheet in as few steps as possible. The algorithm was tested against 197 different measurements for all six colors (C, M, Y, R, G, B), simulating 197 different printing conditions. The results show......ISO 12647-2 specifies CIELAB values for primary and secondary colors, but only tolerances for the primary solid colors. Press operators in lithography still favor density measurements for process control to assure quality and reproducibility during a production run. Since there is no direct...... relationship between density and CIELAB measurements, there is a gap between what the standard specifies and what the industry is actually doing. This research investigates the possibility of using the tolerances specified for the primary colors to achieve a better conformance of the secondary colors...

  13. Standard reference materials for thorium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, L

    2001-01-01

    Reference materials (RMs) are used in analytical measurements for several purposes--to develop and validate analytical measurements, as quality control indicators and for calibration. It is therefore essential that suitable reference materials are available. Because thorium is usually found in very acid-resistant, mineral phases, this becomes even more critical when techniques such as ICP-MS are used, which require complete sample digestion. This paper gives an overview of the reference materials that are currently available for thorium (232Th and other thorium isotopes) in various matrices, sources and indicative costs. The IAEA database is identified as a particularly useful source of information, and the website address is: http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nahunet/e4/nmrm/index.htm A brief summary of the discussion held at the '1st European Workshop on the Analysis of Thorium in Workplace Materials', regarding reference materials, is given at the end of the paper. A general need for new RMs, specifically for workplace materials, was identified as a priority.

  14. [Review of normal spectral emissivity standard reference materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yue-Jin

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of spectral emissivity measurement, standard reference materials of spectral emissivity as the dissemination of quantity in spectral emissivity measurement are used for the calibration of spectral emissivity measurement apparatus. In the present paper, firstly the standard reference materials data proposed by the American National Institute of Standards and Technology are introduced, and some underlying standard reference materials suggested by some metering departments in Europe are analyzed in detail For the standard reference material Armco iron and SiC proposed by some researchers, the advantages and disadvantages were explored. Finally, the characteristics of standard reference materials are summarized, and the future development of spectral emissivity measurement standard is prospected.

  15. [Reference standards in diagnostic research: problems and solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Joris A H; Reitsma, Johannes B; Moons, Karel G M

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnostic tests is of utmost importance as biased test results may lead to wrong decisions in clinical practice. In diagnostic accuracy research the results of a diagnostic test, model or strategy are compared to those of the reference standard, i.e. the best available method to determine whether a certain condition or disease is present or absent. Problems with the reference standard lead to biased test results. The umbrella term for this is 'verification bias'. Verification bias arises if the reference standard cannot be applied to all patients, if investigators use different reference standards or simply because there is no reference standard. Correction of these problems is often possible, and, if it is applied in a transparent and reproducible fashion it will deliver useful diagnostic information. Clinicians who use a diagnostic test should take possible verification bias into account.

  16. A time-indexed reference standard of adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Rave; Odgers, David; Gaskin, Greg; DuMouchel, William; Winnenburg, Rainer; Bodenreider, Olivier; Ripple, Anna; Szarfman, Ana; Sorbello, Alfred; Horvitz, Eric; White, Ryen W; Shah, Nigam H

    2014-11-11

    Undetected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) pose a major burden on the health system. Data mining methodologies designed to identify signals of novel ADRs are of deep importance for drug safety surveillance. The development and evaluation of these methodologies requires proper reference benchmarks. While progress has recently been made in developing such benchmarks, our understanding of the performance characteristics of the data mining methodologies is limited because existing benchmarks do not support prospective performance evaluations. We address this shortcoming by providing a reference standard to support prospective performance evaluations. The reference standard was systematically curated from drug labeling revisions, such as new warnings, which were issued and communicated by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013. The reference standard includes 62 positive test cases and 75 negative controls, and covers 44 drugs and 38 events. We provide usage guidance and empirical support for the reference standard by applying it to analyze two data sources commonly mined for drug safety surveillance.

  17. Optimal Reinsurance with Heterogeneous Reference Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J. Boonen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of optimal reinsurance contract design. We let the insurer use dual utility, and the premium is an extended Wang’s premium principle. The novel contribution is that we allow for heterogeneity in the beliefs regarding the underlying probability distribution. We characterize layer-reinsurance as an optimal reinsurance contract. Moreover, we characterize layer-reinsurance as optimal contracts when the insurer faces costs of holding regulatory capital. We illustrate this in cases where both firms use the Value-at-Risk or the conditional Value-at-Risk.

  18. Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Frequency References in Standard CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashmiri, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of research has been devoted to the realization of accurate integrated frequency references. A thermal-diffusivity-based (TD) frequency reference provides an alternative method of on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS technology. A frequency-locked loop locks the

  19. 15 CFR 200.105 - Standard reference data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and resource recovery. The subject data are disseminated as hard-copy information in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, published jointly with the American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Physics, in the National Standard Reference Data System reports as the NSRDS-NIST series,...

  20. Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Frequency References in Standard CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashmiri, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of research has been devoted to the realization of accurate integrated frequency references. A thermal-diffusivity-based (TD) frequency reference provides an alternative method of on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS technology. A frequency-locked loop locks the outpu

  1. Fabricating defensible reference standards for the NDA lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceo, R.N.; May, P.K. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) is performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in support of the enriched uranium operations. Process materials are analyzed using gamma ray- and neutron-based instruments including segmented gamma scanners, solution assay systems, and an active well coincidence counter. Process wastes are also discarded based on results of these measurements. Good analytical practice, as well as applicable regulations, mandates that these analytical methods be calibrated using reference materials traceable to the national standards base. Reference standards for NDA instruments are not commercially available owing to the large quantities of special nuclear materials involved. Instead, representative materials are selected from each process stream, then thoroughly characterized by methods that are traceable to the national standards base. This paper discusses the process materials to be analyzed, reference materials selected for calibrating each NDA instrument, and details of their characterization and fabrication into working calibrations standards. Example calibration curves are also presented. 4 figs.

  2. Reference Tracking and Profit Optimization of a Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two different methods for implementing reference tracking intro a profit optimization problem of a power plant. It is shown that tracking included as a side constraint results in an significant tracking error only when the reference gradient is large. When tracking...... is included in the cost function, as a quadratic term, the reference is tracked with a small accumulated error. Finally, the two methods are compared both in terms of tracking performance and computational burden....

  3. Standard digital reference images for inspection of aluminum castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These digital reference images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in aluminum-alloy castings. The castings illustrated are in thicknesses of 1/ 4 in. [6.35 mm] and 3/4 in. [19.1mm]. 1.2 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aluminum-alloy castings when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of aluminum-alloy castings, refer to Reference Radiographs E 155. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and he...

  4. Implementing Digital Reference Services: Setting Standards and Making It Real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David, Ed.; McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Gross, Melissa, Ed.; Pomerantz, Jeffrey, Ed.

    The chapters in this volume, originally presented at the Third Annual Virtual Reference Desk (VRD) conference, "Setting Standards and Making It Real," (Orlando, Florida, November 2001), were organized, revised, and updated to reflect current technology and practice. The VRD conference and the ideas in this book represent the cutting edge of work,…

  5. The use of standardized infinity reference in EEG coherency studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, L; Nolte, G; Perrucci, M G; Romani, G L; Del Gratta, C

    2007-05-15

    The study of large scale interactions in the brain from EEG signals is a promising method for the identification of functional networks. However, the validity of a large scale parameter is limited by two factors: the use of a non-neutral reference and the artifactual self-interactions between the measured EEG signals introduced by volume conduction. In this paper, we propose an approach to study large scale EEG coherency in which these factors are eliminated. Artifactual self-interaction by volume conduction is eliminated by using the imaginary part of the complex coherency as a measure of interaction and the Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) is used for the approximate standardization of the reference of scalp EEG recordings to a point at infinity that, being far from all possible neural sources, acts like a neutral virtual reference. The application of our approach to simulated and real EEG data shows that the detection of interaction, as opposed to artifacts due to reference and volume conduction, is a goal that can be achieved from the study of a large scale parameter.

  6. Reference Standards & Reference Work; A Critique of the New RASD Guidelines "A Commitment to Information Services"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Archie G.

    1976-01-01

    The document entitled "A Commitment to Information Services," prepared over a period of two years by the Standards Committee of the Reference and Adult Services Division (RASD) of the American Library Association, and now formally adopted by the Division Executive Board, is a better disappointment. (Author)

  7. THE COMPARISON OF STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION INDEX (SPI, STANDARDIZED REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION INDEX (SEI AND STANDARDIZED CLIMATIC WATER BALANCE (SCWB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Rojek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The standardized precipitation index (SPI, standardized reference evapotranspiration index (SEI and standardized climatic water balance (SCWB were used to analyze the humidity conditions in the vegetation period of years 1964–2006 in Wrocław-Swojec Observatory. SPI and SEI were calculated on the assumption that empirical monthly precipitation sums and monthly sums of reference evapotraspiration, obtained from Wrocław-Swojec data, are gamma distributed. Since monthly sums of climatic water balance for analogous data are normally distributed, CWB required standardization to SCWB. The aim of study was to compare those three indexes: standardized precipitation index (SPI, standardized reference evapotranspiration index (SEI and standardized climatic water balance (SCWB.

  8. Bias due to composite reference standards in diagnostic accuracy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ian; van Smeden, Maarten; Hadgu, Alula; Libman, Michael; Reitsma, Johannes B; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2016-04-30

    Composite reference standards (CRSs) have been advocated in diagnostic accuracy studies in the absence of a perfect reference standard. The rationale is that combining results of multiple imperfect tests leads to a more accurate reference than any one test in isolation. Focusing on a CRS that classifies subjects as disease positive if at least one component test is positive, we derive algebraic expressions for sensitivity and specificity of this CRS, sensitivity and specificity of a new (index) test compared with this CRS, as well as the CRS-based prevalence. We use as a motivating example the problem of evaluating a new test for Chlamydia trachomatis, an asymptomatic disease for which no gold-standard test exists. As the number of component tests increases, sensitivity of this CRS increases at the expense specificity, unless all tests have perfect specificity. Therefore, such a CRS can lead to significantly biased accuracy estimates of the index test. The bias depends on disease prevalence and accuracy of the CRS. Further, conditional dependence between the CRS and index test can lead to over-estimation of index test accuracy estimates. This commonly-used CRS combines results from multiple imperfect tests in a way that ignores information and therefore is not guaranteed to improve over a single imperfect reference unless each component test has perfect specificity, and the CRS is conditionally independent of the index test. When these conditions are not met, as in the case of C. trachomatis testing, more realistic statistical models should be researched instead of relying on such CRSs.

  9. Boric acid as reference substance: pros, cons and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, M J B; Natal-da-Luz, T; Sousa, J P; Loureiro, S; Becker, L; Römbke, J; Soares, A M V M

    2012-04-01

    Boric acid (BA) has been successfully used as reference substance in some standard test guidelines. Due to the fact that previously selected reference substances present a significant risk to human health and/or are banned for environmental reasons, BA is being discussed for broader adoption in OECD or ISO guidelines. To provide input on BA data and contribute to the discussion on its suitability as a reference substance, in the present study BA was tested with two standard soil organisms, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida, in terms of survival, reproduction and avoidance. Additionally, published data on other organisms was analysed to derive the most sensitive soil dwelling invertebrate (hazard concentration-HC5). Results showed that BA affected the tested organisms, being two times more toxic for collembolans (LC50 = 96; EC50 = 54 mg/kg) than for enchytraeids (LC50 = 325; EC50 = 104 mg/kg). No avoidance behaviour occurred despite the fact that BA affects earthworms. Actually, it is the recommended reference substance for the earthworm avoidance test. Clearly, the suitable performance of BA in one species should not be generalized to other species. Absolute toxicity is not an important criterion for the selection of a reference substance, but it has been proposed that effects should occur within a reasonable range, i.e. <1,000 mg/kg. We could confirm, compiling previous data that for most soil invertebrates, the EC50 is expected to be below 1,000 mg/kg. From these data it could be derived that the most sensitive soil dwelling invertebrate (HC5, 50%) is likely to be affected (EC10) at 28 (8-53) mg H(3)BO(3)/Kg, equivalent to 4.6 (1.4-8.7) mg boron/kg.

  10. Investigation of Ultrasonic Calibration using Steel Standard Reference Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Galal Sayed ALI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The equipment used in standardization must be adjusted in order that both the receiver amplifier and video display are linear over the range of distance and flaw size to be used. The failure to do that would result in different block-to-block response ratios because of the measurements depending on the scope reading or attenuator setting. In this paper, using two sets of steel reference blocks (area-amplitude and distance-amplitude to modified method to verify the linearity of the system of instruments used in the ultrasonic inspection. This method depends on the response from reference blocks with different hole diameters at constant gain and ratio between the figures slope at different gains. The linearity of the ultrasonic instruments can be measured with high precision. The results can be used effectively for determining resolution and sensitivity capabilities.

  11. The optimal design of standard gearsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A design procedure for sizing standard involute spur gearsets is presented. The procedure is applied to find the optimal design for two examples - an external gear mesh with a ratio of 5:1 and an internal gear mesh with a ratio of 5:1. In the procedure, the gear mesh is designed to minimize the center distance for a given gear ratio, pressure angle, pinion torque, and allowable tooth strengths. From the methodology presented, a design space may be formulated for either external gear contact or for internal contact. The design space includes kinematics considerations of involute interference, tip fouling, and contact ratio. Also included are design constraints based on bending fatigue in the pinion fillet and Hertzian contact pressure in the full load region and at the gear tip where scoring is possible. This design space is two dimensional, giving the gear mesh center distance as a function of diametral pitch and the number of pinion teeth. The constraint equations were identified for kinematic interference, fillet bending fatigue, pitting fatigue, and scoring pressure, which define the optimal design space for a given gear design. The locus of equal size optimum designs was identified as the straight line through the origin which has the least slope in the design region.

  12. Standards for Reference Service at the University of Michigan--Dearborn Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, Sara

    Few standards for reference services have appeared in the past, therefore guidelines for reference librarians at the University of Michigan--Dearborn library are offered. The guidelines presented are based upon reference standards prepared by the Reference and Adult Services Division (RASD) Standards Committee for the ALA Centennial Conference in…

  13. Pathology Imagebase - A Reference Image Database for Standardization of Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egevad, Lars; Cheville, John; Evans, Andrew J; Hörnblad, Jonas; Kench, James G; Kristiansen, Glen; Leite, Katia R M; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Pan, Chin-Chen; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Srigley, John R; True, Lawrence; Zhou, Ming; Clements, Mark; Delahunt, Brett

    2017-07-19

    Despite efforts to standardize histopathology practice through the development of guidelines, the interpretation of morphology is still hampered by subjectivity. We here describe Pathology Imagebase, a novel mechanism for establishing an international standard for the interpretation of pathology specimens. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) established a reference image database through the input of experts in the field. Three panels were formed, one each for prostate, urinary bladder and renal pathology, consisting of 24 international experts. Each of the panel members uploaded microphotographs of cases into a non-public database. The remaining 23 experts were asked to vote from a multiple-choice menu. Prior to and while voting panel members were unable to access the results of voting by the other experts. When a consensus level of at least 2/3 or 16 votes was reached, cases were automatically transferred to the main database. Consensus was reached in a total of 287 cases across five projects on the grading of prostate, bladder and renal cancer and classification of renal tumours and flat lesions of the bladder. The full database is available to all ISUP members at www.isupweb.org. Non-members may access a selected number of cases. It is anticipated that the database will assist pathologists in calibrating their grading and will also promote consistency in the diagnosis of difficult cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 8989 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... to amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to update references to authoritative accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's (FASB's) Accounting Standards...

  15. Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    Please cite this paper as: Egan N, Bartels A, Khashan A, Broadhurst D, Joyce C, O\\'Mullane J, O\\'Donoghue K. Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy. BJOG 2012;00:000-000. DOI: 10.1111\\/j.1471-0528.2011.03245.x. Objective Obstetric cholestasis (OC) is a liver disorder characterised by pruritus and elevated serum bile acids (SBA) that affects one in 200 pregnant women. It is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes such as premature delivery and stillbirth. Mild OC is defined as SBA levels of 10-39 mumol\\/l, and severe OC is defined by levels >40 mumol\\/l. SBA levels in normal pregnancy have not been investigated. We aimed to establish reference values for SBA in healthy pregnant women across different trimesters of pregnancy. Design Cross-sectional analysis of SBA levels. Setting A large tertiary referral university teaching maternity hospital. Population Healthy pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy and a body mass index (BMI) < 40, excluding women with significant alcohol intake, history of liver disease, prior cholecystectomy and OC. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of SBA levels at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, and on days 1-3 postpartum. Main outcome measures SBA levels in mumol\\/l. Results A total of 219 women attending for antenatal care were recruited, and SBA levels were assayed at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, and up to 72 hours postpartum (n = 44-49 cases at each stage). The majority were white European women, with a median age of 30 years (range 17-46 years) and median BMI of 25 (range 18-38). Values of SBA ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mumol\\/l in 216 women, with only three measurements outside this range. There were no significant changes throughout pregnancy. Conclusions SBA values in uncomplicated pregnancies are consistent, regardless of gestation, and are not elevated in pregnancy. The current reference values for the diagnosis of OC appear to be appropriate.

  16. New Search Space Reduction Algorithm for Vertical Reference Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro MURRIETA-MENDOZA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning the fuel required to sustain a given flight releases pollution such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and the amount of fuel consumed is also a significant expense for airlines. It is desirable to reduce fuel consumption to reduce both pollution and flight costs. To increase fuel savings in a given flight, one option is to compute the most economical vertical reference trajectory (or flight plan. A deterministic algorithm was developed using a numerical aircraft performance model to determine the most economical vertical flight profile considering take-off weight, flight distance, step climb and weather conditions. This algorithm is based on linear interpolations of the performance model using the Lagrange interpolation method. The algorithm downloads the latest available forecast from Environment Canada according to the departure date and flight coordinates, and calculates the optimal trajectory taking into account the effects of wind and temperature. Techniques to avoid unnecessary calculations are implemented to reduce the computation time. The costs of the reference trajectories proposed by the algorithm are compared with the costs of the reference trajectories proposed by a commercial flight management system using the fuel consumption estimated by the FlightSim® simulator made by Presagis®.

  17. Development of NIST standard reference material 2373: Genomic DNA standards for HER2 measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Jun He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available NIST standard reference material (SRM 2373 was developed to improve the measurements of the HER2 gene amplification in DNA samples. SRM 2373 consists of genomic DNA extracted from five breast cancer cell lines with different amounts of amplification of the HER2 gene. The five components are derived from the human cell lines SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-453, and BT-474. The certified values are the ratios of the HER2 gene copy numbers to the copy numbers of selected reference genes DCK, EIF5B, RPS27A, and PMM1. The ratios were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and digital PCR, methods that gave similar ratios. The five components of SRM 2373 have certified HER2 amplification ratios that range from 1.3 to 17.7. The stability and homogeneity of the reference materials were shown by repeated measurements over a period of several years. SRM 2373 is a well characterized genomic DNA reference material that can be used to improve the confidence of the measurements of HER2 gene copy number.

  18. Standard Reference Development of nuclear material for Tensile and Hardness Test Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Y. S.; Kim, D. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Baik, S. J.; Chun, Y. B.; Kim, K. H.; Hong, K. P.; Ryu, W. S

    2007-12-15

    Standard reference is a official approved data such a coefficient of physics, approved material properties, and etc., which should be analyzed and evaluated by scientific method to acquire official approval for accuracy and credibility of measured data and information. So it could be used broadly and continuously by various fields of nation and society. It is classified to effective standard reference, verified standard reference, and certified standard reference. There are sixteen fields in designated standard references such a physical chemistry field, material field, metal field, and the others. The standard reference of neutron irradiated nuclear structural material is classified to metal field. This report summarized the whole processes about data collection, data production, data evaluation and the suggestion of details evaluation technical standard for tensile and hardness properties, which were achieved by carry out the project 'nuclear material standard reference development' as a result.

  19. Optimal Environmental Standards under Asymmetric Information and Imperfect Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arguedas, C.

    2005-01-01

    We study optimal policies composed of pollution standards, probabilities of inspection and fines dependant on the degree of noncompliance with the standards, in a context where regulated firms own private information.In contrast with previous literature, we show that optimal policies, being either p

  20. How valid are our reference standards of nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuluvath, P J; Triger, D R

    1995-01-01

    The validity of anthropometric measurements in the assessment of nutritional status depends on the use of appropriate standards. The most commonly used standards for triceps skinfold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumferences are based on Jelliffe's and Frisancho's tables. In this study we compared these two standards in a population of healthy subjects and patients with a variety of pathological disorders. The study showed that the correlation between these two standards was poor. When Frisancho's standards were used as "gold standards," the positive predictive value of Jelliffe's standards for triceps skinfold thickness was only 22% and for mid-arm muscle circumference only 53%; the false positive results for triceps skinfold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference were 28% and 27%, respectively. This study emphasizes the need to develop appropriate standards for the studied population. Until such standards are available, workers assessing nutritional status in population studies would be advised to interpret their findings with caution, and, on the basis of this study, we recommend the use of Frisancho's standard in preference to Jelliffe's standards.

  1. Handy Reference Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This guide provides general information about the application of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), as amended. Topics covered are basic wage standards, employees covered, tipped employees, employer-furnished facilities, subminimum wage provisions, equal pay provisions, exemptions, child labor provisions, recordkeeping, terms used in the FLSA,…

  2. Standard practice for characterization of coatings using conformable Eddy-Current sensors without coating reference standards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.

  3. An Optimal Control Modification to Model-Reference Adaptive Control for Fast Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Boskovic, Jovan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method that can achieve fast adaptation for a class of model-reference adaptive control. It is well-known that standard model-reference adaptive control exhibits high-gain control behaviors when a large adaptive gain is used to achieve fast adaptation in order to reduce tracking error rapidly. High gain control creates high-frequency oscillations that can excite unmodeled dynamics and can lead to instability. The fast adaptation approach is based on the minimization of the squares of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The necessary condition of optimality is used to derive an adaptive law using the gradient method. This adaptive law is shown to result in uniform boundedness of the tracking error by means of the Lyapunov s direct method. Furthermore, this adaptive law allows a large adaptive gain to be used without causing undesired high-gain control effects. The method is shown to be more robust than standard model-reference adaptive control. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Optimizing standard cell design for quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chimin; Tipple, Dave; Warner, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    To date, majority of the papers presented in the conference focused on how to print smaller transistors that run faster. In a different market such as safety-focused automotive market, "smaller and faster" are replaced by "tougher and living longer". In such a market, a chip has to endure a wide range of operating temperature from -40C to 150C, and is required to have an extremely low field failure rate over 10+ years. There is a wide range of design techniques that can be deployed to improve the quality of a chip. In this paper, we present some of these design techniques that are related to the physical aspects of standard cells.

  5. [Alprostadil Reference Standard (Control 001) of National Institute of Health Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, K; Iwata, M; Koide, T; Saito, H; Tanimoto, T; Okada, S

    2001-01-01

    The raw material of Alprostadil was examined for the preparation of "Alprostadil Reference Standard (Control 001)". Analytical data obtained were: IR spectrum, same as that of the Alprostadil Reference Standard (Control 923); thin-layer chromatography, no impurities were detected until 20 micrograms; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total amount of impurities estimated to be less than 0.2%. Based on the above results, the raw material was authorized as the Japanese Pharmacopoeia Alprostadil Reference Standard (Control 001).

  6. [Reference Intervals of Standard Test Items in Ningen Dock Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakado, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Reference intervals (RIs) were derived from records of 1,499,288 individuals who underwent ningen dock examination in 188 institutes which belong to Japan Society of Ningen Dock in 2012. Targets were 27 basic laboratory tests, including the body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP). Individuals fulfilling strict criteria were chosen: SBP dock results will enable the appropriate interpretation of test results in health screening, and promote the effective application of CDLs for therapeutic intervention, taking into account the sex, age, and other health attributes.

  7. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F Zermoglio

    Full Text Available Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  8. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermoglio, Paula F; Guralnick, Robert P; Wieczorek, John R

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  9. A comparison of three infant skinfold reference standards: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    As researchers increasingly focus on early infancy as a critical period of development, there is a greater need for methodological tools that can address all aspects of infant growth. Infant skinfold measures, in particular, are measurements in need of reliable reference standards that encompass all ages of infants and provide an accurate assessment of the relative fatness of a population. This report evaluates three published reference standards for infant skinfold measurements: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards. To assess these standards, triceps skinfolds from a population of rural Kenyan infants (n = 250) and triceps skinfolds and subscapular skinfolds from infants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 (NHANES; n = 1197) were calculated as z-scores from the lambda-mu-sigma curves provided by each reference population. The Tanner-Whitehouse standards represented both the Kenyan and US populations as lean, while the Cambridge standards represented both populations as overfat. The distribution of z-scores based on the WHO standards fell in the middle, but excluded infants from both populations who were below the age of 3 months. Based on these results, the WHO reference standard is the best skinfold reference standard for infants over the age of 3 months. For populations with infants of all ages, the Tanner-Whitehouse standards are recommended, despite representing both study populations as underfat. Ideally, the WHO will extend their reference standard to include infants between the ages of 0 and 3 months.

  10. 78 FR 47319 - Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department... HHS/CDC has reviewed and updated its fee schedule for reference biological standards and...

  11. Certification of elements in and use of standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets was issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2009 and has certified and reference mass fraction values for 13 vitamins, 26 elements, and 2 carotenoids. Elements were measured using two or more ana...

  12. Role of Design Standards in Wind Plant Optimization (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veers, P.; Churchfield, M.; Lee, S.; Moon, J.; Larsen, G.

    2013-10-01

    When a turbine is optimized, it is done within the design constraints established by the objective criteria in the international design standards used to certify a design. Since these criteria are multifaceted, it is a challenging task to conduct the optimization, but it can be done. The optimization is facilitated by the fact that a standard turbine model is subjected to standard inflow conditions that are well characterized in the standard. Examples of applying these conditions to rotor optimization are examined. In other cases, an innovation may provide substantial improvement in one area, but be challenged to impact all of the myriad design load cases. When a turbine is placed in a wind plant, the challenge is magnified. Typical design practice optimizes the turbine for stand-alone operation, and then runs a check on the actual site conditions, including wakes from all nearby turbines. Thus, each turbine in a plant has unique inflow conditions. The possibility of creating objective and consistent inflow conditions for turbines within a plant, for used in optimization of the turbine and the plant, are examined with examples taken from LES simulation.

  13. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-05-22

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.

  14. An algorithm for calculating the optimal reference temperature in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrecko, Darko; Strmcnik, Stanko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vodopivec, Narcis [GOAP d.o.o. Nova Gorica, Klementa Juga 7, 5250 Solkan (Slovenia)

    2009-02-15

    In this paper we present an algorithm for calculating the reference temperature in the rooms of a building. The algorithm works in such a way as to properly reduce the reference temperature in the rooms when they are not occupied, and at the correct start time, before the rooms are occupied, recover the reference temperature back to the defined value. The algorithm is tested in six rooms of a simulated hotel building using the well-known TRNSYS software. Different occupancy regimes are considered in the various rooms, and simulations are performed for a period of 1 year using the weather data of the town of Portoroz, Slovenia. The results obtained with the proposed algorithm are compared to the results achieved with a constant reference temperature setting. The comparison is made with regard to the energy consumed for the heating and cooling of the rooms, and taking account of the deviations from the allowed temperature rise time. In the rooms where the occupancy is not known in advance similar results can be obtained with the proposed algorithm as with the constant reference setting. However, in the rooms where the occupancy is known in advance, desired level of guest comfort can be preserved with the proposed algorithm with an approximately 10% lower energy consumption for the heating and cooling of the rooms than with the constant reference recovery time setting. (author)

  15. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  16. 18 CFR 1300.101 - Cross references to employee ethical conduct standards and other applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards and other applicable regulations. 1300.101 Section 1300.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.101 Cross references to employee ethical conduct standards and...

  17. Future needs and requirements for AMS C-14 standards and reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, EM; Boaretto, E; Bryant, C; Cook, GT; Gulliksen, S; Harkness, DD; Heinemeier, J; McGee, E; Naysmith, P; Possnert, G; van der Plicht, H; van Strydonck, M; Cook, Gordon T.

    2004-01-01

    C-14 measurement uses a number of standards and reference materials with different properties. Historically the absolute calibration of C-14 measurement was tied to 1890 wood, through the 'primary' standard of NBS-OxI (produced by the National Bureau of Standards, now NIST - National Institute of St

  18. Optimization potential of a standard tractor in road transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mederle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In numerous farms road transportation is of high importance in the task range of a standard tractor. During the harvest of grain or biomass as well as during the application of organic substrates a certain number of tractors exclusively runs on the road. The present study shows under practical conditions opportunities to optimize standard tractors for road transportation with acceptable effort to increase machine utilization and process efficiency at the same time. By realizing certain optimizing measures fuel consumption can be reduced by 11.4 % on average. Increasing the maximum speed from 50 to 60 km/h results in time savings of 8.5 % on average, causing a 5.5 % higher fuel consumption on average. The benefits of the examined optimization measures always have to be judged farm- and situation specifically.

  19. 78 FR 13243 - Updates to Standards Incorporated by Reference; Reapproved ASTM Standards; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    .... They may include specifications for materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods... Marine Piping Applications. Standard Specification for F1007-86 (1996).... F1007-86 46 56.01-2 Pipeline...).... F1123-87 46 56.01-2 Metallic Expansion Joints. (Reapproved 2010). Standard Specification for Steam F1139...

  20. A review of solutions for diagnostic accuracy studies with an imperfect or missing reference standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Reitsma; A.W.S. Rutjes; K.S. Khan; A. Coomarasamy; P.M. Bossuyt

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In diagnostic accuracy studies, the reference standard may be imperfect or not available in all patients. We systematically reviewed the proposed solutions for these situations and generated methodological guidance. Study Design and Setting: Review of methodological articles. Results: We

  1. [Cortisone Acetate Reference Standard (Control 921) of National Institute of Health Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, W; Kitajima, A; Yoshii, K; Komatsu, H; Ishimitsu, S; Okada, S

    1993-01-01

    The raw material of cortisone acetate was tested for the preparation of "Cortisone Acetate Reference Standard (Control 921)". The quality of the raw material was examined and compared with the previous Cortisone Acetate Reference Standard (Control 743). Analytical data obtained were as follows: loss on drying, 0.06%; melting point, 245.9 degrees C (decomposition); optical rotation, [alpha]20D = +215.5 degrees; UV spectrum, lambda max = 239 nm and specific absorbance E 1%1 cm (239 nm) = 393; infrared spectrum, the same as that of the previous Reference Standard (Control 743); thin-layer chromatography, no impurities were detected up to 100 micrograms; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), three impurities were detected; assay, 100.5% by HPLC. Based on the above results, the raw material was authorized as the Japanese Pharmacopoeia Reference Standard (Control 921).

  2. A reference model of an instrument for quality measurement of semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design of a reference model for an instrument to measure quality of semantic Information System (IS) standards. This design satisfies requirements gathered among potential users, in a previous study. The reference model features three layers: concerned with quality, semantic

  3. Statistical Process Control Methods for Monitoring In-House Reference Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mzolo, Thembile; Goris, Goele; Talens, Erik; Di Bucchianico, Alessandro; Van den Heuvel, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    For certain types of medicine the biological strength or bioactivity of a drug is the main characteristic for release of products to the market. A pharmaceutical company may decide to use their own in-house reference standard to test the drug instead of using the expensive international reference st

  4. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  5. Future needs and requirements for AMS {sup 14}C standards and reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, E. Marian E-mail: marian@stats.gla.ac.uk; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Bryant, Charlotte; Cook, Gordon T.; Gulliksen, Steinar; Harkness, Doug D.; Heinemeier, Jan; McGee, Edward; Naysmith, Philip; Possnert, Goran; Plicht, Hans van der; Strydonck, Mark van

    2004-08-01

    {sup 14}C measurement uses a number of standards and reference materials with different properties. Historically the absolute calibration of {sup 14}C measurement was tied to 1890 wood, through the 'primary' standard of NBS-OxI (produced by the National Bureau of Standards, now NIST - National Institute of Standards and technology) subsequently replaced by NBS-OxII. These are both internationally calibrated and certified materials, whose {sup 14}C activities are known absolutely. A second tier of materials, often called secondary standards or reference materials, and including internationally recognised materials such as ANU-sucrose (now also IAEA-C6), Chinese - sucrose and the IAEA C1-C6 series, augmented by additional oxalic acid samples are also used routinely. The activity of these materials has been estimated from large numbers of measurements made by many laboratories. Recently, further natural materials from the Third and Fourth International Radiocarbon Inter-comparisons (TIRI and FIRI) have been added to this list. The activities of these standards and reference materials span both the applied {sup 14}C age range and the chemical composition range of typical samples, but this is not achieved uniformly and there is a continuing need for reference materials for laboratory quality control and measurement-traceability purposes. In this paper, we review the development of {sup 14}C standards and reference materials and consider the future requirements for such materials within the {sup 14}C AMS community.

  6. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 28 CFR 45.1 - Cross-reference to ethical standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to ethical standards and financial disclosure regulations. 45.1 Section 45.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED.... Employees of the Department of Justice are subject to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical...

  8. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concnetrations in biological standard reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiner, J.L.; O'Connell, S.G.; Butt, C.M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants

  9. 40 CFR 98.7 - What standardized methods are incorporated by reference into this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Alloy Digest April 1985 (Carbon Steel of Medium Carbon Content), incorporation by reference (IBR...) ASTM D2502-04 Standard Test Method for Estimation of Mean Relative Molecular Mass of Petroleum Oils... 2007) Standard Test Method for Relative Molecular Mass (Molecular Weight) of Hydrocarbons...

  10. Ad-Hoc vs. Standardized and Optimized Arthropod Diversity Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standardized and optimized protocols has been recently advocated for different arthropod taxa instead of ad-hoc sampling or sampling with protocols defined on a case-by-case basis. We present a comparison of both sampling approaches applied for spiders in a natural area of Portugal. Tests were made to their efficiency, over-collection of common species, singletons proportions, species abundance distributions, average specimen size, average taxonomic distinctness and behavior of richness estimators. The standardized protocol revealed three main advantages: (1 higher efficiency; (2 more reliable estimations of true richness; and (3 meaningful comparisons between undersampled areas.

  11. Characterization of reference standards for dirt by Laser Ablation Induced Photoacoustics (LAIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzi, D J O; Bilmes, G M [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, (CONICET-CIC) y Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC124, 1900, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Morel, E N; Torga, J R [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica y Metrologia Aplicada, Facultad Regional Delta U.T.N., Campana 2804, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roviglione, A N, E-mail: gabrielb@ciop.unlp.edu.a [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-03-01

    Measurements of surface cleanliness and dirt characterization are important problems in a wide range of processes in industry and production. Standard methods are in most cases cumbersome laboratory procedures that must be performed out of the production lines. Instruments and methods for cleanliness determination and dirt characterization require reference standards for calibration. For that purpose we built a possible dirt reference standard (DRS) made by films of graphite grease subjected to heat treatment for mechanical stabilization. The DRS characterization was performed by Laser Ablation Induced Photoacoustics (LAIP). The measurement of the thickness of the films was made by low-coherence interferometry.

  12. Optimal Energy Mix with Renewable Portfolio Standards in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Korea is a heavily energy-dependent country whose primary energy consumption ranks ninth in the world. However, at the same time, it promised to reduce carbon emission and planned to use more renewable energy. Thus, the objective of this study is to propose an optimal energy mix planning model in electricity generation from various energy sources, such as gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass, which considers more renewable and sustainable portions by imposing governmental regulation named renewable portfolio standard (RPS. This optimization model minimizes various costs such as construction cost, operation and management cost, fuel cost, and carbon emission cost while satisfying minimal demand requirement, maximal annual installation potential, and renewable portfolio standard constraints. Results showed that this optimization model could successfully generate energy mix plan from 2012 to 2030 while minimizing the objective costs and satisfying all the constraints. Therefore, this optimization model contributes more efficient and objective method to the complex decision-making process with a sustainability option. This proposed energy mix model is expected to be applied not only to Korea, but also to many other countries in the future for more economical planning of their electricity generation while affecting climate change less.

  13. Analysis of the optimality of the standard genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Balaji; Saini, Supreet

    2016-07-19

    Many theories have been proposed attempting to explain the origin of the genetic code. While strong reasons remain to believe that the genetic code evolved as a frozen accident, at least for the first few amino acids, other theories remain viable. In this work, we test the optimality of the standard genetic code against approximately 17 million genetic codes, and locate 29 which outperform the standard genetic code at the following three criteria: (a) robustness to point mutation; (b) robustness to frameshift mutation; and (c) ability to encode additional information in the coding region. We use a genetic algorithm to generate and score codes from different parts of the associated landscape, which are, as a result, presumably more representative of the entire landscape. Our results show that while the genetic code is sub-optimal for robustness to frameshift mutation and the ability to encode additional information in the coding region, it is very strongly selected for robustness to point mutation. This coupled with the observation that the different performance indicator scores for a particular genetic code are negatively correlated makes the standard genetic code nearly optimal for the three criteria tested in this work.

  14. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

    2012-03-28

    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

  15. Comparison of Different Internationally Accepted Reference Standards to Measure Childhood Adiposity Rates in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupča Sarmīte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adiposity is increasingly affecting developed and developing countries alike. Body Mass Index (BMI is a good first approximation of body weight, but interpretation in specific patient populations may be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare adiposity rates using three internationally accepted weight reference standards – World Health Organisation (WHO, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF, and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC, plus a local national scale (LV, evaluating 465, 6-to-9-year old school children in Latvia. After obtaining height and weight, BMI was calculated, and the four scales were individually applied by gender and age. Highly significant differences between LV and CDC, LV and IOTF, LV and WHO were found in all age groups (P < 0.01, and between WHO and IOTF reference standards (P < 0.01 in 7- and 8-year olds. We conclude that reference standards should be used with great caution. Reference standards for local ethnic populations are needed to avoid disagreements between scales, as this can lead to incorrect choice of therapy; reliance on any single reference standard may not consider a patient's unique set of circumstances that have resulted in excess weight and information that is vital for a good clinical outcome.

  16. The use of differential scanning calorimetry for the purity verification of pharmaceutical reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathkar, S; Kumar, S; Bystol, A; Olawoore, K; Min, D; Markovich, R; Rustum, A

    2009-04-05

    Reference standards are routinely used in pharmaceutical industry to determine strength, content, and the quality of drug products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), preservatives, antioxidants and excipients. Traditionally, chromatographic techniques such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography (GC) in conjunction with other analytical techniques have been used to determine the purity and strength of a specific lot of a compound for the purpose of qualifying the lot to use as a reference standard. The assigned purity of the reference standard for a wide variety of compounds can be verified using an absolute method such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In this paper, purity of 16 reference standards was determined by DSC and the results were then compared to the purity values that were obtained using HPLC and other analytical techniques. The results indicate that the purity obtained from DSC analysis is comparable to the chromatographic purity for organic compounds that are at least 98% pure. Use of DSC for purity determination is not appropriate if a compound lacks sharp melting point, decomposes in the defined temperature range or exhibits other thermal event(s) which interfere with the melting point of the compound. The use of DSC as an alternative and or complementary method to verify the purity of a compound as part of the pharmaceutical reference standard certification process is discussed.

  17. Performance Optimizing Multi-Objective Adaptive Control with Time-Varying Model Reference Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Hashemi, Kelley E.; Yucelen, Tansel; Arabi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive control approach that involves a performance optimization objective. The problem is cast as a multi-objective optimal control. The control synthesis involves the design of a performance optimizing controller from a subset of control inputs. The effect of the performance optimizing controller is to introduce an uncertainty into the system that can degrade tracking of the reference model. An adaptive controller from the remaining control inputs is designed to reduce the effect of the uncertainty while maintaining a notion of performance optimization in the adaptive control system.

  18. Development and utilization of composite honeycomb and solid laminate reference standards for aircraft inspections.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2004-06-01

    The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee, developed a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed. A suite of 64 honeycomb panels, representing the bounding conditions of honeycomb construction on aircraft, was inspected using a wide array of NDI techniques. An analysis of the resulting data determined the variables that play a key role in setting up NDT equipment. This has resulted in a set of minimum honeycomb NDI reference standards that include these key variables. A sequence of subsequent tests determined that this minimum honeycomb reference standard set is able to fully support inspections over the full range of honeycomb construction scenarios found on commercial aircraft. In the solid composite laminate arena, G11 Phenolic was identified as a good generic solid laminate reference standard material. Testing determined matches in key velocity and acoustic impedance properties, as well as, low attenuation relative to carbon laminates. Furthermore, comparisons of resonance testing response curves from the G11 Phenolic NDI reference standard was very similar to the resonance response curves measured on the existing carbon and fiberglass laminates. NDI data shows that this material should work for both pulse-echo (velocity-based) and resonance (acoustic impedance-based) inspections.

  19. Short Stature: Comparison of WHO and National Growth Standards/References for Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie; Petit, Isabelle Oliver; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998–2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large-scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below clinical cut-off values (–2 SDS for GHD and TS; –2.5 SDS for SGA) based on national growth references and WHO growth standards/references were compared for children aged <5 years and children aged ≥5 years. In seven of the countries evaluated, significantly fewer children aged ≥5 years with GHD (22%; P<0.0001), TS (21%; P<0.0001) or born SGA (32%; P<0.0001) had height below clinical cut-off values using WHO growth references vs. national references. Likewise, among children aged <5 years in the pooled analysis of the same seven countries, a significantly lower proportion of children with GHD (8%; P<0.0001), TS (12%; P = 0.0003) or born SGA (12%; P<0.0001) had height below clinical cut-off values using WHO growth standards vs. national references. In conclusion, in NordiNet® IOS the number of patients misclassified using WHO growth standards/references was significantly higher than with national references. This study highlights that, although no growth reference has 100% sensitivity for identifying growth disorders, the most recent national or regional

  20. Optimal dynamic pricing for deteriorating items with reference-price effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Musen; Tang, Wansheng; Zhang, Jianxiong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a dynamic pricing problem for deteriorating items with the consumers' reference-price effect is studied. An optimal control model is established to maximise the total profit, where the demand not only depends on the current price, but also is sensitive to the historical price. The continuous-time dynamic optimal pricing strategy with reference-price effect is obtained through solving the optimal control model on the basis of Pontryagin's maximum principle. In addition, numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis are carried out. Finally, some managerial suggestions that firm may adopt to formulate its pricing policy are proposed.

  1. Standard digital reference images for investment steel castings for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in thin-wall steel investment castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of thin-wall steel casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 Two illustration categories are covered as follows: 1.2.1 Graded—Six common discontinuity types each illustrated in eight degrees of progressively increasing severity. 1.2.2 Ungraded—Twelve single illustrations of additional discontinuity types and of patterns and imper...

  2. The Impact of R-Optimized Administration Modeling Procedures on Brazilian Normative Reference Values for Rorschach Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianowski, Giselle; Meyer, Gregory J; Villemor-Amaral, Anna Elisa de

    2016-01-01

    To generate normative reference data for the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS), modeling procedures were developed to convert the distribution of responses (R) in protocols obtained using Comprehensive System (CS; Exner 2003 ) administration guidelines to match the distribution of R in protocols obtained using R-Optimized Administration (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011 ). This study replicates the R-PAS study, examining the impact of modeling R-Optimized Administration on Brazilian normative reference values by comparing a sample of 746 CS administered protocols to its counterpart sample of 343 records modeled to match R-Optimized Administration. The results were strongly consistent with the R-PAS findings, showing the modeled records had a slightly higher mean R and, secondarily, slightly higher means for Complexity and V-Comp, as well as smaller standard deviations for R, Complexity, and R8910%. We also observed 5 other small differences not observed in the R-PAS study. However, when comparing effect sizes for the differences in means and standard deviations observed in this study to the differences found in the R-PAS study, the results were virtually identical. These findings suggest that using R-Optimized Administration in Brazil might produce normative results that are similar to traditional CS norms for Brazil and similar to the international norms used in R-PAS.

  3. Optimal tooth numbers for compact standard spur gear sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M.; Coy, J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a standard gear mesh is treated with the objective of minimizing the gear size for a given ratio, pinion torque, and allowable tooth strength. Scoring, pitting fatigue, bending fatigue, and the kinematic limits of contact ratio and interference are considered. A design space is defined in terms of the number of teeth on the pinion and the diametral pitch. This space is then combined with the objective function of minimum center distance to obtain an optimal design region. This region defines the number of pinion teeth for the most compact design. The number is a function of the gear ratio only. A design example illustrating this procedure is also given.

  4. Bayesian meta-analysis of diagnostic tests allowing for imperfect reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, J; Boelaert, M; Lesaffre, E

    2013-12-30

    There is an increasing interest in meta-analyses of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infectious diseases. To avoid spectrum bias, these meta-analyses should focus on phase IV studies performed in the target population. For many infectious diseases, these target populations attend primary health care centers in resource-constrained settings where it is difficult to perform gold standard diagnostic tests. As a consequence, phase IV diagnostic studies often use imperfect reference standards, which may result in biased meta-analyses of the diagnostic accuracy of novel RDTs. We extend the standard bivariate model for the meta-analysis of diagnostic studies to correct for differing and imperfect reference standards in the primary studies and to accommodate data from studies that try to overcome the absence of a true gold standard through the use of latent class analysis. Using Bayesian methods, improved estimates of sensitivity and specificity are possible, especially when prior information is available on the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test. In this analysis, the deviance information criterion can be used to detect conflicts between the prior information and observed data. When applying the model to a dataset of the diagnostic accuracy of an RDT for visceral leishmaniasis, the standard meta-analytic methods appeared to underestimate the specificity of the RDT.

  5. Improvement of the quality of the ozone measurements by means of a standard reference photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez Blaya

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The Directive 92/72/CE makes reference to the analysis method described in the UNE 77-221:2000 and to the fact that the ozone analyzers shall be calibrated with a UV reference photometer or with a transfer standard.From the need of developing a procedure that assure the quality and the trazability of the measurements in Spain, the Atmospheric Pollution Area has decided to implant a NIST UV reference photometer as ozone national standard.Taking into account the procedures used by EPA and NIST, a verification procedure has been developed consistent in the realization of 6 comparisons of the Transfer Standard versus NIST UV reference photometer in different days; at least 5 different ozone concentrations are analyzed. Each comparison begins and ends always with a concentration of 0 ppb of O3, and from each comparison its regression linear is obtained.Once the 6 comparisons are done, the calibration relationship is obtained and the uncertainty associated with the transfer standard is calculated.Until now, the verifications of 17 transfer standards have been done: 11 of them were UV photometers, 2 were ozone generators and 4 were ozone generators of dilution banks.From the results is concluded that generally the uncertainties of the ozone generators are greater than those of the UV photometers, so being recommended this one like transfer standard.To emphasize that with the utilization of the tranfer standards for the calibration of ozone analyzers, the quality and the trazability of the generated data are guaranteed.

  6. A standard setting method with the best performing students as point of reference : Practical and affordable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the (dis)advantages of commonly used criterion and norm-referenced methods and present a new compromise method: standards based on a fixed cut-off score using the best scoring students as reference point. Methods: Historical data from 54 Maastricht (norm-referenced) and 52 Groningen

  7. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  8. A standard setting method with the best performing students as point of reference : Practical and affordable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the (dis)advantages of commonly used criterion and norm-referenced methods and present a new compromise method: standards based on a fixed cut-off score using the best scoring students as reference point. Methods: Historical data from 54 Maastricht (norm-referenced) and 52 Groningen

  9. 78 FR 57293 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 RIN 0920-AA52 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and...

  10. Report concerning the colaborative study for establish of reference standard eficacity of Kanamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sturzu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiology Laboratory from the Institute for the Control of Veterinary Biological Products and Medicines participated to a collaborative study in order to determine the potency of kanamycin CRS, batch 3, according to the protocol sent by the EDQM (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines - coordinating of the study. The purpose of the study was to establish the potency of the batch 3 for in the characterization of the substance as reference standard. Potency was determined by microbiological method, based on comparison of the inhibition zones of growth of micro-organisms sensitive to those of a reference standard, as specified in European Pharmacopoeia, Chapter 2.7.2. - Microbiological testing of antibiotics. After analysis of received data from participants and their statistical processing by the EDQM, the potency of the batch 3, kanamycin - reference materials, was established in 790 UI/mg.

  11. Report concerning the colaborative study for establish of reference standard eficacity of Rifamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sturzu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiology Laboratory from the Institute for the Control of Veterinary Biological Products and Medicines participated in a collaborative study in order to determine the potency of rifamycin CRS, batch 4, according to the protocol sent by the EDQM (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines - coordinating of the study. The purpose of the study was to establish the potency of the batch 4 rifamycin in the characterization of the substance as reference standard. Potency was determined by microbiological method, based on comparison of the inhibition zones of growth of micro-organisms sensitive to those of a reference standard, as specified in European Pharmacopoeia, Chapter 2.7.2. - Microbiological testing of antibiotics. After analysis of received data from participants and their statistical processing by the EDQM, the potency of the batch 4, rifamycin - reference materials, was established in 870 UI/mg.

  12. New reference trajectory optimization algorithm for a flight management system inspired in beam search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro MURRIETA-MENDOZA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of reducing the flight cost and the amount of polluting emissions released in the atmosphere, a new optimization algorithm considering the climb, cruise and descent phases is presented for the reference vertical flight trajectory. The selection of the reference vertical navigation speeds and altitudes was solved as a discrete combinatory problem by means of a graph-tree passing through nodes using the beam search optimization technique. To achieve a compromise between the execution time and the algorithm’s ability to find the global optimal solution, a heuristic methodology introducing a parameter called “optimism coefficient was used in order to estimate the trajectory’s flight cost at every node. The optimal trajectory cost obtained with the developed algorithm was compared with the cost of the optimal trajectory provided by a commercial flight management system(FMS. The global optimal solution was validated against an exhaustive search algorithm(ESA, other than the proposed algorithm. The developed algorithm takes into account weather effects, step climbs during cruise and air traffic management constraints such as constant altitude segments, constant cruise Mach, and a pre-defined reference lateral navigation route. The aircraft fuel burn was computed using a numerical performance model which was created and validated using flight test experimental data.

  13. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  14. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Eley, Charles

    2017-09-29

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 (Standard 90.1-2016). The PRM can be used to demonstrate compliance with the standard and to rate the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. Use of the PRM for demonstrating compliance with Standard 90.1 is a new feature of the 2016 edition. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM.

  15. Optimization of Temperature Coefficient and Noise Analysis of MOSFET- Only Voltage Reference Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi.p

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of temperature coefficient and comparison of output noise of two MOSFET only voltage references are introduced. The circuit behavior is analytically described and the performance of the proposed circuits are confirmed through 180nm CMOS technology in virtuoso and the simulation results are presented. Both the circuits can be operated with supply voltage varies from 0.5-1.2V.The output voltage references varied over a temperature range of -25℃ to 50℃.

  16. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  17. Evaluation of antiphospholipid antibody assays using latent class analysis to address the lack of a reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Markus A; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Yin, Meng-Xin; Steigerwald, Udo; Holmes, Andrew B; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Luppa, Peter B

    2016-12-01

    Method evaluation of new assays for the detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) such as anti-cardiolipin (aCL) or anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2-GPI) is challenging, as no internationally accepted reference material is available yet. Besides a lack of standardization, unacceptable inter-laboratory comparability of established tests is regularly observed. Owing to the absence of a commonly accepted reference standard, the evaluation of two research surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assays was performed using statistical methods from latent class analysis (LCA). aCL and aβ2-GPI IgG and IgM were measured in sera from 63 antiphospholipid syndrome patients, fulfilling the Sydney criteria, and in 34 healthy controls with four commercial assays. LCA was performed on the results and sera were assigned to the antibody-positive or antibody-negative group. Sera were subsequently evaluated in the SPR assays for aCL and aβ2-GPI. Optimal cutoffs and diagnostic performances of the research systems were established employing the LCA-derived gold standard. With area under the curve results of 0.96 and 0.89 for the detection of aCL and aβ2-GPI, the research SPR assays discriminated well between antibody-positive and antibody-negative sera. Their sensitivities and specificities were comparable to the investigated commercial immunoassays. SPR assays are a suitable tool for the detection of aCL and aβ2-GPI with diagnostic performances not different from currently available commercial tests. LCA enabled the calculation of sensitivities and specificities for aPL assays in absence of a reference standard.

  18. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1- 2010 (Standard 90.1-2010).The PRM is used for rating the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM. It should be noted that this document is created independently from ASHRAE and SSPC 90.1 and is not sanctioned nor approved by either of those entities . Potential users of this manual include energy modelers, software developers and implementers of “beyond code” energy programs. Energy modelers using ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for beyond code programs can use this document as a reference manual for interpreting requirements of the Performance Rating method. Software developers, developing tools for automated creation of the baseline model can use this reference manual as a guideline for developing the rules for the baseline model.

  19. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  20. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jason R; Rubin, Adam J; Davis, Joseph H; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Cumbers, John; Czar, Michael J; de Mora, Kim; Glieberman, Aaron L; Monie, Dileep D; Endy, Drew

    2009-03-20

    The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101) to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by approximately 50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU) in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement conditions and instruments. These improvements are

  1. Projected seniority-two orbital optimization of the antisymmetric product of one-reference orbital geminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Tecmer, Paweł; Limacher, Peter A.; Johnson, Paul A.; Ayers, Paul W.; Bultinck, Patrick; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Van Neck, Dimitri

    2014-06-01

    We present a new, non-variational orbital-optimization scheme for the antisymmetric product of one-reference orbital geminal wave function. Our approach is motivated by the observation that an orbital-optimized seniority-zero configuration interaction (CI) expansion yields similar results to an orbital-optimized seniority-zero-plus-two CI expansion [L. Bytautas, T. M. Henderson, C. A. Jimenez-Hoyos, J. K. Ellis, and G. E. Scuseria, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044119 (2011)]. A numerical analysis is performed for the C2 and LiF molecules, for the CH2 singlet diradical as well as for the symmetric stretching of hypothetical (linear) hydrogen chains. For these test cases, the proposed orbital-optimization protocol yields similar results to its variational orbital optimization counterpart, but prevents symmetry-breaking of molecular orbitals in most cases.

  2. The geometrical tolerancing desk reference creating and interpreting ISO standard technical drawings

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Geometrical tolerancing is the standard technique that designers and engineers use to specify and control the form, location and orientation of the features of components and manufactured parts. This innovative book has been created to simplify and codify the use and understanding of geometrical tolerancing. It is a complete, self contained reference for daily use. An indispensable guide for anyone who creates or needs to understand technical drawings.

  3. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z

    2016-03-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental matrix standard reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, H.; Schantz, M.; Wise, S. (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of emerging contaminants of concern as many studies have now demonstrated that these compounds are bioaccumulative, persistent and increasing in concentration in the environment. PBDEs are being detected in almost every environmental sample examined, and they have even been measured in samples collected in the Arctic, further demonstrating their persistence and potential for long range transport. More and more studies are continuing to examine the fate and transport of these flame retardant compounds in environmental samples and as such, reference materials are needed to provide quality control on these measurements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supports a national Standard Reference Material (SRM) program for measurement of organic contaminants such as PCBs, PAHs and chlorinated pesticides in environmental matrices. This current study was undertaken to provide reference measurements for PBDEs in selected SRMs that are currently used by various laboratories throughout the United States. These SRMs include matrices such as marine mammal blubber, lake trout tissue, mussel tissue, sediment, house dust and human serum. We report here reference values for 22 PBDE congeners that have been quantified in these seven types of SRMs.

  5. Optimal reference interval for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chizumi; Mitsuhashi, Toshitake; Hiratsuka, Noboru; Inabe, Fumiyo; Araida, Nami; Takahashi, Eiko

    2011-10-07

    The aim of the present study was to establish a reference interval for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a Japanese population based on the C28-A3 document from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). We selected healthy subjects aged 20-79 years, with fasting plasma glucose reference limits of HOMA-IR. We selected 2173 subjects as reference individuals, and 2153 subjects were used for analysis. The reference interval for HOMA-IR was established as between 0.4 and 2.4. This represents the first reference interval study for HOMA-IR that applies the stringent CLSI C28-A3 document. HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 should be considered a reasonable indicator of insulin resistance in Japanese. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00113.x, 2011).

  6. Towards the development of standard reference materials for soot measurements – Part 1: Tailored graphitized soot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Khokhlova

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of standard reference materials for calibrating, troubleshooting and intercomparing instruments that measure the properties of black carbon, commonly referred to as soot, has been a major obstacle that hinders improved understanding of how climate and health is impacted by this ubiquitous component of the atmosphere. A different approach is offered here as a means of constructing precisely controlled material with fractions of organic carbon (OC on the surface of elemental carbon (EC whose structure reflects that of combustion particles found in the atmosphere. The proposed soot reference material (SRM uses elemental carbon as a basis substrate for surface coatings of organic compounds that are representative of main classes of organics identified in the coverage of soot produced by fossil fuel burning. A number of methods are used to demonstrate the quality and stability of the reference EC and SRM. Comparison of the nominal fraction of OC deposited on the EC substrate with the fraction measured with thermal/optical analysis (TOA shows excellent agreement. Application of this type of reference material for evaluating the different methods of carbon analysis may help resolve differences that currently exist between comparable measurement techniques when trying to separate OC and EC from ambient samples.

  7. A reference standard for bidirectional reflection distribution function and bidirectional transmission distribution function measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A Lambertian reference standard for uniformly scattering a beam of light is constructed of a plate having a planar surface with a layer of glue disposed on the surface. An evenly packed layer of monodisperse spheres is set in the layer, and when the standard is used for bi-directional (BRDF) measurements, the spheres are coated with a layer of highly relective substance, such as gold or silver. When the standard is used for bi-directional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) measurements, the spheres are of a transparent material and are provided with a roughened surface, as by acid etching. In this case, the layer of glue is an optical cement, and the plate is of glass, with the spheres, the layer, and the plate all possessing a similar refractive index.

  8. A standard setting method with the best performing students as point of reference: practical and affordable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2010-01-01

    Teachers involved in test development usually prefer criterion-referenced standard setting methods using panels. Since expert panels are costly, standards are often set by a pre-fixed percentage of questions answered correctly or norm-referenced methods aimed at ranking examinees. To discuss the (dis)advantages of commonly used criterion and norm-referenced methods and present a new compromise method: standards based on a fixed cut-off score using the best scoring students as reference point. Historical data from 54 Maastricht (norm-referenced) and 52 Groningen (criterion-referenced) tests were used to demonstrate huge discrepancies and variability in cut-off scores and failure rates. Subsequently, the compromise model - known as Cohen's method - was applied to the Groningen tests. The Maastricht norm-referenced method led to a large variation in required cut-off scores (15-46%), but a stable failure rate (about 17%). The Groningen method with a conventional, pre-fixed standard of 60% led to a large variation in failure rates (17-97%). The compromise method reduced variation in required cut-off scores as well as failure rates. Both the criterion and norm-referenced standards, used in practice, have disadvantages. The proposed compromise model reduces the disadvantages of both methods and is considered more acceptable. Last but not least, compared to standard setting methods using panels, this method is affordable.

  9. Reference Standardization for Mass Spectrometry and High-resolution Metabolomics Applications to Exposome Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Walker, Douglas I; Liang, Yongliang; Uppal, Karan; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Tran, ViLinh; Strobel, Frederick; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Ziegler, Thomas R; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W; Jones, Dean P

    2015-12-01

    The exposome is the cumulative measure of environmental influences and associated biological responses throughout the lifespan, including exposures from the environment, diet, behavior, and endogenous processes. A major challenge for exposome research lies in the development of robust and affordable analytic procedures to measure the broad range of exposures and associated biologic impacts occurring over a lifetime. Biomonitoring is an established approach to evaluate internal body burden of environmental exposures, but use of biomonitoring for exposome research is often limited by the high costs associated with quantification of individual chemicals. High-resolution metabolomics (HRM) uses ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry with minimal sample preparation to support high-throughput relative quantification of thousands of environmental, dietary, and microbial chemicals. HRM also measures metabolites in most endogenous metabolic pathways, thereby providing simultaneous measurement of biologic responses to environmental exposures. The present research examined quantification strategies to enhance the usefulness of HRM data for cumulative exposome research. The results provide a simple reference standardization protocol in which individual chemical concentrations in unknown samples are estimated by comparison to a concurrently analyzed, pooled reference sample with known chemical concentrations. The approach was tested using blinded analyses of amino acids in human samples and was found to be comparable to independent laboratory results based on surrogate standardization or internal standardization. Quantification was reproducible over a 13-month period and extrapolated to thousands of chemicals. The results show that reference standardization protocol provides an effective strategy that will enhance data collection for cumulative exposome research. In principle, the approach can be extended to other types of mass spectrometry and other analytical methods.

  10. 18 CFR 3c.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 3c.1 Section 3c.1 Conservation of... STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, the Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  11. Development of the standard reference plane for the Heidelberg retina tomograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, R O; Vihanninjoki, K; Bartke, T; Tuulonen, A; Airaksinen, P J; Völcker, H E; König, J M

    2000-05-01

    Topometry of the optic disc is the quantitative assessment of the structure of the optic nerve head by means of three-dimensional parameters. The parameter values depend on definitions of intraocular reference planes. To describe the development of intraocular reference planes in laser scanning tomography for the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) using image intrinsic data with a fixed offset reference plane (320 microm) and to present a contour-line-based "flexible" standard reference plane ("SRP") for calculation of intrapapillary stereometric parameters taking the interindividual variability of optic disc topography into account. Ten-degree triple images were obtained by laser scanning tomography from 99 glaucoma eyes and 180 normal eyes. The images were evaluated to assess the variability of height measurements of an optic disc border contour-line segment (6 degrees width) corresponding to the site of the papillo-macular bundle as indicated by the average optic disc surface inclination angle. The average optic disc surface inclination angle was -7 degrees +/- 3 degrees below the horizontal meridian (0 degrees). The 6 degrees wide contour-line segment for the SRP was chosen according to the average surface inclination angle (-10 degrees to -4 degrees). The reproducibility of the SRP-segment height measurements was 16.0+/-10.8 microm for normal eyes and 23.4+/-18.0 microm for glaucoma eyes. To ensure that the automatic reference level determination for intrapapillary parameters remained below the disc border height, we defined the SRP level at a 50 microm offset (>2 SD of average segment height reproducibility in glaucoma) added to the individual height position of the 6 degrees contour line segment. The flexible standard reference plane allows for automatic determination of intrapapillary variables once a disc border contour line is interactively defined. In contrast to a fixed offset reference plane (e.g. 320 microm below the mean retina height), the

  12. Palm-based standard reference materials for iodine value and slip melting point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-09-22

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 +/- 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 +/- 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 +/- 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in palm oil, 22.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C in palm olein and 53.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 degrees C, 0 degrees C, 6 degrees C and 24 degrees C upon storage for one year.

  13. Standardized Evaluation Methodology and Reference Database for Evaluating Coronary Artery Centerline Extraction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Michiel; Metz, Coert T.; van Walsum, Theo; van der Giessen, Alina G.; Weustink, Annick C.; Mollet, Nico R.; Bauer, Christian; Bogunović, Hrvoje; Castro, Carlos; Deng, Xiang; Dikici, Engin; O’Donnell, Thomas; Frenay, Michel; Friman, Ola; Hoyos, Marcela Hernández; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Krissian, Karl; Kühnel, Caroline; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel A.; Orkisz, Maciej; Smedby, Örjan; Styner, Martin; Szymczak, Andrzej; Tek, Hüseyin; Wang, Chunliang; Warfield, Simon K.; Zambal, Sebastian; Zhang, Yong; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently obtaining a reliable coronary artery centerline from computed tomography angiography data is relevant in clinical practice. Whereas numerous methods have been presented for this purpose, up to now no standardized evaluation methodology has been published to reliably evaluate and compare the performance of the existing or newly developed coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms. This paper describes a standardized evaluation methodology and reference database for the quantitative evaluation of coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms. The contribution of this work is fourfold: 1) a method is described to create a consensus centerline with multiple observers, 2) well-defined measures are presented for the evaluation of coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms, 3) a database containing thirty-two cardiac CTA datasets with corresponding reference standard is described and made available, and 4) thirteen coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms, implemented by different research groups, are quantitatively evaluated and compared. The presented evaluation framework is made available to the medical imaging community for benchmarking existing or newly developed coronary centerline extraction algorithms. PMID:19632885

  14. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, J.B.; Baker, J.A.; Handler, M.R.; Bizzarro, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a 196Pt-198Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO3 acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO3 acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ≥90% with purity of ≥95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5 ng g−1 to 4 μg g−1. This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on δ198Pt (permil difference in the 198Pt/194Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2 sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2 sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of δ198Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These results

  15. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, John Benjamin; Baker, J. A.; Handler, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a Pt-Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias...... (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have....... Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily...

  16. Bias in the absorption coefficient determination of a fluorescent dye, standard reference material 1932 fluorescein solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRose, Paul C. [Analytical Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8394 (United States)]. E-mail: paul.derose@nist.gov; Kramer, Gary W. [Analytical Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8394 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The absorption coefficient of standard reference material[registered] (SRM[registered]) 1932, fluorescein in a borate buffer solution (pH=9.5) has been determined at {lambda}=488.0, 490.0, 490.5 and 491.0 nm using the US national reference UV/visible spectrophotometer. The purity of the fluorescein was determined to be 97.6% as part of the certification of SRM 1932. The solution measured was prepared gravimetrically by diluting SRM 1932 with additional borate buffer. The value of the absorption coefficient was corrected for bias due to fluorescence that reaches the detector and for dye purity. Bias due to fluorescence was found to be on the order of -1% for both monochromatic and polychromatic (e.g., diode-array based) spectrophotometers.

  17. A Framework for Establishing Standard Reference Scale of Texture by Multivariate Statistical Analysis Based on Instrumental Measurement and Sensory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Xie, Nan; Wang, Houyin; Shi, Bolin; Shi, Jingye

    2016-01-13

    A framework of establishing standard reference scale (texture) is proposed by multivariate statistical analysis according to instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis is conducted to rapidly select typical reference samples with characteristics of universality, representativeness, stability, substitutability, and traceability. The reasonableness of the framework method is verified by establishing standard reference scale of texture attribute (hardness) with Chinese well-known food. More than 100 food products in 16 categories were tested using instrumental measurement (TPA test), and the result was analyzed with clustering analysis, principal component analysis, relative standard deviation, and analysis of variance. As a result, nine kinds of foods were determined to construct the hardness standard reference scale. The results indicate that the regression coefficient between the estimated sensory value and the instrumentally measured value is significant (R(2) = 0.9765), which fits well with Stevens's theory. The research provides reliable a theoretical basis and practical guide for quantitative standard reference scale establishment on food texture characteristics.

  18. SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-03-14

    The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of

  19. Validation of IRDFF in 252Cf Standard and IRDF-2002 Reference Neutron Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of validation of the latest release of International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File, IRDFF-1.03, in the standard 252Cf(s.f. and reference 235U(nth,f neutron benchmark fields are presented. The spectrum-averaged cross sections were shown to confirm IRDFF-1.03 in the 252Cf standard spontaneous fission spectrum; that was not the case for the current recommended spectra for 235U(nth,f. IRDFF was also validated in the spectra of the research reactor facilities ISNF, Sigma-Sigma and YAYOI, which are available in the IRDF-2002 collection. The ISNF facility was re-simulated to remove unphysical oscillations in the spectrum. IRDFF-1.03 was shown to reproduce reasonably well the spectrum-averaged data measured in these fields except for the case of YAYOI.

  20. Quantitative micro x-ray fluorescence analyses without reference standard material; Referenzprobenfreie quantitative Mikro-Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Timo

    2009-07-15

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a standard method for non-destructive investigations. Due to the development of polycapillary optics and SDDdetectors requiring no cooling with liquid nitrogen, XRF becomes a suitable method for a large number of applications, e. g. for the analysis of objects in arts and archaeology. Spectrometers developed for those purposes allow investigations outside of laboratories und provide excitation areas with diameters of 10-70 {mu}m. In most applications, quantification of XRF data is realized by the usage of standard reference materials. Due to absorption processes in the samples the accuracy of the results depends strongly on the similarity of the sample and the reference standard. In cases where no suitable references are available, quantification can be done based on the ''fundamental parameter (fp) method''. This quantification procedure is based on a set of equations describing the fluorescence production and detection mathematical. The cross sections for the interaction of x-rays with matter can be taken from different databases. During an iteration process the element concentrations can be determined. Quantitative XRF based on fundamental parameters requires an accurate knowledge of the excitation spectrum. In case of a conventional setup this spectrum is given by the X-ray tube spectrum and can be calculated. The use of polycapillary optics in micro-XRF spectrometers changes the spectral distribution of the excitation radiation. For this reason it is necessary to access the transmission function of the used optic. The aim of this work is to find a procedure to describe this function for routine quantification based on fundamental parameters. Most of the measurements have been carried out using a commercial spectrometer developed for applications in arts and archaeology. On the one hand the parameters of the lens, used in the spectrometer, have been investigated by different experimental characterization

  1. ISO 2789 and ISO 11620: Short Presentation of Standards as Reference Documents in an Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Renard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how international standards dealing with library statistics and indicators (ISO 2789, ISO 11620 and others projects which are still under development can be used as reference documents and strategic tools in a performance assessment process. The task is not an easy one, because it requires linking up somewhat complex entities such as the standardization work characteristics, the capacity of statistics to account for reality and, lastly, the variety and speed of libraries’ advancement. Nevertheless, ISO 2789 (International Library Statistics and ISO 11620 (Performance indicators for libraries, which are based on an international consensus of experts, take into account, as much as possible, the recent evolutions in library structures and services. In addition, they are related to classical and shared assessment models. So, although their aim is not to draw up an assessment framework, they reveal themselves useful for basic operations in such a framework: to define objects and services, and to classify, count and build appropriate indicators. Moreover, as the issue of quantifying and promoting intangible assets becomes a concern in the public sector, these standards can be seen as a first attempt to define library resources and services as such intangible assets. Finally, the challenge of forthcoming evolutions of these standards is the ability to stay up-to-date in a very quickly evolving context. More precisely, the increase in the usability of these standards must be based on an ongoing search for more consistent data and relevant indicators. The question of improvement of the general design of the statistics and indicators standards family should also be addressed.

  2. Standardization of Kaempferol Reference Substance%山柰酚对照品的标定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春燕; 徐新军; 刘群娣; 闫李丽; 谢晓玲; 杨得坡

    2011-01-01

    Objective To standardize the kaempferol reference substance. Methods HPLC- diode array detection (DAD)was applied to determine the purity of kaempferol, and then the purity of kaempferol were calculated both by area normalization method and self-contrasted dilution method. Results The results of normalization method and self-contrasted dilution method showed that the purity was over 98.0 %. Conclusion Purity of this batch of kaempferol could reach the requirement of chemical reference standards for traditional Chinese medicine by confirmation of various analytical methods, and the methods used for the assay of kaempferol are practical.%目的 标定山柰酚对照品.方法 采用高效液相色谱二极管阵列检测(DAD)测定山柰酚样品纯度.结果 经高效液相色谱紫外检测,以面积归一化法和自身稀释对照法计算山柰酚样品纯度,均达98.0%以上.结论 多种分析方法互相印证,表明该批样品达到中药化学对照品纯度要求,所用分析方法可靠.

  3. 36 CFR 400.1 - Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and other conduct rules. 400.1 Section 400.1... CONDUCT § 400.1 Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations... executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct and financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR parts...

  4. 22 CFR 705.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 705.101 Section 705.101 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS EMPLOYEE ETHICAL CONDUCT STANDARDS AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS § 705.101 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial...

  5. 12 CFR 400.101 - Cross-reference to employee financial disclosure and ethical conduct standards regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BANK OF THE UNITED STATES EMPLOYEE FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE AND ETHICAL CONDUCT STANDARDS REGULATIONS § 400.101 Cross-reference to employee financial disclosure and ethical conduct standards regulations...-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634; (b) The executive branch-wide Standards...

  6. 13 CFR 105.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 105.101 Section 105.101 Business Credit... regulations at 5 CFR part 2634 entitled, Executive Branch Financial Disclosure, Qualified Trusts and... RESPONSIBILITIES Standards of Conduct § 105.101 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and...

  7. 24 CFR 0.1 - Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.1 Section 0.1 Housing and Urban... Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees... which supplements the executive branch-wide standards, and the executive branch-wide...

  8. 45 CFR 680.10 - Definitions; cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 680.10 Section 680.10 Public Welfare Regulations...-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members of the... the executive branch Standards, and the executive branch financial disclosure regulations at 5...

  9. 12 CFR 264.101 - Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 264.101 Section 264.101 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... § 264.101 Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations..., which supplements the executive branch-wide standards, and the executive branch-wide...

  10. 49 CFR 1019.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1019.1 Section 1019.1 Transportation Other Regulations... Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members and... standards, and the executive branch financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  11. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of –20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year.

  12. Optimal Reference Strain Structure for Studying Dynamic Responses of Flexible Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Natsuki; Su, Weihua; Wolf, Michael G.; Griffin, Edwin D.; Dumoulin, Marie P.

    2017-01-01

    In the proposed paper, the optimal design of reference strain structures (RSS) will be performed targeting for the accurate observation of the dynamic bending and torsion deformation of a flexible rocket. It will provide the detailed description of the finite-element (FE) model of a notional flexible rocket created in MSC.Patran. The RSS will be attached longitudinally along the side of the rocket and to track the deformation of the thin-walled structure under external loads. An integrated surrogate-based multi-objective optimization approach will be developed to find the optimal design of the RSS using the FE model. The Kriging method will be used to construct the surrogate model. For the data sampling and the performance evaluation, static/transient analyses will be performed with MSC.Natran/Patran. The multi-objective optimization will be solved with NSGA-II to minimize the difference between the strains of the launch vehicle and RSS. Finally, the performance of the optimal RSS will be evaluated by checking its strain-tracking capability in different numerical simulations of the flexible rocket.

  13. Characterizing Vaccinium berry Standard Reference Materials by GC-MS using NIST spectral libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Mark S; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Stein, Stephen E; Phinney, Karen W

    2013-05-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method was developed for qualitative characterization of metabolites found in Vaccinium fruit (berry) dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Definitive identifications are provided for 98 unique metabolites determined among six Vaccinium-related SRMs. Metabolites were enriched using an organic liquid/liquid extraction, and derivatized prior to GC-MS analysis. Electron ionization (EI) fragmentation spectra were searched against EI spectra of authentic standards compiled in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's mass spectral libraries, as well as spectra selected from the literature. Metabolite identifications were further validated using a retention index match along with prior probabilities and were compared with results obtained in a previous effort using collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS datasets from liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry experiments. This manuscript describes a nontargeted metabolite profile of Vaccinium materials, compares results among related materials and from orthogonal experimental platforms, and discusses the feasibility and development of using mass spectral library matching for nontargeted metabolite identification.

  14. Particle swarm optimization-based radial basis function network for estimation of reference evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Gocic, Milan; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Qasem, Sultan Noman; Trajkovic, Slavisa

    2016-08-01

    Accurate estimation of the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important for the water resource planning and scheduling of irrigation systems. For this purpose, the radial basis function network with particle swarm optimization (RBFN-PSO) and radial basis function network with back propagation (RBFN-BP) were used in this investigation. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation was used as reference equation to estimate ET0 for Serbia during the period of 1980-2010. The obtained simulation results confirmed the proposed models and were analyzed using the root mean-square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), and the coefficient of determination ( R 2). The analysis showed that the RBFN-PSO had better statistical characteristics than RBFN-BP and can be helpful for the ET0 estimation.

  15. Optimal Selection of Reference Set for the Nearest Neighbor Classification by Tabu Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿宾; 孙广煜

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented to find the reference set for the nearest neighbor classifier. The optimal reference set, which has minimum sample size and satisfies a certain error rate threshold, is obtained through a Tabu search algorithm. When the error rate threshold is set to zero, the algorithm obtains a near minimal consistent subset of a given training set. While the threshold is set to a small appropriate value, the obtained reference set may compensate the bias of the nearest neighbor estimate. An aspiration criterion for Tabu search is introduced, which aims to prevent the search process from the inefficient wandering between the feasible and infeasible regions in the search space and speed up the convergence. Experimental results based on a number of typical data sets are presented and analyzed to illustrate the benefits of the proposed method. Compared to conventional methods, such as CNN and Dasarathy's algorithm, the size of the reduced reference sets is much smaller, and the nearest neighbor classification performance is better, especially when the error rate thresholds are set to appropriate nonzero values. The experimental results also illustrate that the MCS (minimal consistent set) of Dasarathy's algorithm is not minimal, and its candidate consistent set is not always ensured to reduce monotonically. A counter example is also given to confirm this claim.

  16. Luminosity and contrast normalization in color retinal images based on standard reference image

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Yousefi, Siamak; Belghith, Akram; Goldbaum, Michael H.

    2016-03-01

    Color retinal images are used manually or automatically for diagnosis and monitoring progression of a retinal diseases. Color retinal images have large luminosity and contrast variability within and across images due to the large natural variations in retinal pigmentation and complex imaging setups. The quality of retinal images may affect the performance of automatic screening tools therefore different normalization methods are developed to uniform data before applying any further analysis or processing. In this paper we propose a new reliable method to remove non-uniform illumination in retinal images and improve their contrast based on contrast of the reference image. The non-uniform illumination is removed by normalizing luminance image using local mean and standard deviation. Then the contrast is enhanced by shifting histograms of uniform illuminated retinal image toward histograms of the reference image to have similar histogram peaks. This process improve the contrast without changing inter correlation of pixels in different color channels. In compliance with the way humans perceive color, the uniform color space of LUV is used for normalization. The proposed method is widely tested on large dataset of retinal images with present of different pathologies such as Exudate, Lesion, Hemorrhages and Cotton-Wool and in different illumination conditions and imaging setups. Results shows that proposed method successfully equalize illumination and enhances contrast of retinal images without adding any extra artifacts.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  18. Transposition of the 97/43 EURATOM directive. Mission on procedures and standard levels of medical examinations using ionizing radiations. The radiological procedures: quality criteria and doses optimization; Transposition de la directive 97/43 Euratom. Mission sur les procedures et les niveaux de reference des examens medicaux utilisant les rayonnements ionisants. Les procedures radiologiques: criteres de qualite et optimisation des doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report concerns the optimization of radiological practices, to avoid delivering unuseful doses while ensuring an image quality necessary to the obtaining of the desired diagnosis information. (N.C.)

  19. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  20. [Classification of Colombian children with malnutrition according to NCHS reference or WHO standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Claudia; Bermúdez, Juliana; Echeverri, Claudia; Estrada, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the concordance of National Center for Health Statistics reference (NCHS) used to classify undernourished children from Colombia with the WHO Child Growth Standards. We used data from children aged 6 to 59 months with acute malnutrition (Z Infantil" nutrition program in Colombia. Indicators height-for-age, weight for-height were analyzed when they were admitted to the hospital and weight for-height leaving the hospital. A statistical method used to compare means was T-student. Correlation coefficient intraclass (CCI) and Kappa index evaluated the concordance between NCHS and OMS; McNemar method evaluated the changes on the nutritional classification for children according to growth devices used. Of the total number of children classified as normal by NCHS, 10.4% were classified as stunted by WHO. 64% of the children admitted to the hospital presented acute malnutrition according to NCHS, of these 44,8% presented severe emaciation according to OMS, indeed severe emaciation increased of 36,0% to 63,3% using OMS. 5% of children leaving the hospital could need to stay more days if they had been evaluated with OMS. Growth devices shown high concordance in height-for-age (CCI = 0,988; k= 0,866) and weight for-height (CCI = 0,901; k = 0,578). Concluded that OMS growth standards classified more malnourished children and more severe states, in addition more malnourished children could be hospitalized and they could stay more days.

  1. New reference charts for testicular volume in Dutch children and adolescents allow the calculation of standard deviation scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, S.D.; Plas, E.M. van der; Goede, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Hack, W.W.M.; Buuren, S. van; Wit, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. Methods The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from ultrasonogr

  2. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  3. 77 FR 202 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Accounting Standards Codification of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  4. 12 CFR 336.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 336.1 Section 336.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT... and Conduct § 336.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... supplements the Executive Branch-wide financial disclosure regulations....

  5. 41 CFR 105-735.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations, and other regulations. 105-735.1... CONDUCT § 105-735.1 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure... conduct at 5 CFR part 735, and the executive branch financial disclosure regulations contained in 5...

  6. 29 CFR 2703.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial disclosure regulations. 2703.1 Section 2703.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members and employees... supplement the executive branch-wide standards; and the executive branch-wide financial...

  7. 38 CFR 0.735-10 - Cross-reference to employee ethical and other conduct standards and financial disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee ethical and other conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.735-10 Section 0.735... Responsibilities and Conduct at 5 CFR part 735, and the executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulation at 5... Employees § 0.735-10 Cross-reference to employee ethical and other conduct standards and...

  8. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  9. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m(-3) to 180 kg·m(-3), and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: [Formula: see text]where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m(-1)·K(-1)), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m(-3)), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. [Formula: see text] One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs.

  10. The prevalence of wasting in Czech infants: a comparison of the WHO child growth standards and the Czech growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignerová, Jana; Paulová, Markéta; Shriver, Lenka H; Riedlová, Jitka; Schneidrová, Dagmar; Kudlová, Eva; Lhotská, Lída

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate the performance of the international World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards in the Czech Republic and determine the prevalence of wasting among children using the 1991 Czech growth reference and the WHO growth standards. The study utilized the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards and the 1991 Czech growth references. The WHO standards were based on a longitudinal study of 882 children aged 0-24 months and on cross-sectional studies of 6669 children aged 18-71 months. The 1991 Czech growth references were based on a cross-sectional survey including 90 910 children aged 0-18 years (34 164 were children aged < 5 years). The prevalence of wasting was significantly higher among Czech children when using the WHO growth standards compared with the Czech references. The prevalence of wasting among 0-5-month-old children was 15.5% among boys and 12.9% among girls compared with the expected 2.3% of the WHO standards. In the length category of 50 cm, 9.0% of boys and 9.9% of girls fell under the WHO wasting cut-off compared with the 3% from the Czech growth reference. The application of the WHO growth standards may results in a significant increase of Czech children classified in the category of wasting, especially among infants aged 0-5 months. The performance and potential impacts of the WHO growth standards should be evaluated further before their adoption in the Czech Republic and other countries with local growth references.

  11. Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, to, for ferritic steels in the transition range

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of a reference temperature, To, which characterizes the fracture toughness of ferritic steels that experience onset of cleavage cracking at elastic, or elastic-plastic KJc instabilities, or both. The specific types of ferritic steels (3.2.1) covered are those with yield strengths ranging from 275 to 825 MPa (40 to 120 ksi) and weld metals, after stress-relief annealing, that have 10 % or less strength mismatch relative to that of the base metal. 1.2 The specimens covered are fatigue precracked single-edge notched bend bars, SE(B), and standard or disk-shaped compact tension specimens, C(T) or DC(T). A range of specimen sizes with proportional dimensions is recommended. The dimension on which the proportionality is based is specimen thickness. 1.3 Median KJc values tend to vary with the specimen type at a given test temperature, presumably due to constraint differences among the allowable test specimens in 1.2. The degree of KJc variability among specimen types i...

  12. Quantitative 2D HSQC NMR determination of polymer structures by selecting suitable internal standard references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liming; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2007-01-01

    A new analytical method based on the 2D HSQC NMR sequence is presented, which can be applied for quantitative structural determination of complicated polymers. The influence of T1 and T2 relaxations, off-resonance effects, coupling constants and homonuclear couplings are discussed. It was found that the T2 values measured on polymeric samples with the conventional HSQC-CPMG sequence could not be used to correct the errors caused by T2 relaxations during the polarization transfer delay. A unique way of selecting the proper internal standard reference signal(s) is therefore proposed to eliminate the major errors caused by T2 relaxations, resonance offsets, coupling constant deviations and homonuclear couplings. Two polymer samples, a cellulose triacetate and an acetylated lignin, have been used to illustrate the principles. The methodology developed in this work is robust to instrument miss-setting and it can find wide-spread applications in areas where a quantitative analysis of structurally complicated polymers is necessary. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Standardization and optimization of arthropod inventories-the case of Iberian spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel

    2009-01-01

    and optimization of sampling protocols, especially for mega-diverse arthropod taxa. This study had two objectives: (1) propose guidelines and statistical methods to improve the standardization and optimization of arthropod inventories, and (2) to propose a standardized and optimized protocol for Iberian spiders......, by finding common results between the optimal options for the different sites. The steps listed were successfully followed in the determination of a sampling protocol for Iberian spiders. A protocol with three sub-protocols of varying degrees of effort (24, 96 and 320 h of sampling) is proposed. I also...

  14. Optimizing cross-sectional prediction of social functioning in youth referred for neuropsychological testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Lerner

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR, which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 - 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension. Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or "odd" behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting

  15. MRI of the normal appendix in children: data toward a new reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, David W. [Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Providence, RI (United States); Schooler, Gary R. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Stamoulis, Catherine; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might prove useful in the diagnostic evaluation of pediatric appendicitis in the effort to avoid exposing children to the ionizing radiation of CT, yet there is a paucity of literature describing the normal range of appearances of the pediatric appendix on MRI. To investigate MRI characteristics of the normal appendix to aid in establishing a reference standard in the pediatric population. We conducted a retrospective study of children and young adults (≤18 years of age) who underwent lumbar spine or pelvis MRI between Jan. 1, 2013, and Dec. 31, 2013, for indications unrelated to appendicitis. Two board-certified radiologists independently reviewed all patients' MRI examinations for appendix visualization, diameter, intraluminal content signal, and presence of periappendiceal inflammation or free fluid. We used the Cohen kappa statistic and Spearman correlation coefficient to assess reader agreement on qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. Three hundred forty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Both readers visualized the appendix in 192/346 (55.5%) patients (kappa = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Estimated median appendix diameter was 5 mm for reader 1 and 6 mm for reader 2 ([25th, 75th] quartiles = [5, 6] mm; range, 2-11 mm; r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). Appendix intraluminal signal characteristics were variable. Periappendiceal inflammation was present in 0/192 (0%) and free fluid in 6/192 (3.1%) MRI examinations (kappa = 1.0). The normal appendix was seen on MRI in approximately half of pediatric patients, with a mean diameter of ∝5-6 mm, variable intraluminal signal characteristics, no adjacent inflammatory changes, and rare surrounding free fluid. (orig.)

  16. Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) International Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological reference preparation batch 5 and the USP Reference Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current reference standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) International Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the reference standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of reference standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of reference materials and

  17. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material.

  18. Quine's Double Standard: Undermining the Indispensability Argument via the Indeterminacy of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bueno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Quine has famously put forward the indispensability argument to force belief in the existence of mathematical objects (such as classes due to their indispensability to our best theories of the world (Quine 1960. Quine has also advocated the indeterminacy of reference argument, according to which reference is dramatically indeterminate: given a language, there’s no unique reference relation for that language (see Quine 1969a. In this paper, I argue that these two arguments are in conflict with each other. Whereas the indispensability argument supports realism about mathematics, the indeterminacy of reference argument, when applied to mathematics, provides a powerful strategy in support of mathematical anti-realism. I conclude the paper by indicating why the indeterminacy of reference phenomenon should be preferred over the considerations regarding indispensability. In the end, even the Quinean shouldn’t be a realist (platonist about mathematics.

  19. Consultation on urological specimens from referred cancer patients using real-time digital microscopy: Optimizing the workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Holten-Rossing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Centralization of cancer treatment entails a reassessment of the diagnostic tissue specimens. Packaging and shipment of glass slides from the local to the central pathology unit means that the standard procedure is time-consuming and that it is difficult to comply with governmental requirements. The aim was to evaluate whether real-time digital microscopy for urological cancer specimens during the primary diagnostic process can replace subsequent physical slide referral and reassessment without compromising diagnostic safety. Methods: From May to October 2014, tissue specimens from 130 patients with urological cancer received at Næstved Hospital′s Pathology Department, and expected to be referred for further treatment at cancer unit of a university hospital, were diagnosed using standard light microscopy. In the event of diagnostic uncertainty, the VisionTek digital microscope (Sakura Finetek was employed. The Pathology Department at Næstved Hospital was equipped with a digital microscope and three consultant pathologists were stationed at Rigshospitalet with workstations optimized for digital microscopy. Representative slides for each case were selected for consultation and live digital consultation took place over the telephone using remote access software. Time of start and finish for each case was logged. For the physically referred cases, time from arrival to sign-out was logged in the national pathology information system, and time spent on microscopy and reporting was noted manually. Diagnosis, number of involved biopsies, grade, and stage were compared between digital microscopy and conventional microscopy. Results: Complete data were available for all 130 cases. Standard procedure with referral of urological cancer specimens took a mean of 8 min 56 s for microscopy, reporting and sign-out per case. For live digital consultations, a mean of 18 min 37 s was spent on each consultation with 4 min 43 s for each case

  20. 29 CFR 0.735-1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., financial disclosure regulations and other ethics regulations. 0.735-1 Section 0.735-1 Labor Office of the... financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, the conflicts of interest regulations at 5 CFR part... Department of Labor Employees § 0.735-1 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards,...

  1. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregeau, C.J.; Elliott, J.C.; Fourney, R.M. [RCMP Central Forensic Laboratory, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-07-20

    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines-GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)-to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. 82 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Quality evaluation of semen oroxyli based on the determination of multiple components with a single reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yangyang; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Lixin; Guo, Jian; Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Jianyong; Yang, Bin; Huang, Luqi

    2013-01-01

    The determination of multiple components is considered to be one of the key methods to control the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), because the clinical efficacy of TCM is derived from the synergistic action of multi-components. When simultaneously determining multi-components in TCM with multiple reference standards (MRS), the limited availability and high expense of various reference standards is a major obstacle. Currently, a practical method determining multi-components with a single reference standard (SRS) is needed to solve the problem, in which the contents of those components without reference standards can be calculated using relative conversion factor. In the present paper, both MRS and SRS methods were established for the simultaneous quantitative determination of seven bioactive flavonoids in Muhudie (MHD), the seed of Oroxylum indicum L., a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for centuries. Forty samples were assayed and data obtained from the two methods were compared, and no statistically significant difference was observed by a T-test (P > 0.05), thus, the SRS method can be applied for quality analysis of MHD. At the same time, a certain correlation was discovered between the contents of the bioactive components and the morphological character of MHD.

  3. Element concentrations in candidate biological and environmental reference materials by k[sub 0]-standardized INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M.C. (LNETI, Inst. de Ciencias e Engenharia Nucleares, Dept. de Energia e Engenharia Nucleares, Sacavem (Portugal))

    1993-01-01

    k[sub 0]-Based Neutron Activation Analysis (k[sub 0]INAA) was used to analyze the candidate reference materials Apple Leaves and Peach Leaves, and Oriental Tobacco Leaves and Virginia Tobacco Leaves. Concentration values for 27 elements were measured. The accuracy was ascertained by analysis of two certified reference materials. NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves and 1573 Tomato Leaves. The homogeneity test of the IAEA Evernia prunastri candidate reference material in aliquots [>=] 100 mg is extended to the elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce and Th. (orig.).

  4. Prevention of Crime and the Optimal Standard of Proof in Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The standard of proof in criminal law a®ects retributive justice throughthe number of wrong convictions and wrong acquittals. It also a®ects thelevel of crime, since a higher standard of proof implies less deterrence andless incapacitation. This article derives an expression for the optimal...... standardfrom a trade-o® between these e®ects, and applies the expression tothe crime of sexual violation against women. For this crime, social preferencesfor justice versus prevention of crime are elicited through a surveyand inserted into the expression for the optimal standard. The result indicatesthat...... the concern for prevention of crime may have a signi¯cant e®ecton the optimal standard of proof....

  5. Standardized Semantic Markup for Reference Terminologies, Thesauri and Coding Systems: Benefits for distributed E-Health Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Liu, Raymond; Rudolf, Dirk; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of the ICD-10 as the standard for diagnosis, the development of an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics and coding rules is necessary. Our concept refers to current efforts of the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in healthcare. We have developed an electronic representation of the ICD-10 with the extensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates the integration in current information systems or coding software taking into account different languages and versions. In this context, XML offers a complete framework of related technologies and standard tools for processing that helps to develop interoperable applications.

  6. Construction and evaluation of reference standards for detection and quantification of Klebsiella pneumoniae using real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To construct reference standards for detection and quantification of Klebsiella pneumoniae(K.pneumoniae)with SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR assay.Methods Primers were designed based on the published sequence of the phoE gene of K.pneumoniae.The standard was prepared by cell culture,PCR and T-A clone methods,and was identified by colony PCR and DNA sequencing.Results The standard curve showed a very good linear negative regression between threshold cycle(Ct)and Log starting quantity of copy numbe...

  7. Reference interaction site model and optimized perturbation theories of colloidal dumbbells with increasing anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaò, Gianmarco, E-mail: gmunao@unime.it; Costa, Dino; Caccamo, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Gámez, Francisco [C/Clavel 101, Mairena del Aljarafe, 41927 Seville (Spain); Sciortino, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNR-ISC, Università di Roma “Sapienza,” Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Giacometti, Achille [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, Calle Larga S.Marta DD2137, Venezia I-30123 (Italy)

    2015-06-14

    We investigate thermodynamic properties of anisotropic colloidal dumbbells in the frameworks provided by the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM) theory and an Optimized Perturbation Theory (OPT), this latter based on a fourth-order high-temperature perturbative expansion of the free energy, recently generalized to molecular fluids. Our model is constituted by two identical tangent hard spheres surrounded by square-well attractions with same widths and progressively different depths. Gas-liquid coexistence curves are obtained by predicting pressures, free energies, and chemical potentials. In comparison with previous simulation results, RISM and OPT agree in reproducing the progressive reduction of the gas-liquid phase separation as the anisotropy of the interaction potential becomes more pronounced; in particular, the RISM theory provides reasonable predictions for all coexistence curves, bar the strong anisotropy regime, whereas OPT performs generally less well. Both theories predict a linear dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction strength, reproducing in this way the mean-field behavior observed in simulations; the critical density—that drastically drops as the anisotropy increases—turns to be less accurate. Our results appear as a robust benchmark for further theoretical studies, in support to the simulation approach, of self-assembly in model colloidal systems.

  8. 20 °C—A Short History of the Standard Reference Temperature for Industrial Dimensional Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Ted

    2007-01-01

    One of the basic principles of dimensional metrology is that a part dimension changes with temperature because of thermal expansion. Since 1931 industrial lengths have been defined as the size at 20 °C. This paper discusses the variety of standard temperatures that were in use before that date, the efforts of C.E. Johansson to meet these variations, and the effort by the National Bureau of Standards to bring the United States to the eventual world standard. PMID:27110451

  9. 20 °C—A Short History of the Standard Reference Temperature for Industrial Dimensional Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Doiron, Ted

    2007-01-01

    One of the basic principles of dimensional metrology is that a part dimension changes with temperature because of thermal expansion. Since 1931 industrial lengths have been defined as the size at 20 °C. This paper discusses the variety of standard temperatures that were in use before that date, the efforts of C.E. Johansson to meet these variations, and the effort by the National Bureau of Standards to bring the United States to the eventual world standard.

  10. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000...... and no significant change in the associated neonatal mortality risk, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of neonatal death attributable to SGA. Our study sheds light on how previously published studies on SGA status may be reinterpreted with the introduction of this new birth weight standard.......) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...

  11. 78 FR 49996 - Pipeline Safety: Periodic Updates of Regulatory References to Technical Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment... cracking. At the same time, PHMSA and the API formed a working group to evaluate the need for a truck... ASTM D2513-09a, ``Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and...

  12. Availability of color calibration for consistent color display in medical images and optimization of reference brightness for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Daiki; Suganami, Haruka; Hosoba, Minoru; Ohno, Kazuko; Emoto, Yutaka; Tabata, Yoshito; Matsui, Norihisa

    2013-03-01

    Color image consistency has not been accomplished yet except the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Supplement 100 for implementing a color reproduction pipeline and device independent color spaces. Thus, most healthcare enterprises could not check monitor degradation routinely. To ensure color consistency in medical color imaging, monitor color calibration should be introduced. Using simple color calibration device . chromaticity of colors including typical color (Red, Green, Blue, Green and White) are measured as device independent profile connection space value called u'v' before and after calibration. In addition, clinical color images are displayed and visual differences are observed. In color calibration, monitor brightness level has to be set to quite lower value 80 cd/m2 according to sRGB standard. As Maximum brightness of most color monitors available currently for medical use have much higher brightness than 80 cd/m2, it is not seemed to be appropriate to use 80 cd/m2 level for calibration. Therefore, we propose that new brightness standard should be introduced while maintaining the color representation in clinical use. To evaluate effects of brightness to chromaticity experimentally, brightness level is changed in two monitors from 80 to 270cd/m2 and chromaticity value are compared with each brightness levels. As a result, there are no significant differences in chromaticity diagram when brightness levels are changed. In conclusion, chromaticity is close to theoretical value after color calibration. Moreover, chromaticity isn't moved when brightness is changed. The results indicate optimized reference brightness level for clinical use could be set at high brightness in current monitors .

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Typhoid Diagnostic Accuracy Studies: A Recommendation to Adopt a Standardized Composite Reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Storey

    Full Text Available Novel typhoid diagnostics currently under development have the potential to improve clinical care, surveillance, and the disease burden estimates that support vaccine introduction. Blood culture is most often used as the reference method to evaluate the accuracy of new typhoid tests; however, it is recognized to be an imperfect gold standard. If no single gold standard test exists, use of a composite reference standard (CRS can improve estimation of diagnostic accuracy. Numerous studies have used a CRS to evaluate new typhoid diagnostics; however, there is no consensus on an appropriate CRS. In order to evaluate existing tests for use as a reference test or inclusion in a CRS, we performed a systematic review of the typhoid literature to include all index/reference test combinations observed. We described the landscape of comparisons performed, showed results of a meta-analysis on the accuracy of the more common combinations, and evaluated sources of variability based on study quality. This wide-ranging meta-analysis suggests that no single test has sufficiently good performance but some existing diagnostics may be useful as part of a CRS. Additionally, based on findings from the meta-analysis and a constructed numerical example demonstrating the use of CRS, we proposed necessary criteria and potential components of a typhoid CRS to guide future recommendations. Agreement and adoption by all investigators of a standardized CRS is requisite, and would improve comparison of new diagnostics across independent studies, leading to the identification of a better reference test and improved confidence in prevalence estimates.

  14. 78 FR 43817 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Flexibility Act C. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 D. The Paperwork Reduction Act... to remove the reference to an organizational unit that no longer exists and replace it with current... reviewed this rulemaking. B. Regulatory Flexibility Act We have examined the impacts of the rule under the...

  15. 49 CFR 1245.6 - Cross reference to standard occupational classification manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 200Professional and Administrative 201Professionals (Other Than Those Reported in 101 and 102): General Counsel... Auditors 1412. 204General and Administrative Supervisors: General Supv. 4511 and 137. Supv. 4511 and 137... REPORTS CLASSIFICATION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; REPORTS OF SERVICE AND COMPENSATION § 1245.6 Cross reference...

  16. The Optimal Design Method and Standardized Mathematical Model of Tooth Profile Modification of Spur Gear

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Mei; Jingzhou Na; Fan Yang; Guike Shen; Jiawei Chen

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports a tooth profile modification method of spur gear. After establishing a standardized mathematical model for optimized tooth profile and simulating meshing process with ANSYS finite element analysis, we obtained 625 groups of gear models with different modification parameters. The group with minimum transmission errors owns the optimal parameters. Genetic algorithm was adopted in the entire process for the purpose of reducing the variation of transmission errors in meshing pro...

  17. Comparison between the triglycerides standardization of routine methods used in Japan and the chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the CDC Lipid Standardization Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Noda, Hiroyuki; Kiyama, Masahiko; Sato, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ensured adequate performance of the routine triglycerides methods used in Japan by a chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme as a reference point. We examined standardized data to clarify the performance of routine triglycerides methods. Methods The two routine triglycerides methods were the fluorometric method of Kessler and Lederer and the enzymatic method. The methods were standardized using 495 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference pools with 98 different concentrations ranging between 0.37 and 5.15 mmol/L in 141 survey runs. The triglycerides criteria for laboratories which perform triglycerides analyses are used: accuracy, as bias ≤5% from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value and precision, as measured by CV, ≤5%. Results The correlation of the bias of both methods to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference method was: y (%bias) = 0.516 × (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value) -1.292 ( n = 495, R(2 )= 0.018). Triglycerides bias at medical decision points of 1.13, 1.69 and 2.26 mmol/L was -0.71%, -0.42% and -0.13%, respectively. For the combined precision, the equation y (CV) = -0.398 × (triglycerides value) + 1.797 ( n = 495, R(2 )= 0.081) was used. Precision was 1.35%, 1.12% and 0.90%, respectively. It was shown that triglycerides measurements at Osaka were stable for 36 years. Conclusions The epidemiologic laboratory in Japan met acceptable accuracy goals for 88.7% of all samples, and met acceptable precision goals for 97.8% of all samples measured through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme and demonstrated stable results for an extended period of time.

  18. Standardization of immunoassay for CRM-related proteins in Japan: from evaluating CRM 470 to setting reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y; Ichihara, K

    2001-11-01

    The Japan National Institute of Health (JNIH), in close collaboration with academic societies, commercial companies, and the Japan Society of Medical Technologists, has led in the attempt to standardize plasma protein assays since the mid 1980s. Under a framework of global standardization, they used WHO primary reference materials to reduce discrepancies in values reported for proteins assayed using different systems, thus laying the foundations for a protein immunoassay standardization system in Japan. With the introduction of CRM 470 in 1993, the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) has taken the initiative in promoting the use of the new material and bringing about the re-evaluation of all systems of quality assurance in clinical laboratories. This eventually led to the establishment of reference intervals in Japanese populations of children and adults after preparation of assigned calibrators from CRM 470 for each assay system. Here we review the history of a series of projects carried out in Japan and describe several remaining problems, through which we will attempt to evaluate the potential value of protein immunoassay standardization.

  19. NDE of additively manufactured components with embedded defects (reference standards) using conventional and advanced ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, L.; Roberts, R. A.; Barnard, D. J.; Chakrapani, S.; Singh, S.; Hogan, R.; Bond, L. J.

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing provides a unique opportunity to embed defects of known size and shape to produce reference samples for inspection and quality control purposes. This paper reports defect detectability studies with cylindrical additively manufactured cobalt-chromium alloy specimens which contain defects of known sizes and distributions. The specimens were characterized using immersion, synthetic aperture focusing (SAFT), phased array, and nonlinear ultrasonic techniques. Results include detectability, signal to noise ratios, and comparison of results between the methods and what is believed to be the first determination of a non-linearity (beta) parameter for an additively manufactured material. The results indicate that additive manufacturing provides a valuable method to produce reference samples, though additional work is required to validate the shape and morphology of the defects specified.

  20. [Allergy to cypress pollen: preparation of a reference and standardization extract in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, V; Charpin, D; Aparicio, C; Veber, C; Guérin, L

    2000-03-01

    Development of Cypress allergy frequency led to the standardization of commercial cypress extract used for diagnosis and immunotherapy. Previous in vitro studies on two cypress pollen species (Cupressus sempervirens and Cupressus arizonica) allowed us to produce an allergenic solution composed by a mixture of both extracts for in vivo standardization. Dilutions of this allergenic solution were tested by prick-test on 44 patients with clinical allergy to cypress pollen to define the dilution that corresponds to a 6 mm wheal conformed to the definition of 100 IR. The mixture of the two major species found in France is justified by the in vitro study results. Extracts revealed complementary allergenic composition: Cup sempervirens showed a wider diversity of allergens whereas Cup arizonica showed a higher content of the major 43 kDa allergen. Thus, according to in vivo analysis, we are able to produce a standardized extract of Cypress pollen expressed in IR.

  1. Nickel replicas as calibration reference standards for industrial surface texture instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammatini-Malberg, Maria-Pia

    The present report is a documentation of measurements carried out at DTU on Nickel replicas. The research is performed in the frame of the project with contract SMT4-CT97-2176 with title: Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Scale.......The present report is a documentation of measurements carried out at DTU on Nickel replicas. The research is performed in the frame of the project with contract SMT4-CT97-2176 with title: Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Scale....

  2. Standardization of Gene Expression Quantification by Absolute Real-Time qRT-PCR System Using a Single Standard for Marker and Reference Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, genome-wide gene expression data has been collected from a large number of cancer specimens. In many studies utilizing either microarray-based or knowledge-based gene expression profiling, both the validation of candidate genes and the identification and inclusion of biomarkers in prognosis-modeling has employed real-time quantitative PCR on reverse transcribed mRNA (qRT-PCR because of its inherent sensitivity and quantitative nature. In qRT-PCR data analysis, an internal reference gene is used to normalize the variation in input sample quantity. The relative quantification method used in current real-time qRT-PCR analysis fails to ensure data comparability pivotal in identification of prognostic biomarkers. By employing an absolute qRT-PCR system that uses a single standard for marker and reference genes (SSMR to achieve absolute quantification, we showed that the normalized gene expression data is comparable and independent of variations in the quantities of sample as well as the standard used for generating standard curves. We compared two sets of normalized gene expression data with same histological diagnosis of brain tumor from two labs using relative and absolute real-time qRT-PCR. Base-10 logarithms of the gene expression ratio relative to ACTB were evaluated for statistical equivalence between tumors processed by two different labs. The results showed an approximate comparability for normalized gene expression quantified using a SSMR-based qRT-PCR. Incomparable results were seen for the gene expression data using relative real-time qRT-PCR, due to inequality in molar concentration of two standards for marker and reference genes. Overall results show that SSMR-based real-time qRT-PCR ensures comparability of gene expression data much needed in establishment of prognostic/predictive models for cancer patients—a process that requires large sample sizes by combining independent sets of data.

  3. Collaborative studies on the development of national reference standards for potency determination of H7N9 influenza vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changgui; Xu, Kangwei; Hashem, Anwar; Shao, Ming; Liu, Shuzhen; Zou, Yong; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Yongchao; Yuan, Liyong; Xu, Miao; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    The outbreak of human infections of a novel avian influenza virus A (H7N9) prompted the development of the vaccines against this virus. Like all types of influenza vaccines, H7N9 vaccine must be tested for its potency prior to being used in humans. However, the unavailability of international reference reagents for the potency determination of H7N9 vaccines substantially hinders the progress in vaccine development. To facilitate clinical development, we enlisted 5 participants in a collaborative study to develop critical reagents used in Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID), the currently acceptable assay for potency determination of influenza vaccine. Specifically, the hemagglutinin (HA) content of one vaccine bulk for influenza A (H7N9), herein designated as Primary Liquid Standard (PLS), was determined by SDS-PAGE. In addition, the freeze-dried antigen references derived from PLS were prepared to enhance the stability for long term storage. The final HA content of lyophilized antigen references were calibrated against PLS by SRID assay in a collaborative study. Importantly, application of these national reference standards to potency analyses greatly facilitated the development of H7N9 vaccines in China. PMID:25970793

  4. 46 CFR 164.023-3 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Thread for Personal Flotation...-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html... Standard No. 191A, Textile Test Methods, July 20, 1978: (1) Method 4010, Length-Weight Relation;...

  5. Standardized evaluation methodology and reference database for evaluating coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schaap (Michiel); C.T. Metz (Coert); T.W. van Walsum (Theo); A.G. van der Giessen (Alina); A.C. Weustink (Annick); N.R.A. Mollet (Nico); C. Bauer (Christian); H. Bogunović (Hrvoje); C. Castro (Carlos); X. Deng (Xiang); E. Dikici (Engin); T. O'Donnell (Thomas); M. Frenay (Michel); O. Friman (Ola); M.H. Hoyos; P.H. Kitslaar (Pieter); K. Krissian (Karl); C. Kühnel (Caroline); M.A. Luengo-Oroz (Miguel); M. Orkisz (Maciej); O. Smedby; M. Styner (Martin); A. Szymczak (Andrzej); H. Tek (Hüseyin); C. Wang (Chunliang); S.K. Warfield (Simon); S. Zambal (Sebastian); Y. Zhang (Yong); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); W.J. Niessen (Wiro)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractEfficiently obtaining a reliable coronary artery centerline from computed tomography angiography data is relevant in clinical practice. Whereas numerous methods have been presented for this purpose, up to now no standardized evaluation methodology has been published to reliably evaluate

  6. Nickel replicas as calibration reference standards for industrial surface texture instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammatini-Malberg, Maria-Pia

    The present report is a documentation of measurements carried out at DTU on Nickel replicas. The research is performed in the frame of the project with contract SMT4-CT97-2176 with title: Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Scale....

  7. 7 CFR 1755.97 - Incorporation by reference of telecommunications standards and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These bulletins contain construction standards and specifications for... Locations. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1755.97, see the List of CFR Sections... carbon arrester assemblies for use in protectors. 345-180 Form 397a Jan. 1963 RUS specifications...

  8. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL05 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...: This NPRM proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210, ``Seat belt assembly..., MY 2000 Chevrolet S-10, MY 2002 Chevrolet TrailBlazer, MY 2003 Volkswagen Jetta, MY 1996 Ford F-350...

  9. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, Anders H.; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is now accepted as an ideal technology to reveal changes in immune cell composition and function. However, it is also an error-prone and variable technology, which makes it difficult to reproduce findings across laboratories. We have recently developed a strategy to standardize whole...

  10. 77 FR 751 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Pavements Using a Two-Wheel Trailer,'' issued 1965, into Sec. 571.208. (29) ASTM E274-70, ``Standard Method...) SAE Recommended Practice J972, ``Moving Rigid Barrier Collision Tests,'' revised May 2000, into Sec... systems. * * * * * S4 * * * Skid number means the frictional resistance of a pavement measured in...

  11. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Ahmed, Trifa; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 °C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the

  12. Method development in quantitative NMR towards metrologically traceable organic certified reference materials used as (31)P qNMR standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael; Hellriegel, Christine; Rueck, Alexander; Wuethrich, Juerg; Jenks, Peter; Obkircher, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is employed by an increasing number of analytical and industrial laboratories for the assignment of content and quantitative determination of impurities. Within the last few years, it was demonstrated that (1)H qNMR can be performed with high accuracy leading to measurement uncertainties below 1 % relative. It was even demonstrated that the combination of (1)H qNMR with metrological weighing can lead to measurement uncertainties below 0.1 % when highly pure substances are used. Although qNMR reference standards are already available as certified reference materials (CRM) providing traceability on the basis of (1)H qNMR experiments, there is an increasing demand for purity assays on phosphorylated organic compounds and metabolites requiring CRM for quantification by (31)P qNMR. Unfortunately, the number of available primary phosphorus standards is limited to a few inorganic CRM which only can be used for the analysis of water-soluble analytes but fail when organic solvents must be employed. This paper presents the concept of value assignment by (31)P qNMR measurements for the development of CRM and describes different approaches to establish traceability to primary Standard Reference Material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST SRM). Phosphonoacetic acid is analyzed as a water-soluble CRM candidate, whereas triphenyl phosphate is a good candidate for the use as qNMR reference material in organic solvents. These substances contain both nuclei, (1)H and (31)P, and the concept is to show that it is possible to indirectly quantify a potential phosphorus standard via its protons using (1)H qNMR. The same standard with its assigned purity can then be used for the quantification of an analyte via its phosphorus using (31)P qNMR. For the validation of the concept, triphenyl phosphate and phosphonoacetic acid have been used as (31)P qNMR standards to determine the purity of the analyte

  13. [Alpha-amylase determination in acute pancreatitis: selection of a reference standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, C; Colombo, J P; Lorenz, E

    1979-09-01

    It has been investigated which of the amylase determinations agrees most closely with the clinical diagnosis in a group of patients with acute pancreatitis and in a group with other diseases producing amylase elevation. By measuring the amylase in a urine specimen related to its creatinine concentration fewer values within the range of reference in patients with pancreatitis and also fewer falsely elevated values in the second group were observed when compared to amylase in plasma, urinary amylase activity per volume or the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio.

  14. Construction of a standard reference for PET studies of methionine accumulation using a computerised brain atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanowski, C.A.J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF (United Kingdom); Leslie, D.F. [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Neuroradiology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Thurfjell, L. [Centre for Image Analysis, University of Uppsala (Sweden); Ericson, K. [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Neuroradiology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Karolinska Pharmacy, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is valuable for assessing the biochemistry and physiology of the human brain. A computerised brain atlas has been developed which allows demonstration of anatomical regions on PET images and manipulation of these images into a standardised anatomical space. Once the images are in this standardised three-dimensional space it is possible to make comparisons between individuals and groups of individuals. We describe the use of this atlas in the generation of a set of mean reference images using methionine PET images of normal volunteers. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  15. Kernel reconstruction methods for Doppler broadening - Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducru, Pablo; Josey, Colin; Dibert, Karia; Sobes, Vladimir; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord

    2017-04-01

    This article establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (Tj). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T0 to a higher temperature T - namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (Tj). The choice of the L2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (Tj) is then undertaken so as to best reconstruct, in the L∞ sense, the kernels over a given temperature range [Tmin ,Tmax ]. The performance of these kernel reconstruction methods is then assessed in light of previous temperature interpolation methods by testing them upon isotope 238U. Temperature-optimized free Doppler kernel reconstruction significantly outperforms all previous interpolation-based methods, achieving 0.1% relative error on temperature interpolation of 238U total cross section over the temperature range [ 300 K , 3000 K ] with only 9 reference temperatures.

  16. Gender Assignment in Contemporary Standard Russian: A Comprehensive Analysis in Optimality Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Blake Lee Everett

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive analysis of gender assignment in Contemporary Standard Russian within the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993). The result of the dissertation is the establishment of the phonological, morphological, semantic, and faithfulness constraints necessary to assign…

  17. Development of a standard reference material containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbon gases at 1 μmol/mol in nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Du, Jian; Yang, Jing; Fan, Qiang; Tian, Wen

    2017-09-08

    A gas standard mixture containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons in high purity nitrogen was prepared using a two-step weighing method and a gasifying apparatus developed in-house. The concentration of each component was determined using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Linear regression analysis of every component was performed using the gas standard mixture with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 μmol/mol, showing the complete gasification of volatile organic compound (VOCs) species in a selected cylinder. Repeatability was also examined to ensure the reliability of the preparation method. In addition, no significant difference was observed between domestic treated and imported treated cylinders, which were conducive to reduction of the cost of raw materials. Moreover, the results of stability testing at different pressures and long-term stability tests indicated that the gas standard at 1 μmol/mol level with relative expanded uncertainties of 5% was stable above 2 MPa for a minimum of 12 months. Finally, a quantity comparison was conducted between the gas standard and a commercial gas standard from Scott Specialty Gases (now Air Liquide America Specialty Gases). The excellent agreement of every species suggested the favorable accuracy of our gas standard. Therefore, this reference material can be applied to routine observation of VOCs and for other purposes.

  18. Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. McMahon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This guide to estimating daily and monthly actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation covers topics that are of interest to researchers, consulting hydrologists and practicing engineers. Topics include estimating actual evaporation from deep lakes and from farm dams and for catchment water balance studies, estimating potential evaporation as input to rainfall-runoff models, and reference crop evapotranspiration for small irrigation areas, and for irrigation within large irrigation districts. Inspiration for this guide arose in response to the authors' experiences in reviewing research papers and consulting reports where estimation of the actual evaporation component in catchment and water balance studies was often inadequately handled. Practical guides using consistent terminology that cover both theory and practice are not readily available. Here we provide such a guide, which is divided into three parts. The first part provides background theory and an outline of the conceptual models of potential evaporation of Penman, Penman–Monteith and Priestley–Taylor, as well as discussions of reference crop evapotranspiration and Class-A pan evaporation. The last two sub-sections in this first part include techniques to estimate actual evaporation from (i open-surface water and (ii landscapes and catchments (Morton and the advection-aridity models. The second part addresses topics confronting a practicing hydrologist, e.g. estimating actual evaporation for deep lakes, shallow lakes and farm dams, lakes covered with vegetation, catchments, irrigation areas and bare soil. The third part addresses six related issues: (i automatic (hard wired calculation of evaporation estimates in commercial weather stations, (ii evaporation estimates without wind data, (iii at-site meteorological data, (iv dealing with evaporation in a climate change environment, (v 24 h versus day-light hour estimation of meteorological variables, and (vi uncertainty in

  19. Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. McMahon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This guide to estimating daily and monthly actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation covers topics that are of interest to researchers, consulting hydrologists and practicing engineers. Topics include estimating actual evaporation from deep lakes and from farm dams and for catchment water balance studies, estimating potential evaporation as input to rainfall-runoff models, and reference crop evapotranspiration for small irrigation areas, and for irrigation within large irrigation districts. Inspiration for this guide arose in response to the authors' experiences in reviewing research papers and consulting reports where estimation of the actual evaporation component in catchment and water balance studies was often inadequately handled. Practical guides using consistent terminology that cover both theory and practice are not readily available. Here we provide such a guide, which is divided into three parts. The first part provides background theory and an outline of conceptual models of potential evaporation of Penman, Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor, and discussions of reference crop evaporation and then Class-A pan evaporation. The last two sub-sections in this first part include techniques to estimate actual evaporation from (i open-surface water and (ii landscapes and catchments (Morton and the advection-aridity models. The second part addresses topics confronting a practicing hydrologist, e.g. estimating actual evaporation for deep lakes, shallow lakes and farm dams, lakes covered with vegetation, catchments, irrigation areas and bare soil. The third part addresses six related issues (i hard-wired evaporation estimates, (ii evaporation estimates without wind data, (iii at-site meteorological data, (iv dealing with evaporation in a climate change environment, (v 24-h versus day-light hour estimation of meteorological variables, and (vi uncertainty in evaporation estimates.

    This paper is supported by supplementary

  20. A comparison between Geant4 PIXE simulations and experimental data for standard reference samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Z., E-mail: ziad.francis@gmail.com [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); The Open University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Sciences, Walton Hall, MK7 6AA Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); El Bast, M. [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon); El Haddad, R. [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Beirut (Lebanon); Mantero, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Incerti, S. [Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CENBG, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Ivanchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, Moscow State University, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd., Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Champion, C. [Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CENBG, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Roumie, M. [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-12-01

    The Geant4 PIXE de-excitation processes are used to simulate proton beam interactions with sample materials of known composition. Simulations involve four mono-elemental materials; Cu, Fe, Si and Al and three relatively complex materials: stainless steel, phosphor bronze and basal BE-N reference material composed of 25 different elements. The simulation results are compared to experimental spectra acquired for real samples analyzed using 3 MeV incident protons delivered by an ion tandem accelerator. Data acquisition was performed using a Si(Li) detector and an aluminum funny filter was added for the three last mentioned samples depending on the configuration to reduce the noise and obtain clear resulting spectrum. The results show a good agreement between simulations and measurements for the different samples.

  1. Impact of a product-specific reference standard for the measurement of a PEGylated rFVIII activity: the Swiss Multicentre Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, O; Poncet, A; Alberio, L; Asmis, L M; Gähler, A; Graf, L; Nagler, M; Studt, J-D; Tsakiris, D A; Fontana, P

    2017-07-01

    Measuring factor VIII (FVIII) activity can be challenging when it has been modified, such as when FVIII is pegylated to increase its circulating half-life. Use of a product-specific reference standard may help avoid this issue. Evaluate the impact of using a product-specific reference standard for measuring the FVIII activity of BAX 855 - a pegylated FVIII - in eight of Switzerland's main laboratories. Factor VIII-deficient plasma, spiked with five different concentrations of BAX 855, plus a control FVIII sample, was sent to the participating laboratories. They measured FVIII activity by using either with a one-stage (OSA) or the chromogenic assay (CA) against their local or a product-specific reference standard. When using a local reference standard, there was an overestimation of BAX 855 activity compared to the target concentrations, both with the OSA and CA. The use of a product-specific reference standard reduced this effect: mean recovery ranged from 127.7% to 213.5% using the OSA with local reference standards, compared to 110% to 183.8% with a product-specific reference standard, and from 146.3% to 182.4% using the CA with local reference standards compared to 72.7% to 103.7% with a product-specific reference standard. In this in vitro study, the type of reference standard had a major impact on the measurement of BAX 855 activity. Evaluation was more accurate and precise when using a product-specific reference standard. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Diagnostic performance of body mass index using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standards for body fat percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Lull; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Kyung Mi; Noh, Hye Mi; Park, Yong Soon

    2015-02-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and health risks differ between Asian and European populations. BMI is commonly used to diagnose obesity; however, its accuracy in detecting adiposity in Koreans is unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the accuracy of BMI in determining BF%-defined obesity in 6,017 subjects (age 20-69 yr, 43.6% men) from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We assessed the diagnostic performance of BMI using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standard for BF%-defined obesity by sex and age and identified the optimal BMI cut-off for BF%-defined obesity using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. BMI-defined obesity (≥25 kg/m(2)) was observed in 38.7% of men and 28.1% of women, with a high specificity (89%, men; 84%, women) but poor sensitivity (56%, men; 72% women) for BF%-defined obesity (25.2%, men; 31.1%, women). The optimal BMI cut-off (24.2 kg/m(2)) had 78% sensitivity and 71% specificity. BMI demonstrated limited diagnostic accuracy for adiposity in Korea. There was a -1.3 kg/m(2) difference in optimal BMI cut-offs between Korea and America, smaller than the 5-unit difference between the Western Pacific Regional Office and global World Health Organization obesity criteria.

  3. Analytical expressions for the transfer matrix to standardize scalp potentials to infinity reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuraisingham, Ranjit Arulnayagam

    2011-11-01

    A procedure based on the multiple expansion of the brain electrical generator is used here to derive analytical expressions for the transfer matrix necessary to obtain potentials referenced to infinity. Its features include: avoidance of computations that involve a large number of discrete dipole sources; faster evaluation compared to the use of the dipole layer; and a transparency showing the parameters that constitute the transfer matrix. The paper also proposes the construction of the standardization matrix without the use of the general inverse of a non-symmetrical matrix.

  4. From optimal to practical safety standards for dike-ring areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijgenraam, C J J

    2007-01-01

    After the flood disaster in 1953 in the southwestern part of the Netherlands, Van Dantzig tried to solve the economic decision problem concerning the optimal height of dikes. His solution has a fixed probability of flooding after each investment. However, when there is economic growth, not the probability of flooding but the expected yearly loss by flooding is the key variable in the real optimal safety strategy. Under some conditions, it is optimal to keep this expected loss within a constant interval. Therefore, when the potential damage increases by economic growth, the flooding probability has to decline in the course of time in order to keep the expected loss between the fixed boundaries. The purpose of the paper is to show the implications of the optimal solution in case there are differences between costs and benefits among dike-ring areas. Further, the paper focuses on the translation of the theoretical results into new legal standards that can work well in practice.

  5. Simultaneous determination of multiple sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products with one single reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Jing; An, Yue-Wei; Hu, Guang; Yin, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2013-02-06

    Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs) has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo), isozedoarondiol (Isoz), aerugidiol (Aeru), (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox), curcumenone (Curc), neocurdione (Neoc), germacrone (Germ) and furanodiene (Fura). Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131-1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin Herbal Medicines and Related Products with One Single Reference Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo, isozedoarondiol (Isoz, aerugidiol (Aeru, (4S,5S-(+-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox, curcumenone (Curc, neocurdione (Neoc, germacrone (Germ and furanodiene (Fura. Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131–1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S-(+-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yang; Jun-Fang Jia; Rui Wang; Fang Long; Ping Li; Hui-Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) using single reference standard. Methods:The four components including emodin-8-O-β-D-(EMG), physcion-8-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin and physcion were separated on an ODS C18 column within 13 min and detected at 280 nm. Emodin was selected as the reference standard, and the response factor for each analyte with respect to emodin were calculated. Robustness were also tested including different columns, equipments, temperatures, detection wavelengths, and other chromatographic conditions which might influence stability of response factors. Results: The method was validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9995), LOQs (0.820–3.05 ng/mL), LODs (0.180–0.920 ng/mL), precision, accuracy (95.8–103.6%, RSD Conclusion:This work provided a single standard to determine multi-components method for quantitation of four anthraquinones in PMR, which could be applied in the quality control of this herbal drug.

  8. Optimized Flow Sheet for a Reference Commercial-Scale Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O' Brien; E. A. Harvego; J. S. Herring

    2007-11-01

    This report presents results from the development and optimization of a reference commercialscale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540° C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.176 × 10 6 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 49.07% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.45 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. The information presented in this report is intended to establish an optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant so that parameters can be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

  9. Application of the light-shift effect to laser frequency stabilization with reference to a microwave frequency standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arditi, M. (Univ. of Paris, Orsay, France); Picque, J.L.

    1975-10-01

    A new method allowing laser frequency stabilization with reference to a microwave oscillator, independently of the laser intensity, is described. The method makes use of the dependence of the ground-state HF transition frequency on the optical radiation frequency in alkali atoms irradiated by quasi-resonant light. Preliminary experimental investigations are reported in the case of a cw CaAs diode laser tuned to the D2 absorption line in a cesium gas cell. The absolute laser frequency exhibited variations of 1.4 MHz rms around an average value determined to within 2 parts in 100 billions for a period of 5 min. The possibility of defining a cesium beam, reference wavelength connected with the time standard is discussed.

  10. A non-standard optimal control problem arising in an economics application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Zinober

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T. This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T yields a necessary boundary condition p(T = 0, where p(t is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T, the new necessary condition is that y(T should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T. We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP. The minimising free value y(T is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP discrete-time results are also presented.

  11. Concurrent determination of 237Np and Pu isotopes using ICP-MS: analysis of NIST environmental matrix standard reference materials 4357, 1646a, and 2702.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Brent S; Hanson, Susan K; Miller, Jeffrey L; Oldham, Warren J

    2015-04-01

    An optimized method was developed to analyze environmental soil and sediment samples for (237)Np, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu by ICP-MS using a (242)Pu isotope dilution standard. The high yield, short time frame required for analysis, and the commercial availability of the (242)Pu tracer are significant advantages of the method. Control experiments designed to assess method uncertainty, including variation in inter-element fractionation that occurs during the purification protocol, suggest that the overall precision for measurements of (237)Np is typically on the order of ± 5%. Measurements of the (237)Np concentration in a Peruvian Soil blank (NIST SRM 4355) spiked with a known concentration of (237)Np tracer confirmed the accuracy of the method, agreeing well with the expected value. The method has been used to determine neptunium and plutonium concentrations in several environmental matrix standard reference materials available from NIST: SRM 4357 (Radioactivity Standard), SRM 1646a (Estuarine Sediment) and SRM 2702 (Inorganics in Marine Sediment).

  12. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist--developing a reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth A; Rangarajan, Sriram S; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Langford, J Scott; Sur, Roger L

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave lithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source.

  13. Occupational Hazard: Radiation Exposure for the Urologist – Developing a Reference Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth A. Cohen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and Methods We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results The total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE, 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE, and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE. Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs, 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs, 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave lithotripsies (SWLs, 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs, 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2, LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2, or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2. Conclusions Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem. Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source.

  14. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist: developing a reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Rangarajan, Sriram S.; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Langford, J. Scott; Sur, Roger L., E-mail: rlsur@ucsd.edu [Department of Surgery and Division of Urology, U C San Diego Health Science System, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Introduction: to date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and methods: We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: the total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave ithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions: Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source. (author)

  15. [Personalizing the reference level: gold standard to evaluate the quality of service perceived].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Rincón, I; Reyes-Pérez, M; Martínez-Lozano, M E

    2014-01-01

    To know the cutoff point at which in-house Nuclear Medicine Department (MND) customers consider that the quality of service is good (personalized cutoff). We conducted a survey of the professionals who had requested at least 5 tests to the Nuclear Medicine Department. A total of 71 doctors responded (response rate: 30%). A question was added to the questionnaire for the user to establish a cutoff point for which they would consider the quality of service as good. The quality non-conformities, areas of improvement and strong points of the six questions measuring the quality of service (Likert scale 0 to 10) were compared with two different thresholds: personalized cutoff and one proposed by the service itself a priori. Test statistics: binomial and Student's t-test for paired data. A cutoff value of 7 was proposed by the service as a reference while 68.1% of respondents suggested a cutoff above 7 points (mean 7.9 points). The 6 elements of perceived quality were considered strong points with the cutoff proposed by the MND, while there were 3 detected with the personalized threshold. Thirteen percent of the answers were nonconformities with the service cutoff versus 19.2% with the personalized one, the differences being statistically significant (difference 95% CI 6.44%:0,83-12.06). The final image of the perceived quality of an in-house customer is different when using the cutoff established by the Department versus the personalized cutoff given by the respondent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of cyanocobalamin in multivitamin tablets and their Standard Reference Material 3280 by HPLC with visible detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Teruki; Takebayashi, Jun; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Ozawa, Chihiro; Sano, Akira; Hirota, Takashi; Endoh, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    As a part of the development of an alternative to microbiological assay for vitamin B12, we performed a quantitative analysis of cyanocobalamin (CN-cbl) in a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 3280) by HPLC. Using this method, the observed value (4.64 microg/g) of CN-cbl in SRM 3280 was found to be in good agreement with the certified value (4.80 microg/g). The accuracy was over 95%, with a corresponding measurement precision value of 5%. To evaluate the applicability of the method on commercial multivitamin tablets, the method was applied to a variety of these samples. The present method has a good accuracy and precision to evaluate CN-cbl with respect to all of the examined tablets.

  17. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z Q J; Lowhorn, N D; Wong-Ng, W; Zhang, W; Thomas, E L; Otani, M; Green, M L; Tran, T N; Caylor, C; Dilley, N R; Downey, A; Edwards, B; Elsner, N; Ghamaty, S; Hogan, T; Jie, Q; Li, Q; Martin, J; Nolas, G; Obara, H; Sharp, J; Venkatasubramanian, R; Willigan, R; Yang, J; Tritt, T

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials-undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  18. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu, Z. Q. J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™ for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy. Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  19. Decision on optimal building energy efficiency standard in China. The case for Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Giraud, Pierre-Noel [CERNA-Mines Paris Tech, 60 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75006 Paris (France); Colombier, Michel [Institute du developpement durable et des relations internationales, 13 Rue de L' Universite, 75007 Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates the optimal choice of building energy efficiency (BEE) standard in the context of centralised urban district heating system in northern China. By employing a techno-economic analysis approach, we demonstrate that the current BEE standard implemented in the Chinese cities should be tightened further in order to achieve a socially optimal level. Without considering the externality costs associated with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, current BEE standards need to be upgraded to the equivalent level of French RT2005 standard coupled with a properly designed district coal-fired Combined Heat and Power (CHP). In contrast, the equivalent efficiency standard of Swedish building code is preferably to be implemented in the case of explicit carbon emission restriction as long as the marginal cost of carbon emission (carbon price) is sufficiently high. The fuel-switching policy (from coal to natural gas) in the urban district heating system would result in significant increase in overall costs if the BEE upgrade is not taken into account simultaneously. It is also found that BEE improvements in northern Chinese cities are more cost-effective than investing in low-carbon technologies such as wind power or Carbon Capture and storage in the EU and US with regard to CO{sub 2} emissions mitigation. (author)

  20. Decision on optimal building energy efficiency standard in China-The case for Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jun [CERNA-Mines Paris Tech, 60 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75006 Paris (France); Colombier, Michel [Institute du developpement durable et des relations internationales, 13 Rue de L' Universite, 75007 Paris (France)], E-mail: michel.colombier@iddri.org; Giraud, Pierre-Noel [CERNA-Mines Paris Tech, 60 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates the optimal choice of building energy efficiency (BEE) standard in the context of centralised urban district heating system in northern China. By employing a techno-economic analysis approach, we demonstrate that the current BEE standard implemented in the Chinese cities should be tightened further in order to achieve a socially optimal level. Without considering the externality costs associated with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, current BEE standards need to be upgraded to the equivalent level of French RT2005 standard coupled with a properly designed district coal-fired Combined Heat and Power (CHP). In contrast, the equivalent efficiency standard of Swedish building code is preferably to be implemented in the case of explicit carbon emission restriction as long as the marginal cost of carbon emission (carbon price) is sufficiently high. The fuel-switching policy (from coal to natural gas) in the urban district heating system would result in significant increase in overall costs if the BEE upgrade is not taken into account simultaneously. It is also found that BEE improvements in northern Chinese cities are more cost-effective than investing in low-carbon technologies such as wind power or Carbon Capture and storage in the EU and US with regard to CO{sub 2} emissions mitigation.

  1. Solving non-standard packing problems by global optimization and heuristics

    CERN Document Server

    Fasano, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    This book results from a long-term research effort aimed at tackling complex non-standard packing issues which arise in space engineering. The main research objective is to optimize cargo loading and arrangement, in compliance with a set of stringent rules. Complicated geometrical aspects are also taken into account, in addition to balancing conditions based on attitude control specifications. Chapter 1 introduces the class of non-standard packing problems studied. Chapter 2 gives a detailed explanation of a general model for the orthogonal packing of tetris-like items in a convex domain. A number of additional conditions are looked at in depth, including the prefixed orientation of subsets of items, the presence of unusable holes, separation planes and structural elements, relative distance bounds as well as static and dynamic balancing requirements. The relative feasibility sub-problem which is a special case that does not have an optimization criterion is discussed in Chapter 3. This setting can be exploit...

  2. Optimization model of truck flow at open-pit mines and standards for feasibility test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Yong Zhao; Qiwei Lu; Wenli Xu

    2004-01-01

    In order to increase production efficiency at open-pit mines, on the basis of linear programming, a practical mathematical model for optimizing truck flow was developed, which improved the traditional fixed manual schedule method. The model has advantages from linear programming and objective programming, makes most handling points working at full capacity and keeps an optimized ratio between trucks and excavators. For ensuring feasibility of the model in practical production, four standards for feasibility test were proposed. The model satisfied all the standards. The application in a large scale open-pit iron mine indicated that the model reduced the number of required trucks by 10% compared with the fixed manual schedule method.

  3. Optimizing read mapping to reference genomes to determine composition and species prevalence in microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Martin

    Full Text Available The Human Microbiome Project (HMP aims to characterize the microbial communities of 18 body sites from healthy individuals. To accomplish this, the HMP generated two types of shotgun data: reference shotgun sequences isolated from different anatomical sites on the human body and shotgun metagenomic sequences from the microbial communities of each site. The alignment strategy for characterizing these metagenomic communities using available reference sequence is important to the success of HMP data analysis. Six next-generation aligners were used to align a community of known composition against a database comprising reference organisms known to be present in that community. All aligners report nearly complete genome coverage (>97% for strains with over 6X depth of coverage, however they differ in speed, memory requirement and ease of use issues such as database size limitations and supported mapping strategies. The selected aligner was tested across a range of parameters to maximize sensitivity while maintaining a low false positive rate. We found that constraining alignment length had more impact on sensitivity than does constraining similarity in all cases tested. However, when reference species were replaced with phylogenetic neighbors, similarity begins to play a larger role in detection. We also show that choosing the top hit randomly when multiple, equally strong mappings are available increases overall sensitivity at the expense of taxonomic resolution. The results of this study identified a strategy that was used to map over 3 tera-bases of microbial sequence against a database of more than 5,000 reference genomes in just over a month.

  4. Determination of selected oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) in diesel and air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocun, Margarete S; Schantz, Michele M

    2013-06-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) have recently received much attention in discussions regarding the negative impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology provides several environmental matrix standard reference materials (SRMs) with certified and reference values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of oxygenated PAHs are determined in three air PM SRMs (1649b, 1648a, and 2786) and three diesel PM SRMs (1650b, 2975, and 1975) using two independent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Concentrations of oxy-PAHs were at the milligrams per kilogram level with higher overall concentrations in diesel PM (up to 50 mg/kg for 9,10-anthraquinone). One of the highest oxy-PAH concentrations (up to 5 mg/kg) measured in the air particulate SRMs was for 7,12-benz[a]anthracenquinone. These results suggest that oxygenated PAHs should not be neglected in the analysis of PM as their concentrations can be as high as those of some PAHs and are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for nitro-PAHs.

  5. Standard practice for fabrication and control of metal, other than aluminum, reference blocks used in ultrasonic testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for fabrication and control of metal alloy reference blocks used in ultrasonic examination that have a flat-surface sound entry, are cylindrical in shape, and contain flat-bottom holes (FBH) which may be used for checking the performance of ultrasonic examination instrumentation and search units and for standardization and control of ultrasonic examination of metal alloy products. The reference blocks described are suitable for use with either the direct-contact method or immersion pulse-echo ultrasonic methods. Note 1—Use of flat-surface reference blocks may not be suitable for cylindrical materials (3) . 1.2 While this procedure is basically designed for the fabrication and control of carbon and alloy steel blocks to be used in conjunction with the examination of these materials, the fabrication and control procedures may also be suitable for the preparation of blocks for other types of materials such as nickel-base alloys, certain types of aluminum alloys, and so fo...

  6. Design Novel Model Reference Artificial Intelligence Based Methodology to Optimized Fuel Ratio in IC Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FarzinPiltan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, model reference fuzzy based control is presented as robust controls for IC engine. The objective of the study is to design controls for IC engines without the knowledge of the boundary of uncertainties and dynamic information by using fuzzy model reference PD plus mass of air while improve the robustness of the PD plus mass of air control. A PD plus mass of air provides for eliminate the mass of air and ultimate accuracy in the presence of the bounded disturbance/uncertainties, although this methods also causes some oscillation. The fuzzy PD plus mass of air is proposed as a solution to the problems crated by unstability. This method has a good performance in presence of uncertainty.

  7. Extension of an Object-Oriented Optimization Tool: User's Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson S.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center has developed a cost-effective and flexible object-oriented optimization (O (sup 3)) tool that leverages existing tools and practices and allows easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. This object-oriented framework can integrate the analysis codes for multiple disciplines, as opposed to relying on one code to perform analysis for all disciplines. Optimization can thus take place within each discipline module, or in a loop between the O (sup 3) tool and the discipline modules, or both. Six different sample mathematical problems are presented to demonstrate the performance of the O (sup 3) tool. Instructions for preparing input data for the O (sup 3) tool are detailed in this user's manual.

  8. Optimal thyrotropin level: normal ranges and reference intervals are not equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Richard A; Wartofsky, Leonard; Feld, Stanley

    2005-09-01

    This paper marshals arguments in support of a narrower, optimal or true normal range for thyrotropin (TSH) of 0.4 to 2.5 mIU/L, based on clinical results and recent information on the relatively stable and narrow range of values in patients without thyroid disease. The terminology used for TSH results is clarified in an attempt to help physicians interpret, explain, and respond to TSH test results for their patients.

  9. Determining optimal clothing ensembles based on weather forecasts, with particular reference to outdoor winter military activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Pavlinic, Daniela Z; Crisci, Alfonso; Capecchi, Valerio; Orlandini, Simone; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2011-07-01

    Military and civil defense personnel are often involved in complex activities in a variety of outdoor environments. The choice of appropriate clothing ensembles represents an important strategy to establish the success of a military mission. The main aim of this study was to compare the known clothing insulation of the garment ensembles worn by soldiers during two winter outdoor field trials (hike and guard duty) with the estimated optimal clothing thermal insulations recommended to maintain thermoneutrality, assessed by using two different biometeorological procedures. The overall aim was to assess the applicability of such biometeorological procedures to weather forecast systems, thereby developing a comprehensive biometeorological tool for military operational forecast purposes. Military trials were carried out during winter 2006 in Pokljuka (Slovenia) by Slovene Armed Forces personnel. Gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate and environmental parameters were measured with portable data acquisition systems. The thermal characteristics of the clothing ensembles worn by the soldiers, namely thermal resistance, were determined with a sweating thermal manikin. Results showed that the clothing ensemble worn by the military was appropriate during guard duty but generally inappropriate during the hike. A general under-estimation of the biometeorological forecast model in predicting the optimal clothing insulation value was observed and an additional post-processing calibration might further improve forecast accuracy. This study represents the first step in the development of a comprehensive personalized biometeorological forecast system aimed at improving recommendations regarding the optimal thermal insulation of military garment ensembles for winter activities.

  10. Determination of non-certified levoglucosan, sugar polyols and ergosterol in NIST Standard Reference Material 1649a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomata, Donatella; Di Filippo, Patrizia; Riccardi, Carmela; Buiarelli, Francesca; Gallo, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Organic component of airborne particulate matter originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources whose contributions can be identified through the analysis of chemical markers. The validation of analytical methods for analysis of compounds used as chemical markers is of great importance especially if they must be determined in rather complex matrices. Currently, standard reference materials (SRM) with certified values for all those analytes are not available. In this paper, we report a method for the simultaneous determination of levoglucosan and xylitol as tracers for biomass burning emissions, and arabitol, mannitol and ergosterol as biomarkers for airborne fungi in SRM 1649a, by GC/MS. Their quantitative analysis in SRM 1649a was carried out using both internal standard calibration curves and standard addition method. A matrix effect was observed for all analytes, minor for levoglucosan and major for polyols and ergosterol. The results related to levoglucosan around 160 μg g-1 agreed with those reported by other authors, while no comparison was possible for xylitol (120 μg g-1), arabitol (15 μg g-1), mannitol (18 μg g-1), and ergosterol (0.5 μg g-1). The analytical method used for SRM 1649a was also applied to PM10 samples collected in Rome during four seasonal sampling campaigns. The ratios between annual analyte concentrations in PM10 samples and in SRM 1649a were of the same order of magnitude although particulate matter samples analyzed were collected in two different sites and periods.

  11. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2004-06-02

    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384.

  12. New gamma-ray buildup factor data for point kernel calculations: ANS-6. 4. 3 standard reference data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.

    1988-09-01

    An American Nuclear Society Standards Committee Working Group, identified as ANS-6.4.3, has developed a set of evaluated gamma-ray isotropic point-source buildup factors and attenuation coefficients for a standard reference data base. The largely unpublished set of buildup factors calculated with the moments method has been evaluated by recalculating key values with Monte Carlo, integral transport, and discrete ordinates methods. Additional buildup factor data were obtained from PALLAS code results. Attention has been given to frequently-neglected processes such as bremsstrahlung and the effect of introducing a tissue phantom behind the shield. The proposed draft standard, provided as an appendix, contains data for a source energy range from 15 keV to 15 MeV and for 23 elements and 3 mixtures (water, air, and concrete). The buildup factor data are also represented as coefficients for the G-P fitting function. Tables giving correction factors for multiple scattering in tissue are also provided. 27 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. NEURO-SYSTEM OF AIMING AND STABILIZING WITH A REGULATOR ON THE BASIS OF STANDARD MODEL MODEL REFERENCE CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the synthesis of neural network aiming and stabilization system for the special equipment of moving objects with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model and performance comparison of the neural network system with the neural network predictive control. Build a block diagram of the neural network aiming and stabilization system, based on the subject control principle with PD-regulator in the position loop and with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model in the in the velocity loop. The neuro-controller on the basis of standard model Model Reference Controller is synthesized in the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox and system simulation is performed. The studies show that the transient state variables of the system are oscillatory. Therefore, the neuro-controller with the prediction NN Predictive Controller should be used for aiming and stabilizing system to provide high dynamic characteristics achieved at the cost of higher complexity and computational cost.

  14. Precision of the reportable result. Simultaneous optimisation of number of preparations and injections for sample and reference standard in quantitative liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, J; Agut, C

    2014-08-01

    In pharmaceutical analysis, the precision of the reportable result, i.e. the result which is to be compared to the specification limit, is relevant for the evaluation of the suitability of the analytical procedure. But also for other applications, the precision of the result is important and an optimisation often of interest. However, increasing the number of determinations (e.g. injections or preparations) will reduce only the variability (or standard error) of the corresponding precision level. Therefore, the knowledge of the individual variance contributions, obtained from reliable precision studies is important to determine on a scientific basis which format of the (reportable) result, i.e. the number of injections and sample preparations (or even series), should be used. In case of relative analytical procedures such as LC, the calibration model and format, i.e. the number of determinations of the reference standard is one of the factors (besides instrument, operator, reagents, etc.) affecting the between-series variance contribution at intermediate precision/reproducibility level. Consequently, the precision of the reportable result is only valid for the calibration format used to obtain intermediate precision/reproducibility. Instead of repeating the whole precision study to optimize the calibration format, the present paper describes a statistical approach using variability results from the original precision study.

  15. Optimal consistency in microRNA expression analysis using reference-gene-based normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Gardiner, Erin J; Cairns, Murray J

    2015-05-01

    Normalization of high-throughput molecular expression profiles secures differential expression analysis between samples of different phenotypes or biological conditions, and facilitates comparison between experimental batches. While the same general principles apply to microRNA (miRNA) normalization, there is mounting evidence that global shifts in their expression patterns occur in specific circumstances, which pose a challenge for normalizing miRNA expression data. As an alternative to global normalization, which has the propensity to flatten large trends, normalization against constitutively expressed reference genes presents an advantage through their relative independence. Here we investigated the performance of reference-gene-based (RGB) normalization for differential miRNA expression analysis of microarray expression data, and compared the results with other normalization methods, including: quantile, variance stabilization, robust spline, simple scaling, rank invariant, and Loess regression. The comparative analyses were executed using miRNA expression in tissue samples derived from subjects with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We proposed a consistency criterion for evaluating methods by examining the overlapping of differentially expressed miRNAs detected using different partitions of the whole data. Based on this criterion, we found that RGB normalization generally outperformed global normalization methods. Thus we recommend the application of RGB normalization for miRNA expression data sets, and believe that this will yield a more consistent and useful readout of differentially expressed miRNAs, particularly in biological conditions characterized by large shifts in miRNA expression.

  16. Towards an optimal reference region in single-photon emission tomography difference images in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussion, N.; Ryvlin, P.; Isnard, J.; Mauguiere, F. [Neurologie Fonctionnelle et Epilepsie, Hopital Neurologique, Lyon (France); Houzard, C. [Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Neuro-Cardiologique, Lyon (France); Cinotti, L. [Neurologie Fonctionnelle et Epilepsie, Hopital Neurologique, Lyon (France); Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Neuro-Cardiologique, Lyon (France); CERMEP, Hopital Neuro-Cardiologique, Lyon (France)

    2000-02-01

    There is marked variability in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) between the ictal and interictal state in epilepsy, and it would therefore be desirable to increase the reliability of ictal/interictal single-photon emission tomography (SPET) difference images. We aimed to improve the step of quantitative normalization of images by finding the best possible reference region. In 16 patients (11 with lateralization of the epileptogenic focus, five with bilateral foci) both ictal and inter-ictal SPET scans were performed after injection of technetium-99m labelled tracer. Then, each region among a selected set (brain+cerebellum, brain, cerebellum, hemispheres, and for patients with an expected lateralization, cortical lobe containing the focus and symmetrical contralateral lobe) was investigated by comparison of the regional ictal/inter-ictal variance in counts. Among patients with a suspected lateralized focus, the distribution of CBF in the contralateral cortical lobe appeared to vary less between ictal and inter-ictal states than in other investigated areas. As a consequence, this latter region constitutes the best choice as a reference region. For patients with bilateral foci, the cerebellum appears to be a good compromise even though it presents with significant CBF changes. (orig.)

  17. Development and characterization of a human antibody reference panel against erythropoietin suitable for the standardization of ESA immunogenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Daniel T; Barger, Troy E; King, Chadwick; Grauer, Stephanie; Haldankar, Raj; Hsu, Eric; Wu, Michelle Min; Shiwalkar, Mukta; Sanchez, Sergio; Kuck, Andrew; Civoli, Francesca; Sun, Jilin; Swanson, Steven J

    2012-08-31

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) has been used therapeutically for more than two decades in the treatment of anemia. Although EPO is generally well tolerated, in rare cases, patients have developed anti-EPO antibodies that can negatively impact safety and efficacy. Therefore, the detection of antibodies against EPO is a regulatory requirement during clinical development and post-approval. Although it is a rare phenomenon, antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a serious complication than can result from antibodies that develop and neutralize EPO as well as endogenous erythropoietin. Currently, there are no universally accepted analytical methods to detect the full repertoire of binding and neutralizing anti-EPO antibodies. A number of different methods that differ in terms of antibodies detected and assay sensitivities are used by different manufacturers. There is also a lack of antibody reference reagents, and therefore no consistent basis for detecting and measuring anti-EPO antibodies. Reference reagents, with established ranges, are essential to monitor the safety and efficacy of all erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) structurally related to human erythropoietin. This is the first report of the development and characterization of a panel of fully human antibodies against EPO suitable as reference reagents. The characteristics of antibodies within the panel were selected based on the prevalence of non-neutralizing IgG and IgM antibodies in non-PRCA patients and neutralizing IgG antibodies, including IgG1 and IgG4, in antibody-mediated PRCA subjects. The reference panel includes antibodies of high- and low-affinity with binding specificity to neutralizing and non-neutralizing erythropoietin epitopes. The subclass of human antibodies in this reference panel includes an IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4, as well as an IgM isotype. This antibody panel could help select appropriate immunogenicity assays, guide validation, and monitor assay performance

  18. Multi-product newsvendor problem with hybrid demand and its applications to ordering pharmaceutical reference standard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Qin, Zhongfeng

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty is inherent in the newsvendor problem. Most of the existing literature is devoted to characterizing the uncertainty either by randomness or by fuzziness. However, in many cases, randomness and fuzziness simultaneously appear in the same problem. Motivated by this observation, we investigate the multi-product newsvendor problem by considering the demands as hybrid variables which are proposed to describe quantities with double uncertainties. According to the expected value criterion, we formulate an expected profit maximization model and convert it to a deterministic form when the chance distributions are given. We discuss two special cases of hybrid variable demands and give their chance distributions. Then we design hybrid simulation to estimate the chance distribution and use genetic algorithm to solve the proposed models. Finally, we proceed to present numerical examples of purchasing pharmaceutical reference standard materials to illustrate the applicability of our methodology and the effectiveness of genetic algorithm.

  19. High-accuracy reference standards for two-photon absorption in the 680-1050 nm wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Reguardati, Sophie; Pahapill, Juri; Mikhailov, Alexander; Stepanenko, Yuriy; Rebane, Aleksander

    2016-04-18

    Degenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) of a series of organic fluorophores is measured using femtosecond fluorescence excitation method in the wavelength range, λ2PA = 680-1050 nm, and ~100 MHz pulse repetition rate. The function of relative 2PA spectral shape is obtained with estimated accuracy 5%, and the absolute 2PA cross section is measured at selected wavelengths with the accuracy 8%. Significant improvement of the accuracy is achieved by means of rigorous evaluation of the quadratic dependence of the fluorescence signal on the incident photon flux in the whole wavelength range, by comparing results obtained from two independent experiments, as well as due to meticulous evaluation of critical experimental parameters, including the excitation spatial- and temporal pulse shape, laser power and sample geometry. Application of the reference standards in nonlinear transmittance measurements is discussed.

  20. Optimizing electronic standard cell libraries for variability tolerance through the nano-CMOS grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James Alfred; Sinnott, Richard; Stewart, Gordon; Hilder, James A; Tyrrell, Andy M

    2010-08-28

    The project Meeting the Design Challenges of nano-CMOS Electronics (http://www.nanocmos.ac.uk) was funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council to tackle the challenges facing the electronics industry caused by the decreasing scale of transistor devices, and the inherent variability that this exposes in devices and in the circuits and systems in which they are used. The project has developed a grid-based solution that supports the electronics design process, incorporating usage of large-scale high-performance computing (HPC) resources, data and metadata management and support for fine-grained security to protect commercially sensitive datasets. In this paper, we illustrate how the nano-CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) grid has been applied to optimize transistor dimensions within a standard cell library. The goal is to extract high-speed and low-power circuits which are more tolerant of the random fluctuations that will be prevalent in future technology nodes. Using statistically enhanced circuit simulation models based on three-dimensional atomistic device simulations, a genetic algorithm is presented that optimizes the device widths within a circuit using a multi-objective fitness function exploiting the nano-CMOS grid. The results show that the impact of threshold voltage variation can be reduced by optimizing transistor widths, and indicate that a similar method could be extended to the optimization of larger circuits.

  1. Evaluation of new geological reference materials for uranium-series measurements: Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) and macusanite obsidian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, J S; Murrell, M T; Goldstein, S J; Nunn, A J; Amato, R S; Hinrichs, K A

    2013-10-15

    Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques present numerous opportunities for the analytical community, provided accurately characterized reference materials are available. Here, we present multicollector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data obtained by isotope dilution for a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite, and a soil. Uranium concentrations for these glasses range from ∼2 to 14 μg g(-1), Th/U weight ratios range from ∼4 to 6, (234)U/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.93 to 1.02, and (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.98 to 1.12. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data are also presented for a rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru (macusanite). This glass can also be used as a rhyolitic reference material, has a very low Th/U weight ratio (around 0.077), and is approximately in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th secular equilibrium. The U-Th concentration data agree with but are significantly more precise than those previously measured. U-Th concentration and isotopic data agree within estimated errors for the two measurement techniques, providing validation of the two methods. The large (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th disequilibria for some of the glasses, along with the wide range in their chemical compositions and Th/U ratios should provide useful reference points for the U-series analytical community.

  2. The Optimal Design Method and Standardized Mathematical Model of Tooth Profile Modification of Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a tooth profile modification method of spur gear. After establishing a standardized mathematical model for optimized tooth profile and simulating meshing process with ANSYS finite element analysis, we obtained 625 groups of gear models with different modification parameters. The group with minimum transmission errors owns the optimal parameters. Genetic algorithm was adopted in the entire process for the purpose of reducing the variation of transmission errors in meshing process. The arc and parabolic modification were doing the same processing. After comparing the transmission errors fluctuation produced by the meshing process of gear of nonmodification with arc modification and parabolic modification, we found that the best modification effects of arc modification and parabolic modification were both reduced by 90%. The modification method makes the gear drive process more stable and efficient, and it is also promising in general application for gear drive.

  3. Localization of WSN using Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm with precise references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janapati, Ravi Chander; Balaswamy, Ch.; Soundararajan, K.

    2016-08-01

    Localization is the key research area in Wireless Sensor Networks. Finding the exact position of the node is known as localization. Different algorithms have been proposed. Here we consider a cooperative localization algorithm with censoring schemes using Crammer Rao Bound (CRB). This censoring scheme can improve the positioning accuracy and reduces computation complexity, traffic and latency. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population based search algorithm based on the swarm intelligence like social behavior of birds, bees or a school of fishes. To improve the algorithm efficiency and localization precision, this paper presents an objective function based on the normal distribution of ranging error and a method of obtaining the search space of particles. In this paper Distributed localization algorithm PSO with CRB is proposed. Proposed method shows better results in terms of position accuracy, latency and complexity.

  4. Determination of reference intervals and comparison of venous blood gas parameters using standard and non-standard collection methods in 24 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Karin; Kutter, Annette Pn; Schefer, Rahel Jud; Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Sigrist, Nadja

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine in-house reference intervals (RIs) for venous blood analysis with the RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas analyser using blood gas syringes (BGSs) and to determine whether immediate analysis of venous blood collected into lithium heparin (LH) tubes can replace anaerobic blood sampling into BGSs. Methods Venous blood was collected from 24 healthy cats and directly transferred into a BGS and an LH tube. The BGS was immediately analysed on the RAPIDPoint 500 followed by the LH tube. The BGSs and LH tubes were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, Bland-Altman and Passing-Bablok analysis. To assess clinical relevance, bias or percentage bias between BGSs and LH tubes was compared with the allowable total error (TEa) recommended for the respective parameter. Results Based on the values obtained from the BGSs, RIs were calculated for the evaluated parameters, including blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and lactate. Values derived from LH tubes showed no significant difference for standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate, while pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, actual bicarbonate, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap were significantly different to the samples collected in BGSs ( P <0.05). Furthermore, pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap exceeded the recommended TEa. Conclusions and relevance Assessment of actual and standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate can be made based on blood collected in LH tubes and analysed within 5 mins. For pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, anion gap and ionised calcium the clinically relevant alterations have to be considered if analysed in LH

  5. UAE population reference standard charts for body mass index and skinfold thickness, at ages 0-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M; Nagelkerke, Nico; Moussa, Mohamed A

    2011-11-01

    To determine a range of anthropometric measurements including skinfold thickness measurements in four different areas of the body, to construct population growth charts for body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, and to compare these with growth charts from other countries. One aim was also to validate body fat charts derived from skinfold thickness. A national cross-sectional growth survey of children, 0-18 years old, was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling. The sample size included at least 200 children in each age-sex group. Height, weight, biceps skinfold, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, suprailiac skinfold, and mid-upper-arm circumference were measured in each child. We describe correlation, standard deviation scores relative to the other standards, and calculation of body density in the United Arab Emirates population. We determined whether any of the above is a good indicator of fatness in children. BMI, upper-arm circumference, sum of four skinfolds, and percentage body fat charts were constructed using the LMS method of smoothing. BMI was very significantly correlated with sum of skinfold thicknesses, and mid-upper-arm circumference. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in ages 13-17 years was respectively 9.94% and 15.16% in females and 6.08% and 14.16% in males. Derived body fat charts were found not to be accurate. A national BMI, upper-arm circumference, and sum of four skinfolds chart has been constructed that can be used as a reference standard for the United Arab Emirates. Sum of four skinfold thickness charts can be used as crude determinants of adiposity in children, but derived body fat charts were shown to be inaccurate.

  6. Establishment of a standard reference material (SRM) herbal DNA barcode library of Vitex negundo L. (lagundi) for quality control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivar, Jay Edneil C; Alaba, Joanner Paulus Erik P; Atienza, Jose Francisco M; Tan, Jerick Jeffrey S; Umali, Maximo T; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    The majority of the population in the Philippines relies on herbal products as their primary source for their healthcare needs. After the recognition of Vitex negundo L. (lagundi) as an important and effective alternative medicine for cough, sore throat, asthma and fever by the Philippine Department of Health (DOH), there was an increase in the production of lagundi-based herbal products in the form of teas, capsules and syrups. The efficiency of these products is greatly reliant on the use of authentic plant material, and to this day no standard protocol has been established to authenticate plant materials. DNA barcoding offers a quick and reliable species authentication tool, but its application to plant material has been less successful due to (1) lack of a standard DNA barcoding loci in plants and (2) poor DNA yield from powderised plant products. This study reports the successful application of DNA barcoding in the authentication of five V. negundo herbal products sold in the Philippines. Also, the first standard reference material (SRM) herbal library for the recognition of authentic V. negundo samples was established using 42 gene accessions of ITS, psbA-trnH and matK barcoding loci. Authentication of the herbal products utilised the SRM following the BLASTn and maximum-likelihood (ML) tree construction criterion. Barcode sequences were retrieved for ITS and psbA-trnH of all products tested and the results of the study revealed that only one out of five herbal products satisfied both BLASTn and ML criterion and was considered to contain authentic V. negundo. The results prompt the urgent need to utilise DNA barcoding in authenticating herbal products available in the Philippine market. Authentication of these products will secure consumer health by preventing the negative effects of adulteration, substitution and contamination.

  7. Is the Cerebellum the Optimal Reference Region for Intensity Normalization of Perfusion MR Studies in Early Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan Adán; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Olazarán, Javier; Mateos-Pérez, José María; Martino, María Elena; Desco, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum is the region most commonly used as a reference when normalizing the intensity of perfusion images acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies. In addition, the cerebellum provides unbiased estimations with nuclear medicine techniques. However, no reports confirm the cerebellum as an optimal reference region in MRI studies or evaluate the consequences of using different normalization regions. In this study, we address the effect of using the cerebellum, whole-brain white matter, and whole-brain cortical gray matter in the normalization of cerebral blood flow (CBF) parametric maps by comparing patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with AD and healthy controls. According to our results, normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter enables more sensitive detection of perfusion abnormalities in AD patients and reveals a larger number of affected regions than data normalized by the cerebellum or whole-brain white matter. Therefore, the cerebellum is not the most valid reference region in MRI studies for early stages of AD. After normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter, we found a significant decrease in CBF in both parietal lobes and an increase in CBF in the right medial temporal lobe. We found no differences in perfusion between patients with stable MCI and healthy controls either before or after normalization. PMID:24386081

  8. Is the cerebellum the optimal reference region for intensity normalization of perfusion MR studies in early Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lacalle-Aurioles

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is the region most commonly used as a reference when normalizing the intensity of perfusion images acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in Alzheimer's disease (AD studies. In addition, the cerebellum provides unbiased estimations with nuclear medicine techniques. However, no reports confirm the cerebellum as an optimal reference region in MRI studies or evaluate the consequences of using different normalization regions. In this study, we address the effect of using the cerebellum, whole-brain white matter, and whole-brain cortical gray matter in the normalization of cerebral blood flow (CBF parametric maps by comparing patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI, patients with AD and healthy controls. According to our results, normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter enables more sensitive detection of perfusion abnormalities in AD patients and reveals a larger number of affected regions than data normalized by the cerebellum or whole-brain white matter. Therefore, the cerebellum is not the most valid reference region in MRI studies for early stages of AD. After normalization by whole-brain cortical gray matter, we found a significant decrease in CBF in both parietal lobes and an increase in CBF in the right medial temporal lobe. We found no differences in perfusion between patients with stable MCI and healthy controls either before or after normalization.

  9. Optimizing the HRP-2 In Vitro Malaria Drug Susceptibility Assay Using a Reference Clone to Improve Comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    available soon. Optimizing the HRP-2 in vitro malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum...Optimizing the HRP-2 in vitro malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates 5a...Date: 13 September 2012 14. ABSTRACT Apparent emerging artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia requires development

  10. Optimization of cDNA microarrays procedures using criteria that do not rely on external standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisvag Vidar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The measurement of gene expression using microarray technology is a complicated process in which a large number of factors can be varied. Due to the lack of standard calibration samples such as are used in traditional chemical analysis it may be a problem to evaluate whether changes done to the microarray procedure actually improve the identification of truly differentially expressed genes. The purpose of the present work is to report the optimization of several steps in the microarray process both in laboratory practices and in data processing using criteria that do not rely on external standards. Results We performed a cDNA microarry experiment including RNA from samples with high expected differential gene expression termed "high contrasts" (rat cell lines AR42J and NRK52E compared to self-self hybridization, and optimized a pipeline to maximize the number of genes found to be differentially expressed in the "high contrasts" RNA samples by estimating the false discovery rate (FDR using a null distribution obtained from the self-self experiment. The proposed high-contrast versus self-self method (HCSSM requires only four microarrays per evaluation. The effects of blocking reagent dose, filtering, and background corrections methodologies were investigated. In our experiments a dose of 250 ng LNA (locked nucleic acid dT blocker, no background correction and weight based filtering gave the largest number of differentially expressed genes. The choice of background correction method had a stronger impact on the estimated number of differentially expressed genes than the choice of filtering method. Cross platform microarray (Illumina analysis was used to validate that the increase in the number of differentially expressed genes found by HCSSM was real. Conclusion The results show that HCSSM can be a useful and simple approach to optimize microarray procedures without including external standards. Our optimizing method is highly

  11. On pelvic reference lines and the MR evaluation of genital prolapse: a proposal for standardization using the Pelvic Inclination Correction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart, C; Chen, L; Ashton-Miller, J A; Delancey, J O L

    2013-09-01

    Five midsagittal pelvic reference lines have been employed to quantify prolapse using MRI. However, the lack of standardization makes study results difficult to compare. Using MRI scans from 149 women, we demonstrate how use of existing reference lines can systematically affect measurements in three distinct ways: in oblique line systems, distances measured to the reference line vary with antero-posterior location; soft issue-based reference lines can underestimate organ movement relative to the pelvic bones; and systems defined relative to the MR scanner are affected by intra- and interindividual differences in the pelvic inclination angle at rest and strain. Thus, we propose a standardized approach called the Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS). Based on bony structures and the body axis, the PICS system corrects for variation in pelvic inclination, at rest of straining, and allows for the standardized measurement of organ displacement in the direction of prolapse.

  12. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) as the reference standard for diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of vascular risk in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Smolensky, Michael H; Ayala, Diana E; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    New information has become available since the ISC, AAMCC, and SECAC released their first extensive guidedelines to improve the diagnosis and treatment of adult arterial hypertension. A critical assessment of evidence and a comparison of what international guidelines now propose are the basis for the following statements, which update the recommendations first issued in 2013. Office blood pressure (BP) measurements should no longer be considered to be the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of cardiovascular risk. Relying on office BP, even when supplemented with at-home wake-time self-measurements, to identify high-risk individuals, disregarding circadian BP patterning and asleep BP level, leads to potential misclassification of 50% of all evaluated persons. Accordingly, ambulatory BP monitoring is the recommended reference standard for the diagnosis of true hypertension and accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk in all adults ≥18 yrs of age, regardless of whether office BP is normal or elevated. Asleep systolic BP mean is the most significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events. The sleep-time relative SBP decline adds prognostic value to the statistical model that already includes the asleep systolic BP mean and corrected for relevant confounding variables. Accordingly, the asleep systolic BP mean is the recommended protocol to diagnose hypertension, assess cardiovascular risk, and predict cardiovascular event-free interval. In men, and in the absence of compelling clinical conditions, reference thresholds for diagnosing hypertension are 120/70 mmHg for the asleep systolic/diastolic BP means derived from ambulatory BP monitoring. However, in women, in the absence of complicating co-morbidities, the same thresholds are lower by 10/5 mmHg, i.e., 110/65 mmHg for the asleep means. In high-risk patients, including those diagnosed with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and/or those having experienced past

  13. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  14. Stable oxygen isotopes from theropod dinosaur tooth enamel: interlaboratory comparison of results and analytical interference by reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, William H; Karr, Jonathan D; Cox, Julia E; Barrick, Reese E

    2004-01-01

    Although previous work has demonstrated that biological phosphates ('biophosphates') record significant changes in delta18O associated with variations in local climate and seasonality, the repeatability of these analyses between laboratories has not previously been tested. We serially sampled enamel on four Cretaceous dinosaur teeth for phosphate delta18O analysis at up to three different facilities. With the exception of one set of unprocessed enamel samples, the material supplied to each laboratory was chemically processed to silver phosphate. Each laboratory analyzed sample sets by pyrolysis (thermochemical decomposition) in a ThermoFinnigan TC/EA attached to a ThermoFinnigan Delta Plus mass spectrometer. Significant interference between phosphate samples and the NIST reference material 8557 barium sulfate (NBS 127) distorts some of the results. Samples analyzed immediately following NBS 127 may be depleted by 6 per thousand isotopically and in instrument peak amplitude response by 80%. Substantial interference can persist over the subsequent 20 silver phosphate samples, and can influence the instrument peak amplitude response from some organic standards. Experiments using reagent-grade silver phosphate link these effects to divalent cations, particularly Ca2+ and Ba2+, which linger in the reactor and scavenge oxygen evolved from pyrolysis of subsequent samples. Unprocessed enamel includes 40 wt% calcium and self-scavenges oxygen, disrupting the isotopic measurements for the first half of a set and depleting subsequent organic standards by up to 9 per thousand. In sets without NBS 127 or calcium, such interference did not occur and an interlaboratory comparison of results from enamel shows reproducible, significantly correlated peaked delta18O patterns with a 2-3 per thousand dynamic range, consistent with previous results from contemporaneous teeth. Whereas both unprocessed enamel and the NBS 127 barium sulfate should be applied to biological phosphate

  15. Diagnostic performance of (18-)F-FDG-PET-CT in adrenal lesions using histopathology as reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinmakas, Emre; Hobbs, Brian P; Ye, Hui; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Perrier, Nancy D; Prieto, Victor G; Lee, Jeffrey E; Ng, Chaan S

    2017-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of PET-CT in differentiating benign and malignant adrenal lesions when evaluating PET parameters individually as well as in combination with CT parameters, using histopathology as the reference standard. (18)F-FDG-PET-CT scans of patients undertaken within 6 months prior to pathologic evaluation of their adrenal lesion(s) were evaluated. PET assessments consisted individually of maximum standardized uptake value of the adrenal lesion (A-SUVmax) and its ("normalized") ratio to the liver (R-SUVmax). The diagnostic performances of these two PET parameters were also assessed when combined with the Hounsfield density from the non-contrast CT component of the PET-CT (A-HU). Diagnostic performance was assessed by area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the individual and combined parameters. The study cohort consisted of 61 adrenal lesions (59 patients). Malignant lesions (n = 52) had significantly higher median PET and CT parameters than benign lesions: A-SUVmax (11.4 vs. 6.1), R-SUVmax (3.3 vs. 1.7), and A-HU (37 vs. 24) [all p PET parameters individually was almost identical: 0.75 for A-SUVmax and 0.74 for R-SUVmax. On univariate analysis, thresholds of A-SUVmax >3.47 and R-SUVmax >0.83 yielded maximum accuracy (both 87%). The combination of these PET parameters individually with A-HU improved both AUC and accuracy (0.81% and 93%, respectively). The individual PET parameters A-SUVmax and R-SUVmax have similar diagnostic performance for differentiating malignant and benign adrenal lesions; their performance and accuracy improve when combined with the CT component (A-HU).

  16. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cidón B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences

  17. Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea using a composite reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siba, Valentine; Horwood, Paul F; Vanuga, Kilagi; Wapling, Johanna; Sehuko, Rebecca; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R

    2012-11-01

    Typhoid fever remains a major global health problem. A major impediment to improving outcomes is the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools, which have not significantly improved in low-income settings for 100 years. We evaluated two commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (Tubex and TyphiDot), a prototype (TyphiRapid TR-02), and the commonly used single-serum Widal test in a previously reported high-burden area of Papua New Guinea. Samples were collected from 530 outpatients with axillary temperatures of ≥37.5°C, and analysis was conducted on all malaria-negative samples (n = 500). A composite reference standard of blood culture and PCR was used, by which 47 participants (9.4%) were considered typhoid fever positive. The sensitivity and specificity of the Tubex (51.1% and 88.3%, respectively) and TyphiDot (70.0% and 80.1%, respectively) tests were not high enough to warrant their ongoing use in this setting; however, the sensitivity and specificity for the TR-02 prototype were promising (89.4% and 85.0%, respectively). An axillary temperature of ≥38.5°C correlated with typhoid fever (P = 0.014). With an appropriate diagnostic test, conducting typhoid fever diagnosis only on patients with high-grade fever could dramatically decrease the costs associated with diagnosis while having no detrimental impact on the ability to accurately diagnose the illness.

  18. MRI screening for silicone breast implant rupture: accuracy, inter- and intraobserver variability using explantation results as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijers, M.C.; Ritt, M.J.P.F. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, F.B. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jan van Goyen Clinic, Department of Plastic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, J.F.H. [MRI Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Manoliu, R.A. [MRI Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    The recall of Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) silicone breast implants in 2010 resulted in large numbers of asymptomatic women with implants who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening. This study's aim was to assess the accuracy and interobserver variability of MRI screening in the detection of rupture and extracapsular silicone leakage. A prospective study included 107 women with 214 PIP implants who underwent explantation preceded by MRI. In 2013, two radiologists blinded for previous MRI findings or outcome at surgery, independently re-evaluated all MRI examinations. A structured protocol described the MRI findings. The ex vivo findings served as reference standard. In 208 of the 214 explanted prostheses, radiologists agreed independently about the condition of the implants. In five of the six cases they disagreed (2.6 %), but subsequently reached consensus. A sensitivity of 93 %, specificity of 93 %, positive predictive value of 77 % and negative predictive value of 98 % was found. The interobserver agreement was excellent (kappa value of 0.92). MRI has a high accuracy in diagnosing rupture in silicone breast implants. Considering the high kappa value of interobserver agreement, MRI appears to be a consistent diagnostic test. A simple, uniform classification, may improve communication between radiologist and plastic surgeon. (orig.)

  19. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. by HPLC–DAD using a single reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs. Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.9998 within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2% (SSDMC. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam. Juz.

  20. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  1. Catalogue of EDF`s technical specifications (HN reference). Centre of standardization; Catalogue des specifications techniques EDF (reference HN). Centre de normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-12-31

    This document edited by Electricite de France (EdF), is a catalogue of the French standard documents relative to any type of electrical material and equipment and which contain the technical specifications of these materials and equipments. A brief description of these specifications is given for each type of material or equipment listed. (J.S.)

  2. Catalogue of EDF`s technical specifications (HN reference). Centre of standardization; Catalogue des specifications techniques EDF (reference HN). Centre de normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-12-31

    This document edited by Electricite de France (EdF), is a catalogue of the French standard documents relative to any type of electrical material and equipment and which contain the technical specifications of these materials and equipments. A brief description of these specifications is given for each type of material or equipment listed. (J.S.)

  3. A multi-step standard-cell placement algorithm of optimizing timing and congestion behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯文婷; 洪先龙; 吴为民; 蔡懿慈

    2002-01-01

    The timing behavior and congestion behavior are two important goals in the performance-driven standard-cell placement. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between the timing and congestion behavior. We bring up a multi-step placement algorithm to reach the two goals. First, the timing-driven placement algorithm is used to find the global optimal solution. In the second step, the algorithm tries to decrease the maximum congestion while not deteriorating the timing behavior. We have implemented our algorithm and tested it with real circuits. The results show that the maximum delay can decrease by 30% in our timing-driven placement and in the second step the maximum congestion will decrease by 10% while the timing behavior is unchanged.

  4. Extract-filter-shoot liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the analysis of vitamin D2 in a powdered supplement capsule and standard reference material 3280.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdwell, William Craig

    2014-08-01

    An "extract-filter-shoot" method for the analysis of vitamin D2, ergocalciferol, in a dry powdered dietary supplement capsule containing rice flour excipient and in a National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material 3280 is reported. Quantification of vitamin D2 was done by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring, two transitions of selected reaction monitoring, and extracted ion chromatograms from full scans. UV detection was used for the quantification of Vitamin D2 in the dry powder capsule, whereas interfering species rendered UV detection unreliable for standard reference material 3280. Average values for standard reference material 3280 ranged from 8.27 ± 0.58 to 8.33 ± 0.57 μg/g using internal standard calibration and response factor approaches, compared to the previous National Institute of Standards and Technology internal value for vitamin D2 of 8.78 ± 0.11 μg/g, and the recently updated reference value of 8.6 ± 2.6 μg/g. The powdered supplement capsule was found to contain 28.19 ± 0.35 to 28.67 ± 0.90 μg/capsule for a capsule labeled to contain 25.00 μg. The triacylglycerol composition of the rice flour excipient in the powdered supplement capsule determined by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is also reported.

  5. Standardization and Optimization of Computed Tomography Protocols to Achieve Low-Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cynthia; Cody, Dianna D.; Gupta, Rajiv; Hess, Christopher P.; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Kofler, James M.; Krishnam, Mayil S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in radiation exposure due to CT scans has been of growing concern in recent years. CT scanners differ in their capabilities and various indications require unique protocols, but there remains room for standardization and optimization. In this paper we summarize approaches to reduce dose, as discussed in lectures comprising the first session of the 2013 UCSF Virtual Symposium on Radiation Safety in Computed Tomography. The experience of scanning at low dose in different body regions, for both diagnostic and interventional CT procedures, is addressed. An essential primary step is justifying the medical need for each scan. General guiding principles for reducing dose include tailoring a scan to a patient, minimizing scan length, use of tube current modulation and minimizing tube current, minimizing-tube potential, iterative reconstruction, and periodic review of CT studies. Organized efforts for standardization have been spearheaded by professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Finally, all team members should demonstrate an awareness of the importance of minimizing dose. PMID:24589403

  6. An efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation for optimized standard cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samboju, Nagaraj C.; Choi, Soo-Han; Arikati, Srini; Cilingir, Erdem

    2015-03-01

    As the technology continues to shrink below 14nm, triple patterning lithography (TPT) is a worthwhile lithography methodology for printing dense layers such as Metal1. However, this increases the complexity of standard cell design, as it is very difficult to develop a TPT compliant layout without compromising on the area. Hence, this emphasizes the importance to have an accurate stitch generation methodology to meet the standard cell area requirement as defined by the technology shrink factor. In this paper, we present an efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation technique for optimized standard cell design. The basic idea here is to first identify the conflicting polygons based on the Fix Guidance [1] solution developed by Synopsys. Fix Guidance is a reduced sub-graph containing minimum set of edges along with the connecting polygons; by eliminating these edges in a design 3-color conflicts can be resolved. Once the conflicting polygons are identified using this method, they are categorized into four types [2] - (Type 1 to 4). The categorization is based on number of interactions a polygon has with the coloring links and the triangle loops of fix guidance. For each type a certain criteria for keep-out region is defined, based on which the final stitch guidance locations are generated. This technique provides various possible stitch locations to the user and helps the user to select the best stitch location considering both design flexibility (max. pin access/small area) and process-preferences. Based on this technique, a standard cell library for place and route (P and R) can be developed with colorless data and a stitch marker defined by designer using our proposed method. After P and R, the full chip (block) would contain the colorless data and standard cell stitch markers only. These stitch markers are considered as "must be stitch" candidates. Hence during full chip decomposition it is not required to generate and select the stitch markers again for the

  7. The operational performance of hydrogen masers in the Deep Space Network (the performance of laboratory reference frequency standards in an operational environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Spacecraft navigation to the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond) places very stringent demands upon the performance of frequency and time (F&T) reference standards. The Deep Space Network (DSN) makes use of hydrogen masers as an aid in meeting the routine F&T operational requirements within the 64 m antenna network. Results as of October 1980 indicate the hydrogen masers are performing within the required specifications. Two problem areas are discussed: insufficient control over the environment in which the reference standards reside; and frequency drift.

  8. 5 CFR 1300.1 - Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1300.1 Section 1300.1 Administrative Personnel... to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Office... standards, and the executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  9. 22 CFR 1001.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1001.1 Section 1001.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN... standards and financial disclosure regulations. Directors and other employees of the Inter-American... branch standards, and the executive branch financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  10. 39 CFR 3000.735-101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 3000.735-101 Section 3000.735-101 Postal Service POSTAL... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Postal Regulatory... branch-wide standards, and the executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulation at 5 CFR part 2634....

  11. 12 CFR 601.100 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 601.100 Section 601.100 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Board members, officers, and other..., which supplements the Executive Branch-wide Standards, and the executive branch-wide...

  12. DSA template optimization for contact layer in 1D standard cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zigang; Du, Yuelin; Tian, Haitong; Wong, Martin D. F.; Yi, He; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2014-03-01

    At the 7 nm technology node, the contact layers of integrated circuits (IC) are too dense to be printed by single exposure lithography. Block copolymer directed self-assembly (DSA) has shown its advantage in contact/via patterning with high throughput and low cost. To pattern contacts with DSA, guiding templates are usually printed first with conventional lithography, e.g., 193 nm immersion lithography (193i) that has a coarser pitch resolution. Contact holes are then patterned with DSA process. The guiding templates play the role of controlling the DSA patterns inside, which have a finer resolution than the templates. The DSA contact pitch depends on the chemical property of block copolymer and it can be adjusted within a certain range under strong lateral confinement to deviate from the natural pitch. As a result, different patterns can be obtained through different parameters. Although the guiding template shapes can be arbitrary, the overlay accuracy of the contact holes patterned are different and largely depend on the templates. Thus, the guiding templates that have tolerable variations are considered as feasible, and those have large overlays are considered as infeasible. To pattern the contact layer in a layout with DSA technology, we must ensure that all the DSA templates in the layout are feasible. However, the original layout may not be designed in a DSA-friendly way. Moreover, the routing process may introduce contacts that can only be patterned by infeasible templates. In this paper, we propose an optimization algorithm that optimize the contact layer for DSA patterning in 1D standard cell design. In particular, the algorithm modifies the layout via wire permutation technique to redistribute the contacts such that the use of infeasible templates is avoided and the feasible patterns that with better overlay control are favored. The experimental result demonstrate the ability of the proposed algorithm in helping to reduce the design and manufacturing

  13. Comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K8 of high dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy standards for reference air kerma rate of the VSL and the BIPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, J.T.; De Pooter, J.A.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2014-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for reference air kerma rate for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources of the Dutch Metrology Institute (VSL), The Netherlands, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out at the VSL in November 2009. The comparison resu...

  14. Sodium content of foods contributing to sodium intake: A comparison between selected foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 Standard Reference 26 (SR 26) database. Sentinel Foods are foods and beverages identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicat...

  15. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  16. Incorporating the Avoidance Behavior to the Standard Particle Swarm Optimization 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALTINOZ, O. T.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inspired from social and cognitive behaviors of animals living as swarms; particle swarm optimization (PSO provides a simple but very powerful tool for researchers who are dealing with collective intelligence. The algorithm depends on modeling the very basic random behavior (i.e. exploration capability of individuals in addition to their tendency to revisit positions of good memories (cognitive behavior and tendency to keep an eye on and follow the majority of swarm members (social behavior. The balance among these three major behaviors is the key of success of the algorithm. On the other hand, there are other social and cognitive phenomena, which might be useful for improvement of the algorithm. In this paper, we particularly investigate avoidance from the bad behavior. We propose modifications about modeling the Standard PSO 2011 formulation, and we test performance of our proposals at each step via benchmark functions, and compare the results of the proposed algorithms with well-known algorithms. Our results show that incorporation of Social Avoidance behavior into SPSO11 improves the performance. It is also shown that in case the Social Avoidance behavior is applied in an adaptive manner at the very first iterations of the algorithm, there might be further improvements.

  17. Spatial Dynamic Optimization of Groundwater Use with Ecological Standards for Instream Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, N.; Han, J.; Speir, C.

    2011-12-01

    Instream flow requirements for protected species in arid and semi-arid regions have created the need to reduce groundwater use adjacent to streams. We present an integrated hydrologic-economic model that optimizes agricultural groundwater use next to streams with flow standards. Policies to meet instream flow standards should aim to minimize the welfare losses to irrigated agriculture due to reduced pumping. Previous economic studies have proposed spatially targeted water allocations between groundwater irrigators and instream demands. However, these studies focused on meeting aggregate instream flow goals on a seasonal or yearly basis rather than meeting them on a continuous basis. Temporally aggregated goals ignore important intra-seasonal hydrologic effects and may not provide sufficient habitat quality for species of concern. We present an optimization model that solves for groundwater pumping allocations across space in a stream-aquifer system with instream flow goals that must be met on a daily basis. We combine an analytical model of stream depletion with a farm profit maximization model that includes cumulative crop yield damages from water stress. The objective is the minimization of agricultural losses from reduced groundwater use while minimum instream flow requirements for ecological needs are met on a daily basis. As a case study, we apply our model to the Scott River Basin in northern California. This is a region where stream depletion resulting from extensive irrigation has degraded habitat for Coho salmon, a species protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our results indicate the importance of considering the lag between the time at which pumping occurs and the time at which stream depletion related to that pumping occurs. In general, we find that wells located farther from the stream should be allocated more water in most hydrologic scenarios. However, we also find that the spatial and temporal distribution of optimal groundwater pumping

  18. TGF β 3 immunoassay standardization: comparison of NIBSC reference preparation code 98/608 with avotermin lot 205-0505-005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John A; Murdy, Rebecca; Cossar, Natalie; Getliffe, Katherine M; Hanak, Julian; Ferguson, Mark W J

    2012-01-01

    Juvista™ drug product contains human recombinant active transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3; avotermin). Juvista is being developed for the prevention and reduction of human scarring. Phase II and III clinical and development batches of Juvista were assayed for content by an immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) using a National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) TGFβ3 reference material (98/608) and avotermin standard (Lot 205-0505-005). Paired Juvista TGFβ3 data were compared directly, pooled, and processed using the statistical analysis described by Bland and Altman. A direct comparison of the two standards was also made. The Bland-Altman result was 1.958, the best estimate of the relationship between Lot 205-0505-005 and reference material 98/608. By IEMA, reference material 98/608 has approximately 50% of the immunoreactivity of Lot 205-0505-005. During clinical development, no change in Juvista TGFβ3 dosage was made, but the standard used for Juvista TGFβ3 assay was changed from 98/608 to 205-0505-005. The stated amount of Juvista TGFβ3 in phase III trials was approximately one-half of that in phase II trials. This article highlights the importance of early adoption of an appropriate and representative standard to achieve accurate quantification of protein drug during clinical development.

  19. Development of C-reactive protein certified reference material NMIJ CRM 6201-b: optimization of a hydrolysis process to improve the accuracy of amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Megumi; Kinumi, Tomoya; Yoshioka, Mariko; Goto, Mari; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Takatsu, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    To standardize C-reactive protein (CRP) assays, the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) has developed a C-reactive protein solution certified reference material, CRM 6201-b, which is intended for use as a primary reference material to enable the SI-traceable measurement of CRP. This study describes the development process of CRM 6201-b. As a candidate material of the CRM, recombinant human CRP solution was selected because of its higher purity and homogeneity than the purified material from human serum. Gel filtration chromatography was used to examine the homogeneity and stability of the present CRM. The total protein concentration of CRP in the present CRM was determined by amino acid analysis coupled to isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS-AAA). To improve the accuracy of IDMS-AAA, we optimized the hydrolysis process by examining the effect of parameters such as the volume of protein samples taken for hydrolysis, the procedure of sample preparation prior to the hydrolysis, hydrolysis temperature, and hydrolysis time. Under optimized conditions, we conducted two independent approaches in which the following independent hydrolysis and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) were combined: one was vapor-phase acid hydrolysis (130 °C, 24 h) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) method, and the other was microwave-assisted liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (150 °C, 3 h) and pre-column derivatization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The quantitative values of the two different amino acid analyses were in agreement within their uncertainties. The certified value was the weighted mean of the results of the two methods. Uncertainties from the value-assignment method, between-method variance, homogeneity, long-term stability, and short-term stability were taken into account in evaluating the uncertainty for a certified value. The certified value and the

  20. Toward Optimal Decision Making among Vulnerable Patients Referred for Cardiac Surgery: A Qualitative Analysis of Patient and Provider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Ryan A; Curran, Janet; Buth, Karen J; David, Jennie G; Légaré, Jean-Francois; Hirsch, Gregory M

    2017-07-01

    Comprehension of risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options has been shown to be poor among patients referred for cardiac interventions. Patients' values and preferences are rarely explicitly sought. An increasing proportion of frail and older patients are undergoing complex cardiac surgical procedures with increased risk of both mortality and prolonged institutional care. We sought input from patients and caregivers to determine the optimal approach to decision making in this vulnerable patient population. Focus groups were held with both providers and former patients. Three focus groups were convened for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG), Valve, or CABG +Valve patients ≥ 70 y old (2-y post-op, ≤ 8-wk post-op, complicated post-op course) (n = 15). Three focus groups were convened for Intermediate Medical Care Unit (IMCU) nurses, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses, surgeons, anesthesiologists and cardiac intensivists (n = 20). We used a semi-structured interview format to ask questions surrounding the informed consent process. Transcribed audio data was analyzed to develop consistent and comprehensive themes. We identified 5 main themes that influence the decision making process: educational barriers, educational facilitators, patient autonomy and perceived autonomy, patient and family expectations of care, and decision making advocates. All themes were influenced by time constraints experienced in the current consent process. Patient groups expressed a desire to receive information earlier in their care to allow time to identify personal values and preferences in developing plans for treatment. Both groups strongly supported a formal approach for shared decision making with a decisional coach to provide information and facilitate communication with the care team. Identifying the barriers and facilitators to patient and caretaker engagement in decision making is a key step in the development of a structured, patient-centered SDM approach. Intervention

  1. 12 CFR 1401.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1401.1 Section 1401.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM... conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Board members, officers, and other employees of... branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  2. 22 CFR 1504.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1504.1 Section 1504.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT... standards and financial disclosure regulations. Directors and other employees of the African Development... part 2635, and the executive branch financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  3. 22 CFR 1100.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure and financial...

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    2010-04-01

    ... standards, financial disclosure and financial interests regulations and other conduct rules. 1100.1 Section... conduct standards, financial disclosure and financial interests regulations and other conduct rules... disclosure regulations contained in 5 CFR part 2634, and the executive branch financial interests...

  4. 5 CFR 1633.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1633.1 Section 1633.1 Administrative Personnel... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Federal Retirement Thrift..., and the executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  5. 16 CFR 1030.101 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1030.101 Section 1030.101 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Consumer Product... 735; and the financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, which are applicable to...

  6. 29 CFR 1600.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial disclosure regulations. 1600.101 Section 1600.101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Equal...-wide standards, and the executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  7. 45 CFR 706.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure and financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standards, financial disclosure and financial interests regulations and other conduct rules. 706.1 Section..., financial disclosure and financial interests regulations and other conduct rules. Employees of the United... branchwide standards, the executive branch financial disclosure regulations contained in 5 CFR part 2634,...

  8. 5 CFR 1900.100 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1900.100 Section 1900.100 Administrative Personnel... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Officers and employees of the Appalachian... Executive Branch at 5 CFR part 2635 and the executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5...

  9. A Conceptual Statement on the Enforcement of Child Day Care Licensing Standards: With Special Reference to Revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Norris E.; And Others

    This statement of the enforcement of child day care licensing standards identifies basic concepts of the enforcement process and operational procedures necessary to bring about this process. Two types of enforcement operations, negative and positive enforcement of standards, are identified and examined in detail. Positive enforcement is defined as…

  10. Agricultural Education. Missouri's Show-Me Standards and Vocational Education Competencies. Cross Reference. Main Report [and] Mini Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    These two documents deal with the relationship between Missouri's Show-Me Standards (the standards defining what all Missouri students should know upon graduation from high school) with the vocational competencies taught in secondary-level agricultural education courses. The first document, which is a database documenting the common ground that…

  11. Determination of catechins and caffeine in proposed green tea standard reference materials by liquid chromatography-particle beam/electron ionization mass spectrometry (LC-PB/EIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joaudimir; Pregibon, Tara; Chumanov, Kristina; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2010-10-15

    Presented here is the quantitative analysis of green tea NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) via liquid chromatography-particle beam/electron ionization mass spectrometry (LC-PB/EIMS). Three different NIST green tea standard reference materials (SRM 3254 Camellia sinesis Leaves, SRM 3255 C. sinesis Extract and SRM 3256 Green Tea-containing Oral Dosage Form) are characterized for the content of caffeine and a series of catechin species (gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)). The absolute limits of detection for caffeine and the catechin species were determined to be on the nanogram level. A reversed-phase chromatographic separation of the green tea reference materials was carried out on a commercial C(18) column using a gradient of water (containing 0.1% TFA) and 2:1 methanol:acetonitrile (containing 0.1%TFA) at 0.9mLmin(-1) and an analysis time of 50min. Quantification of caffeine and the catechin species was carried out using the standard addition and internal standard methods, with the latter providing appreciable improvements in precision and recovery.

  12. Establishment of reference intervals for von Willebrand factor antigen and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Seo, Ja-Young; Bang, Sung-Hwan; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of reference intervals for coagulation molecules is important but is costly and sometimes not feasible. Since reference intervals from manufacturers or the literature are mostly out of date or involved Western populations, the authors determined reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight factors in a Korean population. VWF: Ag, factor VIII (FVIII), FII, FV, FVII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXII were determined in Korean individuals visiting for routine checkup following the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines. Reagents by Diagnostica Stago were used on the STA Compact Analyzer (Diagnostica Stago). Exclusion criteria were medical history or laboratory findings that could affect the factor levels. Influence of demographic factors was analyzed. Mean +/- 2 x SD or central 95 percentile was used, as appropriate. We obtained data from 266 adults for VWF: Ag, 371 adults for FVIII, and minimum 136 adults for the rest. Reference interval for VWF was 51-176% (52-155% in blood group O and 71-186% for non-O). Reference interval for FVIII was 64-197% (55-150% in O and 77-205% in non-O). Reference interval for FII was 77-121%, FV 81-160%, FVII 68-149%, FIX 67-154%, FX 69-126%, FXI 59-138%, and FXII 48-177%. The medians of VWF: Ag, FVIII, and FIX were significantly higher in the elderly group (> or =60 years). We established local reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population according to the CLSI guidelines. Significantly, different reference intervals were obtained in blood group O vs. non-O for VWF: Ag and FVIII. The reference intervals obtained in this study could be adopted in other clinical laboratories after appropriate validation.

  13. NEURO-SYSTEM OF AIMING AND STABILIZING WITH A REGULATOR ON THE BASIS OF STANDARD MODEL MODEL REFERENCE CONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    B. I. Kuznetsov; T.E. Vasilets; Varfolomiyev, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is the synthesis of neural network aiming and stabilization system for the special equipment of moving objects with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model and performance comparison of the neural network system with the neural network predictive control. Build a block diagram of the neural network aiming and stabilization system, based on the subject control principle with PD-regulator in the position loop and with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model ...

  14. [Reference the YY/T 0841-2011 standard to improve preventive maintenance of medical electrical equipment and experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Ge, Bin; Liu, Jinchu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we interpret the new YY/T 0841-2011 standard and contrast the difference between it and GB9706.1-2007 standard. Then, we improved the current preventive maintenance work. After the improvement, we not only have more effective detection of the electrical safety performance of all kinds of medical electrical equipment, but also reduce the workload of clinical engineers, improve efficiency, and reduce the risk of electrical shock.

  15. Standardization of human IL-29 (IFN-λ1): establishment of a World Health Organization international reference reagent for IL-29 (IFN-λ1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Anthony; Heath, Alan; Dilger, Paula; Zoon, Kathryn; Wadhwa, Meenu

    2014-11-01

    Human interleukin-29 (IL-29), a helical cytokine with interferon-like activities, is currently being developed as a clinical biotherapeutic to treat chronic hepatitis C infection and some cancers. As such, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized a need for biological standardization of IL-29 and the establishment of an internationally available reference reagent of IL-29. In order to accomplish this, an international collaborative study that evaluates WHO candidate reference reagents of IL-29 was instigated by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in 2010 and was carried out in the succeeding year. Two preparations of human sequence recombinant IL-29, one expressed in murine NS0 cells and the other in Escherichia coli, were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC before evaluation in the collaborative study for their suitability to serve as a reference reagent. The preparations were tested by 6 laboratories from 4 countries using in vitro bioassays and also evaluated for thermal stability within the NIBSC laboratory. On the basis of the results of the collaborative study, both preparations, 07/212 (NS0-derived) and 10/176 (E. coli-derived) were judged sufficiently active and stable to serve as a reference reagent. However, since IL-29 produced in E. coli is in development for clinical applications, it was recommended that the preparation coded 10/176 be established as the WHO international reference reagent for human IL-29. This recommendation was accepted, and the IL-29 preparation coded 10/176 was formally established by the WHO ECBS at its meeting in October 2012 as the WHO international reference reagent for IL-29 with an assigned unitage of 5,000 reference units per ampoule.

  16. Optimizing the Power of Genome-Wide Association Studies by Using Publicly Available Reference Samples to Expand the Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Joanna J; Zondervan, Krina; Nyberg, Fredrik; Harbron, Chris; Jawaid, Ansar; Cardon, Lon R; Barratt, Bryan J; Morris, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have proved extremely successful in identifying novel genetic loci contributing effects to complex human diseases. In doing so, they have highlighted the fact that many potential loci of modest effect remain undetected, partly due to the need for samples consisting of many thousands of individuals. Large-scale international initiatives, such as the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, the Genetic Association Information Network, and the database of genetic and phenotypic information, aim to facilitate discovery of modest-effect genes by making genome-wide data publicly available, allowing information to be combined for the purpose of pooled analysis. In principle, disease or control samples from these studies could be used to increase the power of any GWA study via judicious use as “genetically matched controls” for other traits. Here, we present the biological motivation for the problem and the theoretical potential for expanding the control group with publicly available disease or reference samples. We demonstrate that a naïve application of this strategy can greatly inflate the false-positive error rate in the presence of population structure. As a remedy, we make use of genome-wide data and model selection techniques to identify “axes” of genetic variation which are associated with disease. These axes are then included as covariates in association analysis to correct for population structure, which can result in increases in power over standard analysis of genetic information from the samples in the original GWA study. Genet. Epidemiol. 34: 319–326, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20088020

  17. The importance of 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for reference standard validation in analytical sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovi Kelman

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of recording at least a (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrum to verify identity of standards used in analyses of organic materials irrespective of source. We show the importance of this approach with an example of a quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC study undertaken with green tea extracts that required the use of several polyphenols as standards. In the course of the study one of these standards [(--epigallocatechin, EGC], although having the physical appearance and appropriate HPLC chromatographic behavior of EGC, proved by (1H-NMR to be a completely different class of molecule. For us, this raised significant questions concerning validity of many published pieces of research that used quantitative HPLC methods without first performing rigorous validation of the employed standards prior to their use. This paper clearly illustrates the importance of validation of all standards used in analysis of organic materials by recording at least a (1H-NMR spectrum of them prior to their use.

  18. EFFECTS OF RELIGIOUS VERSUS STANDARD COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY ON OPTIMISM IN PERSONS WITH MAJOR DEPRESSION AND CHRONIC MEDICAL ILLNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Pearce, Michelle J; Nelson, Bruce; Daher, Noha

    2015-11-01

    We compared the effectiveness of religiously integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (RCBT) versus standard CBT (SCBT) on increasing optimism in persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) and chronic medical illness. Participants aged 18-85 were randomized to either RCBT (n = 65) or SCBT (n = 67) to receive ten 50-min sessions remotely (94% by telephone) over 12 weeks. Optimism was assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks by the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Religiosity was assessed at baseline using a 29-item scale composed of religious importance, individual religious practices, intrinsic religiosity, and daily spiritual experiences. Mixed effects growth curve models were used to compare the effects of treatment group on trajectory of change in optimism. In the intention-to-treat analysis, both RCBT and SCBT increased optimism over time, although there was no significant difference between treatment groups (B = -0.75, SE = 0.57, t = -1.33, P = .185). Analyses in the highly religious and in the per protocol analysis indicated similar results. Higher baseline religiosity predicted an increase in optimism over time (B = 0.07, SE = 0.02, t = 4.12, P depressive symptoms over time (B = -0.61, SE = 0.10, t = -6.30, P < .0001), both independent of treatment group. RCBT and SCBT are equally effective in increasing optimism in persons with MDD and chronic medical illness. While baseline religiosity does not moderate this effect, religiosity predicts increases in optimism over time independent of treatment group. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 92.113 ASTM D 1945-91, Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography § 92... Supercritical Fluid Chromatography § 92.113 ASTM E 29-93a, Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in... follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a...

  20. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J

    2013-10-25

    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi.

  1. Validity of standard reference values irrespective of rest and time of day prior to blood sampling-results from albumin and thyrotropin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I. B.; Brasen, C. L.; Christensen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preanalytical factors affects different biochemical parameters. Therefore reference intervals are recommended to apply to rules of standardization that state that blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 min rest. However, both hospital and patients have a wish to minimize...... waiting time prior to blood sampling. Moreover, some parameters have diurnal variation and since there is a growing desire to expand opening hours in the clinics this variation is worth investigating further. Therefore our aim is to test whether the reference intervals of albumin and thyrotropin are valid...... electronically using Q-MATIC Suite. Impact of resting time and time of day on thyreotropin and albumin values was analyzed using a simple linear regression. The "maximum allowable bias" was used as quality indicator for the reference interval. Results: Using linear regression we found significant diurnal...

  2. An administrative data validation study of the accuracy of algorithms for identifying rheumatoid arthritis: the influence of the reference standard on algorithm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdifield, Jessica; Bombardier, Claire; Bernatsky, Sasha; Paterson, J Michael; Green, Diane; Young, Jacqueline; Ivers, Noah; Butt, Debra A; Jaakkimainen, R Liisa; Thorne, J Carter; Tu, Karen

    2014-06-23

    We have previously validated administrative data algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using rheumatology clinic records as the reference standard. Here we reassessed the accuracy of the algorithms using primary care records as the reference standard. We performed a retrospective chart abstraction study using a random sample of 7500 adult patients under the care of 83 family physicians contributing to the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD) in Ontario, Canada. Using physician-reported diagnoses as the reference standard, we computed and compared the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for over 100 administrative data algorithms for RA case ascertainment. We identified 69 patients with RA for a lifetime RA prevalence of 0.9%. All algorithms had excellent specificity (>97%). However, sensitivity varied (75-90%) among physician billing algorithms. Despite the low prevalence of RA, most algorithms had adequate positive predictive value (PPV; 51-83%). The algorithm of "[1 hospitalization RA diagnosis code] or [3 physician RA diagnosis codes with ≥1 by a specialist over 2 years]" had a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI 69-88), specificity of 100% (95% CI 100-100), PPV of 78% (95% CI 69-88) and NPV of 100% (95% CI 100-100). Administrative data algorithms for detecting RA patients achieved a high degree of accuracy amongst the general population. However, results varied slightly from our previous report, which can be attributed to differences in the reference standards with respect to disease prevalence, spectrum of disease, and type of comparator group.

  3. Thermal desorption GC-MS as a tool to provide PAH certified standard reference material on particulate matter quartz filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandesso, Emanuela; Pérez Ballesta, Pascual; Kowalewski, Konrad

    2013-02-15

    Reference materials for particulate matter (PM) on filter media are not available for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. This is due to the difficulty of obtaining reference material that has a homogeneous distribution on a filter surface that is large enough for characterization and distribution. High volume sample filters from different locations and seasons were considered to validate the feasibility of the use of quartz filters as reference material for PAH concentrations. A rapid thermal desorption (TD) technique coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was applied to characterise the material for the content of fifteen different PAHs. TD technique allowed for rapid and accurate analysis of small sections of filter (5mm diameter), leaving enough material for the production of twenty sub-filter cuts (42 mm diameter) that could be used for distribution and control. Stability and homogeneity tests required for material certification were performed as indicated by the ISO guide 34:2009 and ISO 35:2006. The contribution of the heterogeneous distribution of PAHs on the filter surface resulted generally lower than 10% and higher for more volatile PAHs. One year of storage at -18°C indicated no significant variation in PAH concentrations. Nevertheless, a methodology for shipping and storing of the filter material at ambient temperature in especially designed plastic envelopes, was also shown to allow for stabile concentrations within twenty days. The method accuracy was confirmed by the analysis of NIST SRM 1649a (urban dust) and PAH concentrations were validated against the reference values obtained from an inter-laboratory exercise. In the case of benzo[a]pyrene for masses quantified between 100 pg and 10 ng the TD method provided expanded uncertainties of circa 10%, while the inter-laboratory reference value uncertainties ranged between 15 and 20%. The evaluation of these results supports the use of the presented

  4. On Optimality of Greedy Policy for a Class of Standard Reward Function of Restless Multi-armed Bandit Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Quan; Chen, Lin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the restless bandit problem, which is one of the most well-studied generalizations of the celebrated stochastic multi-armed bandit problem in decision theory. However, it is known be PSPACE-Hard to approximate to any non-trivial factor. Thus the optimality is very difficult to obtain due to its high complexity. A natural method is to obtain the greedy policy considering its stability and simplicity. However, the greedy policy will result in the optimality loss for its intrinsic myopic behavior generally. In this paper, by analyzing one class of so-called standard reward function, we establish the closed-form condition about the discounted factor \\beta such that the optimality of the greedy policy is guaranteed under the discounted expected reward criterion, especially, the condition \\beta = 1 indicating the optimality of the greedy policy under the average accumulative reward criterion. Thus, the standard form of reward function can easily be used to judge the optimality of the greed...

  5. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's reference manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  6. DAKOTA, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  7. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  8. 10 CFR 1010.102 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., financial disclosure regulations, and other conduct rules. 1010.102 Section 1010.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... standards, financial disclosure regulations, and other conduct rules. Employees of DOE are subject to the... financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, the executive branch-wide financial...

  9. 45 CFR 1105.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure and financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standards and financial disclosure and financial interests regulations. 1105.1 Section 1105.1 Public Welfare... financial disclosure and financial interests regulations. Employees of the National Endowment for the Arts... regulations at 5 CFR part 735; the executive branch financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634,...

  10. 36 CFR 811.1 - Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure and financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure and financial interests regulations and other conduct..., financial disclosure and financial interests regulations and other conduct rules. Employees of the Advisory..., financial disclosure and financial interests regulations at 5 CFR Parts 2634, 2635 and 2640, as well as...

  11. 49 CFR 99.735-1 - Cross-reference to ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial disclosure regulations. 99.735-1 Section 99.735-1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Department of Transportation are subject to... executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  12. 科技论文参考文献规范综述*%Review of Standardization of References in Scientific and Technological Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军鹏; 宿洁

    2013-01-01

      文章针对一些科技期刊论文在参考文献方面存在的问题,论述了参考文献的意义和作用、参考文献的内在质量和引用原则,并对参考文献的文内标注和文后著录规范进行了梳理和概括,对某些具体细则作了必要的改进,为论文作者和科技期刊编辑进一步做好参考文献工作提供有益的帮助。%There exist several problems in the references of the scientific and technological papers, such as omission of some items, too many contents in extractions, and wrong extractions. This paper discusses the significance and role of the reference, the intrinsic quality of the reference and the principle of reference. The article sorts and summarizes the standardization of in-text citations and bibliographic references, and improves some specific details, in order to provide useful help for authors and journal editors to do a bet er job.

  13. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  14. Development of a standard methodology for optimizing remote visual display for nuclear-maintenance tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, M.M.; Garin, J.; Preston-Anderson, A.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for optimizing remote viewing systems for a fuel recycle facility (HEF) being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). An important feature of this design involves the Remotex concept: advanced servo-controlled master/slave manipulators, with remote television viewing, will totally replace direct human contact with the radioactive environment. Therefore, the design of optimal viewing conditions is a critical component of the overall man/machine system. A methodology has been developed for optimizing remote visual displays for nuclear maintenance tasks. The usefulness of this approach has been demonstrated by preliminary specification of optimal closed circuit TV systems for such tasks.

  15. Reference Standards for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Using Cycle Ergometry: Data From the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Imboden, Mary T; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established. This report provides newly developed standards for CRF reference values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) using cycle ergometry in the United States. Ten laboratories in the United States experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed to the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database" (FRIEND) Registry from April 2014 through May 2016. Data from 4494 maximal (respiratory exchange ratio, ≥1.1) cycle ergometer tests from men and women (20-79 years) from 27 states, without cardiovascular disease, were used to develop these references values. Percentiles of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from age 20 years through age 79 years. Comparisons of VO2max were made to reference data established with CPX data from treadmill data in the FRIEND Registry and previously published reports. As expected, there were significant differences between sex and age groups for VO2max (Ptests within the FRIEND Registry, the 50th percentile VO2max of men and women aged 20 to 29 years declined from 41.9 and 31.0 mLO2/kg/min to 19.5 and 14.8 mLO2/kg/min for ages 70 to 79 years, respectively. The rate of decline in this cohort was approximately 10% per decade. The FRIEND Registry reference data will be useful in providing more accurate interpretations for the US population of CPX-measured VO2max from exercise tests using cycle ergometry compared with previous approaches based on estimations of standard differences from treadmill testing reference values. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of a digital lock-in algorithm with a square-wave reference for frequency-divided multi-channel sensor signal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhao; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling; Zhao, Jing

    2016-08-01

    A digital lock-in detection technique is commonly used to measure the amplitude and phase of a selected frequency signal. A technique that uses a square wave as the reference signal has an advantage over the one using a sinusoidal wave due to its easier implementation and higher computational efficiency. However, demodulating multiple-frequency composite signals using square wave reference may result in interference between channels. To avoid interference between channels and reduce the computational complexity, we modify the calculations and determine the optimal parameter settings of the low-pass filter and carrier frequency, as detailed in this paper. The results of our analysis show that when the length of the average filter and carrier frequencies are properly set, the interference between the channels is removed. This optimization produces the digital lock-in detection suitable for measuring multi-channel sensor signals.

  17. Optimization of a digital lock-in algorithm with a square-wave reference for frequency-divided multi-channel sensor signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhao; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling; Zhao, Jing

    2016-08-01

    A digital lock-in detection technique is commonly used to measure the amplitude and phase of a selected frequency signal. A technique that uses a square wave as the reference signal has an advantage over the one using a sinusoidal wave due to its easier implementation and higher computational efficiency. However, demodulating multiple-frequency composite signals using square wave reference may result in interference between channels. To avoid interference between channels and reduce the computational complexity, we modify the calculations and determine the optimal parameter settings of the low-pass filter and carrier frequency, as detailed in this paper. The results of our analysis show that when the length of the average filter and carrier frequencies are properly set, the interference between the channels is removed. This optimization produces the digital lock-in detection suitable for measuring multi-channel sensor signals.

  18. Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.

  19. A semi-automated technique determining the liver standardized uptake value reference for tumor delineation in FDG PET-CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Hirata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET-computed tomography (CT has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV, which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation. METHODS: A large spherical volume of interest (VOI was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared. RESULTS: The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d = 80 mm. The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61 was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58. The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods. CONCLUSIONS: Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response.

  20. Simultaneous identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances in blood by GC-APCI-QTOFMS coupled to nitrogen chemiluminescence detection without authentic reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanperä, Ilkka; Mesihää, Samuel; Rasanen, Ilpo; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A

    2016-05-01

    A novel platform is introduced for simultaneous identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in blood matrix, without the necessity of using authentic reference standards. The instrumentation consisted of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-QTOFMS). In this concept, the GC flow is divided in appropriate proportions between NCD for single-calibrant quantification, utilizing the detector's equimolar response to nitrogen, and QTOFMS for accurate mass-based identification. The principle was proven by analyzing five NPS, bupropion, desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), mephedrone, methylone, and naphyrone, in sheep blood. The samples were spiked with the analytes post-extraction to avoid recovery considerations at this point. All the NPS studies produced a protonated molecule in APCI resulting in predictable fragmentation with high mass accuracy. The N-equimolarity of quantification by NCD was investigated by using external calibration with the secondary standard caffeine at five concentration levels between 0.17 and 1.7 mg/L in blood matrix as five replicates. The equimolarity was on average 98.7%, and the range of individual equimolarity determinations was 76.7-130.1%. The current analysis platform affords a promising approach to instant simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs in the absence of authentic reference standards, not only in forensic and clinical toxicology but also in other bioanalytical applications.

  1. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M.; Benner, Bruce A.; Heckert, N. Alan; Sander, Lane C.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Vasquez, Y.; Villegas, M.; Wise, Stephen A.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers’ Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers’ Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants. PMID:25651899

  2. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Benner, Bruce A; Heckert, N Alan; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Vasquez, Y; Villegas, M; Wise, Stephen A; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Calafat, Antonia M; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers' Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers' Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants.

  3. Health-based reference intervals for ALAT, ASAT and GT in serum, measured according to the recommendations of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, A; Impivaara, O; Irjala, K; Mäki, J; Peltola, O; Järvisalo, J

    1995-05-01

    The reference intervals for the activities of L-alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2, ALAT), L-aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1, ASAT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2, GT) in serum were determined according to the recommendations of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS). Serum specimens from 954 subjects were analysed for ALAT and ASAT and from 794 subjects for GT. The subjects, aged 27-67 years, were participants in general health surveys. The reference population was formed by excluding subjects with any disease, or on any medication, affecting the liver, and also those consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. The 95% inner reference intervals for ALAT and ASAT were 9-50 (n = 189) and 15-36 U l-1 (n = 192) in men and 8-38 (n = 270) and 13-33 U l-1 (n = 270) in women. For GT the reference interval was 11-58 in men (n = 165) and 8-42 U l-1 in women (n = 220). Serum GT levels correlated clearly with alcohol consumption. Serum ALAT and ASAT were only slightly associated with alcohol consumption at levels less than 280 g per week in men and 190 g per week in women. There were modest positive associations between the three enzyme levels and body mass index. None of the enzymes correlated significantly with age.

  4. Agreement between gastrointestinal panel testing and standard microbiology methods for detecting pathogens in suspected infectious gastroenteritis: Test evaluation and meta-analysis in the absence of a reference standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Taylor-Phillips, Sian; McCarthy, Noel; Mistry, Hema; Manuel, Rohini; Mason, James

    2017-01-01

    Objective Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens from the stool samples of patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis presenting in hospital or the community. We undertook a systematic review to compare the accuracy of GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques. Review methods Searches in Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were undertaken from inception to January 2016. Eligible studies compared GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques in patients with suspected gastroenteritis. Quality assessment of included studies used tailored QUADAS-2. In the absence of a reference standard we analysed test performance taking GPP tests and standard microbiology techniques in turn as the benchmark test, using random effects meta-analysis of proportions. Results No study provided an adequate reference standard with which to compare the test accuracy of GPP and conventional tests. Ten studies informed a meta-analysis of positive and negative agreement. Positive agreement across all pathogens was 0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.96) when conventional methods were the benchmark and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.77) when GPP provided the benchmark. Negative agreement was high in both instances due to the high proportion of negative cases. GPP testing produced a greater number of pathogen-positive findings than conventional testing. It is unclear whether these additional ‘positives’ are clinically important. Conclusions GPP testing has the potential to simplify testing and accelerate reporting when compared to conventional microbiology methods. However the impact of GPP testing upon the management, treatment and outcome of patients is poorly understood and further studies are needed to evaluate the health economic impact of GPP testing compared with standard methods. The review protocol is registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016033320. PMID:28253337

  5. Development of two fine particulate matter standard reference materials (<4 μm and <10 μm) for the determination of organic and inorganic constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Cleveland, Danielle; Heckert, N Alan; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Long, Stephen E; Lynch, Jennifer M; Murphy, Karen E; Olfaz, Rabia; Pintar, Adam L; Porter, Barbara J; Rabb, Savelas A; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A; Zeisler, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter (Particulate Matter (particulate matter (PM). These materials have been characterized for the mass fractions of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, sugars, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and inorganic constituents, as well as particle-size characteristics. These materials are the first Certified Reference Materials available to support measurements of both organic and inorganic constituents in fine PM. In addition, values for PAHs are available for RM 8785 Air Particulate Matter on Filter Media. As such, these SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among PM monitoring studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in these studies. Graphical Abstract Removal of PM from filter for the preparation of SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter.

  6. Determination of the absolute 32S/34S ratio of IAEA-S-1 reference material and V-CDT sulfur isotope standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁悌平; 白瑞梅; 李延河; 万德芳; 邹晓秋; 张青莲

    1999-01-01

    The absolute 32S/34S ratios of IAEA-S-1 reference material and V-CDT standard are determined. For cross-checking, two sets of synthetic isotope mixtures are prepared from high purity 32S and 34S-enriched materials in different forms: the first set is prepared from BaSO4 whereas the second is prepared from Ag2S. The sulfur isotope analyses are done by using SF6 method with a MAT-251 EM mass spectrometer. The resulting 32S/34S ratio of IAEAS-1 reference material is 22.656 4±0. 006 0, and that of V-CDT is 22. 649 6±0. 006 0.

  7. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A.; Helmrot, E.; Sandborg, M.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ±7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than +/- 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA’s recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC’s limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  8. Identification of optimal reference genes for gene expression normalization in a wide cohort of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Romani

    Full Text Available Accurate normalization is a primary component of a reliable gene expression analysis based on qRT-PCR technique. While the use of one or more reference genes as internal controls is commonly accepted as the most appropriate normalization strategy, many qPCR-based published studies still contain data poorly normalized and reference genes arbitrarily chosen irrespective of the particular tissue and the specific experimental design. To date, no validated reference genes have been identified for endometrial cancer tissues. In this study, 10 normalization genes (GAPDH, B2M, ACTB, POLR2A, UBC, PPIA, HPRT1, GUSB, TBP, H3F3A belonging to different functional and abundance classes in various tissues and used in different studies, were analyzed to determine their applicability. In total, 100 endometrioid endometrial cancer samples, which were carefully balanced according to their tumor grade, and 29 normal endometrial tissues were examined using SYBR Green Real-Time RT-PCR. The expression stability of candidate reference genes was determined and compared by means of geNorm and NormFinder softwares. Both algorithms were in agreement in identifying GAPDH, H3F3A, PPIA, and HPRT1 as the most stably expressed genes, only differing in their ranking order. Analysis performed on the expression levels of all candidate genes confirm HPRT1 and PPIA as the most stably expressed in the study groups regardless of sample type, to be used alone or better in combination. As the stable expression of HPRT1 and PPIA between normal and tumor endometrial samples fulfill the basic requirement of a reference gene to be used for normalization purposes, HPRT1 expression showed significant differences between samples from low-grade and high-grade tumors. In conclusion, our results recommend the use of PPIA as a single reference gene to be considered for improved reliability of normalization in gene expression studies involving endometrial tumor samples at different tumor degrees.

  9. Whole-body MRI for initial staging of paediatric lymphoma: prospective comparison to an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littooij, Annemieke S. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Kwee, Thomas C.; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Keizer, Bart de; Beek, Frederik J.A.; Hobbelink, Monique G.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Barber, Ignasi; Enriquez, Goya [Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d' Hebron, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Giannina Gaslini Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Zsiros, Jozsef [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soh, Shui Yen [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Haematology and Oncology service, Department of Paediatric Subspecialities, Singapore (Singapore); Bierings, Marc B. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology-Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    To compare whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (whole-body MRI-DWI), with FDG-PET/CT for staging newly diagnosed paediatric lymphoma. A total of 36 children with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent both whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT. Whole-body MRI-DWI was successfully performed in 33 patients (mean age 13.9 years). Whole-body MRI-DWI was independently evaluated by two blinded observers. After consensus reading, an unblinded expert panel evaluated the discrepant findings between whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT and used bone marrow biopsy, other imaging data and clinical information to derive an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. Interobserver agreement of whole-body MRI-DWI was good [all nodal sites together (κ = 0.79); all extranodal sites together (κ = 0.69)]. There was very good agreement between the consensus whole-body MRI-DWI- and FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard for nodal (κ = 0.91) and extranodal (κ = 0.94) staging. The sensitivity and specificity of consensus whole-body MRI-DWI were 93 % and 98 % for nodal staging and 89 % and 100 % for extranodal staging, respectively. Following removal of MRI reader errors, the disease stage according to whole-body MRI-DWI agreed with the reference standard in 28 of 33 patients. Our results indicate that whole-body MRI-DWI is feasible for staging paediatric lymphoma and could potentially serve as a good radiation-free alternative to FDG-PET/CT. (orig.)

  10. Transfer factor (diffusing capacity) standardized for alveolar volume: validation, reference values and applications of a new linear model to replace KCO (TL/VA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; Flowers, R; Marks, A M; Reed, J W

    1996-06-01

    Transfer factor (TL) varies with alveolar volume (VA), but not in the manner implied by the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO (TL/VA)). This paper considers two other simple models (one linear and one exponential) which might standardize TL for VA, and asks the questions: 1) Is either model valid? 2) What are appropriate reference values? and 3) Will the model be useful? The relationship of TL to VA within subjects at different depths of inspiration, and between subjects having lungs of different sizes, were measured and compared. The subjects were asymptomatic, nonsmoking, Caucasian adults, including 31 males assessed in the laboratory and 503 male and female participants in population studies. The linear partial regression coefficients of TL on VA (L corrected for body temperature, atmospheric pressure and water saturation (BTPS)) standardized for height (H) in metres, were similar within- and between-subjects; the coefficients applied over a wide range of values for VA. This was not the case for the exponential model. The resulting reference equations in SI units for males and females were: TL = 11.52 H + 2.72 VA.H-2 - 0.051 Age -12.35. RSD 1.17; and TL = 4.87 H + 2.29 VA.H-2 - 0.019 Age -3.03. RSD 0.92, respectively. The residual standard deviations (RSD) about the new relationships were less than in other series. The new linear model could account for much of the variation between different published reference values for TL; it could be useful clinically, in circumstances when VA deviates from the norm. The model does not explain differences in TL associated with gender. Inclusion of VA.H-2 as a covariate in the reference equation for transfer factor, in addition to age and height, improves the accuracy of prediction of normal transfer factor compared with current reference values; its use suggests that some of the differences between published values is due to the volume term. The equations can be used clinically, and eliminate the need for carbon

  11. Effects of the composition of standard reference material on the accuracy of determinations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs in soils with gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y., E-mail: yongli32@hotmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming and Soil Erosion in the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS and MWR, Yangling 712100 (China); Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, CAAS, No. 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing 100081 (China); Geng, X.C.; Yu, H.Q. [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, CAAS, No. 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing 100081 (China); Wan, G.J. [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China)

    2011-02-15

    The effect of the composition of the used standard reference material (SRM) on results of determination of fallout radionuclides in soil samples was studied. Using five soil types as SRMs, we measured the specific activity of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs in six target samples of Chestnut soil. It was observed that the determination of the {sup 210}Pb activity in the samples depended on the chemical composition of SRMs used to create the efficiency curves. Thus, using SRMs similar in chemical composition to the target samples should improve accuracy in the determination of {sup 210}Pb in environmental samples.

  12. Passive house optimization for Southern Italy based on the 'New Passivhaus Standard'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangheri, Paolo; Pagliano, Lorenzo; Carlucci, Salvatore (end-use Efficiency Research Group, Dept. di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)). e-mail: paolo.zangheri@polimi.it

    2009-07-01

    In Germany and in other countries of Central and Northern Europe more than 8,000 homes conforming to the Passivhaus standard have been built since 1991. The applicability of this Standard has not yet been sufficiently tested in European areas with warm climates, where reducing cooling needs under growing summer comfort requirements poses a challenge. The IEE Passive-On project has drafted a proposal to adapt that Standard to the conditions that characterize Southern Europe, which is described in this paper together with its rationale. Compared with the original definition, one of the main changes is the introduction of explicit requirements on internal comfort during summer, in parallel to a limit to energy needs for cooling. The dynamic simulations conducted to test the new definition of the Standard in the context of Southern Italy (e.g. Palermo) show that the requirements identified by the Passivhaus Standard can be met by simplifying the envelope technologies (e.g. relaxing air-tightness design value) used in the context of Central Europe and adopting passive cooling strategies appropriately adjusted. Some simplifications of the ventilation system can be compensated by an increased role of thermal insulation of the building envelope and some of the choices can make energy needs tend to zero. In accordance with EN 15251, thermal comfort is characterized according to Fanger's PMV in cases where mechanical cooling is still required for peak situations, and according to the adaptive model where no mechanical cooling is required.

  13. The Atmospheric Muon Lifetime, with the Lead Absorption Potential for Muons and References to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazandeh, Cioli; Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Majewski, Walerian

    2017-01-01

    Muon is one of twelve fundamental particles and has the longest free-particle lifetime. It decays into three leptons through an exchange of weak vector bosons W +/W-. Muons are present in atmospheric secondary cosmic rays and reach the sea level. By detecting the time delay between arrival of muons and appearance of decay electrons in a scintillation detector, we will measure muon's lifetime at rest. From the lifetime we can find the ratio gw /MW of the weak coupling constant gw (a weak analog of the electric charge) to mass of the W-boson MW. Vacuum expectation value v of the Higgs field, which determines masses Standard Model (SM) particles, can be calculated as v =2MWc2/gw =(τmμc2/6π3\\hcirc)1/4mμc2 regarding muon mass mμ and muon lifetime τ only. Using the experimental value for MWc2 = 80.4 GeV, we will find weak coupling constant gw. With the SM relation e =gwsin θ√ hcε0 and experimental value of the Z0-photon weak mixing angle θ = 29o we use our muon lifetime to find the elementary electric charge e value. In this experiment we will also determine the sea level fluxes of low-energy (<160 MeV) and high-energy cosmic muons, then will shield the detector with varying thicknesses of lead plates and from the new values of fluxes find the energy-dependent muon stopping power in lead.

  14. Standardization of allergen products: 1. Detailed characterization of GMP-produced recombinant Bet v 1.0101 as biological reference preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himly, M; Nony, E; Chabre, H; Van Overtvelt, L; Neubauer, A; van Ree, R; Buchheit, K-H; Vieths, S; Moingeon, P; Ferreira, F

    2009-07-01

    Standardization of allergen extracts requires the availability of well-characterized recombinant allergens, which can be used as reference standards provided by the European regulatory authorities. The objective of this study was the detailed physicochemical and immunological characterization of rBet v 1.0101, which shall be used in a ring trial within the framework of the Biological Standardization Programme BSP090 of the European Directorate for Quality of Medicines and Healthcare. Recombinant Bet v 1.0101 Y0487 was produced under good manufacturing practice conditions and analysed by an array of physicochemical and immunological methods for identity, quantity, homogeneity, folding and denaturation, aggregation state and stability in solution, as well as biological activity. Batch Y0487 was shown to contain monomeric and well-folded protein being identical with rBet v 1.0101, as determined by mass spectrometry. SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, deamidation analysis and size-exclusion chromatography with light scattering revealed sample homogeneity of >99.9%. Upon storage at +4 degrees C batch Y0487 retained the monomeric state up to 3 months. Protein quantification determined by amino acid analysis was found coinciding with half-maximal inhibition of serum IgE in ELISA. Biological activity of batch Y0487 was shown to be comparable to natural Bet v 1 by IgG and IgE immunoblotting, as well as basophil and T-cell activation. Recombinant Bet v 1.0101 Y0487 was characterized extensively by physicochemical and immunological methods. It was shown highly stable, monomeric and immunologically equivalent to its natural counterpart. Thus, it represents an appropriate candidate reference standard for Bet v 1.

  15. Comparison between Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization Methods on Standard Test Functions and Machine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    , genetic algorithm and particle swarm are shortly presented in this paper. These two algorithms are tested to determine their performance on five different benchmark test functions. The algorithms are tested based on three requirements: precision of the result, number of iterations and calculation time......Nowadays the requirements imposed by the industry and economy ask for better quality and performance while the price must be maintained in the same range. To achieve this goal optimization must be introduced in the design process. Two of the best known optimization algorithms for machine design....... Both algorithms are also tested on an analytical design process of a Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Generator to observe their performances in an electrical machine design application....

  16. Comparison between Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization Methods on Standard Test Functions and Machine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nica, Florin Valentin Traian; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2013-01-01

    , genetic algorithm and particle swarm are shortly presented in this paper. These two algorithms are tested to determine their performance on five different benchmark test functions. The algorithms are tested based on three requirements: precision of the result, number of iterations and calculation time......Nowadays the requirements imposed by the industry and economy ask for better quality and performance while the price must be maintained in the same range. To achieve this goal optimization must be introduced in the design process. Two of the best known optimization algorithms for machine design....... Both algorithms are also tested on an analytical design process of a Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Generator to observe their performances in an electrical machine design application....

  17. Reference Ranges of Amniotic Fluid Index in Late Third Trimester of Pregnancy: What Should the Optimal Interval between Two Ultrasound Examinations Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Hebbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amniotic fluid index (AFI is one of the major and deciding components of fetal biophysical profile and by itself it can predict pregnancy outcome. Very low values are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and renal anomalies of fetus, whereas high values may indicate fetal GI anomalies, maternal diabetes mellitus, and so forth. However, before deciding the cut-off standards for abnormal values for a local population, what constitutes a normal range for specific gestational age and the ideal interval of testing should be defined. Objectives. To establish reference standards for AFI for local population after 34 weeks of pregnancy and to decide an optimal scan interval for AFI estimation in third trimester in low risk antenatal women. Materials and Methods. A prospective estimation of AFI was done in 50 healthy pregnant women from 34 to 40 weeks at weekly intervals. The trend of amniotic fluid volume was studied with advancing gestational age. Only low risk singleton pregnancies with accurately established gestational age who were available for all weekly scan from 34 to 40 weeks were included in the study. Women with gestational or overt diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy, prelabour rupture of membranes, and congenital anomalies in the foetus and those who delivered before 40 completed weeks were excluded from the study. For the purpose of AFI measurement, the uterine cavity was arbitrarily divided into four quadrants by a vertical and horizontal line running through umbilicus. Linear array transabdominal probe was used to measure the largest vertical pocket (in cm in perpendicular plane to the abdominal skin in each quadrant. Amniotic fluid index was obtained by adding these four measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (Version 16, Chicago, IL. Percentile curves (5th, 50th, and 95th centiles were constructed for comparison with other studies. Cohen’s d coefficient was used

  18. Determination of Ergot Alkaloids: Purity and Stability Assessment of Standards and Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Cereal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krska, R.; Berthiller, F.; Schuhmacher, R.

    2008-01-01

    Results obtained from a purity study on standards of the 6 major ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine, and ergocornine and their corresponding epimers are discussed. The 6 ergot alkaloids studied have been defined by the European Food Safety Authority...... considerably above 98% apart from ergocristinine (94%), ergosine (96%), and ergosinine (95%). Also discussed is the optimization of extraction conditions presented in a recently published method for the quantitation of ergot alkaloids in food samples using solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine...... (PSA) before LC/MS/MS. Based on the results obtained from these optimization studies, a mixture of acetonitrile with ammonium carbonate buffer was used as extraction solvent, as recoveries for all analyzed ergot alkaloids were significantly higher than those with the other solvents. Different sample...

  19. Guidelines of the Office International des Epizooties for laboratory quality evaluation, for international reference standards for antibody assays and for laboratory proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Three guidelines, adopted by the International Committee of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), have been combined for publication in a single document. The Guidelines for evaluating laboratory quality (adopted in 1995) form part of the OIE Guidelines for evaluating Veterinary Services. General requirements for equipment, staffing and management of laboratories are outlined. The guidelines for international reference standards for antibody assays (adopted in 1998) provide general rules governing the preparation of immune sera by OIE Reference Laboratories. A data sheet should accompany each preparation dispatched from the laboratory, and details are given of the information to be contained in the data sheet. The guidelines are to be used in conjunction with the OIE Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. Guidelines on the proficiency of laboratory testing (adopted in 1996) describe how the operation of a laboratory can be assessed by inter-laboratory testing, and by voluntary participation in an accreditation (quality assurance) audit, operated by an independent authority. Criteria for assessing serological testing are provided.

  20. Murine monoclonal antibody to platelet factor 4/heparin complexes as a potential reference standard for platelet activation assays in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Reiko; Wanaka, Keiko; Walenga, Jeanine; Prechel, Margaret; Miyashita, Kumiko; Escalante, Vicki; Kaneko, Chieko; Hoshino, Nobuhiro; Oosawa, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Miyako

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of the platelet activation assays to diagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), (14)C-serotonin release assay (SRA) and platelet aggregation test (PAT) has yet to be established due to lack of reference standards and the difficulty of obtaining significant amounts of HIT antibodies from patients with HIT. We prepared a murine monoclonal antibody to human platelet factor 4 (hPF4)/heparin complexes (HIT-MoAb) and investigated the platelet activating action of HIT-MoAb by using SRA and PAT. The HIT-MoAb activated human platelets at low heparin concentration and the platelet activations were inhibited at high heparin concentration in both SRA and PAT. The HIT-MoAb produced a concentration-dependent effect. Moreover, the platelet activation at low heparin concentration was inhibited by anti-FcγRIIa antibody. These results indicated that HIT-MoAb has characteristics similar to human HIT antibodies regarding heparin-dependent platelet activation. Therefore, it is suggested that HIT-MoAb has the potential to be a positive control or reference standard in platelet activation assays.

  1. Development and validation of a SYBR-Green I real-time PCR protocol to detect hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in foods through calibration via plasmid reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Matteo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Garino, Cristiano; Arlorio, Marco

    2009-12-09

    Many tree nuts are considered to be a serious problem in food safety, because of the presence of causative factors in IgE-mediated food allergies. Among these, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) seeds are largely used in a range of confectionery products and contain many well-characterized allergens. DNA-based methods and ELISA tests may prove to be useful to assess the presence of hidden ingredients in foods. The aim of this work was the development and validation of a species-specific SYBR Green I real-time PCR protocol for the detection of hazelnut in foods. A novel efficient primer pair on the Cor a 8 genomic coding region was designed by preparing a plasmid vector-based internal reference standard to calibrate the PCR. A good sensitivity, down to 20 (genomic) and 15 (plasmid) DNA copies, was established. All of the commercial samples considered in our study (containing hazelnut as ingredient or as a potential trace cross-contamination) were effectively amplified by PCR, showing a perfect correspondence with an ELISA commercial test, employed as a reference standard method.

  2. Ionic force field optimization based on single-ion and ion-pair solvation properties: going beyond standard mixing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyta, Maria; Netz, Roland R

    2012-03-28

    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the SPC/E water model, we optimize ionic force-field parameters for seven different halide and alkali ions, considering a total of eight ion-pairs. Our strategy is based on simultaneous optimizing single-ion and ion-pair properties, i.e., we first fix ion-water parameters based on single-ion solvation free energies, and in a second step determine the cation-anion interaction parameters (traditionally given by mixing or combination rules) based on the Kirkwood-Buff theory without modification of the ion-water interaction parameters. In doing so, we have introduced scaling factors for the cation-anion Lennard-Jones (LJ) interaction that quantify deviations from the standard mixing rules. For the rather size-symmetric salt solutions involving bromide and chloride ions, the standard mixing rules work fine. On the other hand, for the iodide and fluoride solutions, corresponding to the largest and smallest anion considered in this work, a rescaling of the mixing rules was necessary. For iodide, the experimental activities suggest more tightly bound ion pairing than given by the standard mixing rules, which is achieved in simulations by reducing the scaling factor of the cation-anion LJ energy. For fluoride, the situation is different and the simulations show too large attraction between fluoride and cations when compared with experimental data. For NaF, the situation can be rectified by increasing the cation-anion LJ energy. For KF, it proves necessary to increase the effective cation-anion Lennard-Jones diameter. The optimization strategy outlined in this work can be easily adapted to different kinds of ions.

  3. High-resolution global grids of revised Priestley–Taylor and Hargreaves–Samani coefficients for assessing ASCE-standardized reference crop evapotranspiration and solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Aschonitis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to provide global grids (0.5° of revised annual coefficients for the Priestley–Taylor (P-T and Hargreaves–Samani (H-S evapotranspiration methods after calibration based on the ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers-standardized Penman–Monteith method (the ASCE method includes two reference crops: short-clipped grass and tall alfalfa. The analysis also includes the development of a global grid of revised annual coefficients for solar radiation (Rs estimations using the respective Rs formula of H-S. The analysis was based on global gridded climatic data of the period 1950–2000. The method for deriving annual coefficients of the P-T and H-S methods was based on partial weighted averages (PWAs of their mean monthly values. This method estimates the annual values considering the amplitude of the parameter under investigation (ETo and Rs giving more weight to the monthly coefficients of the months with higher ETo values (or Rs values for the case of the H-S radiation formula. The method also eliminates the effect of unreasonably high or low monthly coefficients that may occur during periods where ETo and Rs fall below a specific threshold. The new coefficients were validated based on data from 140 stations located in various climatic zones of the USA and Australia with expanded observations up to 2016. The validation procedure for ETo estimations of the short reference crop showed that the P-T and H-S methods with the new revised coefficients outperformed the standard methods reducing the estimated root mean square error (RMSE in ETo values by 40 and 25 %, respectively. The estimations of Rs using the H-S formula with revised coefficients reduced the RMSE by 28 % in comparison to the standard H-S formula. Finally, a raster database was built consisting of (a global maps for the mean monthly ETo values estimated by ASCE-standardized method for both reference crops, (b global maps for the revised annual

  4. Optimization, evaluation, and comparison of standard algorithms for image reconstruction with the VIP-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylova, E.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-07-01

    A novel positron emission tomography (PET) scanner design based on a room-temperature pixelated CdTe solid-state detector is being developed within the framework of the Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project [1]. The simulation results show a great potential of the VIP to produce high-resolution images even in extremely challenging conditions such as the screening of a human head [2]. With unprecedented high channel density (450 channels/cm3) image reconstruction is a challenge. Therefore optimization is needed to find the best algorithm in order to exploit correctly the promising detector potential. The following reconstruction algorithms are evaluated: 2-D Filtered Backprojection (FBP), Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM), List-Mode OSEM (LM-OSEM), and the Origin Ensemble (OE) algorithm. The evaluation is based on the comparison of a true image phantom with a set of reconstructed images obtained by each algorithm. This is achieved by calculation of image quality merit parameters such as the bias, the variance and the mean square error (MSE). A systematic optimization of each algorithm is performed by varying the reconstruction parameters, such as the cutoff frequency of the noise filters and the number of iterations. The region of interest (ROI) analysis of the reconstructed phantom is also performed for each algorithm and the results are compared. Additionally, the performance of the image reconstruction methods is compared by calculating the modulation transfer function (MTF). The reconstruction time is also taken into account to choose the optimal algorithm. The analysis is based on GAMOS [3] simulation including the expected CdTe and electronic specifics.

  5. Standardization and Optimization of Intraoperative Molecular Imaging for Identifying Primary Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predina, Jarrod D; Okusanya, Olugbenga; D Newton, Andrew; Low, Philip; Singhal, Sunil

    2017-05-11

    Intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) is an emerging technology used to locate pulmonary adenocarcinomas and identify positive margins during surgery. Background noise and tissue autofluorescence have been major obstacles. The goal of this study is to optimize the image quality of folate receptor alpha (FRα) targeted IMI for pulmonary adenocarcinomas by modifying emission data. A total of 15 lung cancer patients were enrolled in a pilot study. In the first cohort, FRα upregulation within pulmonary adenocarcinoma tumors was confirmed by analyzing specimens from five pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients with flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Next, in a cohort of five additional patients, autofluorescence of intrathoracic structures and tissues was quantified. Lastly, five patients with tumors at various depths from the pleural surface were enrolled and received the FRα-targeted optical contrast agent, EC17. In this final cohort, resected pulmonary adenocarcinomas were imaged at a wide range of fluorescence exposure times (0 to 200 ms), various laser powers, and with unique filter configurations. Tumor-to-noise ratio (TNR) for images was generated using region of interest software. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas highly express FRα. Significant autofluorescence from native thoracic tissues was found with the highest fluorescent signals at the bronchial stump (547 ± 98, range 423-699), the pulmonary artery (267 ± 64, range 200-374), and cortical bone (266 ± 17, range 243-287). High levels of autofluorescence were appreciated after systemic administration of EC17; however, TNR was improved by altering exposure settings at the time of the imaging. Optimal fluorescent exposure time occurs at 40 ms (25 frames/s). Exposure properties can be manipulated to maximize TNR thus allowing for successful intraoperative detection of pulmonary adenocarcinomas during surgery. Optimization of the conditions for intraoperative molecular imaging sets the stage for future

  6. Comparing the role of standard references on the prevalence of Iranian children and adolescents' overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ghanbari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and has a role on high blood pressure, diabetes type II, etc., This review assesses the prevalence of Iranian children obesity and overweight for different age categories and compares the three standard definitions of obesity. Materials and Methods: To retrieve desirable studies concerning childhood anthropometric data from different area of Iran, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and different local databases such as Scientific Information database were used. The studies reported the prevalence of obesity or overweight of children < 6, 6–12, and 12–20 years old, despite differences between definitions of childhood obesity, were included in the study. We combined the reported prevalence of the overweight and obesity with regard to age and gender, and also by the different standard references which are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO definition, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF references. The analysis was carried out using STATA software. Results: Our review covered 75 articles reported the prevalence of overweight or obesity among children and adolescents for different age groups in Iran. Our meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight did not vary significantly in gender and age categories, but different definitions provide different prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The effective factors on obesity and overweight included administration policy and organizational, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and social factors. CDC and WHO references intended in monitoring children's growth and the IOTF cutoffs would rather provide a common set of definitions that researchers and policymakers could use for descriptive and comparative purposes.

  7. Hybrid Systems Modeling in Non Standard Queue and Optimization with the Simulation Approach in CNG Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Haddadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling line in non standard way occurs when layout constraints and inappropriate placing customer is limited for taking customer service by the servant. The aim of this study is providing a mixed model for analyzing the system of non-standard line with Considering the limitations of the layout with Using the concepts and principles of queuing theory So that the main parameters of the model for this type of system can be calculated and The basis of queuing systems with non-standard parameters may be considered. In these nonstandard systems, because of special arrangement of servants, there are some delay times for giving services and exit. The use of simulation tools to demonstrate the relatively low efficiency of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas stations in Iran, To provide an optimum combination of servers (Fuel nozzle Also more efficient layout for the CNG stations has Studied. Manufacturing firms and service managers can use this model and evaluate and analysis their own system and get a better recognition of their system. One of the most widely used queuing systems in the country are CNG stations, in consideration high investment cost and land value in large cities, so we decided to studied on this area as one of the servicing activities.

  8. Stereological Analysis of Liver Biopsy Histology Sections as a Reference Standard for Validating Non-Invasive Liver Fat Fraction Measurements by MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, Tim G.; House, Michael J.; Bangma, Sander J.; Pang, Wenjie; Bathgate, Andrew; Gan, Eng K.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Clouston, Andrew; Olynyk, John K.; Adams, Leon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Validation of non-invasive methods of liver fat quantification requires a reference standard. However, using standard histopathology assessment of liver biopsies is problematical because of poor repeatability. We aimed to assess a stereological method of measuring volumetric liver fat fraction (VLFF) in liver biopsies and to use the method to validate a magnetic resonance imaging method for measurement of VLFF. Methods VLFFs were measured in 59 subjects (1) by three independent analysts using a stereological point counting technique combined with the Delesse principle on liver biopsy histological sections and (2) by three independent analysts using the HepaFat-Scan® technique on magnetic resonance images of the liver. Bland Altman statistics and intraclass correlation (IC) were used to assess the repeatability of each method and the bias between the methods of liver fat fraction measurement. Results Inter-analyst repeatability coefficients for the stereology and HepaFat-Scan® methods were 8.2 (95% CI 7.7–8.8)% and 2.4 (95% CI 2.2–2.5)% VLFF respectively. IC coefficients were 0.86 (95% CI 0.69–0.93) and 0.990 (95% CI 0.985–0.994) respectively. Small biases (≤3.4%) were observable between two pairs of analysts using stereology while no significant biases were observable between any of the three pairs of analysts using HepaFat-Scan®. A bias of 1.4±0.5% VLFF was observed between the HepaFat-Scan® method and the stereological method. Conclusions Repeatability of the stereological method is superior to the previously reported performance of assessment of hepatic steatosis by histopathologists and is a suitable reference standard for validating non-invasive methods of measurement of VLFF. PMID:27501242

  9. Comparison of Three Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Tetanus Toxoid with Reference Standards and the Impact on Clinical Practice▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeven, Karen H.; Dale, Connie; Foster, Phil; Body, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Accurate determination of the concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to tetanus toxoid is important in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid vaccines, determine immune competence in individual patients, and measure the prevalence of immunity in populations. The performance of three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for IgG antibodies to tetanus toxoid were evaluated. Serially diluted NIBSC 76/589 and TE-3 human tetanus IgG immunoglobulin international reference standards were analyzed in quadruplicate using ELISAs manufactured by The Binding Site, Inc. (VaccZyme); Scimedx; and Euroimmun. In addition, IgG antibodies to tetanus toxoid were measured in 83 deidentified serum specimens using each manufacturer's ELISA. Each ELISA provided linear results when evaluated with the reference preparations. The Binding Site ELISA provided results that closely corresponded to the reference preparations (y = 1.09x − 0.08), whereas the Scimedx ELISA gave results that were consistently lower (y = 0.21x − 0.07) and the Euroimmun ELISA gave results that were consistently higher (y = 1.5x + 0.30) than the reference preparation concentrations. Using the recommended cutoff for each ELISA (<0.10 IU/ml), the overall agreement of all of the ELISA methods was 78%. Three of eighty-three (3.6%) human serum samples demonstrated inadequate immunity with all three assays. The Binding Site ELISA yielded nonprotective antibody concentrations in only these 3 samples, whereas 19 samples (22.9%) according to the Scimedx ELISA and 6 samples (7.2%) according to the Euroimmun ELISA demonstrated nonprotective concentrations. The performance characteristics of ELISAs for tetanus immunoglobulin titers were manufacturer dependent, and the differences translated into important disparities in reported results. PMID:18845832

  10. Comparison of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of immunoglobulin g antibodies to tetanus toxoid with reference standards and the impact on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeven, Karen H; Dale, Connie; Foster, Phil; Body, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    Accurate determination of the concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to tetanus toxoid is important in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid vaccines, determine immune competence in individual patients, and measure the prevalence of immunity in populations. The performance of three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for IgG antibodies to tetanus toxoid were evaluated. Serially diluted NIBSC 76/589 and TE-3 human tetanus IgG immunoglobulin international reference standards were analyzed in quadruplicate using ELISAs manufactured by The Binding Site, Inc. (VaccZyme); Scimedx; and Euroimmun. In addition, IgG antibodies to tetanus toxoid were measured in 83 deidentified serum specimens using each manufacturer's ELISA. Each ELISA provided linear results when evaluated with the reference preparations. The Binding Site ELISA provided results that closely corresponded to the reference preparations (y=1.09x-0.08), whereas the Scimedx ELISA gave results that were consistently lower (y=0.21x-0.07) and the Euroimmun ELISA gave results that were consistently higher (y=1.5x+0.30) than the reference preparation concentrations. Using the recommended cutoff for each ELISA (<0.10 IU/ml), the overall agreement of all of the ELISA methods was 78%. Three of eighty-three (3.6%) human serum samples demonstrated inadequate immunity with all three assays. The Binding Site ELISA yielded nonprotective antibody concentrations in only these 3 samples, whereas 19 samples (22.9%) according to the Scimedx ELISA and 6 samples (7.2%) according to the Euroimmun ELISA demonstrated nonprotective concentrations. The performance characteristics of ELISAs for tetanus immunoglobulin titers were manufacturer dependent, and the differences translated into important disparities in reported results.

  11. Detection of heart rate and rhythm with a smartphone-based electrocardiograph versus a reference standard electrocardiograph in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Marc S; Gelzer, Anna R; Rishniw, Mark

    2016-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diagnostic utility of ECGs acquired with a smartphone-based device, compared with reference 6-lead ECGs, for identification of heart rate and rhythm in dogs and cats. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 51 client-owned dogs and 27 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Patients examined by a small animal referral cardiology service between April 2012 and January 2013 were enrolled consecutively. In each patient, a 30-second ECG was simultaneously acquired with a smartphone-based device (a bipolar, single-lead recorder coupled to a smartphone with an ECG application) and a standard 6-lead ECG machine. Recordings were evaluated by 3 board-certified cardiologists, and intra- and interobserver agreement were evaluated for both rhythm diagnosis and QRS polarity identification. RESULTS Values for instantaneous and mean heart rates for the smartphone-acquired and reference ECGs were within 1 beat of each other when mean heart rates were calculated. Intraobserver agreement for rhythm assessment was very high, with maximum disagreement for any observer for only 2 of 51 dogs and only 4 of 27 cats. There was minimal disagreement in the polarity of depolarization between the smartphone-acquired and reference ECGs in dogs but frequent disagreement in cats. Interobserver agreement for smartphone-acquired ECGs was similar to that for reference ECGs. with all 3 observers agreeing on the rhythm analysis and minimal disagreement on polarity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that ECGs acquired with the smartphone-based device accurately identified heart rate and rhythm in dogs and cats. Thus, the device may allow veterinarians to evaluate and manage cardiac arrhythmias relatively inexpensively at the cage side and could also allow clinicians to rapidly share information via email for further consultation, potentially enhancing patient care.

  12. Identification of optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in the rat hypothalamus and intestine for the study of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Matter, EK; Hoppert, HT; Seeley, RJ; Sandoval, DA

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity has a complicated metabolic pathology, and defining the underlying mechanisms of obesity requires integrative studies with molecular endpoints. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool that has been widely utilized. However, the importance of using carefully validated reference genes in RT-qPCR seems to be overlooked in obesity-related research. The objective of this study was to select a set of reference genes with stable expressions to be used for RT-qPCR normalization in rats under fasted vs. re-fed and chow vs. high fat diet (HFD) conditions. DESIGN Male Long-Evans rats were treated under four conditions, chow/fasted, chow/re-fed, HFD/fasted, and HFD/re-fed. Expression stabilities of the13 candidate reference genes were evaluated in the rat hypothalamus, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum using ReFinder software program. The optimal number of reference genes needed for RT-qPCR analyses was determined using geNorm. RESULTS Using geNorm analysis, we found that it was sufficient to use the two most stably expressed genes as references in RT-qPCR analyses for each tissue under specific experimental conditions. Unique subsets of reference genes out of the 13 candidate genes were identified, each of which is specific for one type of rat tissue (hypothalamus, duodenum, jejunum, or ileum) under a different combination of diet and feeding condition. CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrates that gene expression levels of reference genes commonly used in obesity-related studies, such as ACTB, or RPS18, are altered by changes in acute or chronic energy status. These findings underline the importance of using reference genes that are stable in expression across experimental conditions when studying the rat hypothalamus and intestine, because these tissues play an integral role in regulation of energy homeostasis. It is our hope that this study will raise awareness among obesity researchers on the essential need for reference gene validation in gene

  13. [Process optimization by central control of acute pain therapy: implementation of standardized treatment concepts and central pain management in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlenwein, J; Stüder, D; Lange, J-P; Bauer, M; Petzke, F; Przemeck, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe the effects of standardization and central control of the processes involved in postoperative pain management from patient and employee perspectives. Patients (n = 282/307) and respective hospital staff (n = 149/119) evaluated the processes, the quality of postoperative pain management and result parameters 3 months before and 12 months after the introduction of standardization of the postoperative pain therapy process using a set of standardized questionnaires. Pain level and the waiting period for an analgesic partially decreased and a higher subjective effectiveness of medication was achieved in patients after the standardization. Patients felt that the pain was taken more seriously and contacted the staff for additional medication more frequently. From an employee viewpoint the quality of care and individual competence and ability to treat pain increased after the introduction of standardization. Pain assessment was improved and employees rated their knowledge and education level as higher than before the intervention. Patients with pre-existing chronic pain and patients with special regional therapy benefited only partially after the introduction and an increase in pain intensity was even observed. The quality of care was improved by standardization of the postoperative pain management. The legal and practical ability of the nursing stuff to administer pain medication within well-defined margins reduced the dependence on the ward doctor and at the same time patient pain levels. Patients received analgesics more quickly and experienced increased effectiveness. These results should be an incentive to reconsider the importance of the organization of postoperative pain management, because the quality of care with all potential medical and economic advantages, can be easily optimized by such simple mechanisms. They also show that the quality assessment of acute pain and the selection of appropriate indicators

  14. Mineralogy and instrumental neutron activation analysis of seven National Bureau of Standards and three Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas clay reference samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, John W.; Flanagan, F.J.; Bragg, Anne; Doughten, M.W.; Filby, R.H.; Grimm, Catherine; Mee, J.S.; Potts, P.J.; Rogers, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of 3 oxides and 29 elements in 7 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and 3 Instituto de Pesquisas Techno16gicas (IPT) reference clay samples were etermined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical work was designed to test the homogeneity of constituents in three new NBS reference clays, NBS-97b, NBS-98b, and NBS-679. The analyses of variance of 276 sets of data for these three standards show that the constituents are distributed homogeneously among bottles of samples for 94 percent of the sets of data. Three of the reference samples (NBS-97, NBS-97a, and NBS-97b) are flint clays; four of the samples (NBS-98, NBS-98a, NBS-98b, and IPT-32) are plastic clays, and three of the samples (NBS-679, IPT-28, and IPT-42) are miscellaneous clays (both sedimentary and residual). Seven clays are predominantly kaolinite; the other three clays contain illite and kaolinite in the approximate ratio 3:2. Seven clays contain quartz as the major nonclay mineral. The mineralogy of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri (NBS-97a and NBS-98a) differs markedly from that of the flint and plastic clays from Pennsylvania (NBS-97, NBS-97b, NBS-98, and NBS-98b). The flint clay NBS-97 has higher average chromium, hafnium, lithium, and zirconium contents than its replacement, reference sample NBS-97b. The differences between the plastic clay NBS-98 and its replacement, NBS-98b, are not as pronounced. The trace element contents of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri, NBS-97a and NBS-98a, differ significantly from those of the clays from Pennsylvania, especially the average rare earth element (REE) contents. The trace element contents of clay sample IPT-32 differ from those of the other plastic clays. IPT-28 and IPT-42 have some average trace element contents that differ not only between these two samples but also from all the other clays. IPT-28 has the highest summation of the average REE contents of the 10 samples. The uranium content of NBS-98a, 46

  15. Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  16. A Comparative Evaluation of Different Diagnostic Modalities in the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using a Composite Reference Standard: A Tertiary Hospital Based Study in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Veena; Kaore, Navinchandra Motiram; Ramnani, Vijay Kumar; Sarda, Sheil

    2016-10-01

    Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella spp. is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and endemic in many developing countries including India and other South-East Asian countries. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis. Currently, the standard serological method is tube agglutination with moderate sensitivity and specificity. Dot blot assay detecting IgM and IgG antibodies to a specific 50kD Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) antigen of Salmonella spp. is a simple, reliable, affordable and rapid test which can help in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever. To systematically evaluate the different diagnostic modalities against a composite reference standard for the better diagnosis of typhoid fever in clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever. This cross-sectional, prospective analytical study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital attached to Medical College in central India from November 2011 to June 2013. A total of 163 blood samples, collected aseptically from patients clinically diagnosed of enteric fever, were tested using various component tests like blood culture, Tube Widal and Dot Enzyme Immuno Assay (Dot EIA) for IgG and/or IgM. Composite Reference Standard (CRS) was created for defining the confirmed cases of typhoid fever using the component tests, wherein culture positive and in absence of culture positivity any two component test positive patients were taken as confirmed cases. All the component tests were evaluated against the CRS for sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV and their significance in relation to the duration of illness using statistical tests of significance. Blood culture was positive in 16 (9.81%) whereas, Tube Widal, IgM, IgG and IgM+IgG in combination were positive in 88(54%), 58(35.58%), 30 (18.40%) and 75 (46.01%) respectively. Using a two test criteria of CRS framed, a total of 104 patients were considered as confirmed cases. Though specificity of blood culture was 100%, the sensitivity was low

  17. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  18. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  19. Identification of optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in the rat hypothalamus and intestine for the study of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Matter, E K; Hoppert, H T; Grayson, B E; Seeley, R J; Sandoval, D A

    2014-02-01

    Obesity has a complicated metabolic pathology, and defining the underlying mechanisms of obesity requires integrative studies with molecular end points. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool that has been widely utilized. However, the importance of using carefully validated reference genes in RT-qPCR seems to have been overlooked in obesity-related research. The objective of this study was to select a set of reference genes with stable expressions to be used for RT-qPCR normalization in rats under fasted vs re-fed and chow vs high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. Male long-Evans rats were treated under four conditions: chow/fasted, chow/re-fed, HFD/fasted and HFD/re-fed. Expression stabilities of 13 candidate reference genes were evaluated in the rat hypothalamus, duodenum, jejunum and ileum using the ReFinder software program. The optimal number of reference genes needed for RT-qPCR analyses was determined using geNorm. Using geNorm analysis, we found that it was sufficient to use the two most stably expressed genes as references in RT-qPCR analyses for each tissue under specific experimental conditions. B2M and RPLP0 in the hypothalamus, RPS18 and HMBS in the duodenum, RPLP2 and RPLP0 in the jejunum and RPS18 and YWHAZ in the ileum were the most suitable pairs for a normalization study when the four aforementioned experimental conditions were considered. Our study demonstrates that gene expression levels of reference genes commonly used in obesity-related studies, such as ACTB or RPS18, are altered by changes in acute or chronic energy status. These findings underline the importance of using reference genes that are stable in expression across experimental conditions when studying the rat hypothalamus and intestine, because these tissues have an integral role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. It is our hope that this study will raise awareness among obesity researchers on the essential need for reference gene validation in gene expression

  20. The Role of the XBRL Standard in Optimizing the Financial Reporting

    CERN Document Server

    Grosu, V; Iancu, E; Petris, R; Socoliuc, M

    2010-01-01

    When the financial information is difficult to produce, interpret, compare and analyze, we are put in the situation to face inconvenient consequences with negative repercussions, such as: the investor can give up the investment (with negative consequences on the risk equity market), the banks may not give loans, an auditor may not consider the financial statements as being credible etc. These facts allow the introduction of this paper's main objective, the eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) which is an open standard, independent and international for the treatments, opportunity, correctness, efficiency and minor costs of the financial and economical information. The XBRL will be analyzed in the second part of the paper, the history of this electronic communication language will be described, as there will also be described the promoting organizations, the base technology (the WEB and XML architecture which will be the next stage of the internet programming), and the role it has within the chain of ...

  1. An optimal PID controller via LQR for standard second order plus time delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Anuraag; Thakur, S K; Pandit, V S

    2016-01-01

    An improved tuning methodology of PID controller for standard second order plus time delay systems (SOPTD) is developed using the approach of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and pole placement technique to obtain the desired performance measures. The pole placement method together with LQR is ingeniously used for SOPTD systems where the time delay part is handled in the controller output equation instead of characteristic equation. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been demonstrated via simulation of stable open loop oscillatory, over damped, critical damped and unstable open loop systems. Results show improved closed loop time response over the existing LQR based PI/PID tuning methods with less control effort. The effect of non-dominant pole on the stability and robustness of the controller has also been discussed.

  2. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals.

  3. Optimization of pumping rate and recharge through numerical modeling with special reference to small coral island aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pallavi; Singh, V. S.

    The groundwater is the only source of availability of fresh water in tiny coral islands. In the past decades, there has been growing demand for fresh water to meet the need of domestic besides other purposes. The aquifer system on these islands is fragile besides being subjected to various stresses like high subsurface discharge, increased abstraction, improper disposal of waste water and tidal waves of ocean all of which subject the aquifer prone to sea water intrusion and thus reduction and deterioration the water quality. Therefore, understanding the aquifer’s behavior and then work out a sustainable option for fresh water is essential. The paper concerns optimizing of pumping and artificial recharge paces to reduce the effects of various stresses over tiny and fragile lens-shaped coral island aquifer system. The density driven ground water flow was simulated using SEAWAT (MODFLOW and MT3D based computer program) model. Detailed hydrogeological investigations were carried out to determine the quantity of freshwater that could be pumped to avoid the seawater intrusion into the aquifer through modeling. Initial heads, physical parameters and boundary conditions of the study area have been defined in the model based on field data, geophysical measurements and interpretations and hydrogeological studies. The model was calibrated by obtaining a match of computed and observed values of the water table, as hydraulic head is much more sensitive to pumping rates than any other stress. A few sentences about: flow model were utilized to derive optimal pumping rate; the effect of artificial recharge through the model, has also proved that the salt-water intrusion could be stopped by raising the water level through temporarily storing the artificially recharged water post construction of subsurface dam near the coast.

  4. Optimizing the electronic health record to standardize administration and documentation of nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citty, Sandra W; Kamel, Amir; Garvan, Cynthia; Marlowe, Lee; Westhoff, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is a major cause for hospital re-admission, pressure ulcers and increased hospital costs. Methods to improve the administration and documentation of nutritional supplements for hospitalized patients are needed to improve patient care, outcomes and resource utilization. Staff at a medium-sized academic health science center hospital in the southeastern United States noted that nutritional supplements ordered for patients at high risk for malnutrition were not offered or administered to patients in a standardized manner and/or not documented clearly in the electronic health record as per prescription. This paper reports on a process improvement project that redesigned the ordering, administration and documentation process of oral nutritional supplements in the electronic health record. By adding nutritional products to the medication order sets and adding an electronic nutrition administration record (ENAR) tab, the multidisciplinary team sought to standardize nutritional supplement ordering, documentation and administration at prescribed intervals. This process improvement project used a triangulated approach to evaluating pre- and post-process change including: medical record reviews, patient interviews, and nutrition formula room log reports. Staff education and training was carried out prior to initiation of the system changes. This process change resulted in an average decrease in the return of unused nutritional formula from 76% returned at baseline to 54% post-process change. The process change resulted in 100% of nutritional supplement orders having documentation about nutritional medication administration and/or reason for non-administration. Documentation in the ENAR showed that 41% of ONS orders were given and 59% were not given. Significantly more patients reported being offered the ONS product (p=0.0001) after process redesign and more patients (5% before ENAR and 86% after ENAR reported being offered the correct

  5. Optimizing the electronic health record to standardize administration and documentation of nutritional supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citty, Sandra W.; Kamel, Amir; Garvan, Cynthia; Marlowe, Lee; Westhoff, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is a major cause for hospital re-admission, pressure ulcers and increased hospital costs. Methods to improve the administration and documentation of nutritional supplements for hospitalized patients are needed to improve patient care, outcomes and resource utilization. Staff at a medium-sized academic health science center hospital in the southeastern United States noted that nutritional supplements ordered for patients at high risk for malnutrition were not offered or administered to patients in a standardized manner and/or not documented clearly in the electronic health record as per prescription. This paper reports on a process improvement project that redesigned the ordering, administration and documentation process of oral nutritional supplements in the electronic health record. By adding nutritional products to the medication order sets and adding an electronic nutrition administration record (ENAR) tab, the multidisciplinary team sought to standardize nutritional supplement ordering, documentation and administration at prescribed intervals. This process improvement project used a triangulated approach to evaluating pre- and post-process change including: medical record reviews, patient interviews, and nutrition formula room log reports. Staff education and training was carried out prior to initiation of the system changes. This process change resulted in an average decrease in the return of unused nutritional formula from 76% returned at baseline to 54% post-process change. The process change resulted in 100% of nutritional supplement orders having documentation about nutritional medication administration and/or reason for non-administration. Documentation in the ENAR showed that 41% of ONS orders were given and 59% were not given. Significantly more patients reported being offered the ONS product (p=0.0001) after process redesign and more patients (5% before ENAR and 86% after ENAR reported being offered the correct

  6. Optimization of traceable coaxial RF reflection standards with 7-mm-N-connector using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coaxial device with 7-mm-N-connector was developed providing calculable complex reflection coefficients for traceable calibration of vector network analyzers (VNA. It was specifically designed to fill the gap between 0 Hz (DC, direct current and 250MHz, though the device was tested up to 10GHz. The frequency dependent reflection coefficient of this device can be described by a model, which is characterized by traceable measurements. It is therefore regarded as a “traceable model". The new idea of using such models for traceability has been verified, found to be valid and was used for these investigations. The DC resistance value was extracted from RF measurements up to 10 GHz by means of Genetic Algorithms (GA. The GA was used to obtain the elements of the model describing the reflection coefficient Γ of a network of SMD resistors. The DC values determined with the GA from RF measurements match the traceable value at DC within 3·10-3, which is in good agreement with measurements using reference air lines at GHz frequencies.

  7. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  8. Stability of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode equipped with an ionic liquid salt bridge composed of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-amide in potentiometry of pH standard buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Manabu; Yamanuki, Mikito; Iwamoto, Yasukazu; Nomura, Satoshi; Kakiuchi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The stability of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode equipped with a gelled ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N), as a salt bridge, was examined in the potentiometry of pH standard solutions. The variation in the liquid junction potential (LJP) of the ionic liquid (IL)-type reference electrode, measured with respect to a double junction-type KCl reference electrode, was within 1 mV when one standard solution was replaced by another, except for the phthalate standard. The time course of the potential of the IL-type reference electrode showed a standard deviation of ±0.3 mV in all buffer solutions. The reproducible deviation of the potential of the IL-type reference electrode in the phthalate pH standard amounted to 5 mV. The deviation is due to the partition of the hydrogen phthalate in the C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N, influencing the phase boundary potential (PBP) across the interface between C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N and the phthalate standard. If a citrate standard is used instead of the phthalate buffer, the IL salt bridge works satisfactorily as a salt bridge for a reference electrode suitable for potentiometoric pH measurements.

  9. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  10. Diagnostic performance of cardiac imaging methods to diagnose ischaemia-causing coronary artery disease when directly compared with fractional flow reserve as a reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danad, Ibrahim; Szymonifka, Jackie; Twisk, Jos W R

    2016-01-01

    ), and cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging when directly compared with an FFR reference standard. METHOD AND RESULTS: PubMed and Web of Knowledge were searched for investigations published between 1 January 2002 and 28 February 2015. Studies performing FFR in at least 75% of coronary vessels......AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress echocardiography (SE), invasive coronary angiography (ICA), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CCTA (FFRCT...... for the diagnosis of ischaemic coronary artery disease (CAD) were included. Twenty-three articles reporting on 3788 patients and 5323 vessels were identified. Meta-analysis was performed for pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios (LR), diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristic...

  11. Comparison of gravimetry and hydrolysis/derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of fat from standard reference infant formula powder using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Ude, M; Doane-Weideman, T; Tomczak, J; Taylor, L T

    2002-03-27

    This paper describes a comparative study of the gravimetric versus hydrolysis/derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of fat in infant formula. Fat was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with a small amount of ethanol, the extract was weighed, and the total fat was determined gravimetrically. Subsequently, another sample of the supercritical fluid fat extract was hydrolyzed to yield free fatty acids, which were converted to their methyl ester derivatives (FAMEs). Quantification was performed by GC-MS. NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM-1846) was used to validate both fat determination methods. Results showed that the gravimetric average percent fat was 26.86%, whereas the GC-MS method yielded 24.64%. Some peaks were detected in the ion chromatogram from the GC-MS that were identified as nonfatty acids such as aldehydes, which may account for the higher percentage fat measured as weight of extract rather than measured as FAMEs expressed as triglycerides.

  12. A combined strategy of "in silico" transcriptome analysis and web search engine optimization allows an agile identification of reference genes suitable for normalization in gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, Primetta; Ciceri, Gian Paolo; Provero, Paolo; Stanca, Antonio Michele; Morcia, Caterina; Terzi, Valeria

    2007-03-01

    Traditionally housekeeping genes have been employed as endogenous reference (internal control) genes for normalization in gene expression studies. Since the utilization of single housekeepers cannot assure an unbiased result, new normalization methods involving multiple housekeeping genes and normalizing using their mean expression have been recently proposed. Moreover, since a gold standard gene suitable for every experimental condition does not exist, it is also necessary to validate the expression stability of every putative control gene on the specific requirements of the planned experiment. As a consequence, finding a good set of reference genes is for sure a non-trivial problem requiring quite a lot of lab-based experimental testing. In this work we identified novel candidate barley reference genes suitable for normalization in gene expression studies. An advanced web search approach aimed to collect, from publicly available web resources, the most interesting information regarding the expression profiling of candidate housekeepers on a specific experimental basis has been set up and applied, as an example, on stress conditions. A complementary lab-based analysis has been carried out to verify the expression profile of the selected genes in different tissues and during heat shock response. This combined dry/wet approach can be applied to any species and physiological condition of interest and can be considered very helpful to identify putative reference genes to be shortlisted every time a new experimental design has to be set up.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in adults with suspect brachial plexus lesions: A multicentre retrospective study with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tagliafico@unige.it [Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure, Italy via XXV Aprile, 38- Pietra Ligure, 17027 Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Radiology Department, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16138 Genova (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To evaluate brachial plexus MRI accuracy with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard in a large multicentre study. Materials and methods: The research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards, and all patients provided their written informed consent. A multicentre retrospective trial that included three centres was performed between March 2006 and April 2011. A total of 157 patients (men/women: 81/76; age range, 18–84 years) were evaluated: surgical findings and clinical follow-up of at least 12 months were used as the reference standard. MR imaging was performed with different equipment at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. The patient group was divided in five subgroups: mass lesion, traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, post-treatment evaluation, and other. Sensitivity, specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value (PPV), pre-test-probability (the prevalence), negative predictive value (NPV), pre- and post-test odds (OR), likelihood ratio for positive results (LH+), likelihood ratio for negative results (LH−), accuracy and post-test probability (post-P) were reported on a per-patient basis. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs were: 0.810/0.914; (0.697–0.904). Overall PPV, pre-test probability, NPV, LH+, LH−, and accuracy: 0.823, 0.331, 0.905, 9.432, 0.210, 0.878. Conclusions: The overall diagnostic accuracy of brachial plexus MRI calculated on a per-patient base is relatively high. The specificity of brachial plexus MRI in patients suspected of having a space-occupying mass is very high. The sensitivity is also high, but there are false-positive interpretations as well.

  14. Comparing the responsiveness of a brief, multidimensional risk screening tool for back pain to its unidimensional reference standards: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Timothy H; Hill, Jonathan C; Main, Chris J; Lewis, Martyn; Sullivan, Michael J L; Hay, Elaine M

    2012-11-01

    Back pain is a leading cause of disability. Previous research suggests that modifiable risk factors influence recovery from back pain, and practice guidelines recommend integrating such factors within primary care management. Toward this goal, a brief, multidimensional questionnaire, the STarT Back Tool, was designed to facilitate risk assessment by reducing the need to administer multiple, unidimensional questionnaires. However, aspects of this tool's clinical utility remain unaddressed. For instance, it is unclear whether this tool is responsive to treatment-related changes or whether clinically meaningful information is lost when it replaces multiple risk questionnaires. This study compared the responsiveness of the STarT Back Tool to its corresponding full-length measures, and evaluated its ability to detect clinically meaningful improvement. The study sample included 300 participants that consulted their doctor with disabling back pain. The STarT Back Tool and its reference standard questionnaires (disability, catastrophizing, fear, and depression) were administered at baseline and 4 months later. Regression analyses tested whether, after controlling for its reference standard questionnaires, the STarT Back Tool (independent variable) predicted treatment-related changes in global improvement, pain severity, disability, catastrophizing, fear, and depression (dependent variables). Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined the level of STarT Back change needed for clinically meaningful improvement. STarT Back scores predicted changes in all dependent variables except depression. Reductions in STarT Back scores predicted meaningful improvement on all dependent variables. These findings suggest that the STarT Back Tool, instead of multiple risk questionnaires, can be used to measure recovery from back pain. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. Performance of 2-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography in Liver Fibrosis Detection Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography as the Reference Standard: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengfei; Mellema, Daniel C; Sheedy, Shannon P; Meixner, Duane D; Karshen, Ryan M; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Sanchez, William; Callstrom, Matthew R; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in liver stiffness measurement and the diagnostic performance of 2D SWE for liver fibrosis when imaging from different intercostal spaces and using MRE as the reference standard. Two-dimensional SWE was performed on 47 patients. One patient was excluded from the study. Each of the remaining 46 patients underwent same-day MRE for clinical purposes. The study was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and approved by the Institutional Review Board. Informed consent was obtained from each patient. Two-dimensional SWE measurements were acquired from the ninth, eighth, and seventh intercostal spaces. The correlation with MRE was calculated at each intercostal space and multiple intercostal spaces combined. The performance of 2D SWE in diagnosing liver fibrosis was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis using MRE as the standard. The 47 patients who initially underwent 2D SWE included 22 female and 25 male patients (age range, 19-77 years). The highest correlation between 2D SWE and MRE was from the eighth and seventh intercostal spaces (r = 0.68-0.76). The ranges of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for separating normal or inflamed livers from fibrotic livers using MRE as the clinical reference were 0.84 to 0.92 when using the eighth and seventh intercostal spaces individually and 0.89 to 0.90 when combined. The results suggest that 2D SWE and MRE are well correlated when SWE is performed at the eighth and seventh intercostal spaces. The ninth intercostal space is less reliable for diagnosing fibrosis with 2D SWE. Combining measurements from multiple intercostal spaces does not significantly improve the performance of 2D SWE for detection of fibrosis. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time.

  17. Inter-laboratory comparison on the size and stability of monodisperse and bimodal synthetic reference particles for standardization of extracellular vesicle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Anaïs; Meli, Felix; van der Pol, Edwin; Yuana, Yuana; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Cizmar, Petr; Buhr, Egbert; Pétry, Jasmine; Sebaihi, Noham; de Boeck, Bert; Fokkema, Vincent; Bergmans, Rob; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2016-03-01

    In future, measurements of extracellular vesicles in body fluids could become a standard diagnostic tool in medicine. For this purpose, reliable and traceable methods, which can be easily applied in hospitals, have to be established. Within the European Metrological Research Project (EMRP) ‘Metrological characterization of micro-vesicles from body fluids as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers’ (www.metves.eu), various nanoparticle reference materials were developed and characterized. We present results of an international comparison among four national metrology institutes and a university hospital. The size distributions of five monodisperse and two bimodal spherical particle samples with diameters ranging from 50 nm to 315 nm made out of silica and polystyrene were compared. Furthermore, the stability of the samples was verified over a period of 18 months. While monodisperse reference particle samples above a certain size level lead to good agreements of the size measurements among the different methods, small and bimodal samples show the limitations of current ‘clinical’ methods. All samples proved to be stable within the uncertainty of the applied methods.

  18. Characterizing a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of ginsenosides rb1 and rg1 to be proposed as standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Woung; Hong, Hee-Do; Choi, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Da-Hye; Her, Youl; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2011-11-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP)-based quality control is an integral component of the common technical document, a formal documentation process for applying a marketing authorization holder to those countries where ginseng is classified as a medicine. In addition, authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenoside reference materials, and qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures are prerequisites for certifying GMP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose an authentication process for isolated ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as reference materials (RM) and for these compounds to be designated as RMs for ginseng preparations throughout the world. Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of the isolated ginsenosides was made according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantitation, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides were proven to be a single compound when analyzed by three different HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.940% for Rb1 and 0.485% for Rg1, meaning that the net mass balance for ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were 99.060% and 99.515%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physicochemical properties for the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.

  19. Antropometria de atletas culturistas em relação à referência populacional Anthropometry of body builders in relation to the population standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naílza MAESTÁ

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Atletas de culturismo têm como alvo de treinamento a hipertrofia muscular e a redução da adiposidade. A falta de referências antropométricas apropriadas pode levar esses indivíduos a serem erroneamente considerados em situação de sobrepeso ou desnutrição. Portanto, objetivamos comparar a composição corporal de atletas de culturismo com os padrões populacionais. Foram avaliados 36 atletas, de ambos os sexos, 26 do sexo masculino (27,2 ± 7,2 anos e 10 do sexo feminino (30,0 ± 6,1 anos, por ocasião da competição nacional, quanto aos indicadores antropométricos de peso, estatura, índice de massa corpórea, pregas cutâneas, adiposidade corpórea e circunferência muscular do braço. Os resultados foram referidos quanto à posição percentual ou de desvios-padrão (pelo escore Z tendo como referências padrões populacionais locais. Como resultado, encontramos que os indicadores com menor contraste com os padrões adotados foram peso e estatura e os maiores contrastes foram encontrados na circunferência muscular do braço para os homens, e pregas cutâneas tricipital para as mulheres. Pelo indicador muscular todos foram classificados como obesos ou sobrepeso, enquanto que pela prega cutânea tricipital e adiposidade corpórea, a desnutrição esteve presente em 100,0% das mulheres e 88,5% dos homens. Fica evidenciada a inadequação da utilização do padrão antropométrico populacional para a classificação nutricional de atletas de força, em particular culturistas, sendo assim necessário o estabelecimento de padrões próprios para esse tipo de treinamento (modalidade.Body builders have as their training goals the maximum muscle hypertrophy with minimum adiposity. However, the scarcity of specific standards implies often in framing wrongly those athletes either as overweight (by their BMI or energy malnourished (by their fat stores. The objective of this study was to compare the body composition of body builders with

  20. Selection of optimal treatment procedures for non-standard radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of NPP after accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strážovec, Roman, E-mail: strazovec.roman@javys.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); JAVYS, a.s., Tomášikova 22, 821 02 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hrnčíř, Tomáš [DECOM, a.s., Sibírska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lištjak, Martin [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); VUJE, a.s., Okružná 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Nečas, Vladimír [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-05-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is becoming a standard industrial activity where the optimization processes of partial activities are inevitable mainly for technical and economic reasons. In Slovakia, the decommissioning of A1 NPP is very specific case because A1 NPP is rare type of NPP (prototype) and furthermore its operation was affected by the accident. A large number of specific non-standard radioactive waste, such as long-time storage cases (hereinafter LSC), that is not usually present within the decommissioning projects of NPP with a regular termination of operation, represent one of the significant consequences of the accident and issues arisen from follow-up activities. The presented article describes the proposal of processing and conditioning of non-standard radioactive waste (such as LSC), together with description of methodology applied in the proposal for update of waste acceptance criteria for the processing and conditioning of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW) within Bohunice Radioactive waste Treatment and Conditioning Centre (hereinafter RWTC). The results of performed detailed analysis are summarized into new waste acceptance criteria for technological lines keeping in mind safety principles and requirements for protection of operating personnel, the public and the environment.

  1. Advances in the use of odour as forensic evidence through optimizing and standardizing instruments and canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G; Caraballo, Norma Iris; Cerreta, Michelle M; Holness, Howard K

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the advances made in identifying trace amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that originate from forensic specimens, such as drugs, explosives, live human scent and the scent of death, as well as the probative value for detecting such odours. The ability to locate and identify the VOCs liberated from or left by forensic substances is of increasing importance to criminal investigations as it can indicate the presence of contraband and/or associate an individual to a particular location or object. Although instruments have improved significantly in recent decades-with sensitivities now rivalling that of biological detectors-it is widely recognized that canines are generally still more superior for the detection of odourants due to their speed, versatility, ruggedness and discriminating power. Through advancements in the detection of VOCs, as well as increased standardization efforts for instruments and canines, the reliability of odour as evidence has continuously improved and is likely to continue to do so. Moreover, several legal cases in which this novel form of evidence has been accepted into US courts of law are discussed. As the development and implementation of best practice guidelines for canines and instruments increase, their reliability in detecting VOCs of interest should continue to improve, expanding the use of odour as an acceptable form of forensic evidence.

  2. Microwave-assisted versus conventional decomposition procedures applied to a ceramic potsherd standard reference material by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, D.N.; Zachariadis, G.A.; Anthemidis, A.N.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Stratis, J.A

    2004-03-03

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is a powerful, sensitive analytical technique with numerous applications in chemical characterization including that of ancient pottery, mainly due to its multi-element character, and the relatively short time required for the analysis. A critical step in characterization studies of ancient pottery is the selection of a suitable decomposition procedure for the ceramic matrix. The current work presents the results of a comparative study of six decomposition procedures applied on a standard ceramic potsherd reference material, SARM 69. The investigated decomposition procedures included three microwave-assisted decomposition procedures, one wet decomposition (WD) procedure by conventional heating, one combined microwave-assisted and conventional heating WD procedure, and one fusion procedure. Chemical analysis was carried out by ICP-AES. Five major (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg), three minor (Mn, Ba, Ti) and two trace (Cu, Co) elements were determined and compared with their certified values. Quantitation was performed at two different spectral lines for each element and multi-element matrix-matched calibration standards were used. The recovery values for the six decomposition procedures ranged between 75 and 110% with a few notable exceptions. Data were processed statistically in order to evaluate the investigated decomposition procedures in terms of recovery, accuracy and precision, and eventually select the most appropriate one for ancient pottery analysis.

  3. Bayesian modeling and inference for diagnostic accuracy and probability of disease based on multiple diagnostic biomarkers with and without a perfect reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, S Reza; Johnson, Wesley O; Gardner, Ian A

    2016-03-15

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) is used as a performance metric for quantitative tests. Although multiple biomarkers may be available for diagnostic or screening purposes, diagnostic accuracy is often assessed individually rather than in combination. In this paper, we consider the interesting problem of combining multiple biomarkers for use in a single diagnostic criterion with the goal of improving the diagnostic accuracy above that of an individual biomarker. The diagnostic criterion created from multiple biomarkers is based on the predictive probability of disease, conditional on given multiple biomarker outcomes. If the computed predictive probability exceeds a specified cutoff, the corresponding subject is allocated as 'diseased'. This defines a standard diagnostic criterion that has its own ROC curve, namely, the combined ROC (cROC). The AUC metric for cROC, namely, the combined AUC (cAUC), is used to compare the predictive criterion based on multiple biomarkers to one based on fewer biomarkers. A multivariate random-effects model is proposed for modeling multiple normally distributed dependent scores. Bayesian methods for estimating ROC curves and corresponding (marginal) AUCs are developed when a perfect reference standard is not available. In addition, cAUCs are computed to compare the accuracy of different combinations of biomarkers for diagnosis. The methods are evaluated using simulations and are applied to data for Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) in cattle.

  4. A Reference Equation for Normal Standards for VO2 max: Analysis from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Lima, Ricardo; Chistle, Jeffrey; Ashley, Euan; Arena, Ross

    2017-04-01

    Existing normal standards for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) are problematic because they tend to be population specific, lack normal distribution and portability, and are poorly represented by women. The objective of the current study was to apply the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND) Registry to improve upon previous regression formulas for normal standards for VO2 max using treadmill testing. Maximal treadmill tests were performed in 7783 healthy men and women (20-79years; maximal RER >1.0) from the FRIEND registry and a separate validation cohort of 1287 subjects. A regression equation for VO2 max was derived from the FRIEND registry and compared to the validation cohort and two commonly used equations (Wasserman and European). Age, gender, and body weight were the only significant predictors of VO2 max (multiple R=0.79, R(2)=0.62, p<0.001). The equation for predicting VO2 max was: [Formula: see text] Marked differences were observed in percentage predicted VO2 max achieved between commonly used reference equations, particularly among women, overweight and obese subjects. In the validation sample, the FRIEND equation closely paralleled measured VO2 max, with the validation group yielding a percent predicted VO2 max of 100.4% based on the FRIEND equation. An equation for age-predicted VO2 max derived from the FRIEND registry provided a lower average error between measured and predicted VO2 max than traditional equations, and thus may provide a more suitable normal standard relative to traditional equations.

  5. Refractive outcomes of an advanced aspherically optimized profile for myopia corrections by LASIK: a retrospective comparison with the standard aspherically optimized profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer B

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bertram Meyer,1 Georg Sluyterman van Langeweyde,2 Matthias Wottke2 1Augencentrum Köln, Cologne, Germany; 2Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany Purpose: A retrospective comparison of refractive outcomes of a new, aspherically optimized profile with an enhanced energy correction feature (Triple-A and the conventionally used aspherically optimized profile (ASA, or aberration smart ablation for correction of low-to-high myopia.Setting: Augen-OP-Centrum, Cologne, GermanyDesign: Retrospective nonrandomized comparative studyMethods: A central database at the Augen-OP-Centrum was used to gather retrospective data for low-to-high myopia (up to -10 D. One hundred and seven eyes (56 patients were treated with the ASA profile, and 79 eyes (46 patients were treated with the Triple-A profile. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year follow-up time points.Results: The Triple-A profile showed better predictability indicated by a significantly lower standard deviation of residuals (0.32–0.34 vs 0.36–0.44, Triple-A vs ASA in the 6-month to 1-year period. The Triple-A group had better stability across all time intervals and achieved better postoperative astigmatism improvements with significantly lower scatter. This group achieved better safety at 1 year, with 100% of eyes showing no change or gain in Snellen lines, compared with 97% in the ASA group. A better safety index was observed for the Triple-A group at later time points. The Triple-A group had a better efficacy index and a higher percentage of eyes with an uncorrected Snellen visual acuity of 20/20 or greater at all investigated follow-up time points.Conclusion: The new aspherically optimized Triple-A profile can safely and effectively correct low-to-high myopia. It has demonstrated superiority over the ASA profile in most refractive outcomes. Keywords: Triple-A, wavefront measurements, corneal aberrations, corneal asphericity, ablation profile

  6. A comparison of global optimization algorithms with standard benchmark functions and real-world applications using Energy Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamph, Jerome Henri; Robinson, Darren; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of computer algorithms to identify combinations of parameters which optimise the energy performance of buildings. For such problems, the objective function can be multi-modal and needs to be approximated numerically using building energy simulation programs. As these programs contain iterative solution algorithms, they introduce discontinuities in the numerical approximation to the objective function. Metaheuristics often work well for such problems, but their convergence to a global optimum cannot be established formally. Moreover, different algorithms tend to be suited to particular classes of optimization problems. To shed light on this issue we compared the performance of two metaheuristics, the hybrid CMA-ES/HDE and the hybrid PSO/HJ, in minimizing standard benchmark functions and real-world building energy optimization problems of varying complexity. From this we find that the CMA-ES/HDE performs well on more complex objective functions, but that the PSO/HJ more consistently identifies the global minimum for simpler objective functions. Both identified similar values in the objective functions arising from energy simulations, but with different combinations of model parameters. This may suggest that the objective function is multi-modal. The algorithms also correctly identified some non-intuitive parameter combinations that were caused by a simplified control sequence of the building energy system that does not represent actual practice, further reinforcing their utility.

  7. Estimation of the optimal standardized ileal digestible lysine requirement for primiparous lactating sows fed diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Zang, Jianjun; Li, Zhongchao; Shi, Chuanxin; Liu, Ling; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Li, Defa

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID Lys) level in diets fed to primiparous sows during lactation. A total of 150 (Landrace × Large White) crossbred gilts (weighing 211.1 ± 3.5 kg with a litter size of 11.1 ± 0.2) were fed lactation diets (3325 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) containing SID Lys levels of 0.76, 0.84, 0.94, 1.04 or 1.14%, through 28 days lactation. Gilts were allocated to treatments based on their body weight and backfat thickness 48 h after farrowing. Gilt body weight loss was significantly (P Protein content in milk was increased by dietary SID Lys (P < 0.05). Dietary SID Lys tended to increase concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.066). These results of this experiment indicate that the optimal dietary SID Lys for lactating gilts was at least 0.85%, which approaches the recommendation of 0.84% that is estimated by the National Research Council (2012).

  8. Optimal reinsurance under the standard deviation principle%标准差准则下的最优再保险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立新; 黄玉洁; 周娟

    2011-01-01

    本文关注的是在标准差准则下如何进行再保险,使得保险公司和再保险公司的风险波动达到最小.在容许合约类范围内得到了建立最优再保险合约的充分条件.如果再保险公司的风险小于一个给定阈值,我们找到了使保险公司的风险最小的最优再保险合约.在这里,保险公司可以采取三种最一般且有效的风险措施.%This paper concerns how to purchase the reinsurance to minimize both the insurer and the reinsurer's risk fluctuation under the standard deviation principle. Sufficient conditions for the optimal reinsurance contract are obtained in the restricted class of admissible contracts. Assume that the reinsurer's risk is less than a threshold, and then we find out the optimal reinsurance contract that minimizes the insurer's risk. Here the insurer company can take three general and useful risk measures.

  9. 同位素稀释-ICPMS法测定地质标准物质中铂族元素%Determination of Platinum-group Elements in the Geological Standard Reference Materials by Isotope Dilution-ICPMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明月; 何红蓼

    2005-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGEs) includes platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium. It has very high economic and scientific value in the field of geoscience and environmental science. But the analysis data referred by the different lab are very disperse because of the difficulty of the determination of PGEs. It makes very difficult to fix the value of the PGEs in the standard reference materials. In the article, the values of the PGEs in the standard reference materials of ocean sediment are determined by isotope dilution technique and dependable values of these elements are provided.

  10. Is PCR the Next Reference Standard for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma in Stool? A Comparison with Microscopy in Senegal and Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Meurs

    Full Text Available The current reference test for the detection of S. mansoni in endemic areas is stool microscopy based on one or more Kato-Katz stool smears. However, stool microscopy has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current schistosomiasis control programs. A highly specific multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the Schistosoma internal transcriber-spacer-2 sequence (ITS2 was developed by our group a few years ago, but so far this PCR has been applied mostly on urine samples. Here, we performed more in-depth evaluation of the ITS2 PCR as an alternative method to standard microscopy for the detection and quantification of Schistosoma spp. in stool samples.Microscopy and PCR were performed in a Senegalese community (n = 197 in an area with high S. mansoni transmission and co-occurrence of S. haematobium, and in Kenyan schoolchildren (n = 760 from an area with comparatively low S. mansoni transmission. Despite the differences in Schistosoma endemicity the PCR performed very similarly in both areas; 13-15% more infections were detected by PCR when comparing to microscopy of a single stool sample. Even when 2-3 stool samples were used for microscopy, PCR on one stool sample detected more infections, especially in people with light-intensity infections and in children from low-risk schools. The low prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in both populations was confirmed by an additional multiplex PCR.The ITS2-based PCR was more sensitive than standard microscopy in detecting Schistosoma spp. This would be particularly useful for S. mansoni detection in low transmission areas, and post-control settings, and as such improve schistosomiasis control programs, epidemiological research, and quality control of microscopy. Moreover, it can be complemented with other (multiplex real-time PCRs to detect a wider range of helminths and thus enhance effectiveness of current integrated control and elimination strategies for

  11. Comparing the role of standard references on the prevalence of Iranian children and adolescents’ overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and has a role on high blood pressure, diabetes type II, etc., This review assesses the prevalence of Iranian children obesity and overweight for different age categories and compares the three standard definitions of obesity. Materials and Methods: To retrieve desirable studies concerning childhood anthropometric data from different area of Iran, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and different local databases such as Scientific Information database were used. The studies reported the prevalence of obesity or overweight of children review covered 75 articles reported the prevalence of overweight or obesity among children and adolescents for different age groups in Iran. Our meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight did not vary significantly in gender and age categories, but different definitions provide different prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The effective factors on obesity and overweight included administration policy and organizational, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and social factors. CDC and WHO references intended in monitoring children's growth and the IOTF cutoffs would rather provide a common set of definitions that researchers and policymakers could use for descriptive and comparative purposes.

  12. Estimation of mercury speciation in soil standard reference materials with different extraction methods by ion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Misun; Yoon, Hyeon; Yoon, Cheolho; Yu, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods for the speciation of mercury, based on microwave extraction and sonication extraction, have been tested to determine the inorganic mercury and methyl mercury contents in two standard soil reference materials: SRM 2710 Montana Soil and BCR 580 estuarine sediment. Prior to applying the speciation extraction methods, the mineral compositions were analyzed via XRD analysis, with SRM 2710 shown to be composed mostly of aluminum silicate minerals, while carbonate minerals were the major constituent in BCR 580. Two extraction methods, microwave and sonication, were tested for the analysis and recovery efficiency of total mercury. The accuracy and efficiency of each extraction method was also compared. In the analysis of total mercury, the microwave extraction method, with using methanol and HCl as extractants, was better for SRM2710, while the application of the sonication extraction method was more efficient for the calcite-based BCR 580. The results showed good separation and recovery efficiencies, with values reaching 100% of those estimated. The sonication method was selected for the speciation of mercury, especially in BCR 580. An extraction solution comprising of a 1:1 mixture of methanol and HCl was used for the sonication extraction of BCR 580, with the resulting extractants analyzed by IC-HG-ICP-MS for methyl mercury and inorganic mercury. As a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method, sonication extraction was found to be satisfactory.

  13. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Medical Image Processing Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States); Torigian, Drew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    , but is more superiorly located at T12-L1 for SAT and at L3-L4 for VAT. Furthermore, the optimal anatomic locations for SAT and VAT estimation are not the same, contrary to common assumption. The proposed standardized space mapping achieves high consistency of anatomic localization by accurately managing nonlinearities in the relationships among landmarks. Multiple slices achieve greater improvement in correlation for VAT than for SAT. The optimal locations in the case of multiple slices are not contiguous.

  14. Population-based reference standards for cardiovascular fitness among U.S. adults: NHANES 1999-2000 and 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Leslee F; Duncan, Glen E

    2006-04-01

    To provide reference standards for cardiovascular fitness levels, using population-based estimates of estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from a diverse sample of U.S. adults. Analysis of data from adults (20-49 yr) who completed a submaximal exercise test in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000 and 2001-2002. Estimated VO2max was categorized as low ( or =60th percentile) fitness using age- and sex-specific cut-points. There were 1978 subjects, roughly 29% Mexican-American, 20% non-Hispanic black, and 51% non-Hispanic white. Using population-based sample weights, this was equivalent to 54,078,766 persons with mean (+/- SE) age, 34.4 +/- 0.3 yr; body mass index (BMI), 27.0 +/- 0.2 kg x m(-2); and estimated VO2max, 40.4 +/- 0.3 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1). There was a significant association between race and fitness level and between race and fitness level by sex (P < 0.0001). Low fitness was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (percentage (95% confidence interval): 32%, (26-38%)) compared with Mexican-Americans (22% (18-27%)) and non-Hispanic whites (18% (15-21%)), particularly among females, where 35% (28-42%) non-Hispanic black women had low fitness compared with 22% (16.3-27.4%) Mexican-American and 18% (13.7-22.4%) non-Hispanic white women. Non-Hispanic black adults have the highest percentage of low cardiovascular fitness among major race groups in the United States. On a population basis, over one third of non-Hispanic black women have low cardiovascular fitness, suggesting this group in particular may be at increased health risk due to poor fitness.

  15. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Woodall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM, ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement.

  16. "Grid" versus "Ground": Optimized Design of Low-Distortion Projections Using Existing Projection Types Rigorously Georeferenced to the National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, M. L.; Armstrong, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    With the adoption of a new geometric datum in 2022, NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) will update the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS). This update may consist simply of offsetting northings and/or eastings of existing SPCS projection zones. However, there is significant interest among NGS customers for another type of projected coordinate system: Low-Distortion Projections (LDPs). Although LDPs are presently not endorsed or supported by NGS, an assessment of LDP feasibility and performance is warranted within the context of updating the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). LDPs are conformal map projections that minimize linear distortion at the topographic surface, manifested as a difference in distance between a pair of projected "grid" coordinates and the true horizontal "ground" distance. For SPCS, the differences can exceed a few hundred parts per million (ppm), and it can be problematic for engineering and surveying applications. Although such distortion cannot be eliminated, an LDP design method is presented that yields optimal results even for large areas of variable elevation. This approach can provide much lower distortion than the traditional method of scaling SPCS to ground, often called "modified" SPCS (MSPCS). MSPCS was included in training provided by NGS beginning in the 1960s, but it does not optimally minimize linear distortion. LDP systems have been adopted throughout the United States. One such system is the Oregon Coordinate Reference System (OCRS). Figure 1 compares distortion of an MSPCS for Bend, Oregon, to the OCRS zone for that area, where the green shading indicates distortion within ±20 ppm (2 cm/km or 0.1 ft/mile). The difference in performance is striking, even though both use the same projection type. Because LDPs cover larger areas, one can be used for many projects, whereas in most cases one MSPCS (and sometimes more) must be defined for every project. Importantly, the presented method for designing LDPs is based on

  17. Optimization of a Frequency-Stabilized Laser Reference at 1.57μM for AN Active Laser Remote Sensing of CO2 from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Petway, L. B.; Lee, H. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.

    2011-12-01

    Several airborne flight campaigns have shown that active remote sensing of carbon dioxide mixing ratio (XCO2) in the atmosphere using either an Intensity Modulated-Continuous Wave (IM-CW) Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS) at 1.57 μm or a pulsed laser CO2 sounder at 1.57 μm is a promising technique for an accurate space measurement approach for the Active Sensing of CO2 over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission [1, 2]. In order to achieve a measurement accuracy of one part per million (ppmv) for CO2 column density and associated mixing ratio by volume, the frequency stability (frequency or wavelength variance) of the lasers at 1.57 μm for a space-borne active remote sensing system should be greater than 1.5e-9 (less than 300 kHz or less than 2.5e-3 pm) is required for most moderate-size instruments [3]. In this paper, we report a design and optimization of a frequency-locking laser reference with an integration of Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD) and Proportional Integration Derivation (PID) feed-back control techniques to stabilize laser frequency associated to one of CO or CO2 absorption lines at 1.57 μm. The optimized sensitivity based on PSD signals in terms of the modulation frequency, the length of the gas cell, and the pressure of the gas will be provided. The design and optimization has been demonstrated at a 2-μm CO2 absorption line and is applicable to the active remote sensing systems at 1.57 μm. [1] E. V. Browell, J. Dobler, F. W. Harrison, and B. Moore III, "Development and Validation of CO2 and O2 Laser Measurements for Future Active XCO2 Space Mission", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, EGU2011-12598, 2011 [2] J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allen, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, S. Biraud, "Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 column Absorption", Tellus (2010), 62B, 770-783 [3] E. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, 2008: Space

  18. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  19. Optimization of pre- and post-dispersion compensation schemes for 10-Gbits/s NRZ links using standard and dispersion compensating fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Hanik, Norbert; Freund, R.;

    2000-01-01

    We perform a systematic numerical optimization of pre- and post-compensation normalized sections using standard and dispersion compensating fibers for non-return to zero 10-Gbits/s single channel systems. By independently varying the power at the different types of fibers inputs...

  20. National turnaround time survey: professional consensus standards for optimal performance and thresholds considered to compromise efficient and effective clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Derek J; Auld, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Turnaround time can be defined as the time from receipt of a sample by the laboratory to the validation of the result. The Royal College of Pathologists recommends that a number of performance indicators for turnaround time should be agreed with stakeholders. The difficulty is in arriving at a goal which has some evidence base to support it other than what may simply be currently achievable technically. This survey sought to establish a professional consensus on the goals and meaning of targets for laboratory turnaround time. Methods A questionnaire was circulated by the National Audit Committee to 173 lead consultants for biochemistry in the UK. The survey asked each participant to state their current target turnaround time for core investigations in a broad group of clinical settings. Each participant was also asked to provide a professional opinion on what turnaround time would pose an unacceptable risk to patient safety for each departmental category. A super majority (2/3) was selected as the threshold for consensus. Results The overall response rate was 58% ( n = 100) with a range of 49-72% across the individual Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine regions. The consensus optimal turnaround time for the emergency department was 2 h considered unacceptable. The times for general practice and outpatient department were 48 h and for Wards 12 h, respectively. Conclusions We consider that the figures provide a useful benchmark of current opinion, but clearly more empirical standards will have to develop alongside other aspects of healthcare delivery.

  1. 关于第十三批磷酸组织胺国家对照品的协作标定%Collaborative Calibration of the 1 3 th National Reference Standard for Histamine Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 吴彦霖; 张媛; 贺庆; 高华; 胡宇驰; 芮菁; 祝清芬

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective To prepare and to standardize national reference standard for histamine phosphate (150510-201313).Methods The potencies of the national reference standard for histamine phosphate were assayed by the 12th national reference standard for histamine phosphate (150510-200412)with the cat blood pressure method.Results The potency of histamine phosphate was calculated as 9 9.1% based on consolidation of the calibration results from four laboratories.Conclusion The 13th national reference standard for histamine phosphate was established to replace the 12th reference standard.The determined relative potency of histamine phosphate is 100%,that is,1 mg histamine phosphate is equivalent to 0.342 mg histamine.%目的:制备、标定第十三批磷酸组织胺国家对照品(批号150510~201313)。方法用第十二批磷酸组织胺国家对照品(批号150510~200412)为标准,采用猫血压法标定。结果此批待标品经4个实验室的标定结果合并计算效价为99.1%。结论此批产品可以作为第十三批磷酸组织胺国家对照品使用。此批国家对照品相对效价定为100%,即1 mg 的磷酸组织胺相当于0.342 mg 的组织胺。

  2. The case for the continuing use of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and the standardization of notation in human mitochondrial DNA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Richards, Martin B; Yao, Yong-Gang; Logan, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Since the determination in 1981 of the sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome, the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), has been used as the reference sequence to annotate mtDNA in molecular anthropology, forensic science and medical genetics. The CRS was eventually upgraded to the revised version (rCRS) in 1999. This reference sequence is a convenient device for recording mtDNA variation, although it has often been misunderstood as a wild-type (WT) or consensus sequence by medical geneticists. Recently, there has been a proposal to replace the rCRS with the so-called Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS). Even if it had been estimated accurately, the RSRS would be a cumbersome substitute for the rCRS, as the new proposal fuses--and thus confuses--the two distinct concepts of ancestral lineage and reference point for human mtDNA. Instead, we prefer to maintain the rCRS and to report mtDNA profiles by employing the hitherto predominant circumfix style. Tree diagrams could display mutations by using either the profile notation (in conventional short forms where appropriate) or in a root-upwards way with two suffixes indicating ancestral and derived nucleotides. This would guard against misunderstandings about reporting mtDNA variation. It is therefore neither necessary nor sensible to change the present reference sequence, the rCRS, in any way. The proposed switch to RSRS would inevitably lead to notational chaos, mistakes and misinterpretations.

  3. Strategy on Development of Gasoline and Diesel Standards in China with Reference to Overseas Practice for Upgrading Gasoline and Diesel Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhe; Yang Guoxun

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the standards for car exhaust emissions and gasoline and diesel quality in Europe and the US. As revealed by the evolution of gasoline and diesel standards in China, the gasoline and diesel compositions of China and the exhaust gas emissions standard are closely related with the specifics of the petroleum refining industry and automotive industry in China. After studying the current situations of gasoline and diesel quality in China while taking into account the commonly accepted practice in the overseas this article raises some suggestions on development of gasoline and diesel standards in compliance with the actual conditions of China.

  4. Protein standardization V: value transfer. A practical protocol for the assignment of serum protein values from a Reference Material to a Target Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blirup-Jensen, Søren; Johnson, A Myron; Larsen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We present a practical protocol for the assignment of values to serum proteins in a Target Material using a Reference Material. This protocol is based on the model of Direct Value Transfer between serum matrices and is intended to improve the value assignment of commercial calibrators using the Reference Material CRM 470 (now labeled ERM-DA 470) or similar reference materials. The procedure describes the general as well as the practical principles involved in the value assignment (with examples). The practical transfer protocol is based on multiple assays of 6 dilutions of the Reference Material and 6 dilutions of the Target Material. The transfer protocol requires several measurements a day repeated on several days, an important prerequisite being that all reconstitutions and dilutions are controlled by weighing thus reducing uncertainty in the transfer. In open systems that allow the use of the Reference Material as calibrator and the Target Material as samples, the proportionality of the two materials (the presence or absence of matrix effects) can now be directly assessed by evaluating a single regression plot. If no matrix effects are found, the regression line will pass through zero with a slope equal to the ratio of the concentrations of the two materials. In closed systems, the dedicated commercial calibrator has to be used as such; the Reference Material and the Target Material are now assayed as samples against this calibrator. Two regression plots are therefore obtained; if no matrix effects are present among the two materials and the calibrator, both the Reference and Target Materials will show zero intercepts, and the ratio of the two slopes will equal the ratio of the concentrations.

  5. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  6. Calculation and Interpretation of the Standard Chemical Exergies of Elements Using the Chemical Reference Species%使用化学参考物质计算和阐明元素的标准化学放射本能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B(I)LGEN Sel(c)uk

    2009-01-01

    Exergy is the amount of work obtainable when some matter is brought to a state of thermodynamic equilibrium with the common components of the natural surroundings by means of reversible processes, involving interaction only with the above mentioned components of nature. This paper presents standard chemical exergy values for 85 elements. Reference species in the atmosphere (air), dissolved in the hydrosphere (oceans), and contained in the lithosphere (minerals) are used for these calculations. Standard chemical exergy values of elements were calculated from tabulated values obtained for standard conditions (an ambient temperature of 298.15 K and an atmospheric pressure of 0.1 MPa). Very low concentrations of elements in the atmosphere and oceans and the abundance of elements in the Earth's crust are no longer used in determining reference states for chemical elements. Liquid and gas mixtures generally are not useful as reference states. As a result of the work in this paper, a table of the chemical exergy values of many elements in the periodic table under standard conditions was tabulated.

  7. Gain optimization in fiber optical parametric amplifiers by combining standard and high-SBS threshold highly nonlinear fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Combining Al-doped and Ge-doped HNLFs as gain media in FOPAs is proposed and optimized, resulting in efficient SBS mitigation while circumventing the additional loss of the high SBS threshold Al-doped fiber.......Combining Al-doped and Ge-doped HNLFs as gain media in FOPAs is proposed and optimized, resulting in efficient SBS mitigation while circumventing the additional loss of the high SBS threshold Al-doped fiber....

  8. Part 2: Sensitivity comparisons of the insect Centroptilum triangulifer to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna using standard reference toxicants; NaCl, KCl and CuSO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criteria for establishing water quality standards that are protective of all native biota are generally based upon laboratory toxicity tests. These test utilize common model organisms that have established test methods. However, only a small portion of species have established ...

  9. Part 2: Sensitivity comparisons of the insect Centroptilum triangulifer to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna using standard reference toxicants; NaCl, KCl and CuSO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criteria for establishing water quality standards that are protective of all native biota are generally based upon laboratory toxicity tests. These test utilize common model organisms that have established test methods. However, only a small portion of species have established ...

  10. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  11. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  12. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  13. Strategies of experiment standardization and response optimization in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock and chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Penny S; Tamariz, Francisco J; Barbee, Robert Wayne

    2010-04-01

    Exploratory pilot studies are crucial to best practice in research but are frequently conducted without a systematic method for maximizing the amount and quality of information obtained. We describe the use of response surface regression models and simultaneous optimization methods to develop a rat model of hemorrhagic shock in the context of chronic hypertension, a clinically relevant comorbidity. Response surface regression model was applied to determine optimal levels of two inputs--dietary NaCl concentration (0.49%, 4%, and 8%) and time on the diet (4, 6, 8 weeks)--to achieve clinically realistic and stable target measures of systolic blood pressure while simultaneously maximizing critical oxygen delivery (a measure of vulnerability to hemorrhagic shock) and body mass M. Simultaneous optimization of the three response variables was performed though a dimensionality reduction strategy involving calculation of a single aggregate measure, the "desirability" function. Optimal conditions for inducing systolic blood pressure of 208 mmHg, critical oxygen delivery of 4.03 mL/min, and M of 290 g were determined to be 4% [NaCl] for 5 weeks. Rats on the 8% diet did not survive past 7 weeks. Response surface regression model and simultaneous optimization method techniques are commonly used in process engineering but have found little application to date in animal pilot studies. These methods will ensure both the scientific and ethical integrity of experimental trials involving animals and provide powerful tools for the development of novel models of clinically interacting comorbidities with shock.

  14. A Novel Paradigm and Standard for Efficient C2C E-Business Platform based on Multivariate Optimization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaixia HAN

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we design and create the novel multivariate optimization theory based approach for building the paradigm. From the seller, web sites, the external environment, the respect such as online trust building credibility evaluation index system. To factors affecting online trust as input will trust composite scores as the output, and then, using BP neural network technology, from the perspective of buyers and build a C2C e-commerce trust evaluation model. The multivariate optimization theory helps us modify the current pattern to be more feasible and robust. In the near future, we have scheduled to polish the neural network part to obtain better performance.

  15. On the Standard Awareness of References Citing in Monographs and Copyright Protection%文献征引中的规范意识与著作权保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连举

    2015-01-01

    Monographs can not be completed without citing references.References citing in monographs plays the role of offering supporting evidence and disclosing information sources, which is beneficial to reader's re-trieval and statistical appraisal.However, some monographs pay less attention to the correctness and standard of references citing, such as disorderly labeling system, improper mode of references citing, poor awareness of copy-right, etc..The statistical errors affect the reliability of academic statistics and bring negative influences to tracing and searching, which makes academic appraisal work lack of accuracy and objectivity.Therefore, the standard awareness of references citing shall be improved by paying more attention to the scientific and correct citing of ref-erences, editors'proofreading and copyright protection.%学术论著离不开文献征引。文献征引对论著内容起着支持佐证和揭示其信息来源的作用,既便利读者检索又有益于统计评价。但有些论著对文献征引著录的正确性、规范性重视程度不够,标注体系混乱,征引方式失妥,版权意识淡薄,其数据的误差影响了学术统计源的可靠性,对追踪检索也带来不利因素,使得学术评价工作失去了准确性和客观性。这就要求提升文献征引的规范意识,重视引文的科学性和准确性,注意编辑校对,加强文献征引的著作权保护。

  16. Recommendations for Standardizing Glucose Reporting and Analysis to Optimize Clinical Decision Making in Diabetes: The Ambulatory Glucose Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Bergenstal, Richard M.; Ahmann, Andrew J.; Bailey, Timothy; Beck, Roy W.; Bissen, Joan; Buckingham, Bruce; Deeb, Larry; Dolin, Robert H.; Garg, Satish K.; Goland, Robin; Hirsch, Irl B.; Klonoff, David C.; Kruger, Davida F; Matfin, Glenn; Mazze, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Underutilization of glucose data and lack of easy and standardized glucose data collection, analysis, visualization, and guided clinical decision making are key contributors to poor glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. An expert panel of diabetes specialists, facilitated by the International Diabetes Center and sponsored by the Helmsley Charitable Trust, met in 2012 to discuss recommendations for standardizing the analysis and presentation of glucose monitoring da...

  17. Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property [and] The ERCIM Technical Reference Digital Library [and] International Information Gateway Collaboration [and] The Standards Fora for Online Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladney, Henry M.; Andreoni, Antonella; Baldacci, Maria Bruna; Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Castelli, Donatella; Pagano, Pasquale; Peters, Carol; Pisani, Serena; Dempsey, Lorcan; Gardner, Tracy; Day, Michael; van der Werf, Titia; Bacsich, Paul; Heath, Andy; Lefrere, Paul; Miller, Paul; Riley, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the impact of the emerging digital information infrastructure on intellectual property; the implementation of a digital library for a European consortium of national research institutions; an international information gateway collaboration; and developing standards for the description and sharing of educational…

  18. The Common Core Learning Standards and Elementary Teachers' Math Instructional Practices, Receptivity to Change, Instructional Leadership and Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify the relationships among elementary teachers instructional practices in mathematics pre- and post-CCLS implementation in relation to technological and pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), formative assessment, reflective practice, receptivity to change, academic optimism, and instructional leadership across age,…

  19. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  20. Protein standardization IV: Value transfer procedure for the assignment of serum protein values from a reference preparation to a target material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blirup-Jensen, S; Johnson, A M; Larsen, M

    2001-11-01

    A new approach for the assignment of values to serum proteins in a target material using a reference preparation has been developed. The procedure describes the general as well as the practical principles involved in the value assignment (with examples). Two models have been developed: 1) The direct value transfer between serum matrices and 2) the indirect value transfer from a pure protein preparation to a serum protein material. The necessary mathematical equations are developed and explained. The data reduction and statistical evaluation are discussed. The practical procedure (the transfer protocol) is based on six dilutions of the reference preparation assayed together with six dilutions of the target material. In this way imprecision is reduced and the proportionality of the two materials (i.e. the presence or absence of matrix effects) can be assessed directly by evaluating a single regression plot. If no matrix effects are found, the regression line will pass through zero with a slope equal to the ratio of the concentrations of the two materials. The transfer protocol is based on a multiple point value assignment obtained by several measurements a day repeated on several days, an important prerequisite being that all reconstitutions and dilutions are controlled by weighing.

  1. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  2. Recommendations for standardizing glucose reporting and analysis to optimize clinical decision making in diabetes: the Ambulatory Glucose Profile (AGP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenstal, Richard M; Ahmann, Andrew J; Bailey, Timothy; Beck, Roy W; Bissen, Joan; Buckingham, Bruce; Deeb, Larry; Dolin, Robert H; Garg, Satish K; Goland, Robin; Hirsch, Irl B; Klonoff, David C; Kruger, Davida F; Matfin, Glenn; Mazze, Roger S; Olson, Beth A; Parkin, Christopher; Peters, Anne; Powers, Margaret A; Rodriguez, Henry; Southerland, Phil; Strock, Ellie S; Tamborlane, William; Wesley, David M

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Underutilization of glucose data and lack of easy and standardized glucose data collection, analysis, visualization, and guided clinical decision making are key contributors to poor glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes. An expert panel of diabetes specialists, facilitated by the International Diabetes Center and sponsored by the Helmsley Charitable Trust, met in 2012 to discuss recommendations for standardization of analysis and presentation of glucose monitoring data, with the initial focus on data derived from CGM systems. The panel members were introduced to a universal software report, the Ambulatory Glucose Profile (AGP), and asked to provide feedback on its content and functionality, both as a research tool and in clinical settings. This paper provides a summary of the topics and issues discussed during the meeting and presents recommendations from the expert panel regarding the need to standardize glucose profile summary metrics and the value of a uniform glucose report to aid clinicians, researchers, and patients.

  3. Recommendations for standardizing glucose reporting and analysis to optimize clinical decision making in diabetes: the ambulatory glucose profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenstal, Richard M; Ahmann, Andrew J; Bailey, Timothy; Beck, Roy W; Bissen, Joan; Buckingham, Bruce; Deeb, Larry; Dolin, Robert H; Garg, Satish K; Goland, Robin; Hirsch, Irl B; Klonoff, David C; Kruger, Davida F; Matfin, Glenn; Mazze, Roger S; Olson, Beth A; Parkin, Christopher; Peters, Anne; Powers, Margaret A; Rodriguez, Henry; Southerland, Phil; Strock, Ellie S; Tamborlane, William; Wesley, David M

    2013-01-01

    Underutilization of glucose data and lack of easy and standardized glucose data collection, analysis, visualization, and guided clinical decision making are key contributors to poor glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. An expert panel of diabetes specialists, facilitated by the International Diabetes Center and sponsored by the Helmsley Charitable Trust, met in 2012 to discuss recommendations for standardizing the analysis and presentation of glucose monitoring data, with the initial focus on data derived from continuous glucose monitoring systems. The panel members were introduced to a universal software report, the Ambulatory Glucose Profile, and asked to provide feedback on its content and functionality, both as a research tool and in clinical settings. This article provides a summary of the topics and issues discussed during the meeting and presents recommendations from the expert panel regarding the need to standardize glucose profile summary metrics and the value of a uniform glucose report to aid clinicians, researchers, and patients.

  4. Optimization of supervised cluster analysis for extracting reference tissue input curves in (R)-[11C]PK11195 brain PET studies

    OpenAIRE

    Boellaard, Ronald; Hinz, Rainer; Adriaan A. Lammertsma; Schuitemaker, Alie; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Turkheimer, Federico E.; van Berckel, Bart NM; Yaqub, Maqsood

    2012-01-01

    Performance of two supervised cluster analysis (SVCA) algorithms for extracting reference tissue curves was evaluated to improve quantification of dynamic (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Reference tissues were extracted from images using both a manually defined cerebellum and SVCA algorithms based on either four (SVCA4) or six (SVCA6) kinetic classes. Data from controls, mild cognitive impairment patients, and patients with Alzheimer's disease were ana...

  5. Optimized Solar Energy Power Supply for Remote Wireless Sensors Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Krejcar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering of intelligent wireless sensors without a permanent electric connection is a general problem which is often solved by adopting alternative power sources. One of the most commonly used sources is solar energy in the form of solar panel and charging circuits. However, it is not possible to find a solution in the markets for operation in changeable weather conditions, where sun intensity is not so high. This fact leads us to the development of optimized solar panel and all circuits for reliable power supply of wireless sensors. A special charging circuit for Li-ION battery and DC-DC adapter circuit for stabilization of wireless sensor working voltage were developed and optimized for very low energy consumption and high efficiency.

  6. World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards and 2007 growth reference charts: A discussion paper by the committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique; Michaelsen, Kim F; Shamir, Raanan; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamás; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Growth charts are essential for evaluating children's health including their nutrition; however, the evaluation of child growth trajectories and consequently the decision to intervene are highly dependent on the growth charts used. The aim of this discussion paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition is to provide information on the background and rationale of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 child growth standards and WHO 2007 growth reference charts, describe their development, outline their main innovative aspects, discuss potential limitations, and make recommendations. WHO 2006 child growth standards (0-5 years) are based on prospectively collected data describing the growth of healthy infants who were breast-fed according to WHO recommendations, showing a pattern of linear growth, which is remarkably consistent between different countries and ethnic groups. WHO 2007 growth reference charts (5-19 years) are based mainly on a re-analysis of National Centre for Health Statistics data from 1977, without information on feeding. European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends that WHO child growth standards should be used to monitor growth in all children in the age range 0 to 2 years in Europe, whether breast- or formula-fed, and that they should be considered to be used in the age range 2 to 5 years. Implementation of the WHO child growth standards should be preceded by evaluation of the implication of their use on national healthcare policies. Health professionals should be guided on their use and interpretation and an adequate communication strategy should be available locally to ensure that parents receive clear and consistent advice. The decision on whether to implement the WHO growth references (5-19 years) should be made by national bodies because the growth pattern during the 5- to 19-year period differs between

  7. Establishment of recombinant major allergens Bet v 1 and Phl p 5a as Ph. Eur. reference standards and validation of ELISA methods for their measurement. Results from feasibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieths, S; Barber, D; Chapman, M; Costanzo, A; Daas, A; Fiebig, H; Hanschmann, K M; Hrabina, M; Kaul, S; Ledesma, A; Moingeon, P; Reese, G; Schörner, C; van Ree, R; Weber, B; Buchheit, K H

    2012-04-01

    The potency of allergen extracts is determined as total allergenic activity without consideration of their composition and the units differ from one manufacturer to another, making it very difficult to compare the different products. Recently, purified major allergens have been obtained by recombinant DNA technology and produced under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions. In principle, such recombinant allergens could be established as reference standards and could help for the standardisation of the major allergen content of allergen extracts. Two recombinant major allergens, one from birch pollen, rBet v 1, and one from Timothy grass pollen, Phl p 5a, have been selected at the end of the CREATE programme as a potential starting point for the establishment as European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Reference Standards through a project run by the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). To this end, bulk candidate recombinant materials, produced under GMP conditions, were procured from two European manufacturers and subsequently formulated and lyophilised. Four ELISA systems from three different manufacturers were included in the project, two for Bet v 1 and two for Phl p 5a with the aim of establishing reference methods for determination of the respective major antigens both in natural allergen extracts as well as in recombinant allergen products. The project was run in 3 phases: a preparatory and preliminary testing phase (feasibility phase or Phase 1), an extended feasibility phase carried out in 3 laboratories (Phase 2) to confirm the transferability of the methods and an international collaborative study with a large number of participating laboratories (Phase 3). This article describes the work done in Phase 1 and Phase 2, i.e. the physico-chemical and biological characterisation of the recombinant candidate reference standards, the assessment of their suitability for the

  8. Optimization of supervised cluster analysis for extracting reference tissue input curves in (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 brain PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqub, Maqsood; van Berckel, Bart N M; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hinz, Rainer; Turkheimer, Federico E; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2012-08-01

    Performance of two supervised cluster analysis (SVCA) algorithms for extracting reference tissue curves was evaluated to improve quantification of dynamic (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Reference tissues were extracted from images using both a manually defined cerebellum and SVCA algorithms based on either four (SVCA4) or six (SVCA6) kinetic classes. Data from controls, mild cognitive impairment patients, and patients with Alzheimer's disease were analyzed using various kinetic models including plasma input, the simplified reference tissue model (RPM) and RPM with vascular correction (RPMV(b)). In all subject groups, SVCA-based reference tissue curves showed lower blood volume fractions (V(b)) and volume of distributions than those based on cerebellum time-activity curve. Probably resulting from the presence of specific signal from the vessel walls that contains in normal condition a significant concentration of the 18 kDa translocation protein. Best contrast between subject groups was seen using SVCA4-based reference tissues as the result of a lower number of kinetic classes and the prior removal of extracerebral tissues. In addition, incorporation of V(b) in RPM improved both parametric images and binding potential contrast between groups. Incorporation of V(b) within RPM, together with SVCA4, appears to be the method of choice for analyzing cerebral (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 neurodegeneration studies.

  9. Optimization of supervised cluster analysis for extracting reference tissue input curves in (R)-[11C]PK11195 brain PET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqub, Maqsood; van Berckel, Bart NM; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hinz, Rainer; Turkheimer, Federico E; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Performance of two supervised cluster analysis (SVCA) algorithms for extracting reference tissue curves was evaluated to improve quantification of dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Reference tissues were extracted from images using both a manually defined cerebellum and SVCA algorithms based on either four (SVCA4) or six (SVCA6) kinetic classes. Data from controls, mild cognitive impairment patients, and patients with Alzheimer's disease were analyzed using various kinetic models including plasma input, the simplified reference tissue model (RPM) and RPM with vascular correction (RPMVb). In all subject groups, SVCA-based reference tissue curves showed lower blood volume fractions (Vb) and volume of distributions than those based on cerebellum time-activity curve. Probably resulting from the presence of specific signal from the vessel walls that contains in normal condition a significant concentration of the 18 kDa translocation protein. Best contrast between subject groups was seen using SVCA4-based reference tissues as the result of a lower number of kinetic classes and the prior removal of extracerebral tissues. In addition, incorporation of Vb in RPM improved both parametric images and binding potential contrast between groups. Incorporation of Vb within RPM, together with SVCA4, appears to be the method of choice for analyzing cerebral (R)-[11C]PK11195 neurodegeneration studies. PMID:22588187

  10. Standard house corresponding to BR-2005 energy demand. Part 1: Optimization of constructions/systems; Typehus svarende til BR-2005-energikrav. Del 1: Optimering af konstruktioner/systemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, J.

    2001-02-01

    This report concludes the first phase of the project 'Optimisation of the building envelope as well as heating and ventilation system in a one family house with respect to energy consumption, indoor climate and economy'. The report heads of with a short description of the background and purpose of the project. In order to perform an optimisation of an insulation thickness in a building envelope component, it is necessary to first calculate the heat transfer coefficients for the component. In the report these calculations are described in detail for all components. Calculations were performed for building envelope components as they were before and after the optimisation. The building envelope components are described, and together with the detailed drawings given in the appendix, this presents a good overview of the constructions in their optimised state. The calculations are performed using PC-programs HEAT2 and HEAT3 for 2- and 3-dimensional heat flow, i.e. line and point heat loss coefficients, and the rules given in DS418 for 1-dimensional heat flow, i.e. U-values. The results of the calculations are summarised and the expected dimensioning heat loss is calculated. Results for the house as it was before the optimisation are also given for comparison. The optimal insulation thicknesses are calculated for each building envelope component (external wall, slab floor and roof), and with this background the chosen insulation thicknesses are discussed. In order to be able to evaluate whether or not the optimised house will fulfil the purpose of the project, i.e. reducing the energy consumption by 33 % and 50 % compared to the present frame for energy consumption, a series of simulations are performed. The simulations are performed using the PC-program tsbi3. In addition to the calculation of the building as defined by the optimisation, a number of parameters were analysed in order to evaluate the importance of different aspects of the building envelope. The

  11. MRI of the temporo-mandibular joint: which sequence is best suited to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle? A cadaveric study using micro-CT as the standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, Christoph A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kau, Thomas; Watzal, Helmut; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Oliver [University of Zurich, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Luder, Hans-Ulrich [University of Zurich, Section of Orofacial Structures and Development, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    To determine the best suited sagittal MRI sequence out of a standard temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) imaging protocol for the assessment of the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles of cadaveric specimens using micro-CT as the standard of reference. Sixteen TMJs in 8 human cadaveric heads (mean age, 81 years) were examined by MRI. Upon all sagittal sequences, two observers measured the cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the anterior, superior and posterior portions of the mandibular condyles (i.e. objective analysis), and assessed for the presence of cortical bone thinning, erosions or surface irregularities as well as subcortical bone cysts and anterior osteophytes (i.e. subjective analysis). Micro-CT of the condyles was performed to serve as the standard of reference for statistical analysis. Inter-observer agreements for objective (r = 0.83-0.99, P < 0.01) and subjective ({kappa} = 0.67-0.88) analyses were very good. Mean CBT measurements were most accurate, and cortical bone thinning, erosions, surface irregularities and subcortical bone cysts were best depicted on the 3D fast spoiled gradient echo recalled sequence (3D FSPGR). The most reliable MRI sequence to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles on sagittal imaging planes is the 3D FSPGR sequence. (orig.)

  12. Austenitic chromium nickel steel as standard reference material in measurement of thermal and temperature conductivity. [X10 NiCrMoTiB 15 15]. Austenitischer Chromnickelstahl als Standardreferenzmaterial bei Messungen der Waerme- und Temperaturleitfaehigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkele, L.

    1990-01-01

    A niobium-stabilized CrNi steel with the NBS designation SRM 735 is introduced as WLF standard reference material in a report by Hust and Giarratano, for the temperature range 300-1200 K and for thermal conductivities around 20 W/mk. However, its specification does not show it to be a direct member of the DIN family of CrNi steels. This report should be regarded as a continuation and supplement to the above-mentioned efforts in America. On the one hand, a solution of a possibly too-narrow specification is aimed at for the reference material, where it is important how sensitive the thermal conductivity is to changes in the chemical composition and changes of the manufacturing parameters and what accuracy can be reached for the reference values with the best measurement techniques. On the other hand, the data base should be expanded and the accuracy of the reference curve should be improved if possible. (orig./MM).

  13. Optimal Selective Harmonic Mitigation Technique on Variable DC Link Cascaded H-Bridge Converter to Meet Power Quality Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najjar, Mohammad; Moeini, Amirhossein; Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh

    2016-01-01

    /4 power quality standard, which has the strictest grid codes at medium voltage level, will also be met in the whole range of the modulation indices. In order to achieve this goal, symmetrical CHB with variable DC Links are employed, while the converter has a low number of switching transitions. In other...... words, all of the DC link voltages have the same voltage, which is dependent on the modulation index. Finally, in order to validate the effectiveness and the applicability of the proposed method, it is verified by simulations and experiments for a 7-level CHB converter....

  14. Reference Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  15. Developmental validation of the PowerPlex(®) Fusion System for analysis of casework and reference samples: A 24-locus multiplex for new database standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostdik, Kathryn; Lenz, Kristy; Nye, Jeffrey; Schelling, Kristin; Yet, Donald; Bruski, Scott; Strong, Joshua; Buchanan, Clint; Sutton, Joel; Linner, Jessica; Frazier, Nicole; Young, Hays; Matthies, Learden; Sage, Amber; Hahn, Jeff; Wells, Regina; Williams, Natasha; Price, Monica; Koehler, Jody; Staples, Melisa; Swango, Katie L; Hill, Carolyn; Oyerly, Karen; Duke, Wendy; Katzilierakis, Lesley; Ensenberger, Martin G; Bourdeau, Jeanne M; Sprecher, Cynthia J; Krenke, Benjamin; Storts, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    The original CODIS database based on 13 core STR loci has been overwhelmingly successful for matching suspects with evidence. Yet there remain situations that argue for inclusion of more loci and increased discrimination. The PowerPlex(®) Fusion System allows simultaneous amplification of the following loci: Amelogenin, D3S1358, D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, DYS391, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433, FGA, and D22S1045. The comprehensive list of loci amplified by the system generates a profile compatible with databases based on either the expanded CODIS or European Standard Set (ESS) requirements. Developmental validation testing followed SWGDAM guidelines and demonstrated the quality and robustness of the PowerPlex(®) Fusion System across a number of variables. Consistent and high-quality results were compiled using data from 12 separate forensic and research laboratories. The results verify that the PowerPlex(®) Fusion System is a robust and reliable STR-typing multiplex suitable for human identification.

  16. Contents of Bioaccessible Pb from Standard Reference Soil by in Vitro Test%土壤标准物质中Pb生物可给量的体外模拟试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 王佳敏; 羊嘉文; 李非里

    2013-01-01

    Physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was done to determine the bioaccessbility of Pb in soil and dust which could be incidental ingested through hand-to-mouth transformation. National standard reference material GBW07429 (soil of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River) was used to test the recoveries and precision of the method. Results indicated that the recoveries of the method with 20 repeat measurements accounted for 96.4% to 105%, which can meet the requirement of in vitro test. The bioaccessible Pb contents of the national standard reference soil GBW07429 in stomach and intestinal were 2.8 mg/kg and 0.42 mg/kg respectively, and relative standard deviations of the two stages were both less than 15%, indicating accepted precisions for in vitro test. The study would provide reference value for in vitro test to analysis of bioaccessible Pb by using standard reference soil GBW07429.%基于生理学的体外模拟实验(PBET),旨在测定经口无意摄入的土壤和尘土中的Pb在人体消化道内的生物可给性.采用国家土壤标准物质GBW07429(长江中下游土壤)对体外模拟实验的回收率和精密度进行测定.20次重复测定的结果显示,整个分析流程的回收率(各提取态之和占总量的百分含量)为96.4%~105%,满足体外模拟试验的分析要求.土壤标准物质GBW07429中胃阶段和小肠阶段Pb的生物可给量分别为2.8 mg/kg和0.42 mg/kg,相对标准偏差均小于15%,具有较好的精密度.研究采用土壤标准物质GBW07429测定了Pb的生物可给量,为分析Pb的生物可给性的体外模拟试验提供一个参考值.

  17. Optimization of standard in-house 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat typing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its direct application to clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L; Akkerman, Onno W; Schürch, Anita C; Mulder, Arnout; van der Werf, Tjip S; van der Zanden, Adri G M; van Ingen, Jakko; van Soolingen, Dick

    2014-05-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing with a panel of 24 loci is the current gold standard in the molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. However, because of technical problems, a part of the loci often cannot be amplified by multiplex PCRs. Therefore, a considerable number of single-locus PCRs have to be performed for the loci with missing results, which impairs the laboratory work flow. Therefore, the original in-house method described by Supply et al. in 2006 was reevaluated. We modified seven primers and the PCR master mixture and obtained a strongly optimized in-house 24-locus VNTR typing method. The percentage of instantly complete 24-locus VNTR patterns detected in the routine flow of typing activities increased to 84.7% from the 72.3% obtained with the typing conducted with the commercially available Genoscreen MIRU-VNTR typing kit. The analytical sensitivity of the optimized in-house method was assessed by serial dilutions of M. tuberculosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A 1:10 dilution of the different strains tested was the lowest dilution for the detection of a complete 24-locus VNTR pattern. The optimized in-house 24-locus VNTR typing method will reduce the turnaround time of typing significantly and also the financial burden of these activities.

  18. Using Virtual Reference Transcripts for Staff Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a method of library staff training based on chat transcript analysis in which graduate student workers at a university reference desk examined transcripts of actual virtual reference desk transactions to analyze reference interviews. Discusses reference interview standards, reference desk behavior, and reference interview skills in…

  19. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  20. Validation and optimization of the use of standardized arterial input function in N-isopropyl-p[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Toshiyuki; Takikawa, Syugo; Saito, Hisatoshi [Sapporo Azabu Neurosurgical Hospital (Japan); Nakazawa, Mayumi; Shidahara, Miho; Iida, Hidehiro

    1999-10-01

    Use of a standardized arterial input function and calibrating it by a single blood sample has been proposed to assess quantitatively cerebral blood flow using N-isopropyl-p[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography. This study was intended to validate this approach using a larger number of measured arterial radioactivity curves in the clinical setting. Arterial input function was measured for 50 patients at rest following the i.v. IMP, and its inter-subject variation was assessed. Difference between smokers and non-smokers in addition to effects of acetazolamide administration were particularly investigated. We also evaluated the accuracy of the calibration procedures by means of either a single blood sample or a continuous arterial blood withdrawal sampling for an early period. Inter-subject variation of the observed arterial input function appeared not to show large variations among the 50 patients, thus suggesting the validity of using the standardized arterial input function for the IMP SPECT study. There was a significant difference in the shape of the arterial input function between the smokers and non-smokers, but the calibration at an optimized sampling time provided the area-under-the curve (AUC) that was not significantly different between the two groups. The arterial input function after the acetazolamide showed no significant difference as compared with the shape at rest. The calibration of the standardized input function by means of the early integration of individual curve did not show better accuracy except for a short period of AUC (i.e., <20 min) for longer integration period >10 min. Thus, use of the standardized arterial input function has been validated for the IMP SPECT study. The single blood sampling procedure for calibrating the standardized input function has also been validated, and has been shown to provide better accuracy compared with the continuous withdrawal procedure.(author)

  1. Mejora de la calidad de las medidas de ozono mediante un fotómetro UV de referencia Improvement of the quality of the ozone measurements by means of a standard reference photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernández Patier

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La Directiva 92/72/CE hace referencia al método de análisis descrito en la UNE 77-221:2000 y a que los analizadores de ozono se deben calibrar con un fotómetro UV de referencia o con un patrón transferido.De la necesidad de desarrollar un procedimiento que asegure la calidad y la trazabilidad de las mediciones en España, el Área de Contaminación Atmosférica ha decidido implantar un fotómetro UV de referencia NIST como patrón de ozono.Teniendo en cuenta los procedimientos empleados por EPA y NIST, se ha desarrollado un procedimiento de verificación consistente en la realización de 6 comparaciones del Patrón Transferido frente al Fotómetro UV de Referencia NIST, en días diferentes, analizándose, como mínimo, 5 concentraciones de ozono diferentes. Cada comparación se inicia y se finaliza siempre con una concentración de 0 ppb de O3. De cada comparación se obtiene una regresión lineal.Una vez realizadas las 6 comparaciones se obtiene la Recta de calibración y se calcula la incertidumbre asociada al patrón transferido.Se ha realizado la verificación de 17 patrones transferidos de los que 11 son fotómetros UV, 2 son generadores de ozono y 4 son generadores de ozono de bancos de dilución.De los resultados se concluye que las incertidumbres de los generadores de ozono, en general, son mayores que las de los fotómetros UV, recomendándose estos últimos como patrones transferidos.Destacar que mediante la utilización de los patrones transferidos para la calibración de analizadores de ozono se garantiza tanto la calidad como la trazabilidad de los datos generados.The Directive 92/72/CE makes reference to the analysis method described in the UNE 77-221:2000 and to the fact that the ozone analyzers shall be calibrated with a UV reference photometer or with a transfer standard.From the need of developing a procedure that assure the quality and the trazability of the measurements in Spain, the Atmospheric Pollution Area has decided

  2. Re-evaluation, optimization, and multilaboratory validation of the PulseNet-standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Jessica L; Garrett, Nancy M; Ribot, Efrain M; Graves, Lewis M; Cooper, Kara L

    2010-03-01

    The PulseNet Methods Development and Validation Laboratory began a re-evaluation of the standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols with the goal of optimizing their overall performance and robustness. Herein, we describe a stepwise evaluation of the PulseNet-standardized PFGE protocol for Listeria monocytogenes that led to the modification of several steps which significantly improved the overall appearance and reproducibility of the resulting PFGE data. These improvements included the following: (1) reducing the cell suspension concentration, (2) increasing lysozyme incubation temperature from 37 degrees C to 56 degrees C, and (3) decreasing the number of units of restriction enzymes AscI and ApaI. These changes were incorporated into a proposed protocol that was evaluated by 16 PulseNet participating laboratories, including 2 international participants. Results from the validation study indicated that the updated L. monocytogenes protocol is more robust than the original PulseNet-standardized protocol established in 1998 and this resulted in the official adoption of the new protocol into the PulseNet system in the spring of 2008. The modifications not only represent an improvement to the protocol but also describe procedural improvements that could be potentially applied to the PFGE analysis of other Gram-positive organisms.

  3. Diagnostic Performance of First-Pass Myocardial Perfusion Imaging without Stress with Computed Tomography (CT) Compared with Coronary CT Angiography Alone, with Fractional Flow Reserve as the Reference Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Toru; Miki, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Sato, Shuhei; Kanazawa, Susumu; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in combination with first-pass CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has a better diagnostic performance than CCTA alone, compared with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard. The aim of this study was to investigate the additional diagnostic value of first-pass CT-MPI without stress for detecting hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis, compared with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). We recruited 53 patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing both CCTA and first-pass CT-MPI without stress and invasive FFR, and 75 vessels were analyzed. We used the same raw data for CCTA and CT-MPI. First-pass CT-MPI was reconstructed by examining the diastolic signal densities as a bull's eye map. Invasive FFR CT-MPI and CCTA alone was 0.81 (0.73-0.90) and 0.70 (0.61-0.81), respectively (P = 0.036). CCTA plus first-pass CT-MPI without stress showed 0.73 sensitivity, 0.74 specificity, 0.53 positive predictive value, and 0.87 negative predictive value for detecting hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. First-pass CT-MPI without stress correctly reclassified 38% of CCTA false-positive vessels as true negative. First-pass CT-MPI without stress combined with CCTA demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy, compared with invasive FFR as the reference standard. This technique could complement CCTA for diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

  4. Establishment of the first national reference standard of polyacrylic resin Ⅱ%首批聚丙烯酸树脂Ⅱ国家标准物质的研制与建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李樾; 刘艳林; 贺瑞玲; 王峰; 孙会敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop a national reference standard of polyacrylic resin II. Methods: The structure of polyacrylic resin II was determined by IR,'HNMR and GPC. The methacrylate unit content of polyacrylic resin II was analyzed by acid -base titration. Results: The structure and the composition of the raw material have been i-dentified. Conclusion: The national reference standard of polyacrylic resin II has been established,which can be used for the quality control of polyacrylic resin II and drug related products.%目的:建立药用辅料聚丙烯酸树脂Ⅱ红外光谱鉴别用首批国家标准物质.方法:以红外光谱、核磁共振氢谱及分子量分布等方法确证结构,以容量法对甲基丙烯酸单元进行含量测定.结果:确定了聚丙烯酸树脂Ⅱ原料的结构及组成.结论:建立的聚丙烯酸树脂Ⅱ国家标准物质可满足国内相关产品的研究、检定以及质量控制的要求.

  5. 除草剂混合标准溶液中标准物质稳定性研究%Study on Stability of Reference Materials in Mixed Standard Herbicide Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁旭锋; 王岩; 林黎明; 孟祥红; 李玉翠; 陈楠

    2014-01-01

    A mixed standard solution was obtained with 28 kinds of herbicide reference materials ( DR Company , German) .It was transferred into 20 mL-screw brown sample bottles with PTFE lining cover , and stored away from light at -18℃.Each component value was determined by liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS) in different storage time .The results showed that the standard deviation of each reference material level was in the range of 12~73μg/L in 90 days.The maximum relative standard de-viation (RSD) was 3.04%(n=5), and the relative uncertainty of measurement was less than 5.60%.In the 95%confidence interval , the value of each reference material was in the range of ( 1 000 ±113 ) μg/L with no significant measuring deviation .The diluted mixed packing reference materials could store for 90 days within the valid period .%选取德国DR公司生产的28种除草剂标准物质,将其配制成混合标准溶液后转移至20 mL带聚四氟乙烯衬盖的棕色螺口样品瓶中,于-18℃避光贮存,采用液相色谱串联质谱法测试各组分量值随贮存时间的变化。结果表明:在90天内,标准物质各组分量值的标准偏差在12~73μg/L范围内,最大相对标准偏差为3.04%(n=5),测量结果的相对不确定度小于5.60%。在置信度为95%时,标准物质各组分量值在(1000±113)μg/L范围内,测量的偏差不显著。在不超过标准物质的有效期内,稀释混合分装后的标准物质可保存90天。

  6. Applying Information Competency to Digital Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lisa; Francoeur, Stephen

    This paper presents a case for applying information competency (IC) standards to digital reference services at academic libraries. Practical reasons for applying standards or guidelines to e-mail and online chat reference services are given with some insight to the nature of digital reference interactions. The standards that arose from the…

  7. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

    A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e

  8. The optimal reference population for cardiac normality in myocardial SPET in the detection of coronary artery stenoses: patients with normal coronary angiography or subjects with low likelihood of coronary artery disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, J.; Hesse, B. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Center of Imaging, Informatics and Engineering in Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lindahl, D.; Ohlsson, M.; Edenbrandt, L. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Palmer, J. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lundin, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Both subjects with a low likelihood for coronary artery disease (CAD) and patients with normal findings on coronary angiography have been used as reference populations in non-invasive stress testing, including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Both of these criteria of normality - low likelihood of CAD and normal coronary angiography - have been criticised, and consensus on this issue is lacking. The aim of this study was to compare two different reference populations by testing the performance of artificial neural networks designed to interpret myocardial scintigrams. The networks were trained on myocardial perfusion scintigrams from 87 patients with angiographically documented CAD and on studies from one of two different reference groups: 48 patients with no signs of CAD based on angiography or 128 healthy volunteers with a likelihood for CAD <5%. The performance of the two different networks was then tested using scintigrams from a separate test group of 68 patients. Coronary angiography was used as the gold standard in this group. The network trained on patients with no signs of CAD based on angiography showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 93%. The ROC area for the network trained on healthy volunteers was 72%, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.03). The results of this study using artificial neural networks suggest that normal angiography should be preferred as the reference standard in myocardial scintigraphy when a patient is examined for CAD prior to possible angiography. Whether the same is true for other indications, e.g. in prognostic evaluation, is unknown. (orig.)

  9. Optimization of short tandem repeats (STR) typing method and allele frequency of 8 STR markers in referring to forensic medicine of Semnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarion, M; Najafi, M; Akbari Eidgahi, M; Alipour Tabrizi, A; Golmohamadi, T

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Short Tandem Repeats (STR) show considerable differences among individuals in the population from which they used for identification. There are various methods for analysis of these STR loci, and capillary electrophoresis method already used as an international standard. Due to the high costs of this process, this study aimed to set up a Multiplex PCR method in some standard STR loci so that we can use its PCR product in STR analysis with different methods of HPLC, GC-Mass, and Capillary Electrophoresis. Materials and Methods: 8 typical STR loci in the identification selected according to their size in the two groups of four (CSF1PO, VWA, D18S51, PentaD and TPOX, Amelogenin, FGA, SE33) from NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The above SSR primers prepared from Genbank and Monoplex PCR was designed based on their size. Then, with the changes in temperature conditions, magnesium ion, primers concentration, and setting-up, Hot Start Multiplex PCR of four markers was carried out. PCR product investigated on the agarose gel electrophoresis (3%) and the results of genotyping analyzed by Genetic Analyzer. Results: The Results showed that all STR loci under study are detectable as Monoplex PCR at a temperature of 62°-66° and 1.5 mM magnesium ion. Moreover, Multiplex PCR results showed that when the concentration of primer and temperature measured by the fixed concentration of magnesium, CSF1PO, and D18S51 loci bands are weaker than desired. Using a standard buffer and set Magnesium conditions against changes in the primer concentration and temperature, when Taq polymerase enzyme is added to test tubes at a temperature of 94°, Multiplex PCR bands are visible desirably. Capillary electrophoresis genotyping results obtained in all eight loci and the Locus FGA had the most allelic diversity and the loci TPOX and CSF1PO had the lowest allelic diversity. TPOX and CSF1PO loci had the lowest allelic frequencies, and FGA locus had

  10. Application of the optimized decoupling methodology for the construction of a skeletal primary reference fuel (PRF mechanism focusing on engine-relevant conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachao eChang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the multi-dimensional simulation of the engines with advanced compression-ignition combustion strategies, a practical and robust chemical kinetic mechanism is highly demanded. Decoupling methodology is effective for the construction of skeletal mechanisms for long-chain alkanes. To improve the performance of the decoupling methodology, further improvements are introduced based on recent theoretical and experimental works. The improvements include: (1 updating the H2/O2 sub-mechanism; (2 refining the rate constants in the HCO/CH3/CH2O sub-mechanism; (3 building a new reduced C2 sub-mechanism; and (4 improving the large-molecule sub-mechanism. With the improved decoupling methodology, a skeletal primary reference fuel (PRF mechanism is developed. The mechanism is validated against the experimental data in shock tubes, jet-stirred reactors, premixed and counterflow flames for various PRF fuels covering the temperature range of 500–1450 K, the pressure range of 1–55 atm, and the equivalence ratio range of 0.25¬–1.0. Finally, the skeletal mechanism is coupled with a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the combustion and emission characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engines fueled with iso-octane and PRF. Overall, the agreements between the experiment and prediction are satisfactory.

  11. Optimization of Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridges with Special Reference to Use of High-Strength Concrete Using AASHTO LRFD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungik Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the Federal Highway Administration-mandated implementation of the LRFD specifications, many state departments of transportation (DOTs have already started implementing LRFD specifications as developed by the AASHTO. Many aspects of the LRFD specifications are being investigated by DOTs and researchers in order for seamless implementation for design and analysis purposes. This paper presents the investigation on several design aspects of post-tensioned box girder bridges designed by LRFD Specifications using conventional or High-Strength Concrete (HSC. A computer spreadsheet application was specifically developed for this investigation. It is capable of analysis, design, and cost evaluation of the superstructure for a cast-in-place post-tensioned box girder bridge. Optimal design of a post-tensioned box girder is achievable by correct selection of design variables. Cost evaluation of superstructures with different geometrical and material configurations has led to the development of optimum design charts for these types of superstructures. Variables used to develop these charts include, among others, span length, section depth, web spacing, tendon profile, and concrete strength. It was observed that HSC enables the achievement of significantly longer span lengths and/or longer web spacing that is not achievable when using normal strength concrete.

  12. Research on Using German Experiences for Reference to Optimize the Ecological Campus Construction%借鉴德国经验优化生态校园建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦如意; 薛玉平; 曲同颖

    2013-01-01

    As one country with high environment awareness ,Germany takes the lead in the global green campus construction .It has many experiences that are worth learning and using for our refer-ence ,including law s and regulations ,economic inspiration and restriction measures ,technical means and public participation .Using the advanced experiences of the green campus construction in German colleges and universities for reference ,we should optimize the construction of green campus ecology and human enviroment planning ,carry out green education and green management and achieve green adminstration .%德国是一个环保意识非常强的国家,在绿色园区建设方面处于世界领先水平,不论是法律法规建设、经济激励与制约措施,还是先进的技术手段和公众广泛参与等各个方面都有值得我们学习和借鉴的经验。借鉴德国高校绿色校园建设的先进经验,可以优化学院绿色校园生态与人文环境规划建设,开展绿色教育,推行绿色管理,实现绿色行政。

  13. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  14. The Research of Guides and References about Surface Cleanliness of Various Standards%关于表面清洁度目测评定标准的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马振伟; 吴晶

    2012-01-01

    探讨了目前常见的ISO、NACE、FROSIO、SSPC表面清洁度目测标准,对比了各标准涉及的范围、定义的准确程度、参考图片的详尽情况等,通过对比分析,认为SSPC标准具有涉及全面、描述简洁、明确、更易目测评定等特点,建议将SSPC检验资质能纳入PSPC的相关规定中。%The current guides and references of ISO, NACE, FROSIO and SSPC about surface cleanliness have been discussed. By contrast of the range of standards, the precise of definition and the detail of reference photographs, SSPC is regarded as comprehensive, concise, clear and easy to determine the rust grade. It is recommended that SSPC should be considered in PSPC.

  15. A comparison of the BAX system method to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual and International Organization for Standardization reference methods for the detection of Salmonella in a variety of soy ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Tamrat; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Gensic, Joseph; Wallace, F Morgan

    2014-10-01

    The performances of two DuPont BAX System PCR assays for detecting Salmonella on a variety of low-moisture soy ingredients were evaluated against the U. S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) method or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6579 reference method. These evaluations were conducted as a single laboratory validation at an ISO 17025 accredited third-party laboratory. Validations were conducted on five soy ingredients: isolated soy protein (ISP), soy fiber, fluid soy lecithin, deoiled soy lecithin, and soy nuggets, using a paired-study design. The ISP was analyzed as both 25- and 375-g composite test portions, whereas all other sample matrices were analyzed as 375-g composite test portions. To evaluate 25-g test portions of ISP, the test material was inoculated using Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mbandaka (Q Laboratories isolate 11031.1). Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Tennessee (Q Laboratories isolate 11031.3) was used for all other trials. For each trial of the method comparison, 25 samples were analyzed for each matrix: 5 uninoculated controls and 20 samples inoculated at low levels (0.2 to 2 CFU per test portion) that were targeted to achieve fractionally positive results (25 to 75%). Using McNemar's chi-square analysis, no significant difference at P ≥ 0.05 (χ(2) ≤ 3.84) was observed between the number of positives obtained by the BAX System and the reference methods for all five test matrices evaluated. These studies indicate that the BAX System PCR assays, in combination with the single buffered peptone water primary enrichment and subsequent brain heart infusion regrowth step, demonstrate equivalent sensitivity and robustness compared with the FDA BAM and ISO reference methods for both 25- and 375-g composite samples. Moreover, there was no observed reduction of sensitivity in the larger 375-g composite samples for all five matrices.

  16. 环境监测用5种氯代烯烃混合气体标准样品研制%Development of a Standard Reference Material Containing 5 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons for Environmental Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 范洁; 王倩; 樊强

    2014-01-01

    The development of reference material of the mixed gas of five hydrochloric hydrocarbons was described. Vinyl chloride is gas, 1, 1-Dichloroethylene cis-1,2-Dichloroethene, Trichloroethylene, Trichloroethylene, Tetrachloroethylene are liquid at room temperature, and so it is difficult to prepare an accurate a standard Reference Material containing 5 Chlorinated hydrocarbons. This research adopts two-step weighting method to prepare the standard gas of five hydrochloric hydrocarbons, and the relative standard deviation of preparation repeatability is less than 1�6%. The experimental method of within-bottle homogeneity of 5 chlorinated hydrocarbon gas standards was developed, and whether the trend for the values varying with the sample pressure changed was used to investigate the sample homogeneity. Based on experimental results, 5 volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons standard gas is homogeneous, and the minimum pressure was determined as 1MPa. The experiment design and data evaluation of long-stability is according to ISO Guide 35 ( Reference materials-General and statistical principles for certification) . Individual Sample was measured as time elapses over a period of 12 months under identical conditions. The analytical data showed no instability was observed and all 5 chlorinated hydrocarbons in treated aluminum gas cylinders was stable for as long as 12 months. The relative expanded uncertainty is 3%( confidence coefficient is 95%) .%介绍了1μmol/mol氮气中5种氯代烯气体标准样品的研制方法。这5种氯代烯包括氯乙烯、1,1-二氯乙烯、顺1,2-二氯乙烯、三氯乙烯、四氯乙烯,其中氯乙烯常温下为气态,其他4种为液态,并且沸点低,将这几种氯代烯制备成气体标准样品存在制备精度低、气液转换不完全等困难。经研究,采用2步称量法制备5种氯代烯气体标准样品,重复制备的相对标准偏差小于1�6%。建立了5种氯代烯标准气体瓶内均匀性

  17. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  18. Reference problems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    in science or for that ma t ter, in any other subject. Indeed, the sorry state of science education is only a small part of the much deeper sy s temic rot. A colleague in IIT - Kanpur cynically remarked to me that IIT did not even need to teach... annual budget. (This takes into consideration only 50,000 seriously working scientists out of a total r e search and teaching staff of over 0.4 million in CSIR, ICAR, ICMR, un i ver sities, etc.). Following are some good examples for referring...

  19. Development and optimization of a method for the determination of Cylindrospermopsin from strains of Aphanizomenon cultures: intra-laboratory assessment of its accuracy by using validation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Moreno, I; González, Gustavo; Soria-Díaz, M Eugenia; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cameán, Ana M

    2012-10-15

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic environments is increasing in many regions of the world due to progressive eutrophication of water bodies. Because of the production of toxins such as Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), contamination of water with cyanobacteria is a serious health problem around the world. Therefore it is necessary to develop and validate analytical methods that allow us to quantify CYN in real samples in order to alert the public of this toxin. In this work, an analytical method has been developed an optimized for the determination of CYN from Aphanizomenon ovalisporum cultures. The analytical procedure is based on solvent extraction followed by a purification step with graphitized cartridges and CYN quantification by LC-MS/MS. The extraction and purification steps were optimized using a two-level full factorial design with replications. A suitable and practical procedure for assessing the trueness and precision of the proposed method has been applied by using validation standards. The method has been suitably validated: the regression equation was calculated from standards prepared in extracts from lyophilized M. aeruginosa PCC7820 (r(2)≥0.9999) and the linear range covered is from 5 to 500 μg CYN/L, equivalent to 0.18-18.00 μg CYN/g dry weight lyophilized cells. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.04 and 0.15 μg CYN/g, respectively, the recovery range (%) oscillated between 83 and 94% and intermediate precision (RSD %) values from 5.6 to 11.0%. Moreover, the present method showed to be robust for the three factors considered: the batch of the graphitized carbon cartridges, the flow rate of the sample through the cartridge, and the final re-dissolved water volume after SPE treatment, which permits its validation. The validated method has been applied to different lyophilized cultures of A. ovalisporum (LEGE X-001) to evaluate CYN content. This procedure can be used for determining CYN in lyophilized natural blooms samples

  20. Optimized Standard Operating Procedures for the Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ42 and the Ratios of Aβ Isoforms Using Low Protein Binding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstichele, Hugo Marcel Johan; Janelidze, Shorena; Demeyer, Leentje; Coart, Els; Stoops, Erik; Herbst, Victor; Mauroo, Kimberley; Brix, Britta; Hansson, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42) reflects the presence of amyloidopathy in brains of subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objective: To qualify the use of Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 for improvement of standard operating procedures (SOP) for measurement of CSF Aβ with a focus on CSF collection, storage, and analysis. Methods: Euroimmun ELISAs for CSF Aβ isoforms were used to set up a SOP with respect to recipient properties (low binding, polypropylene), volume of tubes, freeze/thaw cycles, addition of detergents (Triton X-100, Tween-20) in collection or storage tubes or during CSF analysis. Data were analyzed with linear repeated measures and mixed effects models. Results: Optimization of CSF analysis included a pre-wash of recipients (e.g., tubes, 96-well plates) before sample analysis. Using the Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio, in contrast to Aβ1-42, eliminated effects of tube type, additional freeze/thaw cycles, or effect of CSF volumes for polypropylene storage tubes. ‘Low binding’ tubes reduced the loss of Aβ when aliquoting CSF or in function of additional freeze/thaw cycles. Addition of detergent in CSF collection tubes resulted in an almost complete absence of variation in function of collection procedures, but affected the concentration of Aβ isoforms in the immunoassay. Conclusion: The ratio of Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 is a more robust biomarker than Aβ1-42 toward (pre-) analytical interfering factors. Further, ‘low binding’ recipients and addition of detergent in collection tubes are able to remove effects of SOP-related confounding factors. Integration of the Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio and ‘low-binding tubes’ into guidance criteria may speed up worldwide standardization of CSF biomarker analysis. PMID:27258423

  1. Using the reference curve of a water supply system for determining the optimal operation schedule; Utilizacion de la curva de consgina de un abastecimiento de agua para determinar el regimen de explotacion mas eficiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias Rey, P. L.; Martinez Solano, F. J.; Fuertes Miquel, V. S.; Lopez Patino, G.

    2007-07-01

    A new water inlet point in the network can modify the water supply schedule so that the distribution of flow to supply from the different points would be a problem to determine in each case. To present work uses the reference curve concept of a water supply system to propose a method that determines the appropriate distribution of water supplied using simulation models. The methodology is based on looking for the grater power efficiency in the system, assuming equal production costs in the different sources. The obtained conclusions allows to know some parameters that influence in the location of the optimal production system. At the same time, the analysis of two examples shows the reach of the propose methodology. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  3. Evaluation of Two Standard and Two Chromogenic Selective Media for Optimal Growth and Enumeration of Isolates of 16 Unique Bacillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M Shahjahan; Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil; Sulaiman, Irshad M

    2017-06-01

    The genus Bacillus is a group of gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria that can cause food poisoning and diarrheal illness in humans. A wide range of food products have been linked to foodborne outbreaks associated with these opportunistic pathogens. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends (in their Bacteriological Analytical Manual) the use of Bacara or mannitol egg yolk polymyxin (MYP) agar plates and the most-probable-number (MPN) method for enumeration and confirmation of Bacillus cereus and related species isolated from foods, sporadic cases, outbreaks, and routine environmental surveillance samples. We performed a comparative analysis of two chromogenic media (Bacara and Brilliance) and two traditional media (MYP and polymyxin egg yolk mannitol bromothymol blue agar [PEMBA]) for the isolation and enumeration of 16 Bacillus species under modified growth conditions that included pH, temperature, and dilution factor. A total of 50 environmental, food, and American Type Culture Collection reference isolates from 16 distinct Bacillus species were evaluated. A food adulteration experiment also was carried out by artificially adulterating two baby food matrices with two isolates each of B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis . Our results clearly indicated that chromogenic plating media (Bacara and Brilliance) are better than conventional standard media (MYP and PEMBA) for the detection and enumeration of B. cereus in foods and other official regulatory samples. The comparison of the two chromogenic media also indicated that Brilliance medium to be more efficient and selective for the isolation of Bacillus.

  4. 俄罗斯储罐运行管理标准先进性借鉴探讨%The Discussion on Referring the Advancement of Russia Tank Operation and Management Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田楠; 乔汉林; 张彦明; 王永军; 马伟平

    2016-01-01

    Based on China petroleum strategy reserve and the development trend of large-scale storage tank, tanks safety risk level increased. Improving storage tanks safety and avoiding storage tanks accidents of are of great political and economic signiifcance. The domestic scholar carried out the research on Russia pipeline standard for high latitude permafrost regions. The paper deeply studied the advanced idea and recommended practice of Russia tank operation technology standard, including tank safety mark, and level meter redundancy design, and floating roof monitoring by light hole, and valve maintenance requirement on cold condition, and safety requirement of tank oil product sampling operation, and tank product water and rain water independent discharge, and tank air concentration inspection position and inspection frequency. Finally, the suggestion of referring Russia tank operation standard to improve China standard was made.%随着国家原油战略储备需求和储罐大型化发展趋势,储罐安全风险等级增加。提高储罐安全性、避免储罐事故具有重要政治经济意义。国内已开展俄罗斯高寒冻土区管道技术标准研究,在此基础上,本文研究了俄罗斯储罐运行管理标准的先进经验和推荐做法,包括储罐安全标识、液位计冗余配置、通光孔监测浮盘运行状态、寒冷季节阀门维护管理、储罐油品人工取样安全要求、储罐区生产污水和雨水系统独立排放以及储罐区可燃气体检测点设置区域等。最后,提出了借鉴俄罗斯储罐运行技术标准的先进性改进国内标准的建议。

  5. Pharmaceutical interventions by collaboration between staff pharmacists and clinical pharmacists and implementation of Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards on medication use may optimize pharmacotherapy in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Meng Chen, Quan Zhou Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of ChinaWe read with great interest the prospective study by Cortejoso et al,1 which describes the characteristics of pharmaceutical interventions in two geriatric wards (orthogeriatric ward and geriatric day unit of a general teaching hospital. We strongly agree with their finding that shows the importance of clinical pharmacist involvement in the optimization of pharmacotherapy in elderly patients. Furthermore, we especially appreciate their new and interesting findings that the clinical pharmacist was more frequently requested by physicians and nurses for information about the pharmacotherapy of the patients on the geriatric day unit, compared with the orthogeriatric ward at admission and discharge (5.7% vs 1.2% and 1.7%, respectively, P<0.05, and that the pharmacist asked for more confirmation of the physician orders on the geriatric day unit rather than the orthogeriatric ward (19.8% vs 1.8% and 15.7% at admission and discharge, respectively, P<0.05. We are from a Joint Commission International (JCI-accredited academic medical center hospital with 3200 beds in China. Safe medication management and use are pivotal to patient safety and quality of care on which the state-of-the-art standards of the Joint Commission focus. We would like to share our perspectives in the following paragraphs.View original paper by Cortejoso and colleagues. 

  6. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  7. Open SHMEM Reference Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-12

    OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a reference implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.

  8. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  9. Changing Roles for References Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Julia; Robbins, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the future outlook for reference librarians, with topics including: "Technology as the Source of Change"; "Impact of the Internet"; "Defining the Virtual Library"; "Rethinking Reference"; "Out of the Library and into the Streets"; "Asking Users About Their Needs"; "Standardization and Artificial Intelligence"; "The Financial Future"; and…

  10. Optimal Cutoff and Accuracy of an IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Northern Thailand: an Alternative Reference Method to the IgM Immunofluorescence Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksell, Stuart D.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Kantipong, Pacharee; Richards, Allen L.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed as an alternative serologic diagnostic test to the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for scrub typhus. Here, we systematically determine the optimal sample dilution and cutoff optical density (OD) and estimate the accuracy of IgM ELISA using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs). Data from 135 patients with undifferentiated fever were reevaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar and tested with a blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, and an IgM IFA. The IgM ELISA was performed for every sample at sample dilutions from 1:100 to 1:102,400 using crude whole-cell antigens of the Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains of O. tsutsugamushi developed by the Naval Medical Research Center. We used Bayesian LCMs to generate unbiased receiver operating characteristic curves and found that the sample dilution of 1:400 was optimal for the IgM ELISA. With the optimal cutoff OD of 1.474 at a sample dilution of 1:400, the IgM ELISA had a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% credible interval [CrI], 77.4% to 86.7%) and a specificity of 98.1% (95% CrI, 97.2% to 100%) using paired samples. For the ELISA, the OD could be determined objectively and quickly, in contrast to the reading of IFA slides, which was both subjective and labor-intensive. The IgM ELISA for scrub typhus has high diagnostic accuracy and is less subjective than the IgM IFA. We suggest that the IgM ELISA may be used as an alternative reference test to the IgM IFA for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:27008880

  11. Optimal Cutoff and Accuracy of an IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Northern Thailand: an Alternative Reference Method to the IgM Immunofluorescence Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksell, Stuart D; Lim, Cherry; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Kantipong, Pacharee; Richards, Allen L; Paris, Daniel H; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas P J

    2016-06-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed as an alternative serologic diagnostic test to the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for scrub typhus. Here, we systematically determine the optimal sample dilution and cutoff optical density (OD) and estimate the accuracy of IgM ELISA using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs). Data from 135 patients with undifferentiated fever were reevaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar and tested with a blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, and an IgM IFA. The IgM ELISA was performed for every sample at sample dilutions from 1:100 to 1:102,400 using crude whole-cell antigens of the Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains of O. tsutsugamushi developed by the Naval Medical Research Center. We used Bayesian LCMs to generate unbiased receiver operating characteristic curves and found that the sample dilution of 1:400 was optimal for the IgM ELISA. With the optimal cutoff OD of 1.474 at a sample dilution of 1:400, the IgM ELISA had a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% credible interval [CrI], 77.4% to 86.7%) and a specificity of 98.1% (95% CrI, 97.2% to 100%) using paired samples. For the ELISA, the OD could be determined objectively and quickly, in contrast to the reading of IFA slides, which was both subjective and labor-intensive. The IgM ELISA for scrub typhus has high diagnostic accuracy and is less subjective than the IgM IFA. We suggest that the IgM ELISA may be used as an alternative reference test to the IgM IFA for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  12. Reference image selection for difference imaging analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Huckvale, Leo; Sale, Stuart E

    2014-01-01

    Difference image analysis (DIA) is an effective technique for obtaining photometry in crowded fields, relative to a chosen reference image. As yet, however, optimal reference image selection is an unsolved problem. We examine how this selection depends on the combination of seeing, background and detector pixel size. Our tests use a combination of simulated data and quality indicators from DIA of well-sampled optical data and under-sampled near-infrared data from the OGLE and VVV surveys, respectively. We search for a figure-of-merit (FoM) which could be used to select reference images for each survey. While we do not find a universally applicable FoM, survey-specific measures indicate that the effect of spatial under-sampling may require a change in strategy from the standard DIA approach, even though seeing remains the primary criterion. We find that background is not an important criterion for reference selection, at least for the dynamic range in the images we test. For our analysis of VVV data in particu...

  13. Standardized reference of waist circumference among children and adolescents in Beijing using the LMS Method%北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值LMS法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕若然; 孟灵慧; 孙颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the standardized reference of waist circumference (WC) among children and adolescents in Beijing.Method Stratified by rural and urban areas,level of economic status,a total of 9 421 students aged in 6-22years from 40 primary and middle schools and 2 colleges in 6 districts of Beijing were investigated.The reference intervals were calculated using the LMS method.Results WC was increasing by age in boys aged 7-22 years old; the same trend was in girls before 12 years old.At 18 years old,average WC was 76.62 cm in boys and 72.55 cm in girls.The WC was highest in obese students,followed by overweight and normal-weight students.WC cut-off values for screening overweight and obesity was 79.72 cm and 89.35 cm in boys aged 18 and 74.38 cm and 84.40 cm in girls,respectively.Conclusion Standardized reference of WC for screening overweight and obesity by using the LMS method is reliable.It can be used in Beijing.%目的 通过分析2010年北京市学生体质健康调研结果,建立北京市儿童腰围筛查分类标准.方法 按城乡、经济水平分层,调查北京市6个区40所中小学校和2所大学的7 ~ 22岁大中小学生8 795名.按照《2010年全国学生体质健康调研工作手册》规定的方法进行身体测量,以LMS法计算性别年龄别腰围各百分位数值,并绘制LMS曲线,建立北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值.结果 北京市7 ~22岁男生腰围随年龄的增加而增大,女生在12岁以前呈现同样趋势,但之后趋于稳定.18岁男、女生腰围分别为76.62 cm和72.55 cm.不同BMI组别间腰围均值不同,肥胖组>超重组>正常组.北京市18岁男生超重/肥胖的腰围筛查标准是79.72 cm和89.31 cm,女生分别是74.38 cm和84.40 cm.结论 LMS法建立的北京市儿童青少年腰围筛查标准准确,可以在北京地区推广使用.

  14. Discrete Optimization in Chemical Space Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    928 allowed_groups( 929 (28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35) 930 (17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27) 931 (17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27) 932 ) 933 ) 934 ( 935 Z...1010 ReturnConnector() 1011 Connector() 1012 allowed_groups() 1013 ) 1014 ( 1015 Z( 1016 (C, -3, 0.7, -2, 0, -1, 0) 1017 (N, 0, 1.4, -3, 120, -2, 180

  15. Handbook of optimization in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M

    2008-01-01

    Covers the field of optimization in telecommunications, and the optimization developments that are frequently applied to telecommunications. This book aims to provide a reference tool for scientists and engineers in telecommunications who depend upon optimization.

  16. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  17. Reference View Selection in DIBR-Based Multiview Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugey, Thomas; Petrazzuoli, Giovanni; Frossard, Pascal; Cagnazzo, Marco; Pesquet-Popescu, Beatrice

    2016-04-01

    Augmented reality, interactive navigation in 3D scenes, multiview video, and other emerging multimedia applications require large sets of images, hence larger data volumes and increased resources compared with traditional video services. The significant increase in the number of images in multiview systems leads to new challenging problems in data representation and data transmission to provide high quality of experience on resource-constrained environments. In order to reduce the size of the data, different multiview video compression strategies have been proposed recently. Most of them use the concept of reference or key views that are used to estimate other images when there is high correlation in the data set. In such coding schemes, the two following questions become fundamental: 1) how many reference views have to be chosen for keeping a good reconstruction quality under coding cost constraints? And 2) where to place these key views in the multiview data set? As these questions are largely overlooked in the literature, we study the reference view selection problem and propose an algorithm for the optimal selection of reference views in multiview coding systems. Based on a novel metric that measures the similarity between the views, we formulate an optimization problem for the positioning of the reference views, such that both the distortion of the view reconstruction and the coding rate cost are minimized. We solve this new problem with a shortest path algorithm that determines both the optimal number of reference views and their positions in the image set. We experimentally validate our solution in a practical multiview distributed coding system and in the standardized 3D-HEVC multiview coding scheme. We show that considering the 3D scene geometry in the reference view, positioning problem brings significant rate-distortion improvements and outperforms the traditional coding strategy that simply selects key frames based on the distance between cameras.

  18. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B.; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F. T.; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A.; Campiglia, Andres D.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2 K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 μg L−1 (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. PMID:26653471

  19. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples.

  20. Information Security Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-01-01

    The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security stand...

  1. Establishment of a reasonable overweight and obese BMI reference standard of Mongolian children and adolescents aged 7 to 18%蒙古族7~18岁儿童青少年超重、肥胖者体质指数参考值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽宇; 佟伟军; 布仁巴图; 哈森高娃; 李红美; 林哲; 肖剑岚; 孙岚; 李永山; 张壮伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立合理适用的蒙古族7 ~18岁儿童青少年超重、肥胖的体质指数(BMI)参考值标准.方法 取“全国学生体质健康调研”蒙古族通辽校点2000年的调查数据,有效人数为5 563人,以BMI为指标采用有序样品聚类分析方法对样本划分最优年龄段,再结合百分位数法确定超重、肥胖的界值点.结果 男女均划分为7~8岁、9 ~11岁、12 ~13岁、14~ 15岁、16~18岁共5个最佳年龄段,以每个年龄段的85百分位为超重的界值点,95百分位为肥胖的界值点,建立了蒙古族儿童青少年的BMI参考值标准,共计20个参考值.结论 该研究所建立的参考值标准针对蒙古族儿童青少年,突出了简单、实用的特点,可为蒙古族儿童青少年超重、肥胖的筛查、防治及临床诊断提供依据.%Objective To establish a reasonable overweight and obese body mass index (BMI) reference standard of Mongolian children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18. Methods Data came from the survey of "National Students' Health Research Project" conducted in Tongliao Mongolian in 2000. Among the effective number of 5,563 in 2000, the subjects were divided with BM as an indicator into optimal age groups by ordinal clustering methods. Then, the BMI reference as the age-specific percentile values were provided for evaluation of overweight and obesity. Results Both groups of girls and boys were divided into five age groups, 7 to 8, 9 to 11, 12 to 13, 14 to 15, 16 to 18 years old. By percentile cutoff values for overweight (85%) and obesity (95%), we established the Mongolian Children's BMI reference standards of 20 values altogether. Conclusion The standards established by this for Mongolian Children is simple and practical. It can be used in the over-weight and obesity screen, prevention and clinical diagnosis.

  2. Consistent Reduction in Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction With Cangrelor as Assessed by Multiple Definitions: Findings From CHAMPION PHOENIX (Cangrelor Versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Matthew A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Stone, Gregg W; White, Harvey D; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Gibson, C Michael; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Leonardi, Sergio; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Harrington, Robert A

    2016-09-06

    Cangrelor is an intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor approved to reduce periprocedural ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention not pretreated with a P2Y12 inhibitor. A total of 11 145 patients were randomized to cangrelor or clopidogrel in the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial (Cangrelor versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition). We explored the effects of cangrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) using different definitions and performed sensitivity analyses on the primary end point of the trial. A total of 462 patients (4.2%) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention had an MI as defined by the second universal definition. The majority of these MIs (n=433, 93.7%) were type 4a. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the incidence of MI at 48 hours (3.8% versus 4.7%; odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.97; P=0.02). When the Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition of periprocedural MI was applied to potential ischemic events, there were fewer total MIs (n=134); however, the effects of cangrelor on MI remained significant (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92; P=0.01). Similar effects were seen in the evaluation of the effects of cangrelor on MIs with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.91) and those with peak creatinine kinase-MB ≥10 times the upper limit of normal, ischemic symptoms, or ECG changes (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). MIs defined by any of these definitions were associated with increased risk of death at 30 days. Treatment with cangrelor reduced the composite end point of death, MI (Society of Coronary Angiography and Intervention definition), ischemia-driven revascularization, or Academic Research Consortium definite stent thrombosis (1.4% versus 2.1%; OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92). MI in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, regardless of definition, remains associated with increased risk of death

  3. Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    . A way to solve the initial design problem namely finding a form can be solved by so-called topology optimization. The idea is to define a design region and an amount of material. The loads and supports are also fidefined, and the algorithm finds the optimal material distribution. The objective function...... dictates the form, and the designer can choose e.g. maximum stiness, maximum allowable stresses or maximum lowest eigenfrequency. The result of the topology optimization is a relatively coarse map of material layout. This design can be transferred to a CAD system and given the necessary geometrically...... refinements, and then remeshed and reanalysed in other to secure that the design requirements are met correctly. The output of standard topology optimization has seldom well-defined, sharp contours leaving the designer with a tedious interpretation, which often results in less optimal structures. In the paper...

  4. Information Security Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security standards demonstrate in a methodical and certifiable manner that an organization conforms to industry best practices and procedures. This article offers a review of the world’s most used information security standards.

  5. Five different levels of secondary standard reference material of transaminase prepared with mixed freezing human serum%5种浓度水平冰冻混合人血清ALT、AST二级标准品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏昌宇; 庄俊华; 王兰珍; 张雪莲; 于琴; 刘牧龙; 徐国宾; 刘欧; 李海霞; 刘岩; 齐丽丽; 何振坤; 徐静; 黄宪章

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prepare a stable secondary standard reference materials of serum transaminase ( alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) for accurate value of of serum transaminase level in routine measurement. Methods Human sera without hemolysis and lipemia were pooled which covered 5 different levels of the linearity measuring range. After filtration for sterilization, the mixed sera were distributed into freezing tubes (0.5ml per vial) and stored at -70 ℃ +2 ℃. Transaminase levels in the mixed sera were assessed in 4 laboratories with the recommended reference method recommended by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) containing or non-containing pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The consistency of transaminase level in the sera measured by 7 commercial biochemical analysis systems and the results were evaluated by linear regression. The homogeneity of the materials was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The stabilities of materials for short-term and long-term were studied at room temperature ( 15-25 ℃ ), 4 ℃ and -70 ℃ respectively. Results The sera materials were verified to be homogeneous and stable enough for use when stored at room temperature and 4 ℃, and could be preserved at - 70 ℃ for at least one year. The measured values from 4 laboratories were of high consistency with small uncertainties. The materials prepared by mixed sera were proved to be consistent with each other except the level 4 and level 5 which showed a little variation induced by matrix effect of PLP. Conclusion The prepared 5 levels of frozen sera materials were homogeneous, stable and intercommunicatable. All the 5 levels of material may achieve accurate measuring values and serve as the secondary standard reference material of serum transaminase.%目的 研制5个浓度水平冰冻混合人血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)二级标准品,为常规检测ALT、AST提供稳定性和互通性良好的准确度

  6. 77 FR 37617 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object- Color Evaluation... complete citations for standards on Standards Referred to in This colorimetry, headforms, and...

  7. 77 FR 37587 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object- Color Evaluation... complete citations for standards on Standards Referred to in This colorimetry, headforms, and...

  8. Library Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  9. Diagnostic performance of cardiac imaging methods to diagnose ischaemia-causing coronary artery disease when directly compared with fractional flow reserve as a reference standard: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danad, Ibrahim; Szymonifka, Jackie; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Norgaard, Bjarne L.; Zarins, Christopher K.; Knaapen, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress echocardiography (SE), invasive coronary angiography (ICA), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CCTA (FFRCT), and cardiac magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging when directly compared with an FFR reference standard. Method and results PubMed and Web of Knowledge were searched for investigations published between 1 January 2002 and 28 February 2015. Studies performing FFR in at least 75% of coronary vessels for the diagnosis of ischaemic coronary artery disease (CAD) were included. Twenty-three articles reporting on 3788 patients and 5323 vessels were identified. Meta-analysis was performed for pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios (LR), diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves. In contrast to ICA, CCTA, and FFRCT reports, studies evaluating SPECT, SE, and MRI were largely retrospective, single-centre and with generally smaller study samples. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivity of CCTA (90%, 95% CI: 86–93), FFRCT (90%, 95% CI: 85–93), and MRI (90%, 95% CI: 75–97) were higher than for SPECT (70%, 95% CI: 59–80), SE (77%, 95% CI: 61–88), and ICA (69%, 95% CI: 65–75). The highest and lowest per-patient specificity was observed for MRI (94%, 95% CI: 79–99) and for CCTA (39%, 95% CI: 34–44), respectively. Similar specificities were noted for SPECT (78%, 95% CI: 68–87), SE (75%, 95% CI: 63–85), FFRCT (71%, 95% CI: 65–75%), and ICA (67%, 95% CI: 63–71). On a per-vessel basis, the highest sensitivity was for CCTA (pooled sensitivity, 91%: 88–93), MRI (91%: 84–95), and FFRCT (83%, 78–87), with lower sensitivities for ICA (71%, 69–74), and SPECT (57%: 49–64). Per-vessel specificity was highest for MRI (85%, 79–89), FFRCT (78%: 78–81), and SPECT (75%: 69–80), whereas ICA (66%: 64–68) and CCTA (58%: 55

  10. AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF LOW ASPECT RATIO TRANSONIC TURBINE STAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Liming; LI Jun; FENG Zhenping

    2006-01-01

    The advanced optimization method named as adaptive range differential evolution (ARDE)is developed. The optimization performance of ARDE is demonstrated using a typical mathematical test and compared with the standard genetic algorithm and differential evolution. Combined with parallel ARDE, surface modeling method and Navier-Stokes solution, a new automatic aerodynamic optimization method is presented. A low aspect ratio transonic turbine stage is optimized for the maximization of the isentropic efficiency with forty-one design variables in total. The coarse-grained parallel strategy is applied to accelerate the design process using 15 CPUs. The isentropic efficiency of the optimum design is 1.6% higher than that of the reference design. The aerodynamic performance of the optimal design is much better than that of the reference design.

  11. COSTSAFR 3. 0---User's manual: (Conservation Optimization Standard for Savings in Federal Residences): In support of proposed modifications to interim energy conservation standards for new federal residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This document describes how to use the computer program developed under the Federal Residential Standard Project funded by the Department of Energy. The computer program provides an analysis of specific housing projects at a given site, using alternative fuel types, and considering alternative housing types. Designed around the concept of minimizing overall costs through energy conservation design--including first cost and future utility costs--the computer program establishes a standard design to which proposed housing designs are compared. It then provides a point table, for each housing type, that can be used to determine whether a proposed design meets the standard and how a design could be modified to meet the standard. The computer program has been designed for IBM-PC or compatible computers and is recorded on a floppy disk. This manual describes how to use the program and how to read the information that appears on the screen during program operation. It describes the inputs required and the various options presented to the user. The appendices provide more detailed information related to the output produced by the program. This output consists of point tables presenting points for each energy conservation option, and a point total that must be met to comply with the standard. The technical support document and economic analysis are separate documents that provide more information about the specifics of the standard.

  12. Hull shape optimization for autonomous underwater vehicles using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag estimation and shape optimization of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV hulls are critical to energy utilization and endurance improvement. In the present work, a shape optimization platform composed of several commercial software packages is presented. Computational accuracy, efficiency and robustness were carefully considered and balanced. Comparisons between experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD were conducted to prove that a two-dimensional (2D unstructured mesh, a standard wall function and adaptive mesh refinement could greatly improve efficiency as well as guarantee accuracy. Details of the optimization platform were then introduced. A comparison of optimizers indicates that the multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA obtains a better hull shape than particle swarm optimization (PSO, despite being a little more time consuming. The optimized hull shape under general volume requirement could provide reference for AUV hull design. Specific requirements based on optimization testify of the platform’s robustness.

  13. 23 CFR 625.4 - Standards, policies, and standard specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Accommodation of Utilities, refer to 23 CFR part 645, subpart B. (8) Pavement Design, refer to 23 CFR part 626... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN STANDARDS FOR HIGHWAYS § 625.4 Standards, policies, and standard specifications.... (a) Roadway and appurtenances. (1) A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, AASHTO...

  14. 含5种烈性出血热病毒的假病毒阳性参考品的制备%Construction of pseudovirus reference standard containing five kinds of hemorrhagic fever virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪锋; 康晓平; 冉鑫; 霍耐凡; 吴晓燕; 李裕昌; 杨银辉

    2016-01-01

    目的:利用慢病毒载体系统制备含有马尔堡病毒(Marburg virus)、扎伊尔型埃博拉病毒(Zaire Ebola virus)、苏丹型埃博拉病毒(Sudan Ebola virus)、拉沙热病毒(Lassa fever virus)和黄热病毒(Yellow fever virus)5种烈性病毒核酸片段的假病毒,为其核酸检测提供一种通用的阳性参考品。方法体外合成该5种病毒的目的基因片段,通过融合 PCR 技术将5个片段连接成一条基因,然后克隆到慢病毒表达载体上,并与其辅助载体共转染293T细胞;转染后分别于48、72 h 收集培养上清,用 DNase 和 RNase 进行消化处理及纯化浓缩,最后提取核酸,利用普通PCR 和实时荧光定量 PCR 鉴定假病毒是否包装成功。结果测序结果表明,体外合成的该5种病毒的目的基因片段已正确连接并插入慢病毒载体中;载体转染293T 细胞后收集上清中的假病毒,提取核酸经上述两种 PCR 鉴定均可特异性检测到靶基因,表明已成功包装出含该5种出血热病毒靶基因的假病毒颗粒。结论该研究获得的假病毒颗粒可作为上述5种出血热相关烈性病毒核酸检测的通用阳性参考品。%Objective To construct the pseudovirus containing nucleic acid(NA)fragments of Marburg virus,Zaire Ebola virus,Sudan Ebola virus,Lassa fever virus and Yellow fever virus by using a lentiviral vector system in order to provide a reference standard for the detection of the five viruses.Methods The gene fragments of the above five viruses were synthesized in vitro,connected into a single gene by fusion PCR technique,and cloned into lentiviral vectors with its auxiliary vector.After co-transfecting into 293T cells,the supernatants were collected on 48 h and 72 h post transfection. The naked NA was cleaned from the supernatants using DNase and RNase digestion before pseudotype virus was purified and concentrated.After the NA of the pseudotype virus,were extracted normal

  15. Mobility-based Time References for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastiano, Fabio; Makinwa, Kofi A A

    2013-01-01

     This book describes the use of low-power low-cost and extremely small radios to provide essential time reference for wireless sensor networks.  The authors explain how to integrate such radios in a standard CMOS process to reduce both cost and size, while focusing on the challenge of designing a fully integrated time reference for such radios. To enable the integration of the time reference, system techniques are proposed and analyzed, several kinds of integrated time references are reviewed, and mobility-based references are identified as viable candidates to provide the required accuracy at low-power consumption. Practical implementations of a mobility-based oscillator and a temperature sensor are also presented, which demonstrate the required accuracy over a wide temperature range, while drawing 51-uW from a 1.2-V supply in a 65-nm CMOS process. Provides system analysis to understand requirements for time/frequency accuracy in wireless sensor networks; Describes system optimization for time references i...

  16. Einmaliges studentisches standardisiertes Training der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion nach EN1500: Quantifizierung des Trainingseffektes, Nutzen der Methode und Vergleich mit klinischen Referenzgruppen [A single standardized practical training for surgical scrubbing according to EN1500: Effect Quantification, value of the standardized method and comparison with clinical reference groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wullenk, Katharina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] The standardized training of practical competences in skills labs is relatively new among German Medical Faculties. The broad acceptance and outstanding evaluation results do not provide objective data on the efficiency and cost-efficiency of these trainings. This study aims on the quantification of the teaching effect of the surgical scrubbing technique EN1500 and its comparison with clinical references of OR personnel.Methods: 161 4 year medical students were randomized into intervention and control group. The intervention group received a 45 minute standardized peer-teaching training of practical competences necessary in the OR including the scrubbing according to EN1500. Fluorescence dye was mixed in the disinfectant solution. After hand disinfection, standardized fotographs and semi-automated digital processing resulted in quantification of the insufficiently covered hand area. These results were compared with the control group that received the training after the test. In order to provide information on the achieved clinical competence level, the results were compared with the two clinical reference groups.Results: The intervention group remained with 4,99% (SD 2,34 insufficiently covered hand area after the training compared to the control group 7,33% (SD 3,91, p[german] Die standardisierte Schulung klinisch-praktischer Fertigkeiten in sog. Skills Labs ist erst seit wenigen Jahren an deutschen Universitäten verbreitet. Den zumeist umfangreichen und sehr guten Evaluationsergebnissen stehen kaum Untersuchungen zur Effektquantifizierung und Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse gegenüber. In der vorliegenden Studie soll eine Methode zur digitalen Quantifizierung der Güte der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion vorgestellt werden sowie das Skills-Lab-Training der standardisierten Einreibemethode nach EN1500 auf seinen Effekt hin untersucht und mit OP-Pflegepersonal und Operateuren als klinische Referenzgruppen verglichen werden.Methode: 161

  17. Establishment of a reasonable weight reference standard of Mongolian children and adolescents aged 7 to 18%蒙古族7~18岁儿童青少年不同年龄段体质量参考值的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素青; 佟伟军; 布仁巴图; 哈森高娃; 李红美; 林哲; 肖剑岚; 孙岚; 李永山; 张壮伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a reasonable weight reference standard of Mongolian children and adolescents aged 7 to 18. Methods Survey data came from Tongliao, Mongolian in 2000 and 2005, the point of " National Health Research Students" . Effective number of 5,563 was obtained in 2000. Weight as an indicator, ordinal clustering method was used to divide the optimal age groups. Linked departure method was used to get the weight reference range of all age groups. Effective number of 2,990 in 2005 was obtained to verify the accuracy of reference ranges. Results City boys were divided into five age groups: 7 to 8 years old, 9 to 11 years old, 12 to 13 years old, 14 to 15 years old, 16 to 18 years old; country boys were divided into five age groups: 7 to 9 years old, 10 to 12years old, 13 to 14 years old, 15 to 16 years old, 17 to 18 years old; city girls and country girls were both divided into six age groups: 7 to 8 years old, 9 to 10 years old, 11 years old, 12 to 13 years old, 14 to 15 years old, 16 to 18 years old. Then the Mongolian Childrens weight reference standards were established, and there were a total of 32 values. Conclusion The standards established for Mongolian children in this research show the characteristics of being simple and practical. Mongolian children and adolescents are lacking in the standard weight for age. It plays a significant guiding role in preventing Mongolian children and adolescents from malnutrition, overweight and obesity screening.%目的 建立合理适用的蒙古族7~18岁儿童青少年体质量参考值.方法 对象来自"全国学生体质健康调研"蒙古族通辽校点2000年和2005年的调查数据.2000年获得有效人数5 563人,以年龄别体质量为指标采用有序样品聚类分析方法 对样本划分最优年龄段,结合离差法建立各年龄段体质量的参考值范围;2005年获得有效人数2 990人,用以验证参考值范围正常率.结果 城男分为7~8岁、9~11岁、12~13岁、14~15岁、16

  18. Valores de referência para carboxiemoglobina Reference values for carboxyhemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa P. B. de Siqueira

    1997-12-01

    the present study, the RV for carboxyhemoglobin (COHb was determined for the South of Minas Gerais. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The COHb was analyzed by the Beutler and West (1984 spectrophotometric method, optimized in our laboratory. In all the samples, analyses of some biochemical and hematological parameters were made to evaluate the health condition of a population of 200 volunteer non-smokers occupationally not exposed to CO. Each individual answered a questionnaire to obtain data pertinent to the interpretation of the results. The reference values were expressed as mean values ± standard deviation, with a 95% confidence interval, and an upper reference value. The statistical distribution of the results was made so as to enable comparisons between the results of groups of workers, rather than individual evaluations, to be made. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The mean value ± standard deviation was 1.0% ± 0.75; the 95% confidence interval was 0,9 - 1.1% and the upper reference value was 2.5%. By the t Student test (p < 0.05, no difference was detected between the values related to sex, age or ingestion of alcoholic beverages. The reference values obtained were close to those reported for others countries.

  19. Optimal weighted combinatorial forecasting model of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhang; Miao, Ge; Xinlei, Liu; Minyi, Cen

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to provide a scientific basis for unifying the reference value standard of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults. Three predictive models including regression model, principal component model, and artificial neural network model are combined to establish the optimal weighted combination model. The optimal weighted combination model and single model are verified and compared. Optimal weighted combinatorial model can reduce predicting risk of single model and improve the predicting precision. The reference value of geographical distribution of Chinese adults' QT dispersion was precisely made by using kriging methods. When geographical factors of a particular area are obtained, the reference value of QT dispersion of Chinese adults in this area can be estimated by using optimal weighted combinatorial model and reference value of the QT dispersion of Chinese adults anywhere in China can be obtained by using geographical distribution figure as well.

  20. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)