WorldWideScience

Sample records for optimal energy taxation

  1. Optimal Energy Taxation for Environment and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Main purpose of this research is to investigate about how to use energy tax system to reconcile environmental protection and economic growth, and promote sustainable development with the emphasis of double dividend hypothesis. As preliminary work to attain this target, in this limited study I will investigate the specific conditions under which double dividend hypothesis can be valid, and set up the model for optimal energy taxation. The model will be used in the simulation process in the next project. As the beginning part in this research, I provide a brief review about energy taxation policies in Sweden, Netherlands, and the United States. From this review it can be asserted that European countries are more aggressive in the application of environmental taxes like energy taxes for a cleaner environment than the United States. In next part I examined the rationale for optimal environmental taxation in the first-best and the second-best setting. Then I investigated energy taxation how it can provoke various distortions in markets and be connected to the marginal environmental damages and environmental taxation. In the next chapter, I examined the environmentally motivated taxation in the point of optimal commodity taxation view. Also I identified the impacts of environmental taxation in various circumstances intensively to find out when the environment tax can yield double dividend after taking into account of even tax-interaction effects. Then it can be found that even though in general the environmental tax exacerbates the distortion in the market rather than alleviates, it can also improve the welfare and the employment under several specific circumstances which are classified as various inefficiencies in the existing tax system. (author). 30 refs.

  2. The theory of optimal taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  3. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  4. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The theory of optimal taxation has often been criticized for being of little practical policy relevance, due to a lack of robust theoretical results. This paper argues that recent advances in optimal tax theory has made that theory easier to apply and may help to explain some current trends...... in international tax policy. Covering the taxation of labour income and capital income as well as indirect taxation, the paper also illustrates how some of the key results in optimal tax theory may be derived in a simple, heuristic manner....

  5. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    This paper suggests that the optimal tax system should favour market-produced services which are close substitutes for home-produced services. First, we modify the classical Corlett-Hague rule for optimal commodity taxation by showing that it may be optimal to impose a relatively low tax rate...... on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively...

  6. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The theory of optimal taxation has often been criticized for being of little practical policy relevance, due to a lack of robust theoretical results. This paper argues that recent advances in optimal tax theory has made that theory easier to apply and may help to explain some current trends in in...

  7. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital t

  8. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Satz, Emmanuel

    This paper analyzes the optimal income tax treatment of couples. Each couple is modelled as a single rational economic agent supplying labor along two dimensions: primary and secondary earnings. We consider fully general joint income tax systems. Separate taxation is never optimal if social welfare...

  9. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2009-01-01

    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings....

  10. Europe's experience with carbon-energy taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    The COMETR project is a comprehensive attempt to account ex-post for the implications of carbon-energy taxation, taking into account differences in sectoral tax burdens and within a suitable macro-economic framework capable of providing an overall assessment, the E3ME model of Cambridge Econometr......The COMETR project is a comprehensive attempt to account ex-post for the implications of carbon-energy taxation, taking into account differences in sectoral tax burdens and within a suitable macro-economic framework capable of providing an overall assessment, the E3ME model of Cambridge...... Econometrics. The results indicate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for six member states as a result of carbon-energy taxation under revenue-neutral environmental tax reform (ETR). These effects are mirrored by reductions in total fuel consumption, with the largest reductions occurring in countries...

  11. Optimal Labour Taxation and Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the optimal role of the tax system in alleviating labour-market imperfections, raising revenue, and correcting the income distribution. For this purpose, the standard search model of the labour market is extended by introducing non-linear vacancy costs due to scarce entrepreneuri

  12. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Satz, Emmanuel

    This paper analyzes the optimal income tax treatment of couples. Each couple is modelled as a single rational economic agent supplying labor along two dimensions: primary and secondary earnings. We consider fully general joint income tax systems. Separate taxation is never optimal if social welfare...... depends on total couple incomes. In a model where secondary earners make only a binary work decision (work or not work), we demonstrate that the marginal tax rate of the primary earner is lower when the spouse works. As a result, the tax distortion on the secondary earner decreases with the earnings...... of the primary earner and actually vanishes to zero asymptotically. Such negative jointness is optimal because redistribution from two-earner toward one-earner couples is more valuable when primary earner income is lower. We also consider a model where both spouses display intensive labor supply responses...

  13. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve...

  14. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve...... to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax......-transfer system does not provide full disability insurance. By offering imperfect insurance and structuring disability benefits so as to enable workers to insure against disability by working harder, social insurance is designed to offset the distortionary impact of the redistributive labor income tax on labor...

  15. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax......Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve......-transfer system does not provide full disability insurance. By offering imperfect insurance and structuring disability benefits so as to enable workers to insure against disability by working harder, social insurance is designed to offset the distortionary impact of the redistributive labor income tax on labor...

  16. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve......-transfer system does not provide full disability insurance. By offering imperfect insurance and structuring disability benefits so as to enable workers to insure against disability by working harder, social insurance is designed to offset the distortionary impact of the redistributive labor income tax on labor...... to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax...

  17. A research of green taxation policy for promoting energy saving and emission reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen

    2009-01-01

    relevant to green taxation in the current taxation system, such as resource tax, consumer tax, and so on; collecting new environmental tax; perfecting the preferential taxation policies for the energy saving and environmental protection industries.

  18. Energy taxation in Europe, Japan and The United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Almost all industrialised countries impose taxes on energy. Transport fuels have carried a relatively high fiscal tax for a long time. In Finland, the slump of the early 1990s led to quickly increasing energy taxation, the primary goal of which was to make up for the deficit in government finances. At the same time, the other Nordic countries also raised their energy taxes, but in most of the countries energy taxes were still at a low level at the time or energy was not taxed at all, with the exception of transport fuels. The European Union made an attempt to standardise energy taxation practices as early as the beginning of the 1990s. However, it was only after many stages and the ratification of the financially much more heavyweight Emissions Trading Directive that the Energy Taxation Directive was approved in 2003. It lays down the structure of energy taxation and relatively low minimum tax rates for fuels and power. The practices and levels of energy taxation vary considerably between countries. Therefore, it is essential to consider whether or not the national economies of high-taxation countries can sustain further increases in energy taxes in the increasingly tight global markets. On the other hand, regressive energy taxes substantially cut consumer demand from the other sectors of consumption. Thus, they place a particular burden on northern national economies, where energy consumption is relatively high due to the cold climate and long distances. This publication is a summary of the comparative energy tax survey published by Finnish Energy Industries in November 2010. The survey was carried out to provide a basis for decision-making concerning energy taxation in central government and in industry, both in Finland and further afield. The main sources of the study were the European Commission, Eurostat, Euroheat and Power, Eurelectric, material published in the countries under scrutiny, as well as questionnaires on energy taxation sent to various parties in

  19. Self-Selection, Optimal Income Taxation, and Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2009-01-01

    The author makes a pedagogical contribution to optimal income taxation. Using a very simple model adapted from George A. Akerlof (1978), he demonstrates a key result in the approach to public economics and welfare economics pioneered by Nobel laureate James Mirrlees. He shows how incomplete information, in addition to the need to preserve…

  20. Optimal Taxation of Risky Human Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); D. Schindler (Dirk); H. Yang (Hongyan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn a model with ex-ante homogenous households, earnings risk and a general earnings function, we derive the optimal linear labor tax rate and optimal linear education subsidies. The optimal income tax trades off social insurance against incentives to work and to invest in human capital.

  1. The optimal taxation of logistics industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dongmei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Putting forward policy proposes to improve the tax policy of the logistics industry.Design/methodology/approach: Based on Cobb-Douglas production function model, combined theoretical analysis, this paper puts forward Cobb-Douglas production function expansion model, and using the function estimates the optimal tax burden level of China's logistics industry.Findings: The result of empirical analysis on the state-owned companies and the listed companies of transportation and storage industry show that, the actual tax burden of China's logistics industry is higher than the optimal taxation. This implies that tax problem has restricted the normal operation of the logistics industry in China.Research limitations/implications: Affected by lack of Chinese logistics industry statistics, we only estimate the optimal taxation of state-owned logistics enterprises and listed companies of logistics. But, the two samples are the main force of the logistics industry in China, and the optimal tax calculation result is close, so we can believe that the calculation results are representative.Originality/value: At present, the study of the tax burden on China's logistics industry is almost blank. This research estimates the optimal tax burden level of China's logistics industry, and puts forward recommendations to improve the tax policy of the logistics industry.

  2. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Saez, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the general nonlinear optimal income tax for couples, a multidimensional screening problem. Each couple consists of a primary earner who always participates in the labor market, but makes an hours-of-work choice, and a secondary earner who chooses whether or not to work...... calibrated microsimulations for the United Kingdom showing that decreasing tax rates on secondary earnings is quantitatively significant and consistent with actual income tax and transfer programs....

  3. Optimal taxation of exhaustible resource under monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jeong-Bin [Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-Dong, Jinju, 660-701 Kyeongsangnam-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    This paper deals with the problem of using taxes (or subsidies) to correct the inefficient resource allocation under monopoly. In this paper, the question raised is 'what would be the optimal tax on resource extraction under monopoly?' Ultimately, it is shown that taxes may be devised to generate price and extraction paths under monopoly that are identical to those under the competitive equilibrium. Tax policy can thus be used as an instrument for changing the distortionary resource allocation generated by the monopolist.

  4. Longevity, genes and efforts: an optimal taxation approach to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, M-L; Pestieau, P; Ponthiere, G

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the analytical tools of optimal taxation theory to the design of the optimal subsidy on preventive behaviours, in an economy where longevity varies across agents, and depends on preventive expenditures and on longevity genes. Public intervention can be here justified on three grounds: corrections for misperceptions of the survival process and for externalities related to individual preventive behaviour, and redistribution across both earnings and genetic dimensions. The optimal subsidy on preventive expenditures is shown to depend on the combined impacts of misperception, externalities and self-selection. It is generally optimal to subsidize preventive efforts to an extent depending on the degree of individual myopia, on how productivity and genes are correlated, and on the complementarity of genes and preventive efforts in the survival function.

  5. The Optimal Taxation of UnskilIed Labor with Job Search and Social Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    In order to explore the optimal taxation of low-skilled labor, we extend the standard model of optimal non-linear income taxation in the presence of quasi-linear preferences in leisure by allowing for involuntary unemployment, job search, an exogenous welfare benefit, and a non-utilitarian social we

  6. Carbon-energy taxation: lessons from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    performance and competitiveness? By how much were emissions of CO2 reduced? Could energy-intensive industries cut further down on their fuel demand or did they loose market shares? To what extent was there 'leakage' from Europe, so that production and CO2 emissions were shifted to other countries or regions...... without CO2-abatement policy? The use of unique and original data, including sector-specific energy prices and taxes, as well as the use of advanced statistical techniques, such as co-integration analysis and panel-regression techniques along with the time-series estimated macro-economic model E3ME, make...

  7. Optimal taxation of married couples with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    The literature suggests that the concern for economic efficiency calls for individual-based taxation of married couples with a higher rate on the primary earner. This paper reconsiders the choice of tax unit in the Becker model of household production. In the absence of restrictions on the use of...

  8. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  9. Towards a level playing field for EU’s energy-related taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    It follows from economic theory that externalities are the relevant yardstick for internalizing taxes. Yet with established approaches to account for external costs in Europe, estimates differ from the level suggested with American approaches, though we might see some convergence in methodologies...... in the years to come. Under the present circumstances in Europe legal doctrines seem to have higher prominence than economic—and when the very framework of an EU energy taxation directive is acknowledged, energy-related taxation has indeed a purpose in its own right in creating a more level playing field...

  10. Conservation of a fishery through optimal taxation: a dynamic reaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Tapan Kumar

    2005-03-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of selective harvesting in a ratio-dependent predator-prey fishery in which both the predator and prey obey the logistic law of growth. To protect fish population from over exploitation a control instrument tax is imposed. The existence of its steady states and their stability are studied. The problem of optimal taxation policy is then solved by using Pontryagin's maximal principle. Finally some numerical examples are taken to illustrate the results.

  11. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, B.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cyclemodel of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge-nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not onlylabor income but also capital income is optimal. The positive tax on capital incomeserves to alleviate the distortions of the labor tax on human capital accumulation.The optimal marginal tax rate on capital income is lower than that on labor inco...

  12. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Taxation with Pollution and Heterogeneous Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bontems, Philippe; GOZLAN, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address two questions: (i) how should a government pursuing both environmental and redistributive objectives design domestic taxes when redistribution is costly, and (ii) how does trade liberalization affect this optimal tax system, and modify the economy's levels of pollution and inequalities ? Using a general equilibrium model under asymmetric information with two goods, two factors (skilled and unskilled labor) and pollution, we fully characterize the optimal mixed tax sy...

  13. Human capital and optimal positive taxation of capital income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear and non-linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heterogenous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also

  14. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital inco

  15. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital inco

  16. The optimal taxation of logistics industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Putting forward policy proposes to improve the tax policy of the logistics industry.Design/methodology/approach: Based on Cobb-Douglas production function model, combined theoretical analysis, this paper puts forward Cobb-Douglas production function expansion model, and using the function estimates the optimal tax burden level of China's logistics industry.Findings: The result of empirical analysis on the state-owned companies and the listed companies of transportation and storage in...

  17. Optimal Income Taxation and Risk : The Extensive-Margin Case

    OpenAIRE

    Boadway, Robin; SATO, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    The optimal income tax structure is studied in a setting in which workers make discrete labor market decisions and earnings are uncertain. Workers differ continuously along a single dimension that reflects their skills as well as their disutility of work in different jobs. A discrete number of jobs-types are available in perfectly elastic supply. Each job yields a stochastic distribution of wages, where the distribution differs among skill-types. The amount of work in each job is fixed, so th...

  18. Optimal Petroleum Taxation Subject to Mobility and Information Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-10-01

    Two recent noticeable international developments in the petroleum industry have been mergers and acquisitions, and the opening of new oil producing provinces for transnational oil companies. Both factors contribute to sharpening the international competition between various petroleum provinces in attracting the most competent companies. In addition, we have experienced that the transnational companies have changed their strategies. To an increasing extent they seem to choose a focusing strategy. Many functions are outsourced and one tries to concentrate the activity to a limited number of core countries, and even particular geological structures within the individual countries. The article discusses the implications of the new setting for optimal tax and regulatory design. (author)

  19. Influence of Taxation on Supply and Demand in Tomorrow’s Crowd Energy Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Craven; Evgenia Derevyanko; Mario Gstrein; Bernd Teufel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract-The emergence of the energy self-sufficient home presents a new role for government taxation. Policymakers now face the challenge of reflecting this technological change in their decision-making and must assume a greater level of engagement. This paper proposes a number of original fiscal concepts for policymakers to implement in the support of micro-grid development. These are designed to optimise a sustainable transition away from the centralised energy system whilst creating shared value among stakeholders throughout the value chain. Concepts are based on residential micro-grid schemata in Switzerland and are applicable in other countries.

  20. New taxation on passenger vehicles and energy consumption. Impact on energy and CO{sub 2} from changed taxation in April 2007; Nye bilafgifter og energiforbrug. Energi- og CO{sub 2}-maessige effekter af afgiftsaendringen i april 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, R.; Vestergaard, L.; Hedegaard Soerensen, C. (Tetraplan A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-01-15

    In April 2007 the Danish taxation on passenger vehicles was changed to, amongst other things, lower the CO{sub 2} emission. The changed taxation affects one out of five people, who have purchased a new vehicle for passenger use. And it has improved the overall fuel efficiency of the newly sold passenger vehicles by three percent. However, much of the improvement is based on a shift from gasoline to diesel engines leading to only a slightly lower overall energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission - about a half percent. The general trend of downsizing and shift from gasoline to diesel engines is only partly due to the changed taxation. Rising oil and fuel prices as well as increased focus on energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission are the major reason for buying a more fuel efficient vehicle for passenger use. Three out of four people buying new passenger vehicles are willing to choose a more fuel efficient type if the purchase tax and thus the price is lowered. Half of the people buying new passenger vehicles also agree on changing the taxation on passenger vehicles from a purchase based tax, which is quit high in Denmark, to a tax based on the use of the vehicles. Moreover, a majority agree that the taxes on passenger vehicles should, to an even larger extend than today, be based on energy use and CO{sub 2} emission. (au)

  1. Stochastic Funding of a Defined Contribution Pension Plan with Proportional Administrative Costs and Taxation under Mean-Variance Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles I Nkeki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim at studying a mean-variance portfolio selection problem with stochastic salary, proportional administrative costs and taxation in the accumulation phase of a defined contribution (DC pension scheme. The fund process is subjected to taxation while the contribution of the pension plan member (PPM is tax exempt. It is assumed that the flow of contributions of a PPM are invested into a market that is characterized by a cash account and a stock. The optimal portfolio processes and expected wealth for the PPM are established. The efficient and parabolic frontiers of a PPM portfolios in mean-variance are obtained. It was found that capital market line can be attained when initial fund and the contribution rate are zero. It was also found that the optimal portfolio process involved an inter-temporal hedging term that will offset any shocks to the stochastic salary of the PPM.

  2. Towards higher transparency and efficiency in energy taxation. Energy taxation and environmental policy in a small open economy; Foer oekad transparens och effektivitet i energibeskattningen. Energibeskattning och miljoepolitik i en liten oeppen ekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Goeran (and others)

    2002-11-01

    The accrual of energy taxation has led to a complex structure of taxes and charges that are characterized by instability and low efficiency. Other reasons for analyzing the system is the pressure from our contractual responsibilities within the European Union and the raised ambitions in the environmental policy. The report leads to the conclusion that it would be motivated to separate fiscal energy taxation from measures to internalize environmental costs that the market does not register. This separation would make it possible to create a more transparent and rational energy taxation. The fiscal energy taxation ought to be a broad, value-based tax, equal for all energy sources. Value-based means, besides the energy content in kWh, also properties such as conversion and distribution costs. Two alternatives are suggested for the fiscal energy taxation: A separate consumption tax on energy. Such a tax would amount to 48% to produce the same income as the fiscal elements of today's energy taxes. Another alternative would be to include the fiscal energy tax in the value added tax. This would raise the standard VAT level to 30%, if the lower VAT levels are kept unchanged. With this model, consumption of energy would be treated as any other consumption. The environmental policy measures against greenhouse gases should be delt with through a system with international trade with emission quotas for such gases. Measures against other external effects from energy use are not suggested in this report, except for the opinion that economic incentives are preferable to regulations. The initial allocation of quotas ought to be done through an auction, since this method would give lower national costs than the alternatives. The system should cover all greenhouse gases and (almost) all sources which indicates that an upstream solution would be best with low administrative costs. A safety vent should be considered, so that extreme costs for CO{sub 2}-emissions are avoided, if e

  3. Climate policy with tied hands optimal resource taxation under implementation lags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Maria, C.; Smulders, Sjak; van der Werf, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of implementation lags, announced Pigouvian taxation leads to fossil fuel prices that are too low from society’s perspective. This results in excessive emissions and reduced incentives for green innovation. Such effects are compounded by the presence of pre-existing subsidies to foss

  4. On the optimality of the Nordic system of dual income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the Nordic countries have introduced a so-called dual income tax which combines a proportional tax on capital income with progressive taxation of labour income. The paper argues that this asymmetric treatment of the two types of income can be defended on pure efficiency grounds, b...

  5. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    differential rates of carbon-energy taxation. By opening up the ideological space to a broader spectrum of "green" parties, I argue that PR systems create a favourable institutional context within which higher rates of carbon-energy taxation become politically possible. After specifying a key causal mechanism within different types of electoral systems -- the seat-vote elasticity -- I argue further that, voters in disproportional systems actually have more leverage over politicians, and that an increase in environmental voting can have an impact on rates of carbon energy taxation, even in the absence of PR. While the accession to power of green political parties in PR systems is more likely to lead to higher rates of carbon energy taxation, voting for green parties in highly disproportional systems creates incentives for other parties to adopt "green" policies, leading to a similar outcome. In this way, the effect of green votes and green seats will have the opposite effect on policy according to the type of electoral system in use.

  6. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  7. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    interests between shareholders and managers. We set up an agency model and analyze the crucial issue in corporate taxation of whether the normal return on investment should be exempted from taxation. The findings suggest that the divergence of interests may be intensified and welfare reduced...... if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence......The effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior have been extensively discussed in the neoclassical model of firm behavior which abstracts from agency problems. As emphasized by the corporate governance literature, corporate investment behavior is however crucially influenced by diverging...

  8. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior have been extensively discussed in the neoclassical model of firm behavior which abstracts from agency problems. As emphasized by the corporate governance literature, corporate investment behavior is however crucially influenced by diverging...... interests between shareholders and managers. We set up an agency model and analyze the crucial issue in corporate taxation of whether the normal return on investment should be exempted from taxation. The findings suggest that the divergence of interests may be intensified and welfare reduced...... if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence...

  9. Rules of Normalisation and their Importance for Interpretation of Systems of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    representation of the general equilibrium conditions the rules of normalisation in standard optimal tax models. This allows us to provide an intuitive explanation of what determines the optimal tax system. Finally, we review a number of examples where lack of precision with respect to normalisation in otherwise...

  10. Optimization of use of waste in the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Alternative uses of waste for energy production become increasingly interesting when considered from two perspectives, that of waste management and the energy system perspective. This paper presents the results of an enquiry into the use of waste in a future energy system. The analysis...... was performed using the energy system analysis model, Balmorel. The study is focused on Germany and the Nordic countries and demonstrates the optimization of both investments and production within the energy systems. The results present cost optimization excluding taxation concerning the use of waste for energy...... production in Denmark in a 2025 scenario with 48% renewable energy. Investments in a range of waste conversion technologies are facilitated, including waste incineration, co-combustion with coal, anaerobic digestion, and gasification. The most economically feasible solutions are found to be incineration...

  11. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples as a Multi-Dimensional Screening Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Saez, Emmanuel

    problem. We prove that, under regularity and separability assumptions for utility functions and for a wide class of social welfare functions, optimal tax schemes display negative jointness such that the tax rate on one person decreases in the earnings of the spouse. We also show that the tax...

  12. Taxation on energy products and fiscal harmonisation in the European Union; La fiscalita' energetica ed il problema dell'armonizzazione a livello europeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorigoni, S. [Milan Bocconi Univ., Milan (Italy). Istituto di Economia delle Fonti di Energia

    2000-07-01

    Taxation on energy products has represented one of the main issues in the Community Policy for many years. The object of the draft Directive 97/30, relative to the restructuring of the European set-up for taxation on energy, is the one of promoting a harmonisation process in the excise levels and of removing, in this way, one of the main obstacles towards the achievement of competition on energy markets and, more generally, the creation of the single European market. In this article the differences in energy taxation among member states are firstly analysed, considering the effects that would arise from the application of common minimum levels of taxation as foreseen by the above-mentioned Community law. The possibility of applying to the environmental taxation (based on the internalisation of external costs due to energy production and consumption) as a convergence criterion is then considered, pointing out the main obstacles to its adoption, but also the risks that seem to be concerned with a harmonisation process that were not coherent under an environmental point of view. [Italian] La tassazione sulle fonti energetiche in Europa costituisce da tempo oggetto di dibattito in sede comunitaria. L'obiettivo della recente proposta di direttiva (COM 97/30), relativa alla ristrutturazione del quadro comunitario dell'imposizione sui prodotti energetici, e' quello di promuovere un processo di convergenza quantitativa nei valori delle accise, e di rimuovere cosi' uno dei vincoli all'effettiva implementazione della concorrenza sui mercati dell'energia, cui tendono i recenti provvedimenti di liberalizzazione, e piu' in generale, alla creazione del mercato unico europeo. In questo articolo vengono dapprima considerate le disparita' esistenti nei livelli di tassazione in vigore nei diversi stati membri, analizzando gli effetti che deriverebbero dall'applicazione della legge comunitaria che prevede soglie minime comuni di accisa su

  13. TAXATION OF ENERGY PRODUCTS AND ELECTRICITY TO THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂUNESCU ALBERTO NICOLAE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available U.E established to increase socio-economic stability and security of supply, the Energy Community has set a good example of regional cooperation in which the EU and the South-Eastern European countries can diversify their energy sources. It has created a functioning institutional framework and more legal certainty for investors. Next steps are to enhance market reforms and to boost investments in the energy sector. The final objective is that the regional market should be fully integrated in the European's internal energy market

  14. Dynamic analysis of energy, environment and congestion effects of urban transport policy. Variabilisation of car taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dender, K. Van [Center for Economic Studies (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    Road transport is an important cause of external costs. In general three types of external costs can be distinguished: congestion, air and noise pollution causing environment damage and health hazards, and road accidents. Policy measures aiming at the reduction of external costs mostly are limited to a specific cost-type. The lack of integration of policies causes inefficiencies, because external costs are strongly interlinked. In Ochelen and Proost, congestion, pollution and road accidents are treated as externalities. An optimal pricing and regulation policy for transport is calculated for Brussels in 2005. Regulation consists of prescriptions to car producers concerning the environmental characteristics of car-technology. Optimal prices charge transport users the social cost of their trips, with possibly a correction for the marginal cost of public funds. In a perfect pricing policy, prices would be differentiated according to conditions of congestion and pollution at each moment in time. The model is flexible enough to simulate the effects of more realistic policy packages. This flexibility has its cost in terms of degree of detail of the model. This paper deals with an extension of the Ochelen and Proost model, in two directions. The model is currently still a prototype. We concentrate on the main issues involved in making the model dynamic. The degree of detail therefore is rather limited. Magnitudes of policy effects must be interpreted carefully. We are more confident as to what concerns the directions of the effects. The paper first deals with the methodology of the model, calibration of the model and on the base case scenario, which serves as reference cases for the policy evaluation. (EG)

  15. Motor fuel taxation, energy conservation, and economic development: A regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Richard W. [Department of Economics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824-3593 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Combustion of motor fuels has a variety of environmental impacts on local, regional and global scales. Taxing motor fuels more heavily would mitigate those environmental impacts. However, many governments are reluctant to increase motor fuel taxes because they fear that the tax incidence will be regressive and that economic development will be impeded. Using data for the New England region of the United States, this paper argues that an oil-importing region can conserve energy, avoid regressive impacts and encourage economic development by taxing motor fuels more heavily and rebating the incremental revenues to owners of motor vehicles. (author)

  16. The Public Choice Problem of Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Hjøllund, Lene

    1998-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that the they are differentiated and far from this first-best opt......Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that the they are differentiated and far from this first......-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy...... on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit...

  17. The Public Choice Problem of Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Hjøllund, Lene

    1998-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that the they are differentiated and far from this first-best opt......Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that the they are differentiated and far from this first......-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy...... on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit...

  18. Codex EU energy law. The most relevant directives, regulations and decisions on electricity, gas and oil, renewables, energy efficiency, energy taxation, energy infrastructures, energy labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deketelaere, Kurt (ed.) [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Chair of Energy and Environmental Law

    2012-07-01

    This Codex EU Energy Law brings together the most important, presently applicable, legislation on energy, as adopted by the EU. The legislation has been booming in recent years, after decades of very limited European activity in the field, with the exception of coal and nuclear. Several drivers explain this increase: the liberalisation of the European gas and electricity markets, the awareness to improve the security of energy supply, the necessity to be more energy-efficient, and the protection of the environment. All this has been translated in several, recent (i.e. 2009/2010) legislative energy packages: the liberalisation package, the climate and energy package, and the energy efficiency package. As a consequence, a serious amount of new regulations, directives and decisions on gas, electricity, renewables, biofuels, regulators, appliances, buildings, etc. must be implemented and/or applied by the Member States. Practitioners and academics will find this codex to be a good working tool. (orig.)

  19. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  20. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  1. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G

    1998-07-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms' ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  2. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1998-12-31

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms` ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  3. Optimization of electric energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraner, A.R.

    1984-02-01

    Several examples are used to show how electrical energy consumption can be reduced using appropriate consultation. According to on detailed analysis on energy consumption, a reduction can be achieved with peak loads as well as with the application of a combined emergency power supply - thermal machine, at least for middle- and large-sized buildings. The calculations for profitability are extended for the following areas: energy-saving light systems, ventilation plants, elevator plants, and kitchen equipment. A comment on employee motivation closes the report.

  4. Consumers, industrialists and the political economy of green taxation: CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, G.T.; Daugbjerg, C.; Hjoellund, L.; Pedersen, A.B. [Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus (Denmark). Dept. of Applied Economics, Centre for Social Science and Environment

    2001-05-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, a detailed analysis of the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that an important reason is that industry as a group, in contrast to households, is capable of lobbying against green taxation. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is six times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Even when tax revenue is fully refunded to industry, the potential losers (energy-intensive firms) will lobby harder against it than the potential winners (labor-intensive firms) due to small-groups advantages. The Norwegian case, described in some detail, confirms these arguments. It is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to households, because they tend to be badly organized. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Energy Optimization in Dyehouse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    2014-12-04

    Dec 4, 2014 ... “A nation that can't control its energy sources can't control its future,” Barack ... Electricity can be used to run machines or provide lighting while steam may be used to ... section consist basically of wastewater recovery, condensate recovery, cooling ..... Assume efficiency of heating system performance= 0.85.

  6. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the 2007 income tax declaration forms sent out by the cantonal tax administrations. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Re...

  7. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  8. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2014 internal taxation certificate and the 2014 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits that it pays to the members of its personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to acce...

  9. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2009 internal taxation certificate and the 2009 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2009 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2009, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, will be available from 1st March 2010. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. You can also access your annual certificate via http://hrt.cern.ch (open “Pay info” in the menu &...

  10. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2010 internal taxation certificate and the 2010 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2010 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2010, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, will be available from 1st March 2011. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above,...

  11. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2013 internal taxation certificate and the 2013 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of its personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access yo...

  12. TAXATION IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2011 internal taxation certificate and the 2011 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available as of 1 March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access ...

  13. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2012 internal taxation certificate and the 2012 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 25 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access y...

  14. Taxation in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2010 You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2010 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2010, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, has been available since 1st March 2011. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the follo...

  15. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2008 internal taxation certificate and the 2008 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations and CERN Bulletin Nos. 17 and 24 of 24 March 2008) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, has been available since 1st March 2009. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out ...

  16. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2015 internal taxation certificate and the 2015 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administrative Processes department, will be available on 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual cer...

  17. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  18. TAXATION AND FINANCE CONSTRAINED FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Claus

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops an open economy model to assess the long-run effects of taxation where firms are finance constrained. Finance constraints arise because of imperfect information between borrowers and lenders. Only borowers (firms) can costlessly observe actual returns from production. Imperfect information and finance constraints magnify the effects of taxation. A reduction (rise) in income taxation increases (lowers) firms' internal funds and their ability to assess external finance to ex...

  19. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  20. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  1. Distributional implications of environmental taxation in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Birr-Pedersen, Katja; Wier, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individ...

  2. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...... of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  3. Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A. Sturzeneger

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the presence of financial adaptation or currency substitution. the inflation tax is extremely regressive. This regressivity arises from the existence of a fixed cost of switching to inflation-proof transactions technologies. This fixed cost makes it optimal only for those agents with sufficiently high incomes to switch out of domestic currency. The effects are illustrated and quantified for a particular case.

  4. The decline and revival of environmentally-related taxation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    The EU Energy Taxation Directive's low minimum tax rate for diesel along with a general dieselisation of Europe's vehicle fleet explains why revenues from environmentally-related taxes gradually declined from 1999-2008. After the financial crisis environmentally-related taxation is resuming its...

  5. Consumers, Industrialists and the Political Economy of Green Taxation: CO2 taxation in OECD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Daugbjerg, Carsten; Hjøllund, Lene

    2001-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a detailed analysis of the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first......-intensive firms) due to small-group advantages. The Norwegian case confirms these arguments. Finally, it is suggested that a CO2 tax may, perhaps, successfully be applied to households, because they tend to be badly organized. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests......-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that an important reason this is so is that industry as a group, in contrast to households, is capable of lobbying against green taxation. The paper presents empirical findings on CO2 taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical...

  6. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of taxation is a phenomenon long past barriers fiscal regulations and procedures, as in the contemporary period is a phenomenon with multiple implications of economic, social and political. Tax procedures also were upgraded and complicated that not only specialists but also taxpayers need the jurisdictional knowledge, informatics and especially in the economic field. Dealing over the jurisdictional and procedural measure, it seems that the other side of the relationship between tax authorities and taxpayers, the economic and psycho-behavioral was neglected. Tax authorities as part of the administrative system, whose main objective attracting tax revenues to the Exchequer in terms of data legislation, legislation that reflects the vision of the governments policy in operation. One must ask if the official fiscal policies, take into account the coordinates of the report psychobehavioral tax? The answer to this question and some comments to address this issue, this paper covered together. The tax will not ever paid with pleasure, but it is known that fiscal equity confers a degree of acceptance by payers of the tax burden. Modern fiscal policies are marked by complicated structure of tax systems, more sophisticated procedures and rush image of politicians that do not retain as little detriment to promote populism reality. Another problem is the invasion of of social security, namely the objective is also looking to be promoted on account of fiscal policy without taking into account the fact that the two policies, the fiscal and social security are still their primary objective. The combination of the two types of , the purely fiscal and social, administrative approach is undoubtedly affected, and the effectiveness of the two policies may be affected taxpayers reactions is recognized in the literature are controversial. Taxpayers are vexed not only the size of the tax burden but also its structure, especially the way the official division

  7. The Influence of the Income Taxation on the Agent Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Daniela; Ramniceanu, Ioana; Marin, Dumitru

    2009-08-01

    In the model we will analyze the influence of the taxation change on choosing the optimal portfolio. We will prove that when the absolute index of the risk aversion is decreasing the amount invested in the risky active increase as a result of the income and substitution effects.

  8. Energy Criteria for Resource Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Resource optimization in building design is based on the total system over its expected useful life. Alternative environmental systems can be evaluated in terms of resource costs and goal effectiveness. (Author/MF)

  9. Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    125–143 DOI 10.1007/s00158-014-1117-8 RESEARCH PAPER Multiobjective topology optimization of energy absorbing materials Raymond A. Wildman · George A...recent developments. J Multiscale Model 3(4):1–42 Qiao P, Yang M, Bobaru F (2008) Impact mechanics and high-energy absorbing materials: review . J Aerosp...ARL-RP-0533 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials by

  10. Essays on taxation, efficiency, and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakonsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis comprises five chapters: (1) On the second order conditions for optimal taxation. Some experience from numerical models, (2) An investigation into alternative representations of the marginal cost of public funds, (3) On green tax reforms and double dividends, (4) Negative externalities, dead weight losses, and the cost of public funds, and (5) CO{sub 2} stabilisation may be a no-regrets policy. A general equilibrium analysis of the Norwegian economy. The chapters emphasises the effects of alternative tax policies on environmental quality and economic efficiency. The analysis in the CO{sub 2} chapter is based not on a stylised theoretical model, but on a detailed computable general equilibrium model of the Norwegian economy. The discussion in the CO{sub 2} chapter was in part motivated by the fact that several earlier articles on the economic consequences of CO{sub 2} reductions adopted a framework without distortionary tax rates in the benchmark equilibrium. In such a setting, a tax on CO{sub 2} emissions violates the conditions for Pareto optimality. This is not the case with the model here described. Rather, increased taxation of CO{sub 2} becomes a tax reform, where one tax is increased while one of several other taxes can be reduced accordingly in order to maintain tax revenue neutrality. The model also includes emissions of CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. All give rise to negative externalities. 86 refs., 37 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Taxation in Romania during transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, as fundamental element of budgetary revenue, represents the subject of newest utilization. Budget revenues through importance they hold, exercises a direct influence on the behavior of people being used by natural and legal persons as modeling tools in the economic and social life. Using the generic concept of taxation we can obtain a plurality of components, it’s defining elements, such as expression level of tax levies by various reports, the legal framework on tax revenue, financial institutions with responsibility for budgetary and fiscal powers, mandatory sampling methods, techniques and procedures used in the settlement and settlement revenue collection and budget. Performance of the economy at a time, effective use of public spending financed by taxes, public needs set by government policy and approved by Parliament, taxpayers, understanding of the budgetary needs, state of democracy in that country reached the level of taxation this one being determined by mentioned factors.

  12. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level. Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal control: 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives, 22 kW and 90 kW standard motor drives....... The method has been to make extensive efficiency measurements within the specified operating area with optimized efficiency and with constant air-gap flux, and to establish reliable converter and motor loss models based on those measurements. The loss models have been used to analyze energy optimal control...

  13. Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key

  14. Energy Efficiency Optimization for MIMO Broadcasting Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing the energy efficiency (EE) for the MIMO broadcasting channels (BC) is addressed in this paper, taking into account the transmit independent power which is related to the active transmit antenna number. A new optimization framework is proposed, in which transmit covariance optimization under fixed active transmit antenna sets is first performed and active transmit antenna selection (ATAS) is utilized then. To optimize the EE under a fixed transmit antenna set, we propose an energy efficient iterative waterfilling scheme according to the block-coordinate ascent algorithm, through transforming the problem into a concave fractional optimization via uplink-downlink duality. It is proved that the proposed scheme converges to the global optimality. After that, ATAS is employed to determine the active transmit antenna set and to turn off the rest inactive antennas. ATAS can balance the active transmit antenna number related EE gain with higher capacity gain and the EE loss with more transmit independent po...

  15. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  16. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization: UNEDF2

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of the UNEDF2 nuclear energy density functional (EDF) model were obtained in an optimization to experimental data consisting of nuclear binding energies, proton radii, odd-even mass staggering data, fission-isomer excitation energies, and single particle energies. In addition to parameter optimization, sensitivity analysis was done to obtain parameter uncertainties and correlations. The resulting UNEDF2 is an all-around EDF. However, the sensitivity analysis also demonstrated that the limits of current Skyrme-like EDFs have been reached and that novel approaches are called for.

  17. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  18. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  19. Vibration energy harvester optimization using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Z.; Ondrusek, C.; Kurfurst, J.; Singule, V.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with an optimization study of a vibration energy harvester. This harvester can be used as autonomous source of electrical energy for remote or wireless applications, which are placed in environment excited by ambient mechanical vibrations. The ambient energy of vibrations is usually on very low level but the harvester can be used as alternative source of energy for electronic devices with an expected low level of power consumption of several mW. The optimized design of the vibration energy harvester was based on previous development and the sensitivity of harvester design was improved for effective harvesting from mechanical vibrations in aeronautic applications. The vibration energy harvester is a mechatronic system which generates electrical energy from ambient vibrations due to precision tuning up generator parameters. The optimization study for maximization of harvested power or minimization of volume and weight are the main goals of our development. The optimization study of such complex device is complicated therefore artificial intelligence methods can be used for tuning up optimal harvester parameters.

  20. Optimized design of low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    concern which can be seen during the construction of new buildings. People want energy-friendly solutions, but they should be economical optimized. An exonomical optimized building design with respect to energy consumption is the design with the lowest total cost (investment plus operational cost over its...... to evaluate different separate solutions when they interact in the building.When trying to optimize several parameters there is a need for a method, which will show the correct price-performance of each part of a building under design. The problem with not having such a method will first be showed...

  1. Energy taxation and the double dividend effect in Taiwan's energy conservation policy-an empirical study using a computable general equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor, Yunchang Jeffrey, E-mail: byc2@faculty.pccu.edu.t [Department of Economics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan (China); Huang Yophy [Department of Public Finance and Tax Administration, National Taipei College of Business, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Faced with pressure from greenhouse gas reductions and energy price hikes, the Taiwan government is in the process of developing an energy tax regime to reflect environmental external costs and effectively curb energy consumption, as well as mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions through an adequate pricing system. This study utilizes a CGE model to simulate and analyze the economic impacts of the draft Energy Tax Bill and its complementary fiscal measures. Under the assumption of tax revenue neutrality, the use of energy tax revenue generated for the purpose of reducing income tax is the best choice with double dividend effects since it will effectively stimulate domestic consumption and investment, and, consequently, mitigate the negative impacts of the distortionary tax regime. The double dividend effect is less significant, however, when the supplementary measures being used are for government expenditure. Nevertheless, all supplementary measures have effectively reduced energy consumption, which means they have delivered at least the first dividend-in the sense of CO{sub 2} emissions control. It has been verified in this study that having adequate public-finance policy measures is the key to realizing the double dividend effect.

  2. Energy taxation and the double dividend effect in Taiwan's energy conservation policy. An empirical study using a computable general equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor, Yunchang Jeffrey [Department of Economics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114 (China); Huang, Yophy [Department of Public Finance and Tax Administration, National Taipei College of Business, Taipei 10051 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Faced with pressure from greenhouse gas reductions and energy price hikes, the Taiwan government is in the process of developing an energy tax regime to reflect environmental external costs and effectively curb energy consumption, as well as mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions through an adequate pricing system. This study utilizes a CGE model to simulate and analyze the economic impacts of the draft Energy Tax Bill and its complementary fiscal measures. Under the assumption of tax revenue neutrality, the use of energy tax revenue generated for the purpose of reducing income tax is the best choice with double dividend effects since it will effectively stimulate domestic consumption and investment, and, consequently, mitigate the negative impacts of the distortionary tax regime. The double dividend effect is less significant, however, when the supplementary measures being used are for government expenditure. Nevertheless, all supplementary measures have effectively reduced energy consumption, which means they have delivered at least the first dividend - in the sense of CO{sub 2} emissions control. It has been verified in this study that having adequate public-finance policy measures is the key to realizing the double dividend effect. (author)

  3. Optimal Energy Aware Clustering in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sarrafzadeh

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks is among the fastest growing technologies that have the potential of changing our lives drastically. These collaborative, dynamic and distributed computing and communicating systems will be self organizing. They will have capabilities of distributing a task among themselves for efficient computation. There are many challenges in implementation of such systems: energy dissipation and clustering being one of them. In order to maintain a certain degree of service quality and a reasonable system lifetime, energy needs to be optimized at every stage of system operation. Sensor node clustering is another very important optimization problem. Nodes that are clustered together will easily be able to communicate with each other. Considering energy as an optimization parameter while clustering is imperative. In this paper we study the theoretical aspects of the clustering problem in sensor networks with application to energy optimization. We illustrate an optimal algorithm for clustering the sensor nodes such that each cluster (which has a master is balanced and the total distance between sensor nodes and master nodes is minimized. Balancing the clusters is needed for evenly distributing the load on all master nodes. Minimizing the total distance helps in reducing the communication overhead and hence the energy dissipation. This problem (which we call balanced k-clustering is modeled as a mincost flow problem which can be solved optimally using existing techniques.

  4. Global Optimization by Energy Landscape Paving

    CERN Document Server

    Wille, L T; Wille, Luc T.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a novel heuristic global optimization method, energy landscape paving (ELP), which combines core ideas from energy surface deformation and tabu search. In appropriate limits, ELP reduces to existing techniques. The approach is very general and flexible and is illustrated here on two protein folding problems. For these examples, the technique gives faster convergence to the global minimum than previous approaches.

  5. Exploring agricultural taxation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der H.B.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.; Bommel, van K.H.M.; Doorneweert, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the tax systems in ten European countries, focusing on agriculture. It not only deals with income tax, it also describes other taxes such as gift and inheritance tax and Value Added Tax. This information leads to an analysis of the impact of taxation on the competitive position

  6. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the development mechanism of fiscal and taxation policies in the geothermal industry. The effect of the fiscal and taxation policy on the development of the geothermal industry is analyzed. In order to promote sustainable development of the geothermal industry in China, the government should pay more attention to subsidies for the geothermal industry in the life-cycle stage of the geothermal industry. Furthermore, a plan is necessary to provide a reasonable system of fiscal and taxation policies.

  7. Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Longbo; Walrand, Jean; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the...

  8. Optimized design of low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    by 33% compared to current level and that the CO2 emission should be halved. This calls for sustainable development in the building sector, but at the same time, it has to be economically efficient. People are conscious about savings in energy, but consideration to economic aspects are their primary...... concern which can be seen during the construction of new buildings. People want energy-friendly solutions, but they should be economical optimized. An exonomical optimized building design with respect to energy consumption is the design with the lowest total cost (investment plus operational cost over its...... life time). The design and construction of buildings should take into account both energy, environment and economical aspects. The design of a building is very complex and the work on optimizing the design raises several questions. Which criteria are the decisive when choosing a solution? How...

  9. Optimal Energy Allocation for Wireless Communications with Energy Harvesting Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Chin Keong

    2011-01-01

    We consider the use of energy harvesters, in place of conventional batteries with fixed energy storage, for point-to-point wireless communications. In addition to the challenge of transmitting in a channel with time selective fading, energy harvesters provide a perpetual but unreliable energy source. In this paper, we consider the problem of energy allocation over a finite horizon, taking into account channel conditions and energy sources that are time varying, so as to maximize the throughput. Two types of side information (SI) on the channel conditions and harvested energy are assumed to be available: causal SI (of the past and present slots) and full SI (of the past, present and future slots). We obtain structural results for the optimal energy allocation, via the use of dynamic programming and convex optimization techniques. In particular, if unlimited energy can be stored in the battery with harvested energy and full SI is available, we prove the optimality of a water-filling energy allocation solution w...

  10. Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Edward

    Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.

  11. Modeling and Optimization for Piercing Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dong; PAN Xiao-li; YUAN Yong; MAO Zhi-zhong; WANG Fu-li

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption is an important quality index in the production of seamless tubes. The complex factors affecting energy consumption make it difficult to build its mechanism model, and optimization is also very difficult, if not impossible. The piercing process was divided into three parts based on the production process, and an energy consumption prediction model was proposed based on the step mean value staged multiway partial least square meth-od. On the basis of the batch process prediction model, a genetic algorithm was adopted to calculate the optimum mean value of each process parameter and the minimum piercing energy consumption. Simulation proves that the op-timization method based on the energy consumption prediction model can obtain the optimum process parameters ef-fectively and also provide reliable evidences for practical production.

  12. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Patrizio, Piera; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has established a 23 percent target for renewable energy by 2025, along with a 100 percent electrification target by 2020 (the current rate is 80.4 percent). In that respect, Indonesia has abundant resources to meet these targets, but there is - inter alia - a lack of proper integrated planning, regulatory support, investment, distribution in remote areas of the Archipelago, and missing data to back the planning. To support the government of Indonesia in its sustainable energy system planning, a geographic explicit energy modeling approach is applied. This approach is based on the energy systems optimization model BeWhere, which identifies the optimal location of energy conversion sites based on the minimization of the costs of the supply chain. The model will incorporate the existing fossil fuel-based infrastructures, and evaluate the optimal costs, potentials and locations for the development of renewable energy technologies (i.e., wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal based technologies), as well as the development of biomass co-firing in existing coal plants. With the help of the model, an optimally adapted renewable energy mix - vis-à-vis the competing fossil fuel based resources and applicable policies in order to promote the development of those renewable energy technologies - will be identified. The development of the optimal renewable energy technologies is carried out with special focus on nature protection and cultural heritage areas, where feedstock (e.g., biomass

  13. Energy Harvesting By Optimized Piezo Transduction Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Boban, Bijo; Satheesh, U; Devaprakasam, D

    2014-01-01

    We report generation of electrical energy from nonlinear mechanical noises available in the ambient environment using optimized piezo transduction mechanisms. Obtaining energy from an ambient vibration has been attractive for remotely installed standalone microsystems and devices. The mechanical noises in the ambient environment can be converted to electrical energy by a piezo strip based on the principle of piezoelectric effect. In this work, we have designed and developed a standalone energy harvesting module based on piezo transduction mechanisms. Using this designed module we harvested noise energy and stored electrical energy in a capacitor. Using NI-PXI workstation with a LabVIEW programming, the output voltage of the piezo strip and voltage of the capacitor were measured and monitored. In this paper we discuss about the design, development, implementation, performance and characteristics of the energy harvesting module.

  14. Optimization of finances into regional energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yuryevich Domnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern Russian energy collides with the need for major investments in the modernization and renewal of generation and transmission capacity. In terms of attracting sufficient financial resources and find ways to increase, energy sector profitability and investment attractiveness of particular importance is the problem of investment financing optimizing aimed at minimizing the cost of financing while maintaining financial stability of the power companies and the goals and objectives of Russian energy system long-term development. The article discusses the problem of investment projects financing in power generation from the point of view of the need to achieve optimal investment budget. Presents the author’s approach to the investment financing optimization of power generation company that will achieve the minimum cost of resources involved, taking into account the impact of the funding structure for the power generating company financial sustainability. The developed model is applied to the problem of investment budget optimizing, for example, regional power generating company. The results can improve the efficiency of investment in energy, sustainable and competitive development of regional energy systems.

  15. Utility Optimal Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to achieve close-to-optimal utility performance in energy harvesting networks with only finite capacity energy storage devices. In these networks, nodes are capable of harvesting energy from the environment. The amount of energy that can be harvested is time varying and evolves according to some probability law. We develop an \\emph{online} algorithm, called the Energy-limited Scheduling Algorithm (ESA), which jointly manages the energy and makes power allocation decisions for packet transmissions. ESA only has to keep track of the amount of energy left at the network nodes and \\emph{does not require any knowledge} of the harvestable energy process. We show that ESA achieves a utility that is within $O(\\epsilon)$ of the optimal, for any $\\epsilon>0$, while ensuring that the network congestion and the required capacity of the energy storage devices are \\emph{deterministically} upper bounded by bounds of size $O(1/\\epsilon)$. We then also develop the Modified-ESA algorithm (MESA) to ac...

  16. Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional. In this work, we propose a new parameterization UNEDF2 of the local Skyrme energy density functional. The functional optimization is carried out using the POUNDerS optimization algorithm within the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Compared to the previous parameterization UNEDF1, restrictions on the tensor term of the energy density have been lifted, yielding the most general form of the Skyrme energy density functional up to second order in derivatives of the one-body local density. In order to impose constraints on all the parameters of the functional, selected data on single-particle splittings in spherical doubly-magic nuclei have been included into the experimental dataset. The agreement with both bulk and spectroscopic nuclear properties achieved by the resulting UNEDF2 parameterization is comparable wi...

  17. Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the finite size energy storage, such problems are challenging and are typically tackled using dynamic programming, which is often complex in computation and requires substantial statistical information of the system dynamics. We instead develop a low-complexity algorithm called Demand Response with Energy Storage Management (DR-ESM). DR-ESM does not require any statistical knowledge of the system dynamics, including the renewable energy and the power prices. It only requires the entity to solve a small convex optimization pr...

  18. Energy accounting and optimization for mobile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mian

    Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multi-core system like modern smartphones and tablets. In this thesis, we provide the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offer the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. To obtain the Shapley value-based ground truth, one only needs to know if a process is active during the time under question and the system energy consumption during the same time. We further provide a utility optimization formulation of energy management and show, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). We show an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting, it is related to Shapley value in that both require the system energy consumption for all possible combination of processes under question. We provide a novel system solution that meet this requirement by acquiring system energy consumption in situ for an OS scheduler period, i.e.,10 ms. We report a prototype implementation of both Shapley value-based energy accounting and OEM based scheduling. Using this prototype and smartphone workload, we experimentally demonstrate how erroneous existing energy accounting policies can

  19. Energy optimization in mobile sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengwei

    Mobile sensor networks are considered to consist of a network of mobile robots, each of which has computation, communication and sensing capabilities. Energy efficiency is a critical issue in mobile sensor networks, especially when mobility (i.e., locomotion control), routing (i.e., communications) and sensing are unique characteristics of mobile robots for energy optimization. This thesis focuses on the problem of energy optimization of mobile robotic sensor networks, and the research results can be extended to energy optimization of a network of mobile robots that monitors the environment, or a team of mobile robots that transports materials from stations to stations in a manufacturing environment. On the energy optimization of mobile robotic sensor networks, our research focuses on the investigation and development of distributed optimization algorithms to exploit the mobility of robotic sensor nodes for network lifetime maximization. In particular, the thesis studies these five problems: 1. Network-lifetime maximization by controlling positions of networked mobile sensor robots based on local information with distributed optimization algorithms; 2. Lifetime maximization of mobile sensor networks with energy harvesting modules; 3. Lifetime maximization using joint design of mobility and routing; 4. Optimal control for network energy minimization; 5. Network lifetime maximization in mobile visual sensor networks. In addressing the first problem, we consider only the mobility strategies of the robotic relay nodes in a mobile sensor network in order to maximize its network lifetime. By using variable substitutions, the original problem is converted into a convex problem, and a variant of the sub-gradient method for saddle-point computation is developed for solving this problem. An optimal solution is obtained by the method. Computer simulations show that mobility of robotic sensors can significantly prolong the lifetime of the whole robotic sensor network while

  20. Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation captures the state of the art of research on environmental taxation. Written by 36 specialists in environmental taxation from 16 countries, it takes an interdisciplinary and international approach, focusing on issues that are universal to using...... who are already working in the field or entering the field and highlights issues that call for more research in the future....

  1. International Taxation and Multinational Firm Location Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Cobos, Salvador; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, Luc; Gaëtan J.A. Nicodème

    2008-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...

  2. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike;

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  3. METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING THE ENERGY OF PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The device for energy-optimization on operation of several centrifugal pumps controlled in rotational speed, in a hydraulic installation, begins firstly with determining which pumps as pilot pumps are assigned directly to a consumer and which pumps are hydraulically connected in series upstream of t

  4. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.

  5. Controversial around Tax and Taxation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Mliczewska

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the analysis is concepts of a tax and taxation systems, which are used by the representatives of various scientific disciplines, above others finance, economics and tax law. Contrary to those using the above terminology referring to taxes and taxation systems, neither taxes nor taxation systems are, despite appearances, univocal and explicit concepts. The analysis presents the chosen definitions of taxes and taxation systems, across which we can come on the grounds of the disciplines mentioned above: finance, tax law and economics as well as the authorís of the analysis comments on the concepts.

  6. Issues of the economic risks theory under direct taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich Slavin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to calculate and justify the probabilistic characteristics of the economic risks of the company selling goods with profit and suffering from the burden of direct taxation. The economic nature and mechanisms of tax risks are described. Methods probabilisticdynamic method based on a few mathematically formulated principles ndash probability principle the principle of measurement etc. The method allows to find the optimal distributions of the phase variables components of the decisions vector of the production system numerical characteristics of which mathematical expectation variance covariance etc. bear the necessary information about the optimal properties of the economic actorsrsquobehavior. Results the basic equation of probabilisticdynamic method ndash the SchrodingerBellman equation ndash was integratedthe function of state was found the normal distribution was obtained of the vector of economic decisions in the phase space of the firm. The phase trajectories and the effective areas of the variables dispersion phase were researched. It is shown that at the intersection of the variation areas of normal distributions corresponding to two different production conditions there is a possibility of spontaneous transitions between these states accompanied by losses of capital assets of the company. The transition probabilities and the expression for average losses of working capital were calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of weak field tax perturbation leads to the modulation of the probability curves and average losses obtained earlier in the work by V.A. Slavin and I.N. Urusova quotMarket dynamics of productioneconomic system. 2. Transitions between production conditions. Elements of risks theoryquot for the company in the absence of taxation. The author outlines the nature of modulation of the main characteristics of tax risks related to the fact that the tax field influences the production system by phase trajectories

  7. Optimized supernova constraints on dark energy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan-Otto, C

    2006-01-01

    A model-independent method to study the possible evolution of dark energy is presented. Optimal estimates of the dark energy equation of state w are obtained from current supernovae data from Riess et al. (2004) following a principal components approach. We assess the impact of varying the number of piecewise constant estimates of w using a model selection method, the Bayesian information criterion, and compare the most favored models with some parametrizations commonly used in the literature. Although data seem to prefer a cosmological constant, some models are only moderately disfavored by our selection criterion: a constant w, w linear in the scale factor, w linear in redshift and the two-parameter models introduced here. Among these, the models we find by optimization are slightly preferred. However, current data do not allow us to draw a conclusion on the possible evolution of dark energy. Interestingly, the best fits for all varying-w models exhibit a w<-1 at low redshifts.

  8. Optimal Low Energy Earth-Moon Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar; Cooley, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    The optimality of a low-energy Earth-Moon transfer is examined for the first time using primer vector theory. An optimal control problem is formed with the following free variables: the location, time, and magnitude of the transfer insertion burn, and the transfer time. A constraint is placed on the initial state of the spacecraft to bind it to a given initial orbit around a first body, and on the final state of the spacecraft to limit its Keplerian energy with respect to a second body. Optimal transfers in the system are shown to meet certain conditions placed on the primer vector and its time derivative. A two point boundary value problem containing these necessary conditions is created for use in targeting optimal transfers. The two point boundary value problem is then applied to the ballistic lunar capture problem, and an optimal trajectory is shown. Additionally, the ballistic lunar capture trajectory is examined to determine whether one or more additional impulses may improve on the cost of the transfer.

  9. Brookhaven buildings energy conservation optimization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carhart, S C; Mulherkar, S S; Sanborn, Y

    1978-01-01

    The Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model is a linear programming representation of energy use in buildings. Starting with engineering and economic data on cost and performance of energy technologies used in buildings, including both conversion devices (such as heat pumps) and structural improvements, the model constructs alternative flows for energy through the technologies to meet demands for space heating, air conditioning, thermal applications, and electric lighting and appliances. Alternative paths have different costs and efficiencies. Within constraints such as total demand for energy services, retirement of existing buildings, seasonal operation of certain devices, and others, the model calculates an optimal configuration of energy technologies in buildings. The penetration of the various basic technologies within this configuration is specified in considerable detail, covering new and retrofit markets for nine building types in four regions. Each market may choose from several appropriate conversion devices and four levels each of new and retrofit structural improvement. The principal applications for which the model was designed described briefly.

  10. Complex energy system management using optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Stuart; Hurdowar-Castro, Diana; Allen, Rick; Olason, Tryggvi; Welt, Francois

    2010-09-15

    Modern energy systems are often very complex with respect to the mix of generation sources, energy storage, transmission, and avenues to market. Historically, power was provided by government organizations to load centers, and pricing was provided in a regulatory manner. In recent years, this process has been displaced by the independent system operator (ISO). This complexity makes the operation of these systems very difficult, since the components of the system are interdependent. Consequently, computer-based large-scale simulation and optimization methods like Decision Support Systems are now being used. This paper discusses the application of a DSS to operations and planning systems.

  11. Methods for Distributed Optimal Energy Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert

    The presented research deals with the fundamental underlying methods and concepts of how the growing number of distributed generation units based on renewable energy resources and distributed storage devices can be most efficiently integrated into the existing utility grid. In contrast to convent......The presented research deals with the fundamental underlying methods and concepts of how the growing number of distributed generation units based on renewable energy resources and distributed storage devices can be most efficiently integrated into the existing utility grid. In contrast...... to conventional centralised optimal energy flow management systems, here-in, focus is set on how optimal energy management can be achieved in a decentralised distributed architecture such as a multi-agent system. Distributed optimisation methods are introduced, targeting optimisation of energy flow in virtual...... micro-grids by prevention of meteorologic power flows into high voltage grids. A method, based on mathematical optimisation and a consensus algorithm is introduced and evaluated to coordinate charge/discharge scheduling for batteries between a number of buildings in order to improve self...

  12. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  13. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  14. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  15. 31 CFR 309.4 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 309.4 Section 309.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.4 Taxation....

  16. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated

  17. Pareto optimality in organelle energy metabolism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angione, Claudio; Carapezza, Giovanni; Costanza, Jole; Lió, Pietro; Nicosia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In low and high eukaryotes, energy is collected or transformed in compartments, the organelles. The rich variety of size, characteristics, and density of the organelles makes it difficult to build a general picture. In this paper, we make use of the Pareto-front analysis to investigate the optimization of energy metabolism in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Using the Pareto optimality principle, we compare models of organelle metabolism on the basis of single- and multiobjective optimization, approximation techniques (the Bayesian Automatic Relevance Determination), robustness, and pathway sensitivity analysis. Finally, we report the first analysis of the metabolic model for the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis, which is found in several protozoan parasites. Our analysis has shown the importance of the Pareto optimality for such comparison and for insights into the evolution of the metabolism from cytoplasmic to organelle bound, involving a model order reduction. We report that Pareto fronts represent an asymptotic analysis useful to describe the metabolism of an organism aimed at maximizing concurrently two or more metabolite concentrations.

  18. An Introductory Note on Carbon Taxation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2016-01-01

    emissions and with excise taxes on fuels provide a long-term signal capable of transforming energy and transport systems. Carbon tax schemes have been designed to reinforce employment and economic activity and to avoid damaging economic growth. With the large reserves of carbon allowances in Europe......’s emissions trading market, allowances continue to be traded at a modest carbon price, whereas carbon taxation is providing a more firm price signal to investors....

  19. Electronic documents circulation in taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchev A.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific recommendations on electronic documents circulation’s introduction in the system of the taxation are developed. The model of the initial tax calculation is offered which in contrast to available one takes into account the specific of enterprise’s administrative business-processes and also the algorithm of tax-payer’s electronic authentication in global system of electronic government. This allows without additional costs to boost information streams’ quality on electronic documentation of tax calculations. This also allows avoiding documents’ doubling and their separate requisites in state database.

  20. The global prospects of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the process of establishing international economic and financial relations between national economies is on the rise, many states encounter substantial difficulties in the process of collecting their tax claims. The most powerful countries in the world try to overcome this controversy by changing the international tax rules. The turning point was the financial-economic crisis of2008-2009, when the international community more vigorously embarked on resolving international tax issues. The OECD, the G20, the UN, the EU and a number of other powerful international organizations continued their activities on establishing a stronger framework of the international tax system. Global tax initiatives embodied in the soft law regulations have changed (to a varied extent the structure of national tax systems as well as the direction of national policies, and ultimately undermined the financial foundations of the social welfare state. The world's 'taxation landscape' is indisputably dominated by two major processes embodied in the concepts of tax harmonization and tax competition. The global crisis in financing contemporary states has weakened their resistance towards more extensive international tax cooperation. As a result, they increasingly accept global tax standards and are more vigorously involved in the international exchange of tax information for the purpose of counteracting international tax fraud. Changes in national tax systems are necessarily accompanied by changing relations between tax administrations and multinational companies as large taxpayers. The traditional public law relations are gradually changed by introducing some elements of 'negotiations and mutual agreement', which are aimed at strengthening mutual trust and avoiding unnecessary disputes and costs. Although they are currently no more than theoretical assumptions and political considerations, there are proposals for introducing global taxes and establishing the world tax

  1. The taxation of unhealthy energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs): An overview of patterns observed in the policy content and policy context of 13 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, Luc Louis; Jeurissen, Patrick Paulus Theodoor; Klazinga, Niek Sieds

    2017-08-01

    Taxation of energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is increasingly of interest as a novel public health and fiscal policy instrument. However academic interest in policy determinants has remained limited. We address this paucity by comparing the policy content and policy context of EDF/SSB taxes witnessed in 13 case studies, of which we assume the tax is sufficiently high to induce behavioural change. The observational and non-randomized studies published on our case studies seem to indicate that the EDF/SSB taxes under investigation generally had the desired effects on prices and consumption of targeted products. The revenue collection of EDF/SSB taxes is minimal yet significant. Administrative practicalities in tax levying are important, possibly explaining why a drift towards solely taxing SSBs can be noted, as these can be demarcated more easily, with levies seemingly increasing in more recent case studies. Despite the growing body of evidence suggesting that EDF/SSB taxes have the potential to improve health, fiscal needs more often seem to lay their policy foundation rather than public health advocacy. A remarkable amount of conservative/liberal governments have adopted these taxes, although in many cases revenues are earmarked for benefits compensating regressive income effects. Governments voice diverse policy rationales, ranging from explicitly describing the tax as a public health instrument, to solely explicating revenue raising. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Taxation of Clergymen Revenues from Pastoral Services – an Attempt of Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zieliński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to attempt a comprehensive evaluation of the legal regulations within the Polish tax system regarding taxation of clergymen revenues from pastoral services3.Methodology: Undertaking and accomplishing the purpose of this paper has been possible by analyzing the Polish literature on the subject as well as the relevant legal acts. For the purpose of this paper also empirical materials have been used, in the form of a report on the fi nances of the Catholic Church, the contents of which were used to formulate the conclusions de lege ferenda. The main research method used in the present study was the legal dogmatic method, which involves an analysis of the applicable regulations within the Polish legal system in the fi eld of taxation of clergymen revenues from pastoral services. Additionally, the basic methods of statistical data presentation were used in the form of tables.Findings: The applicable legal regulations within the Polish tax system regarding taxation of clergymen revenues obtained from performing their pastoral services require an urgent and comprehensive reform. For these are normative solutions that contradict the basic principles of taxation (especially the postulated for more than two centuries principles of equality and justice in taxation, which should form the basis for a properly determined object of taxation, and therefore they do not fulfi ll the by the legislature assigned functions.Research implications: Presented ideas for changes in the currently in Poland adopted lump-sum taxation system of clergymen revenues could constitute a starting point for the developers of the tax reform for further discussion on the desirable directions of reform in the fi eld of personal income taxation in Poland.Originality: In the paper the Author points out that in the ongoing public discussion on the optimal method of taxation of personal income relatively little attention is given to issues concerning

  3. Cache Energy Optimization Techniques For Modern Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    newcomers and veterans in the field of cache power management. It will help graduate students, CAD tool developers and designers in understanding the need of energy efficiency in modern computing systems. Further, it will be useful for researchers in gaining insights into algorithms and techniques for micro-architectural and system-level energy optimization using dynamic cache reconfiguration. We sincerely believe that the ``food for thought'' presented in this book will inspire the readers to develop even better ideas for designing ``green'' processors of tomorrow.

  4. Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation.

  5. Prosumers strategy for DHC energy flow optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasek Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the proposal of discrete model of district heating and cooling system (DHC for energy flow optimization. The aim is to achieve the best solution of the objective function, usually determined by minimizing the production and distribution costs and providing meets the needs of energy consumers. The model also introduces the idea of general prosumers strategy, where all active elements within the modern DHC system are representing by prosumers object. The prosumers are perceived as objects able to actively participate in the planning of production and consumption of energy. It is assumed that the general behaviour of the object in DHC is the same, no matter how they differ in sizes and designs. Thus, all the objects are defined by two characteristics - the ability to produce and consume. The model based on this basic principle, of course, with the most accurate information about the particular values at a time, object properties and other, should provide tools for simulation and control of modern DHC, possibly superior units as Smart Energy Grids - understood as a system integrating Smart Grids (electricity and Smart Thermal Grids (heat a cool.

  6. TAXATION TRENDS IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GRIGORE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work contains an economic analysis of the tax rates and revenue ratios of the European Union Member States. The paper also includes the structural reform initiatives that have been high on the tax policy agenda in last period. Despite the fairly short span of time, a wide spectrum of tax reforms was implemented or are going to be implemented (the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base, the key reform initiatives including dual income taxes and flat taxes, the elimination of harmful tax competition, the simplification and rationalization of the current VAT rates structure or key elements contributing to the establishment of the VAT anti-fraud strategy within the EU. The main objective of this paper is to present a fairly view of the structure, level and trends of taxation in the European Union over the last ten years.

  7. APPLICATION OF SIMPLIFIED TAXATION SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Golubova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity concerning cost formation of construction work executed by  entities of small business enterprises that use a simplified taxation system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of organization activity. Dozens of business entities applying various taxation systems are involved in the execution of the construction process. For this reason an inclusion of taxes in work cost may have a decisive influence on the selection of a contractor for an object construction.  

  8. The international Challenges and Finnish Corporate Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Juha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main trends in Finnish corporate taxation during the last ten years has been the lowering of the corporate tax rate. The decision to lower the corporate tax rate to 20% from the beginning of 2014 also changed the approach in reforming the corporate taxation as it was decided to stay on the grounds of a broad tax base and not to make loopholes in it with targeted exceptions.

  9. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gestwick, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bianchi, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  10. Integrated design by optimization of electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roboam, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular integrated optimal design with modeling and optimization methods and tools. It is made up of six chapters dedicated to integrated optimal design. First, the signal processing of mission profiles and system environment variables are discussed. Then, optimization-oriented analytical models, methods and tools (design frameworks) are proposed. A "multi-level optimization" smartly coupling several optimization processes is the subject of one chapter. Finally, a technico-economic optimizatio

  11. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives th...... the condenser pressure towards an optimal state. The objective of this is to present a feasible method that can be used for energy optimizing control. A simulation model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as basis for testing the control method.......The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives...

  12. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives...

  13. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballet, Jerome [C3ED Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development, UVSQ, University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Bazin, Damien [EMAFI Macroeconomics and International Finance Research Centre at University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, BP 2135, 06103 Nice (France); Lioui, Abraham [Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Touahri, David [LEST Institute of Labor Econmics and Industrial Sociology and Mediterranean University Aix-Marseille II, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  14. Introducing cost-optimal levels for energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2012-01-01

    The recast of the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) states that Member States (MS) must ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels”, and that the cost-optimal level must be calculated in accordance...... with a comparative methodology. The ultimate goal of this is to achieve a cost-optimal improvement of buildings’ energy performance (new and existing) in reality....

  15. Taxation of employee stock option plans : international principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KHINCHA, HPadamchand

    2002-01-01

    Employee stock option plans (ESOPs) - taxation of benefit can be applied at the grant, vesting or exercise of options or at the time of sale - no uniform international practice - legal issues involved in the taxation of the benefits...

  16. Consumption Taxation in a Digital World : A Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the economic and administrative issues that arise in the taxation of electronic commerce; addresses how best to meet the criteria of an ideal tax system; and examines recent policy developments.It is argued that destination-based taxation-is presently the norm for goods taxation is

  17. How should green taxation be designed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes...... directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous....... This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation...

  18. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borren, P; Sutton, M

    1992-12-01

    Using the latest published data from Tobacco Advisory Council surveys, this paper re-evaluates the question of whether or not increases in cigarette taxation are regressive in the United Kingdom. The extended data set shows no evidence of increasing price-elasticity by social class as found in a major previous study. To the contrary, there appears to be no clear pattern in the price responsiveness of smoking behaviour across different social classes. Increases in cigarette taxation, while reducing smoking levels in all groups, fall most heavily on men and women in the lowest social class. Men and women in social class five can expect to pay eight and eleven times more of a tax increase respectively, than their social class one counterparts. Taken as a proportion of relative incomes, the regressive nature of increases in cigarette taxation is even more pronounced.

  19. Optimization of the Public Buildings Energy Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipović, P.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the improvement of energy efficiency in public buildings nowadays atthe EU level. Increasing energy efficiency can lead to both better thermal comfort, as well as netsavings on energy bills. Furthermore, the right choice of energy source can lead to large savings inCO2...

  20. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  1. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances ...

  2. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  3. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  4. Reformation of Taxation of Income and Added Value in the Context of Legalisation of Financial Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paientko Tetiana V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the potential of taxation tools of legalisation of financial flows. The goal of the article is justification of directions of reformation of taxation of income and added value in the context of legalisation of financial flows in Ukraine. Pursuant to results of the study the article shows that using taxation tools it is possible to legalise and increase both taxation financial flows and a part of the financial flows earlier moved to the shadow sector of economy. First of all, budget receipts from income tax could be increased by means of reduction of this tax evasion. This could be achieved with the help of the mechanism of differentiation of income taxation, namely: application of a reduced income tax rate, which is directed at investments into the fixed capital, and a standard rate for the income distributed for other purposes. This would create conditions when tax evasion becomes unprofitable for tax payers. Second, reducing VAT evasion would result in its growth in budget receipts. To do this it is recommended to use the reduced rate during taxation of food supplies and public transportation services, which would allow reduction of the VAT evasion degree in the sphere of small and medium businesses (not connected with export that are engaged in these types of activity. The size of the reduced rate is identified by elasticity of the shadow added value and VAT multiplier. Third, it is possible to increase financial flows by means of attraction of a part of financial flows, earlier moved into the shadow economy, into economy and mobilisation into the budget using the mechanism of tax amnesty. Using foreign experience the article justifies optimal conditions of amnesty and size of the rate of income legalisation.

  5. Adam Smith on public expenditure and taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C. Coutinho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Adam Smith’s view on taxation and public expenditure, by means of an almost literal reading of the Wealth of Nations famous passages on the "duties of the sovereign" and on the "maxims of taxation". Contrarily to the commonest usage of these passages, we will show that their core is the preoccupation with the public expenditure soaring and the defence of decentralisation. Furthermore and also contrarily to the existing interpretations we defend the non-existence of any contradiction between Smith’s income and price theory (and the incidence hypothesis, provided due attention is paid to the guiding role of the "maxims".

  6. Introducing cost-optimal levels for energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2012-01-01

    The recast of the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) states that Member States (MS) must ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels”, and that the cost-optimal level must be calculated in accordance wi...

  7. Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE) Microgrid: Models & Tools (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This brochure describes Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE), a trademarked process NREL employs to produce conceptual microgrid designs. This systems-based process enables designs to be optimized for economic value, energy surety, and sustainability. Capabilities NREL offers in support of microgrid design are explained.

  8. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueping; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-16

    Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling's more accuracy for the actual application. The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system's further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application.

  9. Optimal Design of RF Energy Harvesting Device Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Sato, Y.; Adriano, R.; Igarashi, H.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents optimal design of an RF energy harvesting device using genetic algorithm (GA). In the present RF harvester, a planar spiral antenna (PSA) is loaded with matching and rectifying circuits. On the first stage of the optimal design, the shape parameters of PSA are optimized using . Then, the equivalent circuit of the optimized PSA is derived for optimization of the circuits. Finally, the parameters of RF energy harvesting circuit are optimized to maximize the output power using GA. It is shown that the present optimization increases the output power by a factor of five. The manufactured energy harvester starts working when the input electric field is greater than 0.5 V/m.

  10. ENERGY OPTIMIZATION IN CLUSTER BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SHANKAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are made up of sensor nodes which are usually battery-operated devices, and hence energy saving of sensor nodes is a major design issue. To prolong the networks lifetime, minimization of energy consumption should be implemented at all layers of the network protocol stack starting from the physical to the application layer including cross-layer optimization. Optimizing energy consumption is the main concern for designing and planning the operation of the WSN. Clustering technique is one of the methods utilized to extend lifetime of the network by applying data aggregation and balancing energy consumption among sensor nodes of the network. This paper proposed new version of Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, protocols called Advanced Optimized Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (AOLEACH, Optimal Deterministic Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (ODLEACH, and Varying Probability Distance Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (VPDL combination with Shuffled Frog Leap Algorithm (SFLA that enables selecting best optimal adaptive cluster heads using improved threshold energy distribution compared to LEACH protocol and rotating cluster head position for uniform energy dissipation based on energy levels. The proposed algorithm optimizing the life time of the network by increasing the first node death (FND time and number of alive nodes, thereby increasing the life time of the network.

  11. Energy Capture Optimization for an Adaptive Wave Energy Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Meijer, Harmen; van Rooij, Marijn; Clemente Pinol, Silvia; Galvan Garcia, Bruno; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy has great potential as a renewable energy source, and can therefore contribute significantly to the proportion of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This is especially important since energy mixes with high renewable penetration have become a worldwide priority. One solution to f

  12. Topology Optimization for Energy Management in Underwater Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    1 To appear in International Journal of Control as a regular paper Topology Optimization for Energy Management in Underwater Sensor Networks⋆ Devesh... topology that maximizes the probability of successful search (of a target) over a surveillance region. In a two-stage optimization, a genetic algorithm (GA...Adaptation to energy variations across the network is shown to be manifested as a change in the optimal network topology by using sensing and

  13. Optimal Packet Scheduling on an Energy Harvesting Fading Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcelik, F Mehmet; Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

    2012-01-01

    An offline transmission completion time minimization problem for an energy harvesting transmitter is considered. Specifically, optimal power and rate allocation for data packets arriving at arbitrary but known instances is studied. Communication takes place under a fading channel and transmitter is restricted with a limited energy storage capability. An optimal policy takes into account the channel state as well as the state of energy and data buffers. Moreover, the solution needs to strike a tradeoff between energy efficiency and delay. By exhibiting an equivalent convex problem, the unique optimal scheduling solution is obtained through an iterative convex optimization technique, sequential unconstrained minimization. The optimal solution under finite and infinite energy storage is examined on problem instances.

  14. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Jiang; Yalin Lei; Li Li; Jianping Ge

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the...

  15. Investigations of a Cost-Optimal Zero Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Nørgaard, Jesper; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    have indicated that with current energy prices and technology, a cost-optimal Net ZEB zero energy balance accounts for only the building related energy use. Moreover, with high user related energy use is even more in favour of excluding appliances from the zero energy balance......., in particular the types of energy use that should be included in it. Since the user perspective and the cost of energy-efficiency technologies is so crucial for the successful adaptation of energy-conservation solutions, such like the Net ZEB concept, this paper has deployed the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis...... and taken a view point of private building owner to investigate what types of energy uses should be included in the cost-optimal zero energy balance. The analysis is conducted for five renewable energy supply systems and five user profiles with a study case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB. The results...

  16. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  17. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occursfrequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferationoutside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is anobstacle to the development of economic relations between states, reducing the revenue of the international operators and their interests in makinginvestment abroad. This paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economic double taxation and theinternational legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation and avoidance methods.

  18. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  19. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  20. Optimization of energy planning strategies in municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    The paper evaluates the current status of community energy planning in northern Europe via a review of literature, practice and the performance of a barrier analysis for successful community energy planning. Main findings of the paper are that current community energy planning lacks a systematic...... approach, suffers from insufficient information, tools and resources. Municipalities are often unable to take on a steering role in community energy planning. To overcome these barriers and guide municipalities in the pre-project phase, a decision-support methodology, based on community energy profiles...... (CEP), is presented. The methodology was applied in a case study in Germany. With CEPs, a possibility to merge qualitative data from local settings into generic energy modelling is shown, which could contribute to improved community energy strategies....

  1. Fully localised nonlinear energy growth optimals in pipe flow

    CERN Document Server

    Pringle, Chris C T; Kerswell, Rich R

    2014-01-01

    A new, fully-localised, energy growth optimal is found over large times and in long pipe domains at a given mass flow rate. This optimal emerges at a threshold disturbance energy below which a nonlinear version of the known (streamwise-independent) linear optimal (Schmid \\& Henningson 1994) is selected, and appears to remain the optimal up until the critical energy at which transition is triggered. The form of this optimal is similar to that found in short pipes (Pringle et al.\\ 2012) albeit now with full localisation in the streamwise direction. This fully-localised optimal perturbation represents the best approximation yet of the {\\em minimal seed} (the smallest perturbation capable of triggering a turbulent episode) for `real' (laboratory) pipe flows.

  2. Taxation and forms of organizing business activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes sample tax regimes and tendencies from the developed countries in the EU-15 and the USA, and uses them to analyse the influence of taxation on the choice of organizational form of profit-oriented entities in Serbia. In order to understand how the procedure of taxation affects the sphere of business decision-making it is necessary to focus on the tax status of business losses and valorization and the effects of the double taxation of dividends. The rule of successive deduction of losses ensures the fiscally transparent entity receives a tax saving in the form of a reduction of the present value of the total paid tax. Meanwhile the corporation is handicapped because it postpones loss deductions, that is, it postpones tax saving, which directly influences the level of the present value of saved tax. The global trend of gradually moving from the classical system towards shareholder relief provision, above all in the form of a reduced withholding tax rate on dividends, has two opposing features: it simplifies the tax procedure while neglecting the distributional aims (consequences of taxation. The analysis of a particular practical example from the Serbian tax context enables us to draw a conclusion in relation to the relative taxes paid by entrepreneurs versus enterprises. The developed countries favour fiscally transparent entities, whereas Serbia allocates tax privileges to enterprises.

  3. Taxation Policies Adjust,Motor Vehicles Boost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ In recent years,Chinese automotive industry,as one of the pillar industries has kept on rising.In 2006,Chinese auto production ranked the third in the world.The governmental authorities are also studying the corresponding taxations to boost the healthy development of Chinese automotive industry.

  4. 31 CFR 316.9 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxation. 316.9 Section 316.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES E §...

  5. Does Income Taxation Affect Partners’ Household Chores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of income taxation on both partners‟ allocation of time to market work and unpaid house work in households with two adults. We estimate a structural household utility model in which the marginal utilities of leisure and house work of both partners are modelled as random coefficie

  6. Optimal Transmission Policies for Energy Harvesting Two-hop Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Orhan, Oner

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a two-hop communication system with energy harvesting nodes is considered. Unlike battery powered wireless nodes, both the source and the relay are able to harvest energy from environment during communication, therefore, both data and energy causality over the two hops need to be considered. Assuming both nodes know the harvested energies in advance, properties of optimal transmission policies to maximize the delivered data by a given deadline are identified. Using these properties, optimal power allocation and transmission schedule for the case in which both nodes harvest two energy packets is developed.

  7. A Source-level Energy Optimization Framework for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency can have a significant influence on user experience of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Although energy is consumed by hardware, software optimization plays an important role in saving energy, and thus software developers have to participate in the optimization...... strategies. The framework also lays a foundation for the code optimization by automatic tools. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first that achieves this for a high-level language such as Java. In a case study, the experimental evaluation shows that our approach is able to save from 6.4% to 50...

  8. Green mobile devices and networks energy optimization and scavenging techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Venkataraman, Hrishikesh

    2012-01-01

    While battery capacity fails to keep up with the power-demanding features of the latest mobile devices, powering the functional advancement of wireless devices requires a revolution in the concept of battery life and recharge capability. Future hand-held devices and wireless networks should be able to recharge themselves automatically from the environment and optimize their energy consumption. Green Mobile Devices and Networks: Energy Optimization and Scavenging Techniques provides insights into the principles and technical challenges behind both automatic optimization of energy consumption an

  9. Optimization of directional elastic energy propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Chang, Hannah R.; Ruzzene, Massimo;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how topology optimization can be used to design a periodically perforated plate, in order to obtain a tailored anisotropic group velocity profile. The main method is demonstrated on both low and high frequency bending wave propagation in an aluminum plate, ...

  10. Energy based optimization of viscous-friction dampers on cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, F.; Boston, C.

    2010-04-01

    This investigation optimizes numerically a viscous-friction damper connected to a cable close to one cable anchor for fastest reduction of the total mechanical cable energy during a free vibration decay test. The optimization parameters are the viscous coefficient of the viscous part and the ratio between the friction force and displacement amplitude of the friction part of the transverse damper. Results demonstrate that an almost pure friction damper with negligibly small viscous damping generates fastest cable energy reduction over the entire decay. The ratio between the friction force and displacement amplitude of the optimal friction damper differs from that derived from the energy equivalent optimal viscous damper. The reason for this is that the nonlinearity of the friction damper causes energy spillover from the excited to higher modes of the order of 10%, i.e. cables with attached friction dampers vibrate at several frequencies. This explains why the energy equivalent approach does not yield the optimal friction damper. Analysis of the simulation data demonstrates that the optimally tuned friction damper dissipates the same energy per cycle as if each modal component of the cable were damped by its corresponding optimal linear viscous damper.

  11. REopt: A Platform for Energy System Integration and Optimization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, T.; Cutler, D.; Anderson, K.; Olis, D.; Elgqvist, E.; Callahan, M.; Walker, A.

    2014-08-01

    REopt is NREL's energy planning platform offering concurrent, multi-technology integration and optimization capabilities to help clients meet their cost savings and energy performance goals. The REopt platform provides techno-economic decision-support analysis throughout the energy planning process, from agency-level screening and macro planning to project development to energy asset operation. REopt employs an integrated approach to optimizing a site?s energy costs by considering electricity and thermal consumption, resource availability, complex tariff structures including time-of-use, demand and sell-back rates, incentives, net-metering, and interconnection limits. Formulated as a mixed integer linear program, REopt recommends an optimally-sized mix of conventional and renewable energy, and energy storage technologies; estimates the net present value associated with implementing those technologies; and provides the cost-optimal dispatch strategy for operating them at maximum economic efficiency. The REopt platform can be customized to address a variety of energy optimization scenarios including policy, microgrid, and operational energy applications. This paper presents the REopt techno-economic model along with two examples of recently completed analysis projects.

  12. Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    , these works assume flat, highly simplified network models, which overlook the physical connectivity. This work proposes an optimal power flow solution that considers the entire system: the storage device limits, voltages limits, currents limits, and power limits. The power network may be arbitrarily complex......Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However...

  13. Energy-Constrained Optimal Quantization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios B. Giannakis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available As low power, low cost, and longevity of transceivers are major requirements in wireless sensor networks, optimizing their design under energy constraints is of paramount importance. To this end, we develop quantizers under strict energy constraints to effect optimal reconstruction at the fusion center. Propagation, modulation, as well as transmitter and receiver structures are jointly accounted for using a binary symmetric channel model. We first optimize quantization for reconstructing a single sensor's measurement, and deriving the optimal number of quantization levels as well as the optimal energy allocation across bits. The constraints take into account not only the transmission energy but also the energy consumed by the transceiver's circuitry. Furthermore, we consider multiple sensors collaborating to estimate a deterministic parameter in noise. Similarly, optimum energy allocation and optimum number of quantization bits are derived and tested with simulated examples. Finally, we study the effect of channel coding on the reconstruction performance under strict energy constraints and jointly optimize the number of quantization levels as well as the number of channel uses.

  14. Double taxation conventions, structure and evolution of the american tax system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a retrospective survey of the comprehensiveness of the tax system, in the broad sense, and the US tax system, in a stricter sense, in terms of structuring model and application of tax levies, as well as the taxation applied to each public financial income category. The topic chosen is based on the idea that the US tax system is different from the European system, while also considering that the USA is the world leader in business, trade and investment, and seen as a true “streamliner” of the world. The US economy is strongly influenced by sectors that prevail at the federal level: industry, education, trade, telecommunications, and transportation. The research methodology used in this article consists of a comprehensive analysis of key concepts regarding tax levying activities, providing an explanation of the tax policy, a critical analysis of the US system in terms of tax legislation, and a history of international double taxation conventions concluded by the US with other countries, given that the USA may be an archetype (best practice in terms of the double taxation agreements network, regarding both the number of countries with which they have been concluded, and the types of agreements on income and capital. In our opinion, the results of this study indicate the optimal technical framework used by the American system to identify and implement the most sustainable methods, techniques and procedures in order to reduce the scope of international double taxation on income and capital worldwide.

  15. Channel adaptive rate control for energy optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BLANCH Carolina; POLLIN Sofie; LAFRUIT Gauthier; EBERLE Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Low energy consumption is one of the main challenges for wireless video transmission on battery limited devices. The energy invested at the lower layers of the protocol stack involved in data communication, such as link and physical layer, represent an important part of the total energy consumption. This communication energy highly depends on the channel conditions and on the transmission data rate. Traditionally, video coding is unaware of varying channel conditions. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer approach in which the rate control mechanism of the video codec becomes channel-aware and steers the instantaneous output rate according to the channel conditions to reduce the communication energy. Our results show that energy savings of up to30% can be obtained with a reduction of barely 0.1 dB on the average video quality. The impact of feedback delays is shown to be small. In addition, this adaptive mechanism has low complexity, which makes it suitable for real-time applications.

  16. Optimization of energy systems based on Evolutionary and Social metaphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Frangopoulos, Christos A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 157 73 Zografou (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Optimization problems that arise in energy systems design often have several features that hinder the use of many optimization techniques. These optimization problems have non-continuous mixed variable definition domains, are heavily constrained, are multimodal (i.e. have many local optima) and, foremost, the functions used to define the engineering optimization problem are often computationally intensive. Three methods are tested here: (a) a Struggle Genetic Algorithm (StrGA), (b) a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA), and (c) a PSOA with Struggle Selection (PSOStr). The last is a hybrid of the evolutionary StrGA and the socially inspired PSOA. They are tested in four purely mathematical and three energy systems thermoeconomic optimization problems. All of the methods solved successfully all the problems. The PSOStr, however, outperformed the other methods in terms of both solution accuracy and computational cost (i.e. function evaluations). (author)

  17. Energy efficiency improvement by gear shifting optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojevic Ivan A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have proved that elements of driver’s behavior related to gear selection have considerable influence on the fuel consumption. Optimal gear shifting is a complex task, especially for inexperienced drivers. This paper presents an implemented idea for gear shifting optimization with the aim of fuel consumption minimization with more efficient engine working regimes. Optimized gear shifting enables the best possible relation between vehicle motion regimes and engine working regimes. New theoretical-experimental approach has been developed using On-Board Diagnostic technology which so far has not been used for this purpose. The matrix of driving modes according to which tests were performed is obtained and special data acquisition system and analysis process have been developed. Functional relations between experimental test modes and adequate engine working parameters have been obtained and all necessary operations have been conducted to enable their use as inputs for the designed algorithm. The created Model has been tested in real exploitation conditions on passenger car with Otto fuel injection engine and On-Board Diagnostic connection without any changes on it. The conducted tests have shown that the presented Model has significantly positive effects on fuel consumption which is an important ecological aspect. Further development and testing of the Model allows implementation in wide range of motor vehicles with various types of internal combustion engines.

  18. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty i...

  19. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  20. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels o...

  1. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that isbalanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...... should further specify: (1) the connection orthe lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimumenergy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options...... case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB aimed to determine the cost-optimal “zero” energy balance,minimum energy performance requirements and options of supplying renewable energy. The calculation encompassed three levels of energy frames, which mirrored theDanish low-energy building classes...

  2. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  3. Incorporate Energy Strategy into Particle Swarm Optimizer Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lun; DONG De-cun; LU Yan; CHEN Lan

    2008-01-01

    The issue of optimizing the dynamic parameters in Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) is addressed in this paper.An algorithm is designed which makes all particles originally endowed with a certain level energy, what here we define as EPSO (Energy Strategy PSO).During the iterative process of PSO algorithm, the Inertia Weight is updated according to the calculation of the particle's energy.The portion ratio of the current residual energy to the initial endowed energy is used as the parameter Inertia Weight which aims to update the particles' velocity efficiently.By the simulation in a graph theoritical and a functional optimization problem respectively, it could be easily found that the rate of convergence in EPSO is obviously increased.

  4. Optimizing Ice Thermal Storage to Reduce Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher L.

    Energy cost for buildings is an issue of concern for owners across the U.S. The bigger the building, the greater the concern. A part of this is due to the energy required to cool the building and the way in which charges are set when paying for energy consumed during different times of the day. This study will prove that designing ice thermal storage properly will minimize energy cost in buildings. The effectiveness of ice thermal storage as a means to reduce energy costs lies within transferring the time of most energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak periods. Multiple variables go into the equation of finding the optimal use of ice thermal storage and they are all judged with the final objective of minimizing monthly energy costs. This research discusses the optimal design of ice thermal storage and its impact on energy consumption, energy demand, and the total energy cost. A tool for optimal design of ice thermal storage is developed, considering variables such as chiller and ice storage sizes and charging and discharge times. The simulations take place in a four-story building and investigate the potential of Ice Thermal Storage as a resource in reducing and minimizing energy cost for cooling. The simulations test the effectiveness of Ice Thermal Storage implemented into the four-story building in ten locations across the United States.

  5. Energy Optimal Control Strategy of PHEV Based on PMP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezhou Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the global voice of “energy saving” and the current boom in the development of energy storage technology at home and abroad, energy optimal control of the whole hybrid electric vehicle power system, as one of the core technologies of electric vehicles, is bound to become a hot target of “clean energy” vehicle development and research. This paper considers the constraints to the performance of energy storage system in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, from which lithium-ion battery frequently charges/discharges, PHEV largely consumes energy of fuel, and their are difficulty in energy recovery and other issues in a single cycle; the research uses lithium-ion battery combined with super-capacitor (SC, which is hybrid energy storage system (Li-SC HESS, working together with internal combustion engine (ICE to drive PHEV. Combined with PSO-PI controller and Li-SC HESS internal power limited management approach, the research proposes the PHEV energy optimal control strategy. It is based on revised Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP algorithm, which establishes the PHEV vehicle simulation model through ADVISOR software and verifies the effectiveness and feasibility. Finally, the results show that the energy optimization control strategy can improve the instantaneity of tracking PHEV minimum fuel consumption track, implement energy saving, and prolong the life of lithium-ion batteries and thereby can improve hybrid energy storage system performance.

  6. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototype level. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structural and maintenance (inspection) costs......, as well as on the harvested power from the waves. The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output, but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize the structural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem...

  7. Online algorithms for optimal energy distribution in microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yu; Nelms, R Mark

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an optimal energy distribution strategy for microgrids in a smart grid environment, and featuring a detailed analysis of the mathematical techniques of convex optimization and online algorithms, this book provides readers with essential content on how to achieve multi-objective optimization that takes into consideration power subscribers, energy providers and grid smoothing in microgrids. Featuring detailed theoretical proofs and simulation results that demonstrate and evaluate the correctness and effectiveness of the algorithm, this text explains step-by-step how the problem can b

  8. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Wu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort. We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors. Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.

  9. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...... of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy...

  10. Optimizing Data Centre Energy and Environmental Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikema, David Hendrik

    Data centres use an estimated 2% of US electrical power which accounts for much of their total cost of ownership. This consumption continues to grow, further straining power grids attempting to integrate more renewable energy. This dissertation focuses on assessing and reducing data centre environmental and financial costs. Emissions of projects undertaken to lower the data centre environmental footprints can be assessed and the emission reduction projects compared using an ISO-14064-2-compliant greenhouse gas reduction protocol outlined herein. I was closely involved with the development of the protocol. Full lifecycle analysis and verifying that projects exceed business-as-usual expectations are addressed, and a test project is described. Consuming power when it is low cost or when renewable energy is available can be used to reduce the financial and environmental costs of computing. Adaptation based on the power price showed 10--50% potential savings in typical cases, and local renewable energy use could be increased by 10--80%. Allowing a fraction of high-priority tasks to proceed unimpeded still allows significant savings. Power grid operators use mechanisms called ancillary services to address variation and system failures, paying organizations to alter power consumption on request. By bidding to offer these services, data centres may be able to lower their energy costs while reducing their environmental impact. If providing contingency reserves which require only infrequent action, savings of up to 12% were seen in simulations. Greater power cost savings are possible for those ceding more control to the power grid operator. Coordinating multiple data centres adds overhead, and altering at which data centre requests are processed based on changes in the financial or environmental costs of power is likely to increase this overhead. Tests of virtual machine migrations showed that in some cases there was no visible increase in power use while in others power use

  11. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  12. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  13. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different...... optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... shows that it is feasible to combine LCA approaches with optimization and highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model....

  14. Onboard near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A.; Cliff, G.; Kelley, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies optimal and near-optimal trajectories of high-performance aircraft in symmetric flight. Onboard, real-time, near-optimal guidance is considered for the climb-dash mission, using some of the boundary-layer structure and hierarchical ideas from singular perturbations. In the case of symmetric flight, this resembles neighborhood-optimal guidance using energy-to-go as the running variable. However, extension to three-dimensional flight is proposed, using families of nominal paths with heading-to-go as the additional running variable. Some computational results are presented for the symmetric case.

  15. Optimal Energy Harvesting from Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, G O; Michelin, S

    2016-01-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible cables are an example of flow-induced vibrations that can act as energy harvesting systems by converting energy associated with the spontaneous cable motion into electricity. This work investigates the optimal positioning of the harvesting devices along the cable, using numerical simulations with a wake oscillator model to describe the unsteady flow forcing. Using classical gradient-based optimization, the optimal harvesting strategy is determined for the generic configuration of a flexible cable fixed at both ends, including the effect of flow forces and gravity on the cable's geometry. The optimal strategy is found to consist systematically in a concentration of the harvesting devices at one of the cable's ends, relying on deformation waves along the cable to carry the energy toward this harvesting site. Furthermore, we show that the performance of systems based on VIV of flexible cables is significantly more robust to flow velocity variations, in comparison with ...

  16. Optimal weight based on energy imbalance and utility maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal weight for both male and female using energy imbalance and utility maximization. Based on the difference of energy intake and expenditure, we develop a state equation that reveals the weight gain from this energy gap. We ​construct an objective function considering food consumption, eating habits and survival rate to measure utility. Through applying mathematical tools from optimal control methods and qualitative theory of differential equations, we obtain some results. For both male and female, the optimal weight is larger than the physiologically optimal weight calculated by the Body Mass Index (BMI). We also study the corresponding trajectories to steady state weight respectively. Depending on the value of a few parameters, the steady state can either be a saddle point with a monotonic trajectory or a focus with dampened oscillations.

  17. Capital market research in taxation:Do it in China!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver; Zhen; Li; Ning; Cai

    2011-01-01

    Starring from MM’s theories,we discuss some important topics in capital market research in taxation.We use this article to introduce intuitions and techniques of capital market research in taxation to Chinese researchers.While it is apparent that many Chinese researchers have already mastered these techniques,we hope that more researchers will be interested in this line of research.We believe that China provides fertile ground for capital market research in taxation.

  18. Capital market research in taxation: Do it in China!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zhen Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from MM’s theories, we discuss some important topics in capital market research in taxation. We use this article to introduce intuitions and techniques of capital market research in taxation to Chinese researchers. While it is apparent that many Chinese researchers have already mastered these techniques, we hope that more researchers will be interested in this line of research. We believe that China provides fertile ground for capital market research in taxation.

  19. Capital market research in taxation: Do it in China!

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Oliver Zhen; Cai, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Starting from MM’s theories, we discuss some important topics in capital market research in taxation. We use this article to introduce intuitions and techniques of capital market research in taxation to Chinese researchers. While it is apparent that many Chinese researchers have already mastered these techniques, we hope that more researchers will be interested in this line of research. We believe that China provides fertile ground for capital market research in taxation.

  20. Energy-optimal programming and scheduling of the manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, N.; Frumuşanu, G.; Epureanu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The shop floor energy system covers the energy consumed for both the air conditioning and manufacturing processes. At the same time, most of energy consumed in manufacturing processes is converted in heat released in the shop floor interior and has a significant influence on the microclimate. Both these components of the energy consumption have a time variation that can be realistic assessed. Moreover, the consumed energy decisively determines the environmental sustainability of the manufacturing operation, while the expenditure for running the shop floor energy system is a significant component of the manufacturing operations cost. Finally yet importantly, the energy consumption can be fundamentally influenced by properly programming and scheduling of the manufacturing operations. In this paper, we present a method for modeling and energy-optimal programming & scheduling the manufacturing operations. In this purpose, we have firstly identified two optimization targets, namely the environmental sustainability and the economic efficiency. Then, we have defined three optimization criteria, which can assess the degree of achieving these targets. Finally, we have modeled the relationship between the optimization criteria and the parameters of programming and scheduling. In this way, it has been revealed that by adjusting these parameters one can significantly improve the sustainability and efficiency of manufacturing operations. A numerical simulation has proved the feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  2. Freedom, Time Constraints and Progressive Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Screpanti

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I present a measure of freedom for opportunity sets which are bounded by both budget and time constraints. Then I show that, in a society in which income is distributed more unequally than leisure time, a government aiming at leaving freedom distribution unaltered should apply progressive taxation. Since incomes bind freedom only partially when time constraints bind, taxing the rich reduces his freedom proportionally less than taxing the poor reduces his. Moreover, when incomes ...

  3. Indirect taxation in an integrated Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genser, Bernd; Haufler, Andreas; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the main arguments for destination- versus origin-based commodity taxation in the European Community's Internal Market. Destination-based solutions distort commodity trade in the Community because cross-border purchases by final consumers can only be taxed in the origin countr......-based consumption tax. Finally, the paper addresses the administrative and political implications of a switch to the origin principle in the European Community...

  4. Public Acceptance of Taxation in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers, Michael; Eskander, Glnar , [ إسكندر، وجلنار ; Shockley, Bethany,, [ شوكلي ، وبثناي

    2016-01-01

    Most Gulf countries have acknowledged that the traditional rentier system requires basic economic reform, and VAT could prove a more stable source of government revenue for oil producing countries. Results from two separate survey experiments implemented by SESRI show that, for both Qatari citizens and most expatriates, taxation is not anathema. Rather, for Qataris, not cutting current benefits is more important than adding new expenses, even though the final cost to the state may be the same...

  5. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    With the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs), there are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy and typical implementation of building-level distributed energy resources (DERs). By integrating DSM and DERs...... into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and integrated communications architectures, it is possible to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. In this paper, an ontology-driven multi......-agent control system with intelligent optimizers is proposed for optimal real-time dispatch of an integrated building and microgrid system considering coordinated demand response (DR) and DERs management. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing problem (MINLP...

  6. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices Architectures, Design, Modeling and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Spreemann, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic vibration transducers are seen as an effective way of harvesting ambient energy for the supply of sensor monitoring systems. Different electromagnetic coupling architectures have been employed but no comprehensive comparison with respect to their output performance has been carried out up to now. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices introduces an optimization approach which is applied to determine optimal dimensions of the components (magnet, coil and back iron). Eight different commonly applied coupling architectures are investigated. The results show that correct dimensions are of great significance for maximizing the efficiency of the energy conversion. A comparison yields the architectures with the best output performance capability which should be preferably employed in applications. A prototype development is used to demonstrate how the optimization calculations can be integrated into the design–flow. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices targets the design...

  7. Energy Optimization of Road Tunnel Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A road tunnel is an enclosed and covered infrastructure for the vehicular traffic. Its lighting system provides 24 h of artificial sources only, with a higher amount of electric power used during the day. Due to safety reasons, when there is natural lighting outside the tunnel, the lighting levels in the stretches right after the entrance and before the exit must be high, in order to guide the driver’s eye towards the middle of the tunnel where the luminance must guarantee safe driving, avoid any over-dimensioning of the lighting systems, and produce energy savings. Such effects can be reached not only through the technological advances in the field of artificial lighting sources with high luminous efficiency, but also through new materials for road paving characterized by a higher reflection coefficient than other ordinary asphalts. This case study examines different technical scenarios, analyzing and comparing possible energy and economic savings. Traditional solutions are thus compared with scenarios suggesting the solutions previously mentioned. Special asphalts are interesting from an economic point of view, whereas the high costs of LED sources nowadays represent an obstacle for their implementation.

  8. Energy optimization of integrated process plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandvig Nielsen, J.

    1996-10-01

    A general approach for viewing the process synthesis as an evolutionary process is proposed. Each step is taken according to the present level of information and knowledge. This is formulated in a Process Synthesis Cycle. Initially the synthesis is conducted at a high abstraction level maximizing use of heuristics (prior experience, rules of thumbs etc). When further knowledge and information are available, heuristics will gradually be replaced by exact problem formulations. The principles in the Process Synthesis Cycle, is used to develop a general procedure for energy synthesis, based on available tools. The procedure is based on efficient use of process simulators with integrated Pinch capabilities (energy targeting). The proposed general procedure is tailored to three specific problems (Humid Air Turbine power plant synthesis, Nitric Acid process synthesis and Sulphuric Acid synthesis). Using the procedure reduces the problem dimension considerable and thus allows for faster evaluation of more alternatives. At more detailed level a new framework for the Heat Exchanger Network synthesis problem is proposed. The new framework is object oriented based on a general functional description of all elements potentially present in the heat exchanger network (streams, exchangers, pumps, furnaces etc.). (LN) 116 refs.

  9. An Optimization Framework for Dynamic Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenbo Du; Humberto E Garcia; Christiaan J.J. Paredis

    2014-03-01

    A computational framework for the efficient analysis and optimization of dynamic hybrid energy systems (HES) is developed. A microgrid system with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) is modeled using the Modelica language in the Dymola environment. The optimization loop is implemented in MATLAB, with the FMI Toolbox serving as the interface between the computational platforms. Two characteristic optimization problems are selected to demonstrate the methodology and gain insight into the system performance. The first is an unconstrained optimization problem that optimizes the dynamic properties of the battery, reactor and generator to minimize variability in the HES. The second problem takes operating and capital costs into consideration by imposing linear and nonlinear constraints on the design variables. The preliminary optimization results obtained in this study provide an essential step towards the development of a comprehensive framework for designing HES.

  10. Energy Optimization for Outdoor Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Boukhechba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile phone is no longer only a communication device, but also a powerful environmental sensing unit that can monitor a user’s ambient context. Mobile users take their devices with them everywhere which increases the availability of persons’ traces. Extracting and analyzing knowledge from these traces represent a strong support for several applications domains, ranging from traffic management to advertisement and social studies. However, the limited battery capacity of mobile devices represents a big hurdle for context detection, no matter how useful the service may be. We present a novel approach to online recognizing users’ outdoor activities without depleting the mobile resources. We associate the places visited by individuals during their movements with meaningful human activities using a novel algorithm that clusters incrementally user’s moves into different types of activities. To optimize the battery consumption, the algorithm behaves variably on the basis of users’ behaviors and the remaining battery level. Studies using real GPS records from two big datasets demonstrate that the proposal is effective and is capable of inferring human activities without draining the phone resources.

  11. Energy supply chain optimization of hybrid feedstock processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-01-01

    The economic, environmental, and social performances of energy systems depend on their geographical locations and the surrounding market infrastructure for feedstocks and energy products. Strategic decisions to locate energy conversion facilities must take all upstream and downstream operations into account, prompting the development of supply chain modeling and optimization methods. This article reviews the contributions of energy supply chain studies that include heat, power, and liquid fuels production. Studies are categorized based on specific features of the mathematical model, highlighting those that address energy supply chain models with and without considerations of multiperiod decisions. Studies that incorporate uncertainties are discussed, and opportunities for future research developments are outlined.

  12. Reaction Path Optimization with Holonomic Constraints and Kinetic Energy Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Jason B; Haas, Kevin R; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2009-08-11

    Two methods are developed to enhance the stability, efficiency, and robustness of reaction path optimization using a chain of replicas. First, distances between replicas are kept equal during path optimization via holonomic constraints. Finding a reaction path is, thus, transformed into a constrained optimization problem. This approach avoids force projections for finding minimum energy paths (MEPs), and fast-converging schemes such as quasi-Newton methods can be readily applied. Second, we define a new objective function - the total Hamiltonian - for reaction path optimization, by combining the kinetic energy potential of each replica with its potential energy function. Minimizing the total Hamiltonian of a chain determines a minimum Hamiltonian path (MHP). If the distances between replicas are kept equal and a consistent force constant is used, then the kinetic energy potentials of all replicas have the same value. The MHP in this case is the most probable isokinetic path. Our results indicate that low-temperature kinetic energy potentials (optimization and can significantly reduce the required steps of minimization by 2-3 times without causing noticeable differences between a MHP and MEP. These methods are applied to three test cases, the C7eq-to-Cax isomerization of an alanine dipeptide, the (4)C1-to-(1)C4 transition of an α-d-glucopyranose, and the helix-to-sheet transition of a GNNQQNY heptapeptide. By applying the methods developed in this work, convergence of reaction path optimization can be achieved for these complex transitions, involving full atomic details and a large number of replicas (>100). For the case of helix-to-sheet transition, we identify pathways whose energy barriers are consistent with experimental measurements. Further, we develop a method based on the work energy theorem to quantify the accuracy of reaction paths and to determine whether the atoms used to define a path are enough to provide quantitative estimation of energy barriers.

  13. Optimization of Transient Heat Exchanger Performance for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Wirz, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Heat exchangers are used in a multitude of applications within systems for energy generation, energy conversion, or energy storage. Many of these systems (e.g. solar power plants) function under transient conditions, but the design of the heat exchangers is typically optimized assuming steady state conditions. There is a potential for significant energy savings if the transient behavior of the heat exchanger is taken into account in designing the heat exchanger by optimizing its operating conditions in relation to the transient behavior of the overall system. The physics of the transient behavior of a heat exchanger needs to be understood to provide design parameters for transient heat exchangers to deliver energy savings. A numerical model was used to determine the optimized mass flow rates thermal properties for a thermal energy storage system. The transient behavior is strongly linked to the dimensionless parameters relating fluid properties, the mass flow rates, and the temperature of the fluids at the inlet of each stream. Smart metals, or advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction will be used to meet the three goals mentioned before: 1) energy and cost reduction, 2) size reduction, and 3) optimal performance for all modes of operation.

  14. Optimal Energy Mix with Renewable Portfolio Standards in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Korea is a heavily energy-dependent country whose primary energy consumption ranks ninth in the world. However, at the same time, it promised to reduce carbon emission and planned to use more renewable energy. Thus, the objective of this study is to propose an optimal energy mix planning model in electricity generation from various energy sources, such as gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass, which considers more renewable and sustainable portions by imposing governmental regulation named renewable portfolio standard (RPS. This optimization model minimizes various costs such as construction cost, operation and management cost, fuel cost, and carbon emission cost while satisfying minimal demand requirement, maximal annual installation potential, and renewable portfolio standard constraints. Results showed that this optimization model could successfully generate energy mix plan from 2012 to 2030 while minimizing the objective costs and satisfying all the constraints. Therefore, this optimization model contributes more efficient and objective method to the complex decision-making process with a sustainability option. This proposed energy mix model is expected to be applied not only to Korea, but also to many other countries in the future for more economical planning of their electricity generation while affecting climate change less.

  15. Optimal planning of integrated multi-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beuzekom, I.; Gibescu, M.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical approach for the optimal planning of integrated energy systems is proposed. In order to address the challenges of future, RES-dominated energy systems, the model deliberates between the expansion of traditional energy infrastructures, the integration of these infrast......In this paper, a mathematical approach for the optimal planning of integrated energy systems is proposed. In order to address the challenges of future, RES-dominated energy systems, the model deliberates between the expansion of traditional energy infrastructures, the integration...... of these infrastructures using conversion technologies (e.g. gas-to-electricity-and-heat, power-to-heat, power-to-gas), and the placement of energy storage. The model is demonstrated using a representative case study from the city of Eindhoven. Current energy data from 2015 is combined with city development scenarios...... and sustainability goals for 2030 and 2045. Optimal green- and brownfield designs for a district's future integrated energy system are compared using a one-step, as well as a two-step planning approach. As expected, the greenfield designs are more cost efficient, as their results are not constrained by the existing...

  16. Optimizing Energy Conversion: Magnetic Nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Dylan; Dann, Martin; Ilie, Carolina C.

    2015-03-01

    We present herein the work started at SUNY Oswego as a part of a SUNY 4E grant. The SUNY 4E Network of Excellence has awarded SUNY Oswego and collaborators a grant to carry out extensive studies on magnetic nanoparticles. The focus of the study is to develop cost effective rare-earth-free magnetic materials that will enhance energy transmission performance of various electrical devices (solar cells, electric cars, hard drives, etc.). The SUNY Oswego team has started the preliminary work for the project and graduate students from the rest of the SUNY 4E team (UB, Alfred College, Albany) will continue the project. The preliminary work concentrates on analyzing the properties of magnetic nanoparticle candidates, calculating molecular orbitals and band gap, and the fabrication of thin films. SUNY 4E Network of Excellence Grant.

  17. Optimization of energy extraction in transverse galloping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribes-Palmer, F.; Sanz-Andres, A.

    2013-11-01

    A numerical method to analyse the stability of transverse galloping based on experimental measurements, as an alternative method to polynomial fitting of the transverse force coefficient Cz, is proposed in this paper. The Glauert-Den Hartog criterion is used to determine the region of angles of attack (pitch angles) prone to present galloping. An analytic solution (based on a polynomial curve of Cz) is used to validate the method and to evaluate the discretization errors. Several bodies (of biconvex, D-shape and rhomboidal cross sections) have been tested in a wind tunnel and the stability of the galloping region has been analysed with the new method. An algorithm to determine the pitch angle of the body that allows the maximum value of the kinetic energy of the flow to be extracted is presented.

  18. Improved Large-Scale Process Cooling Operation through Energy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Kapoor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study based on real plant data collected from chiller plants at the University of Texas at Austin. It highlights the advantages of operating the cooling processes based on an optimal strategy. A multi-component model is developed for the entire cooling process network. The model is used to formulate and solve a multi-period optimal chiller loading problem, posed as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem. The results showed that an average energy savings of 8.57% could be achieved using optimal chiller loading as compared to the historical energy consumption data from the plant. The scope of the optimization problem was expanded by including a chilled water thermal storage in the cooling system. The effect of optimal thermal energy storage operation on the net electric power consumption by the cooling system was studied. The results include a hypothetical scenario where the campus purchases electricity at wholesale market prices and an optimal hour-by-hour operating strategy is computed to use the thermal energy storage tank.

  19. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen; Bouchafaa, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  20. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen, E-mail: hamzaoui-ihssen2000@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria); Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Khemis Miliana, Ain Defla (Algeria); Bouchafaa, Farid, E-mail: fbouchafa@gmail.com [Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  1. THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OPTIMIZATION IN THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of geothermal energy production process means the minimization of all energy losses from the reservoir conditions to the user. As the available energy is being utilized mostly in the wellbore and in the surface equipment, process optimization requires scientific access including the extraction technology parameters.Specific energy on the geothermal wellhead is calculated for two possible cases. The first embraces only geothermal water production, while the other takes into account the saturated steam production as well. Each of these working conditions defines unambiguously designed pressure on the wellhead.The steam and water energy ratio, in function of predicted sink temperature for reinjection of geothermal water, points out the possibilities for commercialization of reservoir Velika Ciglena.

  2. Ant colony optimization approach to estimate energy demand of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Toksari, M. [Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey). Engineering Faculty, Industrial Engineering Department

    2007-08-15

    This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of energy demand in Turkey. Energy demand model is first proposed using the ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. It is multi-agent systems in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve optimization problem. ACO energy demand estimation (ACOEDE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. All equations proposed here are linear and quadratic. Quadratic{sub A}COEDE provided better-fit solution due to fluctuations of the economic indicators. The ACOEDE model plans the energy demand of Turkey until 2025 according to three scenarios. The relative estimation errors of the ACOEDE model are the lowest when they are compared with the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) projection. (author)

  3. Potential Energy Savings in Refrigeration Systems Using Optimal Setpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Slot; Thybo, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption. The obje......Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption....... The objective is to give an idea of how this optimization scheme works as well as to show what amount of energy it is possible to save. A steady state model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as a basis for the optimization....

  4. Optimal energy consumption analysis of natural gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent.

  5. Automated Multivariate Optimization Tool for Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P. G.; Griffith, B. T.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D.

    2006-07-01

    Building energy simulations are often used for trial-and-error evaluation of ''what-if'' options in building design--a limited search for an optimal solution, or ''optimization''. Computerized searching has the potential to automate the input and output, evaluate many options, and perform enough simulations to account for the complex interactions among combinations of options. This paper describes ongoing efforts to develop such a tool. The optimization tool employs multiple modules, including a graphical user interface, a database, a preprocessor, the EnergyPlus simulation engine, an optimization engine, and a simulation run manager. Each module is described and the overall application architecture is summarized.

  6. Optimal continuous-variable teleportation under energy constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2017-05-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the crucial protocols in quantum information processing. It is important to accomplish an efficient teleportation under practical conditions, aiming at a higher fidelity desirably using fewer resources. The continuous-variable (CV) version of quantum teleportation was first proposed using a Gaussian state as a quantum resource, while other attempts were also made to improve performance by applying non-Gaussian operations. We investigate the CV teleportation to find its ultimate fidelity under energy constraint identifying an optimal quantum state. For this purpose, we present a formalism to evaluate teleportation fidelity as an expectation value of an operator. Using this formalism, we prove that the optimal state must be a form of photon-number entangled states. We further show that Gaussian states are near optimal, while non-Gaussian states make a slight improvement and therefore are rigorously optimal, particularly in the low-energy regime.

  7. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  8. Brute force optimization: combining mass energy simulation and life cycle analysis to optimize building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, Stuart; Richman, Russell [Department of Architectural Science, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science, Ryerson University (Canada)], email: sfix@ryerson.ca, email: richman@ryerson.ca

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of energy resources and the rising concerns about the environment, building designers are shifting towards green building designs. However since no design optimization for an entire building exists, a significant degree of uncertainty is involved in design decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the brute force optimization process which is a method removing the uncertainty from green building designs. This method relies on the selection of optimization criteria and then several simulations are performed. A demonstration pilot was carried out in Toronto and over one million design permutations were conducted. Results showed that parameters such as total building area, window performance and infiltration level are the most important to the lifetime energy consumption of a building. This study pointed out the important parameters to optimize in order to reduce a building's energy consumption.

  9. Perspective texture synthesis based on improved energy optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Arsalan Bashir

    Full Text Available Perspective texture synthesis has great significance in many fields like video editing, scene capturing etc., due to its ability to read and control global feature information. In this paper, we present a novel example-based, specifically energy optimization-based algorithm, to synthesize perspective textures. Energy optimization technique is a pixel-based approach, so it's time-consuming. We improve it from two aspects with the purpose of achieving faster synthesis and high quality. Firstly, we change this pixel-based technique by replacing the pixel computation with a little patch. Secondly, we present a novel technique to accelerate searching nearest neighborhoods in energy optimization. Using k- means clustering technique to build a search tree to accelerate the search. Hence, we make use of principal component analysis (PCA technique to reduce dimensions of input vectors. The high quality results prove that our approach is feasible. Besides, our proposed algorithm needs shorter time relative to other similar methods.

  10. Energy - achieving an optimum through information. Energie - optimal durch Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitt, W.

    1986-01-01

    What have computer programs in common with everyday human behaviour. Or the birds' passage, or photosynthesis, or the chemical reactions in a cell. They all primarily are information-controlled processes. The book under review deals with 'information' and 'energy', two main concepts in today's technological world. 'Energy' during the last few years has become a significant criterion with regard to technological progress. 'Information' is not only a main term in informatics terminology, but also a central concept for example in biology, linguistics, and communication science. The author shows that every 'information' is the result of an intellectual and purposeful process. The concept of information is taken as the red thread leading the author's journey through manifold strata of modern life, asking questions, finding answers, discussing problems. The wide spectrum of aspects discussed, including for instance a new approach to the Bible, and the remarkable examples presented by the author, make this book a treasure of knowledge, and of faith.

  11. Analysis of EnergyPlus for use in residential building energy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Justin S.

    This work explored the utility of EnergyPlus as a simulation engine for doing residential building energy optimization, with the objective of finding the modeling areas that require further development in EnergyPlus for residential optimization applications. This work was conducted primarily during 2006-2007, with publication occurring later in 2010. The assessments and recommendations apply to the simulation tool versions available in 2007. During this work, an EnergyPlus v2.0 (2007) input file generator was developed for use in BEopt 0.8.0.4 (2007). BEopt 0.8.0.4 is a residential Building Energy optimization program developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Residential modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus v2.0 were scrutinized and tested. Modeling deficiencies were identified in a number of areas. These deficiencies were compared to deficiencies in the DOE2.2 V44E4(2007)/TRNSYS simulation engines. The highest priority gaps in EnergyPlus v2.0's residential modeling capability are in infiltration, duct leakage, and foundation modeling. Optimization results from DOE2.2 V44E4 and EnergyPlus v2.0 were analyzed to search for modeling differences that have a significant impact on optimization results. Optimal buildings at different energy savings levels were compared to look for biases. It was discovered that the EnergyPlus v2.0 optimizations consistently chose higher wall insulation levels than the DOE2.2 V44E4 optimizations. The points composing the optimal paths chosen by DOE2.2 V44E4 and EnergyPlus v2.0 were compared to look for points chosen by one optimization that were significantly different from the other optimal path. These outliers were compared to consensus optimal points to determine the simulation differences that cause disparities in the optimization results. The differences were primarily caused by modeling of window radiation exchange and HVAC autosizing.

  12. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  13. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. Theresults indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies overenergy......, cost-optimal “zero” energybalance accounts only for the building related energy use....... owners’ approach to it. For thisparticular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took theperspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...

  14. REopt: A Platform for Energy System Integration and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Daniel R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Xiangkun [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-22

    REopt is a techno-economic decision support model used to optimize energy systems for buildings, campuses, communities, and microgrids. The primary application of the model is for optimizing the integration and operation of behind-the-meter energy assets. This report provides an overview of the model, including its capabilities and typical applications; inputs and outputs; economic calculations; technology descriptions; and model parameters, variables, and equations. The model is highly flexible, and is continually evolving to meet the needs of each analysis. Therefore, this report is not an exhaustive description of all capabilities, but rather a summary of the core components of the model.

  15. Does corporate income taxation affect securitization? : Evidence from OECD banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Di; Hu, Shiwei; Ligthart, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank’s incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999–2006, we find that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding markets, wh

  16. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. The results indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies over energy......, cost-optimal “zero” energy balance accounts only for the building related energy use....... building owners’ approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...

  17. Intermodal Energy Transfer in a Tapered Optical Fiber: Optimizing Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Ravets, S; Kordell, P R; Wong-Campos, J D; Rolston, S L; Orozco, L A

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the energy transfer between modes during the tapering process of an optical nanofiber through spectrogram analysis. The results allow optimization of the tapering process, and we measure transmission in excess of 99.95% for the fundamental mode. We quantify the adiabaticity condition through calculations and place an upper bound on the amount of energy transferred to other modes at each step of the tapering, giving practical limits to the tapering angle.

  18. 1st International Symposium on Energy System Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtner, Wolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Leibfried, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume address diverse challenges in energy systems, ranging from operational to investment planning problems, from market economics to technical and environmental considerations, from distribution grids to transmission grids and from theoretical considerations to data provision concerns and applied case studies. The International Symposium on Energy System Optimization (ISESO) was held on November 9th and 10th 2015 at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and was organized by HITS, Heidelberg University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  19. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    Buildings consume approximately 40% of the world's primary energy use. Considering the total energy consumption throughout the whole life cycle of a building, the energy performance and supply is an important issue in the context of climate change, scarcity of energy resources and reduction of global energy consumption. An energy consuming as well as producing building, labelled as the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept, is seen as one of the solutions that could change the picture of energy consumption in the building sector, and thus contribute to the reduction of the global energy use. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building owners' approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition should further specify: (1) the connection or the lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimum energy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options, and if applicable (7) the requirements of the building-grid interaction. Moreover, the study revealed that the future ZEB definitions applied in Denmark should mostly be focused on grid

  20. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  1. Taxation of Non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    BŘEHOVSKÝ, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays non-profit organizations are the integral parts of developed economics. They fill gap in the market, where exist market failures. Their main aim is not to reach profit but to offer services in which ``invisible hand of market{\\crqq} fail. But it doesn{\\crq}t mean, that they can{\\crq}t reach profit. Attention is on reasons why these non-profit organizations exist, potential profit or revenue are secondary aims. For these reasons there exist some differences in taxation of non-profit o...

  2. Recent developments in Corporate Taxation in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomann Christian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates if increasing neutrality between debt and equity capital might improve the efficiency in a corporate tax system. Firm-level and sector- level taxation data from Sweden is used to study if a tax system that is characterized by very few limitations with respect to the deductibility of interest costs leads to systematic differences in the taxes paid by different sectors. This paper finds that there are differences between different sectors’ tax payments and these differences can be explained by the sectors’ use of debt capital.

  3. Exploiting variability for energy optimization of parallel programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrijsen, Wim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iancu, Costin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de Jong, Wibe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Xin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Here in this paper we present optimizations that use DVFS mechanisms to reduce the total energy usage in scientific applications. Our main insight is that noise is intrinsic to large scale parallel executions and it appears whenever shared resources are contended. The presence of noise allows us to identify and manipulate any program regions amenable to DVFS. When compared to previous energy optimizations that make per core decisions using predictions of the running time, our scheme uses a qualitative approach to recognize the signature of executions amenable to DVFS. By recognizing the "shape of variability" we can optimize codes with highly dynamic behavior, which pose challenges to all existing DVFS techniques. We validate our approach using offline and online analyses for one-sided and two-sided communication paradigms. We have applied our methods to NWChem, and we show best case improvements in energy use of 12% at no loss in performance when using online optimizations running on 720 Haswell cores with one-sided communication. With NWChem on MPI two-sided and offline analysis, capturing the initialization, we find energy savings of up to 20%, with less than 1% performance cost.

  4. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  5. Synthesis, design and operation optimization of a marine energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Kougioufas, Aristotelis V.; Frangopoulos, Christos A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 157 73 Zografou (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Recent developments in the global fuel markets imposed the need of increased fuel economy and cost effectiveness of sea-going vessels. Optimization of the ship's total energy system, as a whole, is now a demand of the marine industry sector in order to address the significant increase of installation and operational costs. This study is focused on the synthesis, design and operation optimization of a marine energy system. A realistic example of a cruise liner energy system has been selected. Basic technology options have been identified and a generic energy system model has been constructed. Various configuration options, types of technologies and existence of components have been incorporated in the generic system. In addition, time varying operational requirements for this cruise liner ship have been considered, resulting in a time dependent operation optimization problem. The complete optimization problem has been solved using a novel algorithm, inspired by evolutionary and social behavior metaphors. A parametric analysis with respect to the fuel price demonstrated changes in the optimum synthesis of the system. (author)

  6. A Decomposition Algorithm for Optimal Control of Distributed Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Edlund, Kristian; Standardi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In economic model predictive control of distributed energy systems, the constrained optimal control problem can be expressed as a linear program with a block-angular structure. In this paper, we present an efficient Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm specifically tailored to problems...

  7. Stabilized Quasi-Newton Optimization of Noisy Potential Energy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bastian; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient, but also very reliable. Unfortunately computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a sever problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are sup...

  8. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  9. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus was chosen as a target of this study to be investigated and analyzed in order to know how energy efficiency strategies could be applied to the building to reduce annual energy consumption. Since this research objective is to develop a strategy to achieve net-zero energy in existing buildings, case study and problem solving methodologies were applied in this research in order to evaluate the building design in a qualitative manner through observations, in addition to a quantitative method through an energy modeling simulation to achieve desirable results which address the problems. After optimizing the building energy performance, an alternative energy simulation was made of the building in order to make an energy comparison analysis, which leads to reliable conclusions. These methodologies and the strategies used in this research can be applied to similar buildings in order to achieve net-zero energy goals.

  10. Modelling, design, and optimization of net-zero energy buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Athienitis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Building energy design is currently going through a period of major changes. One key factor of this is the adoption of net-zero energy as a long term goal for new buildings in most developed countries. To achieve this goal a lot of research is needed to accumulate knowledge and to utilize it in practical applications. In this book, accomplished international experts present advanced modeling techniques as well as in-depth case studies in order to aid designers in optimally using simulation tools for net-zero energy building design. The strategies and technologies discussed in this book are, ho

  11. Taxation of the fat content of foods for reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lhachimi, Stefan K.; Pega, Frank; Heise, Thomas L.; Fenton, Candida; Gartlehner, Gerald; Griebler, Ursula; Sommer, Isolde; Pfinder, Manuela; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows:\\ud \\ud To assess the effects of taxation of fat content in food on consumption of total fat and saturated fat, energy intake, overweight, obesity, and other adverse health outcomes in the general population.

  12. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  13. Optimal sizing of energy storage system for microgrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Babak Mozafari; Sirus Mohammadi

    2014-08-01

    Microgrids (MGs) are Low Voltage distribution networks comprising various distributed generators (DG), storage devices and controllable loads that can operate either interconnected or isolated from the main distribution grid as a controlled entity. Energy storage system (ESS) is a vital part of an MG. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the optimal allocation and economic analysis of ESS in MGs on the basis of net present value (NPV). As the optimal operation of an MG strongly depends on the arrangement and allocation of its ESS, economic operation strategies and optimal allocation methods of the ESS devices are required for the MG. Self-adaptive Bee Swarm Optimization (SBSO) algorithm is applied to optimize the operation strategies and capacities of ESS in MGs in order to find maximal NPV, the generation schedule of ESS and distributed generation sources. This paper is to suggest, among those available ESS, the optimal sizes and types of them and their optimal arrangement, such that the total NPV achieved during the system operational lifetime period is maximized. After introducing the methodology, a case study is presented for illustration.

  14. Optimal Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation energy toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical energy. In this work, we review the principles of optimal energy transfer in various natural and artificial light harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the energy transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in light harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial light harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.

  15. Energy Optimized Link Selection Algorithm for Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ravindranath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile cloud computing is the revolutionary distributed computing research area which consists of three different domains: cloud computing, wireless networks and mobile computing targeting to improve the task computational capabilities of the mobile devices in order to minimize the energy consumption. Heavy computations can be offloaded to the cloud to decrease energy consumption for the mobile device. In some mobile cloud applications, it has been more energy inefficient to use the cloud compared to the conventional computing conducted in the local device. Despite mobile cloud computing being a reliable idea, still faces several problems for mobile phones such as storage, short battery life and so on. One of the most important concerns for mobile devices is low energy consumption. Different network links has different bandwidths to uplink and downlink task as well as data transmission from mobile to cloud or vice-versa. In this paper, a novel optimal link selection algorithm is proposed to minimize the mobile energy. In the first phase, all available networks are scanned and then signal strength is calculated. All the calculated signals along with network locations are given input to the optimal link selection algorithm. After the execution of link selection algorithm, an optimal network link is selected.

  16. Optimal Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lipeng; Shenai, Prathamesh; Zheng, Fulu; Somoza, Alejandro; Zhao, Yang

    2015-08-20

    Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation energy toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical energy. In this work, we review the principles of optimal energy transfer in various natural and artificial light harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the energy transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in light harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial light harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.

  17. Optimal control of end-user energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    van de Ven, Peter M; Massoulie, Laurent; Salonidis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of retail energy markets exhibit price fluctuations and provide customers such as data centers and residential users the opportunity to buy energy at lower than average prices. Such cost savings however are hard to obtain in practice because they require users to observe the price fluctuations and shift their consumption to low price periods. We propose to use energy storage to allow users to satisfy demand at times when prices are high with energy previously bought during low-price periods. We investigate how to control the battery to minimize energy costs, subject to fluctuating prices and user demand. We formulate this problem as a Markov Decision Process and show that the optimal policy has a threshold structure. We then numerically compute the thresholds using real-world traces from existing energy markets. We show that energy storage using this policy leads to significant cost savings, and study the impact of the battery size on the optimal policy and the potential savings.

  18. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  19. MILP model for energy optimization in EIP water networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskhiri, Mohammad Sadegh [De La Salle University, Industrial Engineering Department, Manila (Philippines); Tan, Raymond R. [De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Chiu, Anthony S.F. [De La Salle University, Industrial Engineering Department, Manila (Philippines); De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines)

    2011-10-15

    The eco-industrial park (EIP) concept provides a framework in which several plants can cooperate with each other and exchange their wastewater to minimize total freshwater consumption. Energy analysis is a methodology that considers the total, cumulative energy which has been consumed within a system; thus, by minimizing energy, an environmentally optimal EIP can be designed. This article presents a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model for minimizing energy of an interplant water network in an EIP. The methodology accounts for the environmental impacts of water use, energy consumption, and capital goods within the EIP in a balanced manner. The proposed technique is then demonstrated by solving a case study from literature. (orig.)

  20. Maximum power point tracking for optimizing energy harvesting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, S.; Thang, P. C.; Veselov, D. S.

    2016-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in using energy harvesting techniques for powering wireless sensor networks. The reason for utilizing this technology can be explained by the sensors limited amount of operation time which results from the finite capacity of batteries and the need for having a stable power supply in some applications. Energy can be harvested from the sun, wind, vibration, heat, etc. It is reasonable to develop multisource energy harvesting platforms for increasing the amount of harvesting energy and to mitigate the issue concerning the intermittent nature of ambient sources. In the context of solar energy harvesting, it is possible to develop algorithms for finding the optimal operation point of solar panels at which maximum power is generated. These algorithms are known as maximum power point tracking techniques. In this article, we review the concept of maximum power point tracking and provide an overview of the research conducted in this area for wireless sensor networks applications.

  1. Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagger, P J

    2004-06-01

    With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy.

  2. Optimal energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, G O; de Langre, E; Michelin, S

    2016-11-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible cables are an example of flow-induced vibrations that can act as energy harvesting systems by converting energy associated with the spontaneous cable motion into electricity. This work investigates the optimal positioning of the harvesting devices along the cable, using numerical simulations with a wake oscillator model to describe the unsteady flow forcing. Using classical gradient-based optimization, the optimal harvesting strategy is determined for the generic configuration of a flexible cable fixed at both ends, including the effect of flow forces and gravity on the cable's geometry. The optimal strategy is found to consist systematically in a concentration of the harvesting devices at one of the cable's ends, relying on deformation waves along the cable to carry the energy towards this harvesting site. Furthermore, we show that the performance of systems based on VIV of flexible cables is significantly more robust to flow velocity variations, in comparison with a rigid cylinder device. This results from two passive control mechanisms inherent to the cable geometry: (i) the adaptability to the flow velocity of the fundamental frequencies of cables through the flow-induced tension and (ii) the selection of successive vibration modes by the flow velocity for cables with gravity-induced tension.

  3. Optimal energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, G. O.; de Langre, E.; Michelin, S.

    2016-11-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible cables are an example of flow-induced vibrations that can act as energy harvesting systems by converting energy associated with the spontaneous cable motion into electricity. This work investigates the optimal positioning of the harvesting devices along the cable, using numerical simulations with a wake oscillator model to describe the unsteady flow forcing. Using classical gradient-based optimization, the optimal harvesting strategy is determined for the generic configuration of a flexible cable fixed at both ends, including the effect of flow forces and gravity on the cable's geometry. The optimal strategy is found to consist systematically in a concentration of the harvesting devices at one of the cable's ends, relying on deformation waves along the cable to carry the energy towards this harvesting site. Furthermore, we show that the performance of systems based on VIV of flexible cables is significantly more robust to flow velocity variations, in comparison with a rigid cylinder device. This results from two passive control mechanisms inherent to the cable geometry: (i) the adaptability to the flow velocity of the fundamental frequencies of cables through the flow-induced tension and (ii) the selection of successive vibration modes by the flow velocity for cables with gravity-induced tension.

  4. Energy-Efficient Design and Optimization of Wireline Access Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaumik, Sourjya; Narlikar, Girija; Wilfong, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Access networks, in particular, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) equipment, are a significant source of energy consumption for wireline operators. Replacing large monolithic DSLAMs with smaller remote DSLAM units closer to customers can reduce the energy consumption as well as increase the reach of the access network. This paper attempts to formalize the design and optimization of the "last mile" wireline access network with energy as one of the costs to be minimized. In particular, the placement of remote DSLAM units needs to be optimized. We propose solutions for two scenarios. For the scenario where an existing all-copper network from the central office to the customers is to be transformed into a fiber-copper network with remote DSLAM units, we present optimal polynomial-time solutions. In the green-field scenario, both the access network layout and the placement of remote DSLAM units must be determined. We show that this problem is NP-complete. We present an optimal ILP formulation and also design an effici...

  5. Optimized Energy Management for Mixed Uplink Traffic in LTE UE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Mirchandani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Battery life is a major issue for any mobile equipment, and reducing energy consumption via energy management in 3G LTE user equipment (UE will be essential for the delivery of a variety of services. Discontinuous transmission (DTX and reception (DRX have been designed to facilitate power management, but they can provide energy savings only via proper tuning. Relevant work in the literature mainly pertains only to discontinuous reception mode (DRX for downlink data. However, today’s increasingly powerful UEs can generate and upload significant amount of data. This paper proposes an energy management framework applicable to both discontinuous transmission (DTX and DRX power saving modes. In particular, in DTX mode it can reduce UE energy consumption for uplink intensive applications like telemedicine or social networking. The proposed novel energy management framework is based on jointly using a-priori analytical evaluation of a M/G/1/K finite uplink queue system for mixed traffic with an optimized DTX/DRX algorithm. DTX mode is modeled by an expression, through which the impact of quality of service (QoS parameters on the UE’s mean energy consumption for uplink transfer is determined. The model extracts and operates on the values computed for the M/G/1/K queue. Finally, a dynamic energy management algorithm for DRX/DTX modes is proposed for energy consumption optimization based on an integrated Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA. Analytical evaluation has shown that using our algorithm to tune DTX can achieve 49-73% energy saving over not using DTX.

  6. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  7. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  8. Optimization of energy and manpower requirements in Nigerian bakeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Madu, A.C.; Nwanya, S.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Agunwamba, J.C. [Department Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2011-01-15

    A study on energy and manpower requirements for the bakery industry in Nigeria was carried out, covering 90 bakeries representing 75% of total registered bakeries in Onitsha city. Analysis of the energy and manpower related time series data, using engineering and statistical tools, resulted in the development of empirical model for the estimation of capacity, manpower and energy requirements in the bakery industry. This empirical model can be used for the design of a new bakery or expansion of existing one. The conditions for optimum inventory and design were determined through this optimization and the results were compared with existing system. The study revealed a huge capital investment which amounts to 5.6 billion Naira annually, a correlation between capacity of the bakery plants and resource usage (manpower, raw materials and energy use), and jobs creation potentials for 960 persons for Onitsha city alone. Diesel contributes 66.75% of total heating energy need, followed by firewood, 22.57% and petrol, 10.68%. Application of optimization techniques could result in 61% savings in inventory costs and cut in energy by about 7.4% with overall cost reduction of 8%. (author)

  9. Design optimization of PVDF-based piezoelectric energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jundong; Zhao, Guanxing; Li, Bo; Wang, Jin

    2017-09-01

    Energy harvesting is a promising technology that powers the electronic devices via scavenging the ambient energy. Piezoelectric energy harvesters have attracted considerable interest for their high conversion efficiency and easy fabrication in minimized sensors and transducers. To improve the output capability of energy harvesters, properties of piezoelectric materials is an influential factor, but the potential of the material is less likely to be fully exploited without an optimized configuration. In this paper, an optimization strategy for PVDF-based cantilever-type energy harvesters is proposed to achieve the highest output power density with the given frequency and acceleration of the vibration source. It is shown that the maximum power output density only depends on the maximum allowable stress of the beam and the working frequency of the device, and these two factors can be obtained by adjusting the geometry of piezoelectric layers. The strategy is validated by coupled finite-element-circuit simulation and a practical device. The fabricated device within a volume of 13.1 mm(3) shows an output power of 112.8 μW which is comparable to that of the best-performing piezoceramic-based energy harvesters within the similar volume reported so far.

  10. Structural Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Li Min; Chen, Xiangyu; Han, Chang Bao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Ocean waves are one of the most abundant energy sources on earth, but harvesting such energy is rather challenging due to various limitations of current technologies. Recently, networks formed by triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been proposed as a promising technology for harvesting water wave energy. In this work, a basic unit for the TENG network was studied and optimized, which has a box structure composed of walls made of TENG composed of a wavy-structured Cu-Kapton-Cu film and two FEP thin films, with a metal ball enclosed inside. By combination of the theoretical calculations and experimental studies, the output performances of the TENG unit were investigated for various structural parameters, such as the size, mass, or number of the metal balls. From the viewpoint of theory, the output characteristics of TENG during its collision with the ball were numerically calculated by the finite element method and interpolation method, and there exists an optimum ball size or mass to reach maximized output power and electric energy. Moreover, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide guidance for structural optimization of wavy-structured TENGs for effectively harvesting water wave energy toward the dream of large-scale blue energy.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF AEOLIAN ENERGY CONVERSION OPTIMISATION DE LA CONVERSION DE L’ENERGIE EOLIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Soufi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy increases, because people are increasingly concerned with environmental issues. Among renewable, wind power is now widely used. Their study showed that a value of wind speed, there is a maximum mechanical power supplied by the turbine. So, power is supplied are particularly changes with maximum speed.However, the objective of this paper is to present an algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy based on a criterion optimization that must maintain specific speed of the turbine at optimum speed which corresponds to the maximum power provided by the steady wind turbine. To this end, the object is to preserve the position of any static operating point on the characteristic of optimal.To validate the model and algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy, a series of numerical simulations carried out using the software MatLab Simulink will be presented is discussed.

  12. Reliability-based design optimization for nonlinear energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Sumin; Lee, Soobum; Hu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    The power output of a vibration energy harvesting device is highly sensitive to uncertainties in materials, manufacturing, and operating conditions. Although the use of a nonlinear spring (e.g., snap-through mechanism) in energy harvesting device has been reported to reduce the sensitivity of power output with respect to the excitation frequency, the nonlinear spring characteristic remains significantly sensitive and it causes unreliable power generation. In this paper, we present a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) study of vibration energy harvesters. For a nonlinear harvester, a purely mechanical nonlinear spring design implemented in the middle of cantilever beam harvester is considered in the study. This design has the curved section in the center of beam that causes bi-stable configuration. When vibrating, the inertia of the tip mass activates the curved shell to cause snap-through buckling and make the nature of vibration nonlinear. In this paper, deterministic optimization (DO) is performed to obtain deterministic optimum of linear and nonlinear energy harvester configuration. As a result of the deterministic optimization, an optimum bi-stable vibration configuration of nonlinear harvester can be obtained for reliable power generation despite uncertainty on input vibration condition. For the linear harvester, RBDO is additionally performed to find the optimum design that satisfies a target reliability on power generation, while accounting for uncertainty in material properties and geometric parameters.

  13. Energy and exergy optimization of food waste pretreatment and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanjun; Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zhou, Zhaozhi; Ni, Mingjiang

    2017-06-22

    With the aim of upgrading current food waste (FW) management strategy, a novel FW hydrothermal pretreatment and air-drying incineration system is proposed and optimized from an energy and exergy perspective. Parameters considered include the extracted steam quality, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW, and the reactor thermal efficiency. Results show that optimal working condition can be obtained when the temperature and pressure of extracted steam are 159 °C and 0.17 MPa, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW is 10%, and the reactor thermal efficiency is 90%. Under such circumstance, the optimal steam energy and exergy increments reach 194.92 and 324.50 kJ/kg-FW, respectively. The novel system is then applied under the local conditions of Hangzhou, China. Results show that approximately 2.7 or 11.6% (from energy or exergy analysis perspective) of electricity can be additionally generated from 1 ton of MSW if the proposed novel FW system is implemented. Besides, comparisons between energy and exergy analysis are also discussed.

  14. Machine learning techniques for energy optimization in mobile embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoo, Brad Kyoshi

    Mobile smartphones and other portable battery operated embedded systems (PDAs, tablets) are pervasive computing devices that have emerged in recent years as essential instruments for communication, business, and social interactions. While performance, capabilities, and design are all important considerations when purchasing a mobile device, a long battery lifetime is one of the most desirable attributes. Battery technology and capacity has improved over the years, but it still cannot keep pace with the power consumption demands of today's mobile devices. This key limiter has led to a strong research emphasis on extending battery lifetime by minimizing energy consumption, primarily using software optimizations. This thesis presents two strategies that attempt to optimize mobile device energy consumption with negligible impact on user perception and quality of service (QoS). The first strategy proposes an application and user interaction aware middleware framework that takes advantage of user idle time between interaction events of the foreground application to optimize CPU and screen backlight energy consumption. The framework dynamically classifies mobile device applications based on their received interaction patterns, then invokes a number of different power management algorithms to adjust processor frequency and screen backlight levels accordingly. The second strategy proposes the usage of machine learning techniques to learn a user's mobile device usage pattern pertaining to spatiotemporal and device contexts, and then predict energy-optimal data and location interface configurations. By learning where and when a mobile device user uses certain power-hungry interfaces (3G, WiFi, and GPS), the techniques, which include variants of linear discriminant analysis, linear logistic regression, non-linear logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbor, are able to dynamically turn off unnecessary interfaces at runtime in order to save energy.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF TAX REGIME USING THE INSTRUMENT OF GAME THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yu. Pelevin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of one possible mechanism of taxation optimization of agricultural enterprises where used the game theory. Use of this mechanism allows to apply the most optimal type of taxation that would benefit both a taxpayer and the government. In the article offered the definition of the tax storage and its possible applications.

  16. Environmental taxation in Europe: What does it depend on?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Castiglione

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work adds to the existing literature the analysis of the determinants of environmental taxation in European economies. Using a pooled panel data, we consider various groups of factors influencing environmental taxation referring to production and consumption, environmental performance and the quality of governance of European countries, taking into account their heterogeneity. We argue that in order to function, environmental taxation policy should rely on the virtuous interrelationship between economic development and institutional enforcement, which contributes to enhancing the process of environmental renaissance.

  17. Pooling optimal combinations of energy thresholds in spectroscopic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas; Zuber, Marcus; Hamann, Elias; Runz, Armin; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2014-03-01

    Photon counting detectors used in spectroscopic CT are often based on small pixels and therefore offer only limited space to include energy discriminators and their associated counters in each pixel cell. For this reason, it is important to make efficient use of the available energy discriminators in order to achieve an optimized material contrast at a radiation dose as low as possible. Unfortunately, the complexity of evaluating every possible combination of energy thresholds, given a fixed number of counters, rapidly increases with the resolution at which this search is performed, and makes brute-force approaches to this problem infeasible. In this work, we introduce methods from machine learning, in particular sparse regression, to perform a feature selection to determine optimal combinations of energy thresholds. We will demonstrate how methods enforcing row-sparsity on a linear regression's coefficient matrix can be applied to the multiple response problem in spectroscopic CT, i.e. the case in which a single set of energy thresholds is sought to simultaneously retrieve concentrations pertaining to a multitude of materials in an optimal way. These methods are applied to CT images experimentally obtained with a Medipix3RX detector operated in charge summing mode and with a CdTe sensor at a pixel pitch of 110μm. We show that the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), generalized to the multiple response case, chooses four out of 20 possible threshold positions that allow discriminating PMMA, iodine and gadolinium in a contrast agent phantom at a higher accuracy than with equally spaced thresholds. Finally, we illustrate why it might be unwise to use a higher number of energy thresholds than absolutely necessary.

  18. Energy-Optimal Scheduling in Low Duty Cycle Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aydin, Nursen; Ercetin, Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption of a wireless sensor node mainly depends on the amount of time the node spends in each of the high power active (e.g., transmit, receive) and low power sleep modes. It has been well established that in order to prolong node's lifetime the duty-cycle of the node should be low. However, low power sleep modes usually have low current draw but high energy cost while switching to the active mode with a higher current draw. In this work, we investigate a MaxWeightlike opportunistic sleep-active scheduling algorithm that takes into account time- varying channel and traffic conditions. We show that our algorithm is energy optimal in the sense that the proposed ESS algorithm can achieve an energy consumption which is arbitrarily close to the global minimum solution. Simulation studies are provided to confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Urgaonkar, Rahul; Neely, Michael J; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Since the electricity bill of a data center constitutes a significant portion of its overall operational costs, reducing this has become important. We investigate cost reduction opportunities that arise by the use of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This represents a deviation from the usual use of these devices as mere transitional fail-over mechanisms between utility and captive sources such as diesel generators. We consider the problem of opportunistically using these devices to reduce the time average electric utility bill in a data center. Using the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop an online control algorithm that can optimally exploit these devices to minimize the time average cost. This algorithm operates without any knowledge of the statistics of the workload or electricity cost processes, making it attractive in the presence of workload and pricing uncertainties. An interesting feature of our algorithm is that its deviation from optimality reduces as the...

  20. Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pietrosanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The results of the model show increased energy savings and reduced peak power demand with respect to existing control strategies, indicating considerable potential savings for port operators in terms of energy and maintenance costs.

  1. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  2. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-08-23

    Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE), which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF) scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF) scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks.

  3. Optimizing a High Energy Physics (HEP) Toolkit on Heterogeneous Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Lindal, Yngve Sneen; Jarp, Sverre

    2011-01-01

    A desired trend within high energy physics is to increase particle accelerator luminosities, leading to production of more collision data and higher probabilities of finding interesting physics results. A central data analysis technique used to determine whether results are interesting or not is the maximum likelihood method, and the corresponding evaluation of the negative log-likelihood, which can be computationally expensive. As the amount of data grows, it is important to take benefit from the parallelism in modern computers. This, in essence, means to exploit vector registers and all available cores on CPUs, as well as utilizing co-processors as GPUs. This thesis describes the work done to optimize and parallelize a prototype of a central data analysis tool within the high energy physics community. The work consists of optimizations for multicore processors, GPUs, as well as a mechanism to balance the load between both CPUs and GPUs with the aim to fully exploit the power of modern commodity computers. W...

  4. Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limebeer, D. J. N.; Perantoni, G.; Rao, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The utility of orthogonal collocation methods in the solution of optimal control problems relating to Formula One racing is demonstrated. These methods can be used to optimise driver controls such as the steering, braking and throttle usage, and to optimise vehicle parameters such as the aerodynamic down force and mass distributions. Of particular interest is the optimal usage of energy recovery systems (ERSs). Contemporary kinetic energy recovery systems are studied and compared with future hybrid kinetic and thermal/heat ERSs known as ERS-K and ERS-H, respectively. It is demonstrated that these systems, when properly controlled, can produce contemporary lap time using approximately two-thirds of the fuel required by earlier generation (2013 and prior) vehicles.

  5. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  6. Optimizing energy transfer efficiency in highly branched nanoplasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronine, Dmitri; Traverso, Andrew; Wang, Kai; Yi, Zhenhuan; Sokolov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Energy transfer in highly branched nanoplasmonic particle waveguides is simulated and optimized by varying the waveguide branching geometry and composition. The periodically branched nanostructures provide a new route towards efficient nanoscale light concentration and local field enhancement. On the one hand, they mimick the analogous randomly branched plasmonic nanostructures which have been previously used for surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy such as SERS. On the other hand, the design is inspired by branched molecular aggregates used for energy funneling. The proposed nanostructures may find applications in sensing, light harvesting and nanophotonics.

  7. Renewable Energy Optimization Report for Naval Station Newport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.; Olis, D.

    2012-02-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage the development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. As part of this effort, EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island. NREL's Renewable Energy Optimization (REO) tool was utilized to identify RE technologies that present the best opportunity for life-cycle cost-effective implementation while also serving to reduce energy-related carbon dioxide emissions and increase the percentage of RE used at NAVSTA Newport. The technologies included in REO are daylighting, wind, solar ventilation preheating (SVP), solar water heating, photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal (heating and electric), and biomass (gasification and cogeneration). The optimal mix of RE technologies depends on several factors including RE resources; technology cost and performance; state, utility, and federal incentives; and economic parameters (discount and inflation rates). Each of these factors was considered in this analysis. Technologies not included in REO that were investigated separately per NAVSTA Newport request include biofuels from algae, tidal power, and ground source heat pumps (GSHP).

  8. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more wave energy converter (WEC concepts are reaching prototypelevel. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease thelevelized cost of energy (LCOE is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structuraland maintenance (inspection costs, as well as on the harvested power from the waves.The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output,but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize thestructural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem and the intentto maximize the investor’s benefits by maximizing the difference between income (e.g., fromselling electricity and the expected expenses (e.g., structural building costs or failure costs.Furthermore, different development levels, like prototype or commercial devices, may havedifferent main objectives and will be located at different locations, as well as receive varioussubsidies. These points should be accounted for when performing structural optimizationsof WECs. An illustrative example on the gravity-based foundation of the Wavestar deviceis performed showing how structural design can be optimized taking target reliability levelsand different structural failure modes due to extreme loads into account.

  9. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  10. Multiple Objective Optimizations for Energy Management System under Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Xing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, micro-grid gains more and more concerns, because it is flexible and environmentally friendly. Optimization of the distributed generators operation in micro-grid is a complicated and challenging task, a multi objective optimal model was designed to cut off the operation cost, improve the economic benefits and reduce the emission. However, the randomness of the renewable energy generation and load demand makes the decision process much more complicated. Chance constrained programming (CCP was employed to deal with these uncertainties. Besides, the satisfaction degree of the decision was taken into consideration to coordinate the conflicts among different targets. Through the weighted satisfaction degree and coordinate degree, the multi-objective programming can be transformed into single-objective programming. To gain the solution of the optimization problem, genetic algorithm was utilized to search for the optimal strategy. To verify the validity of the proposed model, an energy management system of micro-grid with five types distributed generators was taken as the case study. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    distillation plant is investigated more closely with the purpose of elucidating essential decisions behind planning experiments, which are suitable for identifying models and constraints. The basis for analysis of optimal operation is the type of operation upon which an application focuses. In this paper...... and their influence upon the further decisions behind the experimental design. An energy-integrated distillation column, which may exhibit fold bifurcations, is used as a relevant example process....

  12. A Simulation Framework for Optimal Energy Storage Sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Suazo-Martínez; Eduardo Pereira-Bonvallet; Rodrigo Palma-Behnke

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in Energy Storage Systems (ESS), quantification of their technical and economical benefits remains a challenge. To assess the use of ESS, a simulation approach for ESS optimal sizing is presented. The algorithm is based on an adapted Unit Commitment, including ESS operational constraints, and the use of high performance computing (HPC). Multiple short-term simulations are carried out within a multiple year horizon. Evaluation is performed for Chile's No...

  13. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements:Executive summary

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike; Erhorn, Hans; Poel, Bart; Hitchin, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/31/EU. This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure...

  14. Applications of the Renewable Energy Network Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliss, R.; Link, R.; Apling, D.; Kiley, H.; Mason, M.; Darmenova, K.

    2010-12-01

    As the renewable energy industry continues to grow so does the requirement for atmospheric modeling and analysis tools to maximize both wind and solar power. Renewable energy generation is variable however; presenting challenges for electrical grid operation and requires a variety of measures to adequately firm power. These measures include the production of non-renewable generation during times when renewables are not available. One strategy for minimizing the variability of renewable energy production is site diversity. Assuming that a network of renewable energy systems feed a common electrical grid, site diversity ensures that when one system on the network has a reduction in generation others on the same grid make up the difference. The site-diversity strategy can be used to mitigate the intermittency in alternative energy production systems while still maximizing saleable energy. The Renewable Energy Network Optimization Tool (ReNOT) has recently been developed to study the merits of site optimization for wind farms. The modeling system has a plug-in architecture that allows us to accommodate a wide variety of renewable energy system designs and performance metrics. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model is applied to generate high-resolution wind databases to support the site selection of wind farms. These databases are generated on High Performance Computing systems such as the Rocky Mountain Supercomputing Center (RMSC). The databases are then accessed by ReNOT and an optimized site selection is developed. We can accommodate numerous constraints (e.g., number of sites, the geographic extent of the optimization, proximity to high-voltage transport lines, etc.). As part of our collaboration with RMSC and the State of Montana a study was performed to estimate the optimal locations of a network of wind farms. Comparisons were made to four existing wind farm locations in Montana including Glacier with a 210 MW name plate capacity, Horseshoe

  15. Analysis and optimization of energy resolution of neutron-TPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄孟; 李玉兰; 牛莉博; 李金; 李元景

    2015-01-01

    Neutron-TPC (nTPC) is a fast neutron spectrometer based on GEM-TPC (Gas Electron Multiplier-Time Pro-jection Chamber) and expected to be used in nuclear physics, nuclear reactor operation monitoring, and thermo-nuclear fusion plasma diagnostics. By measuring the recoiled proton energy and slopes of the proton tracks, the incident neutron energy can be deduced. It has higher n/γseparation ability and higher detection efficiency than conventional neutron spectrometers. In this paper, neutron energy resolution of nTPC is studied using the analytical method. It is found that the neutron energy resolution is determined by 1) the proton energy resolu-tion (σEp/Ep), and 2) standard deviation of slopes of the proton tracks caused by multiple Coulomb scattering (σk(scat ering)) and by the track fitting accuracy (σk(fit)). Suggestions are made for optimizing energy resolution of nTPC. Proper choices of the cut parameters of reconstructed proton scattering angles (θcut), the number of fitting track points (N ), and the working gas help to improve the neutron energy resolution.

  16. Analog Ensemble Methodology: Expansion and Optimization for Renewable Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, L.; Cervone, G.; Delle Monache, L.

    2015-12-01

    Renewable energy is fundamental for sustaining and developing society. Solar and wind energy are promising sources because of their decreased environmental impact relative to conventional energy sources, improved efficiency, and increased use. A key challenge with renewable energy production is the generation of accurate renewable energy forecasts at varying spatial and temporal scales to assist utility companies in effective energy management. Specifically, this research applies the Analog Ensemble (AnEn) methodology to short-term (0-48 hour) wind speed forecasting for power generation and short-term (0-72) hour solar power measured (PM) output predictions. AnEn uses a set of past observations corresponding to the best analogs of a deterministic numerical weather prediction model to generate a probability distribution of future atmospheric states: an ensemble of analogs. Currently the AnEn methodology equally weights predictors and only handles 1D(time). We determine an optimal distribution of predictor weights based upon parameter characteristics, investigate spatial variations in the application of the methodology and develop a theory expanding the methodology into 2D. The AnEn methodology improves short-term prediction accuracy, decreases computational costs and provides uncertainty quantification allowing utility companies to manage over- or under power generation for renewable energy sources.

  17. Effects of heritage taxation in Danish forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    this, there is also a tax on the revenue caused by increase in property value during the ownership period. We analyse how the rotation age in model forest properties with given species composition and initial age structure is affected by these two taxes for a planned generational change every 30 years......In this study we investigate the effects of heritage taxation rules on the economic performance of forestry and, more importantly, on decision making at the forest property level. In Denmark, when a property is handed over from one generation to the next, a heritage tax has to be paid. Apart from......, compared to an unplanned change and a reference model with no tax on heritage or property value increase (or no change of ownership). As the point of departure we apply model properties including 1000 ha of forest and with species compositions representative for different regions in Denmark. This allows us...

  18. Taxation, credit constraints and the informal economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia P. Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends Evans and Jovanovic (1989's entrepreneurship model to incorporate the informal sector. Specifically, entrepreneurs can operate either in the formal sector – in which they have limited access to credit markets and must pay taxes – or in the informal sector – in which they can avoid paying taxes, but have no access to credit markets. In addition, technology in the informal sector is both less productive and more labor intensive than that in the formal sector. We calibrate the model to the Brazilian economy, and evaluate the impact of credit frictions and taxation on occupational choices, aggregate output and inequality. Removing all distortions can improve aggregate efficiency considerably, largely because this induces entrepreneurs to switch to the formal sector, where the technology is superior. Most of this effect comes from removing credit market frictions, but taxes on formal businesses are also important. The elimination of distortions can also reduce income inequality substantially.

  19. Adam Smith on public expenditure and taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C. Coutinho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Adam Smith’s view on taxation and public expenditure, by means of an almost literal reading of the Wealth of Nations famous passages on the “duties of the sovereign” and on the “maxims of taxation”. Contrarily to the commonest usage of these passages, we will show that their core is the preoccupation with the public expenditure soaring and the defence of decentralisation. Furthermore – and also contrarily to the existing interpretations – we defend the non-existence of any contradiction between Smith’s income and price theory (and the incidence hypothesis, provided due attention is paid to the guiding role of the “maxims”.

  20. A Bi-directional Energy Splitable Model for Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rajeswari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks is a budding  prototype of networking and computing, where a node may be self powered and individual node have the capability to sense and compute and communicate. Wireless Sensor Networks have been proposed for variety of applications such as Industrial control and monitoring and home automation and consumer electronics and security andMilitary sensing, Asset tracking and supply chain management, Intelligent Agriculture, Missile directing, Fire alarming, Landslide Warning, Environmental monitoring and health monitoring and commercial applications. In Wireless Sensor Network large number of nodes are deployed randomly. Depends on the network architecture the application may be personalized such as Energy Efficiency, Routing and Power Management and data dissemination. Energy Optimization involves in minimizing an energy expenditure and maximizing the lifetime of the complete network. In the proposed work, the placement of nodes are directly involved with residual energy. Energy Optimization in sensor network is very difficult task to achieve it. The optimization of energy is performed through Bidirectional Energy Splitable Model. The data flow in both forward and backward directions are considered, In order to achieve the best QOS in transmission, some parameters such as load, delay and direction of individual nodes are considered. A mathematical model is developed to determine the data flow of  individual node based on the residual energy.

  1. DOE`s Energy Optimization Program supports license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown (United States); Savage, C.D.; Singh, B.P. [Jupiter Corp. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    While industry is primarily responsible for reducing costs and maintaining operational safety, the Federal government has a strategic national interest in continued operation of the existing NPPs. This view was supported by the President`s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) Panel on Federal Energy Research and Development (R and D) last year. In its November 1997 report the PCAST panel determined the role of nuclear power in meeting global greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals as crucial and made specific recommendations for nuclear energy R and D that the US Department of Energy (DOE) should undertake. As part of these recommendations, PCAST asked that DOE work with the national laboratories, universities, and industry to address the critical issues that may prevent the continued operation of existing NPPs. DOE`s Strategic Plan, issued in September 1997, also specifies that the US maintain its nuclear energy option and improve the efficiency of existing plants as part of its energy portfolio, in the interest of national security. DOE has proposed two new nuclear energy R and D programs for fiscal year 1999: the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (a peer-reviewed, competitively selected R and D program to preserve the future use of nuclear energy) and the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO). The goal of NEPO is to ensure that current NPPs can continue to deliver adequate and affordable energy supplies up to and beyond their initial 40-yr license period by resolving open issues related to aging mechanisms, by applying new technologies to improve the cost-effectiveness and predictability of the life-cycle management process, and by providing a strong technical basis for long-term operation via stable and efficient license renewal programs.

  2. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-31

    This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and

  3. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  4. On the valuation of real property for taxation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murrough O'brien

    1876-01-01

      Read before the Society, 19 November 1878 In a paper read last session, I advocated the adoption in Ireland of the English system of assessing real property for taxation, so far as the ascertaining...

  5. The incorporation of double taxation agreements into South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incorporation of double taxation agreements into South African domestic law. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... of the principles of statutory interpretation which apply in the case of conflict.

  6. Taxation in Cesee Countries – Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comaniciu Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fiscal revenues are the ones that demonstrate their importance for the formation of public financial resources, being considered as a product of historical development of the state. Numerous studies and researches on the taxes action in financial, economic and social level emphasized the link between fiscal policy, growth and level of development of a country. In this context, through this article, by presenting some general coordinates of taxation in countries of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE countries we will identify the similarities and differences concerning the taxation system and the impact of taxation on the socio-economic development. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, we consider that issues outlined highlight in which country taxation is a stimulating factor for economic growth and development, so that good practice be elements worthy of consideration.

  7. Optimization of design parameters of low-energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Jiří; Jarošová, Petra

    2017-07-01

    Evaluation of temperature development and related consumption of energy required for heating, air-conditioning, etc. in low-energy buildings requires the proper physical analysis, covering heat conduction, convection and radiation, including beam and diffusive components of solar radiation, on all building parts and interfaces. The system approach and the Fourier multiplicative decomposition together with the finite element technique offers the possibility of inexpensive and robust numerical and computational analysis of corresponding direct problems, as well as of the optimization ones with several design variables, using the Nelder-Mead simplex method. The practical example demonstrates the correlation between such numerical simulations and the time series of measurements of energy consumption on a small family house in Ostrov u Macochy (35 km northern from Brno).

  8. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  9. Problems of taxation of non"commercial organizations in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Sinelnikov-Murylev; Ilya Trunin

    2007-01-01

    The authors made an attempt to analyse a wide scope of issues connected with the tax position of non_commercial organizations. In the book they describe the policy of a number of foreign countries regarding taxation of non_commercial organizations and peculiarities of the Russian approach to the taxation of such organizations. Certain recommendations are made on improving the Russian legislation in this sphere.

  10. Optimizing energy for a 'green' vaccine supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the 'net zero energy' (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7-10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain.

  11. Conversion potential energy and its application to thermodynamic optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jing; GUO ZengYuan

    2012-01-01

    In general,heat transfers can be classified into two categories according to the purposes of object heating or cooling and the heat to work conversion.Recently,a new physical quantity,entransy (or potential energy),was proposed to describe the ability of heat transfer with the former purpose.This paper addresses the concept of potential energy in terms of the heat transfer processes for the latter purpose,named the conversion potential energy.The physical meaning of this newly introduced concept is the potential energy for the heat to work conversion stored in the equivalent mass of heat (thermomass) derived on the basis of the Einstein's special theory of relativity.The dissipation of conversion potential energy occurs during the real irreversible heat to work conversion processes as a measure of the conversion irreversibility.Finally,a heat to work conversion problem of a heat exchanger group is provided to show that the minimum conversion potential energy dissipation rate can be used as an optimization criterion for the heat transfer performance with the purpose of the heat to work conversion.

  12. Analysis of Energy Optimized Hierarchical Routing Protocols in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Shelly Jain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern wireless sensor network can be expanded into large geographical areas via cheap sensor devices which can sustain themselves with limited energy and developing an energy efficient protocol is a major challenge. Currently, routing in the wireless sensor network faces multiple challenges, such as new scalability, coverage, packet loss, interference, real-time audio and real time video streaming, weather reports, energy constraints and so forth. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach. LEACH is an energy efficient clustering protocol because of its nodes distribution capabilities but still it has limitations because it leads to uneven energy distribution. PEGASIS is an enhancement of LEACH using chain-based technique to optimize the energy consumption. This protocol also has certain disadvantages like delays in larger networks etc. HEED is an advanced version of protocol which removes the disadvantages of LEACH and PEGASIS by using distributed algorithm for selecting the cluster heads (CH. It does not make any assumptions about the infrastructure or capabilities of nodes. LEACH, PEGASIS and HEED routing algorithms are compared using Matlab simulation on a Wi-Max network and the results & analysis are based upon the simulation experiments. Simulation results demonstrate that HEED is effective in prolonging the network lifetime and also overcomes the disadvantages of both LEACH & PEGASIS

  13. Energy saving by optimized controls for supermarket stores; Energie sparen mit optimierter Regeltechnik im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelborn, Horst [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Danfoss has been delivering for 20 years the optimizing ADAP-KOOL(R) control system. It enables the store to save 30% of the yearly energy bill, compared to a store with electronic standard controls. Over years the stores took the cheap standard solution, but now several German supermarket chains decide to take the best for the investment and lifecycle cost. This article describes the main control circuits and shows the measurements of the energy consumption of two stores with standard and optimized controls. This control system is available for chemical and for the natural refrigerant R744. (orig.)

  14. Health Considerations in Regulation and Taxation of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Mainous, Ryan W; Talbert, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is experiencing unprecedented growth. This can be contrasted to the use of conventional cigarettes which showed a decrease among adults with the current smoker prevalence dropping from 20.9% in 2005 to 17.8% in 2013. There is some data that e-cigarettes are attracting both former smokers and never smokers, and in particular, young people as users. Currently most states do not tax e-cigarettes. Taxation and regulation may have a similar overall goal of decreasing smoking but regulation tends to focus reduced availability of products. In terms of tobacco control, taxation focuses on the demand side of the equation. Taxation is a distinct strategy from regulation and has been shown to decrease new adopters of conventional cigarettes. A variety of potential taxation strategies can be considered by policymakers based on different assumptions about e-cigarettes and their utility, ranging from untaxed to taxation at moderate levels compared to conventional cigarettes to taxation equal to conventional cigarettes. Until more evidence for the benefits of e-cigarettes is presented, it seems prudent to view them as a potentially harmful and addictive product that ought to be regulated and taxed in an equivalent manner to conventional cigarettes.

  15. Energy efficiency analysis and optimization for mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metri, Grace Camille

    The introduction of mobile devices changed the landscape of computing. Gradually, these devices are replacing traditional personal computer (PCs) to become the devices of choice for entertainment, connectivity, and productivity. There are currently at least 45.5 million people in the United States who own a mobile device, and that number is expected to increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. Users of mobile devices expect and mandate that their mobile devices have maximized performance while consuming minimal possible power. However, due to the battery size constraints, the amount of energy stored in these devices is limited and is only growing by 5% annually. As a result, we focused in this dissertation on energy efficiency analysis and optimization for mobile platforms. We specifically developed SoftPowerMon, a tool that can power profile Android platforms in order to expose the power consumption behavior of the CPU. We also performed an extensive set of case studies in order to determine energy inefficiencies of mobile applications. Through our case studies, we were able to propose optimization techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency of mobile devices and proposed guidelines for energy-efficient application development. In addition, we developed BatteryExtender, an adaptive user-guided tool for power management of mobile devices. The tool enables users to extend battery life on demand for a specific duration until a particular task is completed. Moreover, we examined the power consumption of System-on-Chips (SoCs) and observed the impact on the energy efficiency in the event of offloading tasks from the CPU to the specialized custom engines. Based on our case studies, we were able to demonstrate that current software-based power profiling techniques for SoCs can have an error rate close to 12%, which needs to be addressed in order to be able to optimize the energy consumption of the SoC. Finally, we summarize our contributions and outline possible

  16. Optimized Energy Procurement for Cellular Networks with Uncertain Renewable Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2017-02-07

    Renewable energy (RE) is an emerging solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cellular networks. One of the challenges of using RE sources is to handle its inherent uncertainty. In this paper, a RE powered cellular network is investigated. For a one-day operation cycle, the cellular network aims to reduce energy procurement costs from the smart grid by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from their locally deployed RE sources as well as from the smart grid. In addition to that, it aims to determine the extra amount of energy to be sold to the electrical grid at each time period. Chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the randomness in the RE generation. Then, to make the optimization problem tractable, two well- know convex approximation methods, namely; Chernoff and Chebyshev based-approaches, are analyzed in details. Numerical results investigate the optimized energy procurement for various daily scenarios and compare between the performances of the employed convex approximation approaches.

  17. A Simulation Framework for Optimal Energy Storage Sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Suazo-Martínez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in Energy Storage Systems (ESS, quantification of their technical and economical benefits remains a challenge. To assess the use of ESS, a simulation approach for ESS optimal sizing is presented. The algorithm is based on an adapted Unit Commitment, including ESS operational constraints, and the use of high performance computing (HPC. Multiple short-term simulations are carried out within a multiple year horizon. Evaluation is performed for Chile's Northern Interconnected Power System (SING. The authors show that a single year evaluation could lead to sub-optimal results when evaluating optimal ESS size. Hence, it is advisable to perform long-term evaluations of ESS. Additionally, the importance of detailed simulation for adequate assessment of ESS contributions and to fully capture storage value is also discussed. Furthermore, the robustness of the optimal sizing approach is evaluated by means of a sensitivity analyses. The results suggest that regulatory frameworks should recognize multiple value streams from storage in order to encourage greater ESS integration.

  18. Optimal Time to Invest Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongma Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal investment time for energy storage systems (ESSs in a price arbitrage trade application under conditions of uncertainty over future profits. The adoption of ESSs can generate profits from price arbitrage trade, which are uncertain because the future marginal prices of electricity will change depending on supply and demand. In addition, since the investment is optional, an investor can delay adopting an ESS until it becomes profitable, and can decide the optimal time. Thus, when we evaluate this investment, we need to incorporate the investor’s option which is not captured by traditional evaluation methods. In order to incorporate these aspects, we applied real option theory to our proposed model, which provides an optimal investment threshold. Our results concerning the optimal time to invest show that if future profits that are expected to be obtained from arbitrage trade become more uncertain, an investor needs to wait longer to invest. Also, improvement in efficiency of ESSs can reduce the uncertainty of arbitrage profit and, consequently, the reduced uncertainty enables earlier ESS investment, even for the same power capacity. Besides, when a higher rate of profits is expected and ESS costs are higher, an investor needs to wait longer. Also, by comparing a widely used net present value model to our real option model, we show that the net present value method underestimates the value for ESS investment and misleads the investor to make an investment earlier.

  19. Classifier-Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, Peter B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort enti tled "Classifier - Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization" that was conducted during FY 2014 and FY 2015. The goal of this proj ect was to develop, implement, and test major improvements to the classifier - guided sampling (CGS) algorithm. CGS is type of evolutionary algorithm for perform ing search and optimization over a set of discrete design variables in the face of one or more objective functions. E xisting evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic algorithms , may require a large number of o bjecti ve function evaluations to identify optimal or near - optimal solutions . Reducing the number of evaluations can result in significant time savings, especially if the objective function is computationally expensive. CGS reduce s the evaluation count by us ing a Bayesian network classifier to filter out non - promising candidate designs , prior to evaluation, based on their posterior probabilit ies . In this project, b oth the single - objective and multi - objective version s of the CGS are developed and tested on a set of benchm ark problems. As a domain - specific case study, CGS is used to design a microgrid for use in islanded mode during an extended bulk power grid outage.

  20. CHOOSING BETWEEN DIRECT TAXATION OR INDIRECT TAXATION AS PRIME FISCAL TOOL WITHIN ROMANIA’S ECONOMY OF TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniu PREDESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a central issue of fiscal policy applied anywhere in the world of market economies: the problem to determine which type of taxation, direct taxation or indirect taxation, is better suited to assure maximum efficiency for fiscal policy applied in Romania. Mathematics proves to be a very useful tool in this case too, given it is applied through a sound economic and logical reasoning, with important results. In other words, it is applied in order for this paper not only to state which type of taxation must be used preponderantly in Romania, especially today, in times of continuous economic and financial crisis, but, especially, to compute how to use it, in long term, not in the least to alleviate effects of economic crisis, and, why not, curb economic crisis itself.

  1. An Optimal Energy Management System for Electric Vehicles using Firefly Optimization Algorithm based Dynamic EDF Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Kayalvizhi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of global warming gases from burning gasoline for transportation in vehicles is one of the biggest and most complex issues the world has ever faced. In an intention to eradicate the environmental crisis caused due to global warming, electric vehicles were been introduced that are powered by electric motor which works on the energy stored in a battery pack. Inspired by the research on power management in electric vehicles, this paper focuses on the development of an energy management system for electric vehicles (EMSEV to optimally balance the energy from battery pack. The proposed methodology uses firefly optimization algorithm to optimize the power consumption of the devices like electric motor, power steering, air conditioner, power window, automatic door locks, radio, speaker, horn, wiper, GPS, internal and external lights etc., from the battery in electric vehicles. Depending upon the distance to cover and the battery availability, the devices are made to switch down automatically through dynamic EDF scheduling. CAN protocol is used for effective communication between the devices and the controller. Simulation results are obtained using MATLAB.

  2. Enhanced Multi-Objective Energy Optimization by a Signaling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper three metaheuristics are used to solve a smart grid multi-objective energy management problem with conflictive design: how to maximize profits and minimize carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, and the results compared. The metaheuristics implemented are: weighted particle swarm optimization (W-PSO, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II. The performance of these methods with the use of multi-dimensional signaling is also compared with this technique, which has previously been shown to boost metaheuristics performance for single-objective problems. Hence, multi-dimensional signaling is adapted and implemented here for the proposed multi-objective problem. In addition, parallel computing is used to mitigate the methods’ computational execution time. To validate the proposed techniques, a realistic case study for a chosen area of the northern region of Portugal is considered, namely part of Vila Real distribution grid (233-bus. It is assumed that this grid is managed by an energy aggregator entity, with reasonable amount of electric vehicles (EVs, several distributed generation (DG, customers with demand response (DR contracts and energy storage systems (ESS. The considered case study characteristics took into account several reported research works with projections for 2020 and 2050. The findings strongly suggest that the signaling method clearly improves the results and the Pareto front region quality.

  3. Non-linear and signal energy optimal asymptotic filter design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Hrusak

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies some connections between the main results of the well known Wiener-Kalman-Bucy stochastic approach to filtering problems based mainly on the linear stochastic estimation theory and emphasizing the optimality aspects of the achieved results and the classical deterministic frequency domain linear filters such as Chebyshev, Butterworth, Bessel, etc. A new non-stochastic but not necessarily deterministic (possibly non-linear alternative approach called asymptotic filtering based mainly on the concepts of signal power, signal energy and a system equivalence relation plays an important role in the presentation. Filtering error invariance and convergence aspects are emphasized in the approach. It is shown that introducing the signal power as the quantitative measure of energy dissipation makes it possible to achieve reasonable results from the optimality point of view as well. The property of structural energy dissipativeness is one of the most important and fundamental features of resulting filters. Therefore, it is natural to call them asymptotic filters. The notion of the asymptotic filter is carried in the paper as a proper tool in order to unify stochastic and non-stochastic, linear and nonlinear approaches to signal filtering.

  4. Optimization of a solar cooling system with interior energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, C.; Soutullo, S.; Heras, M.R. [Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency in Buildings Unit, CIEMAT, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the performance of a solar absorption cooling system composed by four units with interior energy storage. A full dynamic simulation model that includes the solar collector field, the absorption heat pump system and the building load calculation has been developed. It has been applied to optimize the coupling of a system based on this new technology of solar powered absorption heat pump, to a bioclimatic building recently constructed in the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. The absorption heat pump system considered is composed by four heat pumps that store energy in the form of crystallized salts so that no external storage capacity is required. Each heat pump is composed of two separate barrels that can charge (store energy from the solar field) and discharge (deliver heat or cold to the building) independently. Different configurations of the four units have been analysed taking into account the storage possibilities of the system and its capacity to respond to the building loads. It has been shown how strong the influence of the control strategies in the overall performance is, and the importance of using hourly simulations models when looking for highly efficient buildings. (author)

  5. Optimal Placement of Energy Storage and Wind Power under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Meneses de Quevedo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth in the amount of wind energy connected to distribution grids, they are exposed to higher network constraints, which poses additional challenges to system operation. Based on regulation, the system operator has the right to curtail wind energy in order to avoid any violation of system constraints. Energy storage systems (ESS are considered to be a viable solution to solve this problem. The aim of this paper is to provide the best locations of both ESS and wind power by optimizing distribution system costs taking into account network constraints and the uncertainty associated to the nature of wind, load and price. To do that, we use a mixed integer linear programming (MILP approach consisting of loss reduction, voltage improvement and minimization of generation costs. An alternative current (AC linear optimal power flow (OPF, which employs binary variables to define the location of the generation, is implemented. The proposed stochastic MILP approach has been applied to the IEEE 69-bus distribution network and the results show the performance of the model under different values of installed capacities of ESS and wind power.

  6. Electret-based cantilever energy harvester: design and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Boisseau, S; Sylvestre, A

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper the design, the optimization and the fabrication of an electret-based cantilever energy harvester. We develop the mechanical and the electrostatic equations of such a device and its implementation using Finite Elements (FEM) and Matlab in order to get an accurate model. This model is then used in an optimization process. A macroscopic prototype (3.2cm^{2}) was built with a silicon cantilever and a Teflon\\textregistered electret. Thanks to this prototype, we manage to harvest 17\\muW with ambient-type vibrations of 0.2g on a load of 210M{\\Omega}. The experimental results are consistent with simulation results.

  7. FEM Optimal Design of Wind Energy-based Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tudorache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the finite element based optimal design of a wind energybased heater. The proposed device ensures the conversion of the wind kinetic energy intoheat by means of Joule effect of eddy currents induced in the wall of a tubular stator due tothe rotating magnetic field produced by rotor permanent magnets. The transientelectromagnetic field problem associated to the operation of the device is solved using a2D finite element approach based on vector potential formulation. A simplified method forthe 2D heat transfer analysis of the device is also proposed. The influence of stator wallmaterial and thickness, number of poles, the airgap thickness and the geometricalparameters of the permanent magnets is analyzed in the aim of optimizing the studiedheater.

  8. Recipe for attaining optimal energy resolution in inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai; Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-12-15

    Using an approximate form of the density of excitation created within the track initiated by an incident {gamma} - photon on a scintillator, the light yield is derived as a function of linear, bimolecular and Auger radiative and quenching recombination rates. The non-proportionality in the yield is analysed as a function of the bimolecular and Auger quenching rates and also its dependence on the track radius is studied. An optimal combination of these quenching rates and track radius is presented to obtain a recipe for inventing a scintillator material with optimal energy resolution. The importance of the mobility of charge carriers in minimising the non-proportionality in a scintillator is also discussed (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Total energy control system autopilot design with constrained parameter optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the application of a multivariable control design method (SANDY) based on constrained parameter optimization to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the direct synthesis of a multiloop AFCS inner-loop feedback control system based on total energy control system (TECS) principles. The design procedure offers a structured approach for the determination of a set of stabilizing controller design gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The approach can be extended to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by proper formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Satisfactory designs are usually obtained in few iterations. Performance characteristics of the optimized TECS design have been improved, particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping and control activity in the presence of turbulence.

  10. Accurate energy model for WSN node and its optimal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan Baoqiang; Cai Li; Zhu Hongsong; Xu Yongjun

    2008-01-01

    With the development of CMOS and MEMS technologies, the implementation of a large number of wireless distributed micro-sensors that can be easily and rapidly deployed to form highly redundant, self-configuring, and ad hoc sensor networks. To facilitate ease of deployment, these sensors operate on battery for extended periods of time. A particular challenge in maintaining extended battery lifetime lies in achieving communications with low power. For better understanding of the design tradeoffs of wireless sensor network (WSN), a more accurate energy model for wireless sensor node is proposed, and an optimal design method of energy efficient wireless sensor node is described as well. Different from power models ever shown which assume the power cost of each component in WSN node is constant, the new one takes into account the energy dissipation of circuits in practical physical layer. It shows that there are some parameters, such as data rate, carrier frequency, bandwidth, Tsw, etc, which have a significant effect on the WSN node energy consumption per useful bit (EPUB). For a given quality specification, how energy consumption can be reduced by adjusting one or more of these parameters is shown.

  11. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  12. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  13. CFD-optimization algorithm to optimize the energy transport in pultruded polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pultrusion is a composite manufacturing process in which fibers are pulled continuously through a resin bath for resin impregnation before entering into a heated die, where an exothermic cure reaction occurs. The energy needed to provide the cure reaction depends on many aspects such as cure kinetics and pulling speed. Generally, the pultrusion forming is divided in heat zones that can be heated at different temperature levels. The temperature distribution on the die surface can greatly affect material quality and energy cost. In the present work, through a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics algorithm, it was possible to verify that the energy requirements can be reduced by changing the heating configuration of the pultrusion die. For this, an alternative configuration with internal heaters inside the die body was simulated. The heating rate was considered as the objective function. For the optimization study, we used a stochastic algorithm, the so-called particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The results showed that the energy spent to cure the resin-fiber system can be reduced considerably.

  14. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  15. Energy Optimal Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    One of the main issues in the design of sensor networks is energy efficient communication of time-critical data. Energy wastage can be caused by failed packet transmission attempts at each node due to channel dynamics and interference. Therefore transmission control techniques that are unaware of the channel dynamics can lead to suboptimal channel use patterns. In this paper we propose a transmission controller that utilizes different "grades" of channel side information to schedule packet transmissions in an optimal way, while meeting a deadline constraint for all packets waiting in the transmission queue. The wireless channel is modeled as a finite-state Markov channel. We are specifically interested in the case where the transmitter has low-grade channel side information that can be obtained based solely on the ACK/NAK sequence for the previous transmissions. Our scheduler is readily implementable and it is based on the dynamic programming solution to the finite-horizon transmission control problem. We als...

  16. Central Plant Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER). ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    EW-201349) Central Plant Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER) December 2016 This document has been cleared for public release...Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER) Girija Parthasarathy Honeywell Honeywell - 1985 Douglas Drive North, Golden Valley, MN 55422 ERDC...technology that commands all equipment in a central plant. Central Plant Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER), Building Automation System (BAS

  17. Optimization in the energy sector; Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The implementation of the energy transition and the developments in the national and international Energy markets constantly require sound analysis and new answers. The symposium ''optimization in the energy sector'' gives an overview of methods and models that can be practically used for decision support. Storage and electromobility as demand flexibility are important factors for the long-term design of the German and European energy system. But methodological aspects such as the consideration of uncertainties at the conference an important place is given. A key issue is also the short and medium term further development of the electricity market design. Not only broadly but also in detail e.g. the standard benefit and intraday markets there is considerable potential for optimization, which will be discussed in the context of technical presentations. And in view of challenging market environment is also new approaches to portfolio management a great importance for the practice. Therefore we are convinced that the Conference and its results for energy companies, public services and new entrants in the energy industry as well are of interest as for consultants, authorities, associations and energy economic research institutes. [German] Die Umsetzung der Energiewende und die Entwicklungen auf den nationalen und internationalen Energiemaerkten erfordern immer wieder fundierte Analysen und neue Antworten. Die Fachtagung ''Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft'' gibt hier einen Ueberblick ueber Methoden und Modelle, die praxisnah zur Entscheidungsunterstuetzung eingesetzt werden koennen. Speicher und Elektromobilitaet ebenso wie Nachfrageflexibilitaet sind wichtige Faktoren fuer die langfristige Gestaltung des deutschen und europaeischen Energiesystems. Aber auch methodischen Aspekten wie die Beruecksichtigung von Unsicherheiten wird im Rahmen der Tagung ein wichtiger Platz eingeraeumt. Ein zentrales Thema ist zudem die kurz- und

  18. Luminosity Optimization for a Higher-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, O

    2011-01-01

    A Higher-Energy Large Hadron Collider (HE-LHC) is an option to further push the energy frontier of particle physics beyond the present LHC. A beam energy of 16.5 TeV would require 20 T dipole magnets in the existing LHC tunnel, which should be compared with 7 TeV and 8.33 T for the nominal LHC. Since the synchrotron radiation power increases with the fourth power of the energy, radiation damping becomes significant for the HE-LHC. It calls for transverse and longitudinal emittance control vis-a-vis beam-beam interaction and Landau damping. The heat load from synchrotron radiation, gas scattering, and electron cloud also increases with respect to the LHC. In this paper we discuss the proposed HE-LHC beam parameters; the time evolution of luminosity, beam-beam tune shifts, and emittances during an HE-LHC store; the expected heat load; and luminosity optimization schemes for both round and flat beams.

  19. Specific energy optimization in sawing of rocks using Taguchi approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Izzet Karakurt

    2014-01-01

    This work aims at selecting optimal operating variables to obtain the minimum specific energy (SE) in sawing of rocks. A particular granite was sampled and sawn by a fully automated circular diamond sawblades. The peripheral speed, the traverse speed, the cut depth and the flow rate of cooling fluid were selected as the operating variables. Taguchi approach was adopted as a statistical design of experimental technique for optimization studies. The results were evaluated based on the analysis of variance and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio). Statistically significant operating variables and their percentage contribution to the process were also determined. Additionally, a statistical model was developed to demonstrate the relationship between SE and operating variables using regression analysis and the model was then verified. It was found that the optimal combination of operating variables for minimum SE is the peripheral speed of 25 m/s, the traverse speed of 70 cm/min, the cut depth of 2 cm and the flow rate of cooling fluid of 100 mL/s. The cut depth and traverse speed were statistically determined as the significant operating variables affecting the SE, respectively. Furthermore, the regression model results reveal that the predictive model has a high applicability for practical applications.

  20. Weather forecast-based optimization of integrated energy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit detailed weather forecast information in the operation of integrated energy systems, such as buildings and photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems. We first discuss how the use of traditional reactive operation strategies that neglect the future evolution of the ambient conditions can translate in high operating costs. To overcome this problem, we propose the use of a supervisory dynamic optimization strategy that can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The strategy is based on the solution of a receding-horizon stochastic dynamic optimization problem. This permits the direct incorporation of economic objectives, statistical forecast information, and operational constraints. To obtain the weather forecast information, we employ a state-of-the-art forecasting model initialized with real meteorological data. The statistical ambient information is obtained from a set of realizations generated by the weather model executed in an operational setting. We present proof-of-concept simulation studies to demonstrate that the proposed framework can lead to significant savings (more than 18% reduction) in operating costs.

  1. Statutory Taxation%浅议税收法定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩晖; 潘爱萍

    2015-01-01

    税收法定是调整和规范税收法律关系主体的最高原则,是实现税收法治的基本要求,贯穿税收法治全过程。目前,我国贯彻税收法定中存在着宪法中缺失税收法定条款、税法体系整体立法层次不高、税收行政执法约束有待加强、税法监督制约机制欠缺等现实问题。为全面落实税收法定,推进依法治税进程,应健全税收立法机制,强化税收执法约束,完善税法制约机制。%Statutory taxation is the highest principle in adjusting and regularizing subjects of legal relation in taxation law. It is the basic demand for realizing tax collection governed by law in the whole process. There are problems for the implementation of statutory taxation, including the lack of statutory clause, low legislative level of the taxation system, weak constraint power of administrative law enforcement in tax collection and the absence of supervision mechanism for taxation law. In this connection, taxation legislation system should be im-proved, tax law enforcement should be enhanced and the process of law-based tax administration should be advanced in implementing statutory taxation thoroughly and promoting the law-based tax administration.

  2. Optimal strategies for electric energy contract decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haili

    2000-10-01

    The power industry restructuring in various countries in recent years has created an environment where trading of electric energy is conducted in a market environment. In such an environment, electric power companies compete for the market share through spot and bilateral markets. Being profit driven, electric power companies need to make decisions on spot market bidding, contract evaluation, and risk management. New methods and software tools are required to meet these upcoming needs. In this research, bidding strategy and contract pricing are studied from a market participant's viewpoint; new methods are developed to guide a market participant in spot and bilateral market operation. A supplier's spot market bidding decision is studied. Stochastic optimization is formulated to calculate a supplier's optimal bids in a single time period. This decision making problem is also formulated as a Markov Decision Process. All the competitors are represented by their bidding parameters with corresponding probabilities. A systematic method is developed to calculate transition probabilities and rewards. The optimal strategy is calculated to maximize the expected reward over a planning horizon. Besides the spot market, a power producer can also trade in the bilateral markets. Bidding strategies in a bilateral market are studied with game theory techniques. Necessary and sufficient conditions of Nash Equilibrium (NE) bidding strategy are derived based on the generators' cost and the loads' willingness to pay. The study shows that in any NE, market efficiency is achieved. Furthermore, all Nash equilibria are revenue equivalent for the generators. The pricing of "Flexible" contracts, which allow delivery flexibility over a period of time with a fixed total amount of electricity to be delivered, is analyzed based on the no-arbitrage pricing principle. The proposed algorithm calculates the price based on the optimality condition of the stochastic optimization formulation

  3. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  4. Obtaining your annual internal taxation certificate

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    (cf. Article R IV 2.04 of the Staff Regulations) Your annual internal taxation certificate will state the taxable amount of your CERN remuneration, payments and other financial benefits and the amount of tax levied by the Organization during the previous financial year. In France, your tax return must be accompanied by this certificate. Current Members of the Personnel (including Members of the Personnel participating in a pre-retirement programme): - You will receive an e-mail containing a link to your printable annual certificate, which will be stored together with your pay and leave statements (e-Payslips). - You can also access your annual certificate via https://hrt.cern.ch (open 'My Payslips' at the bottom of the main menu.) - If you experience any technical difficulties in accessing your annual certificate (e.g. invalid AIS login or password), please contact CERN's AIS support team at ais.support@cern.ch. Former Members of the Personnel:- If you remember your AIS login and password, you can acc...

  5. Investigation the Annual Inflation Rate of Each Energy Source on Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Fathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Inflation Rate of each Energy Source on the optimized design of Hybrid Power System (HPS in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank.In this research, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization HPS. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for HPS and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of HPS construction.

  6. Energy Thermodynamics Revisited: Energy intake strategies for optimizing athlete body composition and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Benardot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of physical activity is that it results in an increased rate of energy expenditure and, as a result of metabolic inefficiencies that lead to high heat production, an increase in the requirement to dissipate the added heat through sweat.  Nevertheless, surveys commonly find that athletes fail to optimally satisfy both energy and fluid needs, causing them to perform at levels below their conditioned capacities.  To some extent this problem results from an excess reliance on the sensations of ‘hunger’ and ‘thirst’ to guide energy and fluid intakes, but there are also common misunderstandings of the best eating strategies for achieving optimal body composition and performance.  The need to improve the strength-to-weight ratio to enable an enhanced ability to overcome sport-related resistance can be misinterpreted as a need to be ‘small’, which may result in an under-consumption of energy through restrained eating and special ‘diets’.  The outcome, however, is nearly always the precise opposite of the desired effect, with lower strength-to-weight ratios that result in an ever-increasing downward spiral in energy and fluid consumption.  This paper focuses on within-day energy balance eating and drinking strategies that are now successfully followed by many elite-level athletes.  These strategies can help athletes avoid the common errors of under-consumption while simultaneously improving both body composition and performance.

  7. Multichannel-Sensing Scheduling and Transmission-Energy Optimizing in Cognitive Radio Networks with Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoan, Tran-Nhut-Khai; Hiep, Vu-Van; Koo, In-Soo

    2016-03-31

    This paper considers cognitive radio networks (CRNs) utilizing multiple time-slotted primary channels in which cognitive users (CUs) are powered by energy harvesters. The CUs are under the consideration that hardware constraints on radio devices only allow them to sense and transmit on one channel at a time. For a scenario where the arrival of harvested energy packets and the battery capacity are finite, we propose a scheme to optimize (i) the channel-sensing schedule (consisting of finding the optimal action (silent or active) and sensing order of channels) and (ii) the optimal transmission energy set corresponding to the channels in the sensing order for the operation of the CU in order to maximize the expected throughput of the CRN over multiple time slots. Frequency-switching delay, energy-switching cost, correlation in spectrum occupancy across time and frequency and errors in spectrum sensing are also considered in this work. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated via simulation. The simulation results show that the throughput of the proposed scheme is greatly improved, in comparison to related schemes in the literature. The collision ratio on the primary channels is also investigated.

  8. Optimal Management and Design of Energy Systems under Atmospheric Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitescu, M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V.

    2010-12-01

    The generation and distpatch of electricity while maintaining high reliability levels are two of the most daunting engineering problems of the modern era. This was demonstrated by the Northeast blackout of August 2003, which resulted in the loss of 6.2 gigawatts that served more than 50 million people and which resulted in economic losses on the order of $10 billion. In addition, there exist strong socioeconomic pressures to improve the efficiency of the grid. The most prominent solution to this problem is a substantial increase in the use of renewable energy such as wind and solar. In turn, its uncertain availability—which is due to the intrinsic weather variability—will increase the likelihood of disruptions. In this endeavors of current and next-generation power systems, forecasting atmospheric conditions with uncertainty can and will play a central role, at both the demand and the generation ends. User demands are strongly correlated to physical conditions such as temperature, humidity, and solar radiation. The reason is that the ambient temperature and solar radiation dictate the amount of air conditioning and lighting needed in residential and commercial buildings. But these potential benefits would come at the expense of increased variability in the dynamics of both production and demand, which would become even more dependent on weather state and its uncertainty. One of the important challenges for energy in our time is how to harness these benefits while “keeping the lights on”—ensuring that the demand is satisfied at all times and that no blackout occurs while all energy sources are optimally used. If we are to meet this challenge, accounting for uncertainty in the atmospheric conditions is essential, since this will allow minimizing the effects of false positives: committing too little baseline power in anticipation of demand that is underestimated or renewable energy levels that fail to materialize. In this work we describe a framework for the

  9. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  10. Energy Performance Optimization of a Bus for Urban Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many people use public transports in urban centres. Consequently, every day a lot of buses move within cities, trying to ensure the best service to citizens. During the year buses becomecrowded places and using an air conditioning system in constant operation, it tries to ensure a certain condition of comfort for the passengers on board. The aim of this study is to analyse and optimize the energy performance of a bus shell, identifying practical solutions that have not yet been adopted in order to reduce the impact of air conditioning on bus consumption and, therefore, on air pollution. For this reason it was decided to conduct a thermal analysis of a bus for public transport, in order to understandthe behaviour of the bus shell and to deduce possible optimization measures that have not yet been made until now. The analysis was carried out considering the hottest day of July and the coldest day ofJanuary, considering the conditions of operation based on the most common graphics TGM able to define the concentration of traffic city during the 24 hours per day. The study was done using the dynamicsimulation software TRNSYS. With this software it was possible to recreate faithfully the structure of the bus and the external environmental conditions, assessing the impact of different technical solutions for an improvement of internal conditions and a reduction of the cooling capacity required. Because the presence of passengers in public transport is considered like a “benefit” during the winter, the analysis started with the identification of a summer solution and the subsequent evaluation of this solution for the wintertime. The aim of this study was to optimize the bus shell and select the most appropriate solutions. Regarding the transparent surfaces it has been given importance to factors such as the thermal transmittance and the solar gain factor (g-value. Aware of the influence given by the solar radiation on the energy loads, we

  11. International double (non-)taxation : comparative guidelines from European legal principles

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, van de, L.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The principle of fairness advocates against international double taxation and international double non-taxation. Countries and international organizations (OECD, G20 and EU) have taken several initiatives against such taxation. However, these initiatives are not always effective. Also, certain legal authors question the legitimacy of the OECD and its action plan on BEPS. The essential goal of this research is to find guidelines to address international double (non-) taxation. We fir...

  12. Annual Energy Production (AEP) optimization for tidal power plants based on Evolutionary Algorithms - Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant AEP optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoleontos, E.; Weissenberger, S.

    2016-11-01

    In order to be able to predict the maximum Annual Energy Production (AEP) for tidal power plants, an advanced AEP optimization procedure is required for solving the optimization problem which consists of a high number of design variables and constraints. This efficient AEP optimization procedure requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software) and an AEP calculation tool that can simulate all different operating modes of the units (bidirectional turbine, pump and sluicing mode). The EASY optimization software is a metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA) that can be used in both single- and multi-objective optimization problems. The AEP calculation tool, developed by ANDRITZ HYDRO, in combination with EASY is used to maximize the tidal annual energy produced by optimizing the plant operation throughout the year. For the Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant project, the AEP optimization along with the hydraulic design optimization and the model testing was used to evaluate all different hydraulic and operating concepts and define the optimal concept that led to a significant increase of the AEP value. This new concept of a triple regulated “bi-directional bulb pump turbine” for Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant (16 units, nominal power above 320 MW) along with its AEP optimization scheme will be presented in detail in the paper. Furthermore, the use of an online AEP optimization during operation of the power plant, that will provide the optimal operating points to the control system, will be also presented.

  13. Investigation the Interest Rate of Each Energy Source on Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Fathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research the effect of variation of interest rate of each energy source on optimal results are investigated. This study presents an optimized design of Hybrid Power System in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank. In this study, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization Hybrid Power System. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for Hybrid Power System and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of Hybrid Power System construction.

  14. Optimized undulator to generate low energy photons from medium to high energy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Chiu, Mau-Sen; Luo, Hao-Wen; Yang, Chin-Kang; Huang, Jui-Che; Jan, Jyh-Chyuan; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2017-07-01

    While emitting low energy photons from a medium or high energy storage ring, the on-axis heat load on the beam line optics can become a critical issue. In addition, the heat load in the bending magnet chamber, especially in the vertical and circular polarization mode of operation may cause some concern. In this work, we compare the heat loads for the APPLE-II and the Knot-APPLE, both optimized to emit 10 eV photons from the 3 GeV TPS. Under this constraint the heat load analysis, synchrotron radiation performance and features in various polarization modes are presented. Additional consideration is given to beam dynamics effect.

  15. Energy Management Optimization for Cellular Networks under Renewable Energy Generation Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir Ben

    2017-03-28

    The integration of renewable energy (RE) as an alternative power source for cellular networks has been deeply investigated in literature. However, RE generation is often assumed to be deterministic; an impractical assumption for realistic scenarios. In this paper, an efficient energy procurement strategy for cellular networks powered simultaneously by the smart grid (SG) and locally deployed RE sources characterized by uncertain processes is proposed. For a one-day operation cycle, the mobile operator aims to reduce its total energy cost by optimizing the amounts of energy to be procured from the local RE sources and SG at each time period. Additionally, it aims to determine the amount of extra generated RE to be sold back to SG. A chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the RE generation uncertainty. Then, two convex approximation approaches: Chernoff and Chebyshev methods, characterized by different levels of knowledge about the RE generation, are developed to determine the energy procurement strategy for different risk levels. In addition, their performances are analyzed for various daily scenarios through selected simulation results. It is shown that the higher complex Chernoff method outperforms the Chebyshev one for different risk levels set by the operator.

  16. Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James

    2011-01-01

    Microwave propelled sails are a new class of spacecraft using photon acceleration. It is the only method of interstellar flight that has no physics issues. Laboratory demonstrations of basic features of beam-driven propulsion, flight, stability ('beam-riding'), and induced spin, have been completed in the last decade, primarily in the microwave. It offers much lower cost probes after a substantial investment in the launcher. Engineering issues are being addressed by other applications: fusion (microwave, millimeter and laser sources) and astronomy (large aperture antennas). There are many candidate sail materials: carbon nanotubes and microtrusses, graphene, beryllium, etc. For acceleration of a sail, what is the cost-optimum high power system? Here the cost is used to constrain design parameters to estimate system power, aperture and elements of capital and operating cost. From general relations for cost-optimal transmitter aperture and power, system cost scales with kinetic energy and inversely with sail di...

  17. A Distributed Algorithm for Energy Optimization in Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Wisniewski, Rafal; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    is distributed in the sense that all calculations are implemented where the necessary information is available, including both parameters and measurements. A communication network between the pumps is implemented for global optimization. The local implementation of the algorithm means that the system becomes......An industrial case study in the form of a large-scale hydraulic network underlying a district heating system is considered. A distributed control is developed that minimizes the aggregated electrical energy consumption of the pumps in the network without violating the control demands. The algorithm...... a Plug & Play control system as most commissioning can be done during the manufacture of the pumps. Only information on the graph-structure of the hydraulic network is needed during installation....

  18. Combining configurational energies and forces for molecular force field optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Sun, Weiwei; Kent, Paul R. C.

    2017-10-01

    While quantum chemical simulations have been increasingly used as an invaluable source of information for atomistic model development, the high computational expenses typically associated with these techniques often limit thorough sampling of the systems of interest. It is therefore of great practical importance to use all available information as efficiently as possible, and in a way that allows for consistent addition of constraints that may be provided by macroscopic experiments. Here we propose a simple approach that combines information from configurational energies and forces generated in a molecular dynamics simulation to increase the effective number of samples. Subsequently, this information is used to optimize a molecular force field by minimizing the statistical distance similarity metric. We illustrate the methodology on an example of a trajectory of configurations generated in equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of argon and water and compare the results with those based on the force matching method.

  19. Cycling Transcriptional Networks Optimize Energy Utilization on a Genome Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Zhong; Hickey, Stephanie L; Shi, Lei; Huang, Hung-Chung; Nakashe, Prachi; Koike, Nobuya; Tu, Benjamin P; Takahashi, Joseph S; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-12-01

    Genes expressing circadian RNA rhythms are enriched for metabolic pathways, but the adaptive significance of cyclic gene expression remains unclear. We estimated the genome-wide synthetic and degradative cost of transcription and translation in three organisms and found that the cost of cycling genes is strikingly higher compared to non-cycling genes. Cycling genes are expressed at high levels and constitute the most costly proteins to synthesize in the genome. We demonstrate that metabolic cycling is accelerated in yeast grown under higher nutrient flux and the number of cycling genes increases ∼40%, which are achieved by increasing the amplitude and not the mean level of gene expression. These results suggest that rhythmic gene expression optimizes the metabolic cost of global gene expression and that highly expressed genes have been selected to be downregulated in a cyclic manner for energy conservation.

  20. Optimized tapered dipole nanoantenna as efficient energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Toukhy, Youssef M; Hussein, Mohamed; Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O; Heikal, A M; Abd-Elrazzak, M M; Obayya, S S A

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, a novel design of tapered dipole nanoantenna is introduced and numerically analyzed for energy harvesting applications. The proposed design consists of three steps tapered dipole nanoantenna with rectangular shape. Full systematic analysis is carried out where the antenna impedance, return loss, harvesting efficiency and field confinement are calculated using 3D finite element frequency domain method (3D-FEFD). The structure geometrical parameters are optimized using particle swarm algorithm (PSO) to improve the harvesting efficiency and reduce the return loss at wavelength of 500 nm. A harvesting efficiency of 55.3% is achieved which is higher than that of conventional dipole counterpart by 29%. This enhancement is attributed to the high field confinement in the dipole gap as a result of multiple tips created in the nanoantenna design. Furthermore, the antenna input impedance is tuned to match a wide range of fabricated diode based upon the multi-resonance characteristic of the proposed structure.

  1. Comparison of operation optimization methods in energy system modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    , possibilities for decoupling production constraints may be valuable. Introduction of heat pumps in the district heating network may pose this ability. In order to evaluate if the introduction of heat pumps is economically viable, we develop calculation methods for the operation patterns of each of the used...... energy technologies. In the paper, three frequently used operation optimization methods are examined with respect to their impact on operation management of the combined technologies. One of the investigated approaches utilises linear programming for optimisation, one uses linear programming with binary...... operation constraints, while the third approach uses nonlinear programming. In the present case the non-linearity occurs in the boiler efficiency of power plants and the cv-value of an extraction plant. The linear programming model is used as a benchmark, as this type is frequently used, and has the lowest...

  2. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section provides rules for the taxation of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement for...

  3. 26 CFR 521.117 - Claims in cases of double taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.117 Claims in cases of double taxation. Under Article XX... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims in cases of double taxation....

  4. The solution of the optimization problem of small energy complexes using linear programming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanin, O. A.; Director, L. B.

    2016-11-01

    Linear programming methods were used for solving the optimization problem of schemes and operation modes of distributed generation energy complexes. Applicability conditions of simplex method, applied to energy complexes, including installations of renewable energy (solar, wind), diesel-generators and energy storage, considered. The analysis of decomposition algorithms for various schemes of energy complexes was made. The results of optimization calculations for energy complexes, operated autonomously and as a part of distribution grid, are presented.

  5. Research of the Taxation Justice and the Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Skačkauskienė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the content of taxation justice, it’s value and compatibility with other principles of taxation, analyses the features of the Lithuanian tax system formation. The article ex¬amines the conception of social responsibility and it’s possibilities for assessment too. The research findings show that the principle of taxation justice is implemented only partially in Lithuania. The assessment of social responsibility through quantitative and qualitative indexes shows that some of its principles in Lithuania are being implemented more successful. However, it should be noted that significant amounts of funds for these initiatives and projects are received from the EU. It is very important to continue all the projects when funding from the EU runs out.

  6. THE REFORM OF PERSONAL INCOME TAXATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes that were made to the taxation of income of individuals are considered; impact of changes in taxation on the salary to be paid is calculated; has been demonstrated that the personal income taxation in Ukraine has progressive-regressive character; It revealed that the burden on a single hryvnia to pay was dropped; the validity of the application of the tax social benefits is examined; has been revealed that the application of a tax social benefits leads to discrimination against individuals whose income slightly exceeds the cutoff amount for the use of tax incentives; the tax burden on wages and its dynamics are analyzed; enterprise savings by reducing the rate of the single social contribution are defined; the possible increase in wages while maintaining enterprise-level costs is calculated.

  7. Stochastic search, optimization and regression with energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Lauren A.

    Designing clean energy systems will be an important task over the next few decades. One of the major roadblocks is a lack of mathematical tools to economically evaluate those energy systems. However, solutions to these mathematical problems are also of interest to the operations research and statistical communities in general. This thesis studies three problems that are of interest to the energy community itself or provide support for solution methods: R&D portfolio optimization, nonparametric regression and stochastic search with an observable state variable. First, we consider the one stage R&D portfolio optimization problem to avoid the sequential decision process associated with the multi-stage. The one stage problem is still difficult because of a non-convex, combinatorial decision space and a non-convex objective function. We propose a heuristic solution method that uses marginal project values---which depend on the selected portfolio---to create a linear objective function. In conjunction with the 0-1 decision space, this new problem can be solved as a knapsack linear program. This method scales well to large decision spaces. We also propose an alternate, provably convergent algorithm that does not exploit problem structure. These methods are compared on a solid oxide fuel cell R&D portfolio problem. Next, we propose Dirichlet Process mixtures of Generalized Linear Models (DPGLM), a new method of nonparametric regression that accommodates continuous and categorical inputs, and responses that can be modeled by a generalized linear model. We prove conditions for the asymptotic unbiasedness of the DP-GLM regression mean function estimate. We also give examples for when those conditions hold, including models for compactly supported continuous distributions and a model with continuous covariates and categorical response. We empirically analyze the properties of the DP-GLM and why it provides better results than existing Dirichlet process mixture regression

  8. Iterative free-energy optimization for recurrent neural networks (INFERNO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitti, Alexandre; Gaussier, Philippe; Quoy, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The intra-parietal lobe coupled with the Basal Ganglia forms a working memory that demonstrates strong planning capabilities for generating robust yet flexible neuronal sequences. Neurocomputational models however, often fails to control long range neural synchrony in recurrent spiking networks due to spontaneous activity. As a novel framework based on the free-energy principle, we propose to see the problem of spikes' synchrony as an optimization problem of the neurons sub-threshold activity for the generation of long neuronal chains. Using a stochastic gradient descent, a reinforcement signal (presumably dopaminergic) evaluates the quality of one input vector to move the recurrent neural network to a desired activity; depending on the error made, this input vector is strengthened to hill-climb the gradient or elicited to search for another solution. This vector can be learned then by one associative memory as a model of the basal-ganglia to control the recurrent neural network. Experiments on habit learning and on sequence retrieving demonstrate the capabilities of the dual system to generate very long and precise spatio-temporal sequences, above two hundred iterations. Its features are applied then to the sequential planning of arm movements. In line with neurobiological theories, we discuss its relevance for modeling the cortico-basal working memory to initiate flexible goal-directed neuronal chains of causation and its relation to novel architectures such as Deep Networks, Neural Turing Machines and the Free-Energy Principle.

  9. Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Lai, Judy

    2011-04-01

    Berkeley Lab has been developing the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (u grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available technologies, DER-CAM finds the optimum equipment fleet and its optimum operating schedule using a mixed integer linear programming approach. This capability is being applied using a software as a service (SaaS) model. Optimisation problems are set up on a Berkeley Lab server and clients can execute their jobs as needed, typically daily. The evolution of this approach is demonstrated by description of three ongoing projects. The first is a public access web site focused on solar photovoltaic generation and battery viability at large commercial and industrial customer sites. The second is a building CO2 emissions reduction operations problem for a University of California, Davis student dining hall for which potential investments are also considered. And the third, is both a battery selection problem and a rolling operating schedule problem for a large County Jail. Together these examples show that optimization of building u grid design and operation can be effectively achieved using SaaS.

  10. Iterative free-energy optimization for recurrent neural networks (INFERNO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The intra-parietal lobe coupled with the Basal Ganglia forms a working memory that demonstrates strong planning capabilities for generating robust yet flexible neuronal sequences. Neurocomputational models however, often fails to control long range neural synchrony in recurrent spiking networks due to spontaneous activity. As a novel framework based on the free-energy principle, we propose to see the problem of spikes’ synchrony as an optimization problem of the neurons sub-threshold activity for the generation of long neuronal chains. Using a stochastic gradient descent, a reinforcement signal (presumably dopaminergic) evaluates the quality of one input vector to move the recurrent neural network to a desired activity; depending on the error made, this input vector is strengthened to hill-climb the gradient or elicited to search for another solution. This vector can be learned then by one associative memory as a model of the basal-ganglia to control the recurrent neural network. Experiments on habit learning and on sequence retrieving demonstrate the capabilities of the dual system to generate very long and precise spatio-temporal sequences, above two hundred iterations. Its features are applied then to the sequential planning of arm movements. In line with neurobiological theories, we discuss its relevance for modeling the cortico-basal working memory to initiate flexible goal-directed neuronal chains of causation and its relation to novel architectures such as Deep Networks, Neural Turing Machines and the Free-Energy Principle. PMID:28282439

  11. Economics and taxation of the Newfoundland offshore oil play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielecki, J.

    1987-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the development of the Canadian offshore oil resources centers around two major points: the rationale for developing them and the applicability of conventional petroleum taxation. The principal purpose of this paper is twofold: to re-assess the economics of Hibernia in light of the current world oil market conditions and to examine the optimal revenue sharing schemes that would be acceptable to all participants. Areview of past economic predictions for Hibernia reveals a sharp decline in the projected profitability of the project for both floating and fixed production systems, and also a reversal of the comparative attractiveness of the two alternative systems in favour of the latter. The most recent Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) study indicates that the initial, 1980, estimates of the uncertain physical and economic parameter were overly optimistic. The EIS cash flow profile, with lower reserves, flatter production profile and higher operating costs, is so unfavorable that Hibernia oil will liely be unprofitable at any oil price below Canadian $35.75. The cash flow results prove to be extremely sensitive to changes in price, ranging all the way from -13700 million dollars at $25 to +1178 million dollars at $45. The private cash flow analysis demonstrate that the prospects for Hibernia also depend heavily on the fiscal regimes chosen. Among them, the regime consisting solely of the cash flow tax appears particularly attractive since it ensures constant revenue shares in either profit or loss situations regardless of economic circumstances. The resource rent tax should also be given a fair consideration, primarily as a means of taxing larger, more profitable fields, at times of higher oil prices. 62 refs., 1 fig., 20 tabs.

  12. Energy Optimization for Distributed Energy Resources Scheduling with Enhancements in Voltage Stability Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for developing new methodologies in order to improve power system stability has increased due to the recent growth of distributed energy resources. In this paper, the inclusion of a voltage stability index in distributed energy resources scheduling is proposed. Two techniques were used to evaluate the resulting multiobjective optimization problem: the sum-weighted Pareto front and an adapted goal programming methodology. With this new methodology, the system operators can consider both the costs and voltage stability. Priority can be assigned to one objective function according to the operating scenario. Additionally, it is possible to evaluate the impact of the distributed generation and the electric vehicles in the management of voltage stability in the future electric networks. One detailed case study considering a distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy resources is presented to analyse the proposed methodology. Additionally, the methodology is tested in a real distribution network.

  13. Optimal alcohol taxation: Simulation results for Estonia / Indrek Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Indrek, 1978-

    2011-01-01

    Uuring analüüsib optimaalset alkoholi maksustamist Eestis erinevate mõjutegurite ja rahanduspoliitika taustal. Tasakaalustatud mudel peab arvestama mitme parameetriga, sealhulgas alkoholitarvitamise negatiivse mõjuga

  14. The Optimal Taxation and the Current Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:The paper discusses the current U.S. tax system, which reduces the disposable income and makes savings negative (dissaving or borrowing). This has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. Methodology:People are borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit...

  15. Optimal alcohol taxation: Simulation results for Estonia / Indrek Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Indrek, 1978-

    2011-01-01

    Uuring analüüsib optimaalset alkoholi maksustamist Eestis erinevate mõjutegurite ja rahanduspoliitika taustal. Tasakaalustatud mudel peab arvestama mitme parameetriga, sealhulgas alkoholitarvitamise negatiivse mõjuga

  16. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  17. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  18. The optimal time path of clean energy R&D policy when patents have finite lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.; Kverndokk, S.; Rosendahl, K.E.

    We study the optimal time path for clean energy innovation policy. In a model with emission reduction through clean energy deployment, and with R&D increasing the overall productivity of clean energy, we describe optimal R&D policies jointly with emission pricing policies. We find that while

  19. The optimal time path of clean energy R&D policy when patents have finite lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.; Kverndokk, S.; Rosendahl, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    We study the optimal time path for clean energy innovation policy. In a model with emission reduction through clean energy deployment, and with R&D increasing the overall productivity of clean energy, we describe optimal R&D policies jointly with emission pricing policies. We find that while emissio

  20. Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, J.

    Microwave and laser-propelled sails are a new class of spacecraft using photon acceleration. It is the only method of interstellar flight that has no physics issues. Laboratory demonstrations of basic features of beam-driven propulsion, flight, stability (`beam-riding'), and induced spin, have been completed in the last decade, primarily in the microwave. It offers much lower cost probes after a substantial investment in the launcher. Engineering issues are being addressed by other applications: fusion (microwave, millimeter and laser sources) and astronomy (large aperture antennas). There are many candidate sail materials: carbon nanotubes and microtrusses, beryllium, graphene, etc. For acceleration of a sail, what is the cost-optimum high power system? Here the cost is used to constrain design parameters to estimate system power, aperture and elements of capital and operating cost. From general relations for cost-optimal transmitter aperture and power, system cost scales with kinetic energy and inversely with sail diameter and frequency. So optimal sails will be larger, lower in mass and driven by higher frequency beams. Estimated costs include economies of scale. We present several starship point concepts. Systems based on microwave, millimeter wave and laser technologies are of equal cost at today's costs. The frequency advantage of lasers is cancelled by the high cost of both the laser and the radiating optic. Cost of interstellar sailships is very high, driven by current costs for radiation source, antennas and especially electrical power. The high speeds necessary for fast interstellar missions make the operating cost exceed the capital cost. Such sailcraft will not be flown until the cost of electrical power in space is reduced orders of magnitude below current levels.

  1. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Stationary Energy Storage System Locating and Sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China); Zhongping Yang; Fei Lin; Wei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    The application of a stationary ultra-capacitor energy storage system (ESS) in urban rail transit allows for the recuperation of vehicle braking energy for increasing energy savings as well as for a better vehicle voltage profile. This paper aims to obtain the best energy savings and voltage profile by optimizing the location and size of ultra-capacitors. This paper firstly raises the optimization objective functions from the perspectives of energy savings, regenerative braking cancellation a...

  2. Demontration of Integrated Optimization Software at the Baldwin Energy Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob James; John McDermott; Sanjay Patnaik; Steve Piche`

    2009-01-07

    This project encompassed the design, development, and demonstration of integrated online optimization systems at Dynegy Midwest Generation's Baldwin Energy Complex (BEC) located in Baldwin, Illinois. The overall project objective was to improve coal-based generation's emission profile, efficiency, maintenance requirements and plant asset life in order to enhance the long-term viability of the United States abundant coal resources. Five separate but integrated optimization products were developed, addressing combustion, sootblowing, SCR operations, overall unit thermal performance, and plant-wide availability optimization. Optimization results are inherently unit-specific and cannot be known for a particular generating unit in advance. However, NeuCo believed that the following were reasonable targets for the completed, integrated set of products: Furnace NOx reduction improvement by 5%, Heat rate improvement by 1.5%, Increase of annual Available MWh by 1.5%, Commensurate reductions in greenhouse gases, mercury, and particulates; and Commensurate increases in profitability from lower costs, improved reliability, and greater commercial availability. The goal during Phase I was to establish each system and demonstrate their integration in unified plant optimization. Efforts during Phase I focused on: (1) developing, deploying, integrating, and testing prototypes for each of the five products; (2) identifying and addressing issues required for the products to integrate with plant operations; and (3) systematically collecting and assimilating feedback to improve subsequent product releases. As described in the Phase II continuation application NeuCo successfully achieved the goal for Phase I. The goal of Phase II was to improve upon the products installed and tested in Phase I and to quantify the benefits of the integrated system. As this report documents, NeuCo has also successfully achieved the goal for Phase II. The overall results of the project, compared

  3. Energy balance of forage consumption by phyllophagous insects: optimization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tarasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of optimal food consumption by phytophagous insects proposed, in which the metabolic costs are presented in the form of two components – the cost of food utilization and costs for proper metabolism of the individuals. Two measures were introduced – the «price» of food conversion and the «price» of biomass synthesis of individuals to assess the effectiveness of food consumption by caterpillars. The proposed approach to the description of food consumption by insects provides the exact solutions of the equation of energy balance of food consumption and determining the effectiveness of consumption and the risk of death of the individual. Experiments on larvae’s feeding in laboratory conditions were carried out to verify the model. Caterpillars of Aporia crataegi L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae were the research subjects. Supply­demand balance, calculated value of the environmental price of consumption and efficiency of food consumption for each individual were determined from experimental data. It was found that the fertility of the female does not depend on the weight of food consumed by it, but is linearly dependent on the food consumption efficiency index. The greater the efficiency of food consumption by an individual, the higher its fertility. The data obtained in the course of experiments on the feeding caterpillars Aporia crataegi were compared with the data presented in the works of other authors and counted in the proposed model of consumption. Calculations allowed estimation of the critical value of food conversion price below which the energy balance is negative and the existence of an individual is not possible.

  4. Modeling and optimization of energy storage system for microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) is well suited for the applications of microgrid and renewable energy. This thesis will have a practical analysis of the battery itself and its application in microgrid systems. The first paper analyzes the VRB use in a microgrid system. The first part of the paper develops a reduced order circuit model of the VRB and analyzes its experimental performance efficiency during deployment. The statistical methods and neural network approximation are used to estimate the system parameters. The second part of the paper addresses the implementation issues of the VRB application in a photovoltaic-based microgrid system. A new dc-dc converter was proposed to provide improved charging performance. The paper was published on IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 5, No. 4, July 2014. The second paper studies VRB use within a microgrid system from a practical perspective. A reduced order circuit model of the VRB is introduced that includes the losses from the balance of plant including system and environmental controls. The proposed model includes the circulation pumps and the HVAC system that regulates the environment of the VRB enclosure. In this paper, the VRB model is extended to include the ESS environmental controls to provide a model that provides a more realistic efficiency profile. The paper was submitted to IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. Third paper discussed the optimal control strategy when VRB works with other type of battery in a microgird system. The work in first paper is extended. A high level control strategy is developed to coordinate a lead acid battery and a VRB with reinforcement learning. The paper is to be submitted to IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid.

  5. A Multi-Stage Optimization Model With Minimum Energy Consumption-Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishnakumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimization models related with routing, bandwidth utilization and power consumption are developed in the wireless mesh computing environment using the operations research techniques such as maximal flow model, transshipment model and minimax optimizing algorithm. The Path creation algorithm is used to find the multiple paths from source to destination.A multi-stage optimization model is developed by combining the multi-path optimization model, optimization model in capacity utilization and energy optimization model and minimax optimizing algorithm. The input to the multi-stage optimization model is a network with many source and destination. The optimal solution obtained from this model is a minimum energy consuming path from source to destination along with the maximum data rate over each link. The performance is evaluated by comparing the data rate values of superimposed algorithm and minimax optimizing algorithm. The main advantage of this model is the reduction of traffic congestion in the network.

  6. Central Plant Optimization for Waste Energy Reduction (CPOWER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    by connecting it with local plant control to enable real- time optimization based on current state of the plant, load and weather conditions. The...11 2.1.5 Solution Architecture ...Optimization Implementation........................................................................................ 10 Figure 3: System Architecture

  7. Optimal component sizing in a two-reservoir passive energy harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsing, E.; Cowell, M.; Moura, S.; Wright, P.

    2016-11-01

    We utilize particle swarm optimization to reduce the size of the energy management components in an energy harvesting system, allowing us to eliminate the need for voltage regulators or DC-DC converters without affecting system performance. Prior literature on optimal power management in microelectronics [1, 2] has relied on engineering estimates or exhaustive parameter searches to optimize system design. No prior literature has considered the optimal design of a device with only passive components [3]. By using particle swarm optimization, we demonstrate a 55% reduction in device size relative to conventional engineering calculations of an optimal device design.

  8. Avoiding adverse employment effects from electricity taxation in Norway: What does it cost?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H., E-mail: ghb@ssb.no [Statistics Norway, Research Department, PO Box 8131 DEP, 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-09-15

    Welfare analyses of energy taxes typically show that systems with uniform rates perform better than differentiated systems. However, most western countries include some exemptions for their energy-intensive export industries and thereby avoid this potential welfare gain. find that uniform taxation of carbon emissions in combination with a wage subsidy preserves jobs in these industries at a lower welfare cost compared with a differentiated system. The wage subsidy scheme generates a substantial welfare gain per job saved. This study, however, finds that welfare costs are substantial when less accurate policy measures, represented by production-dependent subsidies, protect jobs in Norwegian electricity-intensive industries. The welfare cost per job preserved by this subsidy scheme amounts to approximately 60% of the wage cost per job, suggesting that these jobs are expensive to preserve. A uniform electricity tax combined with production-dependent subsidies preserves jobs at a lower welfare cost compared with the current differentiated electricity tax system. - Highlights: > Avoiding adverse employment effects from electricity taxation is costly in Norway. > Uniform Norwegian electricity tax with job-preserving subsidies improves welfare. > The welfare cost of Norwegian job-saving subsidies amounts to 60% of the wage.

  9. Optimal Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially Coordinated Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nah-Oak Song

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optimal electric energy management of a cooperative multi-microgrid community with sequentially coordinated operations. The sequentially coordinated operations are suggested to distribute computational burden and yet to make the optimal 24 energy management of multi-microgrids possible. The sequential operations are mathematically modeled to find the optimal operation conditions and illustrated with physical interpretation of how to achieve optimal energy management in the cooperative multi-microgrid community. This global electric energy optimization of the cooperative community is realized by the ancillary internal trading between the microgrids in the cooperative community which reduces the extra cost from unnecessary external trading by adjusting the electric energy production amounts of combined heat and power (CHP generators and amounts of both internal and external electric energy trading of the cooperative community. A simulation study is also conducted to validate the proposed mathematical energy management models.

  10. A Technical Remark on the Problem of the Optimum Income Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Ruiz del Portal

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The conventional results on optimal income taxation were derived originally by Mirrlees (1971, and others, from the necessary conditions that characterize the solution of maximum welfare. However, these conditions contained weaknesses, under the form of two implicit assumptions, impossible to handle with the type of variation employed for their proof in Mirrlees (1969 . The method we present overcomes these weaknesses, and allows restoring the validity of the mentioned results. We conclude that the so-called qualitative features of the optimal tax are less general than has been thought traditionally. In concrete, such features cannot be so easily defended without imposing, upon the tax-schedule, some degree of differentiability beyond the less demanding property of upper semi-continuity adopted in Mirrlees (1969, 1971.

  11. First Nations Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely used strategy that promotes smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. First Nations (FN) populations' tobacco use is estimated to be 2-3 times that of other Canadians and, in part, a reflection that tobacco products purchased on reserve by FN people are tax exempt.…

  12. Taxation and Skills. OECD Tax Policy Studies. No. 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This Tax Policy Study on Taxation and Skills examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries. This study also assesses the returns to tertiary and adult education and examines how these returns are shared between governments and students. The study builds indicators that examine incentives for individuals and governments…

  13. Risk, returns, and values in the presence of differential taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, S; Sarig, O

    2003-01-01

    We show that there exist separate security market lines (SMLs) for debt and equity securities in an equilibrium with differential taxation of debt and equity. We characterize the conditions under which these SMLs have the same price of risk (with different intercepts) and the conditions under which

  14. Modeling Strategic Interactions to Car and Fuel Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  15. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  16. International Taxation of Philanthropy : Removing tax obstacles for international charities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koele, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-profit organizations are increasingly subjected to the forces of globalization. Although this should not come as a surprise, it is curious to note that the taxation of international philanthropy is an area where discrimination as to residence is still very obvious. Whereas domestic philanthropic

  17. Danish Taxation of Pensions in the Perspective of EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønfeldt, Thomas; Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses Danish law on pension taxation, as implemented after the ECJ convicted Denmark in the case C-150/04, Commission v. Denmark, and the article concludes that Danish legislation still is in conflict with EU law, as it favours Danish pension and insurance companies to the detriment...... of foreign companies....

  18. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  19. A Revised Efficiency Principle for the Taxation of Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen Kleven, Henrik; Thustrup Kreiner, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We reconsider the result that efficient taxation involves a lower marginal tax on secondary earners than on primary earners. Introducing labor force participation responses into the analysis, we show that a second-earner tax allowance is better than selective marginal tax rates.

  20. Democracy, redistributive taxation and the private provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition the private provision of public goods embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on production of public goods, to which Olson (1965) pointed, is weakened...

  1. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965...

  2. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  3. Modeling Strategic Interactions to Car and Fuel Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  4. Influence of transaction costs on controlling activity of territorial taxation bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to disclose and justify transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies and their impact on tax control under the need for effective functioning and optimal decision making with a view of reducing the state expenditures on tax control. Methods general scientific synthesis deduction induction generalization testing interviewing observation forecasting scientific abstraction statistical analysis logic and methods of grouping and classification expert assessment. Results the analysis and grouping of transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies have been carried out. It was found that the most time and resource consuming are onsite tax inspections. The factors that have a significant impact on the efficiency of tax control were revealed. It is proved that the release of material and time resources contributes to the transformation of the tax bodies. Scientific novelty the main problem of implementation of the onsite tax control is its costs. The existing studies do not give a systematic list of tax control costs of the territorial tax bodies in general and transaction costs of tax control in particular. The author shows that the reduction of transaction costs as factors of influence on the tax control will free up the working time of the inspectors and will bring economic benefits and also will allow to consolidate territorial tax bodies and change the status of a tax inspector. Practical significance reducing the cost of tax control is becoming increasingly important in terms of saving financial resources of the state.

  5. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  6. Promoting the energy structure optimization around Chinese Beijing-Tianjin area by developing biomass energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Sun, Du; Wang, Shi-Yu; Zhao, Feng-Qing

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, remarkable achievements in the utilization of biomass energy have been made in China. However, there are still some problems, such as irrational industry layout, immature existing market survival mechanism and lack of core competitiveness. On the basis of investigation and research, some recommendations and strategies are proposed for the development of biomass energy around Chinese Beijing-Tianjin area: scientific planning and precise laying out of biomass industry; rationalizing the relationship between government and enterprises and promoting the establishment of a market-oriented survival mechanism; combining ‘supply side’ with ‘demand side’ to optimize product structure; extending industrial chain to promote industry upgrading and sustainable development; and comprehensive co-ordinating various types of biomass resources and extending product chain to achieve better economic benefits.

  7. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  8. Optimization Model for Economic Evaluation of Wind Farms - How to Optimize a Wind Energy Project Economically and Technically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Sousa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a review and systematize methods and techniques of economic evaluation applied to renewable energy projects, specific to wind energy projects. Both project and cost methodologies of economic evaluation are reviewed for a model optimization construction for a proposed optimization model with its objective function most appropriated. It is necessary to engage in different approaches, but complementary, microeconomic project evaluation methods and optimization methods applied to engineering solutions in wind energy converter systems. Optimization model for economic evaluation of wind farms can be as an efficient planning and resource management, which is the key to the success of an energy project. Wind energy is one of the most potent alternative energy resources; however the economics of wind energy is not yet universally favorable to place wind at a competitive platform with coal and natural gas (fossil fuels. Economic evaluation models of wind projects developed would allow investors to better plan their projects, as well as provide valuable insight into the areas that require further development to improve the overall economics of wind energy projects.

  9. Design of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices subjected to broadband random vibrations by applying topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe-Qi Lin; Hae Chang Gea; Shu-Tian Liu

    2011-01-01

    Converting ambient vibration energy into electrical energy by using piezoelectric energy harvester has attracted a lot of interest in the past few years.In this paper,a topology optimization based method is applied to simultaneously determine the optimal layout of the piezoelectric energy harvesting devices and the optimal position of the mass loading.The objective function is to maximize the energy harvesting performance over a range of vibration frequencies.Pseudo excitation method (PEM) is adopted to analyze structural stationary random responses,and sensitivity analysis is then performed by using the adjoint method.Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  10. Optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies to suppress energy cannibalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.M. [Queen' s Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Energy cannibalism refers to an effect where rapid growth of an entire energy producing (or conserving) technology industry creates a need for energy that uses (or cannibalizes) the energy of existing power plants or devices. For the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies to grow while remaining net greenhouse gas emission mitigators, they must grow at a rate slower than the inverse of their energy payback time. This constraint exposes a current market failure that significantly undervalues the physical reality of embodied energy in products or processes deployed to mitigate GHG emissions and indicates potential solutions. (author)

  11. Prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive demand side energy optimization in cyber physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Wang, Xue; Wu, Jiangwei; Liu, Youda

    2014-05-01

    Cyber physical systems(CPS) recently emerge as a new technology which can provide promising approaches to demand side management(DSM), an important capability in industrial power systems. Meanwhile, the manufacturing center is a typical industrial power subsystem with dozens of high energy consumption devices which have complex physical dynamics. DSM, integrated with CPS, is an effective methodology for solving energy optimization problems in manufacturing center. This paper presents a prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive energy optimization method for demand side management in cyber physical systems. To gain prior knowledge of DSM operating results, a sparse Bayesian learning based componential forecasting method is introduced to predict 24-hour electric load levels for specific industrial areas in China. From this data, a pricing strategy is designed based on short-term load forecasting results. To minimize total energy costs while guaranteeing manufacturing center service quality, an adaptive demand side energy optimization algorithm is presented. The proposed scheme is tested in a machining center energy optimization experiment. An AMI sensing system is then used to measure the demand side energy consumption of the manufacturing center. Based on the data collected from the sensing system, the load prediction-based energy optimization scheme is implemented. By employing both the PSO and the CPSO method, the problem of DSM in the manufacturing center is solved. The results of the experiment show the self-adaptive CPSO energy optimization method enhances optimization by 5% compared with the traditional PSO optimization method.

  12. Investigation of Cost and Energy Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Gordon, Matthew; Bunn, Simon; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-11-17

    Holistic management of water and energy resources through energy and water quality management systems (EWQMSs) have traditionally aimed at energy cost reduction with limited or no emphasis on energy efficiency or greenhouse gas minimization. This study expanded the existing EWQMS framework and determined the impact of different management strategies for energy cost and energy consumption (e.g., carbon footprint) reduction on system performance at two drinking water utilities in California (United States). The results showed that optimizing for cost led to cost reductions of 4% (Utility B, summer) to 48% (Utility A, winter). The energy optimization strategy was successfully able to find the lowest energy use operation and achieved energy usage reductions of 3% (Utility B, summer) to 10% (Utility A, winter). The findings of this study revealed that there may be a trade-off between cost optimization (dollars) and energy use (kilowatt-hours), particularly in the summer, when optimizing the system for the reduction of energy use to a minimum incurred cost increases of 64% and 184% compared with the cost optimization scenario. Water age simulations through hydraulic modeling did not reveal any adverse effects on the water quality in the distribution system or in tanks from pump schedule optimization targeting either cost or energy minimization.

  13. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different quantities and qualities of the components. The optimal mix of solutions for the whole building is found by selecting building parts with the same cost...

  14. Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy storage systems, is established. Then, two evaluation functions from the perspectives of economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation are put forward. Ultimately, a novel optimization method that combines genetic algorithms and a simulation platform of urban rail power supply system is proposed, which can obtain the best energy management strategy, location, and size for ESSes simultaneously. With actual parameters of a Chinese metro line applied in the simulation comparison, certain optimal scheme of ESSes’ energy management strategy, location, and size obtained by a novel optimization method can achieve much better performance of metro systems from the perspectives of two evaluation functions. The simulation result shows that with the increase of weight coefficient, the optimal energy management strategy, locations and size of ESSes appear certain regularities, and the best compromise between economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation can be obtained by a novel optimization method, which can provide a valuable reference to subway company.

  15. Determining the Optimal Capacities of Renewable-Energy-Based Energy Conversion Systems for Meeting the Demands of Low-Energy District Heating, Electricity, and District Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents a method for determining the optimal capacity of a renewable-energy-based energy conversion system for meeting the energy requirements of a given district as considered on a monthly basis, with use of a low-energy district heating system operating at a low temperature, as lo...

  16. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  17. Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Xia; Huaixin Chen; Zhongping Yang; Fei Lin; Bin Wang(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China)

    2015-01-01

    The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS) in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy sto...

  18. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  19. Computational Research Challenges and Opportunities for the Optimization of Fossil Energy Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-06-01

    Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.

  20. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...... their equity shares. This can happen to an extent that they optimally no longer participate in the stock market....

  1. Optimal Control Of Nonlinear Wave Energy Point Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Zhou, Qiang; Kramer, Morten

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal control law for a single nonlinear point absorber in irregular sea-states is derived, and proven to be a closed-loop controller with feedback from measured displacement, velocity and acceleration of the floater. However, a non-causal integral control component dependent...... idea behind the control strategy is to enforce the stationary velocity response of the absorber into phase with the wave excitation force at any time. The controller is optimal under monochromatic wave excitation. It is demonstrated that the devised causal controller, in plane irregular sea states......, absorbs almost the same power as the optimal controller....

  2. Optimal control strategies for hydrogen production when coupling solid oxide electrolysers with intermittent renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiong; Adjiman, Claire S.; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2014-12-01

    The penetration of intermittent renewable energies requires the development of energy storage technologies. High temperature electrolysis using solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs) as a potential energy storage technology, provides the prospect of a cost-effective and energy efficient route to clean hydrogen production. The development of optimal control strategies when SOEC systems are coupled with intermittent renewable energies is discussed. Hydrogen production is examined in relation to energy consumption. Control strategies considered include maximizing hydrogen production, minimizing SOEC energy consumption and minimizing compressor energy consumption. Optimal control trajectories of the operating variables over a given period of time show feasible control for the chosen situations. Temperature control of the SOEC stack is ensured via constraints on the overall temperature difference across the cell and the local temperature gradient within the SOEC stack, to link materials properties with system performance; these constraints are successfully managed. The relative merits of the optimal control strategies are analyzed.

  3. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same ba...... of optimal provision are different, and the modified Samuelson rule is likely to lead to underprovision...

  4. Modeling of Human Arm Energy Expenditure for Predicting Energy Optimal Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Human arm motion can inspire the trajectory planning of anthropomorphic robotic arms to achieve energy-efficient movements. An approach for predicting metabolic cost in the planar human arm motion by means of the biomechanical simulation is proposed in this work. Two biomechanical models, including an analytical model and a musculoskeletal model, are developed to implement the proposed approach. The analytical model is developed by modifying a human muscle expenditure model, in which the muscles are grouped as torque providers for computation efficiency. In the musculoskeletal model, the predication of metabolic cost is conducted on the basis of individual muscles. With the proposed approach, metabolic costs for parameterized target-reaching arm motions are calculated and utilized to identify optimal arm trajectories.

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis, Simulation and Optimization on Energy Savings of Ideal Internal Thermally Coupled Distillation Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴高; 马龙华; 钱积新

    2000-01-01

    Internal thermally coupled distillation columns (ITCDIC) are the frontier of distillation energy saving research. In this paper, a novel energy saving model of ideal ITCDIC and a simulation algorithm are presented,upon which a series of comparative studies on energy savings with conventional distillation columns are carried out. Furthermore, we present an optimization model of ideal ITCDIC, which can be used to achieve the maximum energy saving and find the optimal design parameters directly. The binary system of benzene-toluene is adopted for the illustrative example of simulation and optimization. The results show that the maximum energy saving of ITCDIC is 52.25% (compared with energy consumption of conventional distillation under the minimum reflux ratio operation); the optimal design parameters are obtained, where the rectifying section pressure and the feed thermal condition are Pr=0.3006 MPa and q=0.5107 respectively.

  6. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for a Hybrid Energy System Using the Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To secure a stable energy supply and bring renewable energy to buildings within a reasonable cost range, a hybrid energy system (HES that integrates both fossil fuel energy systems (FFESs and new and renewable energy systems (NRESs needs to be designed and applied. This paper presents a methodology to optimize a HES consisting of three types of NRESs and six types of FFESs while simultaneously minimizing life cycle cost (LCC, maximizing penetration of renewable energy and minimizing annual greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is utilized for multi-objective optimization. As an example, we have designed the optimal configuration and sizing for a HES in an elementary school. The evolution of Pareto-optimal solutions according to the variation in the economic, technical and environmental objective functions through generations is discussed. The pair wise trade-offs among the three objectives are also examined.

  7. Corporate Income Taxation: Selected Problems and Decisions. The Case of Ukraine 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Proskura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine and finding ways to resolve them in the context of European integration. The aim of this paper is demonstrate ways to improve corpo- rate income taxation on the basis of balancing the interests of taxpayers against those of the government. The paper will highlight the key issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine with its large share of unprofitable enterprises, unequal regulations for different corporate taxpayers and the requirement to pay tax advances even where there is an absence of taxable income. Based on our analysis, the causes of the origin and deepening problems of corporate income taxation in Ukraine will be demonstrated. A compar- ative analysis of income taxation in Poland and Ukraine was performed. It is believed that some elements of the Polish experience in the taxation of income can be applied to Ukraine.

  8. Topology Optimal Design of Material Microstructures Using Strain Energy-based Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weihong; Wang Fengwen; Dai Gaoming; Sun Shiping

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis and topology optimization of microstructures using strain energy-based method is presented. Compared with homogenization method, the strain energy-based method has advantages of higher computing efficiency and simplified programming.Both the dual convex programming method and perimeter constraint scheme are used to optimize the 2D and 3D microstructures. Numerical results indicate that the strain energy-based method has the same effectiveness as that of homogenization method for orthotropic materials.

  9. The next-order term for optimal Riesz and logarithmic energy asymptotics on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Brauchart, J S; Saff, E B

    2012-01-01

    We survey known results and present estimates and conjectures for the next-order term in the asymptotics of the optimal logarithmic energy and Riesz $s$-energy of $N$ points on the unit sphere in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$, $d\\geq 1$. The conjectures are based on analytic continuation assumptions (with respect to $s$) for the coefficients in the asymptotic expansion (as $N\\to \\infty$) of the optimal $s$-energy.

  10. ROOT: Energy Efficient Routing through Optimized Tree in Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mitra, Swarup Kumar; Naskar, Mrinal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    Due to limitation of battery power, wireless sensor nodes are highly energy constrained. So, to enhance the network lifetime, the protocols which are used in wireless sensor network should be energy efficient. The LEACH and PEGASIS protocols which are elegant solutions to this problem try to minimize the overall energy dissipation by the nodes in the network. While the LEACH protocol randomizes cluster heads to achieve equal energy dissemination, the PEGASIS protocol forms a chain of cluster heads taking rounds in transmitting to the base station. In this paper we propose an energy efficient protocol which combines and thus enhances the performance of LEACH and PEGASIS. Here the base station is located at variable distances from each node due to the random deployment of the sensor nodes. So, each node actually dissipates a different amount of energy during its turn of transmission to the base station. This energy difference between the various nodes keeps on increasing with resulting in poorer network perform...

  11. Optimal Electron Energies for Driving Chromospheric Evaporation in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Reep, Jeffrey; Alexander, David

    2015-01-01

    In the standard model of solar flares, energy deposition by a beam of electrons drives strong chromospheric evaporation leading to a significantly denser corona and much brighter emission across the spectrum. Chromospheric evaporation was examined in great detail by Fisher, Canfield, & McClymont (1985a,b,c), who described a distinction between two different regimes, termed explosive and gentle evaporation. In this work, we examine the importance of electron energy and stopping depths on the two regimes and on the atmospheric response. We find that with explosive evaporation, the atmospheric response does not depend strongly on electron energy. In the case of gentle evaporation, lower energy electrons are significantly more efficient at heating the atmosphere and driving up-flows sooner than higher energy electrons. We also find that the threshold between explosive and gentle evaporation is not fixed at a given beam energy flux, but also depends strongly on the electron energy and duration of heating. Furt...

  12. Comparing Direct and Indirect Taxation: The Influence of Framing on Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ullmann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard theory of the optimal mix of direct and indirect taxation implicitly assumes that compliance is not influenced by the framing of the taxes. According to our findings, this is not the case. Using an experimental approach, we examine whether framing the tax payment decision as income tax or consumption tax influences compliance. We find that median compliance is 10.2 percentage points higher in the income tax framing. Further, we find that subjects' reaction to a change in tax rates is comparable, but reaction towards a change in detection rates is higher in the consumption tax scheme. We conclude that behavioral patterns should be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the direct-indirect tax mix

  13. AGE analysis of the impact of a carbon energy tax on the Irish economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissema, W.W.; Dellink, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    computable general equilibrium model with specific detail in taxation and energy use is developed in this paper to quantify the impact of the implementation of energy taxation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland. Benchmark data combining physical energy and emissions data and economic data

  14. Labour Taxation and Its Impact on Employment Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primoz Dolenc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess the characteristics of labour taxation for fivedifferent groups of workers and labour market performance (in termsof employment and unemployment rate in the EU and to examinewhether tax wedge affects employment growth in the EU. The descriptiveempirical estimates show that the level of labour taxation variesgreatly across EU Member States, by which the tax wedge tends to behigher among NewMember States (excluding Cyprus andMalta. Furthermore,the panel regression analyses confirm statistically significantnegative relationship between tax wedge and employment growth inthe EU as a whole. Therefore, the empirical analysis suggests that theEU-27 should continue with the trend of reducing tax wedge, as thiswould have favourable effects on labour market performance, especiallyamong New Member States.

  15. Development of Ad Valorem Real Property Taxation System in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Buzu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes key aspects of the new ad valorem property taxation (AVT system which is currently implemented in the Republic of Moldova and outlines ways of its further potential development. The author uses both systemic and synergistic approaches to develop a methodology for the assessment of the AVT system efficiency based on the multipurpose cadastre data. The study identifies key characteristics of the AVT system, as well as main problems associated with the implementation of the new property taxation system and with the compatibility of the fiscal and the real property cadastre data, and makes suggestions for further development of the AVT system in the country. The study allows to identify and maximize the benefits of the AVT system.

  16. European Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin TUDOR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The operation of different taxation systems in EU member states appears to promote more increasingly the appearance of double taxation entailing fraud and tax evasion. The phenomenon is amplified by the remaining control competences at the national level, and the lack of administrative cooperation in tax matters at EU level is being a decisive factor in delaying the causes with the consequence of prescription of the facts which brings serious damage enhanced EU budget. This study aims to examine the legal ways and means to ensure that the information, reports, statements and other documents mandatory to the administrative or judicial proceedings to be legal required from the counterparts existing in other members states invoked as evidence by their competent bodies.

  17. The taxation installment in Romania . Between mass - media’'s ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Mihail Papuc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay brings out into relief the situation of Romanian taxation in contrast with taxation level from European Union. To this end there are used a series of statistical data in relation to major category of tax, in the way how Eurostat presences. At the same time the research brings into relief a certain option as regards of pressure taxation assignment on some categories of tax payer.

  18. A Two-stage Optimal Network Reconfiguration Approach for Minimizing Energy Loss of Distribution Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tzer Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to minimize energy losses in traditional distribution networks and microgrids through a network reconfiguration and phase balancing approach. To address this problem, an algorithm composed of a multi-objective function and operation constraints is proposed. Network connection matrices based on graph theory and the backward/forward sweep method are used to analyze power flow. A minimizing energy loss approach is developed for network reconfiguration and phase balancing, and the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is adopted to solve this optimal combination problem. The proposed approach is tested on the IEEE 37-bus test system and the first outdoor microgrid test bed established by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER in Taiwan. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed two-stage approach can be applied in network reconfiguration to minimize energy loss.

  19. Reserve Requirements as Implicit Taxation of Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Eromenko, Igor

    2002-01-01

    Reserve requirements is viewed as very important instrument of the monetary policy, with the help of which Central Bank can influence at money supply and credit creation. At the same time this instrument imposes implicit tax on financial institutions, which are subject to this regulation. Reserve requirements in Ukraine stay at quite high level and the topic of this paper is analysis of such implicit taxation, its impact on economy and possible path of reforms in Ukraine. We argue that faced ...

  20. MODERN APPROACHES TO ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Murovana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Actual issues of accounting and taxation at enterprises of green business under the terms of realization of state environmental policy of Ukraine are investigated. Ways of improving methodology of accounting in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, legal regulation of calculation taxes and charges and control over its payment to the budget are defined and proved for the purpose of simplifying business activities and increasing investment prospects of green businesses enterprises in Ukraine.

  1. TAXATION OF PERSONAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA: PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The personal income tax is not only as an important revenue instrument but also as an instrument of national policy. Taxation of personal income in European Union countries is regulated usually by a progressive rate structure. This article aims to highlight the differences between Romania and other EU member states in the field of personal income tax and to raise the issue of reforming the tax system by introducing the tax household.

  2. Electronic Project of Taxation Based on EC Under Single Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; ZENG Xiao-ping

    2002-01-01

    Because of no real location and its virtual interaction, the information flow, the cash flow and the logistic flow of EC(Electronic Commerce) are to be separated individually. So the traditional taxation based on those three flows is challenged. Under this condition, this paper researches how to levy taxes on EC through internet using internet technology. As to simplify the model, it relates under a single nation. But it will also give some measures about the international trades.

  3. Simulation of reforms of direct and indirect taxation for France

    OpenAIRE

    Laisney, François; Mühleisen, Martin; Staat, Matthias; Vögele, Stefan

    1992-01-01

    We study the welfare effects of combining the European Commission's proposal for VAT harmonization with different degrees of weakening of the 'quotient familial' , a feature of the French system of direct taxation which can be interpreted as aiming at taxing 'equivalised' household income. We compare two approaches to the calibration of the baseline situation and to the simulation of reactions to changes in the tax system. One of these takes fixed costs of work into account. For both we find ...

  4. Petroleum taxation: a comparison between Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Salata, D. V.; Drebot, V. V.; Vorozheykina, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper compares mineral resource recovery taxes for oil to be paid in Kazakhstan and the RF. It provides a case study on an average Kazakh oil and gas company and presents tax calculations as an example. To compare the taxation systems in Kazakhstan and the RF, the situation is modelled as if the field was located in the RF and the relevant calculations are carried out in compliance with national laws and regulations.

  5. Optimal Energy Efficiency Fairness of Nodes in Wireless Powered Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qingjie; Ng, Derrick Wing Kwan; Jo, Minho

    2017-09-15

    In wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs), it is essential to research energy efficiency fairness in order to evaluate the balance of nodes for receiving information and harvesting energy. In this paper, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm for optimal energy efficiency proportional fairness in WPCN. The main idea is to use stochastic geometry to derive the mean proportionally fairness utility function with respect to user association probability and receive threshold. Subsequently, we prove that the relaxed proportionally fairness utility function is a concave function for user association probability and receive threshold, respectively. At the same time, a sub-optimal algorithm by exploiting alternating optimization approach is proposed. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our sub-optimal algorithm can obtain a result close to optimal energy efficiency proportional fairness with significant reduction of computational complexity.

  6. Application of the advanced engineering environment for optimization energy consumption in designed vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Z.; Sękala, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays a key issue is to reduce the energy consumption of road vehicles. In particular solution one could find different strategies of energy optimization. The most popular but not sophisticated is so called eco-driving. In this strategy emphasized is particular behavior of drivers. In more sophisticated solution behavior of drivers is supported by control system measuring driving parameters and suggesting proper operation of the driver. The other strategy is concerned with application of different engineering solutions that aid optimization the process of energy consumption. Such systems take into consideration different parameters measured in real time and next take proper action according to procedures loaded to the control computer of a vehicle. The third strategy bases on optimization of the designed vehicle taking into account especially main sub-systems of a technical mean. In this approach the optimal level of energy consumption by a vehicle is obtained by synergetic results of individual optimization of particular constructional sub-systems of a vehicle. It is possible to distinguish three main sub-systems: the structural one the drive one and the control one. In the case of the structural sub-system optimization of the energy consumption level is related with the optimization or the weight parameter and optimization the aerodynamic parameter. The result is optimized body of a vehicle. Regarding the drive sub-system the optimization of the energy consumption level is related with the fuel or power consumption using the previously elaborated physical models. Finally the optimization of the control sub-system consists in determining optimal control parameters.

  7. Optimization of the Building Energy Performance through Dynamic Modeling, Systems Simulation, Field Monitoring and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The annual energy consumption in the residential and commercial sectors, in India is rising consistently at about 8% and the overall energy consumption in buildings has seen an increase from a low of 14% in the 1970s to nearly 33% in 2004/05. The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 254.049 GW as of end of September 2014. The research paper will deal with the modeling and optimization of the building energy performance by means of the application of the dynamic building simulation, the optimization of the energy systems and the verification of the energy consumptions and comfort conditions. An integrated tool is at an early stage of development to optimize the building energy performance to be expressed in terms of total energy use. The goal of the research paper is to optimize the building energy performance through the potential of the passive building technologies and the increase of efficiency of the building system.

  8. Energy Optimized Configuration of Concrete Element with PCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    The building sector accounts for approximately 40% of the world’s total use of primary energy, and the majority of this energy is used to maintain satisfactory indoor climate conditions by heating, cooling and ventilation. Further on, traditional energy sources are irretrievably decreasing...... and the price of energy and fuel is gradually increasing. On top of that, the gas emissions to the atmosphere cause long-term and hazardous changes to the global climate. As a response to that, countries started to enforce new, more demanding legislations and standards for the newly constructed and renovated...... buildings. For example, in Denmark the new energy frames assume a reduction of primary energy use for buildings of respectively 25% in 2010, 50% in 2015 and 75% in 2020 compared to year 2006 figures. As a consequence, the building sector has to be equipped with the new technologies that would enable...

  9. Review of models and actors in energy mix optimization – can leader visions and decisions align with optimum model strategies for our future energy systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Taylor, P.; Bahn, O.; Das, S.R.; Wei, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational behavior and stakeholder processes continually influence energy strategy choices and decisions. Although theoretical optimizations can provide guidance for energy mix decisions from a pure physical systems engineering point of view, these solutions might not be optimal from a politica

  10. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.dubois@kuleuven.be

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  11. Taxation of Insolvent Companies: Empirical Evidence in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Santos Arromba Dinis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of taxation of insolvent companies in Portugal, particularly regarding the Portuguese tax on revenue of legal entities (IRC. For this purpose, first, some considerations on the legal framework of insolvent companies are woven and, second, their tax regime is analyzed. Then, a brief review of the main studies that, in the international context, analyze and debate major issues derived from the tax regime of insolvent companies is conducted, particularly in Brazil, Spain, United States, and Italy. Finally, there are the results of an empirical study conducted in Portugal, in 2013, which evaluates and compares the opinions of insolvency administrators (IA, the tax and customs authority (TA, and court magistrates (CM, in order to contribute to a better solution concerning business taxation under this regime. Respondents (IA, TA, CM demonstrate objective thinking about the fact they believe it is very important that the Portuguese Code of Insolvency and Business Recovery (CIRE and the Portuguese Code of Tax on Revenue of Legal Entities (CIRC are modified, now to make clear whether the settlement of property ownership of an insolvent estate is liable to the IRC, then to assign a chapter specifically devoted to the subject of taxation on insolvency in Portugal.

  12. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions oftransnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two disputesettlement procedures-the OECD First Model Tax Convention and a similar EU Convention-with the exclusive focus on disputes relatingto the imposition of double taxation. It will look at the ways in which state roles may vary under these procedures from assisting inthe negotiation process to taking a part similar to, but with important differences from, diplomatic protection on behalf of an affected enterprise. The article will examine the situations under which the settlement procedure is required and/or available, how the procedures are triggered, the obligations and parts played bythe parties, the means by which the disputes are resolved (from negotiations to tribunals and the limitations of the procedures. Are they “taxpayer friendly”? As a result the reader may draw comparisons between the two procedures. Finally, the article will look at the proposed OECD Arbitration Clause which is intended to be incorporated into Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention as well as how thesemechanisms relate and/or conflict with bilateral tax treaties and theGATS.

  13. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Zlatić

    Full Text Available We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.

  14. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.

  15. Energy transmission modes based on Tabu search and particle swarm hybrid optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI xiang; CUI Ji-feng; QI Jian-xun; YANG Shang-dong

    2007-01-01

    In China, economic centers are far from energy storage bases, so it is significant to select a proper energy transferring mode to improve the efficiency of energy usage, To solve this problem, an optimal allocation model based on energy transfer mode was proposed after objective function for optimizing energy using efficiency Was established, and then, a new Tabu search and power transmission was gained.Based on the above discussion, some proposals were put forward for optimal allocation of energy transfer modes in China. By comparing other three traditional methodsthat are based on regional price differences. freight rates and annual cost witll the proposed method, the result indicates that the economic efficiency of the energy transfer Can be enhanced by 3.14%, 5.78% and 6.01%, respectively.

  16. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain; Halil Z. Alibaba

    2017-01-01

    Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Ea...

  17. An innovative approach to the formation of a progressive taxation probabilistic model on personal incomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalinina Olga

    2016-01-01

      This article suggests a mathematical justification of the possibility of transition to progressive taxation on personal incomes, allowing socially redistribute the tax burden between different groups...

  18. Modeling and Optimization of an Electrostatic Energy Harvesting Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of energy harvesting devices is complicated by the coupling between electrical and mechanical domains. In this paper, we present a coupled electromechanical model for electret-based resonant energy harvesters where the two output pads are placed on the same device side (single-sided). An......Modeling of energy harvesting devices is complicated by the coupling between electrical and mechanical domains. In this paper, we present a coupled electromechanical model for electret-based resonant energy harvesters where the two output pads are placed on the same device side (single...

  19. Optimal laser pulse energy partitioning for air ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Elise; Matthews, Mary; Courjaud, Antoine; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pulse partitioning of a 6.3 mJ, 450 fs pulse at 1030 nm to produce plasma channels. At such moderate energies, splitting the energy into several sub-pulses reduces the ionization efficiency and thus does not extend the plasma lifetime. We numerically show that when sufficient energy to produce multifilamentation is available, splitting the pulse temporally in a pulse train increases the gas temperature compared to a filament bundle of the same energy. This could improve the mean free path of the free electrons, therefore enhancing the efficiency of discharge triggering.

  20. Improved energy efficiency and optimization of microclimate in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunovič Dragišić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is possible to reduce energy consumption without losing comfort as a result of using efficient energy saving technologies and advanced environment control methods for buildings. One of the measures to improve energy performance of buildings can be installation of decentralized air intake and exhaust mechanical ventilation systems with plate heat exchangers in apartments making it possible to «return» up to 85% of thermal energy. The article deals with the decentralized system controlled ventilation with heat recovery and alternative solutions heating supply air in residential buildings.

  1. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  2. Conclusions: Europe’s Lessons from Carbon-Energy Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Ekins, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we provide an overview and interpretation of findings presented in this volume, while placing them in the context of the wider climate policy debate. We return to our point of departure: the idea that properly designed carbonenergy taxes, in addition to lowering emissions, may allow...

  3. Efficient energy transfer in light-harvesting systems, I: optimal temperature, reorganization energy, and spatial-temporal correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jianlan; Shen, Young; Cao, Jianshu; Silbey, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of efficient and robust energy transfer in light-harvesting systems provides new insights for the optimal design of artificial systems. In this paper, we use the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex and phycocyanin 645 (PC 645) to explore the general dependence on physical parameters that help maximize the efficiency and maintain its stability. With the Haken-Strobl model, the maximal energy transfer efficiency (ETE) is achieved under an intermediate optimal value of dephasing rate. Guided by the insight, we use the generalized Bloch-Redfield (GBR) equation approach to correctly describe dissipative exciton dynamics and find that maximal ETE can be achieved under various physical conditions, including temperature, reorganization energy, and spatial-temporal correlations in noise. We also identify regimes of reorganization energy where the ETE changes monotonically with temperature or spatial correlation and therefore cannot be optimized with respect to these two variables.

  4. Distributed Optimal Control of Smart Energy Grids with Congestion Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dinh Bao; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Kramer, Hendrik; Bliek, F; Larsen, Gunn; Carloni, Raffaella; Jeltsema, Dimitri; Lazar, ircea

    2016-01-01

    One of the big challenges in the transition towards smart grids is how to deal with the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources such as wind or solar energy. For example, a prediction of the electricity supply and demand is typically made a day ahead, but the actual supply during operation

  5. Optimal control of oscillation wave energy system using velocity premonition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Recently ocean wave energy draw much more attention for its widespread,abundant and highly energy flux density properties.Extracting energy from incident wave however,is limited for the random and unstable power input.Motion control for WEC is a promising method to improve the energy absorption and some practical applications are also verified such as latching control.In this paper,an active control strategy is proposed to achieve maximum energy capture.The mathematical description shows that the active control has the characteristic of anti-causal and the wave premonition is necessary for controller design.But the fact of premonition time horizon is still unclear.In this paper,the premonition nature is described mathematically based on hydrodynamic theory.Furthermore,a simulation is also performed to study the impacting of premonition time horizon on WEC’s properties and give a more insightful understanding of WEC active control.

  6. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six Base Transceiver Stations (BSs) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy.

  7. Energy and power optimization in a behavioural framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, R.A B; Trentelman, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    We tackle a number of quadratic optimization problems in the behavioural framework, in the spirit of the classical linear quadratic regulator problem for systems in state-space form. The central theme is dissipativity of the system at hand: we interpret our problems in terms of the exchange of energ

  8. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...

  9. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  10. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  11. Optimization of a polygeneration system for energy demands of a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polygeneration system is an energy system capable of providing multiple utility outputs to meet local demands by application of process integration. This paper addresses the problem of pinpointing the optimal polygeneration energy supply system for the local energy demands of a livestock farm in terms of optimal system configuration and optimal system capacity. The optimization problem is presented and solved for a case study of a pig farm in the paper. Energy demands of the farm, as well as the super-structure of the polygeneration system were modelled using TRNSYS software. Based on the locally available resources, the following polygeneration modules were chosen for the case study analysis: a biogas fired internal combustion engine co-generation module, a gas boiler, a chiller, a ground water source heat pump, solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic collectors, and heat and cold storage. Capacities of the polygeneration modules were used as optimization variables for the TRNSYS-GenOpt optimization, whereas net present value, system primary energy consumption, and CO2 emissions were used as goal functions for optimization. A hybrid system composed of biogas fired internal combustion engine based co-generation system, adsorption chiller solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors, and heat storage is found to be the best option. Optimal heating capacity of the biogas co-generation and adsorption units was found equal to the design loads, whereas the optimal surface of the solar thermal array is equal to the south office roof area, and the optimal surface of the PV array corresponds to the south facing animal housing building rooftop area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  12. Optimal power flow for technically feasible Energy Management systems in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; T. T. Quynh, T.; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    flow is carried out using a Glow-worm Swarm Optimizer. The control level is organized into two different sub-levels, the highest of which accounts for minimum cost operation and the lowest one solving the optimal power flow and devising the set points of inverter interfaced generation units......This paper presents a combined optimal energy and power flow management for islanded microgrids. The highest control level in this case will provide a feasible and optimized operating point around the economic optimum. In order to account for both unbalanced and balanced loads, the optimal power...

  13. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules).   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are ...

  14. Taxation in France | Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 15 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at this link. In case of difficulty in obtaining your annual certificate, send an e-mail ex...

  15. TAXATION IN FRANCE - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 1st March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the following link: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/Impots/proc_impot_attestation_interne.asp. ...

  16. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, has been available since 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel, you will have received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN pers...

  17. Taxation in France - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administration Processes Department, is available since 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your an...

  18. Optimization of Experimental Model Parameter Identification for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Morello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid approach is envisioned to take advantage of all available modern technologies in transforming the current power system to provide benefits to all stakeholders in the fields of efficient energy utilisation and of wide integration of renewable sources. Energy storage systems could help to solve some issues that stem from renewable energy usage in terms of stabilizing the intermittent energy production, power quality and power peak mitigation. With the integration of energy storage systems into the smart grids, their accurate modeling becomes a necessity, in order to gain robust real-time control on the network, in terms of stability and energy supply forecasting. In this framework, this paper proposes a procedure to identify the values of the battery model parameters in order to best fit experimental data and integrate it, along with models of energy sources and electrical loads, in a complete framework which represents a real time smart grid management system. The proposed method is based on a hybrid optimisation technique, which makes combined use of a stochastic and a deterministic algorithm, with low computational burden and can therefore be repeated over time in order to account for parameter variations due to the battery’s age and usage.

  19. Optimization of photon beam energy in aperture-based inverse planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Jason; Sévigny, Caroline; Beaulieu, Frédéric; Gingras, Luc; Tremblay, Daniel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2009-09-03

    Optimal choice of beam energy in radiation therapy is easy in many well-documented cases, but less obvious in some others. Low-energy beams may provide better conformity around the target than their high-energy counterparts due to reduced lateral scatter, but they also contribute to overdosage of peripheral normal tissue. Beam energy was added as an optimization parameter in an automatic aperture-based inverse planning system. We have investigated two sites (prostate and lung), representative of deep-seated and moderately deep-seated tumors. For each case and different numbers of beam incidences, four plans were optimized: 6 MV, 23 MV, and mixed energy plans with one or two energies per incidence. Each plan was scored with a dose-volume cost function. Cost function values, number of segments, monitor units, dose-volume parameters and isodose distributions were compared. For the prostate and lung cases, energy mixing improved plans in terms of cost function values, with a more important reduction for a small number of beam incidences. Use of high energy allows better peripheral tissue sparing, while keeping similar target coverage and sensitive structures avoidance. Low energy contribution to monitor units usually increased with the number of beam incidences. Thus, for deep-seated and moderately deep-seated tumors, energy optimization can produce interesting plans with less peripheral dose and monitor units than for low energy alone.

  20. Energy optimization of office buildings; Energioptimering af kontorbyggeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.; Place Hansen, E.J. de (Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Hoersholm (Denmark)); Radisch, N.H.; Treldal, J. (Ramboell A/S, Koebenhavn (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project analysed two main office building types - high-rises and low-rises - and calculated a number of parameters, using the simulation program BSim. Calculations showed that the overall building design and orientation effect is moderate compared with, for instance, use of daylight control and low-energy lighting, computers, etc. Considerable energy savings can be achieved by use of natural ventilation in the summer, thus only using mechanical ventilation with heat recovery during the day in the winter. Open-plan offices result in a better indoor climate and lower energy consumption than cubicle offices. (LN)