WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical spectrometers

  1. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  2. The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present

  3. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  4. Optical Calibration For Jefferson Lab HKS Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Yuan; L. Tang

    2005-11-04

    In order to accept very forward angle scattering particles, Jefferson Lab HKS experiment uses an on-target zero degree dipole magnet. The usual spectrometer optics calibration procedure has to be modified due to this on-target field. This paper describes a new method to calibrate HKS spectrometer system. The simulation of the calibration procedure shows the required resolution can be achieved from initially inaccurate optical description.

  5. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.

  6. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  7. Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy with heterodyne spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy is presented, noting a technique of combining the acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam with a Bragg cell followed by an array of sensitive photodetectors. This acousto-optic spectrometer has a large bandwidth, a large number of channels, high resolution, and is energy efficient. Receiver development has concentrated on high-frequency heterodyne systems for the study of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. RF spectrometers employing acousto-optic diffraction cells are described. Acousto-optic techniques have been suggested for applications to electronic warfare, electronic countermeasures and electronic support systems. Plans to use integrated optics for the further miniaturization of acousto-optic spectrometers are described. Bulk acousto-optic spectrometers with 300 MHz and 1 GHz bandwidths are being developed for use in the back-end of high-frequency heterodyne receivers for astronomical research.

  8. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  9. Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, F; Baroncelli, A; Bonasoni, P; Giovanelli, G; Ravegnani, F

    1995-05-20

    Our institute has recently developed a differential optical absorption spectrometry system called the gas analyzer spectrometer correlating optical absorption differences (GASCOAD), which features as a detector a linear image sensor that uses an artificial light source for long-path tropospheric-pollution monitoring. The GASCOAD, its method of eliminating interference from background sky light, and subsequent spectral analysis are reported and discussed. The spectrometer was used from 7 to 22 February 1993 in Milan, a heavily polluted metropolitan area, to measure the concentrations of SO(2), NO(2), O(3), and HNO(2) averaged over a 1.7-km horizontal light path. The findings are reported and briefly discussed.

  10. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The optical modulation spectrometer (OMS) is a novel, highly efficient, low mass backend for heterodyne receiver systems. Current and future heterodyne receiver systems operating at frequencies up to a few THz require broadband spectrometer backends to achieve spectral resolutions of R approximately 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) to carry out many important astronomical investigations. Among these are observations of broad emission and absorption lines from extra-galactic objects at high redshifts, spectral line surveys, and observations of planetary atmospheres. Many of these lines are pressure or velocity broadened with either large half-widths or line wings extending over several GHz. Current backend systems can cover the needed bandwidth only by combining the output of several spectrometers, each with typically up to 1 GHz bandwidth, or by combining several frequency-shifted spectra taken with a single spectrometer. An ultra-wideband optical modulation spectrometer with 10 - 40 GHz bandwidth will enable broadband ob- servations without the limitations and disadvantages of hybrid spectrometers. Spectrometers like the OMS will be important for both ground-based observatories and future space missions like the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) which might carry IR/submm array heterodyne receiver systems requiring a spectrometer for each array pixel. Small size, low mass and small power consumption are extremely important for space missions. This report summarizes the specifications developed for the OMS and lists already identified commercial parts. The report starts with a review of the principle of operation, then describes the most important components and their specifications which were derived from theory, and finishes with a conclusion and outlook.

  11. Optical design and performance of the SASP spectrometer at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Walden, P L; Miller, C A; Yen, S; Abegg, R; Auld, E G; Campbell, J; Chakhalyan, J; Churchman, R; Duncan, F; Falk, W; Frekers, D; Green, A; Green, P E W; Hartig, M; Häusser, O; Haddock, C; Hicks, K; Hutcheon, D; Jones, G; Ke, Y; Korkmaz, E J; Khan, N; Ling, A; Lobb, D E; Naqvi, S I H; Olsen, W C; Opper, A; Otter, Alan J; Punyasena, M; Reeve, P; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    A new Q-Q-Clamshell magnetic spectrometer called SASP has been commissioned in the proton hall at TRIUMF. The principal optical characteristics are: a solid angle acceptance of 13.5 msr, a momentum bite of 25%, a momentum resolution of DELTA p/p=2x10 sup - sup 4 , and a maximum central momentum of 720 MeV/c. We describe the optical design, the magnetostatic design, the magnetic field mapping procedure, and the performance of this instrument.

  12. Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying

    2006-01-01

    An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.

  13. Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The development of sensitive heterodyne receivers (front end) in the centimeter and millimeter range, and the construction of sensitive RF spectrometers (back end) enable the spectral lines of interstellar molecules to be detected and identified. A technique was developed which combines acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam by a Bragg cell followed by detection by a sensitive array of photodetectors (thus forming an RF acousto-optic spectrometer (AOS). An AOS has wide bandwidth, large number of channels, and high resolution, and is compact, lightweight, and energy efficient. The thrust of receiver development is towards high frequency heterodyne systems, particularly in the millimeter, submillimeter, far infrared, and 10 micron spectral ranges.

  14. Optical design of MWIR imaging spectrometer with a cold slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyao; Wang, Yueming; Qian, Liqun; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-05-01

    MWIR imaging spectrometer is promising in detecting spectral signature of high temperature object such as jet steam, guided missile and explosive gas. This paper introduces an optical design of a MWIR imaging spectrometer with a cold slit sharply reducing the stray radiation from exterior environment and interior structure. The spectrometer is composed of a slit, a spherical prism as disperser, two concentric spheres and a correction lens. It has a real entrance pupil to match the objective and for setting the infrared cold shield near the slit and a real exit pupil to match the cold shield of the focal plane array (FPA). There are two cooled parts, one includes the aperture stop and slit, and the other is the exit pupil and the FPA with two specially positioned cooled shields. A detailed stray radiation analysis is represented which demonstrates the outstanding effect of this system in background radiation restraint.

  15. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development: Study of the Optical Setup of a Wide-Band Optical Modulation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolls, Volker; Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance the design of the optical setup for a wide-band Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) for use with astronomical heterodyne receiver systems. This report describes the progress of this investigation achieved from March until December 2001.

  16. A DESIGN OF AN ACOUSTO-OPTICAL SPECTROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Herrera-Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The radio spectroscopy has became a fundamental tool to study astronomical objets at the microwave band. Therefore, the design and construction of instruments with high spectral resolution, low power consumption and compact size for easy handle and transport are necessary. Here we present the design and the tests of an acousto-optical spectrometer for use in solar radio astronomy and for variability studies of cosmic masers sources with a 5 meter antenna (RT5 which is being reinstalled at the Sierra Negra site. We present the rst evaluations of the performance of the components and the laboratory assembly.

  17. Continuously tunable optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P; Paul, J; Bylsma, J; Deminico, S; Karaiskaj, D

    2013-02-01

    A multidimensional optical nonlinear spectrometer (MONSTR) is a robust, ultrastable platform consisting of nested and folded Michelson interferometers that can be actively phase stabilized. The MONSTR provides output pulses for nonlinear excitation of materials and phase-stabilized reference pulses for heterodyne detection of the induced signal. This platform generates a square of identical laser pulses that can be adjusted to have arbitrary time delays between them while maintaining phase stability. This arrangement is ideal for performing coherent optical experiments, such as multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The present work reports on overcoming some important limitations on the original design of the MONSTR apparatus. One important advantage of the MONSTR is the fact that it is a closed platform, which provides the high stability. Once the optical alignment is performed, it is desirable to maintain the alignment over long periods of time. The previous design of the MONSTR was limited to a narrow spectral range defined by the optical coating of the beam splitters. In order to achieve tunability over a broad spectral range the internal optics needed to be changed. By using broadband coated and wedged beam splitters and compensator plates, combined with modifications of the beam paths, continuous tunability can be achieved from 520 nm to 1100 nm without changing any optics or performing alignment of the internal components of the MONSTR. Furthermore, in order to achieve continuous tunability in the spectral region between 520 nm and 720 nm, crucially important for studies on numerous biological molecules, a single longitudinal mode laser at 488.5 nm was identified and used as a metrology laser. The shorter wavelength of the metrology laser as compared to the usual HeNe laser has also increased the phase stability of the system. Finally, in order to perform experiments in the reflection geometry, a simple method to achieve active phase stabilization

  18. Optical design of the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, I. R.; Reynolds, B. R.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Pritchard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The optical system design of the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer to be operated from Spacelab for the measurement of stratospheric trace molecules is described. The design contains features which can achieve the required fringe contrast of 80% and spectral resolution of 0.02/cm over a spectral range of 2-16 microns. In particular, the design is based on the following features which alleviate the usual requirements for alignment precision: (1) 'cat's eye' mirror configuration in the two arms of the interferometer for retroreflection stability, (2) tilt-compensated system of beamsplitter, compensator, and fold mirrors for wavefront directional stability, (3) paraboloidal 'cat's eye' primary mirror for wavefront stability against shear, (4) rotatable compensator for matching chromatic dispersion, and (5) wedged refractive components to avoid channel spectra due to the Fabry-Perot effect.

  19. Simulation of a Rowland spectrometer for optical communication over POF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, M.; Fischer, U. H. P.

    2008-09-01

    Standard polymer optical fibers (POFs) are used in various fields of applications. As a medium for communication systems, they offer many advantages in comparison with copper or glass. POFs are applied for short-distance communication in the automotive. They are also used for communication in the house. All these applications have high demand on bandwidth. Standard communication via POF is limited in bandwidth, because only one wavelength is used to carry information over the fiber. One promising attempt is to use wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). There instead of one wavelength many wavelengths carry information over one single fiber. So WDM over POF has the power to force this limitation. Therefore the design and the development of a demultiplexer, which is required for WDM, will be shown in the paper. The development is done by means of an optical simulation program. This is a fast and inexpensive way to obtain satisfying results. The principle structure of the MUX/DEMUX element is a Rowland spectrometer. This device separates the monochromatic parts of light by means of a high dispersive grating on a mirror. The shape of the mirror and the parameters of the grating have to be developed and optimized in several steps to reach the demands. These process steps will be presented.

  20. Integrated optics in an electrically scanned imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B. (Inventor); Ocallaghan, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An efficient, lightweight and stable, Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. The mechanical slide mechanism needed to create a path difference was eliminated by the use of retro-reflecting mirrors in a monolithic interferometer assembly in which the mirrors are not at 90 degrees to the propagation vector of the radiation, but rather at a small angle. The resulting plane wave fronts create a double-sided inteferogram of the source irradiance distribution which is detected by a charge-coupled device image sensor array. The position of each CCD pixel in the array is an indication of the path difference between the two retro-reflecting mirrors in the monolithic optical structure. The Fourier transform of the signals generated by the image sensor provide the spectral irradiance distribution of the source. For imaging, the interferometer assembly scans the source of irradiation by moving the entire instrument, such as would occur if it was fixedly mounted to a moving platform, i.e., a spacecraft. During scanning, the entrace slot to the monolithic optical structure sends different pixels to corresponding interferograms detected by adjacent columns of pixels of the image sensor.

  1. [Effect of spectrum distortion on modulation transfer function in imaging fiber-optic spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bao; Hong, Yong-Feng

    2011-10-01

    Imaging fiber bundles were introduced to dispersion imaging spectrometer and substituted for slit, connecting the telescope and spectrometer to yield the imaging fiber-optic spectrometer. It is a double sampling system, the misalignment between image of optical fiber and detector pixel has arisen because of the spectrum distortion of spectrometer, which affected the second sampling process, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) therefore degraded. Optical transfer function of sampling process was derived from line spread function. The effect of spectrum distortion on system MTF was analyzed, and a model evaluating the MTF of imaging fiber-optic spectrometer was developed. Compared to the computation model of MTF of slit imaging spectrometer, a MTF item of sampling by optical fiber and a MTF item of misalignment arising from spectrum distortion were added in this model. Employing this, the MTF of an airborne imaging fiber-optic spectrometer for visible near infrared band was evaluated. The approach ro deriving and developing the MTF model has a reference signification for the computation of MTF of double sampling system, which can direct the design of imaging fiber-optic spectrometer also.

  2. Do it yourself: optical spectrometer for physics undergraduate instruction in nanomaterial characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeti Nuryantini, Ade; Cahya Septia Mahen, Ea; Sawitri, Asti; Wahid Nuryadin, Bebeh

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report on a homemade optical spectrometer using diffraction grating and image processing techniques. This device was designed to produce spectral images that could then be processed by measuring signal strength (pixel intensity) to obtain the light source, transmittance, and absorbance spectra of the liquid sample. The homemade optical spectrometer consisted of: (i) a white LED as a light source, (ii) a cuvette or sample holder, (iii) a slit, (iv) a diffraction grating, and (v) a CMOS camera (webcam). In this study, various concentrations of a carbon nanoparticle (CNP) colloid were used in the particle size sample test. Additionally, a commercial optical spectrometer and tunneling electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the optical properties and morphology of the CNPs, respectively. The data obtained using the homemade optical spectrometer, commercial optical spectrometer, and TEM showed similar results and trends. Lastly, the calculation and measurement of CNP size were performed using the effective mass approximation (EMA) and TEM. These data showed that the average nanoparticle sizes were approximately 2.4 nm and 2.5 ± 0.3 nm, respectively. This research provides new insights into the development of a portable, simple, and low-cost optical spectrometer that can be used in nanomaterial characterization for physics undergraduate instruction.

  3. Ultra-Compact Optical Spectrometer for Organic Mapping, uCOSOM (microcosm) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a soda-can-size, 500 g, 400 mW instrument for mounting on small lander or rover arms: the ultra-Compact Optical Spectrometer for Organic...

  4. Ultra-Compact Optical Spectrometer for Organic Mapping, uCOSOM (microcosm) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a coke-can-size, 250 g, 400 mW instrument for mounting on small lander or rover arms: the ultra-Compact Optical Spectrometer for Organic...

  5. Infrared fiber coupled acousto-optic tunable filter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, K. H.; Kindler, E.; Ko, T.; Lee, F.; Tran, D. C.; Tapphorn, R. M.

    A spectrometer design is introduced which combines an acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF) and IR-transmitting flouride-glass fibers. The AOTF crystal is fabricated from TeO2 and permits random access to any wavelength in less than 50 microseconds, and the resulting spectrometer is tested for the remote analysis of gases and hydrocarbons. The AOTF spectrometer, when operated with a high-speed frequency synthesizer and optimized algorithms, permits accurate high-speed spectroscopy in the mid-IR spectral region.

  6. Aladin transmit-receive optics (TRO): the optical interface between laser, telescope and spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosebach, Herbert; Erhard, Markus; Camus, Fabrice

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents the design and key technologies of the Transmit-Receive Optics (TRO) for the Aladin lidar instrument. The TRO as the central optical interface on the Aladin instrument leading the optical signals from the laser source to the emitting/receiving telescope, and vice versa, the received back scattered signals from the telescope to the spectrometers for Doppler shift evaluation. Additionally, the TRO contains a calibration branch bypassing the telescope and aims at levelling out the received signals in terms of wavelength and signal height changes due to wavelength and intensity variations of the laser. The opto-mechanical concept of the TRO consists of afocal optical groups, which are connected by parallel beams. Extreme requirements have been defined for the TRO on the end-to-end transmission (>=73 %) with an associated effective bandwidth of less than 1 nm over the 200 - 1100 nm spectral range. The achieved solution is presented in this paper. A further feature of the TRO is the use of two so-called aberration generators on the emitting and calibration branch, with which an artificial astigmatism can be realised for eye safety reasons. Its effect on astigmatism is presented. This article also addresses the effort on stray light suppression, which is of extreme importance for the TRO. Special ion plated (IP) optical coatings have been used with superior performance for the TRO, particulary on laser energy resistance and air/vacuum stability. The development of special mounting technologies of optical elements to meet the stringent WFE, stability, and stray light requirements for the TRO are described. Key words : Aeolus Satellite, ALADIN instrument, Lidar, optical design, UV optics manufacturing technologies

  7. Optical alignment of high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.; Cassie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing, high resolution FTS instruments often contain three primary optical subsystems: Fore-Optics, Interferometer Optics, and Post, or Detector Optics. We discuss the alignment of a double-pass FTS containing a cat's-eye retro-reflector. Also, the alignment of fore-optics containing confocal paraboloids with a reflecting field stop which relays a field image onto a camera is discussed.

  8. An optically detected magnetic resonance spectrometer with tunable laser excitation and wavelength resolved infrared detection

    CERN Document Server

    Negyedi, M; Gyüre, B; Dzsaber, S; Kollarics, S; Rohringer, P; Pichler, T; Simon, F

    2016-01-01

    We present the development and performance of an optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectrometer. The spectrometer represents advances over similar instruments in three areas: i) the exciting light is a tunable laser source which covers much of the visible light range, ii) the optical signal is analyzed with a spectrograph, iii) the emitted light is detected in the near-infrared domain. The need to perform ODMR experiments on single-walled carbon nanotubes motivated the present development and we demonstrate the utility of the spectrometer on this material. The performance of the spectrometer is critically compared to similar instruments. The present development opens the way to perform ODMR studies on various new materials such as molecules and luminescent quantum dots where the emission is in the near-infrared range and requires a well-defined excitation wavelength and analysis of the scattered light.

  9. Passive Ranging Using a Dispersive Spectrometer and Optical Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    sending a number of light rays , from the same point in the scene, into the optical system. Then it traces them through to find where they hit on the focal...55 Appendix A. MATLAB Code Used... radar . First, since no signal is emitted, a passive sensor is much more difficult to detect, which is especially important on stealth platforms

  10. Multichannel emission spectrometer for high dynamic range optical pyrometry of shock-driven materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-10-01

    An emission spectrometer (450-850 nm) using a high-throughput, high numerical aperture (N.A. = 0.3) prism spectrograph with stepped fiberoptic coupling, 32 fast photomultipliers and thirty-two 1.25 GHz digitizers is described. The spectrometer can capture single-shot events with a high dynamic range in amplitude and time (nanoseconds to milliseconds or longer). Methods to calibrate the spectrometer and verify its performance and accuracy are described. When a reference thermal source is used for calibration, the spectrometer can function as a fast optical pyrometer. Applications of the spectrometer are illustrated by using it to capture single-shot emission transients from energetic materials or reactive materials initiated by kmṡs-1 impacts with laser-driven flyer plates. A log (time) data analysis method is used to visualize multiple kinetic processes resulting from impact initiation of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) or a Zr/CuO nanolaminate thermite. Using a gray body algorithm to interpret the spectral radiance from shocked HMX, a time history of temperature and emissivity was obtained, which could be used to investigate HMX hot spot dynamics. Finally, two examples are presented showing how the spectrometer can avoid temperature determination errors in systems where thermal emission is accompanied by atomic or molecular emission lines.

  11. Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylman, Kevin D.; Thakkar, Niket; Horak, Erik H.; Quillin, Steven C.; Cherqui, Charles; Knapper, Kassandra A.; Masiello, David J.; Goldsmith, Randall H.

    2016-12-01

    Optical measurements of nanoscale objects offer major insights into fundamental biological, material and photonic properties. In absorption spectroscopy, sensitivity limits applications at the nanoscale. Here, we present a new single-particle double-modulation photothermal absorption spectroscopy method that employs on-chip optical whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators as ultrasensitive thermometers. Optical excitation of a nanoscale object on the microresonator produces increased local temperatures that are proportional to the absorption cross-section of the object. We resolve photothermal shifts in the resonance frequency of the microresonator that are smaller than 100 Hz, orders of magnitude smaller than previous WGM sensing schemes. The application of our new technique to single gold nanorods reveals a dense array of sharp Fano resonances arising from the coupling between the localized surface plasmon of the gold nanorod and the WGMs of the resonator, allowing for the exploration of plasmonic-photonic hybridization. In terms of the wider applicability, our approach adds label-free spectroscopic identification to microresonator-based detection schemes.

  12. Dual spectrometer system with spectral compounding for 1-μm optical coherence tomography in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongyao; Liu, Xinyu; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaojun; Ding, Sun; Luo, Yuemei; Gu, Jun; Shum, Ping; Liu, Linbo

    2014-12-01

    1 μm axial resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated for in vivo cellular resolution imaging. Output of two superluminescent diode sources is combined to provide near infrared illumination from 755 to 1105 nm. The spectral interference is detected using two spectrometers based on a Si camera and an InGaAs camera, respectively. Spectra from the two spectrometers are combined to achieve an axial resolution of 1.27 μm in air. Imaging was conducted on zebra fish larvae to visualize cellular details.

  13. A pulse-front-tilt–compensated streaked optical spectrometer with high throughput and picosecond time resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J., E-mail: jkat@lle.rochester.edu; Boni, R.; Rivlis, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Muir, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A high-throughput, broadband optical spectrometer coupled to the Rochester optical streak system equipped with a Photonis P820 streak tube was designed to record time-resolved spectra with 1-ps time resolution. Spectral resolution of 0.8 nm is achieved over a wavelength coverage range of 480 to 580 nm, using a 300-groove/mm diffraction grating in conjunction with a pair of 225-mm-focal-length doublets operating at an f/2.9 aperture. Overall pulse-front tilt across the beam diameter generated by the diffraction grating is reduced by preferentially delaying discrete segments of the collimated input beam using a 34-element reflective echelon optic. The introduced delay temporally aligns the beam segments and the net pulse-front tilt is limited to the accumulation across an individual sub-element. The resulting spectrometer design balances resolving power and pulse-front tilt while maintaining high throughput.

  14. A pulse-front-tilt-compensated streaked optical spectrometer with high throughput and picosecond time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.; Boni, R.; Rivlis, R.; Muir, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    A high-throughput, broadband optical spectrometer coupled to the Rochester optical streak system equipped with a Photonis P820 streak tube was designed to record time-resolved spectra with 1-ps time resolution. Spectral resolution of 0.8 nm is achieved over a wavelength coverage range of 480 to 580 nm, using a 300-groove/mm diffraction grating in conjunction with a pair of 225-mm-focal-length doublets operating at an f/2.9 aperture. Overall pulse-front tilt across the beam diameter generated by the diffraction grating is reduced by preferentially delaying discrete segments of the collimated input beam using a 34-element reflective echelon optic. The introduced delay temporally aligns the beam segments and the net pulse-front tilt is limited to the accumulation across an individual sub-element. The resulting spectrometer design balances resolving power and pulse-front tilt while maintaining high throughput.

  15. Optical fiber sensors using hollow glass spheres and CCD spectrometer interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, John P.; Ecke, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Kerstin; Reuter, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Hollow glass micro-spheres, firstly used to make fiber optic sensors for high hydrostatic pressure, have been interrogated using a high-resolution CCD-based spectrometer, to give far better precision than conventional spectrometric read out. It is found that these simple, low-cost micro-sensors have excellent sensitivity to both static and dynamic pressure, and have the advantage of being hermetically sealed. Many other application areas are foreseen for these low-cost sensors.

  16. Large stroke MOEMS actuators for optical path length modulation in miniaturized FTIR spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandner, Thilo; Drabe, Christian; Schenk, Harald; Kenda, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we present a novel translatory MOEMS device with extraordinary large stroke especially designed for fast optical path modulation in an improved miniaturized Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer capable to perform time resolved measurements from NIR to MIR. Recently, we presented a first MOEMS based FTIR system using a different translatory MOEMS actuator with bending suspensions of the mirror plate and +/-100μm oscillation amplitude resulting in a limited spectral resolution of 30 cm-1. For the novel MOEMS actuator an advanced pantograph suspension of the mirror plate was used to guarantee an extraordinary large stroke of up to 500 μm required for an improved spectral resolution. To optimize the optical throughput of the spectrometer the mirror aperture was increased to 7 mm2. The MOEMS actuators are driven electro statically resonant using out-of-plane comb drives and operate at a resonant frequency of 500 (1000) Hz, respectively. Hence, this enables to realize an improved MOEMS based FTIR-spectrometer with a spectral resolution of up to 10 cm-1, a SNR of > 1000:1 and an acquisition time of 1 ms per spectrum of the miniaturized FTIR-system. In this article we discuss in detail the design and the experimental characteristics of the novel large stroke translatory MOEMS device. The application and system integration, especially the optical vacuum packaging, of this MOEMS device in an improved miniaturized MOEMS based FTIR spectrometer enabling ultra rapid measurements in the NIRMIR spectral region with 12cm-1 spectral resolution is discussed in a separate paper submitted to this conference.

  17. MEOS Microsatellite Earth Observation using Miniature Integrated-Optic IR Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman

    future, the MEOS Miniature Earth Observing Satellite will innovatively combine remote atmospheric/land-cover measurements with ecosystem modelling in near real-time to obtain simultaneous variations in lower tropospheric GHG mixing ratios and the resulting responses of surface ecosystems. MEOS will provide lower tropospheric CO2 , CH4 , CO, N2 O, H2 O and aerosol mixing ratios over natural sources and sinks using two kinds of synergistic observations; a forward limb measurement and a follow-on nadir measurement over the same geographical tangent point. The measurements will be accomplished using separate limb and nadir suites of miniature lineimaging spectrometers and will be spatially coordinated such that the same air mass is observed in both views within a few minutes. The limb data will consist of 16-pixel vertical spectral line imaging to provide 2.5-km vertical resolution, while the corresponding nadir measurements will view sixteen 5 by 10 km2 ground pixels with a 160-km East-West swath width. The separate limb and nadir instrument suites each feature two complementary NIR miniature spectrometers that will operate in parallel, alternating the collected optical signal between the high-resolution Fabry-Perot guided-wave FP-IOSPEC spectrometer with simultaneous multiple microchannels at 0.03 FWHM with SNR>400 and the 1220 to 2450 nm broad-band spectrometer with 1.2 nm FWHM such that one undergoes the illuminated segment of the processing while the other spectrometer undergoes its dark signal processing. This spectral region provides several harmonic optical absorption bands associated with CO2 , CH4 , CO, H2 O and N2 O. The innovative data synergy of the coarse resolution broad-band spectra with the scanned spectral measurements of the trace-gas fine features at 0.03 nm FWHM in multiple microchannels will be used to improve the accuracy of the trace gas retrievals relative to current missions. In addition, the mission will retrieve cloud top pressures to better than

  18. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Whyte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of atmospheric remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and comma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS applications from LEO, GEO, HAP or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  19. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Whyte

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer for atmospheric research has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and coma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for an exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS applications particularly from space (LEO, GEO orbits and from HAPs or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at better than 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  20. Invited Article: The coherent optical laser beam recombination technique (COLBERT) spectrometer: Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy made easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel B.; Stone, Katherine W.; Gundogdu, Kenan; Nelson, Keith A.

    2011-08-01

    We have developed an efficient spectrometer capable of performing a wide variety of coherent multidimensional measurements at optical wavelengths. The two major components of the largely automated device are a spatial beam shaper which controls the beam geometry and a spatiotemporal pulse shaper which controls the temporal waveform of the femtosecond pulse in each beam. We describe how to construct, calibrate, and operate the device, and we discuss its limitations. We use the exciton states of a semiconductor nanostructure as a working example. A series of complex multidimensional spectra—displayed in amplitude and real parts—reveals increasingly intricate correlations among the excitons.

  1. A diode laser spectrometer at 634 nm and absolute frequency measurements using optical frequency comb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lin; Yuan Jie; Qi Xiang-Hui; Chen Wen-Lan; Zhou Da-Wei; Zhou Tong; Zhou Xiao-Ji; Chen Xu-Zong

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that two identical external-cavity-diode-laser(ECDL)based spectrometers are constructed at 634 nm referencing on the hyperfine B-X transition a(80)8-4 of 127I2.The lasers are stabilized on the Doppler-free absorption signals using the third-harmonic detection technique.The instability of the stabilized laser is measured to be 2.8×10-12(after 1000 s)by counting the beat note between the two lasers.The absolute optical frequency of the transition is,for the first time,determined to be 472851936189.5 kHz by using an optical frequency comb referenced on the microwave caesium atomic clock.The uncertainty of the measurement is less than 4.9 kHz.

  2. A low-cost portable fibre-optic spectrometer for atmospheric absorption studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact and portable solar absorption spectrometer based on fibre-optic Fabry–Perot technology has been built and tested. The instrument weighs only 4.2 kg and operates from 5 W of power from internal batteries. It provides spectroscopy over the range from 5980–6580 cm−1 (1.52–1.67 μm at a resolution of 0.16 cm−1. The input to the spectrometer is via single-mode optical fibre from a solar tracking system. Spectral scanning is carried out with a piezoelectrically scanned fibre Fabry–Perot tunable filter. Software has been developed to calibrate the spectra in wavelength and relative flux. The signal to noise ratio in solar spectra is about 700 for a spectrum scanned at 200 milliseconds per spectral point. The techniques used should be capable of being adapted to a range of wavelengths and to higher or lower resolutions.

  3. A high-speed automatic spectrometer based on a solid-state non-collinear acousto-optic tunable filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Zhu(朱建华); Andrew Y.S.Cheng(郑玉臣)

    2003-01-01

    An automatic visible spectrometer based on a non-collinear acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) isconstructed for high-speed spectrometry. Its spectral filtering characteristics, such as relationshipsbetween the radio-frequency (RF) driving frequency and the output central wavelength, the outputbandwidth and the central wavelength, its typical spectral point spread function (PSF), and so on, arestudied systematically. The preliminary measurement results of AOTF spectrometer show that it is asolid-state, high-speed, easily controllable by computer-programming, rugged and compact spectroscopicdevice in comparison with a conventional grating spectrometer, and has the potential for widespreadspectrometric applications.

  4. The Backscatter Cloud Probe – a compact low-profile autonomous optical spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beswick

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A compact (500 cm3, lightweight (500 g, near-field, single particle backscattering optical spectrometer is described that mounts flush with the skin of an aircraft and measures the concentration and optical equivalent diameter of particles from 5 to 75 μm. The Backscatter Cloud Probe (BCP was designed as a real-time qualitative cloud detector primarily for data quality control of trace gas instruments developed for the climate monitoring instrument packages that are being installed on commercial passenger aircraft as part of the European Union In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS program (http://www.iagos.org/. Subsequent evaluations of the BCP measurements on a number of research aircraft, however, have revealed it capable of delivering quantitative particle data products including size distributions, liquid water content and other information on cloud properties. We demonstrate the instrument's capability for delivering useful long-term climatological information, across a wide range of environmental conditions. The BCP has been evaluated by comparing its measurements with those from other cloud particle spectrometers on research aircraft and several BCPs are currently flying on commercial A340/A330 Airbus passenger airliners. The design and calibration of the BCP is described in this presentation, along with an evaluation of measurements made on the research and commercial aircraft. Comparisons of the BCP with two other cloud spectrometers, the Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP and the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS, show that the BCP size distributions agree well with those from the other two, given the intrinsic limitations and uncertainties related to the three instruments. Preliminary results from more than 7000 h of airborne measurements by the BCP on two Airbus A-340s operating on routine global traffic routes (one Lufthansa, the other China Airlines show that more than 340 h of cloud data have been recorded at normal

  5. Rugged optical mirrors for Fourier-Transform Spectrometers operated in harsh environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Feist

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC operate a number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTSs that measure trace gases in the atmosphere by observing solar spectra. To guide the sunlight into the FTS, a solar tracker has to be placed outside. This device needs high-quality optical mirrors with good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared. More and more FTS stations are operated in remote locations with harsh environments. Optical mirrors are usually made for laboratory conditions and might not last very long there. At the MPI-BGC's TCCON site on Ascension Island, several mirrors from different optical manufacturers were destroyed within weeks. To continue operation, the MPI-BGC had to develop rugged mirrors that could sustain the harsh conditions for months or even years. While commercially available mirrors are typically made from a substrate coverered with a thin reflective coating, these rugged mirrors were made from stainless steel with no additional coating. Except for their lower reflectivity (which can easily be compensated for, their optical properties are comparable to existing mirrors. However, their rugged design makes them mostly immune to corrosion and scratching. Unlike most coated mirrors, they can also be cleaned easily.

  6. Innovative optical spectrometers for ice core sciences and atmospheric monitoring at polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Roberto; Alemany, Olivier; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Desbois, Thibault; Faïn, Xavier; Kassi, Samir; Kerstel, Erik; Legrand, Michel; Marrocco, Nicola; Méjean, Guillaume; Preunkert, Suzanne; Romanini, Daniele; Triest, Jack; Ventrillard, Irene

    2015-04-01

    In this talk recent developments accomplished from a collaboration between the Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPhy) and the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) both in Grenoble (France), are discussed, covering atmospheric chemistry of high reactive species in polar regions and employing optical spectrometers for both in situ and laboratory measurements of glacial archives. In the framework of an ANR project, a transportable spectrometer based on the injection of a broadband frequency comb laser into a high-finesse optical cavity for the detection of IO, BrO, NO2 and H2CO has been realized.[1] The robust spectrometer provides shot-noise limited measurements for as long as 10 minutes, reaching detection limits of 0.04, 2, 10 and 200 ppt (2σ) for the four species, respectively. During the austral summer of 2011/12 the instrument has been used for monitoring, for the first time, NO2, IO and BrO at Dumont d'Urville Station at East of Antarctica. The measurements highlighted a different chemistry between East and West coast, with the halogen chemistry being promoted to the West and the OH and NOx chemistry on the East.[2] In the framework of a SUBGLACIOR project, an innovative drilling probe has been realized. The instrument is capable of retrieving in situ real-time vertical profiles of CH4 and δD of H2O trapped inside the ice sheet down to more than 3 km of depth within a single Antarctic season. The drilling probe containing an embedded OFCEAS (optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy) spectrometer will be extremely useful for (i) identify potential sites for investigating the oldest ice (aiming 1.5 Myrs BP records for resolving a major climate reorganization called the Mid-Pleistocene transition occurred around 1 Myrs ago) and (ii) providing direct access to past temperatures and climate cycles thanks to the vertical distribution of two key climatic signatures.[3] The spectrometer provides detection

  7. A new Generation of Spectrometer Calibration Techniques based on Optical Frequency Combs

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Piet O; Kimeswenger, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Typical astronomical spectrographs have a resolution ranging between a few hundred to 200.000. Deconvolution and correlation techniques are being employed with a significance down to 1/1000 th of a pixel. HeAr and ThAr lamps are usually used for calibration in low and high resolution spectroscopy, respectively. Unfortunately, the emitted lines typically cover only a small fraction of the spectrometer's spectral range. Furthermore, their exact position depends strongly on environmental conditions. A problem is the strong intensity variation between different (intensity ratios {>300). In addition, the brightness of the lamps is insufficient to illuminate a spectrograph via an integrating sphere, which in turn is important to calibrate a long-slit spectrograph, as this is the only way to assure a uniform illumination of the spectrograph pupil. Laboratory precision laser spectroscopy has experienced a major advance with the development of optical frequency combs generated by pulsed femto-second lasers. These lase...

  8. Optical Spectrometer at the Nanoscale using Optical Yagi-Uda Nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-05

    exhibits a relatively narrow beam toward the di- rection of the “directors” and a minimum or a null toward the direction of the reflector, analogous to...domain. In this way, this nanodevice essentially operates as a nanoscale spectrum ana- lyzer at optical wavelengths. In the above design of the

  9. Characterization of the optical sub-system in an advanced prototype of a new acousto-optical spectrometer for the Mexican Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Sanchez Lucero, Daniel; Laskin, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    A few optically matched by each other sub-systems related to an advanced prototype of acousto-optical spectrometer for radio-astronomy are analyzed jointly. Rather precise control over the incident light polarization should be assured in the scheme together with a required expanding of the incident light beam. Moreover, the needed light-beam apodization, suppressing side lobes within registration of each individual resolvable spot and increasing the dynamic range of spectrometer, has to be taken into account as well. The current stage of analysis related to afore-mentioned problems as well as the results of trial experiments are presented.

  10. Imaging spectrometer trade studies: a detailed comparison of the Offner-Chrisp and reflective triplet optical design forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lacy G.; Silny, John F.

    2010-08-01

    High quality imaging spectroscopy data is useful for both military and civilian applications. Current state-of-the-art imaging spectrometers typically rely on the Offner-Chrisp (OC) optical form. Making use of a spherically concentric, axially symmetric, and telecentric design, the OC imaging spectrometer provides excellent spectral-spatial uniformity but with many regrets: (1) no real-entrance pupil, (2) relatively slow optical speeds, (3) required convex diffraction grating, (4) narrow field-of-view, and (5) limited scalability. Recently, the Raytheon patented Reflective Triplet (RT) optical design form has produced extremely large format imaging spectrometers of exceptional quality. The RT optical design provides spectral-spatial uniformity comparable to the OC form, but with a number of advantages: (1) extremely large fields-of-view, (2) faster optical speeds, (3) a real-entrance pupil for optimal cold shielding and calibration, (4) use of either a prism or flat diffraction grating operating in collimated space (with an option for both simultaneously in a 2- channel device), and (5) extremely wide spectral range using common reflective optics and multiple focal plane arrays, dispersive elements, and entrance slits. This paper presents a number of detailed designs exemplifying the differences between the OC and RT forms.

  11. First results of a cryogenic optical photon-counting imaging spectrometer using a DROID array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D. D. E.; Venn, R.; van Dordrecht, A.; Groot, P. J.

    2010-02-01

    Context. We present the first system test in which we demonstrate the concept of using an array of Distributed Read Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) for optical photon detection. Aims: After the successful S-Cam 3 detector, the next step in the development of a cryogenic optical photon counting imaging spectrometer under the S-Cam project is to increase the field of view using DROIDs. With this modification the field of view of the camera has been increased by a factor of five in a given area while keeping the number of readout channels the same. Methods: The test has been performed using the flexible S-Cam 3 system and exchanging the 10 × 12 Superconducting Tunnel Junction array for a 3 × 20 DROID array. The extra data reduction needed with DROIDs is performed offline. Results: We show that, although the responsivity (number of tunnelled quasiparticles per unit of absorbed photon energy, e-/eV) of the current array is too low for direct astronomical applications, the imaging quality is already good enough for pattern detection and will improve further with increasing responsivity. Conclusions: The obtained knowledge can be used to optimise the system for the use of DROIDs.

  12. First results of a cryogenic optical photon counting imaging spectrometer using a DROID array

    CERN Document Server

    Hijmering, R A; Martin, D D E; Venn, R; van Dordrecht, A; Groot, P J

    2009-01-01

    Context. In this paper we present the first system test in which we demonstrate the concept of using an array of Distributed Read Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) for optical photon detection. Aims. After the successful S-Cam 3 detector the next step in the development of a cryogenic optical photon counting imaging spectrometer under the S-Cam project is to increase the field of view using DROIDs. With this modification the field of view of the camera has been increased by a factor of 5 in area, while keeping the number of readout channels the same. Methods. The test has been performed using the flexible S-Cam 3 system and exchanging the 10x12 Superconducting Tunnel Junction array for a 3x20 DROID array. The extra data reduction needed with DROIDs is performed offline. Results. We show that, although the responsivity (number of tunnelled quasiparticles per unit of absorbed photon energy, e- /eV) of the current array is too low for direct astronomical applications, the imaging quality is already good enough for pa...

  13. Comparative assessment of astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer using off-the-shelf optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qun; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Yueyang; Guo, Zhenyan; Zuo, Chao; Gao, Zhishan

    2017-04-01

    We present the optical design of a Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer for which astigmatism is corrected using off-the-shelf optics resulting in spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The classic Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer, consisting of a plane grating, two spherical mirrors, and a sensor with 10-μm pixels, was used as the benchmark. We comparatively assessed three configurations of the spectrometer that corrected astigmatism with divergent illumination of the grating, by adding a cylindrical lens, or by adding a cylindrical mirror. When configured with the added cylindrical lens, the imaging spectrometer with a point field of view (FOV) and a linear sensor achieved diffraction-limited performance over a broadband width of 400 nm centered at 800 nm, while the maximum allowable bandwidth was only 200 nm for the other two configurations. When configured with the added cylindrical mirror, the imaging spectrometer with a one-dimensional field of view (1D FOV) and an area sensor showed its superiority on imaging quality, spectral nonlinearity, as well as keystone over 100 nm bandwidth and 10 mm spatial extent along the entrance slit.

  14. Rugged optical mirrors for the operation of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers in rough environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Dietrich G.

    2014-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) operate a growing number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTS) that measure the total column of several atmospheric trace gases. For these measurements, the sun is used as a light source. This is typically achieved by a solar tracker that uses a pair of optical mirrors to guide the sunlight into the instrument. There is a growing demand to operate these instruments in remote locations that fill the gaps in the global observation network. Besides the logistical challenges of running a remote site, the environment at these locations can be very harsh compared to the sheltered environment of the instruments' home institutions. While the FTS itself is usually well protected inside a building or container, the solar tracker and especially its mirrors are exposed to the environment. There they may suffer from - temperature fluctuations - high humidity - sea salt corrosion at coastal sites - dirt and dust - air pollution from anthropogenic sources - deposition from plants or animals The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) operates a TCCON station on Ascension Island, about 200 m from the sea. Under the rough conditions at this site, typical optical mirrors that are made for laboratory conditions are destroyed by sea salt spray within a few weeks. Besides, typical gold-coated mirrors cannot be cleaned as their soft surface is easily scratched or damaged. To overcome these problems, the MPI-BGC has developed optical mirrors that - offer good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared - are highly resistant to salt and chlorine - have a hard surface so that they can be cleaned often and easily - are not affected by organic solvents - last for months in very harsh environments - can be reused after polishing These mirrors could be applied to most TCCON and NDACC sites. This way, the network could be expanded to regions where operation

  15. The backscatter cloud probe - a compact low-profile autonomous optical spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, K.; Baumgardner, D.; Gallagher, M.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Nedelec, P.; Wang, K.-Y.; Lance, S.

    2014-05-01

    A compact (500 cm3), lightweight (500 g), near-field, single particle backscattering optical spectrometer is described that mounts flush with the skin of an aircraft and measures the concentration and optical equivalent diameter of particles from 5 to 75 μm. The backscatter cloud probe (BCP) was designed as a real-time qualitative cloud detector primarily for data quality control of trace gas instruments developed for the climate monitoring instrument packages that are being installed on commercial passenger aircraft as part of the European Union In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) program (http://www.iagos.org/). Subsequent evaluations of the BCP measurements on a number of research aircraft, however, have revealed it capable of delivering quantitative particle data products including size distributions, liquid-water content and other information on cloud properties. We demonstrate the instrument's capability for delivering useful long-term climatological, as well as aviation performance information, across a wide range of environmental conditions. The BCP has been evaluated by comparing its measurements with those from other cloud particle spectrometers on research aircraft and several BCPs are currently flying on commercial A340/A330 Airbus passenger airliners. The design and calibration of the BCP is described in this article, along with an evaluation of measurements made on the research and commercial aircraft. Preliminary results from more than 7000 h of airborne measurements by the BCP on two Airbus A340s operating on routine global traffic routes (one Lufthansa, the other China Airlines) show that more than 340 h of cloud data have been recorded at normal cruise altitudes (> 10 km) and more than 40% of the > 1200 flights were through clouds at some point between takeoff and landing. These data are a valuable contribution to databases of cloud properties, including sub-visible cirrus, in the upper troposphere and useful for validating

  16. Development of Miniature Spectrometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-guo

    2007-01-01

    Spectrometer is an essential and necessary optical element used for measuring the chemical components and content of the matter.The development of miniature spectrometers can be traced back to 1980s.The development state and different manufacturing methods of micro-spectrometers are presented.Finally,we analyze the miniaturization trend of spectrometers.Some groundwork for the scientific research is offered by introducing micro-spectrometers development.

  17. Multimodal optical setup based on spectrometer and cameras combination for biological tissue characterization with spatially modulated illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Daniel; Abookasis, David

    2017-04-01

    The application of optical techniques as tools for biomedical research has generated substantial interest for the ability of such methodologies to simultaneously measure biochemical and morphological parameters of tissue. Ongoing optimization of optical techniques may introduce such tools as alternative or complementary to conventional methodologies. The common approach shared by current optical techniques lies in the independent acquisition of tissue's optical properties (i.e., absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) from reflected or transmitted light. Such optical parameters, in turn, provide detailed information regarding both the concentrations of clinically relevant chromophores and macroscopic structural variations in tissue. We couple a noncontact optical setup with a simple analysis algorithm to obtain absorption and scattering coefficients of biological samples under test. Technically, a portable picoprojector projects serial sinusoidal patterns at low and high spatial frequencies, while a spectrometer and two independent CCD cameras simultaneously acquire the reflected diffuse light through a single spectrometer and two separate CCD cameras having different bandpass filters at nonisosbestic and isosbestic wavelengths in front of each. This configuration fills the gaps in each other's capabilities for acquiring optical properties of tissue at high spectral and spatial resolution. Experiments were performed on both tissue-mimicking phantoms as well as hands of healthy human volunteers to quantify their optical properties as proof of concept for the present technique. In a separate experiment, we derived the optical properties of the hand skin from the measured diffuse reflectance, based on a recently developed camera model. Additionally, oxygen saturation levels of tissue measured by the system were found to agree well with reference values. Taken together, the present results demonstrate the potential of this integrated setup for diagnostic and

  18. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA) method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD) in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR) statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A), takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  19. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  20. A fibre-optic diode laser spectrometer for sensitive simultaneous measurement of CO{sub 2} and CO gas concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, R.; Euring, J.; Kuntz, F.; Schmidt, L.P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Elektrotechnik (Hochfrequenztechnik)

    2001-07-01

    Many technically relevant molecules like CO{sub 2}, CO or H{sub 2}O have characteristic absorption lines for infrared light at specific wavelengths. The application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been demonstrated for atmospheric pollution detection, for combustion control in industrial processes, and in the exhaust of automotive engines. Due to the need for expensive custom-made diode lasers at non-standard wavelengths and delicate to align optics, such systems were often used only in laboratory environments. Recently, the advance of wideband fibre-optic communication systems has opened new perspectives. Diode lasers in the so-called L-band from 1565 nm to 1620 nm are now available. These lasers are mature products with high stability and reliability as required for high-speed communication networks and for industrial applications. At the Lehrstuhl fuer Hochfrequenztechnik we have developed a sensitive spectrometer using such commercially available diode lasers for the simultaneous measurement of CO{sub 2} and CO concentrations. By using fibre-optic components the spectrometer is much more flexible in application and less critical in alignment than systems with free-space optics. (orig.)

  1. A novel method of creating a surface micromachined 3D optical assembly for MEMS-based miniaturized FTIR spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D.; Schildkraut, E. R.; Kim, J.; Connors, R. F.; Kotidis, P.; Cavicchio, D. J.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes design, fabrication, and characterization of a miniaturized, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for the detection and identification of toxic or flammable gases. By measuring the absorption by the target material of IR radiation, unambiguous detection and identification can be achieved. The key component of the device is a micromachined Michelson interferometer capable of modulating light in the 2 - 14 μm spectral region. Two major technical achievements associated with developing a MEMS interferometer module are discussed: development of a micromirror assembly having an order of magnitude larger modulation stroke to approach laboratory instrument-grade spectral resolutions; and assembly of monolithic, millimeter-scale optical components using multi-layer surface micromachining techniques to produce an extremely low cost MEMS interferometer, which has an unprecedented optical throughput. We have manufactured and tested the device. Reported optical characterization results include a precisely aligned, static interferogram acquired from an assembled Michelson interferometer using visible light wavelengths, which promises a high sensitivity FTIR spectrometer for its size.

  2. The Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  3. Design and Development of an Optical Path Difference Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometers using High Displacement RAINBOW Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Hardy, Robin C.; Dausch, David E.

    1997-01-01

    A new piezoelectric drive mechanism has been developed for optical translation in space-based spectrometer systems. The mechanism utilizes a stack of RAINBOW high displacement piezoelectric actuators to move optical components weighing less than 250 grams through a one centimeter travel. The mechanism uses the direct motion of the piezoelectric devices, stacked such that the displacement of the individual RAINBOW actuators is additive. A prototype device has been built which utilizes 21 RAINBOWs to accomplish the necessary travel. The mechanism weighs approximately 0.6 kilograms and uses less than 2 Watts of power at a scanning frequency of 0.5 Hertz, significantly less power than that required by state-of-the-art motor systems.

  4. Initial investigation of the wavelength dependence of optical properties measured with a new multi-pass aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer (AE-DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Chartier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols directly affect climate by scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of the impact is dependent upon the wavelength of light, but is often estimated near 550 nm. When light scattering and absorption by aerosols is approximated, the wavelength dependence of the refractive index for specific components is lost. As a result, climate models would have inherent uncertainties for aerosol contributions to radiative forcing when considering the entire solar spectrum. An aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer has been developed to directly measure aerosol extinction at mid-ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths. The instrument consists of a spectrometer coupled to a closed White-type multi-pass gas cell with an adjustable path length of up to approximately 20 m. Laboratory measurements of various gases are compared with known absorption cross sections. Additionally, the extinction of monodisperse samples of polystyrene latex spheres are measured and compared to Mie theory generated with refractive index values from the literature to validate the new instrument. The polystyrene experiments also emphasize the ability of the new instrument to retrieve the wavelength dependent refractive index, especially in the ultraviolet wavelength regions where variability is expected. The spectrometer will be a significant advancement for determining wavelength dependent complex refractive indices in future laboratory studies as well as provide the ability to monitor ambient aerosol light extinction.

  5. Initial investigation of the wavelength dependence of optical properties measured with a new multi-pass Aerosol Extinction Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (AE-DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Chartier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols directly affect climate by scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of the impact is dependent upon the wavelength of light, but is often estimated near 550 nm. When light scattering and absorption by aerosols is approximated, the wavelength dependence of the refractive index for specific components is lost. As a result, climate models would have inherent uncertainties for aerosol contributions to radiative forcing when considering the entire solar spectrum. An aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer has been developed to directly measure aerosol extinction at mid-ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths. The instrument consists of a spectrometer coupled to a closed White-type multi-pass gas cell with an adjustable path length of up to approximately 20 m. Laboratory measurements of various gases are compared with known absorption cross sections. Additionally, the extinction of monodisperse samples of polystyrene latex spheres are measured and compared to Mie theory generated with refractive index values from the literature to validate the new instrument. The polystyrene experiments also emphasize the ability of the new instrument to retrieve the wavelength dependent refractive index, especially in the ultraviolet wavelength regions where variability is expected. The spectrometer will be a significant advancement for determining wavelength dependent complex refractive indices in future laboratory studies as well as provide the ability to monitor ambient aerosol light extinction.

  6. Aerosol optical thickness of Mt. Etna volcanic plume retrieved by means of the Airborne Multispectral Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merucci

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the European MVRRS project (Mitigation of Volcanic Risk by Remote Sensing Techniques, in June 1997 an airborne campaign was organised on Mt. Etna to study different characteristics of the volcanic plume emitted by the summit craters in quiescent conditions. Digital images were collected with the Airborne Multispectral Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS, together with ground-based measurements. MIVIS images were used to calculate the aerosol optical thickness of the volcanic plume. For this purpose, an inversion algorithm was developed based on radiative transfer equations and applied to the upwelling radiance data measured by the sensor. This article presents the preliminary results from this inversion method. One image was selected following the criteria of concomitant atmospheric ground-based measurements necessary to model the atmosphere, plume centrality in the scene to analyse the largest plume area and cloudless conditions. The selected image was calibrated in radiance and geometrically corrected. The 6S (Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum radiative transfer model was used to invert the radiative transfer equation and derive the aerosol optical thickness. The inversion procedure takes into account both the spectral albedo of the surface under the plume and the topographic effects on the refl ected radiance, due to the surface orientation and elevation. The result of the inversion procedure is the spatial distribution of the plume optical depth. An average value of 0.1 in the wavelength range 454-474 nm was found for the selected measurement day.

  7. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Optical-chemical relationships for carbonaceous aerosols observed at Jeju Island, Korea with a 3-laser photoacoustic spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Flowers

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport of aerosols in pollution plumes from the mainland Asian continent was observed in situ at Jeju, South Korea during the Cheju Asian Brown Cloud Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX field campaign throughout August and September 2008 using a 3-laser photoacoustic spectrometer. Transport of mixed sulfate, carbonaceous, and nitrate aerosols from various Asian pollution plumes to Jeju accounted for 76% of the deployment days, showing large variations in their measured chemical and optical properties. Our analysis of eight distinct episodes, spanning a wide range of chemical composition, optical properties, and source regions, reveals that at episodes with higher OC/SO2−4 and NO3/SO2−4 composition ratios exhibit lower single scatter albedo at shorter wavelengths (ω405; significantly lower [ω405meas = 0.79±0.06, ω405calc = 0.86±0.01] than predicted by an optical model that assumes constant complex index of refraction with wavelength (an optical model of soot. We attribute this discrepancy to enhanced absorption by organic material. Organic carbon absorption accounts for up to 50% of the measured aerosol absorption at 405 nm for the high OC/SO2−4 episode. Coatings of elemental carbon aerosol cores are hypothesized to increase absorption by factors up to 6 at visible wavelengths. Carbonaceous aerosol absorption can alter global radiative forcing estimates substantially, underscoring the need to understand and predict chemical composition effects on optical properties.

  9. Raman Laser Spectrometer internal Optical Head current status: opto-mechanical redesign to minimize the excitation laser trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miguel; Ramos, Gonzalo; Moral, Andoni; Pérez, Carlos; Belenguer, Tomás; del Rosario Canchal, María; Zuluaga, Pablo; Rodriguez, Jose Antonio; Santiago, Amaia; Rull, Fernando; Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Universidad de Valladolid (UVa), Ingeniería de Sistemas para la Defesa de España S.A. (ISDEFE)

    2016-10-01

    Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is the Pasteur Payload instruments of the ExoMars mission, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, that will perform for the first time in an out planetary mission Raman spectroscopy. RLS is composed by SPU (Spectrometer Unit), iOH (Internal Optical Head), and ICEU (Instrument Control and Excitation Unit). iOH focuses the excitation laser on the samples (excitation path), and collects the Raman emission from the sample (collection path, composed on collimation system and filtering system). The original design presented a high laser trace reaching to the detector, and although a certain level of laser trace was required for calibration purposes, the high level degrades the Signal to Noise Ratio confounding some Raman peaks.The investigation revealing that the laser trace was not properly filtered as well as the iOH opto-mechanical redesign are reported on. After the study of the Long Pass Filters Optical Density (OD) as a function of the filtering stage to the detector distance, a new set of filters (Notch filters) was decided to be evaluated. Finally, and in order to minimize the laser trace, a new collection path design (mainly consisting on that the collimation and filtering stages are now separated in two barrels, and on the kind of filters to be used) was required. Distance between filters and collimation stage first lens was increased, increasing the OD. With this new design and using two Notch filters, the laser trace was reduced to assumable values, as can be observed in the functional test comparison also reported on this paper.

  10. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, M. M.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used for fast measurements of C VI line emission (343.4 nm) in the Madison Symmetric Torus. Absolutely calibrated flow measurements are difficult because the IDS records data within 0.25 nm of the line. Commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range. A light source using an ultraviolet LED and etalon was designed to provide a fiducial marker 0.08 nm wide. The light is coupled into the IDS at f/4, and a holographic diffuser increases homogeneity of the final image. Random and systematic errors in data analysis were assessed. The calibration is accurate to 0.003 nm, allowing for flow measurements accurate to 3 km/s. This calibration is superior to the previous method which used a time-averaged measurement along a chord believed to have zero net Doppler shift.

  11. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micron wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micron and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micron range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  12. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  13. New method of measurement of complex permittivity and permeability with a W-band unbalanced quasi-optical waveguide bridge spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Mohammed N.; Tkachov, Igor I.; Kocharyan, Karen N.

    1998-11-01

    A new method of precision measurements of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of medium and highly absorbing materials over an extended W-band frequency range is developed. A quasi-optical-waveguide spectrometer is designed and constructed. An electronically sweeping backward wave oscillator (BWO) is used as the source of tunable coherent radiation in the frequency range 70 to 118 GHz for the spectrometer. The high output power of BWO, precision waveguide and quasi-optical components and an extra high sensitivity specially constructed liquid helium cooled InSb detector enable adequate energy throughput in transmission for the first time for highly absorbing materials. A simple quasi- optical-waveguide transmission measurement set up of the spectrometer provides the transmittance measurement from which the loss tangent and imaginary part of dielectric permittivity spectra of materials are evaluated very accurately. A quasi- optical-waveguide bridge configuration of the spectrometer provides the measurement of the phase retardation through a specimen from which the real part of dielectric permittivity spectrum are determined with high accuracy. Data for acrylic (medium absorbing), CVD grown low resistivity germanium, General Diode Corp. low resistivity silicon (very absorbing) and thick layer of water are presented and compared.

  14. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Utry

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite, oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile, and carbonate (limestone were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  15. Optical-Path-Difference Linear Mechanism for the Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Heverly, Matthew C.; Key, Richard W.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a mechanism that uses flex-pivots in a parallelogram arrangement to provide frictionless motion with an unlimited lifetime. A voicecoil actuator drives the parallelogram over the required 5-cm travel. An optical position sensor provides feedback for a servo loop that keeps the velocity within 1 percent of expected value. Residual tip/tilt error is compensated for by a piezo actuator that drives the interferometer mirror. This mechanism builds on previous work that targeted ground-based measurements. The main novelty aspects include cryogenic and vacuum operation, high reliability for spaceflight, compactness of the design, optical layout compatible with the needs of an imaging FTS (i.e. wide overall field-of-view), and mirror optical coatings to cover very broad wavelength range (i.e., 0.26 to 15 m).

  16. Electro-Optical Multichannel Spectrometer for Transient Resonance Raman and Absorption Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina Benthin; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1979-01-01

    An optical multichannel system is described, used for time‐dependent absorption measurements in the gas phase and the liquid phase and for resonance Raman spectroscopy of short‐lived transient species in the liquid phase in pulse radiolysis. It consists of either an image converter streak unit or...

  17. Optical Design of a Broadband Infrared Spectrometer for Bunch Length Measurement at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kiel; /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    The electron pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory occur on the order of tens of femtoseconds and cannot be directly measured by conventional means. The length of the pulses can instead be reconstructed by measuring the spectrum of optical transition radiation emitted by the electrons as they move toward a conducting foil. Because the emitted radiation occurs in the mid-infrared from 0.6 to 30 microns a novel optical layout is required. Using a helium-neon laser with wavelength 633 nm, a series of gold-coated off-axis parabolic mirrors were positioned to direct a beam through a zinc selenide prism and to a focus at a CCD camera for imaging. Constructing this layout revealed a number of novel techniques for reducing the aberrations introduced into the system by the off-axis parabolic mirrors. The beam had a recorded radius of less than a millimeter at its final focus on the CCD imager. This preliminary setup serves as a model for the spectrometer that will ultimately measure the LCLS electron pulse duration.

  18. Low Power Consumption Laser for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 mu m wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 mu m and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 mu m range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft

  19. Ultrabroadband Two-Dimensional Coherent Optical Spectrometer for Directed Energy Trapping in Quantum Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    technique combining super-continuum generation with multi-dimensional coherent optical spectroscopy, which can realize simultaneous high spectral and...onto a single-element detector. Each mask yields one intensity value on the detector, and by measuring the intensities for a sequence of different...in the 2DFT spectrum. 9 Figure 8. Comparison of 2DFT spectra. Absolute- value 2DFT spectra of (a) IR-144 cyanine dye ( ) and (b) LH2

  20. 3m Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectrometer with Optical Multichannel Detector; Espectrometro de ultravioleta de vacio de 3m provisto de sistema de deteccion optical multicanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.; Peraza, C.; Blanco, F.; Campos, J.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the design and the performance of a normal incidence vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, for the 300-2400 A spectral range. It is provided with a multichannel detection system. The monochromator is original design and it has been built at CIEMAT. It is equipped with a 3 m concave holographic grating with 2400 grooves/mm. The multichannel detector consists of a windowless double microchannel plate / phosphor screen image intensifier, coupled by fiber optic to a 1024 elements self-scanning linear photodiode array. The output from the array is digitized by a 12-bit analog to digital converter and stored in a computer, for its later analysis. The necessary software to store and display data has been developed. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Limiting Short-term Noise versus Optical Density in a Direct Absorption Spectrometer for Trace Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, D.

    2016-12-01

    Field-deployable trace gas monitors are important for understanding a multitude of atmospheric processes: from forest photosynthesis and respiration [1], to fugitive methane emissions [2] and satellite measurement validation [3]. Consequently, a detailed knowledge of the performance limitations of these instruments is essential in order to establish reliable datasets. We present the short-term ( >1 Hz) performance of a long-pass direct absorption spectrometer as a function of the optical density of the absorption transition being probed. In particular, we identify fluctuations in the laser intensity as limiting the optical density uncertainty to 4x10-6/√Hz for weak transitions, and noise in the laser drive current as limiting the fractional noise in the optical density to 4x10-5/√Hz for deep transitions. We provide numerical and analytical predictions for both effects, as well as using the understanding of this phenomena to estimate how noise on neighboring strong and weak transitions couple to each other. All measurements were performed using the Aerodyne Research TILDAS Monitor, but are general to any instrument that uses direct absorption spectroscopy as a detection method. Wehr, R., et al. "Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration." Nature 534.7609 (2016): 680-683. Conley, S., et al. "Methane emissions from the 2015 Aliso Canyon blowout in Los Angeles, CA." Science 351.6279 (2016): 1317-1320. Emmons, L. K., et al. "Validation of Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) CO retrievals with aircraft in situ profiles." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 109.D3 (2004).

  2. a Decade-Spanning High-Resolution Asynchronous Optical Sampling Based Terahertz Time-Domain Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jacob T.; Holland, Daniel; Finneran, Ian A.; Carroll, Brandon; Allodi, Marco A.; Blake, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution ASynchronous OPtical Sampling (ASOPS) is a technique that substantially improves the combined frequency resolution and bandwidth of ASOPS based TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) systems. We employ two mode-locked femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillators with repetition frequencies of 80 MHz operating at a fixed repetition frequency offset of 100 Hz. This offset lock is maintained by a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) operating at the 60th harmonic of the repetition rate of the Ti:Sapphire oscillators. Their respective time delay is scanned across 12.5 ns requiring a scan time of 10 ms, supporting a time delay resolution of up to 15.6 fs. ASOPS-THz-TDS enables high-resolution spectroscopy that is impossible for a THz-TDS system employing a mechanical delay stage. We measure a timing jitter of 1.36 fs for the system using an air-gap etalon and an optical cross-correlator. We report a Root-Mean-Square deviation of 20.7 MHz and a mean deviation of 14.4 MHz for water absorption lines from 0.5 to 2.7. High-resolution ASOPS-THz-TDS enables high resolution spectroscopy of both gas-phase and condensed-phase samples across a decade of THz bandwidth.

  3. Wet/dry film thickness measurement of paint by absorption spectroscopy with acousto-optic tunable filter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pranay G.; Xiong, Xiangchun; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Prasad, Narashima S.

    2005-08-01

    Controlling/monitoring the thickness of applied paint in real time is important to many situations including painting ship and submarine hulls in dry docks for maintaining health of ships and submarines against the harshness of the sea, in automobile and aerospace industries, and in a variety of other industries as a control sensor that plays significant role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Insufficient thickness results to inadequate protection while overspray leads to waste and pollution of the environment. A rugged instrumentation for the real time non-contact accurate measurement of wet and dry paint film thickness measurement will be immensely valuable. As paint is applied with several layers of the same or different type, thickness of each newly sprayed wet layer is of most interest, but measurement on dry paint is also useful. In this study, we use acousto-optic tunable filter-based near infrared spectrometer to obtain the absorption spectrum of layers of paint sprayed on sand blasted steel surface and thus measure the thickness of coating under both wet and dry situations. NIR spectra are obtained from 1100 to 2300 nm on four sample of different thickness of paint up to 127 micron. Partial least squares model built with the spectra shows good correlation with standard error of prediction within ~ 0.7 micron. Results indicate that the spectra also respond to the amount of organic solvent in the wet paint and can be used to monitor the degree of dryness of the paint in real time.

  4. Simulated performance of a single pixel PIN spectrometer SCXM equipped with concentrator optics in Solar coronal X-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Alha, L; Nevalainen, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present simulated solar coronal X-ray observations to verify the sensitivity of a new hypothetical instrument design. These simulations are folded through this X-ray spectrometer having a moderate size circular field of view of 1.6 degrees. This SCXM (Solar Coronal X-ray Mapper) is designed to compose of a single pixel silicon PIN detector equipped with a single reflection double frustum X-ray optics. A moderate FoV would enable a morphological study of the expanded X-ray emission from the solar corona during a high activity of the Sun. The main scientific task of SCXM would be the mapping of the coronal X-ray emission, i.e. to resolve the radial distribution of the X-ray surface brightness around the Sun. These kind of off-limb observations would help to interpret the coronal plasma diagnostics as a function of the elongation angle. Direct solar full disc observations could be also performed with SCXM. In this work we have applied real solar coronal X-ray data obtained by the SMART-1 XSM (X-...

  5. [Miniature near-infrared fibre optic spectrometer for the quantitative detection of protein and fat in milk powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Wen, Zhi-Yu; Zeng, Tian-Ling; Wei, Kang-Lin; Liang, Yu-Qian

    2013-07-01

    The method based on miniature near-infrared spectrometer combined with Y fiber optic probe to detect the protein and fat in milk powder by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 900-1 700 nm was proposed. By selecting the appropriate spectral bands, the correction models of protein and fat were established with partial least squares algorithm using Unscrambler 9.7 Chemometrics software. The determination coefficients R2 of the correction modes are 0.987 and 0.986 for protein and fat respectively, and the root mean square errors RMSEC are 0.385 and 0.419 respectively. Using these correction models to predict the protein and fat contents with 30 sets of forecast sample data, the prediction standard deviation is SEP(Protein) = 0.751 for protein, and is SEP(Fat) = 1.109 for fat. The results indicate that these correction models have prediction capability with unknown samples and meet the on line requirements.

  6. [Rapid discriminating hogwash oil and edible vegetable oil using near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Kong, Qing-Ming; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Bing-Xiu; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a new method using near infrared spectroscopy combined with optical fiber sensing technology was applied to the analysis of hogwash oil in blended oil. The 50 samples were a blend of frying oil and "nine three" soybean oil according to a certain volume ratio. The near infrared transmission spectroscopies were collected and the quantitative analysis model of frying oil was established by partial least squares (PLS) and BP artificial neural network The coefficients of determina- tion of calibration sets were 0.908 and 0.934 respectively. The coefficients of determination of validation sets were 0.961 and 0.952, the root mean square error of calibrations (RMSEC) was 0.184 and 0.136, and the root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) was all 0.111 6. They conform to the model application requirement. At the same time, frying oil and qualified edible oil were identified with the principal component analysis (PCA), and the accurate rate was 100%. The experiment proved that near infrared spectral technology not only can quickly and accurately identify hogwash oil, but also can quantitatively detect hog- wash oil. This method has a wide application prospect in the detection of oil.

  7. Dimension reduction of multivariable optical emission spectrometer datasets for industrial plasma processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

    2013-12-19

    A new data dimension-reduction method, called Internal Information Redundancy Reduction (IIRR), is proposed for application to Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) datasets obtained from industrial plasma processes. For example in a semiconductor manufacturing environment, real-time spectral emission data is potentially very useful for inferring information about critical process parameters such as wafer etch rates, however, the relationship between the spectral sensor data gathered over the duration of an etching process step and the target process output parameters is complex. OES sensor data has high dimensionality (fine wavelength resolution is required in spectral emission measurements in order to capture data on all chemical species involved in plasma reactions) and full spectrum samples are taken at frequent time points, so that dynamic process changes can be captured. To maximise the utility of the gathered dataset, it is essential that information redundancy is minimised, but with the important requirement that the resulting reduced dataset remains in a form that is amenable to direct interpretation of the physical process. To meet this requirement and to achieve a high reduction in dimension with little information loss, the IIRR method proposed in this paper operates directly in the original variable space, identifying peak wavelength emissions and the correlative relationships between them. A new statistic, Mean Determination Ratio (MDR), is proposed to quantify the information loss after dimension reduction and the effectiveness of IIRR is demonstrated using an actual semiconductor manufacturing dataset. As an example of the application of IIRR in process monitoring/control, we also show how etch rates can be accurately predicted from IIRR dimension-reduced spectral data.

  8. Evaluation of Aerosol Optical Thickness algorithm for Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) Using the OMI Instrument over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Lim, H.; Torres, O.; Chang, L.; Hong, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS), ultraviolet (UV) and visible channel spectrometer onboard the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite called GEO-KOMPSAT2B, is planned to be launched in 2018. GEMS will provide hourly images based on eight observations in a day spatially covering whole East Asia region (70°E-145°E, 0°N-50°N) centered at 120°E and 17°N with 7 km x 8 km spatial resolution. We have developed and updated GEMS aerosol retrieval algorithm, which will utilize hyper-spectral imaging in UV and visible channels from 300 nm to 500 nm with 0.6 nm resolution. GEMS aerosol products from our retrieval algorithm consist of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 443 nm, Aerosol Index, and aerosol effective height. In this study, we test the GEMS algorithm for AOD retrieval using OMI level-1B data for GEMS measurement, and evaluate the results using ground-based AERONET level 2.0 products obtained from 24 sites located in East Asia. We perform this verification for 2 years from January 2005 to December 2006. Preliminary comparison results for total 24 sites show that a correlation coefficient between GEMS and AERONET AODs at 440 nm channel is 0.776, and root-mean-square error (RMSE) is 0.285 with regression line slope 0.681 and offset 0.188. The correlation coefficient between GEMS and AERONET AOD shows higher value than the correlation coefficient between OMI and AERONET AOD, but GEMS AOD slightly underestimate AERONET AOD especially over large cities. There could be several reasons causing underestimation over large cities including aerosol model selection problem, and surface reflectance problem. We analyzed the difference between GEMS and the AERONET AOD related to the variation of fine mode fraction, spectral surface reflectance. Validation results show large underestimation of AOD with respect to high fine mode fraction, but show weak dependence on spectral surface reflectance. In terms of

  9. Monolithic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  10. Hybrid plasmon photonic crystal resonance grating for integrated spectrometer biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-01-15

    Using nanofabricated hybrid metal-dielectric nanohole array photonic crystal gratings, a hybrid plasmonic optical resonance spectrometer biosensor is demonstrated. The new spectrometer sensor technique measures plasmonic optical resonance from the first-order diffraction rather than via the traditional method of measuring optical resonance from transmission. The resonance spectra measured with the new spectrometer technique are compared with the spectra measured using a commercial optical spectrometer. It is shown that the new optical resonance spectrometer can be used to measure plasmonic optical resonance that otherwise cannot be measured with a regular optical spectrometer.

  11. Ion-Optics Calculations and Preliminary Precision Estimates of the Gas-Capable Ion Source for the 1-MV LLNL BioAMS Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ognibene, T J; Bench, G; Brown, T A; Vogel, J S

    2005-12-13

    Ion-optics calculations were performed for a new ion source and injection beam line. This source, which can accept both solid and gaseous targets, will be installed onto the 1-MV BioAMS spectrometer at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and will augment the current LLNL cesium-sputter solid sample ion source. The ion source and its associated injection beam line were designed to allow direct quantification of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 3}H/{sup 1}H isotope ratios from both solid and gaseous targets without the need for isotope switching. Once installed, this source will enable the direct linking of a nanoflow LC system to the spectrometer to provide for high-throughput LC-AMS quantitation from a continuous flow. Calculations show that, for small samples, the sensitivity of the gas-accepting ion source could be precision limited but zeptomole quantitation should be feasible.

  12. Multipass optical absorption spectroscopy: a fast-scanning laser spectrometer for the in situ determination of atmospheric trace-gas components, in particular OH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armerding, W; Spiekermann, M; Walter, J; Comes, F J

    1996-07-20

    The optical design of an absorption spectrometer for in situ measurements of atmospheric trace gases is reported. The light source is a rapidly tuned and power-stabilized dye-ring laser, which is frequency doubled by an intracavity BBO crystal. The second harmonic and the fundamental are used simultaneously for measurement of OH, SO(2), CH(2)O, and naphthalene in the UV and of NO(2) in the visible. The 1.2-km absorption path is folded within a 6-m White-cell-type multiple-reflection system with an open-path setup. The absorption sensitivity of the spectrometer is better than 1 part in 10(-5) under tropospheric conditions (integration time 1 min., signal-to-noise ratio 1).

  13. Recovering Long-term Aerosol Optical Depth Series (1976–2012 from an Astronomical Potassium-based Resonance Scattering Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barreto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A 37 year long-term series of monochromatic Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD has been recovered from solar irradiance measurements performed with the solar spectrometer Mark-I, deployed at Izaña mountain since 1976. The instrument operation is based on the method of resonant scattering, which presents a long-term stability and high precision in comparison to other instruments based on interference filters. However, it has been specifically designed as a reference instrument for helioseismology, and its ability to determine AOD from transmitted and scattered monochromatic radiation at 769.9 nm inside a potassium vapor cell in the presence of a permanent magnetic field is evaluated in this paper. Particularly, the use of an exposed mirrors arrangement to collect sunlight as well as the Sun-laboratory velocity dependence of the scattered component introduces some inconveniences when we perform the instrument's calibration. We have solved this problem using a quasi-continuous Langley calibration technique and a refinement procedure to correct for calibration errors as well as for the fictitious diurnal cycle on AOD data. Our results showed that calibration errors associated to the quasi-continuous Langley technique are not dependent on aerosol load, provided aerosol concentration remains constant throughout the day, assuring the validity of this technique for those periods with relatively high aerosol content required to calibrate the scattered component. The comparative analysis between the recovered AOD dataset from Mark-I and collocated quasi-simultaneous data from Cimel AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and Precision Filter Radiometer (PFR instruments showed an absolute mean bias ≤ 0.01 in the 11 year and 12 year comparison, respectively. High correlation coefficients between AERONET/Mark-I and PFR/Mark-I pairs confirmed a very good linear relationship between instruments, proving that recovered AOD data series from Mark-I can be used together PFR

  14. Recovering long-term aerosol optical depth series (1976–2012 from an astronomical potassium-based resonance scattering spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barreto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year long-term series of monochromatic aerosol optical depth (AOD has been recovered from solar irradiance measurements performed with the solar spectrometer Mark-I, deployed at Izaña mountain since 1976. The instrument operation is based on the method of resonant scattering, which affords wavelength absolute reference and stability (long-term stability and high precision in comparison to other instruments based purely on interference filters. However, it has been specifically designed as a reference instrument for helioseismology, and its ability to determine AOD from transmitted and scattered monochromatic radiation at 769.9 nm inside a potassium vapour cell in the presence of a permanent magnetic field is evaluated in this paper. Particularly, the use of an exposed mirror arrangement to collect sunlight as well as the Sun–laboratory velocity dependence of the scattered component introduces some important inconveniences to overcome when we perform the instrument's calibration. We have solved this problem using a quasi-continuous Langley calibration technique and a refinement procedure to correct for calibration errors as well as for the fictitious diurnal cycle on AOD data. Our results showed similar calibration errors retrieved by means of this quasi-continuous Langley technique applied in different aerosol load events (from 0.04 to 0.3, provided aerosol concentration remains constant throughout the calibration interval. It assures the validity of this technique when it is applied in those periods with relatively high aerosol content. The comparative analysis between the recovered AOD data set from the Mark-I and collocated quasi-simultaneous data from the Cimel-AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and Precision Filter Radiometer (PFR instruments showed an absolute mean bias ≤ 0.01 in the 10- and 12-year comparison, respectively. High correlation coefficients between AERONET and Mark-I and PFR/Mark-I pairs confirmed a very good linear

  15. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  16. Optical-Fiber-Based, Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectrometer for Thin-Film Absorber Characterization and Analysis of TRPL Data for CdS/CdTe Interface: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuciauskas, D.; Duenow, J. N.; Kanevce, A.; Li, J. V.; Young, M. R.; Dippo, P.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the design of a time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectrometer for rapid semiconductor absorber characterization. Simplicity and flexibility is achieved by using single optical fiber to deliver laser pulses and to collect photoluminescence. We apply TRPL for characterization of CdS/CdTe absorbers after deposition, CdCl2 treatment, Cu doping, and back contact formation. Data suggest this method could be applied in various stages of PV device processing. Finally, we show how to analyze TRPL data for CdS/CdTe absorbers by considering laser light absorption depth and intermixing at CdS/CdTe interface.

  17. Evaluation of the LLNL Spectrometer for Possible use with the NSTec Optical Streak Camera as a Light Gas Gun Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, J., Cradick, J.

    2012-09-27

    In fiscal year 2012, it was desired to combine a visible spectrometer with a streak camera to form a diagnostic system for recording time-resolved spectra generated in light gas gun experiments. Acquiring a new spectrometer was an option, but it was possible to borrow an existing unit for a period of months, which would be sufficient to evaluate both “off-line” and in-gas gun shots. If it proved adequate for this application, it could be duplicated (with possible modifications); if not, such testing would help determine needed specifications for another model. This report describes the evaluation of the spectrometer (separately and combined with the NSTec LO streak camera) for this purpose. Spectral and temporal resolutions were of primary interest. The first was measured with a monochromatic laser input. The second was ascertained by the combination of the spectrometer’s spatial resolution in the time-dispersive direction and the streak camera’s intrinsic temporal resolution. System responsivity was also important, and this was investigated by measuring the response of the spectrometer/camera system to black body input—the gas gun experiments are expected to be similar to a 3000K black body—as well as measuring the throughput of the spectrometer separately over a range of visible light provided by a monochromator. The flat field (in wavelength) was also measured and the final part of the evaluation was actual fielding on two gas gun shots. No firm specifications for spectral or temporal resolution were defined precisely, but these were desired to be in the 1–2 nm and 1–2 ns ranges, respectively, if possible. As seen below, these values were met or nearly met, depending on wavelength. Other performance parameters were also not given (threshold requirements) but the evaluations performed with laser, black body, and successful gas gun shots taken in aggregate indicate that the spectrometer is adequate for this purpose. Even still, some (relatively

  18. Multidimensional spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  19. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Omega spectrometer which came into action during the year. An array of optical spark chambers can be seen withdrawn from the magnet aperture. In the 'igloo' above the magnet is located the Plumbicon camera system which collects information from the spark chambers.

  20. 15 cm$^{-1}$ to 12000 cm$^{-1}$ spectral coverage without changing optics: diamond beam splitter adaptation of an FTIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Strelnikov, Dmitry; Sürgers, Christoph; Kappes, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In order to facilitate IR absorption measurements of mass-selected ions isolated in cryogenic matrices, we have upgraded an ion beam deposition apparatus encompassing a Bruker IFS66v/S FTIR spectrometer. A synthetic diamond beam splitter without compensator plate and UHV diamond viewports were installed. We have also modified the IR detector chamber to allow measurements with 5 different detectors. As a result we can now obtain FT absorption spectra from 12000 cm$^{-1}$ to 15 cm$^{-1}$ with the same sample held under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, simply by switching between appropriate IR detectors. We demonstrate performance of the upgraded FTIR spectrometer by presenting measurements of matrix isolated fullerene ions and an adhesive tape.

  1. Spatial heterodyne spectrometer for FLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan; Zheng, Sheng-Hai; Brown, Stephen; Bell, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has significant advantages for high spectral resolution imaging over narrow pre-selected bands compared to traditional solutions. Given comparable optical étendue at R~6500, a field-widened SHS will have a throughput-resolution product ~170 x larger than an air-spaced etalon spectrometer, and ~1000 x larger than a standard grating spectrometer. The monolithic glass Michelson design and lack of moving parts allows maximum stability of spectral calibration over the mission life. For these reasons, SHS offers considerable advantages for the core spectrometer instrument in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission.

  2. Studies of porphyrin-containing specimens using an optical spectrometer connected to a confocal scanning laser microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, O; Rokahr, I; Andersson-Engels, S; Carlsson, K

    1994-12-01

    A spectrometer has been developed for use with a confocal scanning laser microscope. With this unit, spectral information from a single point or a user-defined region within the microscope specimen can be recorded. A glass prism is used to disperse the spectral components of the recorded light over a linear CCD photodiode array with 256 elements. A regulated cooling unit keeps the detector at 277 K, thereby allowing integration times of up to 60 s. The spectral resolving power, lambda/delta lambda, ranges from 350 at lambda = 400 nm to 100 at lambda = 700 nm. Since the entrance aperture of the spectrometer has the same size as the detector pinhole used during normal confocal scanning, the three-dimensional spatial resolution is equivalent to that of normal confocal scanning. Light from the specimen is deflected to the spectrometer by a solenoid controlled mirror, allowing fast and easy switching between normal confocal scanning and spectrometer readings. With this equipment, studies of rodent liver specimens containing porphyrins have been made. The subcellular localization is of interest for the mechanisms of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant tumours. Spectroscopic detection is necessary to distinguish the porphyrin signal from other fluorescent components in the specimen. Two different substances were administered to the tissue, Photofrin, a haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and delta-amino levulinic acid (ALA), a precursor to protoporphyrin IX and haem in the haem cycle. Both are substances under clinical trials for PDT of malignant tumours. Following administration of these compounds to the tissue, the potent photosensitizer and fluorescent compound Photofrin, or protoporphyrin IX, respectively, is accumulated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Performance and Prospects of Khayyam, A Tunable Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) for High Spectral Resolving Power Observation of Extended Planetary Targets in Optical Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S.; Harris, W.

    2014-12-01

    We present initial results, calibration and data reduction process from observations of wide-field targets using Khayyam at Mt. Hamilton, a new instrument based on a reflective spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) at the focus of the Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT). SHS instruments are common path two-beam Fourier transform spectrometers that produce 2-D spatial interference patterns without the requirement for moving parts. The utility of SHS comes from its combination of a wide input acceptance angle (0.5-1°), high resolving power (of order ~105), compact format, high dynamic range, and relaxed optical tolerances compared with other interferometer designs. This combination makes them extremely useful for velocity resolved for observations of wide field targets from both small and large telescopes. This report focuses on the tunable instrument at Mt Hamilton, The CAT provides a test case for on-axis use of SHS, and the impact of the resulting field non-uniformity caused by the spider pattern will be discussed. Observations of several targets will be presented that demonstrate the capabilities of SHS, including comet C/2014 E2 (Jacques), Jupiter, and both the day sky and night glow. Raw interferometric data and transformed power spectra will be shown and evaluated in terms of instrumental stability.

  4. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Major Constituent and Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, Siamak; Soibel, Alexander; Frez, Clifford; Qiu, Yueming; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Tsvid, G.; Belenky, G.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. The minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental frequency of the target gases which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micrometers wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micrometers and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micrometers range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  5. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  6. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  7. A Fourier transform spectrometer without a beam splitter for the vacuum ultraviolet range: From the optical design to the first UV spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, N. de; Polack, F.; Vervloet, M.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, Orme des Merisiers, St AUBIN BP 48, 91192 GIF sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Rodier, J. C. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, RD 128, Campus Polytechnique, PALAISEAU cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    We describe a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer designed to operate down to 60 nm (20 eV) on a synchrotron radiation beamline for high resolution absorption spectrometry. As far as we know, such an instrument is not available below 140 nm mainly because manufacturing accurate and efficient beam splitters remains a major problem at these wavelengths, especially if a wide bandwidth operation is desired. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed an interferometer based on wave front division instead of amplitude division. It relies on a modified Fresnel bimirror configuration that requires only flat mirrors. The instrument provides path difference scanning through the translation of one reflector. During the scanning, the moving reflector is controlled by an optical system that keeps its direction constant within a tolerable value and provides an accurate interferometric measurement of the path difference variation. Therefore, a regular interferogram sampling is obtained, producing a nominal spectral impulse response and an accurate spectral calibration. The first results presented in this paper show a measured spectral resolution of {delta}{sigma}=0.33 cm{sup -1} (interval between spectral samples). This was obtained with a sampling interval of 29 nm (path difference) and 512 K samples from a one-sided interferogram using a cosine FT. Such a sampling interval should allow the recording of large bandwidth spectra down to {lambda}=58 nm with an ultimate resolving power of 500 000 at this wavelength. In order to check the instrument performances, we first recorded an interferogram from a He-Ne stabilized laser. This provided the actual spectral impulse function, which was found to be fully satisfactory. The determination of the impulse response distortion and of the noise on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range provided accurate information in the sampling error profile over a typical scan. Finally, the instrument has been moved to the SU5 undulator

  8. Design of Optical System for Solar Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer%太阳极紫外成像光谱仪光学系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘壮; 巩岩

    2012-01-01

    Hyper-spectral imaging observation of the sun in the EUV region is an important method of research for solar's upper transition region, corona and plasma's physical property. Based on the application objective of solar extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer(SEUlS), combined with the current states of domestic and foreign extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, a few of parameters for SEUIS design were drew up in the present paper. The advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of optical configurations were discussed,and the configuration of combination of telescope and spectrometer was chosen. The available main components were also described, off-axis parabolic mirror was chosen for telescope, and a high density uniform-line-space toroidal grating for dispersion device. The optical system which satisfies the performance parameters was designed The design process, detailed parameters and results were presented in the end. The working wavelength of the optics system is 17. 0~21. 0 nm, the field of view is 1 228"×1 024", the spatial resolution is 0. 8 arc sec ? Pixel-1, the spectral resolution is about 0. 00198 nm ? Pixel-1, and the total length of system is about 2.8m.%在极紫外波段对太阳进行超光谱成像观测是研究太阳上层大气,日冕中等离子物理特性的重要手段.依据太阳极紫外成像光谱仪的应用,结合国内外极紫外成像光谱仪发展现状,制定了太阳极紫外成像光谱仪的性能指标.通过比较各种光学结构的优缺点,选择望远镜与光谱仪组合的结构.讨论并选择了可用的基本元器件,望远系统采用离轴抛物面反射镜,分光器件为高密度超环面等间距光栅.设计出符合指标的光学系统.最后给出了太阳极紫外成像光谱仪的设计过程、详细参数与结果.光学系统的工作波段为17.0~21.0nm,视场是1228″×1024″,空间分辨率达到0.8 arcsec·pixel-1,光谱分辨率约为0.001 98 nm·pixel-1,系统总长度约为2.8m.

  9. A spectrometer designed for 6.7 and 14.1 T DNP-enhanced solid-state MAS NMR using quasi-optical microwave transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kevin J; Kemp, Thomas F; Takahashi, Hiroki; Day, Robert; Howes, Andrew P; Kryukov, Eugeny V; MacDonald, James F; Collis, Alana E C; Bolton, David R; Wylde, Richard J; Orwick, Marcella; Kosuga, Kosuke; Clark, Andrew J; Idehara, Toshitaka; Watts, Anthony; Smith, Graham M; Newton, Mark E; Dupree, Ray; Smith, Mark E

    2012-02-01

    A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer operating at 6.7 T is described and demonstrated. The 187 GHz TE(13) fundamental mode of the FU CW VII gyrotron is used as the microwave source for this magnetic field strength and 284 MHz (1)H DNP-NMR. The spectrometer is designed for use with microwave frequencies up to 395 GHz (the TE(16) second-harmonic mode of the gyrotron) for DNP at 14.1T (600 MHz (1)H NMR). The pulsed microwave output from the gyrotron is converted to a quasi-optical Gaussian beam using a Vlasov antenna and transmitted to the NMR probe via an optical bench, with beam splitters for monitoring and adjusting the microwave power, a ferrite rotator to isolate the gyrotron from the reflected power and a Martin-Puplett interferometer for adjusting the polarisation. The Gaussian beam is reflected by curved mirrors inside the DNP-MAS-NMR probe to be incident at the sample along the MAS rotation axis. The beam is focussed to a ~1 mm waist at the top of the rotor and then gradually diverges to give much more efficient coupling throughout the sample than designs using direct waveguide irradiation. The probe can be used in triple channel HXY mode for 600 MHz (1)H and double channel HX mode for 284 MHz (1)H, with MAS sample temperatures ≥85 K. Initial data at 6.7 T and ~1 W pulsed microwave power are presented with (13)C enhancements of 60 for a frozen urea solution ((1)H-(13)C CP), 16 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane ((1)H-(13)C CP) and 22 for (15)N in a frozen glycine solution ((1)H-(15)N CP) being obtained. In comparison with designs which irradiate perpendicular to the rotation axis the approach used here provides a highly efficient use of the incident microwave beam and an NMR-optimised coil design.

  10. Molecular Dynamics at Electrical- and Optical-Driven Phase Transitions: Time-Resolved Infrared Studies Using Fourier-Transform Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, Tobias; Dressel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The time-dependent optical properties of molecular systems are investigated by step-scan Fourier-transform spectroscopy in order to explore the dynamics at phase transitions and molecular orientation in the milli- and microsecond range. The electrical switching of liquid crystals traced by vibrational spectroscopy reveals a rotation of the molecules with a relaxation time of 2 ms. The photo-induced neutral-ionic transition in TTF-CA takes place by a suppression of the dimerization in the ionic phase and creation of neutral domains. The time-dependent infrared spectra, employed to investigate the domain-wall dynamics, depend on temperature and laser pulse intensity; the relaxation of the spectra follows a stretched-exponential decay with relaxation times in the microsecond range strongly dependent on temperature and laser intensity. We present all details of the experimental setups and thoroughly discuss the technical challenges.

  11. Molecular Dynamics at Electrical- and Optical-Driven Phase Transitions: Time-Resolved Infrared Studies Using Fourier-Transform Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, Tobias; Dressel, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The time-dependent optical properties of molecular systems are investigated by step-scan Fourier-transform spectroscopy in order to explore the dynamics at phase transitions and molecular orientation in the milli- and microsecond range. The electrical switching of liquid crystals traced by vibrational spectroscopy reveals a rotation of the molecules with a relaxation time of 2 ms. The photo-induced neutral-ionic transition in TTF-CA takes place by a suppression of the dimerization in the ionic phase and creation of neutral domains. The time-dependent infrared spectra, employed to investigate the domain-wall dynamics, depend on temperature and laser pulse intensity; the relaxation of the spectra follows a stretched-exponential decay with relaxation times in the microsecond range strongly dependent on temperature and laser intensity. We present all details of the experimental setups and thoroughly discuss the technical challenges.

  12. MASS SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  13. Optical-chemical-microphysical relationships and closure studies for mixed carbonaceous aerosols observed at Jeju Island; 3-laser photoacoustic spectrometer, particle sizing, and filter analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Flowers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Transport of aerosols in pollution plumes from the mainland Asian continent was observed in situ at Jeju, South Korea during the Cheju Asian Brown Cloud Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX field campaign throughout August and September 2008 using a 3-laser photoacoustic spectrometer (PASS-3, chemical filter analysis, and size distributions. The PASS-3 directly measures the effects of morphology (e.g. coatings on light absorption that traditional filter-based instruments are unable to address. Transport of mixed sulfate, carbonaceous, and nitrate aerosols from various Asian pollution plumes to Jeju accounted for 74% of the deployment days, showing large variations in their measured chemical and optical properties. Analysis of eight distinct episodes, spanning wide ranges of chemical composition, optical properties, and source regions, reveals that episodes with higher organic carbon (OC/sulfate (SO42− and nitrate (NO3/SO42− composition ratios exhibit lower single scatter albedo at shorter wavelengths (ω405. We infer complex refractive indices (n–ik as a function of wavelength for the high, intermediate, and low OC/SO42− pollution episodes by using the observed particle size distributions and the measured optical properties. The smallest mean particle diameter corresponds to the high OC/SO42− aerosol episode. The imaginary part of the refractive index (k is greater for the high OC/SO42− episode at all wavelengths. A distinct, sharp increase in k at short wavelength implies enhanced light absorption by OC, which accounts for 50% of the light absorption at 405 nm, in the high OC/SO42− episode. Idealized analysis indicates increased absorption at 781 nm by factors greater than 3 relative to denuded black carbon in the laboratory. We hypothesize

  14. 反射转镜式干涉光谱仪光程差的一般表达式%General Expression of Optic Path Difference of Reflecting Rotating Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锦松; 相里斌; 魏儒义; 景娟娟

    2011-01-01

    对反射转镜式干涉光谱仪的原理进行了介绍,从马吕斯定律和角反射体的反射特性入手,选择转镜反射面的旋转中心作为入射光束和出射光束等波面的参考点,对反射转镜式干涉光谱仪的光程差进行了分析计算,给出反射转镜式干涉光谱仪任意时刻光程差及最大光程差的一般表达式,分析影响最大光程差和光程差变化周期的因素,为反射转镜式干涉光谱仪的设计与研制提供理论指导.%The principle of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer was introduced in the present paper. Based on the Malus law and reflecting characteristic of cube corner, the optic path difference of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer was analyzed and calculated by choosing the center of rotating mirror as a reference point of the aplanatic surface of incidence beam and return beam. General expression of optic path difference at any time and maximal optic path difference of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer was presented. The factors that influence the maximal optic path difference and the period of optic path difference were analyzed. The results provide a theoretical guidance for design and manufacture of reflecting rotating Fourier transform spectrometer.

  15. Use of factorial design for evaluation of plasma conditions and comparison of two liquid sample introduction systems for an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizan, Lilian C. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, SP, 13650-970 (Brazil); Vieira, Edivan C. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, SP, 13650-970 (Brazil); Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nogueira, Ana Rita A. [Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, SP, 13650-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: djan@terra.com.br

    2005-06-30

    A factorial design was applied to evaluate plasma conditions employing the Mg II 280/Mg I 285 nm intensity ratio in an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer using different sample introduction devices: a concentric or a V-groove nebulizer and a cyclonic or a Sturman-Masters spray chamber. Effects of nebulizer gas flow-rate on Mg II/Mg I ratio were different in each introduction system. Robust conditions were obtained at low nebulizer gas flow-rate when using concentric nebulizer with a cyclonic spray chamber or a concentric nebulizer and a Sturman-Masters spray chamber. However, when using a V-groove nebulizer with a Sturman-Masters spray chamber, Mg II/Mg I ratio increased at high nebulizer gas flow-rates. Recovery experiments for a milk standard reference material diluted in water-soluble tertiary amines in both robust and non-robust conditions indicated that the robust condition was reached at higher nebulizer gas flow-rates and led to better accuracy and precision when using a V-groove nebulizer.

  16. A decade-spanning high-resolution asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain and frequency comb spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jacob T.; Holland, Daniel B.; Finneran, Ian A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Kelley, Matthew J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    We present the design and capabilities of a high-resolution, decade-spanning ASynchronous OPtical Sampling (ASOPS)-based TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) instrument. Our system employs dual mode-locked femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillators with repetition rates offset locked at 100 Hz via a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) operating at the 60th harmonic of the ˜80 MHz oscillator repetition rates. The respective time delays of the individual laser pulses are scanned across a 12.5 ns window in a laboratory scan time of 10 ms, supporting a time delay resolution as fine as 15.6 fs. The repetition rate of the pump oscillator is synchronized to a Rb frequency standard via a PLL operating at the 12th harmonic of the oscillator repetition rate, achieving milliHertz (mHz) stability. We characterize the timing jitter of the system using an air-spaced etalon, an optical cross correlator, and the phase noise spectrum of the PLL. Spectroscopic applications of ASOPS-THz-TDS are demonstrated by measuring water vapor absorption lines from 0.55 to 3.35 THz and acetonitrile absorption lines from 0.13 to 1.39 THz in a short pathlength gas cell. With 70 min of data acquisition, a 50 dB signal-to-noise ratio is achieved. The achieved root-mean-square deviation is 14.6 MHz, with a mean deviation of 11.6 MHz, for the measured water line center frequencies as compared to the JPL molecular spectroscopy database. Further, with the same instrument and data acquisition hardware, we use the ability to control the repetition rate of the pump oscillator to enable THz frequency comb spectroscopy (THz-FCS). Here, a frequency comb with a tooth width of 5 MHz is generated and used to fully resolve the pure rotational spectrum of acetonitrile with Doppler-limited precision. The oscillator repetition rate stability achieved by our PLL lock circuits enables sub-MHz tooth width generation, if desired. This instrument provides unprecedented decade-spanning, tunable resolution, from 80 MHz down to sub

  17. Computer Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2017-06-01

    Ideally, the cataloguing of spectroscopic linelists would not demand laborious and expensive experiments. Whatever an experiment might achieve, the same information would be attainable by running a calculation on a computer. Kolos and Wolniewicz were the first to demonstrate that calculations on a computer can outperform even the most sophisticated molecular spectroscopic experiments of the time, when their 1964 calculations of the dissociation energies of H_2 and D_{2} were found to be more than 1 cm^{-1} larger than the best experiments by Gerhard Herzberg, suggesting the experiment violated a strict variational principle. As explained in his Nobel Lecture, it took 5 more years for Herzberg to perform an experiment which caught up to the accuracy of the 1964 calculations. Today, numerical solutions to the Schrödinger equation, supplemented with relativistic and higher-order quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections can provide ro-vibrational spectra for molecules that we strongly believe to be correct, even in the absence of experimental data. Why do we believe these calculated spectra are correct if we do not have experiments against which to test them? All evidence seen so far suggests that corrections due to gravity or other forces are not needed for a computer simulated QED spectrum of ro-vibrational energy transitions to be correct at the precision of typical spectrometers. Therefore a computer-generated spectrum can be considered to be as good as one coming from a more conventional spectrometer, and this has been shown to be true not just for the H_2 energies back in 1964, but now also for several other molecules. So are we at the stage where we can launch an array of calculations, each with just the atomic number changed in the input file, to reproduce the NIST energy level databases? Not quite. But I will show that for the 6e^- molecule Li_2, we have reproduced the vibrational spacings to within 0.001 cm^{-1} of the experimental spectrum, and I will

  18. Evaluating the influence of laser wavelength and detection stage geometry on optical detection efficiency in a single-particle mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Nicholas; Flynn, Michael J.; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Allan, James D.; Coe, Hugh

    2016-12-01

    Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) is a useful tool for the online study of aerosols with the ability to measure size-resolved chemical composition with a temporal resolution relevant to atmospheric processes. In SPMS, optical particle detection is used for the effective temporal alignment of an ablation laser pulse with the presence of a particle in the ion source, and it gives the option of aerodynamic sizing by measuring the offset of particle arrival times between two detection stages. The efficiency of the optical detection stage has a strong influence on the overall instrument performance. A custom detection laser system consisting of a high-powered fibre-coupled Nd:YAG solid-state laser with a collimated beam was implemented in the detection stage of a laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight (LAAP-TOF) single-particle mass spectrometer without major modifications to instrument geometry. The use of a collimated laser beam permitted the construction of a numerical model that predicts the effects of detection laser wavelength, output power, beam focussing characteristics, light collection angle, particle size, and refractive index on the effective detection radius (R) of the detection laser beam. We compare the model predictions with an ambient data set acquired during the Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust (ICE-D) project. The new laser system resulted in an order-of-magnitude improvement in instrument sensitivity to spherical particles in the size range 500-800 nm compared to a focussed 405 nm laser diode system. The model demonstrates that the limit of detection in terms of particle size is determined by the scattering cross section (Csca) as predicted by Mie theory. In addition, if light is collected over a narrow collection angle, oscillations in the magnitude of Csca with respect to particle diameter result in a variation in R, resulting in large particle-size-dependent variation in detection efficiency across the particle transmission range

  19. Mathematical Simulation for Integrated Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Yoon, Hargoon; Lee, Uhn; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized solid-state optical spectrometer chip was designed with a linear gradient-gap Fresnel grating which was mounted perpendicularly to a sensor array surface and simulated for its performance and functionality. Unlike common spectrometers which are based on Fraunhoffer diffraction with a regular periodic line grating, the new linear gradient grating Fresnel spectrometer chip can be miniaturized to a much smaller form-factor into the Fresnel regime exceeding the limit of conventional spectrometers. This mathematical calculation shows that building a tiny motionless multi-pixel microspectrometer chip which is smaller than 1 cubic millimter of optical path volume is possible. The new Fresnel spectrometer chip is proportional to the energy scale (hc/lambda), while the conventional spectrometers are proportional to the wavelength scale (lambda). We report the theoretical optical working principle and new data collection algorithm of the new Fresnel spectrometer to build a compact integrated optical chip.

  20. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  1. Characterization of a microwave microstrip helium plasma with gas-phase sample introduction for the optical emission spectrometric determination of bromine, chlorine, sulfur and carbon using a miniaturized optical fiber spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Pawel; Zapata, Israel Jimenez; Amberger, Martin A.; Bings, Nicolas H. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, Jose A.C. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de

    2008-03-15

    Continuous flow generation of Br{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S coupled to a low-power 2.45 GHz microwave microstrip He plasma exiting from a capillary gas channel in a micro-fabricated sapphire wafer with microstrip lines has been used for the optical emission spectrometric determination of Br, Cl and S using a miniaturized optical fiber CCD spectrometer. Under optimized conditions, detection limits (3{sigma}) of 330, 190 and 220 {mu}g l{sup -1} for Br, Cl and S, respectively, under the use of the Br II 478.5 nm, Cl I 439.0 nm and S I 469.0 nm lines were obtained and the calibration curves were found to be linear over 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, when introducing CO{sub 2} and using the rotational line of the CN molecular band at 385.7 nm the detection limit for C was 4.6 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The procedure developed was found to be free from interferences from a number of metal cations and non-metal anions. Only the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and CN{sup -} was found to cause severe spectral interferences as strong CN and C{sub 2} molecular bands occurred as a result of an introduction of co-generated CO{sub 2} and HCN into the plasma. With the procedure described Br, Cl and S could be determined at a concentration level of 10-30 mg l{sup -1} with accuracy and precision better than 2%.

  2. Miniature anastigmatic spectrometer design with a concave toroidal mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianing; Chen, He; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan

    2016-03-01

    An advanced optical design for a low-cost and astigmatism-corrected spectrometer with a high resolution is presented. The theory and method of astigmatism correction are determined with the use of a concave toroidal mirror. The performances of a modified spectrometer and a traditional spectrometer are compared, and the analysis is verified. Experimentally, the limiting resolution of our spectrometer is 0.1 nm full width at half-maximum, as measured for 579.1 nm.

  3. Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Green, Robert; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Cable, Morgan; Ehlmann, Bethany; Haag, Justin; Lamborn, Andrew; McKinley, Ian; Rodriguez, Jose; van Gorp, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a modular visible to short wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer architecture which could be adapted to a variety of mission concepts requiring low mass and low power. Imaging spectroscopy is an established technique to address complex questions of geologic evolution by mapping diagnostic absorption features due to minerals, organics, and volatiles throughout our solar system. At the core of UCIS is an Offner imaging spectrometer using M3 heritage and a miniature pulse tube cryo-cooler developed under the NASA Maturation of Instruments for Solar System Exploration (MatISSE) program to cool the focal plane array. The TRL 6 integrated spectrometer and cryo-cooler provide a basic imaging spectrometer capability that is used with a variety of fore optics to address lunar, mars, and small body science goals. Potential configurations include: remote sensing from small orbiters and flyby spacecraft; in situ panoramic imaging spectroscopy; and in situ micro-spectroscopy. A micro-spectroscopy front end is being developed using MatISSE funding with integration and testing planned this summer.

  4. On-Chip Random Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Brandon; Sarma, Raktim

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering in disordered media has been studied extensively due to its prevalence in natural and artificial systems [1]. In the field of photonics most of the research has focused on understanding and mitigating the effects of scattering, which are often detrimental. For certain applications, however, intentionally introducing disorder can actually improve the device performance, e.g., in photovoltaics optical scattering improves the efficiency of light harvesting [2-5]. Here, we utilize multiple scattering in a random photonic structure to build a compact on-chip spectrometer. The probe signal diffuses through a scattering medium generating wavelength-dependent speckle patterns which can be used to recover the input spectrum after calibration. Multiple scattering increases the optical pathlength by folding the paths in a confined geometry, enhancing the spectral decorrelation of speckle patterns and thus increasing the spectral resolution. By designing and fabricating the spectrometer on a silicon wafe...

  5. A Low Cost Grism Spectrometer for Small Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    We have designed and built a low cost (appx. $500) low resolution (R ~ 300) grating-prism (grism) spectrometer for the University of Iowa's robotic observatory. Grism spectrometers differ from simple transmission grating systems by partially compensating for the curved focal plane using a wedge prism. The spectrometer has five optical elements, and was designed using a ray tracing program. The collimating and focusing optics are easily modified for other telescope optics. The optics are mounted in an enclosure made with a 3-d printer. The spectrometer was installed in a modified (extended) filter wheel and has been in routine operation since January 2016. I will show sample spectra using this system and discuss spectral calibration, and optical design considerations for other telescopes. I will also discuss how low-resolution spectrometers can be used in undergraduate teaching laboratories.

  6. Ruggedized Spectrometers Are Built for Tough Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Curiosity Chemistry and Camera instrument, or ChemCam, analyzes the elemental composition of materials on the Red Planet by using a spectrometer to measure the wavelengths of light they emit. Principal investigator Roger Wiens worked with Ocean Optics, out of Dunedin, Florida, to rework the company's spectrometer to operate in cold and rowdy conditions and also during the stresses of liftoff. Those improvements have been incorporated into the firm's commercial product line.

  7. A Spectrometer Based on Diffractive Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Daoyi; YAN Yingbai; JIN Guofan; WU Minxian

    2001-01-01

    A novel spectrometer is designed based on diffractive lens. It is essentially a flat field spectrometer. All the focal points are along the optical axis. Besides, all the asymmetrical aberrations vanish in our mounting. Thus low aberration can be obtained. In this article a diffractive lens is modeled as a special grating and analyzed by using a grating-based method. And a stigmatic point is introduced to reduce the aberrations.

  8. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barcala-Riveira, J M; Fernandez-Marron, J L; Molero-Menendez, F; Navarrete-Marin, J J; Oller-Gonzalez, J C

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  9. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  10. A SSS Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The SSS spectrometer, so called simple scintillation spectrometer, is made by BTI (Bubble Technology Industries). The spectrometer can be used in the neutron energy range from 4.0 to 17 MeV. The SSS includes two sections: A probe and an analyzer module

  11. Technical note: Sensitivity of instrumental line shape monitoring for the ground-based high-resolution FTIR spectrometer with respect to different optical attenuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youwen; Palm, Mathias; Weinzierl, Christine; Petri, Christof; Notholt, Justus; Wang, Yuting; Liu, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) and most NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites assume an ideal ILS (instrumental line shape) for analysis of the spectra. In order to adapt the radiant energy received by the detector, an attenuator or different sizes of field stop can be inserted in the light path. These processes may alter the alignment of a high-resolution FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer, and may result in bias due to ILS drift. In this paper, we first investigated the sensitivity of the ILS monitoring with respect to application of different kinds of attenuators for ground-based high-resolution FTIR spectrometers within the TCCON and NDACC networks. Both lamp and sun cell measurements were conducted after the insertion of five different attenuators in front of and behind the interferometer. The ILS characteristics derived from lamp and sun spectra are in good agreement. ILSs deduced from all lamp cell measurements were compared. As a result, the disturbances to the ILS of a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer with respect to the insertion of different attenuators at different positions were quantified. A potential strategy to adapt the incident intensity of a detector was finally deduced.

  12. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  13. On-chip plasmonic spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-08-01

    We report a numerical and experimental study of an on-chip optical spectrometer, utilizing propagating surface plasmon polaritons in the telecom spectral range. The device is based on two holographic gratings, one for coupling, and the other for decoupling free-space radiation with the surface plasmons. This 800 μm×100 μm on-chip spectrometer resolves 17 channels spectrally separated by 3.1 nm, spanning a freely tunable spectral window, and is based on standard lithography fabrication technology. We propose two potential applications for this new device; the first employs the holographic control over the amplitude and phase of the input spectrum, for intrinsically filtering unwanted frequencies, like pump radiation in Raman spectroscopy. The second prospect utilizes the unique plasmonic field enhancement at the metal-dielectric boundary for the spectral analysis of very small samples (e.g., Mie scatterers) placed between the two gratings.

  14. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  15. ISLA: An Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, D., E-mail: bazin@nscl.msu.edu; Mittig, W.

    2013-12-15

    A novel type of recoil mass spectrometer and separator is proposed for the future secondary radioactive beams of the ReA12 accelerator at NSCL/FRIB, inspired from the TOFI spectrometer developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for online mass measurements. The Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances (ISLA) is able to achieve superior characteristics without the compromises that usually plague the design of large acceptance spectrometers. ISLA can provide mass-to-charge ratio (m/q) measurements to better than 1 part in 1000 by using an optically isochronous time-of-flight independent of the momentum vector of the recoiling ions, despite large acceptances of 20% in momentum and 64 msr in solid angle. The characteristics of this unique design are shown, including requirements for auxiliary detectors around the target and the various types of reactions to be used with the re-accelerated radioactive beams of the future ReA12 accelerator.

  16. New generation VNIR/SWIR/TIR airborne imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueming; Wei, Liqin; Yuan, Liyin; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Xie, Feng; Han, Guicheng; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-10-01

    Imaging spectrometer plays an important role in the remote sensing application. Imaging spectrometer can collects and provides a unique spectral signature of many materials. The spectral signature may be absorbing, reflecting, and emitting. Generally, optical spectral bands for earth observing consist of VNIR, SWIR, TIR/LWIR. VNIR band imaging spectrometer is well-known in vegetation remote sensing and ocean detection. SWIR band imaging spectrometer is widely applied in mineralogy investigation. For its uniquely capability of spectral radiance measurement, TIR/LWIR imaging spectrometer attracts much attention these years. This paper will present a new generation VNIR/SWIR/TIR imaging spectrometer. The preliminary result of its first flight will also be shared. The spectral sampling intervals of VNIR/SWIR/TIR are 2.4nm/3nm/30nm, respectively. The spatial pixel numbers are 2800/1400/700,respectively. It's a push-broom imaging spectrometer.

  17. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fourier-transform spectrometer provides approximately hundredfold increase in luminosity at detector plane over that achievable with older instruments of this type. Used to analyze such weak sources as pollutants and other low-concentration substances in atmosphere. Interferometer creates fringe patterns on two distinct arrays of light detectors, which observe different wavelength bands. Objective lens focuses scene on image plane, which contains optical chopper. To make instrument less susceptible to variations in scene under observation, field and detector lenses focus entrance aperture, rather that image, onto detector array.

  18. The Research on the Application of Normalized Point Source Sensitivity in Wide Field Optical Spectrometer of the Thirty Meter Telescope%PSSN在TMT宽视场光谱仪中的应用研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力斯; 胡中文

    2016-01-01

    光学系统像质评价是光学设计的核心,通过对常用像质评价方法与在30 m望远镜(Thirty Meter Telescope, TMT)的像质评价中提出的归一化点源灵敏度函数(Norma-lized Point Source Sensitivity, PSSN)的分析比较,对PSSN在TMT宽视场光谱仪(Wide Field Optical Spectrometer, WFOS)中的应用进行了研究。包括对大气视宁度的简化模拟、TMT中M3的移动对系统PSSN的影响、WFOS中准直镜的移动对系统PSSN的影响、在不同大气湍流的条件下PSSN与天顶角的关系以及PSSN与波像差的均方根值(root mean square of wavefront error, RMS WFE)µ之间的关系。结果表明, PSSN对视宁度受限下的TMT的像质评价是有效的。%The image evaluation of optical system is the core of optical design. Based on the analysis and comparison of the PSSN (Normalized Point Source Sensitivity) pro-posed by the image evaluation of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) and the common image evaluation method, the application of PSSN in the TMT WFOS (Wide Field Optical Spectrometer) is studied. It includes a simplified simulation of the atmospheric seeing, effects of the movement of M3 on PSSN of the system, effects of the collimating mirror movement in the WFOS on PSSN of the system, the relation between PSSN and the zenith angle under the conditions of different atmospheric turbulences, and the relation between PSSN and wavefront aberration. The results show that the PSSN is effective for the evaluation of the TMT under a limited atmospheric seeing.

  19. Inexpensive Raman Spectrometer for Undergraduate and Graduate Experiments and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Spencer, Claire L.; Hippler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of an inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer that has been assembled in the framework of a fourth-year undergraduate project (costs below $5000). The spectrometer is based on a 4 mW 532 nm green laser pointer and a compact monochromator equipped with glass fiber optical connections, linear detector…

  20. Inexpensive Raman Spectrometer for Undergraduate and Graduate Experiments and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Spencer, Claire L.; Hippler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of an inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer that has been assembled in the framework of a fourth-year undergraduate project (costs below $5000). The spectrometer is based on a 4 mW 532 nm green laser pointer and a compact monochromator equipped with glass fiber optical connections, linear detector…

  1. Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip with Gradient Line Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A spectrometer that includes a grating that disperses light via Fresnel diffraction according to wavelength onto a sensing area that coincides with an optical axis plane of the grating. The sensing area detects the dispersed light and measures the light intensity associated with each wavelength of the light. Because the spectrometer utilizes Fresnel diffraction, it can be miniaturized and packaged as an integrated circuit.

  2. Measurement of the Spatial Distribution of the Spectral Response Variation in the Field of View of the ASD Spectrometer Input Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    obtained by scanning the integrating sphere light source. For the focus adjustment df=0, i.e., for an object at the infinite distance, the detector catches ...telescope, scanning mechanism and light source. .......................................................... 9 Figure 7: Blackbody light source...Figure 25: Effect of the limited FOV of the optical fibre placed in the detector pupil . ................ 24 DRDC-RDDC-2014-R122 v

  3. High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy with VBT Echelle Spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Kameswara Rao; S. Sriram; K. Jayakumar; F. Gabriel

    2005-06-01

    The optical design and performance of the recently commissioned fiber fed echelle spectrometer of 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope are described. The use of it for stellar spectroscopic studies is discussed.

  4. End-to-End System Test and Optical Performance Evaluation for the Solar and Heliosphere Observatory (SOHO) Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, Paolo A.; Gardner, Larry D.; Jhabvala, Marzy; Nicolosi, P.

    1997-01-01

    The UVCS is one of the instruments carried by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a joint NASA/ESA Spacecraft launched in November 1995. It is designed to perform ultraviolet spectroscopy and visible light polarimetry of the extended solar corona. The primary scientific objectives of the UVCS investigation are to study the physical processes occurring in the extended solar corona, such as: the mechanism of acceleration of the solar wind, the mechanism of coronal plasma heating, the identification of solar wind sources, and the investigation of the plasma properties of the solar wind. The UVCS End-to-End test activities included a comprehensive set of system level functional and optical tests. Although performed under severe schedule constraints, the End-to-End System Test was very successful and served to fully validate the UVCS optical design. All test results showed that the primary scientific objectives of the UVCS Mission were achievable.

  5. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  6. The SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  7. Upgrade of an old Raman Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of a conventional Jeol Raman spectrometer with a single channel photo multiplier detector is described. New optical components (fibres, mirror, lens and CCD detector) have been chosen to design a high quality and easy-to-use instrument. Tests have shown that with this modified...... spectrometer Raman spectra can be acquired of a quality comparable to the spectra obtained previously, but the time needed to obtain a spectrum is markedly reduced. Selected test spectra and a simple calibration procedure to obtain the wavenumber values from the band CCD pixel position are presented....

  8. Upgrade of an old Raman Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of a conventional Jeol Raman spectrometer with a single channel photo multiplier detector is described. New optical components (fibres, mirror, lens and CCD detector) have been chosen to design a high quality and easy-to-use instrument. Tests have shown that with this modified...... spectrometer Raman spectra can be acquired of a quality comparable to the spectra obtained previously, but the time needed to obtain a spectrum is markedly reduced. Selected test spectra and a simple calibration procedure to obtain the wavenumber values from the band CCD pixel position are presented....

  9. Improved Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Mass Spectrometer project will develop system requirements and analyze the path to space qualification.   The results of this project...

  10. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  11. A wide spectral range photoacoustic aerosol absorption spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, C; Menzenbach, P; Bladt, H; Niessner, R

    2012-11-06

    A photoacoustic spectrometer for the measurement of aerosol absorption spectra, based on the excitation of a pulsed nanosecond optical parametrical oscillator (OPO), will be introduced. This spectrometer is working at ambient pressure and can be used to detect and characterize different classes of aerosols. The spectrometer features a spectral range of 410 to 2500 nm and a sensitivity of 2.5 × 10(-7) m(-1) at 550 nm. A full characterization of the system in the visible spectral range is demonstrated, and the potential of the system for near IR measurement is discussed. In the example of different kinds of soot particles, the performance of the spectrometer was assessed. As we demonstrate, it is possible to determine a specific optical absorption per particle by a combination of the new spectrometer with an aerosol particle counter.

  12. [Determination of nine hazardous elements in textiles by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after microwave-assisted dilute nitric acid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Dian-dou; Tang, Xiao-ping; Cao, Jing; Liu, Ya-ting; Deng, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Textiles are easily contaminated by heavy metals in the course of processing. In order to monitor the quality of textiles, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of arsenic, antimony, lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel and mercury in textiles by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted dilute nitric acid extraction. After optimizing extraction conditions, we ultimately selected 5% nitric acid as extractant and 5 min as extraction time with the extraction temperature of 120 degrees C and instrument power of 400W in the microwave-assisted extraction procedure. Nine hazardous elements were detected sequentially by ICP-OES. The results showed that the detection limits were 0.3-15 microg x L(-1) and the recoveries 73.6%-105% with the RSDs (n = 3) of 0.1%-3%. The proposed method was successfully used to determine nine elements in cotton, wool, terylene and acrylic.

  13. An echelle diffraction grating for imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minyue; Wang, Han; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate an echelle diffraction grating (EDG) of 17 input waveguides and 33 output waveguides. For each input waveguide, only 17 of 33 output waveguides are used, receiving light ranging from 1520 nm to 1600 nm wavelength. The channel spacing of the EDG is 5 nm, with loss of -6dB and crosstalk of -17dB for center input waveguide and -15dB for edge input waveguides. Based on the 3 μm SOI platform the device is polarization insensitive. As a simple version of EDG spectrometer it is designed to be a part of the on-chip spectroscopic system of the push-broom scanning imaging spectrometer. The whole on-chip spectrometer consists of an optical on-off switch array, a multi-input EDG and detector array. With the help of on-off switch array the multiple input waveguides of the EDG spectrometer could work in a time division multiplexed fashion. Since the switch can scan very fast (less than 10 microseconds), the imaging spectrometer can be operated in push-broom mode. Due to the CMOS compatibility, the 17_channel EDG scales 2.5×3 mm2. The full version of EDG spectrometer is designed to have 129 input waveguides and 257 output waveguides (129 output channel for each input waveguide), working in wavelength ranging from 1250 nm to 1750 nm, and had similar blazed facet size with the 17_channel one, which means similar fabrication tolerance in grating facets. The waveguide EDG based imaging spectrometer can provide a low-cost solution for remote sensing on unmanned aerial vehicles, with advantages of small size, light weight, vibration-proof, and high scalability.

  14. A micromachined mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, G.; Siebert, P.; Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Microsystemtechnology

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the concept, the processing and the simulated and measured characteristics of a miniaturised mass spectrometer, with dimensions of approximately only a few cm{sup 3}. The mass spectrometer consists of three main parts to be manufactured by micro structuring: an electron source, an ionisation chamber including accelerating and focusing units and a mass analyser with detector. Its fabrication is based on techniques used in micro-system processing and in particular anisotropic etching, thin film deposition, electroplating, and anodic bonding. The aim of the concept for this micro mass spectrometer is not only to scale down a macroscopic system but it also takes advantage of the added features of a micro system, i.e. a high Knudsen number of about 3 at a pressure of a few Pascal, and high field strengths at a relatively low voltage. Therefore, the demands on the vacuum systems and the electrical circuits are much more simple compared to a macroscopic mass spectrometer. In the presented design of the micro mass spectrometer the resolution is in the range of 10 to 20 at a sensitivity of several tens of ppm. (orig.)

  15. Photonic bandgap fiber bundle spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hang, Qu; Syed, Imran; Guo, Ning; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber spectrometer consisting of a photonic bandgap fiber bundle and a black and white CCD camera. Photonic crystal fibers used in this work are the large solid core all-plastic Bragg fibers designed for operation in the visible spectral range and featuring bandgaps of 60nm - 180nm-wide. 100 Bragg fibers were chosen to have complimentary and partially overlapping bandgaps covering a 400nm-840nm spectral range. The fiber bundle used in our work is equivalent in its function to a set of 100 optical filters densely packed in the area of ~1cm2. Black and white CCD camera is then used to capture spectrally "binned" image of the incoming light at the output facet of a fiber bundle. To reconstruct the test spectrum from a single CCD image we developed an algorithm based on pseudo-inversion of the spectrometer transmission matrix. We then study resolution limit of this spectroscopic system by testing its performance using spectrally narrow test peaks (FWHM 5nm-25nm) centered at va...

  16. HyTES: Thermal Imaging Spectrometer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Realmuto, Vincent; Lamborn, Andy; Paine, Chris; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES). It is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer based on the Dyson optical configuration. First low altitude test flights are scheduled for later this year. HyTES uses a compact 7.5-12 micrometer m hyperspectral grating spectrometer in combination with a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) and grating based spectrometer. The Dyson design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). Cooling requirements are minimized due to the single monolithic prism-like grating design. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal science-grade imaging spectroscopy solution for high altitude, lighter-than-air (HAA, LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The QWIP sensor allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity which allows for near 100mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. The QWIP's repeatability and uniformity will be helpful for data integrity since currently an onboard calibrator is not planned. A calibration will be done before and after eight hour flights to gage any inconsistencies. This has been demonstrated with lab testing. Further test results show adequate NEDT, linearity as well as applicable earth science emissivity target results (Silicates, water) measured in direct sunlight.

  17. SPECIES: a multi-channel infrared laser spectrometer with optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption for in-situ balloon-borne and airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Patrick; Catoire, Valery; Chartier, Michel; Robert, Claude; Krysztofiak, Gisele; Huret, Nathalie; Romanini, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decades, thanks to significant technological advances in measurement techniques, our understanding of the chemistry and dynamics of the upper troposphere and stratosphere has progressed significantly. However some key questions remain unsolved and new ones arise in the climate change context. The full recovery of the ozone layer in a period of halogens decrease and N2O increase (and the delay of this recovery), the impact of the climate change on the stratosphere and the role of this one as a feedback are very uncertain. To address these challenges, one needs instruments able to measure a wide variety of trace gases simultaneously with a wide vertical range, combined to chemical and dynamical modelling at different scales. LPC2E and LIPHY laboratories are developing a new balloon-borne and airborne instrument: SPECIES (SPECtromètre Infrarouge à lasErs in Situ). Based on the Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) technique combined with mid-infrared quantum or interband cascade lasers (QCLs or ICLs), this instrument will offer unprecedented performances in terms of vertical extent of the measurements, from ground to the middle stratosphere, and number of molecular species simultaneously measured with sub-ppb detection limits (e.g. O3, N2O, HNO3, NH3, H2O2, HCl, HOCl,CF2O, CH4, CH2O, CO, CO2, OCS, SO2). Due to high frequency measurement (>0.5 Hz) it shall offer very high spatial resolution (a few meters).

  18. The GRIFFIN spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is an advanced new high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer being developed for use in decay spectroscopy experiments with low-energy radioactive ion beams provided by TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC-I) radioactive ion beam facility. GRIFFIN will be comprised of sixteen large-volume clover-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray detectors coupled to custom digital signal processing electronics and used in conjunction with a suite of auxiliary detection systems. This article provides an overview of the GRIFFIN spectrometer and its expected performance characteristics.

  19. Miniaturised TOF mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, U.; Wurz, P.; Whitby, J.

    2003-04-01

    For the BepiColombo misson of ESA to Mercury, we built a prototype of a miniaturised Time of Flight mass spectrometer with a low mass and low power consumption. Particles will be set free form the surface and ionized by short laser pluses. The mass spectrometer is dedicated to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of almost all elements of Mercurys planetary surface with an adequate dynamique range, mass range and mass resolution. We will present first results of our prototype and future designs.

  20. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  1. Dedicated monolithic infrared spectrometer for process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Suneet; Kyle, William; Bolduc, Roy A.; Curtiss, Lawrence E.

    1999-12-01

    Foster-Miller has leveraged its innovations in IR fiber- optic probes and the recent development of a miniature spectrometer to build a novel IR sensor system for process applications. The developed sensor systems is a low-cost alternative to process FTIR and filter based systems. A monolithic wedge-grating optic provides the spectral dispersion with low cost thermopile point or array detectors picking off the diffracted wavelengths from the optic. The integrated optic provides spectral discrimination between 3- 12 micrometers with resolution at 8 cm-1 or better and high overall optical throughput. The device has a fixed cylindrical grating uniquely bonded to the edge of a ZnSe conditioning 'wedge'. The conditioning optic overcomes limitations of concave gratings as it accepts high angle light at the narrow end of the wedge and progressively conditions it to be near normal to the grating. On return, the diffracted wavelengths are concentrated on the discrete or array detector elements by the wedge, providing throughput comparable to that of an FTIR. The miniature spectrometer coupled to flow through liquid cells or multipass gas cells provides significant cost advantage over conventional sampling methodologies. Currently, we are investigating process applications for the petroleum and dairy markets. The sensor system eliminates the cost, complexity, reliability and bandwidth/resolution problems associated with either Fabry Perot or Michelson Interferometer based approaches for low-cost process applications.

  2. Current instrument status of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Porter, Wallace M.

    1991-01-01

    An upgraded version of AVIRIS, an airborne imaging spectrometer based on a whiskbroom-type scanner coupled via optical fibers to four dispersive spectrometers, that has been in operation since 1987 is described. Emphasis is placed on specific AVIRIS subsystems including foreoptics, fiber optics, and an in-flight reference source; spectrometers and detector dewars; a scan drive mechanism; a signal chain; digital electronics; a tape recorder; calibration systems; and ground support requirements.

  3. The Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, G. A.; Laughlin, K. B.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description is presented for a tunable far infrared laser spectrometer based on frequency mixing of an optically pumped molecular gas laser with tunable microwave radiation in a Schottky point contact diode. The system has been operated on over 30 laser lines in the range 10-100/cm and exhibits a maximum absorption sensitivity near one part in a million. Each laser line can be tuned by + or - 110 GHz with first-order sidebands.

  4. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  5. Tunable light source for use in photoacoustic spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Scott E.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Armstrong, Karla M.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides a photoacoustic spectrometer that is field portable and capable of speciating complex organic molecules in the gas phase. The spectrometer has a tunable light source that has the ability to resolve the fine structure of these molecules over a large wavelength range. The inventive light source includes an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) having combined fine and coarse tuning. By pumping the OPO with the output from a doped-fiber optical amplifier pumped by a diode seed laser, the inventive spectrometer is able to speciate mixtures having parts per billion of organic compounds, with a light source that has a high efficiency and small size, allowing for portability. In an alternative embodiment, the spectrometer is scanned by controlling the laser wavelength, thus resulting in an even more compact and efficient design.

  6. Thermal stabilization of static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Schwaller, Christian; Tremmel, Anton J.; Koch, Alexander W.

    2017-05-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has become a standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. With this method, an interferogram is created by two beam interference which is subsequently Fourier-transformed. Most Fourier transform spectrometers used today provide the interferogram in the temporal domain. In contrast, static Fourier transform spectrometers generate interferograms in the spatial domain. One example of this type of spectrometer is the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer which offers a high etendue in combination with a simple, miniaturized optics design. As no moving parts are required, it also features a high vibration resistance and high measurement rates. However, it is susceptible to temperature variations. In this paper, we therefore discuss the main sources for temperature-induced errors in static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers: changes in the refractive index of the optical components used, variations of the detector sensitivity, and thermal expansion of the housing. As these errors manifest themselves in temperature-dependent wavenumber shifts and intensity shifts, they prevent static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers from delivering long-term stable spectra. To eliminate these shifts, we additionally present a work concept for the thermal stabilization of the spectrometer. With this stabilization, static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers are made suitable for infrared process spectroscopy under harsh thermal environmental conditions. As the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer uses the so-called source-doubling principle, many of the mentioned findings are transferable to other designs of static Fourier transform spectrometers based on the same principle.

  7. In Situ Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The In Situ Mass Spectrometer projects focuses on a specific subsystem to leverage advanced research for laser-based in situ mass spectrometer development...

  8. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  9. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  10. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Simon; Taylor, Fredric; Ade, Peter; Kunde, Virgil; Jennings, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) is a remote sensing instrument to be flown on the Cassini orbiter. It contains two Fourier transform spectrometers covering wavelengths of 7-1000 microns. The instrument is expected to have higher spectral resolution, smaller field of view, and better signal-to-noise performance than its counterpart, IRIS, on the Voyager missions. These improvements allow the study of the variability of the composition and temperature of the atmospheres of both Saturn and Titan with latitude, longitude and height, as well as allowing the possibility of discovery of previously undetected chemical species in these atmospheres. The long wavelengths accessible to CIRS allow sounding deeper into both atmospheres than was possible with IRIS.

  11. [Current status and prospects of portable NIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yang; Lu, Qi-Peng; Gao, Hong-Zhi; Peng, Zhong-Qi

    2013-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a reliable, rapid, and non-destructive analytical method widely applied in as a number of fields such as agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. In order to suit different applications, near-infrared spectrometers are now varied. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are needed for rapid on-site identification and analysis. Instruments of this kind are rugged, compact and easy to be transported. In this paper, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are reviewed. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are built of different monochromator systems: filter, grating, Fourier-transform methods, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a large number of new methods based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The first part focuses on working principles of different monochromator systems. Advantages and disadvantages of different systems are also briefly mentioned. Descriptions of each method are given in turn. Typical spectrometers of each kind are introduced, and some parameters of these instruments are listed. In the next part we discuss sampling adapters, display, power supply and some other parts, which are designed to make the spectrometer more portable and easier to use. In the end, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are summarized. Future trends of development of portable near-infrared spectrometers in China and abroad are discussed.

  12. Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

  13. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  14. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  15. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  16. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  17. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  18. A wideband spectrometer for the SRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoretto, G.; Natale, V.

    A radiotelescope operating at millimeter wavelengths must be able to analyze an instantaneous bandwidth of at least a few GHz in spectroscopic mode, with a number of spectral points of the order of thousands. Two solutions are examined. In the first, it is assumed that a multi-channel digital spectrometer, with a bandwidth of the order of 100 MHz for each channel, will be available. In this case, a digital filterbank derived from the experience with the ALMA correlator could be used to synthesize a total bandwidth of 1-2 GHz. For wider bandwidths, an acousto-optical spectrometer is proposed. The experience at IRA, Sez. di Firenze with these instruments is presented, and possible solutions are outlined.

  19. Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp; Michael P.

    2008-08-19

    A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

  20. MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.R.

    1960-10-18

    An improved valve is described for precisely regulating the flow of a sample fluid to be analyzed, such as in a mass spectrometer, where a gas sample is allowed to "leak" into an evacuated region at a very low, controlled rate. The flow regulating valve controls minute flow of gases by allowing the gas to diffuse between two mating surfaces. The structure of the valve is such as to prevent the corrosive feed gas from contacting the bellows which is employed in the operation of the valve, thus preventing deterioration of the bellows.

  1. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  2. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  3. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hauschild, K. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-06-15

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  4. [Fourier Transform Spectrometer Based on Rotating Parallel-Mirror-Pair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bao-wei; Xiangli, Bin; Cai, Qi-sheng; Lü, Qun-bo; Zhou, Jin-song

    2015-11-01

    In the temporally-modulated Fourier transform spectroscopy, the translational moving mirror is difficult to drive accurately, causing tilt and shear problems. While, a rotational moving mirror can solve these problems. A rotary Fourier transform spectrometer is recommanded in this paper. Its principle is analyzed and the optical path difference is deduced. Also, the constrains for engineering realization are presented. This spectrometer consists of one beamsplitter, two fixed mirrors, one rotating parallel mirror pair, a collimating lens, a collecting lens, and one detector. From it's principle, this spectrometer show a simple structure, and it is assembled and adjustmented easily because the two split light are interfered with each other after reflected through the same plane mirror; By calculating the expression of it's optical path difference, the spectrometer is easy to realize large optical path difference, meaning high spectral resolution; Through analyzing it's engineering design constraints and computer simulation, it is known that the spectrometer should get the high resolution sample by high-speed spinning motor, so it is easy to achieve precise motion control, good stability, fast measurement speed.

  5. Miniaturized photoacoustic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Robinson, Alex; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul J.

    2016-08-09

    A low-power miniaturized photoacoustic sensor uses an optical microphone made by semiconductor fabrication techniques, and optionally allows for all-optical communication to and from the sensor. This allows integration of the photoacoustic sensor into systems with special requirements, such as those that would be reactive in an electrical discharge condition. The photoacoustic sensor can also be operated in various other modes with wide application flexibility.

  6. Miniaturized photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Robinson, Alex; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul J.

    2016-08-09

    A low-power miniaturized photoacoustic sensor uses an optical microphone made by semiconductor fabrication techniques, and optionally allows for all-optical communication to and from the sensor. This allows integration of the photoacoustic sensor into systems with special requirements, such as those that would be reactive in an electrical discharge condition. The photoacoustic sensor can also be operated in various other modes with wide application flexibility.

  7. The Berkeley EUV spectrometer for ORFEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, M.; Bowyer, S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel EUV spectrometer is presented for the ORFEUS-SPAS mission. It uses a set of four varied line-space spherical diffraction gratings to obtain high-resolution spectra of point sources at wavelengths between 390 and 1200 A. The spectra are recorded with two detector units, each containing curved-surface microchannel plates and a delay-line anode-readout system. An independent optical system detects the image of the source in the entrance aperture and tracks the source as it drifts during an observation, enabling a reconstruction of the spectra postflight. The overall system performance is discussed and illustrated by synthetic spectra.

  8. Design of Fore Optical System in Space-Borne Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Trace Gas Monitoring%星载大气痕量气体差分吸收光谱仪前置光学系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司福祺; 江宇; 江庆五; 薛辉; 周海金; 刘文清

    2013-01-01

    Space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer is used for atmospheric trace gas distribution monitoring through acquiring high accuracy ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) radiation scattered or reflected by air or earth surface. To achieve the goals of large view angle, wide UV/VIS waveband detection, high spectral resolution and compact structure in space, a fore optical system is designed. It includes fore-optics telescope and relay optical system. To detect viewing field at 114° in cross-orbit direction, fore-optics telescope with two pieces of off-axis spherical mirrors is designed. Relay optical system consists of relay mirror, color-separation filters, and relay lens, which separates the incident light into four spectral channels covering 240 ~ 710 nm. Then we import each beam of light into corresponding spectral imaging channels respectively. The design result shows that the fore optical system works efficiently inside the field of view for both UV and VIS waveband, providing good imaging quality. That makes it possible to implement high spectral resolution of subsequent systems. The fore optical system has more compact structure and lighter weight comparing with other products. It can meet the requirement of spaceborne and airborne platforms without using a scan mirror.%星载大气痕量气体差分吸收光谱仪通过获取地球大气或地表反射、散射的紫外/可见光辐射,监测大气痕量气体的全球分布.为实现大视场、紫外/可见光宽波段探测、高光谱分辨率和小型化等研制目标,设计了一种前置光学系统,具体由前置望远镜和中继光学系统构成.其中,前置望远镜通过两片偏轴球面镜实现在交轨方向114°视场的覆盖;中继光学系统则通过中继反射镜、分色片及中继镜头将探测光谱(240~710 nm)分为4个光谱通道,并将各谱段的光分别导入各自光谱成像系统中进行探测.设计结果表明,前置光学系统在大视场范围内

  9. Miniature high-performance infrared spectrometer for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Haddad, Emile; Wong, Brian; Lafrance, Denis; Jamroz, Wes; Ghosh, Asoke K.; Zheng, Wanping; Phong, Linh

    2004-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy probes the characteristic vibrational and rotational modes of chemical bonds in molecules to provide information about both the chemical composition and the bonding configuration of a sample. The significant advantage of the Infrared spectral technique is that it can be used with minimal consumables to simultaneously detect a large variety of chemical and biochemical species with high chemical specificity. To date, relatively large Fourier Transform (FT-IR) spectrometers employing variations of the Michelson interferometer have been successfully employed in space for various IR spectroscopy applications. However, FT-IR systems are mechanically complex, bulky (> 15 kg), and require considerable processing. This paper discusses the use of advanced integrated optics and smart optical coding techniques to significantly extend the performance of miniature IR spectrometers by several orders of magnitude in sensitivity. This can provide the next-generation of compact, high-performance IR spectrometers with monolithically integrated optical systems for robust optical alignment. The entire module can weigh under 3 kg to minimize the mass penalty for space applications. Miniaturized IR spectrometers are versatile and very convenient for small and micro satellite based missions. They can be dedicated to the monitoring of the CO2 in an Earth Observation mission, to Mars exobiology exploration, as well as to vital life support in manned space system; such as the cabin air quality and the quality of the recycled water supply.

  10. Berkeley extreme-ultraviolet airglow rocket spectrometer - BEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D. M.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Berkeley EUV airglow rocket spectrometer (BEARS) instrument is described. The instrument was designed in particular to measure the dominant lines of atomic oxygen in the FUV and EUV dayglow at 1356, 1304, 1027, and 989 A, which is the ultimate source of airglow emissions. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument, the detector, electronics, calibration, flight operations, and results are examined.

  11. Ultra-compact MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Yasser M.; Hassan, Khaled; Anwar, Momen; Alharon, Mohamed H.; Medhat, Mostafa; Adib, George A.; Dumont, Rich; Saadany, Bassam; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-05-01

    Portable and handheld spectrometers are being developed and commercialized in the late few years leveraging the rapidly-progressing technology and triggering new markets in the field of on-site spectroscopic analysis. Although handheld devices were commercialized for the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), their size and cost stand as an obstacle against the deployment of the spectrometer as spectral sensing components needed for the smart phone industry and the IoT applications. In this work we report a chip-sized microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based FTIR spectrometer. The core optical engine of the solution is built using a passive-alignment integration technique for a selfaligned MEMS chip; self-aligned microoptics and a single detector in a tiny package sized about 1 cm3. The MEMS chip is a monolithic, high-throughput scanning Michelson interferometer fabricated using deep reactive ion etching technology of silicon-on-insulator substrate. The micro-optical part is used for conditioning the input/output light to/from the MEMS and for further light direction to the detector. Thanks to the all-reflective design of the conditioning microoptics, the performance is free of chromatic aberration. Complemented by the excellent transmission properties of the silicon in the infrared region, the integrated solution allows very wide spectral range of operation. The reported sensor's spectral resolution is about 33 cm-1 and working in the range of 1270 nm to 2700 nm; upper limited by the extended InGaAs detector. The presented solution provides a low cost, low power, tiny size, wide wavelength range NIR spectral sensor that can be manufactured with extremely high volumes. All these features promise the compatibility of this technology with the forthcoming demand of smart portable and IoT devices.

  12. CHIRON – A new high resolution spectrometer for CTIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy G.W.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Small telescopes can play an important role in the search for exoplanets because they offer an opportunity for high cadence observations that are not possible with large aperture telescopes. However, there is a shortage of high resolution spectrometers for precision Doppler planet searches. We report on an innovative design for CHIRON, an inexpensive spectrometer that we are building for the 1.5-m telescope at CTIO in Chile. The resolution will be R >80.000, the spectral format spanning 410 to 880 nm. The total throughput of the telescope and spectrometer will be better than 12%, comparable with the efficiency of state-of-the-art spectrometers. The design is driven by the requirements for precision Doppler searches for exoplanets using an iodine cell. The optical layout is a classical echelle with 140 mm beam size. The bench-mounted spectrometer will be fibre-fed followed by an image slicer. An apochromatic refractor is used as the camera. Image quality and throughput of the design are excellent over the full spectral range. Extensive use of commercially available components and avoidance of complicated custom optics are key for quick and resource-efficient implementation.

  13. Photo ion spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  14. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  15. Spectrometers and Polyphase Filterbanks in Radio Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Danny C

    2016-01-01

    This review gives an introduction to spectrometers and discusses their use within radio astronomy. While a variety of technologies are introduced, particular emphasis is given to digital systems. Three different types of digital spectrometers are discussed: autocorrelation spectrometers, Fourier transform spectrometers, and polyphase filterbank spectrometers. Given their growing ubiquity and significant advantages, polyphase filterbanks are detailed at length. The relative advantages and disadvantages of different spectrometer technologies are compared and contrasted, and implementation considerations are presented.

  16. Coupling of the recoil mass spectrometer CAMEL to the {gamma}-ray spectrometer GASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolaore, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ackermann, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Bednarczyk, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; De Angelis, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Napoli, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Rossi Alvarez, C. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Bazzacco, D. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Burch, R. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Mueller, L. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Segato, G.F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Scarlassara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1995-05-15

    A project has been realized to link the CAMEL recoil mass spectrometer to the GASP {gamma}-spectrometer in order to perform high resolution and efficiency {gamma}-recoil coincidence measurements. To preserve high flexibility and autonomy in the operation of the two complex apparatus a rough factor two of reduction in the overall heavy ion transmission was accepted in designing the optics of the particle transport from the GASP center to the CAMEL focal plane. The coupled configuration has been tested with the fusion reaction {sup 58}Ni (E=212 MeV)+{sup 64}Ni, obtaining a mass resolution of 1/300 and efficiency between similar 11% and similar 15% for different evaporation products. (orig.).

  17. Novel Micro Fourier Transform Spectrometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Yan-mei; LIANG Jing-qiu; LIANG Zhong-zhu; WANG-Bo; ZHANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    The miniaturization of spectrometer opens a new application area with real-time and on-site measurements. The Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) is much attractive considering its particular advantages among the approaches. This paper reviews the current status of micro FTS in worldwide and describes its developments; In addition, analyzed are the key problems in designing and fabricating FTS to be settled during the miniaturization. Finally, a novel model of micro FTS with no moving parts is proposed and analyzed, which may provide new concepts for the design of spectrometers.

  18. Adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The present proposal describes the development of an adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), or "Snapshot" spectrometer which can "instantaneously"...

  19. Design of a miniaturized integrated spectrometer for spectral tissue sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Gebirie Yizengaw; Hoving, Willem; Ottevaere, Heidi; van der Put, Arthur; Weltjens, Wim; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    Minimally-invasive image-guided procedures become increasingly used by physicians to obtain real-time characterization feedback from the tissue at the tip of their interventional device (needle, catheter, endoscopic or laparoscopic probes, etc…) which can significantly improve the outcome of diagnosis and treatment, and ultimately reduce cost of the medical treatment. Spectral tissue sensing using compact photonic probes has the potential to be a valuable tool for screening and diagnostic purposes, e.g. for discriminating between healthy and tumorous tissue. However, this technique requires a low-cost broadband miniature spectrometer so that it is commercially viable for screening at point-of-care locations such as physicians' offices and outpatient centers. Our goal is therefore to develop a miniaturized spectrometer based on diffractive optics that combines the functionalities of a visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectrometer in one very compact housing. A second goal is that the hardware can be produced in high volume at low cost without expensive time consuming alignment and calibration steps. We have designed a miniaturized spectrometer which operates both in the visible/near-infrared and shortwave-infrared wavelength regions ranging from 400 nm to 1700 nm. The visible/near-infrared part of the spectrometer is designed for wavelengths from 400 nm to 800 nm whereas the shortwave-infrared segment ranges from 850 nm to 1700 nm. The spectrometer has a resolution of 6 nm in the visible/near-infrared wavelength region and 10 nm in the shortwave-infrared. The minimum SNR of the spectrometer for the intended application is about 151 in the VIS/NIR range and 6000 for SWIR. In this paper, the modelling and design, and power budget analysis of the miniaturized spectrometer are presented. Our work opens a door for future affordable micro- spectrometers which can be integrated with smartphones and tablets, and used for point

  20. The polarisation correction for space-borne grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fa-cai; Sun, Quan-she; Chen, Kun-feng; Zhu, Xing-bang; Wang, Shao-shui; Wang, Guo-quan; Zheng, Xiang-liang; Han, Zhong

    2014-02-01

    Satellite measurements of backscattered sunlight contain essential information about the global distribution of atmospheric constituents. Light reflected from the Earth's atmosphere is linearly or partially linearly polarized because of scattering of unpolarized sunlight by air molecules and aerosols. In the ultraviolet and visible part of the spectrum, measurements of space-borne grating spectrometers are in general sensitive to the state of polarization of the observed light. The interaction of polarized light with polarization-sensitive optical devices yields a different radiance that is measured by the detectors than the radiance that enters the instrument. In the OMI and the SBUV/2 instruments the problem of instrument polarization sensitivity is avoided because the polarized backscattered sunlight is depolarized before it interacts with the polarization-sensitive optical components. For GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2 it is intended to eliminate the polarization response of the instrument from the polarization-sensitive measurement. This paper discusses the basic concept of the polarisation correction of the space-borne grating spectrometers by using Mueller matrix calculus. A model was developed using the Mueller Matrices formulation to evaluate the polarization sensitivity of the space-borne grating spectrometers. The optical components are treated as general diattenuators with phase retardance. The correction for this polarization sensitivity is based on broadband polarization measurements. Accurate preflight polarisation calibration of space-borne grating spectrometers is essential for the observational objectives of the instrument, and a special facility has been developed in order to allow the instrument to be calibrated.

  1. Three-dimensional point spread function measurements of imaging spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Jurij; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Bürmen, Miran

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the three-dimensional point spread function (3D PSF) of imaging spectrometers is a challenging task since it requires a small, monochromatic and bright source. Here we introduce a powerful and practical new approach for 3D PSF measurement on the basis of a bright virtual monochromatic point-like source, which is formed by a collimated light beam and a convex spherical mirror. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated and discussed through 3D PSF measurements of an acousto-optic tunable filter based imaging spectrometer.

  2. Analysis and System Design Framework for Infrared Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, B.J.; Smith, B.W.; Laubscher, B.E.; Villeneuve, P.V.; Briles, S.D.

    1999-04-05

    The authors present a preliminary analysis and design framework developed for the evaluation and optimization of infrared, Imaging Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) electro-optic systems. Commensurate with conventional interferometric spectrometers, SHS modeling requires an integrated analysis environment for rigorous evaluation of system error propagation due to detection process, detection noise, system motion, retrieval algorithm and calibration algorithm. The analysis tools provide for optimization of critical system parameters and components including : (1) optical aperture, f-number, and spectral transmission, (2) SHS interferometer grating and Littrow parameters, and (3) image plane requirements as well as cold shield, optical filtering, and focal-plane dimensions, pixel dimensions and quantum efficiency, (4) SHS spatial and temporal sampling parameters, and (5) retrieval and calibration algorithm issues.

  3. A new design approach to innovative spectrometers. Case study: TROPOLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatier, Jean-Baptiste; Baümer, Stefan; Kruizinga, Bob; Vink, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Designing a novel optical system is a nested iterative process. The optimization loop, from a starting point to final system is already mostly automated. However this loop is part of a wider loop which is not. This wider loop starts with an optical specification and ends with a manufacturability assessment. When designing a new spectrometer with emphasis on weight and cost, numerous iterations between the optical- and mechanical designer are inevitable. The optical designer must then be able to reliably produce optical designs based on new input gained from multidisciplinary studies. This paper presents a procedure that can automatically generate new starting points based on any kind of input or new constraint that might arise. These starting points can then be handed over to a generic optimization routine to make the design tasks extremely efficient. The optical designer job is then not to design optical systems, but to meta-design a procedure that produces optical systems paving the way for system level optimization. We present here this procedure and its application to the design of TROPOLITE a lightweight push broom imaging spectrometer.

  4. PANDA: Cold three axes spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Schneidewind

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cold three axes spectrometer PANDA, operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, offers high neutron flux over a large dynamic range keeping the instrumental background comparably low.

  5. Automated Nuclear Quadruple Resonance Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANCHUK, M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of an autodyne Nuclear quadruple resonance spectrometer is offered. The change of frequency of oscillatory LC circuit of the spectrometer is carried out in two ways: by varicap and variable capacitor. A processor module for the capacitor and varicap control is developed. The unit allows to scan and measure the level and frequency of the NQR-signal. The unit is controlled by the personal computer.

  6. Automated Nuclear Quadruple Resonance Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Improvement of an autodyne Nuclear quadruple resonance spectrometer is offered. The change of frequency of oscillatory LC circuit of the spectrometer is carried out in two ways: by varicap and variable capacitor. A processor module for the capacitor and varicap control is developed. The unit allows to scan and measure the level and frequency of the NQR-signal. The unit is controlled by the personal computer.

  7. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The huge superconducting magnet (3 m inside coil diameter, 2 m gap, 18 kGauss) contains a large number of optical spark chambers partly surrounding a hydrogen target which is hit by the beam entering from behind. The half cylindrical aluminium hut houses eight television cameras viewing the spark chambers from the top. The big gas Cerenkov counter in front of the picture (6 m x 4 m x 3 m) which identifies fast forward particles was constructed at Saclay as a contribution of one of the Omega.

  8. Optical Design of Spaceborne Shortwave Infrared Imaging Spectrometer with Wide Field of View%星载大视场短波红外成像光谱仪光学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛庆生; 林冠宇; 宋克非

    2011-01-01

    Based on the requirements of shotwave infrared imaging spectrometer with wide field of view,considering the restrictive off-the-shelf detectors, a split field of view (FOV) method was developed. The principle of split field of view was analyzed. A spaceborne shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer with wide field of view was designed using the method. The imaging spectrometer are composed of a 11.42°telecentric off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic telescope and two offner convex grating spectral imaging system. Ray tracing, optimization and analyzing were performed by CODE V and ZEMAX software. The analyzed results demonstrate that the modulation transfer function for different spectral band is more than 0.7 which satisfies the pre-designed requirement.%根据大视场短波红外成像光谱仪的要求,考虑到市售探测器的限制,提出了视场分离的方法,分析了视场分离方法的原理.利用此方法设计了一个星载大视场短波红外成像光谱仪光学系统,该系统由11.42°远心离轴三反消像散前置望远系统和2个Offner凸面光栅光谱成像系统组成,运用光学设计软件CODE V和ZEMAX对成像光谱仪光学系统进行了光线追迹和优化,并对设计结果进行了分析,分析结果表明,光学系统在各个谱段的光学传递函数均达到0.7以上,完全满足设计指标要求.

  9. Broadband EUV survey spectrometer for short-timescale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, B.E.; Hartog, D.J. Den; Fonck, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    A fast and inexpensive spectrometer system has been developed to record EUV impurity spectra in a magnetic fusion research device. To simplify the vacuum system, light is passed out of the spectrometer`s vacuum to the detector using a sodium-salicylate-coated fiber optic coupler. This coupler is positioned such that the focal field is nearly flat over its aperture. The system`s detector is a microchannel-plate-intensified, linear, self-scanning photodiode array. The 1024-pixel array covers a bandwidth of over 80 nm and is read out once every millisecond. The readout, which is four times faster than the manufacturer`s maximum rating, is fully synchronized to the experiment using a locally-designed control circuit.

  10. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10-11 cm-1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10-23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  11. Performance Validation of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Mair, Katharina

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is scheduled to begin operation in the year 2007, providing experiments with proton-proton collisions. The center-of-mass energy of 14TeV and the design luminosity of 1034 cm−2s−1 will allow to explore many new aspects of fundamental physics. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer aims at a momentum resolution better than 10% for transverse momentum values ranging from pT = 6 GeV to pT = 1TeV. Precision tracking will be performed by Ar-CO2-gas filled Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs), with a single wire resolution of < 100 μm. In total, about 1 200 chambers, arranged in a large structure, will allow muon track measurements over distances up to 15m in a magnetic field of 0.5 T. Given the large size of the spectrometer it is impossible to keep the shape of the muon chambers and their positions stable within the requested tracking accuracy of 50 μm. Therefore the concept of an optical alig...

  12. The Calibration Home Base for Imaging Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Simon Brachmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Calibration Home Base (CHB is an optical laboratory designed for the calibration of imaging spectrometers for the VNIR/SWIR wavelength range. Radiometric, spectral and geometric calibration as well as the characterization of sensor signal dependency on polarization are realized in a precise and highly automated fashion. This allows to carry out a wide range of time consuming measurements in an ecient way. The implementation of ISO 9001 standards in all procedures ensures a traceable quality of results. Spectral measurements in the wavelength range 380–1000 nm are performed to a wavelength uncertainty of +- 0.1 nm, while an uncertainty of +-0.2 nm is reached in the wavelength range 1000 – 2500 nm. Geometric measurements are performed at increments of 1.7 µrad across track and 7.6 µrad along track. Radiometric measurements reach an absolute uncertainty of +-3% (k=1. Sensor artifacts, such as caused by stray light will be characterizable and correctable in the near future. For now, the CHB is suitable for the characterization of pushbroom sensors, spectrometers and cameras. However, it is planned to extend the CHBs capabilities in the near future such that snapshot hyperspectral imagers can be characterized as well. The calibration services of the CHB are open to third party customers from research institutes as well as industry.

  13. Numerical optimization of spherical variable-line-spacing grating X-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocov, V. N., E-mail: vladimir.strocov@psi.ch; Schmitt, T.; Flechsig, U.; Patthey, L. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Chiuzbăian, G. S. [UPMC University Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique - Matière et Rayonnement, 75321 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-03-01

    Operation of an X-ray spectrometer based on a spherical variable-line-spacing grating is analyzed using dedicated ray-tracing software allowing fast optimization of the grating parameters and spectrometer geometry. Operation of an X-ray spectrometer based on a spherical variable-line-spacing (VLS) grating is analyzed using dedicated ray-tracing software allowing fast optimization of the grating parameters and spectrometer geometry. The analysis is illustrated with optical design of a model spectrometer to deliver a resolving power above 20400 at a photon energy of 930 eV (Cu L-edge). With this energy taken as reference, the VLS coefficients are optimized to cancel the lineshape asymmetry (mostly from the coma aberrations) as well as minimize the symmetric aberration broadening at large grating illuminations, dramatically increasing the aberration-limited vertical acceptance of the spectrometer. For any energy away from the reference, corrections to the entrance arm and light incidence angle on the grating are evaluated to maintain the exactly symmetric lineshape. Furthermore, operational modes when these corrections are coordinated are evaluated to maintain either energy-independent focal curve inclination or maximal aberration-limited spectrometer acceptance. The results are supported by analytical evaluation of the coma term of the optical path function. This analysis thus gives a recipe for designing a high-resolution spherical VLS grating spectrometer operating with negligible aberrations at large acceptance and over an extended energy range.

  14. CMOS-compatible silicon nitride spectrometers for lab-on-a-chip spectral sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckeboer, Eva; Nie, Xiaomin; Subramanian, Ananth Z.; Martens, Daan; Bienstman, Peter; Clemmen, Stephane; Severi, Simone; Jansen, Roelof; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel

    2016-05-01

    We report on miniaturized optical spectrometers integrated on a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform based on silicon nitride waveguides and fabricated in a CMOS-compatible approach. As compared to a silicon- on-insulator PIC-platform, the usage of silicon nitride allows for operation in the visible and near infrared. Furthermore, the moderately high refractive index contrast in silicon-nitride photonic wire waveguides provides a valuable compromise between compactness, optical loss and sensitivity to phase error. Three generic types of on-chip spectrometers are discussed: the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometer, the echelle grating or planar concave grating (PCG) spectrometer and the stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) spectrometer. Both the design as well as experimental results are presented and discussed. For the FTS spectrometer a specific design is described in detail leading to an ultra-small (0.1 mm2) footprint device with a resolution of 1 nm and a spectral range of 100nm. Examples are given of the usage of these spectrometers in refractive index biosensing, absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  15. [Sub-field imaging spectrometer design based on Offner structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong-Jun; Yan, Chang-Xiang; Liu, Wei; Dai, Hu

    2013-08-01

    To satisfy imaging spectrometers's miniaturization, lightweight and large field requirements in space application, the current optical design of imaging spectrometer with Offner structure was analyzed, and an simple method to design imaging spectrometer with concave grating based on current ways was given. Using the method offered, the sub-field imaging spectrometer with 400 km altitude, 0.4-1.0 microm wavelength range, 5 F-number of 720 mm focal length and 4.3 degrees total field was designed. Optical fiber was used to transfer the image in telescope's focal plane to three slits arranged in the same plane so as to achieve subfield. The CCD detector with 1 024 x 1 024 and 18 microm x 18 microm was used to receive the image of the three slits after dispersing. Using ZEMAX software optimization and tolerance analysis, the system can satisfy 5 nm spectrum resolution and 5 m field resolution, and the MTF is over 0.62 with 28 lp x mm(-1). The field of the system is almost 3 times that of similar instruments used in space probe.

  16. JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

  17. The design and simulation of single detector MIR spectrometer based on MEMS scanning mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-wei; Wen, Zhi-yu; Zeng, Tian-ling; Wei, Kang-lin

    2011-08-01

    Infrared (IR) spectrometers are very important optical equipments that can be used in industry, science, medicine, agriculture, biology and food safety etc., and the market is growing. However, most traditional IR spectrometers, such as Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) that based on Michelson interferometer principle and scanning monochromator that based on grating scanning, are expensive, relative large volume, and stationary, which can't meet the requirements of specific application such as rapidity, special environment and some special samples. To overcome these drawbacks, innovatory technology-micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology was used in micro IR spectrometers in the past few years. And several prototypes and products that based on several operational principles have been emerged. In this paper, a novel IR micro spectrometer which based on MEMS technology and used single element detector was presented over a wide spectral range (from 2500nm to 5000nm) in the mid infrared (MIR) wavelength regime, and the optical system of it was designed on the basis of traditional scanning monochromator principle. In the optical system, there is a highlighted characteristic that dual spherical focus mirror was used to focus the diffraction light of the diffraction grating, which improved the spectral resolution of the optical system. Finally, using Zemax optical software, three torsion angle locations were selected to simulate the optical system of the spectrometer with the slit's size 0.1mm×1mm. The simulation result indicated that in the whole wavelength range the spectral resolution of the optical system was less than 30nm, and a high accuracy MIR spectrometer with compact volume will be realized in future hopefully.

  18. A high-throughput neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfl, Anton; Noakes, Terry; Bartsch, Friedl; Bertinshaw, Joel; Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica; Nateghi, Ebrahim; Raeside, Tyler; Yethiraj, Mohana; Danilkin, Sergey; Kearley, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    A cross-disciplinary high-throughput neutron spectrometer is currently under construction at OPAL, ANSTO's open pool light-water research reactor. The spectrometer is based on the design of a Be-filter spectrometer (FANS) that is operating at the National Institute of Standards research reactor in the USA. The ANSTO filter-spectrometer will be switched in and out with another neutron spectrometer, the triple-axis spectrometer, Taipan. Thus two distinct types of neutron spectrometers will be accessible: one specialised to perform phonon dispersion analysis and the other, the filter-spectrometer, designed specifically to measure vibrational density of states. A summary of the design will be given along with a detailed ray-tracing analysis. Some preliminary results will be presented from the spectrometer.

  19. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER): the Narrow Band Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Korngut, P M; Arai, T; Battle, J; Bock, J; Brown, S W; Cooray, A; Hristov, V; Keating, B; Kim, M G; Lanz, A; Lee, D H; Levenson, L R; Lykke, K R; Mason, P; Matsumoto, T; Matsuura, S; Nam, U W; Shultz, B; Smith, A W; Sullivan, I; Tsumura, K; Wada, T; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the Solar 854.2 nm CaII Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the Zodiacal light spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the Solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the Zodiacal brightness, testing models of the Zodiacal light based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute Zodiacal light brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

  20. Comparison of laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at the beginning and end of the first flight season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Reimer, John H.; Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral and radiometric calibrations of AVIRIS are described together with changes in instrument characteristics that occurred during the flight season. These changes include detachment of the optical fibers to two of the four AVIRIS spectrometers, degradation in the optical alignment of the spectrometers due to thermally induced and mechanical warpage, and breakage of a thermal blocking filter in one of the spectrometers. Means of improving the instrument are discussed.

  1. Cryogenic magnetic bearing scanning mechanism design for the SPICA/SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Kruizinga, B.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Braam, B.C.; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Loix, N.; Luyckx, S.; Loon, D. van; Kooijman, P.P.; Swinyard, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    TNO, together with its partners Micromega and SRON, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. The optics of the FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) consists of two back-to-back cat's-eyes. The optics are mounted

  2. Cryogenic magnetic bearing scanning mechanism design for the SPICA/SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Kruizinga, B.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Braam, B.C.; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Loix, N.; Luyckx, S.; Loon, D. van; Kooijman, P.P.; Swinyard, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    TNO, together with its partners Micromega and SRON, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. The optics of the FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) consists of two back-to-back cat's-eyes. The optics are mounted o

  3. The smallsat TIR spectrometer MIBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijtens, J.A.P.; Court, A.J.; Lucas, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    In frame of the ESA Earthcare MSI study, TNO Science and Industry has developed a compact spectrometer which is optimized for operation in the 7 to 14 μm wavelength region. By optimizing the throughput of the system, and using the advantages of modern manufacturing technologies to the largest extend

  4. Inside the ETH spectrometer magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The ETH spectrometer magnet being prepared for experiment S134, which uses a frozen spin polarized target to study the associated production of a kaon and a lambda by negative pions interacting with protons (CERN-ETH, Zurich-Helsinki-Imperial College, London-Southampton Collaboration). (See Photo Archive 7406316)

  5. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  6. Inventory Control: Multiport Student Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element or compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen. Included is a list of materials, directions for assembly, and procedures for use. (CW)

  7. The mechanical and thermal setup of the GLORIA spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Piesch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The novel airborne Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA measures infrared emission of atmospheric trace constituents. GLORIA comprises a cooled imaging Fourier transform spectrometer which is operated in unpressurized aircraft compartments at ambient temperature. The whole spectrometer is pointed by the gimbal towards the atmospheric target. In order to reach the required sensitivity for atmospheric emission measurements the spectrometer optics needs to operate at a temperature below 220 K. A lightweight and compact design is mandatory due to limited space and high agility requirements. The cooled optical system needs to withstand high pressure and temperature gradients, humidity, and vibrations. A new cooling system based on carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen combined with high-performance insulation has been developed to meet the mechanical, thermal, and logistical demands. The challenging mechanical and spatial requirements lead to the development of a novel rigid linear slide design in order to achieve the large optical path difference for high spectral resolution. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal setup of GLORIA and presents the performance results on two different research aircrafts.

  8. The mechanical and thermal setup of the GLORIA spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesch, C.; Sartorius, C.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Gulde, T.; Heger, S.; Kretschmer, E.; Maucher, G.; Nordmeyer, H.; Barthel, J.; Ebersoldt, A.; Graf, F.; Hase, F.; Kleinert, A.; Neubert, T.; Schillings, H. J.

    2015-04-01

    The novel airborne Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) measures infrared emission of atmospheric trace constituents. GLORIA comprises a cooled imaging Fourier transform spectrometer, which is operated in unpressurized aircraft compartments at ambient temperature. The whole spectrometer is pointed by the gimbal towards the atmospheric target. In order to reach the required sensitivity for atmospheric emission measurements, the spectrometer optics needs to operate at a temperature below 220 K. A lightweight and compact design is mandatory due to limited space and high agility requirements. The cooled optical system needs to withstand high pressure and temperature gradients, humidity, and vibrations. A new cooling system based on carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen combined with high-performance insulation has been developed to meet the mechanical, thermal, and logistical demands. The challenging mechanical and spatial requirements lead to the development of a novel rigid linear slide design in order to achieve the large optical path difference for high spectral resolution. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal setup of GLORIA and presents the performance results on two different research aircrafts.

  9. Compact high-resolution micro-spectrometer on chip: spectral calibration and first spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diard, Thomas; de la Barrière, Florence; Ferrec, Yann; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Le Coarer, Etienne; Martin, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    Compact and hand-held spectrometers may be very interesting for the measurement of spectral signatures of chemicals or objects. To achieve this goal, ONERA and IPAG have developed a new on chip Fourier Transform Spectrometer operating in the visible spectral range with a high spectral resolution (near 2 cm-1), named visible HR SPOC (visible High Resolution Spectrometer On Chip). It is directly inspired from the MICROSPOC infrared spectrometer, studied at ONERA in the past years. This spectrometer is made of a stair-step two-wave interferometer directly glued on a CMOS detector making it a very compact prototype. After calibrating the optical path difference, measurements of experimental spectra are presented.

  10. 大视场高分辨力星载成像光谱仪光学系统设计%Optical System Design of Wide-Angle and High-Resolution Spaceborne Imaging Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛庆生; 黄煜; 林冠宇

    2011-01-01

    大视场、高分辨力星载成像光谱仪已成为空间遥感的迫切需求.根据大视场、高分辨力的研究目标,提出了先视场分离分光再用分色片分光的设计方法,分析了视场分离分光的原理.设计了一个全反射式星载成像光谱仪光学系统,该系统由指向镜、11.42°远心离轴三反消像散(TMA)前置望远系统和4个Offner凸面光栅光谱成像系统组成,通过恰当选择4个光谱成像系统的变倍比来实现2种探测器的匹配.运用光学设计软件CODE V对成像光谱仪调制系统进行了光线追迹和优化,并对设计结果进行了分析.分析结果表明,光学系统在各个谱段的光学传递函数均达到0.7以上,完全满足设计指标要求;同时证明了设计方法是可行的.%Space remote sensing urgently requires wide-angle and high-resolution spaceborne imaging spectrometer. According to the research objective of wide angle and high resolution, the design method of firstly dividing field of view (FOV) and secondly dividing beam using dichroscope is developed. The principle of dividing FOV is analyzed. A reflective spaceborne imaging spectrometer is designed, which is composed of a pointing mirror, a 11.42° telecentric off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope and four Offner convex grating spectral imaging systems. The proper magnification is chosen for each spectral imaging system to match two types of detectors. Ray tracing and optimization are performed and analyzed by CODE V software. The results demonstrate that the modulation transfer function (MTF) for different spectral bands is more than 0. 7, which satisfies the pre-designed requirement. The design method is proved to be feasible.

  11. [Design of a Component and Transmission Imaging Spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-peng; Zhang, Yi; Yue, Jiang; Han, Jing; Bai, Lian-fa

    2015-05-01

    In the reflection-based imaging spectrometer, multiple reflection(diffraction) produces stray light and it is difficult to assemble. To address that, a high performance transmission spectral imaging system based on general optical components was developed. On the basis of simple structure, the system is easy to assemble. And it has wide application and low cost compared to traditional imaging spectrometers. All components in the design can be replaced according to different application situations, having high degree of freedom. In order to reduce the influence of stray light, a method based on transmission was introduced. Two sets of optical systems with different objective lenses were simulated; the parameters such as distortion, MTF and aberration.were analyzed and optimized in the ZEMAX software. By comparing the performance of system with different objective len 25 and 50 mm, it can be concluded that the replacement of telescope lens has little effect on imaging quality of whole system. An imaging spectrometer is developed successfully according design parameters. The telescope lens uses double Gauss structures, which is beneficial to reduce field curvature and distortion. As the craftsmanship of transmission-type plane diffraction grating is mature, it can be used without modification and it is easy to assemble, so it is used as beam-split. component of the imaging spectrometer. In addition, the real imaging spectrometer was tested for spectral resolution and distortion. The result demonstrates that the system has good ability in distortion control, and spectral resolution is 2 nm. These data satisfy the design requirement, and obtained spectrum of deuterium lamp through calibrated system are ideal results.

  12. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L. Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (˜1 μ m) and detector pixels (˜5 μ m) with high line density gratings (˜3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  13. [Design and implementation of a long wavelength near infrared spectrometer based on MEMS scanning mirror].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kun-Tao; Dong, Tai-Yuan; He, Wen-Xi; Li, Yu-Xiao; Cheng, Xian-Ming; Li, Guang-Yong; Li, Hao-Yu; Xu, Hao-Yu

    2014-10-01

    Long Wavelength Near InfraRed (LW-NIR) spectrometer has wide applications. Miniaturization and low-cost are two major goals of the development of LW-NIR spectrometer in the industrial or research community. Under the background that having a trend of spectrometer miniaturization and integration, method and main problems involved in miniaturization of LW-NIR spectrometer through MEMS scanning mirror, such as the design strategy of the light-splitting optical system, selection considerations of the MEMS scanning mirror, design method of the preamplifier circuit, etc, have been presented in detail. A prototype of miniaturized LW-NIR spectrometer, with the spectrum range of detection of 900-2,055 nm, is designed and implemented using MEMS scanning mirror, InGaAs single detector unit with high sensitivity. Littrow optical layout is used for its light-splitting optical system, and the spectral resolution is between 9.4-16 nm at 1,000-1,965 nm detection wavelength range. The prototype is successfully applied in LW-NIR spectrum measurement on pure water and ethanol aqueous solution, and a forecast analysis on ethanol aqueous solution concentration is also demonstrated. Through adopting MEMS scanning mirror into the spectrometer system, the complexity of the mechanical scanning fixtures and its controlling mechanism is greatly reduced therefore the size of the spectrometer is reduced. Furthermore, due to MEMS scanning mirror technology, LW-NIR spectrometer with single InGaAs detector is achieved, thus the cost reduction of the NIR spectrometer system is also realized because the expensive InGaAs arrays are avoided.

  14. Design and experiment of spectrometer based on scanning micro-grating integrating with angle sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biao, Luo; Wen, Zhi-yu

    2014-01-01

    A compact, low cost, high speed, non-destructive testing NIR (near infrared) spectrometer optical system based on MOEMS grating device is developed. The MOEMS grating works as the prismatic element and wavelength scanning element in our optical system. The MOEMS grating enables the design of compact grating spectrometers capable of acquiring full spectra using a single detector element. This MOEMS grating is driven by electromagnetic force and integrated with angle sensor which used to monitored deflection angle while the grating working. Comparing with the traditional spectral system, there is a new structure with a single detector and worked at high frequency. With the characteristics of MOEMS grating, the structure of the spectrometer system is proposed. After calculating the parameters of the optical path, ZEMAX optical software is used to simulate the system. According the ZEMAX output file of the 3D model, the prototype is designed by SolidWorks rapidly, fabricated. Designed for a wavelength range between 800 nm and 1500 nm, the spectrometer optical system features a spectral resolution of 16 nm with the volume of 97 mm × 81.7 mm × 81 mm. For the purpose of reduce modulated effect of sinusoidal rotation, spectral intensity of the different wavelength should be compensated by software method in the further. The system satisfies the demand of NIR micro-spectrometer with a single detector.

  15. Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. 1. Analysis of aerosol extinction spectra from the AMON and SALOMON balloonborne spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Gwenaël; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Brogniez, Colette; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Pirre, Michel

    2002-12-20

    Aerosol extinction coefficients have been derived in the 375-700-nm spectral domain from measurement in the stratosphere since 1992, at night, at mid- and high latitudes from 15 to 40 km, by two balloonborne spectrometers, Absorption par les Minoritaires Ozone et NO(chi) (AMON) and Spectroscopie d'Absorption Lunaire pour l'Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NO(chi) (SALOMON). Log-normal size distributions associated with the Mie-computed extinction spectra that best fit the measurements permit calculation of integrated properties of the distributions. Although measured extinction spectra that correspond to background aerosols can be reproduced by the Mie scattering model by use of monomodal log-normal size distributions, each flight reveals some large discrepancies between measurement and theory at several altitudes. The agreement between measured and Mie-calculated extinction spectra is significantly improved by use of bimodal log-normal distributions. Nevertheless, neither monomodal nor bimodal distributions permit correct reproduction of some of the measured extinction shapes, especially for the 26 February 1997 AMON flight, which exhibited spectral behavior attributed to particles from a polar stratospheric cloud event.

  16. Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. I. Analysis of aerosol extinction spectra from the AMON and SALOMON balloonborne spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Gwenaël; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Brogniez, Colette; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Pirre, Michel

    2002-12-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficients have been derived in the 375-700-nm spectral domain from measurements in the stratosphere since 1992, at night, at mid- and high latitudes from 15 to 40 km, by two balloonborne spectrometers, Absorption par les Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (AMON) and Spectroscopie d'Absorption Lunaire pour l'Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (SALOMON). Log-normal size distributions associated with the Mie-computed extinction spectra that best fit the measurements permit calculation of integrated properties of the distributions. Although measured extinction spectra that correspond to background aerosols can be reproduced by the Mie scattering model by use of monomodal log-normal size distributions, each flight reveals some large discrepancies between measurement and theory at several altitudes. The agreement between measured and Mie-calculated extinction spectra is significantly improved by use of bimodal log-normal distributions. Nevertheless, neither monomodal nor bimodal distributions permit correct reproduction of some of the measured extinction shapes, especially for the 26 February 1997 AMON flight, which exhibited spectral behavior attributed to particles from a polar stratospheric cloud event.

  17. Large-Scale Production of Monitored Drift Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck, S; Richter, R; Zhuravlov, V

    2016-01-01

    Precision drift tube chambers with a sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 20 microns are under construction for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. 70% of the 88 large chambers for the outermost layer of the central part of the spectrometer have been assembled. Measurements during chamber construction of the positions of the sense wires and of the sensors for the optical alignment monitoring system demonstrate that the requirements for the mechanical precision of the chambers are fulfilled.

  18. Diseno y construccion de un espectrometro NIR; Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Molero Menendez, F.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-07-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  19. [Study and design on Dyson imaging spectrometer in spectral broadband with high resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling-Wei

    2014-04-01

    The paper designs and improves a telecentric imaging spectrometer, the Dyson imaging spectrometer. The optical structure of the imaging spectrometer is simple and compact, which is only composed of a hemispherical lens and a concave grating. Based on the Rowland circle and refraction theory, the broadband anastigmatic imaging condition of Dyson imaging spectrometer which is the ratio of the grating radius and hemispherical lens radius has been analyzed. By imposing this condition for two different wavelengths, the parameters of the optical system presenting low aberrations and excellent imaging quality are obtained. To make the design spectrometer more suitable for the engineering application, the paper studies the method making the detector not to attach the surface of the hemispherical lens. A design example using optimal conditions was designed to prove our theory. The Dyson imaging spectrometer of which the imaging RMS radii are less than 2.5 microm and the advanced spectrometer of which the imaging RMS radii are less than 8 microm, with NA 0.33, waveband 0.38-1.7 microm and the slit length 15 mm, have been obtained. The design method and results are more feasible and predominant, and can be applied in the areas of the industry and remote sensing.

  20. DLP NIRscan Nano: an ultra-mobile DLP-based near-infrared Bluetooth spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelabert, Pedro; Pruett, Eric; Perrella, Gavin; Subramanian, Sreeram; Lakshminarayanan, Aravind

    2016-02-01

    The DLP NIRscan Nano is an ultra-portable spectrometer evaluation module utilizing DLP technology to meet lower cost, smaller size, and higher performance than traditional architectures. The replacement of a linear array detector with DLP digital micromirror device (DMD) in conjunction with a single point detector adds the functionality of programmable spectral filters and sampling techniques that were not previously available on NIR spectrometers. This paper presents the hardware, software, and optical systems of the DLP NIRscan Nano and its design considerations on the implementation of a DLP-based spectrometer.

  1. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  2. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  3. Acquisition of HPLC-Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    31-Jan-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer The views, opinions and/or findings...published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer Report Title The acquisition of the mass spectrometer has been a

  4. New schemes of static mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisanov, O.A. [Military Institute of Air Defense Forces, Aktobe (Kazakhstan); Doskeyev, G.A. [Aktobe State University named after K. Zhubanov, Aktobe (Kazakhstan); Spivak-Lavrov, I.F., E-mail: baisanov@mail.ru [Aktobe State University named after K. Zhubanov, Aktobe (Kazakhstan)

    2011-07-21

    Different possibilities to increase the 'quality', or Q-quantity, of static mass spectrometers by expanding the ion beam before it enters the magnetic field are analyzed. The design of mass spectrometers using a cone-shaped achromatic prism is discussed. Different variants of achromatic mass spectrometers using electrostatic prisms and sector magnetic fields are also considered.

  5. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer with 25 meV resolution at Cu K-edge

    CERN Document Server

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Klementiev, Konstantin; Upton, Mary; Taherkhani, Mehran; Spiwek, Manfred; Dill, Frank-Uwe; Wille, Hans-Christian; Yavaş, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    An unparalleled resolution is reported with an inelastic x-ray scattering instrument at the Cu K-edge. Based on a segmented concave analyzer, featuring single crystal quartz (SiO_{2}) pixels, the spectrometer delivers a resolution near 25 meV (FWHM) at 8981 eV. Besides the quartz analyzer, the performance of the spectrometer relies on a four-bounce Si(553) high-resolution monochromator and focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. The measured resolution agrees with the ray tracing simulation of an ideal spectrometer. We demonstrated the performance of the spectrometer by reproducing the phonon dispersion curve of a beryllium (Be) single crystal.

  6. Holographic Fabry-Perot spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Matos, O; Rodrigo, José A; Vaveliuk, P; Calvo, M L

    2011-02-15

    We propose a spectrum analyzer based on the properties of a hologram recorded with the field transmitted by a Fabry-Perot etalon. The spectral response of this holographic Fabry-Perot spectrometer (HFPS) is analytically investigated in the paraxial approximation and compared with a conventional Fabry-Perot etalon of similar characteristics. We demonstrate that the resolving power is twice increased and the free spectral range (FSR) is reduced to one-half. The proposed spectrometer could improve the operational performance of the etalon because it can exhibit high efficiency and it would be insensible to environmental conditions such as temperature and vibrations. Our analysis also extends to another variant of the HFPS based on holographic multiplexing of the transmitted field of a Fabry-Perot etalon. This device increases the FSR, keeping the same HFPS performance.

  7. On-chip spiral spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Brandon; Bromberg, Yaron; Sarma, Raktim; Cao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We designed an on-chip spectrometer based on an evanescently-coupled multimode spiral waveguide. Interference between the modes in the waveguide forms a wavelength-dependent speckle pattern which can be used as a fingerprint to identify the input wavelength after calibration. Evanescent coupling between neighboring arms of the spiral enhances the temporal spread of light propagating through the spiral, leading to a dramatic increase in the spectral resolution. Experimentally, we demonstrated that a 250 {\\mu}m radius spiral spectrometer provides a resolution of 0.01 nm at a wavelength of 1520 nm. Spectra containing 40 independent spectral channels can be recovered simultaneously and the operation bandwidth can be increased further when measuring sparse spectra.

  8. Fast temperature spectrometer for samples under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E Ercan; Toellner, Thomas S; Hu, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multi-wavelength Fast Temperature Readout (FasTeR) spectrometer to capture a sample's transient temperature fluctuations, and reduce uncertainties in melting temperature determination. Without sacrificing accuracy, FasTeR features a fast readout rate (about 100 Hz), high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and a well-constrained focus. Complimenting a charge-coupled device spectrometer, FasTeR consists of an array of photomultiplier tubes and optical dichroic filters. The temperatures determined by FasTeR outside of the vicinity of melting are, generally, in good agreement with results from the charge-coupled device spectrometer. Near melting, FasTeR is capable of capturing transient temperature fluctuations, at least on the order of 300 K/s. A software tool, SIMFaster, is described and has been developed to simulate FasTeR and assess design configurations. FasTeR is especially suitable for temperature determinations that utilize ultra-fast techniques under extreme conditions. Working in parallel with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we have applied the FasTeR spectrometer to measure the melting temperature of (57)Fe0.9Ni0.1 at high pressure.

  9. ZeroDegree spectrometer at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Naoki; Kameda, Daisuke; Kusaka, Kensuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohtake, Masao; Inabe, Naohito; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kanenobu

    2009-10-01

    At RI Beam Factory (RIBF) [1] at RIKEN Nishina Center, a variety of fast rare isotope (RI) beams are produced using the BigRIPS in-flight separator [2] for studies of exotic nuclei. The beam line following BigRIPS is designed to work as a forward spectrometer named ZeroDegree, so that it can be used for reaction studies with RI beams. The ZeroDegree spectrometer consists of two dipoles and six superconducting quadrupole triplets, of which designs are essentially the same as those of BigRIPS. It analyzes and indentifies projectile reaction residues, often in coincidence with gamma rays, and can be operated in different optics modes, depending on experimental requirements. The ZeroDegree spectrometer has recently been commissioned and used for a series of full-dress RI-beam experiments. Overview and status of the ZeroDegree spectrometer will be reported.[4pt] [1] Y. Yano: Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 261 (2007) 1009. [0pt] [2] T. Kubo: Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 204 (2003) 97 and T. Ohnishi et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 77 (2008) 083201.

  10. Ultra-compact visible chiral spectrometer with meta-lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Alexander Y.; Chen, Wei-Ting; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Oh, Jaewon; Zaidi, Aun; Mishra, Ishan; Devlin, Robert C.; Capasso, Federico

    2017-03-01

    Conventional compact spectrometers have a fixed spectral resolution and cannot resolve the polarization properties of light without additional optical elements, while their larger counterparts are bulky and costly. Here, we demonstrate multiple off-axis meta-lenses in the visible integrated on a single planar substrate. They possess both focusing and strongly dispersive properties and are designed to provide different spectral resolutions as well as working wavelength ranges on the same chip. We realize a compact spectrometer using only these meta-lenses and a CMOS camera and achieve detector-limited spectral resolutions as small as 0.3 nm and a total working wavelength range exceeding 170 nm for a beam propagation length of only a few cm. In addition, this spectrometer has the capability to resolve different helicities of light in a single measurement. This chip-camera setup represents the most compact configuration so far achieved for a spectrometer with similar performance and functionality, and its compatibility with large-scale fabrication processes makes it broadly applicable.

  11. Use of a Fourier transform spectrometer on a balloon-borne telescope and at the multiple mirror telescope (MMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W. A.; Chance, K. V.; Brasunas, J. C.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Carleton, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    The design and use of an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer which has been used for observations of laboratory, stratospheric, and astronomical spectra are described. The spectrometer has a spectral resolution of 0.032/cm and has operated in the mid-infrared (12 to 13 microns) as well as the far-infrared (40 to 140 microns), using both bolometer and photoconductor cryogenic detectors. The spectrometer is optically sized to accept an f/9 beam from the multi-mirror telescope (MMT). The optical and electronic design are discussed, including remote operation of the spectrometer on a balloon-borne 102-cm telescope. The performance of the laser-controlled, screw-driven moving cat's-eye mirror is discussed. Segments of typical far-infrared balloon flight spectra, lab spectra, and mid-infrared MMT spectra are presented. Data reduction, interferogram processing, artifact removal, wavelength calibration, and intensity calibration methods are discussed. Future use of the spectrometer is outlined.

  12. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  13. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  14. INSCAN PRO: a fast ultraviolet spectrometer design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Brian Walker; Dias, João. Mendanha

    2013-11-01

    Spectroscopy diagnostic techniques have applications in such diverse areas as mechanical and aerospace engineering, physical chemistry, optics, food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the technological state-of-the-art spectrometers do not allow very fast processes to be evaluated or controlled. This ability is crucial in the optimization of industrial processes (welding, burning flames, spark ignition, pulsed radiolysis…) where more theoretical-experimental analysis should be performed. The INSCAN project aims to overcome this technological limitation, to satisfy needs in academia and industrial markets, by developing a compact spectrometer with focal lengths less than 200 mm, taking into account three important aspects: acquisition rate of approximately 10 kHz spectra, spectral resolution on the order of 0.1 nm and operating in the spectral range 200 nm to 700 nm. Initial work is described on the optical design of the device and several possible approaches to achieve the specifications are considered. To guide the first order design, we relate the optical linewidth, spectral bandwidth and imaging properties to component characteristics. The symmetrical Czerny-Turner optical mount was chosen for its flexibility and elaborated using ZEMAX. Predictions made based on the simulated system are compared with calibration and characterization measurements on an experimental test bench used to refine the model assumptions.

  15. Light-guide snapshot spectrometer for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2016-04-01

    We present a proof-of-principle prototype of a fiber-based snapshot spectrometer to provide high spatial and spectral sampling for biomedical application such as cell signaling or diagnostics. An image is collected by a custom fiber bundle and then divided into spatial groups with spaces in between for dispersion. The image is later scaled down by an image taper (to scale down the image size and allow smaller optical components), dispersed with a prism and captured by a CCD camera. An interpolation algorithm is used to locate each wavelength and reconstruct the image for each spectral channel. The fiber bundle is fabricated by aligning multi-mode bare fiber ribbons as matrix, gluing together in Teflon molds, laser cutting and polishing. We present preliminary finger occlusion results obtained with the spectrometer where the oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin spectrum could be differentiated.

  16. Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Florian; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Cossel, Kevin C; Briles, Travis C; Hartl, Ingmar; Ye, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency-comb-based-high-resolution spectrometers offer enormous potential for spectroscopic applications. Although various implementations have been demonstrated, the lack of suitable mid-infrared comb sources has impeded explorations of molecular fingerprinting. Here we present for the first time a frequency-comb Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the 2100-to-3700-cm-1 spectral region that allows fast and simultaneous acquisitions of broadband absorption spectra with up to 0.0056 cm-1 resolution. We demonstrate part-per-billion detection limits in 30 seconds of integration time for various important molecules including methane, ethane, isoprene, and nitrous oxide. Our system enables precise concentration measurements even in gas mixtures that exhibit continuous absorption bands, and it allows detection of molecules at levels below the noise floor via simultaneous analysis of multiple spectral features. This system represents a near real-time, high-resolution, high-bandwidth mid-infrared sp...

  17. High Accuracy Wavelength Calibration For A Scanning Visible Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippo Scotti and Ronald Bell

    2010-07-29

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies ≤ 0.2Â. An automated calibration for a scanning spectrometer has been developed to achieve a high wavelength accuracy overr the visible spectrum, stable over time and environmental conditions, without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement. The method fits all relevant spectrometer paraameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a steping-motor controlled sine-drive, accuracies of ~0.025 Â have been demonstrated. With the addition of high resolution (0.075 aresec) optical encoder on the grading stage, greater precision (~0.005 Â) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements with ~0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively.

  18. A new generation of MEMS middle-infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Seider, Thomas; Gessner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Mid infrared spectroscopy has been developed to a powerful and essential method of material analysis, with a steadily increasing number of industrial and scientific application fields. The so called spectral fingerprint range enables identification of chemical compounds by their unique spectral pattern. To provide a suitable miniaturized and portable MIR spectrometer solution at an affordable price, an existing MEMS NIR spectrometer module which already bases on micro system technology has been expanded in its wavelength range. The developed spectrometer belongs to the category of scanning grating spectrometers. Main component is a fast oscillating micro-mirror which moves sinusoidal with high mechanical precision enabling a high stability of according wavelength axis. This is supported by a highly precise optical tracking of the actual motion. Mono-crystalline silicon guarantees a long-life operation with no wear even under harsh environmental conditions. Spectral signal acquisition is realized by using a TE-cooled MCT single element detector assisted by low noise trans-impedance amplifier. With the help of integrated logic components a data pre-processing takes place, such as averaging, offset subtraction, detector transfer characteristic correction and noise shaping. Due the compact and flexible setup, the spectrometer is suitable for the use in various applications, such as process control in chemical industry, gas mixture analysis or liquid verification. The portability of the device opens up new application possibilities in mobile environment. The advances of the promising technology and its specific applications will be described in this paper. Advanced performance issues of the device be reviewed in detail.

  19. Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR: Instrument Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Shinozuka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution/climate. Direct beam hyper-spectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements will tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/ sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. Technical challenges include compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage. Test results establishing the performance of the instrument against the full range of operational requirements are presented, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and scientific field campaign data and results.

  20. The optimum scheme of a static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on birefringent crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Zhang(张冬青); Fuquan Wu(吴福全); Shuhai Fan(范树海)

    2003-01-01

    An optimum design of static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Savert prisms is presented in this paper. A new method of increasing path difference and resolution of spectrometer is given. When the angle between the crystal optical axis of the first Savert prism and the incident interface is 58° and the angle between the crystal optical axis of the second Savert prism and the incident interface is 28°, the maximum path difference will be 0.63 mm, the maximum resolution will be 15.8 cm-1, and the whole field-of-view will reach 6°.

  1. Behavioral model and simulator for the Multi-slit Optimized Spectrometer (MOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufillaro, Nicholas; Davis, Curtiss O.; Valle, Tim; Good, William; Stephens, Michelle; Spuhler, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The Multi-Slit Optimized Spectrometer (MOS) is a NASA funded Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) to advance an innovative dispersive spectrometer concept in support of the GEO-CAPE ocean science mission. As part of the instruments design and testing, we constructed a `behavioral model' of the instrument's optical engine which allows an end-to-end simulation from input radiances to nal product maps. Here we describe the model used for a rapid, but realistic, simulation of the MOS optical engine, and give illustrative examples of quantitatively tracking errors in the imaging chain from input radiances to bounds on nal product errors.

  2. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jason A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Battel, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Observations of newly ionized atoms that are picked up by the magnetic field in the expanding solar wind contain crucial information about the gas or dust compositions of their origins. The pickup ions (PUIs) are collected by plasma mass spectrometers and analyzed for their density, composition, and velocity distribution. In addition to measurements of PUIs from planetary sources, in situ measurements of interstellar gas have been made possible by spectrometers capable of differentiating between heavy ions of solar and interstellar origin. While important research has been done on these often singly charged ions, the instruments that have detected many of them were designed for the energy range and ionic charge states of the solar wind and energized particle populations, and not for pickup ions. An instrument optimized for the complete energy and time-of-flight characterization of pickup ions will unlock a wealth of data on these hitherto unobserved or unresolved PUI species. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer (PICSpec) is one such instrument and can enable the next generation of pickup ion and isotopic mass composition measurements. By combining a large-gap time-of-flight-energy sensor with a -100 kV high-voltage power supply for ion acceleration, PUIs will not only be above the detection threshold of traditional solid-state energy detectors but also be resolved sufficiently in time of flight that isotopic composition can be determined. This technology will lead to a new generation of space composition instruments, optimized for measurements of both heliospheric and planetary pickup ions.

  3. The PNL high-transmission three-stage mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.; Bond, L. A.; Freedman, P. A.; Tattersall, B. N.; Lagergren, C. R.

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed a three-stage isotope-ratio mass spectrometer of unique ion-optical design that achieves high ion transmission efficiency and high abundance sensitivity. The spectrometer has tandem 90 deg deflection magnets with boundaries 18 deg off normal. The magnet drift lengths are 1.48 times the 27-cm radius of deflection. This extended geometry gives a mass dispersion equivalent to a 40-cm-radius magnet with normal boundaries. The first magnet renders the ion beam parallel in the vertical plane and provides a focus in the horizontal plane of mass dispersion. The second magnet brings the beam to a stigmatic focus. This novel ion-optical design gives 100 percent transmission without the need for intermediate focusing lenses. It also provides a 16 percent increase in mass resolution over the traditional tandem geometry with normal magnet boundaries. Complete transmission of ions is maintained through a third-stage cylindrical electric sector of 38-cm radius, which provides increased isotope-abundance sensitivity. The isotope-abundance sensitivity of the new mass spectrometer is an order of magnitude better than similar instruments with normal magnet boundaries. This is because the vertical focusing of the ion beam prevents ion scattering from the top and bottom of the flight tube. The measured values of the isotope-abundance sensitivity one-half mass unit away from the rhenium ion peaks at masses 185 and 187 are M - 1/2 = (6.5 +/- 0.5)(10)(exp -10) and M + 1/2 = (3.1 +/- 0.8)(10)(exp -10). By extrapolation, the uranium isotope-abundance sensitivity is M - 1 = 1(10)(exp -10). Construction of the instrument was facilitated by using standard commercial mass spectrometer components.

  4. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A. E-mail: contin@bo.infn.it; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m{sup 2}) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  5. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  6. FPGA based pulsed NQR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemnani, Preeti; Rajarajan, A. K.; Joshi, Gopal; Motiwala, Paresh D.; Ravindranath, S. V. G.

    2014-04-01

    An NQR spectrometer for the frequency range of 1 MHz to 5 MHZ has been designed constructed and tested using an FPGA module. Consisting of four modules viz. Transmitter, Probe, Receiver and computer controlled (FPGA & Software) module containing frequency synthesizer, pulse programmer, mixer, detection and display, the instrument is capable of exciting nuclei with a power of 200W and can detect signal of a few microvolts in strength. 14N signal from NaNO2 has been observed with the expected signal strength.

  7. Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-04-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared.

  8. Smartphone spectrometer for non-invasive diffuse reflectance spectroscopy based hemoglobin sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Perry S.

    2016-10-01

    Fiber-optic based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is shown to be a highly specific and highly sensitive method for non-invasive detection of various cancers (e.g. cervical and oral) as well as many other diseases. Fiber-optic DRS diagnosis relies on non-invasive biomarker detection (e.g. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin) and can be done without the need for sophisticated laboratory analysis of samples. Thus, it is highly amenable for clinical adoption especially in resource scarce regions that have limited access to such developed laboratory infrastructure. Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of fiber-optic DRS, such systems remain cost prohibitive in many of these regions, mainly due to the use of bulky and expensive spectrometers. Here, a fiber-optic DRS system is coupled to a smartphone spectrometer and is proposed as a low-cost solution for non-invasive tissue hemoglobin sensing. The performance of the system is assessed by measuring tissue phantoms with varying hemoglobin concentrations. A DRS retrieval algorithm is used to extract hemoglobin parameters from the measurements and determine the accuracy of the system. The results are then compared with those of a previously reported fiber-optic DRS system which is based on a larger more expensive spectrometer system. The preliminary results are encouraging and indicate the potential of the smartphone spectrometer as a viable low-cost option for non-invasive tissue hemoglobin sensing.

  9. The Polaris-H imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Christopher G.; Kaye, Willy R.; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Feng; Jaworski, Jason M.; King, Alexis; Boucher, Y. Andy; He, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Recently, H3D has designed and introduced a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer system named Polaris-H. Polaris-H was designed to perform gamma spectroscopy and imaging throughout nuclear power plants. It integrates a 3D-position-sensitive pixelated CZT detector (20 mm×20 mm×15 mm), associated readout electronics, an embedded computer, a 5-h battery, and an optical camera in a portable water-proof enclosure. The total mass is about 4 kg, and the system startup time is 2 min. Additionally, it has a connection for a tablet, which displays a gamma-ray spectrum and isotope-specific images of the gamma-ray distribution in all directions in real time. List-mode data is saved to an external USB memory stick. Based on pixelated depth-sensing technology, spectroscopy is routinely better than 1.1% FWHM at 662 keV, and imaging efficiency at 662 keV varies less than a factor of two for all directions, except through the battery. Measurements have been performed in contaminated environments, in high radiation fields, and in cramped quarters.

  10. Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.; Francis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    A compact and lightweight mechanism has been developed to accurately move a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) scan mirror (a cube corner) in a near-linear fashion with near constant speed at cryogenic temperatures. This innovation includes a slide mechanism to restrict motion to one dimension, an actuator to drive the motion, and a linear velocity transducer (LVT) to measure the speed. The cube corner mirror is double-passed in one arm of the FTS; double-passing is required to compensate for optical beam shear resulting from tilting of the moving cube corner. The slide, actuator, and LVT are off-the-shelf components that are capable of cryogenic vacuum operation. The actuator drives the slide for the required travel of 2.5 cm. The LVT measures translation speed. A proportional feedback loop compares the LVT voltage with the set voltage (speed) to derive an error signal to drive the actuator and achieve near constant speed. When the end of the scan is reached, a personal computer reverses the set voltage. The actuator and LVT have no moving parts in contact, and have magnetic properties consistent with cryogenic operation. The unlubricated slide restricts motion to linear travel, using crossed roller bearings consistent with 100-million- stroke operation. The mechanism tilts several arc seconds during transport of the FTS mirror, which would compromise optical fringe efficiency when using a flat mirror. Consequently, a cube corner mirror is used, which converts a tilt into a shear. The sheared beam strikes (at normal incidence) a flat mirror at the end of the FTS arm with the moving mechanism, thereby returning upon itself and compensating for the shear

  11. [A novel spatial modulation Fourier transform spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu-Sheng; Liao, Ning-Fang; Lü, Hang; Wu, Wen-Min; Dong, Zhi-Gang

    2014-11-01

    In the premise of fulfilling the application requirement, the adjustment of spectral resolution can improve efficiency of data acquisition, data processing and data saving. So, by adjusting the spectral resolution, the performance of spectrometer can be improved, and its application range can be extended. To avoid the problems of the fixed spectral resolution of classical Fourier transform spectrometer, a novel type of spatial modulation Fourier transform spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution is proposed in this paper. The principle of the novel spectrometer and its interferometer is described. The general expressions of the optical path difference and the lateral shear are induced by a ray tracing procedure. The equivalent model of the novel interferometer is analyzed. Meanwhile, the principle of the adjustment of spectral resolution is analyzed. The result shows that the novel spectrometer has the merits of adjustable spectral resolution, high stability, easy assemblage and adjustment etc. This theoretical study will provide the theoretical basis for the design of the spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution and expand the application range of Fourier transform spectrometer.

  12. The SPEDE spectrometer arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, P.; O'Neill, G.G.; Borge, M.J.G.; Butler, P.A.; Gaffney, L.P.; Greenlees, P.T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Illana, A.; Joss, D.T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Ojala, J.; Page, R.D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; Pakarinen, J.

    The electron spectrometer, SPEDE, has been developed and will be employed in conjunction with the Miniball spectrometer at the HIE-ISOLDE facility, CERN. SPEDE allows for direct measurement of internal conversion electrons emitted in-flight, without employing magnetic fields to transport or momentum filter the electrons. Together with the Miniball spectrometer, it enables simultaneous observation of {\\gamma} rays and conversion electrons in Coulomb-excitation experiments using radioactive ion beams.

  13. Study of the ATLAS MDT Spectrometer using High Energy CERN combined Test beam Data

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Alexopoulos, T; Alviggi, M G; Amelung, C; Anastopoulos, C; Avolio, G; Bachas, K; Bagnaia, P; Ball, R; Barisonzi, M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, M; Bauer, F; Bellomo, M; Benhammou, Ya; Bensinger, J; Beretta, M; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Bini, C; Bobbink, G; Borisov, A; Boterenbrood, H; Boyko, I; Branchini, P; Brambilla, Elena; Brandenburg, G; Bratzler, U; Bressler, S; Brouwer, G; Cambiaghi, M; Canale, V; Caprio, M; Cardarelli, R; Cerutti, F; Chapman, J W; Chelkov, G; Chevalier, L; Chiodini, G; Cirilli, M; Coco, R; Curatolo, M; Esposito, B; Etzion, E; Dai, T; De Asmundis, R; Dedovich, D; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; DeZorzi, G; Di Ciaccio, A; DiDomenico, A; Di Luise, S; Di Simone, A; Dris, M; Dushkin, A; Ernwein, J; Fakhrutdinov, R; Falciano, S; Fassouliotis, D; Ferrari, R; Formica, A; Fukunaga, C; Gaudio, G; Gazis, E; Giraud, PF; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Gregory, J A; Groenstege, H; Guimarães da Costa, J; Guyot, C; Harel, A; Hart, R; Hashemi, K S; Hassani, S; Herten, G; Horvat, S; Hurst, P; Ichimiya, R; Iengo, P; Ikeno, M; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Kataoka, Y; Khodinov, A; König, A; Kortner, O; Kotov, S; Kourkoumelis, C; Kozhin, A; Krepouri, A; Kroha, H; Krumshtein, Z; Kurashige, H; Landgraf, U; Lacava, F; Lançon, E; Lanza, A; Laporte, JF; Lellouch, D; Levin, D S; Levinson, L; Liberti, B; Lifshitz, R; Linde, F; Luci, C; Lupu, N; Maccarrone, G; Maeno, T; Mair, K; Maltezos, S; Manz, A; Marchesotti, M; Meoni, E; Mikenberg, G; Mohr, W; Mohrdieck-Möck, S; Nagano, K; Nikolaidou, R; Nikolaev, K; Nikolopoulos, K; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Oliver, J; Orestano, D; Osborne, LS; Ouraou, A; Palestini, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Petridou, C; Petrucci, F; Podkladkin, S; Policicchio, Antonio; Pomarède, D; Ponsot, P; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Rebuzzi, D; Richter, R; Rimoldi, A; Rosati, S; Rothberg, J E; Sakamoto, H; Salvatore, D; Sampsonidis, D; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Schricker, A; Schuh, S; Schune, P; Shoa, M; Skvorodnev, N; Sliwa, K; Solfaroli, E; Spagnolo, S; Spogli, L; Strauss, E; Sugaya, Y; Tanaka, S; Tarem, S; Taylor, F E; Todorova, S; Trigger, I; Tsiafis, I; Tsipolitis, G; Valderanis, C; Valente, P; Vandelli, W; van der Graaf, H; Vari, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, Sandro; Vermeulen, J; Vlachos, S; Vreeswijk, M; Yasu, Y; Wellenstein, H; Werneke, P; Wijnen, T; Wolter, M; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M; Zema, P F; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhou, B; Zimmerman, S

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a combined system test was performed in the H8 beam line at the CERN SPS with a setup using muon chambers made of Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) to form a spectrometer which represented 1% of the ATLAS detector. The basic design performances of the muon spectrometer were veried. The full ATLAS analysis chain was used to obtain the results presented in this paper. The stability of MDT calibration constants, the alignment system using optical devices and high energy tracks, as well as the intrinsic sagitta resolution of the Muon Spectrometer were studied and found to agree with expectations. The reconstruction of muon tracks using the combined information from both the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer are also presented.

  14. A Pulsed Spectrometer Designed for Feedback NQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, J. L.; Ginsberg, M. D.

    2000-02-01

    A pulsed NQR spectrometer specifically designed to facilitate real-time tuning of pulse sequence parameters is described. A modular approach based on the interconnection of several rack-mounted blocks provides easy access to all spectrometer signals and simplifies the task of modifying the spectrometer design. We also present experimental data that demonstrates the ability of the spectrometer to increase the signal to noise ratio of NQR measurements by automatically adjusting the pulse width in the strong off-resonant comb pulse sequence.

  15. Design and Performance of a Spectrometer for Deployment on MISSE 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Gary; Beymer, Jim; Robb, Andrew; Longino, James; Perry, George; Stewart, Alan; Finkenor, Miria

    2009-01-01

    A spectrometer for reflectance and transmission measurements of samples exposed to the space environment has been developed for deployment on the Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 7. The instrument incorporates a miniature commercial fiber optic coupled spectrometer with a computer control system for detector operation, sample motion and illumination. A set of three spectrometers were recently integrated on the MISSE7 platform with launch and deployment on the International Space Station scheduled for summer of this year. The instrument is one of many active experiments on the platform. The performance of the instrument prior to launch will be discussed. Data from samples measured in the laboratory will be compared to those from the instrument prior to launch. These comparisons will illustrate the capabilities of the current design. The space environment challenges many materials. When in operation on the MISSE 7 platform, the new spectrometer will provide real time data on the how the space environment affects the optical properties of thermal control paints and optical coatings. Data obtained from comparison of pre and post flight measurements on hundreds of samples exposed on previous MISSE platforms have been reported at these meetings. With the new spectrometer and the ability to correlate measured changes with time on orbit and the occurrence of both natural events and human activities, a better understanding of the processes responsible for degradation of materials in space will be possible.

  16. VESPA: The vibrational spectrometer for the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrigo, Anna; Colognesi, Daniele; Bertelsen, Mads; Hartl, Monika; Lefmann, Kim; Deen, Pascale P.; Strobl, Markus; Grazzi, Francesco; Zoppi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    VESPA, Vibrational Excitation Spectrometer with Pyrolytic-graphite Analysers, aims to probe molecular excitations via inelastic neutron scattering. It is a thermal high resolution inverted geometry time-of-flight instrument designed to maximise the use of the long pulse of the European Spallation Source. The wavelength frame multiplication technique was applied to provide simultaneously a broad dynamic range (about 0-500 meV) while a system of optical blind choppers allows to trade flux for energy resolution. Thanks to its high flux, VESPA will allow the investigation of dynamical and in situ experiments in physical chemistry. Here we describe the design parameters and the corresponding McStas simulations.

  17. A cryogenic scan mechanism for use in Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakun, Claef F.; Blumenstock, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, assembly and testing of the linear Scan Mechanism (SM) of the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) Instrument. The mechanism consists of an over constrained flexible structure, an innovative moving magnet actuator, passive eddy current dampers, a Differential Eddy Current (DEC) sensor, Optical Limit Sensors (OLS), and a launch lock. Although all the components of the mechanism are discussed, the flexible structure and the magnetic components are the primary focus. Several problems encountered and solutions implemented during the development of the scan mechanism are also described.

  18. Double passing the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Hubbard, R.; Brault, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple technique for performing the conversion of the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer's dual input/output optical configuration to a double pass configuration that improves spectral resolution by a factor of 2. The modification is made by placing a flat mirror in the output beam from each cat's eye, retroreflecting the beams back through the cat's eyes to the first beam splitter. A single detector is placed at the second input port, which then becomes the instrument's output.

  19. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  20. A short working distance multiple crystal x-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, B.; Seidler, G.T.; Webb, Z.W.; Bradley, J.A.; Nagle, K.P.; Heald, S.M.; Gordon, R.A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2008-01-01

    For x-ray spot sizes of a few tens of microns or smaller, a millimeter-sized flat analyzer crystal placed ???1 cm from the sample will exhibit high energy resolution while subtending a collection solid angle comparable to that of a typical spherically bent crystal analyzer (SBCA) at much larger working distances. Based on this observation and a nonfocusing geometry for the analyzer optic, we have constructed and tested a short working distance (SWD) multicrystal x-ray spectrometer. This prototype instrument has a maximum effective collection solid angle of 0.14 sr, comparable to that of 17 SBCA at 1 m working distance. We find good agreement with prior work for measurements of the Mn K?? x-ray emission and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for MnO, and also for measurements of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure for Dy metal using L??2 partial-fluorescence yield detection. We discuss future applications at third- and fourth-generation light sources. For concentrated samples, the extremely large collection angle of SWD spectrometers will permit collection of high-resolution x-ray emission spectra with a single pulse of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The range of applications of SWD spectrometers and traditional multi-SBCA instruments has some overlap, but also is significantly complementary. ?? 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Miniaturized FT-IR spectrometer for industrial process measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrala, Esko; Niemela, Pentti; Hannula, Tapio

    1990-08-01

    There have been made some attempts to transfer the advantages of FT-JR to industrial use. Commercially available research grade instruments have been large and rather expensive. However in many potential applications only medium resolution is required which means that the mirror displacement in a Michelson type interferometer remains short and computation of the Fourier transform can be executed by a small computer. Medium resolution gives also other advantages in spectrometer design simple source and detector optics less severe requirements for mirror transport and small size. We have used a Michelson type interferometer where the moving mirror is suspended by two flexures and driven by a coil actuator. Displacement of the mirror is monitored using moire transducer which is much smaller and has better thermal stability than the conventionally used HeNe laser. The beamsplitter is a standard CaF2/Si and a thermoelectrically cooled PbSe is used as the detector. In the present prototype data is transferred via parallel bus to a PC/AT compatible computer where the necessary mathematics is done. The spectral range is from 5000 to 1800 cm1 with resolution better than 8 cm1. Interferograins can be recorded several times per second and the computation time for a 2000 point spectrum is 10 seconds. Results of environmental tests carried out for the spectrometer will be presented. The results show that it is possible to construct a simple rugged and inexpensive FT-IR spectrometer

  2. Accurate band-to-band registration of AOTF imaging spectrometer using motion detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengwei; Zhao, Huijie; Jin, Shangzhong; Li, Ningchuan

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the problem of platform vibration induced band-to-band misregistration with acousto-optic imaging spectrometer in spaceborne application. Registrating images of different bands formed at different time or different position is difficult, especially for hyperspectral images form acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer. In this study, a motion detection method is presented using the polychromatic undiffracted beam of AOTF. The factors affecting motion detect accuracy are analyzed theoretically, and calculations show that optical distortion is an easily overlooked factor to achieve accurate band-to-band registration. Hence, a reflective dual-path optical system has been proposed for the first time, with reduction of distortion and chromatic aberration, indicating the potential of higher registration accuracy. Consequently, a spectra restoration experiment using additional motion detect channel is presented for the first time, which shows the accurate spectral image registration capability of this technique.

  3. A Compact, Backscattering Deplolarization Cloud Spectrometer for Ice and Water Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, David

    2014-05-15

    This project was to develop a compact optical particle spectrometer, small enough for operation on UAVS, that measures the optical diameter of cloud hydrometeors and differentiates their water phase (liquid or solid). To reach this goal, a work plan was laid out that would complete three objectives: 1) Evaluation of designs for an optical particle spectrometer that measures the component of light backscattered at two polarization angles. 2) Testing of selected designs on an optical bench. 3) Construction and preliminary testing of a prototype instrument based on the selected, optimum design. A protoype instrument was developed and tested in an icing wind tunnel where the results showed good measurement of cloud droplets and ice particles.

  4. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

  5. Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the SRG satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Rasmussen, I.

    1994-01-01

    The flight version of the Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) on the SPECTRUM-X- GAMMA satellite is presented. The spectrometer is a panel that is placed in front of one of the SODART telescopes. It is composed of an array of the three Bragg crystals, LiF(220), Si(111) and RAP(001) for high...

  6. A Miniature Mass Spectrometer for High-Flux Cosmic Dust Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. E.; Manning, H. L. K.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    We designed a novel mass spectrometer for in situ characterization of micro-particulates in regions of high concentration, such as a comet fly-by, planetary ring, or impact-generated plume. This device is based on novel ion optics that allow high performa

  7. The physical basis for estimating wave-energy spectra with the radar ocean-wave spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Frederick C.

    1987-01-01

    The derivation of the reflectivity modulation spectrum of the sea surface for near-nadir-viewing microwave radars using geometrical optics is described. The equations required for the derivation are presented. The derived reflectivity modulation spectrum provides data on the physical basis of the radar ocean-wave spectrometer measurements of ocean-wave directional spectra.

  8. The RITA spectrometer at Risø - Design considerations and recent results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, K.N.; McMorrow, D.F.; Lefmann, K.;

    1998-01-01

    In the new cold triple axis spectrometer RITA at Riso we have improved the front end by extensive use of state of the art optical elements and better shielding material. The analyser system is situated in one large open tank and consists of seven individually orientable PC(002) crystal analyser...

  9. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER): The Low Resolution Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Tsumura, K; Battle, J; Bock, J; Brown, S; Cooray, A; Hristov, V; Keating, B; Kim, M G; Lee, D H; Levenson, L R; Lykke, K; Mason, P; Matsumoto, T; Matsuura, S; Murata, K; Nam, U W; Renbarger, T; Smith, A; Sullivan, I; Suzuki, K; Wada, T; Zemcov, M

    2011-01-01

    Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 \\mu m to 2 \\mu m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the Universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the Zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a \\lambda / \\Delta \\lambda \\sim 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 \\mu m < \\lambda < 2.1 \\mu m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding a...

  10. A set of innovative immersed grating based spectrometer designs for METIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, Tibor; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; van Amerongen, Aaldert H.; Tol, Paul J. J.; van Brug, Hedser; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Molster, Frank; Todd, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    We present innovative, immersed grating based optical designs for the SMO (Spectrograph Main Optics) module of the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, METIS. The immersed grating allows a significant reduction of SMO volume compared to conventional echelle grating designs, because the diffraction takes place in high refractive index silicon. Additionally, using novel optimization techniques and technical solutions in silicon micromachining offered by the semiconductor industry, further improvements can be achieved. We show optical architectures based on compact, double-pass Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) designs, which appear advantageous in terms of one or several of the following: optical performance, reduction of volume, ease of manufacturing and testing. We explore optical designs, where the emphasis is put on manufacturability and we investigate optical solutions, where the ultimate goal is the highest possible optical performance. These novel, silicon immersed grating based design concepts are applicable for future earth and space based spectrometers.

  11. Characterization of the holographic imaging grating of GOMOS UVIS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeffe, Jussi; Saari, Heikki K.; Astola, Heikki; Rainio, Kari; Mazuray, Lorand; Pierot, Dominique; Craen, Pierre; Gruslin, Michel; Lecat, Jean-Herve; Bonnemason, Francis; Flamand, Jean; Thevenon, Alain

    1996-11-01

    A Finnish-French group has proposed an imaging spectrometer- based instrument for the ENVISAT Earth observation satellite of ESA, which yields a global mapping of the vertical profile of ozone and other related atmospheric gases. The GOMOS instrument works by measuring the UV-visible spectrum of a star that is occulting behind the Earth's atmosphere. The prime contractor of GOMOS is Matra Marconi Space France. The focal plane optics are designed and manufactured by Spacebel Instrumentation S.A. and the holographic grating by Jobin-Yvon. VTT Automation, Measurement Technology has participated in the GOMOS studies since 1989 and is presently responsible for the verification tests of the imaging quality and opto-mechanical interfaces of the holographic imaging grating of GOMOS. The UVIS spectrometer of GOMOS consists of a holographic, aberration corrected grating and of a CCD detector. The alignment of the holographic grating needs as an input very accurate knowledge of the mechanical interfaces. VTT Automation has designed, built and tested a characterization system for the holographic grating. This system combines the accurate optical imaging measurements with the absolute knowledge of the geometrical parameters at the accuracy of plus or minus 10 micrometers which makes the system unique. The developed system has been used for two breadboard gratings and the qualification model grating. The imaging quality results and their analysis together with alignment procedure utilizing of the knowledge of mechanical interfaces is described.

  12. Design and construction of an Offner spectrometer based on geometrical analysis of ring fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Hyun; Kong, Hong Jin; Lee, Jong Ung; Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Jai Hoon

    2014-08-01

    A method to obtain an aberration-corrected Offner spectrometer without ray obstruction is proposed. A new, more efficient spectrometer optics design is suggested in order to increase its spectral resolution. The derivation of a new ring equation to eliminate ray obstruction is based on geometrical analysis of the ring fields for various numerical apertures. The analytical design applying this equation was demonstrated using the optical design software Code V in order to manufacture a spectrometer working in wavelengths of 900-1700 nm. The simulation results show that the new concept offers an analytical initial design taking the least time of calculation. The simulated spectrometer exhibited a modulation transfer function over 80% at Nyquist frequency, root-mean-square spot diameters under 8.6 μm, and a spectral resolution of 3.2 nm. The final design and its realization of a high resolution Offner spectrometer was demonstrated based on the simulation result. The equation and analytical design procedure shown here can be applied to most Offner systems regardless of the wavelength range.

  13. Overview of the Design, Fabrication and Performance Requirements of Micro-Spec, an Integrated Submillimeter Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrentine, Emily M.; Noroozian, Omid; Brown, Ari D.; Cataldo, Giuseppe; Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Micro-Spec is a compact submillimeter (350-700 GHz) spectrometer which uses low loss superconducting niobium microstrip transmission lines and a single-crystal silicon dielectric to integrate all of the components of a grating-analog spectrometer onto a single chip. Here we present details of the fabrication and design of a prototype Micro-Spec spectrometer with resolution, R64, where we use a high-yield single-flip wafer bonding process to realize instrument components on a 0.45 m single-crystal silicon dielectric. We discuss some of the electromagnetic design concerns (such as loss, stray-light, cross-talk, and fabrication tolerances) for each of the spectrometer components and their integration into the instrument as a whole. These components include a slot antenna with a silicon lens for optical coupling, a phase delay transmission line network, parallel plate waveguide interference region, and aluminum microstrip transmission line kinetic inductance detectors with extremely low cross-talk and immunity to stray light. We have demonstrated this prototype spectrometer with design resolution of R64. Given the optical performance of this prototype, we will also discuss the extension of this design to higher resolutions suitable for balloon-flight.

  14. ELOIS: an innovative spectrometer design using a free-form grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Coralie; Moreau, Vincent; Jamoye, Jean-François; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Gloesener, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    For spaceborne hyperspectral applications1, grating-based spectrometers are of special interest due to the high spectral resolution and optical throughput that can be achieved. The classical spectrometer designs are 1:1 systems. For these systems the achievable signal to noise ratio is limited by the slit width/pixel pitch combination. One way to increase the signal to noise ratio of a spectrometer without increasing the global instrument size is to design an instrument with a magnification power of less than one. With a smaller magnification, the entrance slit is wider and a larger amount of light is collected while the image is smaller and compatible with typical detector size and pixel pitch. We presents an innovative spectrometer design with 2:1 magnification and high image quality and radiometric performances. This spectrometer called ELOIS (for Enhanced Light Offner Imaging Spectrometer) is designed with a grating atop a free-form surface. The use non-rotationally symmetric surfaces offer additional freedom for designing compact and well-corrected instruments. Nevertheless, most of the available manufacturing techniques, such as direct ruling, holography, lithography or e-beam writing, are typically applicable on simple shape of the grating surface, such as flat or spherical surface. AMOS demonstrated the feasibility of the Free Form Grating (FFG), i.e. a ruled grating on a surface without any rotational symmetry, using cost-effective approach for manufacturing blazed grating by Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT).

  15. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  16. Conceptual design of a polarized 3He neutron spin filter for polarized neutron spectrometer POLANO at J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, T.; Ohoyama, K.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Ohkawara, M.; Kira, H.; Hayashida, H.; Sakai, K.; Hiroi, K.; Oku, T.; Kakurai, K.; Chang, L. J.

    2016-04-01

    A 3He neutron spin filter (NSF) has been designed for a new polarized neutron chopper spectrometer called the Polarization Analysis Neutron Spectrometer with Correlation Method (POLANO) at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. It is designed to fit in a limited space on the spectrometer as an initial neutron beam polarizer and is polarized in situ by spin exchange optical pumping. This will be the first generation 3He NSF on POLANO, and a polarized neutron beam up to 100 meV with a diameter of 50 mm will be available for research on magnetism, hydrogen materials, and strongly correlated electron systems.

  17. [The coding correction of slit diffraction in Hadamard transform spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Shu-Rong; Huang, Yu; Wang, Jun-Bo

    2013-08-01

    According to the principles of Hadamard transform spectrometer and the slit diffraction characteristics, the influence of spectrometer entrance slit diffraction of Hadamard transform spectrometer on the measurement result was analyzed, for the diffraction case, the Hadamard transform spectrometer instrument structure matrix was studied, and the Hadamard transform spectrometer encoding/decoding method was established. The analysis of incident spectral verified the correctness of the coding/ decoding. This method is very important for the high precision measurement of Hadamard transform spectrometer.

  18. Mini and micro spectrometers pave the way to on-field advanced analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyé, Clémentine; Kolb, Hugo; d'Humières, Benoît.

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in the 1990's, miniature optical spectrometers were compact, portable devices brought on the market by the desire to move from time-consuming lab-based analyses to on-field and in situ measurements. This goal of getting spectroscopy into the hands of non-specialists is driving current technical and application developments, the ultimate goal being, in a far future, the integration of a spectrometer into a smartphone or any other smart device (tablet, watch, …). In this article, we present the results of our study on the evolution of the compact spectrometers market towards widespread industrial use and consumer applications. Presently, the main market of compact spectrometers remains academic labs. However, they have been adopted on some industrial applications such as optical source characterization (mainly laser and LEDs). In a near future, manufacturers of compact spectrometers target the following industrial applications: agriculture crop monitoring, food process control or pharmaceuticals quality control. Next steps will be to get closer to the consumer market with point-of-care applications such as glucose detection for diabetics, for example. To reach these objectives, technological breakthroughs will be necessary. Recent progresses have already allowed the release of micro-spectrometers. They take advantage of new micro-technologies such as MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), MOEMS (Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems), micro-mirrors arrays to reduce cost and size while allowing good performance and high volume manufacturability. Integrated photonics is being investigated for future developments. It will also require new business models and new market approaches. Indeed, spreading spectroscopy to more industrial and consumer applications will require spectrometers manufacturers to get closer to the end-users and develop application-oriented products.

  19. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energ...

  20. A Compact High-Energy Neutron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, F D; Buffler, A; Dangendorf, V; Herbert, M S; Jones, D T L; Nchodu, M R; Nolte, R; Smit, F D

    2007-01-01

    A compact liquid organic neutron spectrometer (CLONS) based on a single NE213 liquid scintillator (5 cm diam. x 5 cm) is described. The spectrometer is designed to measure neutron fluence spectra over the energy range 2-200 MeV and is suitable for use in neutron fields having any type of time structure. Neutron fluence spectra are obtained from measurements of two-parameter distributions (counts versus pulse height and pulse shape) using the Bayesian unfolding code MAXED. Calibration and test measurements made using a pulsed neutron beam with a continuous energy spectrum are described and the application of the spectrometer to radiation dose measurements is discussed.

  1. Mini-Orange Spectrometer at CIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yun; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-01-01

    A Mini-Orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, which consists of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO$_5$ permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principle and configuration of the Mini-Orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the Mini-Orange spectrometer.

  2. Radiation calibration for LWIR Hyperspectral Imager Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixiong; Yu, Chunchao; Zheng, Wei-jian; Lei, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Yuan, Xiaochun; Zhang, Peizhong

    2014-11-01

    The radiometric calibration of LWIR Hyperspectral imager Spectrometer is presented. The lab has been developed to LWIR Interferometric Hyperspectral imager Spectrometer Prototype(CHIPED-I) to study Lab Radiation Calibration, Two-point linear calibration is carried out for the spectrometer by using blackbody respectively. Firstly, calibration measured relative intensity is converted to the absolute radiation lightness of the object. Then, radiation lightness of the object is is converted the brightness temperature spectrum by the method of brightness temperature. The result indicated †that this method of Radiation Calibration calibration was very good.

  3. SW-MW infrared spectrometer for lunar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arup; Biswas, Amiya; Joshi, Shaunak; Kumar, Ankush; Rehman, Sami; Sharma, Satish; Somani, Sandip; Bhati, Sunil; Karelia, Jitendra; Saxena, Anish; Chowdhury, Arup R.

    2016-04-01

    SW-MW Imaging Infrared Spectrometer, the Hyperspectral optical imaging instrument is envisaged to map geomorphology and mineralogy of lunar surface. The instrument is designed to image the electro-magnetic energy emanating from moon's surface with high spectral and spatial resolution for the mission duration from an altitude of 100 km. It is designed to cover 0.8 to 5 μm in 250 spectral bands with GSD 80m and swath 20km. Primarily, there are three basic optical segments in the spectrometer. They are fore optics, dispersing element and focusing elements. The payload is designed around a custom developed multi-blaze convex grating optimized for system throughput. The considerations for optimization are lunar radiation, instrument background, optical throughput, and detector sensitivity. HgCdTe (cooled using a rotary stirling cooler) based detector array (500x256 elements, 30μm) is being custom developed for the spectrometer. Stray light background flux is minimized using a multi-band filter cooled to cryogenic temperature. Mechanical system realization is being performed considering requirements such as structural, opto-mechanical, thermal, and alignment. The entire EOM is planned to be maintained at 240K to reduce and control instrument background. Al based mirror, grating, and EOM housing is being developed to maintain structural requirements along with opto- mechanical and thermal. Multi-tier radiative isolation and multi-stage radiative cooling approach is selected for maintaining the EOM temperature. EOM along with precision electronics packages are planned to be placed on the outer and inner side of Anti-sun side (ASS) deck. Power and Cooler drive electronics packages are planned to be placed on bottom side of ASS panel. Cooler drive electronics is being custom developed to maintain the detector temperature within 100mK during the imaging phase. Low noise detector electronics development is critical for maintaining the NETD requirements at different target

  4. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, M. O.; Bryś, T.; Gamboni, Th.; Geerts, W.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.; Borcea, R.

    2013-12-01

    The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF) technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD) show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  5. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frégeau M.O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  6. Tapered air-core Bragg waveguide spectrometers for lab-on-a-chip applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobot, Brian A.; Melnyk, Aaron D.; Allen, Trevor W.; DeCorby, Ray G.

    2013-05-01

    Lab-on-a-chip and optofluidic micro-systems often rely on bulky off-chip optical components such as lenses and spectrometers for detection. There is a growing demand for compact microspectrometers that can be integrated on-chip, to increase portability and potentially reduce the cost and complexity of these systems. We have previously reported chip-scale microspectrometers based on tapered air-core Bragg waveguides with omnidirectional Bragg claddings. Here, we describe the integration of these air-core waveguide spectrometers with microfluidics, including results for a prototype sensing system based on spectrally-resolved fluorescence detection.

  7. Calibration of the microcalorimeter spectrometer on-board the Hitomi (Astro-H) observatory (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. E.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Chiao, M. P.; Fujimoto, R.; Haas, D.; den Herder, J.-W.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.; Porter, F. S.; Sawada, M.; Sneiderman, G. A.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Takei, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Tsujimoto, M.; de Vries, C. P.; Watanabe, T.; Yamada, S.; Yamasaki, N. Y.

    2016-11-01

    The Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was a pioneering non-dispersive imaging x-ray spectrometer with 5 eV FWHM energy resolution, consisting of an array of 36 silicon-thermistor microcalorimeters at the focus of a high-throughput soft x-ray telescope. The instrument enabled astrophysical plasma diagnostics in the 0.3-12 keV band. We introduce the SXS calibration strategy and corresponding ground calibration measurements that took place from 2012-2015, including both the characterization of the microcalorimeter array and measurements of the x-ray transmission of optical blocking filters.

  8. Laser Ablation - Optical Cavity Isotopic Spectrometer (LAOCIS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the detailed conceptual development of a device for analyzing key isotopic composition in surface materials without sample preparation. We will combine...

  9. Laser Ablation - Optical Cavity Isotopic Spectrometer (LAOCIS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA astrobiology objectives, particularly the need for a compact instrument capable of in situ isotopic measurements. We propose the...

  10. Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver to NASA an innovative, portable, and power efficient Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer...

  11. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an UV-NIR (350nm to 1050 nm) portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM) for flight on a variety of airborne platforms with high SNR and response...

  12. Long-Wave Infrared Dyson Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis Z.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for an ultra compact long-wave infrared slit spectrometer based on the dyson concentric design. The dyson spectrometer has been integrated in a dewar environment with a quantum well infrared photodetecor (QWIP), concave electron beam fabricated diffraction grating and ultra precision slit. The entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to maximize signal to noise ratio performance, hence eliminating thermal signal from transmissive elements and internal stray light. All of this is done while maintaining QWIP thermal control. A general description is given of the spectrometer, alignment technique and predicated performance. The spectrometer has been designed for optimal performance with respect to smile and keystone distortion. A spectral calibration is performed with NIST traceable targets. A 2-point non-uniformity correction is performed with a precision blackbody source to provide radiometric accuracy. Preliminary laboratory results show excellent agreement with modeled noise equivalent delta temperature and detector linearity over a broad temperature range.

  13. Low Power Mass Spectrometer employing TOF Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low power Mass Spectrometer employing multiple time of flight circuits for parallel processing is possible with a new innovation in design of the Time of flight...

  14. Calibration of a photomultiplier array spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steven A.; Wright, C. Wayne; Piazza, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the calibration of a photomultiplier array spectrometer is presented. Through this approach, incident light radiance derivation is made by recognizing and tracing gain characteristics for each photomultiplier tube.

  15. Low Power FPGA Based Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a general purpose reconfigurable wide bandwidth spectrometer for use in NASA's passive microwave missions, deep space network and radio...

  16. Electronically-Scanned Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Instrument efficient, lightweight, and stable. Fourier-transform spectrometer configuration uses electronic, instead of mechanical, scanning. Configuration insensitive to vibration-induced sampling errors introduced into mechanically scanned systems.

  17. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  18. 1987 calibration of the TFTR neutron spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.W.; Strachan, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-12-01

    The {sup 3}He neutron spectrometer used for measuring ion temperatures and the NE213 proton recoil spectrometer used for triton burnup measurements were absolutely calibrated with DT and DD neutron generators placed inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. The details of the detector response and calibration are presented. Comparisons are made to the neutron source strengths measured from other calibrated systems. 23 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  20. A digital control system for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Knud Bent; Skaarup, Per

    1968-01-01

    A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer.......A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer....

  1. Study of neutron spectrometers for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellne, Jan

    2005-11-15

    A review is presented of the developments in the field of neutron emission spectrometry (NES) which is of relevance for identifying the role of NES diagnostics on ITER and selecting suitable instrumentation. Neutron spectrometers will be part of the ITER neutron diagnostic complement and this study makes a special effort to examine which performance characteristics the spectrometers should possess to provide the best burning plasma diagnostic information together with neutron cameras and neutron yield monitors. The performance of NES diagnostics is coupled to how much interface space can be provided which has lead to an interest to find compact instruments and their NES capabilities. This study assesses all known spectrometer types of potential interest for ITER and makes a ranking of their performance (as demonstrated or projected), which, in turn, are compared with ITER measurement requirements as a reference; the ratio of diagnostic performance to interface cost for different spectrometers is also discussed for different spectrometer types. The overall result of the study is an assessment of which diagnostic functions neutron measurements can provide in burning plasma fusion experiments on ITER and the role that NES can play depending on the category of instrument installed. Of special note is the result that much higher quality diagnostic information can be obtained from neutron measurements with total yield monitors, profile flux cameras and spectrometers when the synergy in the data is considered in the analysis and interpretation.

  2. NIST Calibration of a Neutron Spectrometer ROSPEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Craig

    2006-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was acquired for use in the measurement of National Institute of Standards and Technology neutron fields. The spectrometer included options for the measurement of low and high energy neutrons, for a total measurement range from 0.01 eV up to 17 MeV. The spectrometer was evaluated in calibration fields and was used to determine the neutron spectrum of an Americium-Beryllium neutron source. The calibration fields used included bare and moderated (252)Cf, monoenergetic neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and a thermal-neutron beam. Using the calibration values determined in this exercise, the spectrometer gives a good approximation of the neutron spectrum, and excellent values for neutron fluence, for all NIST calibration fields. The spectrometer also measured an Americium-Beryllium neutron field in a NIST exposure facility and determined the field quite well. The spectrometer measured scattering effects in neutron spectra which previously could be determined only by calculation or integral measurements.

  3. All-reflective UV-VIS-NIR transmission and fluorescence spectrometer for μm-sized samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich O. Kirchner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical transmission spectrometer optimized for tiny samples. The setup is based on all-reflective parabolic optics and delivers broadband operation from 215 to 1030 nm. A fiber-coupled light source is used for illumination and a fiber-coupled miniature spectrometer for detection. The diameter of the probed area is less than 200 μm for all wavelengths. We demonstrate the capability to record transmission, absorption, reflection, fluorescence and refractive indices of tiny and ultrathin sample flakes with this versatile device. The performance is validated with a solid state wavelength standard and with dye solutions.

  4. A graphene-based Fabry-Pérot spectrometer in mid-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosai; Chen, Chen; Pan, Liang; Wang, Jicheng

    2016-08-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy is of great importance in many areas and its integration with thin-film technology can economically enrich the functionalities of many existing devices. In this paper we propose a graphene-based ultra-compact spectrometer (several micrometers in size) that is compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing. The proposed structure uses a monolayer graphene as a mid-infrared surface waveguide, whose optical response is spatially modulated using electric fields to form a Fabry-Pérot cavity. By varying the voltage acting on the cavity, we can control the transmitted wavelength of the spectrometer at room temperature. This design has potential applications in the graphene-silicon-based optoelectronic devices as it offers new possibilities for developing new ultra-compact spectrometers and low-cost hyperspectral imaging sensors in mid-infrared region.

  5. Miniature Near-Infrared Fibre Optic Spectrometer for the Quantitative Detection of Protein and Fat in Milk Powder%微型近红外光纤光谱仪用于奶粉中蛋白质脂肪的定量检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中卫; 温志渝; 曾甜玲; 魏康林; 梁玉前

    2013-01-01

    提出利用微型近红外光谱仪、结合Y型光纤探头,在900~1 700 nm范围内对奶粉中蛋白质、脂肪含量进行快速、无损检测的漫反射光谱检测方法.基于Unscrambler 9.7化学计量学软件,选择合适的光谱波段,通过PLS算法分别建立了蛋白质、脂肪的校正模型,得到蛋白质、脂肪校正模型的决定系数R2分别为0.987和0.986,均方根误差RMSC分别为0.385和0.419.利用所建模型对预测样本数据集进行预测验证,得到蛋白质的标准差SEPProtein=0.768、脂肪的标准差SEPFat =1.109,表明所建模型具有较高的预测能力,已基本达到实用化要求.%The method based on miniature near-infrared spectrometer combined with Y fiber optic probe to detect the protein and fat in milk powder by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 900~1700 nm was proposed.By selecting the appropriate spectral bands,the correction models of protein and fat were established with partial least squares algorithm using Unscrambler 9.7 Chemometrics software.The determination coefficients R2 of the correction modes are 0.987 and 0.986 for protein and fat respectively,and the root mean square errors RMSEC are 0.385 and 0.419 respectively.Using these correction models to predict the protein and fat contents with 30 sets of forecast sample data,the prediction standard deviation is SEPprotein=0.751 for protein,and is SEPFat =1.109 for fat.The results indicate that these correction models have prediction capability with unknown samples and meet the on line requirements.

  6. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  7. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  8. Determination of technical readiness for an atmospheric carbon imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilia, Joseph; Kumer, John B.; Palmer, Alice; Sawyer, Kevin; Mao, Yalan; Katz, Noah; Mix, Jack; Nast, Ted; Clark, Charles S.; Vanbezooijen, Roel; Magoncelli, Antonio; Baraze, Ronald A.; Chenette, David L.

    2013-09-01

    The geoCARB sensor uses a 4-channel push broom slit-scan infrared imaging grating spectrometer to measure the absorption spectra of sunlight reflected from the ground in narrow wavelength regions. The instrument is designed for flight at geostationary orbit to provide mapping of greenhouse gases over continental scales, several times per day, with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. The sensor provides multiple daily maps of column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2, CH4, and CO over the regions of interest, which enables flux determination at unprecedented time, space, and accuracy scales. The geoCARB sensor development is based on our experience in successful implementation of advanced space deployed optical instruments for remote sensing. A few recent examples include the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the geostationary Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS GEO-1) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), along with sensors under development, the Near Infared camera (NIRCam) for James Webb (JWST), and the Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI) for the GOES-R series. The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS), developed in part through the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), provides an important part of the strong technological foundation for geoCARB. The paper discusses subsystem heritage and technology readiness levels for these subsystems. The system level flight technology readiness and methods used to determine this level are presented along with plans to enhance the level.

  9. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin

    2016-03-21

    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging.

  10. Variable filter array spectrometer of VPD PbSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Herrero, R.; Vergara, G.; Gutiérrez-Álvarez, R.; Fernández-Montojo, C.; Gómez, L. J.; Villamayor, V.; Baldasano-Ramírez, A.; Montojo, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    MWIR spectroscopy shows a large potential in the current IR devices market, due to its multiple applications (gas detection, chemical analysis, industrial monitoring, combustion and flame characterization, food packaging etc) and its outstanding performance (good sensitivity, NDT method, velocity of response, among others), opening this technique to very diverse fields of application, such as industrial monitoring and control, agriculture, medicine and environmental monitoring. However, even though a big interest on MWIR spectroscopy technique has been present in the last years, two major barriers have held it back from its widespread use outside the laboratory: the complexity and delicateness of some popular techniques such as Fourier-transform IR (FT-IR) spectrometers, and the lack of affordable specific key elements such a MWIR light sources and low cost (real uncooled) detectors. Recent developments in electrooptical components are helping to overcome these drawbacks. The need for simpler solutions for analytical measurements has prompted the development of better and more affordable uncooled MWIR detectors, electronics and optics. In this paper a new MWIR spectrometry device is presented. Based on linear arrays of different geometries (64, 128 and 256 elements), NIT has developed a MWIR Variable Filter Array Spectrometer (VFAS). This compact device, with no moving parts, based on a rugged and affordable detector, is suitable to be used in applications which demand high sensitivity, good spectral discrimination, reliability and compactness, and where an alternative to the traditional scanning instrument is desired. Some measurements carried out for several industries will be also presented.

  11. TIRCIS: thermal infrared compact imaging spectrometer for small satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul; Crites, Sarah; Garbeil, Harold; Wood, Mark; Pilger, Eric; Gabrieli, Andrea; Honniball, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of reflectance or emittance in tens of narrow, contiguous wavebands, allow for the derivation of laboratory quality spectra remotely, from which the chemical composition and physical properties of targets can be determined. Although spaceborne (e.g. EO-1 Hyperion) hyperspectral data in the 0.4-2.5 micron (VSWIR) region are available, the provision of equivalent data in the log-wave infrared has lagged behind, there being no currently operational high spatial resolution LWIR imaging spectrometer on orbit. TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. The instrument has a mass of <15 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm ♢ 22 cm, and has been designed to be compatible with integration into a micro-satellite platform. (A precursor to this instrument was launched onboard a 55 kg microsatellite in October 2015). The optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 50 spectral samples are possible. Measured signal-to-noise ratios range from peak values of 500:1 to 1500:1, for source temperature of 10 to 100°C.

  12. THIS: a tuneable heterodyne infrared spectrometer for SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieder, R.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.; Kroetz, P.; Stupar, D.

    2007-09-01

    The THIS instrument (Tuneable Heterodyne Infrared Spectrometer) is a versatile heterodyne receiver with a sensitivity close to theoretical prediction. It uses a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) as local oscillator and a HgCdTe photo-voltaic detector as mixer. The IF-spectrum is analyzed by means of a new broadband Acousto-Optical Spectrometer (AOS) with 3 GHz bandwidth and 1 MHz resolution. A dual sideband (DSB) system noise temperature has been measured with 2300 K at 10 μm wavelength, which is only 60% above the quantum limit. The stability of the system has been determined at an Allan variance minimum time of 50 seconds. Below this integration time the performance is purely radiometric. Also, the frequency stability has been measured with 1 MHz rms error within several hours. The quality of the instrument has been demonstrated by a few observing campaigns at the McMath-Pierce observatory on Kitt Peak. Measurements of Winds on Mars and Venus have been carried out and molecular line signals in sunspots have been detected. We propose to develop THIS as a second generation instrument for future astronomical observations on SOFIA.

  13. Study on Predicting Total Acid Content and Soluble Sugar of Tomato Juice by Near Inf rared Optical Fiber Spectrometer Technique%近红外光纤光谱技术检测西红柿果浆总酸及可溶性糖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丙芳; 苑立波; 张丙秀

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore a simple ,rapid and efficient tomato quality detection method ,in the present experiment near infra-red spectroscopy and optical fiber sensing technology were applied to quickly measure the nutrition ingredient content in tomato juice samples .The main instrument used in this experiment was near infrared optical fiber spectrometer in a wavelength range from 900 to 2 500 nm ,which measured the absorbance of the tomato juice samples ;A collection of one hundred and sixty-four tomato juice samples were selected as the standard samples ,the spectra and the corresponding chemical value were measured . Partial least squares (PLS) was adopted to establish the mathematical model of the total acid and soluble sugar content in tomato juice samples ,and the regression equation was statistically analysed .The total acid in tomato juice prediction correlation coeffi-cient was 0.967 ,calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.133 ,standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.103;the soluble sugar prediction correlation coefficient is 0.976 ,calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.463 ,and the standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.460 .The above data achieved better forecasting results ,which showed that the method of quantitative analysis of tomato fruit multicomponent content was feasible .The method is rapid ,simple and can do multicompo-nent analysis on the same sample simultaneously .It is a promising sensor and gradually becoming a international research focus in sensor field .%为了探索一种简捷、快速、高效的西红柿品质检测方法,应用近红外光谱技术与光纤传感技术相结合的新方法,快速测量西红柿果浆样品中营养成分的含量。实验所用的主要仪器为近红外光纤光谱仪,波长范围为900~2500 nm。以164个西红柿样品为标准样品,进行了光谱采集及相应的化学值测定。实验数据采用偏最小二乘法(PLS )进行回归,建立西红柿果浆中

  14. Light extinction by secondary organic aerosol: an intercomparison of three broadband cavity spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, R. M.; Ball, S. M.; Brauers, T.; Dorn, H.-P.; Heitmann, U.; Jones, R. L.; Platt, U.; Pöhler, D.; Ruth, A. A.; Shillings, A. J. L.; Thieser, J.; Wahner, A.; Venables, D. S.

    2013-11-01

    Broadband optical cavity spectrometers are maturing as a technology for trace-gas detection, but only recently have they been used to retrieve the extinction coefficient of aerosols. Sensitive broadband extinction measurements allow explicit separation of gas and particle phase spectral contributions, as well as continuous spectral measurements of aerosol extinction in favourable cases. In this work, we report an intercomparison study of the aerosol extinction coefficients measured by three such instruments: a broadband cavity ring-down spectrometer (BBCRDS), a cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectrometer (CE-DOAS), and an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (IBBCEAS). Experiments were carried out in the SAPHIR atmospheric simulation chamber as part of the NO3Comp campaign to compare the measurement capabilities of NO3 and N2O5 instrumentation. Aerosol extinction coefficients between 655 and 690 nm are reported for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed by the NO3 oxidation of β-pinene under dry and humid conditions. Despite different measurement approaches and spectral analysis procedures, the three instruments retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients that were in close agreement. The refractive index of SOA formed from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction was 1.61, and was not measurably affected by the chamber humidity or by aging of the aerosol over several hours. This refractive index is significantly larger than SOA refractive indices observed in other studies of OH and ozone-initiated terpene oxidations, and may be caused by the large proportion of organic nitrates in the particle phase. In an experiment involving ammonium sulfate particles, the aerosol extinction coefficients as measured by IBBCEAS were found to be in reasonable agreement with those calculated using the Mie theory. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of broadband cavity spectrometers for determining the optical properties of aerosols.

  15. Microwave to Optical Link Using an Optical Microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, J D; Lecaplain, C; Brasch, V; Pfeiffer, M H P; Kippenberg, T J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to phase coherently link optical to radio frequencies with femtosecond modelocked lasers has enabled counting cycles of light and is the basis of optical clocks, absolute frequency synthesis, tests of fundamental physics, and improved spectroscopy. Using an optical microresonator frequency comb to establish a coherent link promises to greatly extend optical frequency synthesis and measurements to areas requiring compact form factor, on chip integration and repetition rates in the microwave regime, including coherent telecommunications, astrophysical spectrometer calibration or microwave photonics. Here we demonstrate for the first time a microwave to optical link using a microresonator. Using a temporal dissipative single soliton state in an ultra high Q crystalline microresonator an optical frequency comb is generated that is self-referenced, allowing to phase coherently link a 190 THZ optical carrier directly to a 14 GHz microwave frequency. Our work demonstrates that precision optical frequency...

  16. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  17. Design of an FT-NIR spectrometer for online quality analysis of traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren; Wu, Lan; Wang, Shiming; Ye, Linhua; Ding, Zhihua

    2008-03-01

    As a fast, non-destructive analysis method, Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is very suitable and effective for online quality analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing process. In this thesis, the theoretics of FT-NIRS was analyzed and an FT-NIR spectrometer with 4 cm -1 resolution in the 12500-5000 cm -1 frequency range was designed. The spectrometer was based on a Michelson interferometer with Bromine tungsten lamp as the NIR light source and InGaAs detector to collect the interference signal. Each element was designed and chosen to provide maximum sensitivity in the NIR spectral region. A fiber-optic flow cell system was used to realize online analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated and the feasibility of using FT-NIR spectrometer to get absorption spectra of traditional Chinese medicine was demonstrated.

  18. Fast neutron detection with a segmented spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, T. J.; Bass, C. D.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Erwin, D. K.; Heimbach, C. R.; Nico, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    A fast neutron spectrometer consisting of segmented plastic scintillator and 3He proportional counters was constructed for the measurement of neutrons in the energy range 1-200 MeV. We discuss its design, principles of operation, and the method of analysis. The detector is capable of observing very low neutron fluxes in the presence of ambient gamma background and does not require scintillator pulse-shape discrimination. The spectrometer was characterized for its energy response in fast neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements of the fast neutron flux and energy response at 120 m above sea-level (39.130°N, 77.218°W) and at a depth of 560 m in a limestone mine are presented. Finally, the design of a spectrometer with improved sensitivity and energy resolution is discussed.

  19. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  20. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  1. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  2. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  3. Fast Neutron Detection with a Segmented Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Langford, T J; Beise, E J; Breuer, H; Erwin, D K; Heimbach, C R; Nico, J S

    2014-01-01

    A fast neutron spectrometer consisting of segmented plastic scintillator and He-3 proportional counters was constructed for the measurement of neutrons in the energy range 1 MeV to 200 MeV. We discuss its design, principles of operation, and the method of analysis. The detector is capable of observing very low neutron fluxes in the presence of ambient gamma background and does not require scintillator pulse-shape discrimination The spectrometer was characterized for energy resolution and efficiency in fast neutron fields of 2.5 MeV, 14 MeV, and fission spectrum neutrons, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements of the fast neutron flux and energy response at 120 m above sea-level (39.130 deg. N, 77.218 deg. W) and at a depth of 560 m in a limestone mine are presented. Finally, the design of a spectrometer with improved sensitivity and energy resolution is discussed.

  4. Gas-dust-impact mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Semkin, N D; Myasnikov, S V; Pomelnikov, R A

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes design of a mass spectrometer to study element composition of micro meteorite and man-made particles in space. Paper describes a way to improve resolution of mass spectrometer based on variation of parameters of accelerating electric field in time. The advantage of the given design of mass spectrometer in comparison with similar ones is its large operating area and higher resolution at the comparable weight and dimensions. Application of a combined design both for particles and for gas enables to remove space vehicle degassing products from the spectrum and, thus, to improve reliability of the acquired information, as well as, to acquire information on a gas component of the external atmosphere of a space vehicle

  5. Fast neutron detection with a segmented spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langford, T.J., E-mail: thomas.langford@yale.edu [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bass, C.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Beise, E.J.; Breuer, H.; Erwin, D.K. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Heimbach, C.R.; Nico, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    A fast neutron spectrometer consisting of segmented plastic scintillator and {sup 3}He proportional counters was constructed for the measurement of neutrons in the energy range 1–200 MeV. We discuss its design, principles of operation, and the method of analysis. The detector is capable of observing very low neutron fluxes in the presence of ambient gamma background and does not require scintillator pulse-shape discrimination. The spectrometer was characterized for its energy response in fast neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements of the fast neutron flux and energy response at 120 m above sea-level (39.130°N, 77.218°W) and at a depth of 560 m in a limestone mine are presented. Finally, the design of a spectrometer with improved sensitivity and energy resolution is discussed.

  6. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  7. Control of time stability of scintillation spectrometer of delayed coincidences

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, V A

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes a system to control time stability of a two-detector plastic scintillation spectrometer of three-dimensional coincides. A two-reference control system incorporates a light guide base delay optical line, two light diodes and a two-channel generator of nanosecond pulses. A distinguishing feature of the design system is application of one delay line to form both advance and delay time signal as to the real coincidences in the studied radioactive source. The designed system of control enables to measure periods of half-decay of nuclei excited states within 40-100 ns range ensuring control of position of coincidence curve gravity centers within 4 ps limits

  8. Vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y.; Otsu, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The first commissioning experiment of the SAMURAI spectrometer and its beam line was performed in March, 2012. The vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer includes its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber with the windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles. The window for neutrons was made of stainless steel with a thickness of 3 mm and was designed with a shape of partial cylinder to support itself against the atmospheric pressure. The window for charged particles was of the combination of Kevlar and Mylar with the thickness of 280 and 75 μm, respectively. The pressure in the vacuum system was at a few Pa throughout the commissioning experiment.

  9. SAMURAI spectrometer for RI beam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Chiga, N.; Isobe, T.; Kondo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kusaka, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Okuno, H.; Otsu, H.; Sako, T.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, R.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    A large-acceptance multiparticle spectrometer SAMURAI has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) for RI beam experiments. It was designed primarily for kinematically complete experiments such as the invariant-mass spectroscopy of particle-unbound states in exotic nuclei, by detecting heavy fragments and projectile-rapidity nucleons in coincidence. The system consists of a superconducting dipole magnet, beam line detectors, heavy fragment detectors, neutron detectors, and proton detectors. The SAMURAI spectrometer was commissioned in March 2012, and a rigidity resolution of about 1/1500 was obtained for RI beams up to 2.4 GeV/c.

  10. SAMURAI spectrometer for RI beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T., E-mail: kobayash@lambda.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Chiga, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kondo, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Kusaka, K.; Motobayashi, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ohnishi, J.; Okuno, H.; Otsu, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sako, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sekiguchi, K.; Takahashi, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tanaka, R. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yoneda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    A large-acceptance multiparticle spectrometer SAMURAI has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) for RI beam experiments. It was designed primarily for kinematically complete experiments such as the invariant-mass spectroscopy of particle-unbound states in exotic nuclei, by detecting heavy fragments and projectile-rapidity nucleons in coincidence. The system consists of a superconducting dipole magnet, beam line detectors, heavy fragment detectors, neutron detectors, and proton detectors. The SAMURAI spectrometer was commissioned in March 2012, and a rigidity resolution of about 1/1500 was obtained for RI beams up to 2.4 GeV/c.

  11. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  12. Preliminary results from a new spin spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Bedrossian, P.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Cummins, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    1998-12-31

    The first preliminary results from a novel spectrometer for elementally-specific measurements of magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films are presented here. The key measurements are based upon spin-resolving and photon-dichroic photoelectron spectroscopy. True spin-resolution is achieved by the use of a Mini-Mott detection scheme. The photon-dichroic measurements include the variant magnetic x-ray linear dichroism (MXLD). Both a multi-channel, energy dispersive collection scheme as well as the spin-detecting Mini-Mott apparatus are used in data collection. The Spin Spectrometer is based at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7) at the Advanced Light Source.

  13. A 4[pi] dilepton spectrometer: PEPSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buda, A. (Kernfysisch Versneller Inst., Groningen (Netherlands)); Bacelar, J.C.S. (Kernfysisch Versneller Inst., Groningen (Netherlands)); Balanda, A. (Kernfysisch Versneller Inst., Groningen (Netherlands)); Klinken, J. van (Kernfysisch Versneller Inst., Groningen (Netherlands)); Sujkowski, Z. (Kernfysisch Versneller Inst., Groningen (Netherlands)); Woude, A. van der (Kernfysisch Versneller Inst., Groningen (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd[sub 2]Fe[sub 14]B permanent magnets forming a compact 4[pi] magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response function of PEPSI has been measured with mono-energetic beams of electrons from 5 to 20 MeV. The PEPSI spectrometer was used for measuring the internal pair conversion coefficient ([alpha][sub [pi

  14. Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) Instrument Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Redemann, Jens; Chang, Cecilia; Dahlgren, Robert; Fahey, Lauren; Flynn, Connor; Johnson, Roy; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Leblanc, Samuel; Liss, Jordan; text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170005591'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170005591_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170005591_hide'); "> hide

    2017-01-01

    The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with grating spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution and climate. Hyper-spectral measurements of direct-beam solar irradiance provide retrievals of gas constituents, aerosol optical depth, and aerosol and thin cloud optical properties. Sky radiance measurements in the principal and almucantar planes enhance retrievals of aerosol absorption, aerosol type, and size mode distribution. Zenith radiance measurements are used to retrieve cloud properties and phase, which in turn are used to quantify the radiative transfer below cloud layers. These airborne measurements tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. In contrast to the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) predecessor instrument, new technologies for each subsystem have been incorporated into 4STAR. In particular, 4STAR utilizes a modular sun-trackingsky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and spectrometerdetector configurations that may be tailored for specific scientific objectives. This paper discusses technical challenges relating to compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage at high resolution. Test results benchmarking the performance of the instrument against the AATS-14 standard and emerging science requirements are presented.

  15. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER): The Narrow-Band Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korngut, P. M.; Renbarger, T.; Arai, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Brown, S. W.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Kim, M. G.; Lanz, A.; Lee, D. H.; Levenson, L. R.; Lykke, K. R.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Shultz, B.; Smith, A. W.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-08-01

    We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

  16. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korngut, P. M.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Renbarger, T.; Keating, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Hristov, V.; Lanz, A.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Smith, A. W. [Sensor Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu [Materion Barr Precision Optics and Thin Film Coatings, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

  17. A High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for Experiments with Ultracold Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, S D; Staanum, P; Fioretti, A; Lange, J; Wester, R; Weidemüller, M; Kraft, Stephan D.; Mikosch, Jochen; Staanum, Peter; Fioretti, Andrea; Lange, Joerg; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We have realized a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with a magneto-optical trap. The spectrometer enables excellent optical access to the trapped atomic cloud using properly devised acceleration and deflection electrodes. The ions are extracted along a laser axis and deflected onto an off axis detector. The setup is applied to detect atoms and molecules photoassociated from ultracold atoms. The detection is based on resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization. The versatile setup can easily be implemented in more complex experiments with ultracold atomic and molecular gases. Mass resolution up to $m/\\Delta m_{rms} = 1000$ at the mass of $^{133}$Cs is achieved.

  18. Systematic effects in polarizing Fourier transform spectrometers for cosmic microwave background observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nagler, Peter C; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing Fourier transform spectrometers, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS - emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects - and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  19. QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF ENVIRONMENTALLY IMPORTANT DYES USING DIODE LASER/FIBER-OPTIC RAMAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact diode laser/fiber-optic Raman spectrometer is used for quantitative detection of environmentally important dyes. This system is based on diode laser excitation at 782 mm, fiber optic probe technology, an imaging spectrometer, and state-of-the-art scientific CCD camera. ...

  20. ABERRATIONS MINIMIZATION FOR IMPROVING CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPACT HIGH-APERTURE DISPERSIVE SPECTROMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Voropay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Schemes of high-aperture and compact optical spectrometers and giperspectrometer with minimized aberrations are presented. In the first scheme usage of inclined plane-parallel plate allows decreasing of astigmatism. In the second scheme off-axis aberrations are practically removed due to axial propagation of light. For giperspectrometer narrowing of light propagation angle through the object lens and turning the light out of dispersion plane lead to minimizing of picture aberrations.

  1. IR spectrometer project for the BTA telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Emelianov, E. V.; Murzin, V. A.; Vdovin, V. F.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a project of new cooled infrared spectrometer-photometer for 6-m telescope BTA (Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Science Academy). The device would extend the wavelength range accessible for observations on the 6-m BTA telescope toward near infrared (0.8-2.5 um).

  2. A 4-PI DILEPTON SPECTROMETER - PEPSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUDA, A; BACELAR, JCS; BALANDA, A; VANKLINKEN, J; SUJKOWSKI, Z; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1993-01-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 pi magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response f

  3. Handheld miniature ion trap mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zheng; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-04-01

    For field applications, "miniature" and "rapid" have become almost synonymous, yet these small mass spectrometers are not useful if performance is too severely compromised. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry website at pubs.acs.org/journal/ancham .).

  4. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  5. Neutron spectrometer for fast nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Caiffi, B; Pompili, F; Pillon, M; Angelone, M; Verona-Rinati, G; Cardarelli, R; Mila, G; Argiro, S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and first tests of a neutron spectrometer designed for high flux environments, such as the ones found in fast nuclear reactors. The spectrometer is based on the conversion of neutrons impinging on $^6$Li into $\\alpha$ and $t$ whose total energy comprises the initial neutron energy and the reaction $Q$-value. The $^6$LiF layer is sandwiched between two CVD diamond detectors, which measure the two reaction products in coincidence. The spectrometer was calibrated at two neutron energies in well known thermal and 3 MeV neutron fluxes. The measured neutron detection efficiency varies from 4.2$\\times 10^{-4}$ to 3.5$\\times 10^{-8}$ for thermal and 3 MeV neutrons, respectively. These values are in agreement with Geant4 simulations and close to simple estimates based on the knowledge of the $^6$Li(n,$\\alpha$)$t$ cross section. The energy resolution of the spectrometer was found to be better than 100 keV when using 5 m cables between the detector and the preamplifiers.

  6. Resolution of a triple axis spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1969-01-01

    A new method for obtaining the resolution function for a triple-axis neutron spectrometer is described, involving a combination of direct measurement and analytical calculation. All factors which contribute to the finite resolution of the instrument may be taken into account, and Gaussian...

  7. Study and Demarcating of Electron Magnetic Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYe-jun; SHANYu-sheng; TAOYe-zheng; CHENGYou-jian; ZHANGHai-feng

    2003-01-01

    The principle of electron magnetic spectrometer is a moving charged particle circles a central point for the Lorenz force when it moves in a steady magnetic field, at the same time, we consider the influence of gravity excursion, magnetic grads excursion and curvature excursion. Having adopted yoke iron equalizing technology and had magnetic field and gravity field at the same line.

  8. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  9. A compact positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李道武; 刘军辉; 章志明; 王宝义; 张天保; 魏龙

    2011-01-01

    Using LYSO scintillator coupled on HAMAMATSU R9800 (a fast photomultiplier) to form the small size γ-ray detectors, a compact lifetime spectrometer has been built for the positron annihilation experiments. The system time resolution FWHM=193 ps and the co

  10. A 4-PI DILEPTON SPECTROMETER - PEPSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUDA, A; BACELAR, JCS; BALANDA, A; VANKLINKEN, J; SUJKOWSKI, Z; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1993-01-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 pi magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response f

  11. Cryogenic imaging x-ray spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; van Baar, J.J.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Ridder, M.L.; Bruijn, M.P.; Germeau, A.; Hoevers, H.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    A micro-calorimeter array consisting of superconducting transition-edge sensors is under development for the X-ray imaging spectrometer on board of ESA's XEUS (X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy) mission. An array of 32 /spl times/ 32 pixels with a pixel size of 250 micron square is envisaged. So

  12. Digital Signal Processing in the GRETINA Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromaz, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Developments in the segmentation of large-volume HPGe crystals has enabled the development of high-efficiency gamma-ray spectrometers which have the ability to track the path of gamma-rays scattering through the detector volume. This technology has been successfully implemented in the GRETINA spectrometer whose high efficiency and ability to perform precise event-by-event Doppler correction has made it an important tool in nuclear spectroscopy. Tracking has required the spectrometer to employ a fully digital signal processing chain. Each of the systems 1120 channels are digitized by 100 Mhz, 14-bit flash ADCs. Filters that provide timing and high-resolution energies are implemented on local FPGAs acting on the ADC data streams while interaction point locations and tracks, derived from the trace on each detector segment, are calculated in real time on a computing cluster. In this presentation we will give a description of GRETINA's digital signal processing system, the impact of design decisions on system performance, and a discussion of possible future directions as we look towards soon developing larger spectrometers such as GRETA with full 4 π solid angle coverage. This work was supported by the Office of Science in the Department of Energy under grant DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  13. A 4-PI DILEPTON SPECTROMETER - PEPSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUDA, A; BACELAR, JCS; BALANDA, A; VANKLINKEN, J; SUJKOWSKI, Z; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1993-01-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 pi magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response

  14. Broadband Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C G; Cunningham, C T; Tringe, J W

    2010-12-16

    This report summarizes the most important results of our effort to develop a new class of infrared spectrometers based on a novel broadband heterodyne design. Our results indicate that this approach could lead to a near-room temperature operation with performance limited only by quantum noise carried by the incoming signal. Using a model quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), we demonstrated key performance features of our approach. For example, we directly measured the beat frequency signal generated by superimposing local oscillator (LO) light of one frequency and signal light of another through a spectrograph, by injecting the LO light at a laterally displaced input location. In parallel with the development of this novel spectrometer, we modeled a new approach to reducing detector volume though plasmonic resonance effects. Since dark current scales directly with detector volume, this ''photon compression'' can directly lead to lower currents. Our calculations indicate that dark current can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude in an optimized ''superlens'' structure. Taken together, our spectrometer and dark current reduction strategies provide a promising path toward room temperature operation of a mid-wave and possibly long-wave infrared spectrometer.

  15. IR Spectrometer Project for the BTA Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Emelianov, E. V.; Murzin, V. A.; Vdovin, V. F.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a project of new cooled infrared spectrometer-photometer for 6-m telescope BTA (Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Science Academy). The device would extend the wavelength range accessible for observations on the 6-m BTA telescope toward near infrared (0.8-2.5 um).

  16. Computer Enhanced SRO NQR-Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Koichi; Hashimoto, Masao

    1986-02-01

    An automatic computer supported SRO NQR spectrometer system was constructed for the measurement of time dependent NQR signal intensities. The system has several functions: fast scanning (500 kH z/25 s), averaging, smoothing, automatic noise level estimation, automatic peak detection, etc. The process of the ß → α phase transition of p-dichlorobenzene is illustrated by the 3-dimensional spectrum .

  17. The Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES): Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon; Johnson, William R.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Gunapala, Sarah D.; Lamborn, Andrew U.; Mouroulis, Pantazis, Z.; Mouroulis, Pantazis, Z.; Paine, Christopher G.; Soibel, Alexander; Wilson, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) is being developed as part of the risk reduction activities associated with the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). HyspIRI is one of the Tier 2 Decadal Survey Missions. HyTES will provide information on how to place the filters on the HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Instrument (TIR) as well as provide antecedent science data. The pushbroom design has 512 spatial pixels over a 50-degree field of view and 256 spectral channels between 7.5 micrometers to 12 micrometers. HyTES includes many key enabling state-of-the-art technologies including a high performance convex diffraction grating, a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array, and a compact Dyson-inspired optical design. The Dyson optical design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). It also minimizes cooling requirements due to the fact it has a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows baffling for stray light suppression. The monolithic configuration eases mechanical tolerancing requirements which are a concern since the complete optical assembly is operated at cryogenic temperatures ((is) approximately 100K). The QWIP allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity or D-star to allow 200mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. Assembly of the system is nearly complete. After completion, alignment results will be presented which show low keystone and smile distortion. This is required to minimize spatial-spectral mixing between adjacent spectral channels and spatial positions. Predictions show the system will have adequate signal to noise for laboratory calibration targets.

  18. Thirty-two channel LED array spectrometer module with compact optomechanical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, J.; Keranen, H.; Hannula, T.; Hyvarinen, T.

    1991-12-01

    A compact and versatile 32-wavelength spectrometer module has been developed based on a linear LED array and a fixed grating monochromator. The design includes all the optical, mechanical, and optoelectronic parts in a size of approximately 4 x 4 x 7 cu cm. The wavelength bands are scanned electronically without any moving parts. All the optical parts have been assembled to form a cemented solid glass construction, which is mechanically and thermally stable and well protected against water condensation or dust. The developed source module can be easily modified and has obvious advantages for spectroscopic analyzers, especially in process and portable applications.

  19. Low-Power Wideband Digital Spectrometer for Planetary Science Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a wideband digital spectrometer to support space-born measurements of planetary atmospheric composition. The spectrometer...

  20. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei; WANG Huan-Yu; PENG Wen-Xi; LIANG Xiao-Hua; ZHANG Chun-Lei; CAO Xue-Lei; JIANG Wei-Chun; ZHANG Jia-Yu; CUI Xing-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed.A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer.The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics,a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit.A ground test system is also developed to test SOX.The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved.

  1. BaF2 TIME DIFFERENTIAL PERTURBED ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION SPECTROMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱升云; 勾振辉; 等

    1994-01-01

    A BaF2 time differential perturbed angular distribution spectrometer has been established at the HI-13 tandem accelerator in CIAE.The time resolution of the spectrometer is 195ps and the nonlinearity is less than 2%.The spectrometer works very stably and no time drift is found over a period of experimental runs.This spectrometer has been successfully used in the g-factor measurement of 43Sc(19/2-,3.1232MeV).

  2. Editorial: New 1.2 GHz NMR Spectrometers- New Horizons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Harald

    2017-08-21

    The latest ultrahigh-field NMR spectrometers are a huge technological challenge that require large financial investments. In his Guest Editorial, Harald Schwalbe justifies the need for spectrometers with higher magnetic field strengths. The important results from previous generations of high-field NMR spectrometers are discussed, and research areas are identified that will benefit from the latest spectrometers. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Properties of a large NaI(Tl) spectrometer for the energy measurement of high-energy gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Finman, L. C.; Hofstadter, R.; Lepetich, J. E.; Lin, Y. C.

    1986-01-01

    A large NaI(Tl) spectrometer is expected to play a crucial role in the measurement of the energy spectra from an all-sky survey of high-energy celestial gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory. The crystal size and requirements of space flight have resulted in a novel crystal-packaging and optics combination. The structure of this spectrometer and the operating characteristics determined in a test program using high energy positrons are described.

  4. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER): The Low Resolution Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, K.; Arai, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Brown, S.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Levenson, L. R.; Lykke, K.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Murata, K.; Nam, U. W.; Renbarger, T.; Smith, A.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-08-01

    Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 μm to 2 μm are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a λ/Δλ ~ 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 μm <λ < 2.1 μm. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.

  5. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE LOW RESOLUTION SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, K.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Murata, K. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronoutical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, S.; Lykke, K.; Smith, A. [Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I., E-mail: tsumura@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    Absolute spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse radiation at 1 {mu}m to 2 {mu}m are crucial to our understanding of the radiative content of the universe from nucleosynthesis since the epoch of reionization, the composition and structure of the zodiacal dust cloud in our solar system, and the diffuse galactic light arising from starlight scattered by interstellar dust. The Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment is a {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15-30 absolute spectrophotometer designed to make precision measurements of the absolute near-infrared sky brightness between 0.75 {mu}m <{lambda} < 2.1 {mu}m. This paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electronic design of the LRS, as well as the ground testing, characterization, and calibration measurements undertaken before flight to verify its performance. The LRS is shown to work to specifications, achieving the necessary optical and sensitivity performance. We describe our understanding and control of sources of systematic error for absolute photometry of the near-infrared extragalactic background light.

  6. High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Richard F.; Conger, Chris A.; Pelligrino, L. S.

    1997-10-01

    At the Denver meeting, last year, we presented the High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer, (HEIFTS), theory and optical design. This device uses a new 'image plane interferometer' geometry to produce 'autocorrelation function modulation' in the image plane of a 2D imaging array, such that the phase offset of the modulation varies linearly across the image. As a 2D image is pushbroomed across the imaging, array, the record of an individual scene pixel is recorded for each autocorrelation phase offset. The 3D array of this data is processed to yield an 'autocorrelation function' data cube, which is Fourier transformed to yield a 'wavenumber' hyperspectral data curve. A phase I device has been demonstrated in the laboratory and initial results are presented. The significant increase in signal to noise ratio, which the HEIFTS optical design promises over conventional hyperspectral imaging schemes, has been simulated, and results will be discussed. A Phase II system is being prepared for initial field deployment, and will be described.

  7. CHIRON - A Fiber Fed Spectrometer for Precise Radial Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Bonati, Marco; Giguere, Matthew J; Moore, Peter; Schwab, Christian; Spronck, Julien F P; Szymkowiak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The CHIRON optical high-resolution echelle spectrometer was commissioned at the 1.5m telescope at CTIO in 2011. The instrument was designed for high throughput and stability, with the goal of monitoring radial velocities of bright stars with high precision and high cadence for the discovery of low-mass exoplanets. Spectral resolution of R=79,000 is attained when using a slicer with a total (including telescope and detector) efficiency of 6% or higher, while a resolution of R=136,000 is available for bright stars. A fixed spectral range of 415 to 880 nm is covered. The echelle grating is housed in a vacuum enclosure and the instrument temperature is stabilized to +-0.2deg. Stable illumination is provided by an octagonal multimode fiber with excellent light-scrambling properties. An iodine cell is used for wavelength calibration. We describe the main optics, fiber feed, detector, exposure-meter, and other aspects of the instrument, as well as the observing procedure and data reduction.

  8. Design of thin-film filters for resolution improvements in filter-array based spectrometers using DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Kim, Cheolsun; Ju, Gun Wu; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-05-01

    Miniature spectrometers have been widely developed in various academic and industrial applications such as bio-medical, chemical and environmental engineering. As a family of spectrometers, optical filter-array based spectrometers fabricated using CMOS or Nano technology provide miniaturization, superior portability and cost effectiveness. In filterarray based spectrometers, the resolution which represents the ability how closely resolve two neighboring spectra, depends on the number of filters and the characteristics of the transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. In practice, due to the small-size and low-cost fabrication, the number of filters is limited and the shape of the TF of each filter is nonideal. As a development of modern digital signal processing (DSP), the spectrometers are equipped with DSP algorithms not only to alleviate distortions due to unexpected noise or interferences among filters but also reconstruct the original signal spectrum. For a high-resolution spectrum reconstruction by the DSP, the TFs of the filters need to be sufficiently uncorrelated with each other. In this paper, we present a design of optical thin-film filters which have the uncorrelated TFs. Each filter consists of multiple layers of high- and low-refractive index materials deposited on a substrate. The proposed design helps the DSP algorithm to improve resolution with a small number of filters. We demonstrate that a resolution of 5 nm within a range from 500 nm to 1100 nm can be achieved with only 64 filters.

  9. Highly folded 5 m Fourier transform spectrometer for spaceborne wind lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Jane; Willard, Bert

    2015-07-10

    We have designed and built a prototype Fourier transform spectrometer intended for a wind lidar system. The significant characteristics of this design include (1) an optical layout that folds a maximum optical path difference of 5.8 m to fit into a 1.2 m cavity, (2) two confocal parabolas to compensate for beam diffraction over the entire path length, and (3) a photon-counting detector for high sensitivity. The optical path difference is measured with a reference beam produced by the heterodyne technique. The reference beam is collinear with the data beam, and accounts for all mechanical vibrations along the optical path.

  10. [A review of Dyson optical system in the measure of infrared imaging spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-juan; Tang, Yu-guo; Bayanheshig; Cui, Ji-cheng; Qi, Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    It is difficult for the traditional infrared imaging spectrometers to satisfy the requirement of high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and small size simultaneously. The new infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers based on Dyson concentric optical configuration have the advantages of high aperture, high SNR, simpleness small volume and low weight. The Dyson imaging spectrometers can achieve high SNR, which is difficult for the traditional imaging spectrometers for infrared imaging spectrum. The present review introduces the beginning, the development and the present research of the Dyson imaging spectrometers, especially illustrates the principle of Dyson concentric spectrometer, difficulty during its manufacture and the application in the high-performance infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers, providing a reference for the high-performance research of infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers.

  11. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  12. Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, K.

    2012-11-01

    SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

  13. Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

  14. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-15

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  15. Fourier and Hadamard transform spectrometers - A limited comparison. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, M.; Tai, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical approach was used to compare interferometric spectrometers and Hadamard transform spectrometers. The principle results are reported, noting that the simple Hadamard spectrometer encodes more efficiently than a Michelson interferometer which, in turn, encodes less efficiently than is usually acknowledged. Hirschfeld's (1977) major objections to these findings are discussed, although it is noted that none of his objections is supported by evidence.

  16. Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

    2007-03-01

    With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

  17. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  18. WSPEC: A Waveguide Filter Bank Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Che, George; Underhill, Matthew; Mauskopf, Philip; Groppi, Christopher; Jones, Glenn; Johnson, Bradley; McCarrick, Heather; Flanigan, Daniel; Day, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and measured a 5-channel prototype spectrometer pixel operating in the WR10 band to demonstrate a novel moderate-resolution (R=f/{\\Delta}f~100), multi-pixel, broadband, spectrometer concept for mm and submm-wave astronomy. Our design implements a transmission line filter bank using waveguide resonant cavities as a series of narrow-band filters, each coupled to an aluminum kinetic inductance detector (KID). This technology has the potential to perform the next generation of spectroscopic observations needed to drastically improve our understanding of the epoch of reionization (EoR), star formation, and large-scale structure of the universe. We present our design concept, results from measurements on our prototype device, and the latest progress on our efforts to develop a 4-pixel demonstrator instrument operating in the 130-250 GHz band.

  19. Calibration of the solar radio spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows some improvements and new results of calibration of Chinese solar radio spectrometer by analyzing the daily calibration data recorded in the period of 1997-2007. First, the calibration coefficient is fitted for three bands (1.0-2.0 GHz, 2.6-3.8 GHz, 5.2-7.6 GHz) of the spectrometer by using the moving-average method confined by the property of the daily calibration data. By this calibration coefficient, the standard deviation of the calibration result was less than 10 sfu for 95% frequencies of 2.6-3.8 GHz band in 2003. This result is better than that calibrated with the constant coefficient. Second, the calibration coefficient is found in good correlation with local air temperature for most frequencies of 2.6-3.8 GHz band. Moreover, these results are helpful in the research of the quiet solar radio emission.

  20. PAC Spectrometer for Condensed Matter Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Brudanin, V B; Kochetov, O I; Korolev, N A; Milanov, M; Ostrovsky, I V; Pavlov, V N; Salamatin, A V; Timkin, V V; Velichkov, A I; Fomicheva, L N; Tsvyaschenko, A V; Akselrod, Z Z

    2005-01-01

    A four-detector spectrometer of perturbed angular $\\gamma \\gamma $ correlations is developed for investigation of hyperfine interactions in condensed matter. It allows measurements with practically any types of detectors. A unique circuit design involving a specially developed Master PAC unit combined with a computer allows a substantially higher efficiency, reduced setup time and simpler operation in comparison with traditional PAC spectrometers. A cryostat and a high-temperature oven allow measurements in the temperature range from 120 to 1300 K. An encased electromagnet makes it possible to generate a magnetic field up to 2 T on a sample. The measurement system includes a press with a specially designed high-pressure chamber allowing on-line PAC measurements in samples under pressure up to 60 GPa.

  1. A 4 π dilepton spectrometer: PEPSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, A.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bałanda, A.; van Klinken, J.; Sujkowski, Z.; van der Woude, A.

    1993-11-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd 2Fe 14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 π magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response function of PEPSI has been measured with mono-energetic beams of electrons from 5 to 20 MeV. The PEPSI spectrometer was used for measuring the internal pair conversion coefficient ( απ) of the 15.1 MeV M1 transition from a Jπ = 1 + state to the ground state in 12C. Our experimental value of απ = (3.3 ± 0.5) × 10 -3 is in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

  2. Data Reduction with the MIKE Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Rebecca A; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the design, usage, and data-reduction pipeline developed for the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrometer used with the Magellan telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. We summarize the basic characteristics of the instrument and discuss observational procedures recommended for calibrating the standard data products. We detail the design and implementation of an IDL based data-reduction pipeline for MIKE data (since generalized to other echelle spectrometers, e.g. Keck/HIRES, VLT/UVES). This includes novel techniques for flat-fielding, wavelength calibration, and the extraction of echelle spectroscopy. Sufficient detail is provided in this manuscript to enable inexperienced observers to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the instrument and software package and an assessment of the related systematics.

  3. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. The cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy are described. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN2 circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. The 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  4. The transition-edge EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Adams, Joseph; Bandler, Simon; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory; Chervenak, James; Doriese, Randy; Eckart, Megan; Irwin, Kent; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, Carl; Smith, Stephen; Ullom, Joel

    2014-07-01

    The Transition-edge EBIT Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (TEMS) is a 1000-pixel array instrument to be delivered to the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2015. It will be the first fully operational array of its kind. The TEMS will utilize the unique capabilities of the EBIT to verify and benchmark atomic theory that is critical for the analysis of high-resolution data from microcalorimeter spectrometers aboard the next generation of x-ray observatories. We present spectra from the present instrumentation at EBIT, as well as our latest results with time-division multiplexing using the current iteration of the TEMS focal plane assembly in our test platform at NASA/GSFC.

  5. Calibration of the solar radio spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN ChengMing; YAN YiHua; TAN BaoLin; XU GuiRong

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows some improvements and new results of calibration of Chinese solar radio spectrom-eter by analyzing the daily calibration data recorded in the period of 1997-2007. First, the calibration coefficient is fitted for three bands (1.0-2.0 GHz, 2.6-3.8 GHz, 5.2-7.6 GHz) of the spectrometer by using the moving-average method confined by the property of the daily calibration data. By this calibration coefficient, the standard deviation of the calibration result was less than 10 sfu for 95% frequencies of 2.6-3.8 GHz band in 2003. This result is better than that calibrated with the constant coefficient. Second, the calibration coefficient is found in good correlation with local air temperature for most frequencies of 2.6-3.8 GHz band. Moreover, these results are helpful in the research of the quiet solar radio emission.

  6. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Labiano, A; Bailey, J I; Beard, S; Dicken, D; García-Marín, M; Geers, V; Glasse, A; Glauser, A; Gordon, K; Justtanont, K; Klaassen, P; Lahuis, F; Law, D; Morrison, J; Müller, M; Rieke, G; Vandenbussche, B; Wright, G

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments, such as fringe corrections and wavelength offsets, with different algorithms for point source or extended source data. The MRS pipeline has also two different variants: the baseline pipeline, optimized for most foreseen science cases, and the optimal pipeline, where extra steps will be needed for specific science cases. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the MRS Calibration Pipeline from uncalibrated slope images to final scientific products, with brief descriptions of its algorithms, input and output data, and the accessory data and calibration data products necessary to run the pipeline.

  7. On the Alignment and Focusing of the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, Patrick; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Cheimets, Peter; Hertz, Edward; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; McCracken, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument that is designed to observe soft X-ray emissions from 24 - 6.0 A (0.5 - 2.0 keV energies) in the solar atmosphere. For the rst time, high-temperature, low-emission plasma will be observed directly with 5 arcsecond spatial resolution and 22 mA spectral resolution. The unique optical design consists of a Wolter - I telescope and a 3-optic grazing- incidence spectrometer. The spectrometer utilizes a nite conjugate mirror pair and a blazed planar, varied line spaced grating, which is directly printed on a silicon substrate using e-beam lithography. The grating design is being nalized and the grating will be fabricated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Izentis LLC. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is producing the nickel replicated telescope and spectrometer mirrors using the same facilities and techniques as those developed for the ART-XC and FOXSI mirrors. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) will mount and align the optical sub-assemblies based on previous experience with similar instruments, such as the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The telescope and spectrometer assembly will be aligned in visible light through the implementation of a theodolite and reference mirrors, in addition to the centroid detector assembly (CDA) { a device designed to align the AXAF-I nested mirrors. Focusing of the telescope and spectrometer will be achieved using the X-ray source in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) at MSFC. We present results from an alignment sensitivity analysis performed on the on the system and we also discuss the method for aligning and focusing MaGIXS.

  8. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment: Flight Characterization Of The Ciber Narrow Band Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Louis R.; Battle, J.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2011-01-01

    Subtraction of the Zodiacal light foreground is the dominant source of uncertainty in absolute photometric measurements of the extra-galactic background at near-infrared to optical wavelengths. The second flight of the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) occurred on July 10th, 2010. CIBER is a NASA sounding rocket experiment carrying four co-aligned instruments including two imaging telescopes with wide passbands centered at 1 and 1.6 microns, respectively, as well as a low resolution spectrometer and a narrow-band spectrometer. THE CIBER spectrometers are absolutely calibrated in collaboration with NIST. The narrow-band spectrometer filter is centered on the Ca II solar Fraunhofer line at 854.2 nm and is designed to measure the equivalent width of the solar line reflected by the interplanetary dust in order to obtain an absolute measurement of the Zodiacal contribution to the infrared sky at that wavelength. In conjunction with measured low resolution spectrum from 700 to 1900 nm, this will provide an accurate independent check of the DIRBE Zodiacal light models. Here we describe the NBS instrument, calibration and in-flight characterization.

  9. Spectrometer Development in Support of Thomson Scattering Investigations for the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Eva; Davies, Richard; Azzari, Phil; Frank, John; Frank, Jackson; James, Royce; Hopson, Jordon; Duke-Tinson, Omar; Paolino, Richard; Sherman, Justin; Wright, Erin; Turk, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Now that reproducible plasmas have been created on the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX) at the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Laboratory (CGAPL), a high-performance spectrometer utilizing volume-phase-holographic (VPH) grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a range of 380-1090 nm and resolution of 1024x1024 is being assembled. This spectrometer will collect doppler shifted photons created by exciting the plasma with the first harmonic of a 2.5 J Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Direct measurements of the plasma's temperature and density will be determined using HPX's Thomson Scattering (TS) system as a single spatial point diagnostic. TS has the capability of determining plasma properties on short time scales and will be used to create a robust picture of the internal plasma parameters. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed to explore the Andor CCD camera's resolution and sensitivity. Concurrently, through intensive study of the high energy TS system, safety protocols and standard operation procedures (SOP) for the Coast Guard's largest and most powerful Laser have been developed. The current status of the TS SOP, diagnostic development, and the collection optic's spectrometer will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY15-16.

  10. The study of interferometer spectrometer based on DSP and linear CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hua; Peng, Yuexiang; Xu, Xinchen; Xing, Xiaoqiao

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, general theory of Fourier-transform spectrometer and polarization interferometer is presented. A new design is proposed for Fourier-transform spectrometer based on polarization interferometer with Wollaston prisms and linear CCD. Firstly, measured light is changed into linear polarization light by polarization plate. And then the light can be split into ordinary and extraordinary lights by going through one Wollaston prism. At last, after going through another Wollaston prism and analyzer, interfering fringes can be formed on linear CCD behind the analyzer. The linear CCD is driven by CPLD to output amplitude of interfering fringes and synchronous signals of frames and pixels respectively. DSP is used to collect interference pattern signals from CCD and the digital data of interfering fringes are processed by using 2048-point-FFT. Finally, optical spectrum of measured light can be display on LCD connected to DSP with RS232. The spectrometer will possess the features of firmness, portability and the ability of real-time analyzing. The work will provide a convenient and significant foundation for application of more high accuracy of Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  11. WSPEC: A Waveguide Filter-Bank Focal Plane Array Spectrometer for Millimeter Wave Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Sean; Aguirre, James; Che, George; Doyle, Simon; Flanigan, Daniel; Groppi, Christopher; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Glenn; Mauskopf, Philip; McCarrick, Heather; Monfardini, Alessandro; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths are key frontiers in astronomy and cosmology. Large area spectral surveys with moderate spectral resolution (R=50-200) will be used to characterize large-scale structure and star formation through intensity mapping surveys in emission lines such as the CO rotational transitions. Such surveys will also be used to study the the Sunyaev Zeldovich (SZ) effect, and will detect the emission lines and continuum spectrum of individual objects. WSPEC is an instrument proposed to target these science goals. It is a channelizing spectrometer realized in rectangular waveguide, fabricated using conventional high-precision metal machining. Each spectrometer is coupled to free space with a machined feed horn, and the devices are tiled into a 2D array to fill the focal plane of the telescope. The detectors will be aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs). To target the CO lines and SZ effect, we will have bands at 135-175 and 190-250 GHz, each Nyquist-sampled at R≈ 200 resolution. Here, we discuss the instrument concept and design, and successful initial testing of a WR10 (i.e., 90 GHz) prototype spectrometer. We recently tested a WR5 (180 GHz) prototype to verify that the concept works at higher frequencies, and also designed a resonant backshort structure that may further increase the optical efficiency. We are making progress towards integrating a spectrometer with a LEKID array and deploying a prototype device to a telescope for first light.

  12. Superconducting RF separator for Omega Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows an Nb-deflector for the superconducting RF separator ready for installation in its cryostat (visible at the back). Each deflector was about 3 m long. L. Husson and P. Skacel (Karlsruhe) stand on the left, A. Scharding (CERN) stands on the right. This particle separator, the result of a collaboration between the Gesellshaft für Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, and CERN was installed in the S1 beam line to Omega spectrometer. (See Annual Report 1977.)

  13. Midrapidity measurements with the BRAHMS spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-07-15

    The forward- and midrapidity-arms of the BRAHMS experiment are designed to measure charged particle production over a wide range of transverse momentum for rapidities, 0{le}y{le}4. Details of the midrapidity spectrometer, which provides coverage for 0{le}{eta}{le}1.3, are presented here. The capabilities for inclusive {pi}{sup +-}, K{sup +-}, and p{sup +-} measurements and boson pair correlations are discussed.

  14. Development of Electron Magnetic Spectrometer and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction between ultra-short pulse laser and solid plasma produces hot electron. Thereare many methods to study hot electron spectrum and space distribution. But the way of electron magnetic spectrometer is the most directional method. Particles with charge act circle movement in spare magnetic field. Different energy electrons have different whirl radius. So along whirl diameter direction electron spectrum can be obtained. Actually, electron is affected by gravity excursion and magnetic grads and curvature excursion besides lawrence power. The direction of

  15. VAMOS: a VAriable MOde high acceptance Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savajols, H

    1999-01-01

    The study of reactions induced by the future SPIRAL beams at GANIL requires new techniques: the low intensity of secondary beams implies the need of a very high efficiency detection system ; the study of nearly or completely unknown nuclei, over a wide range of masses and energies, needs a very efficient method for attributing a reaction product to a nucleus. The VAriable MOde high acceptance Spectrometer VAMOS is being designed and built especially for this purpose.

  16. Calibration and monitoring of spectrometers and spectrophotometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, C S; Broussard, L A

    1979-06-01

    We have delineated some of the factors affecting the performance of spectrometers and spectrophotometers in the clinical laboratory and have presented some of the methods for verifying that these instruments are functioning properly. At a minimum, every laboratory should perform periodic inspections of spectrometric functions to check wavelength calibration, linearity of detector response, and stray radiation. Only through such an inspection program can a laboratory ensure that these instruments are not contributing to inaccurate analytical results.

  17. One module of the ALICE photon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first module for the ALICE photon spectrometer has been completed. Each of the five modules will contain 3584 lead-tungstate crystals, a material as transparent as ordinary silica glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, allowing the energy of electrons, positrons and photons to be measured through the 17 920 detection channels.

  18. Development and Testing of a Plastic Optical Fiber Grating Biosensor for Detection of Glucose in the Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, M.; Eka, D.; Permata, A. N.; Ariningrum, D.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Marzuki, A.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to detect glucose content in human blood serum using optical fiber grating with LED wavelength corresponding to the absorption of glucose content in blood serum. The testing used a UV-Vis spectrometer and Rays spectrometers, in which in the ray spectrometer it was used optical fiber biosensor using optical fiber grating. The result obtained is the typical peak of glucose absorption in UV-Vis at 581 nm wavelength and rays spectrometer on green LED at 514.2 nm wavelength with linear regression result by 0.97 and 0.94, respectively.

  19. Adaptive Controller for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, D.; Yiu, P.; Berisford, D. F.; Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.; Conroy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present noise mitigation techniques developed as part of an adaptive controller for a very compact Compositional InfraRed Interferometric Spectrometer (CIRIS) implemented on a stand-alone field programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture with emphasis on space applications in high radiation environments such as Europa. CIRIS is a novel take on traditional Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) and replaces linearly moving mirrors (characteristic of Michelson interferometers) with a constant-velocity rotating refractor to variably phase shift and alter the path length of incoming light. The design eschews a monochromatic reference laser typically used for sampling clock generation and instead utilizes constant time-sampling via internally generated clocks. This allows for a compact and robust device, making it ideal for spaceborne measurements in the near-IR to thermal-IR band (2-12 µm) on planetary exploration missions. The instrument's embedded microcontroller is implemented on a VIRTEX-5 FPGA and a PowerPC with the aim of sampling the instrument's detector and optical rotary encoder in order to construct interferograms. Subsequent onboard signal processing provides spectral immunity from the noise effects introduced by the compact design's removal of a reference laser and by the radiation encountered during space flight to destinations such as Europa. A variety of signal processing techniques including resampling, radiation peak removal, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), spectral feature alignment, dispersion correction and calibration processes are applied to compose the sample spectrum in real-time with signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) performance comparable to laser-based FTS designs in radiation-free environments. The instrument's FPGA controller is demonstrated with the FTS to characterize its noise mitigation techniques and highlight its suitability for implementation in space systems.

  20. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  1. Vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y., E-mail: yshimizu@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otsu, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Yoneda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer including its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber. • The windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles are mounted on the SAMURAI vacuum chamber. • The deflection and induced stress of the windows were calculated by ANSYS program code. • The windows were constructed and examined with the test chamber before mounting on the SAMURAI vacuum chamber. • The SAMURAI was kept on a few Pa of the pressure during the experiment without any problems caused by these windows. -- Abstract: The first commissioning experiment of the SAMURAI spectrometer and its beam line was performed in March, 2012. The vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer includes its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber with the windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles. The window for neutrons was made of stainless steel with a thickness of 3 mm and was designed with a shape of partial cylinder to support itself against the atmospheric pressure. The window for charged particles was of the combination of Kevlar and Mylar with the thickness of 280 and 75 μm, respectively. The pressure in the vacuum system was at a few Pa throughout the commissioning experiment.

  2. Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Nixon, C. A.; Segura, M. E.; Romani, P. N.; Gorius, N.; Albright, S.; Brasunas, J. C.; Carlson, R. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn carries the composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) designed to study thermal emission from Saturn and its rings and moons. CIRS, a Fourier transform spectrometer, is an indispensable part of the payload providing unique measurements and important synergies with the other instruments. It takes full advantage of Cassini's 13-year-long mission and surpasses the capabilities of previous spectrometers on Voyager 1 and 2. The instrument, consisting of two interferometers sharing a telescope and a scan mechanism, covers over a factor of 100 in wavelength in the mid and far infrared. It is used to study temperature, composition, structure, and dynamics of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan, the rings of Saturn, and surfaces of the icy moons. CIRS has returned a large volume of scientific results, the culmination of over 30 years of instrument development, operation, data calibration, and analysis. As Cassini and CIRS reach the end of their mission in 2017, we expect that archived spectra will be used by scientists for many years to come.

  3. What Happened with Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A

    2010-05-27

    The spectrometer solenoid is supposed to be the first magnets installed in MICE [1]-[4]. This report described what happened during the test of the MICE spectrometer solenoid 2B. First, the report describes the temperatures in the magnet, the cooler top plate and the shield during the run where the magnet quenched at 258 A. During this quench, a lead between the bottom of the HTS leads and the diode bank burned out causing the magnet to quench. Second, three methods for measuring the net heat flow into the cold mass are described. Third, there is a discussion of possible resistive heating in the HTS leads between liquid helium temperature and the copper plate, which is at about 50 K. Fourth, there is a discussion of the measured first stage heat loads in the magnet, when there is no current in the magnet. The first stage heat load calculations are based on knowing the first stage temperatures of the three two-stage pulse tube coolers and the single stage GM cooler. Fifth, the estimated heat load to the first stage when the magnet has current in it is discussed. Sixth, there is a comparison of the stage 1 heat loads in magnet 1A [5], magnet 2A [6], and magnet 2B [7]. Finally there is a discussion of recommended changes for improving the spectrometer solenoids so that the coolers can keep them cold.

  4. Compact high performance spectrometers using computational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kenneth; Weisberg, Arel

    2016-05-01

    Compressive sensing technology can theoretically be used to develop low cost compact spectrometers with the performance of larger and more expensive systems. Indeed, compressive sensing for spectroscopic systems has been previously demonstrated using coded aperture techniques, wherein a mask is placed between the grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) and multiple measurements are collected with different masks. Although proven effective for some spectroscopic sensing paradigms (e.g. Raman), this approach requires that the signal being measured is static between shots (low noise and minimal signal fluctuation). Many spectroscopic techniques applicable to remote sensing are inherently noisy and thus coded aperture compressed sensing will likely not be effective. This work explores an alternative approach to compressed sensing that allows for reconstruction of a high resolution spectrum in sensing paradigms featuring significant signal fluctuations between measurements. This is accomplished through relatively minor changes to the spectrometer hardware together with custom super-resolution algorithms. Current results indicate that a potential overall reduction in CCD size of up to a factor of 4 can be attained without a loss of resolution. This reduction can result in significant improvements in cost, size, and weight of spectrometers incorporating the technology.

  5. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  6. Imaging spectrometer for fugitive gas leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    1999-12-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a very sensitive infrared imaging spectrometer that can perform remote imaging and spectro-radiometry. One of the most exciting applications for this technology is in the remote monitoring of smoke stack emissions and fugitive leaks. To date remote continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems have not been approved by the EPA, however, they are under consideration. If the remote sensing technology is available with the sensitivity to monitor emission at the required levels and man portable it can reduce the cost and improve the reliability of performing such measurements. Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) believes that it currently has this technology available to industry. This paper will present results from a field test where gas vapors during a refueling process were imaged and identified. In addition images of propane from a leaking stove will be presented. We at PAT have developed a real time image processing board that enhances the signal to noise ratio of low contrast gases and makes them easily viewable using the Image Multispectral Sensing (IMSS) imaging spectrometer. The IMSS imaging spectrometer is the size of a camcorder. Currently the data is stored in a Notebook computer thus allowing the system to be easily carried into power plants to look for fugitive leaks. In the future the IMSS will have an embedded processor and DSP and will be able to transfer data over an Ethernet link.

  7. Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-06-02

    A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

  8. Measurements for the Performance of the Digital Autocorrelation Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-Chun Lu; Jarken Esimbek; Jian-Jun Zhou; Xing-Wu Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Injecting phase calibration (PCAL) signals to the feed horn of the observation system and analyzing the output response signals of the spectrometer, we measured the working performance of a 4096-channel digital autocalibration spectrometer. The results demonstrate that the spectrometer has a fine working performance: (1) the channels are distributed uniformly in the spectrometer; (2) line drift produces little effect on the observation results; (3)spectral resolution shows little changes with observation time. The distribution of the frequency resolution in an 80 MHz bandwidth was measured. A trial observation on the two molecular spectral lines of H2CO and H 110α taken with this spectrometer is described.

  9. Combining rigorous diffraction calculation and GPU accelerated nonsequential raytracing for high precision simulation of a linear grating spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Florian; Fleischle, David; Lyda, Wolfram; Osten, Wolfgang; Krug, Torsten; Häring, Reto

    2011-05-01

    Simulation of grating spectrometers constitutes the problem of propagating a spectrally broad light field through a macroscopic optical system that contains a nanostructured grating surface. The interest of the simulation is to quantify and optimize the stray light behaviour, which is the limiting factor in modern high end spectrometers. In order to accomplish this we present a simulation scheme that combines a RCWA (rigorous coupled wave analysis) simulation of the grating surface with a selfmade GPU (graphics processor unit) accelerated nonsequential raytracer. Using this, we are able to represent the broad spectrum of the light field as a superposition of many monochromatic raysets and handle the huge raynumber in reasonable time.

  10. Development of an ion time-of-flight spectrometer for neutron depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    signal. Without loss of generality, the secondary signal is obtained by the passage of the ion through a thin carbon foil, which produces ion-induced secondary electron emission (IISEE). The time-of-flight spectrometer physically acts as an ion/electron separator. The electrons that enter the active volume of the spectrometer are transported onto the microchannel plate detector to generate the secondary signal. The electron optics can be designed in variety of ways depending on the nature of the measurement and physical requirements. Two ion time-of-flight spectrometer designs are introduced: the parallel electric and magnetic (PEM) field spectrometer and the cross electric and magnetic (CEM) field spectrometer. The CEM field spectrometers have been extensively used in a wide range of applications where precise mass differentiation is required. The PEM field spectrometers have lately found interest in mass spectroscopy applications. The application of the PEM field spectrometer for energy measurements is a novel approach. The PEM field spectrometer used in the measurements employs axial electric and magnetic fields along the nominal direction of the incident ion. The secondary electrons are created by a thin carbon foil on the entrance disk and transported on the microchannel plate that faces the carbon foil. The initial angular distribution of the secondary electrons has virtually no effect on the transport time of the secondary electrons from the surface of the carbon foil to the electron microchannel plate detector. Therefore, the PEM field spectrometer can offer high-resolution energy measurement for relatively lower electric fields. The measurements with the PEM field spectrometer were made with the Tandem linear particle accelerator at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center at Yorktown Heights, NY. The CEM field spectrometer developed for the thesis employs axial electric field along the nominal direction of the ion, and has perpendicular magnetic field. As the

  11. Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Kostadinov, Ivan; Oulanovsky, Alexey

    2002-09-20

    An airborne UV-visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4pi) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54 degrees 49' S, 68 degrees 18' W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2pi FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation.

  12. [Design of Dual-Beam Spectrometer in Spectrophotometer for Colorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-xuan; Yan, Chang-xiang

    2015-07-01

    Spectrophotometers for colorimetry are usually composed of two independent and identical spectrometers. In order to reduce the volume of spectrophotometer for colorimetry, a design method of double-beam spectrometer is put forward. A traditional spectrometer is modified so that a new spectrometer can realize the function of double spectrometers, which is especially suitable for portable instruments. One slit is replaced by the double-slit, than two beams of spectrum can be detected. The working principle and design requirement of double-beam spectrometer are described. A spectrometer of portable spectrophotometer is designed by this method. A toroidal imaging mirror is used for the Czerny-Turner double-beam spectrometer in this paper, which can better correct astigmatism, and prevent the dual-beam spectral crosstalk. The results demonstrate that the double-beam spectrometer designed by this method meets the design specifications, with the spectral resolution less than 10 nm, the spectral length of 9.12 mm, and the volume of 57 mm x 54 mm x 23 mm, and without the dual-beam spectral overlap in the detector either. Comparing with a traditional spectrophotometer, the modified spectrophotometer uses a set of double-beam spectrometer instead of two sets of spectrometers, which can greatly reduce the volume. This design method can be specially applied in portable spectrophotometers, also can be widely applied in other double-beam spectrophotometers, which offers a new idea for the design of dual-beam spectrophotometers.

  13. Status of SuperSpec: A Broadband, On-Chip Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Barry, P S; Bradford, C M; Chattopadhyay, G; Day, P; Doyle, S; Hollister, M; Kovacs, A; LeDuc, H G; Mauskopf, P; McKenney, C M; Monroe, R; O'Brient, R; Padin, S; Reck, T; Swenson, L; Tucker, C E; Zmuidzinas, J

    2015-01-01

    SuperSpec is a novel on-chip spectrometer we are developing for multi-object, moderate resolution (R = 100 - 500), large bandwidth (~1.65:1) submillimeter and millimeter survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies. The spectrometer employs a filter bank architecture, and consists of a series of half-wave resonators formed by lithographically-patterned superconducting transmission lines. The signal power admitted by each resonator is detected by a lumped element titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector (KID) operating at 100-200 MHz. We have tested a new prototype device that is more sensitive than previous devices, and easier to fabricate. We present a characterization of a representative R=282 channel at f = 236 GHz, including measurements of the spectrometer detection efficiency, the detector responsivity over a large range of optical loading, and the full system optical efficiency. We outline future improvements to the current system that we expect will enable construction of a photon-noise-lim...

  14. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  15. Integration, Testing and Performance of the Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Connelly, Joseph A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Madison, Timothy J.; Mentzell, J. Eric; Sparr, Leroy M.; Hylan, Jason E.; Ray, Knute

    2003-01-01

    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) is a principle investigator-class instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1 m and Mayall 3.8 m telescopes. IRMOS is a near-IR (0.8 - 2.5 micron) spectrometer with low-to mid-resolving power (R = lambda/delta lambda = 300 - 3000). On the 3.8 m telescope, IRMOS produces simultaneous spectra of approximately 100 objects in its approximately 3 x 2 arcmin field of view using a commercial micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) digital micro-mirror device (DMD) from Texas Instruments. The multi-mirror array DMD operates as a real-time programmable slit mask. The all-reflective optical design consists of two imaging subsystems. The focal reducer images the focal plane of the telescope onto the DMD field stop, and the spectrograph images the DMD onto a large-format detector. The instrument operates at approximately 80 K, cooled by a single electro-mechanical cryocooler. The bench and all components are made from aluminum 6061-T651. There are three cryogenic mechanisms. We describe laboratory integration and test of IRMOS before shipment to Kitt Peak. We give an overview of the optical alignment technique and integration of optical, mechanical, electrical and cryogenic subsystems. We compare optical test results to model predictions of point spread function size and morphology, contrast, and stray light. We discuss some lessons learned and conclude with a prediction for performance on the telescope.

  16. Development of a Gas Filled Magnet spectrometer coupled with the Lohengrin spectrometer for fission study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Materna T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate knowledge of the fission of actinides is necessary for studies of innovative nuclear reactor concepts. The fission yields have a direct influence on the evaluation of the fuel inventory or the reactor residual power after shutdown. A collaboration between the ILL, LPSC and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at ILL in order to measure the isotopic and isomeric yields. The method is illustrated using the 233U(n,f98Y reaction. However, the extracted beam from the Lohengrin spectrometer is not isobaric ions which limits the low yield measurements. Presently, the coupling of the Lohengrin spectrometer with a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM is studied at the ILL in order to define and validate the enhanced purification of the extracted beam. This work will present the results of the spectrometer characterisation, along with a comparison with a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation especially developed for this purpose.

  17. MMI-based MOEMS FT spectrometer for visible and IR spectral ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Demerdash, Bassem M.; Medhat, Mostafa; Sabry, Yasser M.; Saadany, Bassam; Khalil, Diaa

    2014-03-01

    MEMS spectrometers have very strong potential in future healthcare and environmental monitoring applications, where Michelson interferometers are the core optical engine. Recently, MEMS Michelson interferometers based on using silicon interface as a beam splitter (BS) has been proposed [7, 8]. This allows having a monolithically-integrated on-chip FTIR spectrometer. However silicon BS exhibits high absorption loss in the visible range and high material dispersion in the near infrared (NIR) range. For this reason, we propose in this work a novel MOEMS interferometer allowing operation over wider spectral range covering both the infrared (IR) and the visible ranges. The proposed architecture is based on spatial splitting and combining of optical beams using the imaging properties of Multi-Mode Interference MMI waveguide. The proposed structure includes an optical splitter for spatial splitting an input beam into two beams and a combiner for spatial combining the two interferometer beams. A MEMS moveable mirror is provided to produce an optical path difference between the two beams. The new interferometer is fabricated using DRIE technology on an SOI wafer. The movable mirror is metalized and attached to a comb-drive actuator fabricated in the same lithography step in a self-aligned manner on chip. The novel interferometer is tested as a Fourier transform spectrometer. Red laser, IR laser and absorption spectra of different materials are measured with a resolution of 2.5 nm at 635-nm wavelength. The structure is a very compact one that allows its integration and fabrication on a large scale with very low cost.

  18. Development of a space-borne spectrometer to monitor atmospheric ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrolenskiy, Yury S; Ionov, Dmitry V; Korablev, Oleg I; Fedorova, Anna A; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A; Shatalov, Andrey E; Mantsevich, Sergey N; Belyaev, Denis A; Vyazovetskiy, Nikita A; Moiseev, Pavel P; Tchikov, Konstantin N; Krasavtsev, Valery M; Savushkin, Alexander V; Rumyantsev, Dmitry M; Kananykhin, Igor V; Viktorov, Alexey I; Kozyura, Alexey V; Moryakin, Sergey A; Poberovskii, Anatoly V

    2015-04-10

    A new compact satellite spectrometer dedicated to monitoring terrestrial atmospheric ozone (ozonometer) is in preparation for the Russian Geophysics Program. Four instruments at four satellites (Ionosphere) are intended to monitor the total ozone content by measuring spectra of scattered solar radiation in nadir. The spectrometer is based on the Rowland scheme with a concave holographic diffraction grating. It covers the near UV and visible range of the spectrum, 300-500 nm, with a spectral resolution of ∼0.3  nm. At present, a qualification model has been manufactured and tested. We introduce the description of the instrument and the results of laboratory and ground-based atmospheric calibrations. The ozone amount retrieved from atmospheric measurements using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is in good agreement with that measured by the collocated Brewer spectrophotometer and ozone monitoring instrument on board the Aura satellite.

  19. Construction and Test of the Precision Drift Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F; Bratzler, U; Dietl, H; Kotov, S; Kroha, H; Lagouri, Th; Manz, A; Ostapchuk, A; Richter, R; Schael, S; Chouridou, S; Deile, M; Kortner, O; Staude, A; Stroehmer, R; Trefzger, T

    2016-01-01

    The Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) consist of 3-4 layers of pressurised drift tubes on either side of a space frame carrying an optical deformation monitoring system. The chambers have to provide a track position resolution of 40 microns with a single-tube resolution of at least 80 microns and a sense wire positioning accu- racy of 20 ?microns (rms). The feasibility was demonstrated with the full-scale prototype of one of the largest MDT chambers with 432 drift tubes of 3.8 m length. For the ATLAS muon spectrometer, 88 chambers of this type have to be built. The first chamber has been completed with a wire positioning accuracy of 14 microns (rms).

  20. Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.it; Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P. [CNR - Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F. [Physics Division, School of Science and Technology, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Finetti, P. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Grazioli, C. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Kivimäki, A. [CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Stagira, S. [Politecnico di Milano – Department of Physics, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Coreno, M. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); CNR – Istituto di Struttura della Materia (CNR-ISM), UOS Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25–800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented.

  1. Freeform lens collimating spectrum-folded Hadamard transform near-infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoduo; Liu, Hua; Juschkin, Larissa; Li, Yunpeng; Xu, Jialin; Quan, Xiangqian; Lu, Zhenwu

    2016-12-01

    A novel Hadamard transform spectrometer collimated by a freeform lens has been designed, which doubles the working spectral range while the spectral resolution is maintained. The freeform lens is designed to redistribute the broadband spectra of the source from 800 nm to 2400 nm into two collimated beams with different wavelengths and different tilting angles, to achieve the folding of spectra on the digital micro-mirror devices (DMD). It is constructed by solving two partial differential equations. The grating diffraction efficiency of the two split beams are more uniform and higher compared with the traditional method. The simulation results show that the bandwidth of the spectrometer is doubled and the spectral resolution is better than 10 nm. The optical system becomes more compact, and the energy efficiency is improved by 11.98% by folding the spectra with one freeform lens and one grating.

  2. Design of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, P.; Zhang, Hongxia; Bao, W. [Department of Physics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Functional Materials & Micro-nano Devices, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China); Schneidewind, A. [Jülich Center for Neutron Science (JCNS), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Outstation at Heinz MaierCLeibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), D-85747 Garching (Germany); Link, P. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Grünwald, A.T.D. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Georgii, R. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hao, L.J.; Liu, Y.T. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, PO Box-275-30, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2016-06-11

    The design of the first cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor is presented. Based on the Monte Carlo simulations using neutron ray-tracing program McStas, the parameters of major neutron optics in this instrument are optimized. The neutron flux at sample position is estimated to be 5.6 ×10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}/s at neutron incident energy E{sub i}=5 meV when the reactor operates normally at the designed 60 MW power. The performances of several neutron supermirror polarizing devices are compared and their critical parameters are optimized for this spectrometer. The polarization analysis will be realized with a flexible switch from the unpolarized experimental mode.

  3. Design of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, P.; Zhang, Hongxia; Bao, W.; Schneidewind, A.; Link, P.; Grünwald, A. T. D.; Georgii, R.; Hao, L. J.; Liu, Y. T.

    2016-06-01

    The design of the first cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor is presented. Based on the Monte Carlo simulations using neutron ray-tracing program McStas, the parameters of major neutron optics in this instrument are optimized. The neutron flux at sample position is estimated to be 5.6 ×107 n/cm2/s at neutron incident energy Ei=5 meV when the reactor operates normally at the designed 60 MW power. The performances of several neutron supermirror polarizing devices are compared and their critical parameters are optimized for this spectrometer. The polarization analysis will be realized with a flexible switch from the unpolarized experimental mode.

  4. Mobile high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in-situ analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Johannes; Ebert, Jens [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU, Giessen (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Plass, Wolfgang; Scheidenberger, Christoph [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU, Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    A compact multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been developed. For the first time it allows for mass measurements with a resolving power exceeding 100000 and sub ppm accuracy in a mobile device. Thus it allows to resolve isobars and enables to accurately determine the composition and structure of biomolecules. The MR-TOF-MS consists of an atmospheric pressure interface for DESI and REIMS, ion cooler, ion trap, time-of-flight analyzer, MCP detector and DAQ. Vacuum system components, power supplies as well as electronics are mounted together with the ion optical spectrometer parts on a single frame with a total volume of 0.8 m{sup 3}. Applications of the device within the AmbiProbe research program include in-situ mass spectrometry such as real-time tissue recognition in electrosurgery, identification of mycotoxins and analysis of soil samples for environmental studies.

  5. Dynamic interferometer alignment and its utility in UV Fourier transform spectrometer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, Rick K.; Engel, James R.; Wyntjes, Geert J.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic alignment has been demonstrated as a practical approach to alignment maintenance for systems in the infrared region of the spectrum. On the basis of work done by OPTRA, this technique was introduced in commercial Fourier transform spectrometer systems in 1982 and in various forms is now available from a number of manufacturers. This paper reports on work by OPTRA to extend the basic technique to systems operating in the ultraviolet. In addition, this paper reports the preliminary results of the development of an alignment system using a laser diode in place of a gas laser normally found in dynamic alignment systems. A unique optical system and spatial heterodyne technique allows for achievement of a metrology system with characteristics that fully satisfy the requirements of an ultraviolet spectrometer system.

  6. Spectrometer sensor using patterned nano-structure plasmon resonance grating (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Tian, Xueli; Guo, Junpeng

    2016-03-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance has been extensively investigated for biochemical sensor applications. In traditional localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors, resonance spectra were measured in the reflection or transmission from the nanostructure devices. In this work, we demonstrate a new surface plasmon resonance sensor platform with which the localized surface plasmon resonance and shift were measured by using a CCD imager instead of using an optical spectrometer. In additional to the metal nanostructures which support localized plasmon resonance, we pattern the nanostructures into diffraction gratings with super-wavelength grating periods. The nanostructure diffraction gratings support localized plasmon resonance and also diffract localized plasmon resonance radiations into non-zeroth order diffractions. Plasmon resonance spectrum and shift are measured with a CCD imager in one of the diffraction orders. The new plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor combines the functions of sensing and spectral analysis into one apparatus and is capable of real-time visualization of the biochemical bonding process with an imager.

  7. Super-Period Gold Nanodisc Grating-Enabled Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrometer Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xueli; Guo, Hong; Bhatt, Ketan H; Zhao, Song Q; Wang, Yi; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor by using an e-beam-patterned super-period gold nanodisc grating on a glass substrate. The super-period gold nanodisc grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. The small subwavelength period enhances localized surface plasmon resonance, and the large diffraction grating period diffracts surface plasmon resonance radiation into different directions corresponding to different wavelengths. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) in addition to the traditional way of measurement using an external optical spectrometer in the zeroth order transmission. A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD.

  8. The Joint Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Experiment (J-PEX): a high-resolution rocket spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, Martin A.; Bannister, Nigel P.; Cruddace, Raymond G.; Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, Kent S.; Yentis, Daryl J.; Gursky, Herbert; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Goldstein, William H.; Kordas, Joseph F.; Fritz, Gilbert G.; Culhane, J. Leonard; Lapington, Jonathan S.

    2003-02-01

    We report on the successful sounding rocket flight of the high resolution (R=3000-4000) J-PEX EUV spectrometer. J-PEX is a novel normal incidence instrument, which combines the focusing and dispersive elements of the spectrometer into a single optical element, a multilayer-coated grating. The high spectral resolution achieved has had to be matched by unprecedented high spatial resolution in the imaging microchannel plate detector used to record the data. We illustrate the performance of the complete instrument through an analysis of the 220-245Å spectrum of the white dwarf G191-B2B obtained with a 300 second exposure. The high resolution allows us to detect a low-density ionized helium component along the line of sight to the star and individual absorption lines from heavier elements in the photosphere.

  9. The Joint astrophysical Plasmadynamic EXperiment (J-PEX) A high-resolution rocket spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barstow, M A; Cruddace, R G; Kowalski, M; Wood, K S; Yentis, D J; Gursky, H; Barbee, T W; Goldstein, W H; Kordas, J F; Fritz, G G; Culhane, J L; Lapingtone, J S

    2002-01-01

    We report on the successful sounding rocket flight of the high resolution (R=3000-4000) J-PEX EUV spectrometer. J-PEX is a novel normal incidence instrument, which combines the focusing and dispersive elements of the spectrometer into a single optical element, a multilayer-coated grating. The high spectral resolution achieved has had to be matched by unprecedented high spatial resolution in the imaging microchannel plate detector used to record the data. We illustrate the performance of the complete instrument through an analysis of the 220-245A spectrum of the white dwarf G191-B2B obtained with a 300 second exposure. The high resolution allows us to detect a low-density ionized helium component along the line of sight to the star and individual absorption lines from heavier elements in the photosphere.

  10. The upgrade of the cold neutron three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the ILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, K.; Schmidt, W.; Raymond, S.; Feilbach, H.; Mounier, C.; Vettard, B.; Brückel, T.

    2016-05-01

    After nearly 40 years of successful operation the cold three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, has been relocated to a new position and the primary spectrometer has been upgraded. Latest modern optical components are employed. A new guide in combination with a virtual source concept and a double focusing monochromator guarantee highest flux. With its high unpolarized and polarized neutron flux IN12 allows for demanding experiments. A velocity selector in the guide ensures a clean beam and a very low background. A gain in flux of about an order of magnitude at the sample position has been achieved compared to the previous instrument and IN12's wavelength range now extends far into the warmish region.

  11. The upgrade of the cold neutron three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalzl, K., E-mail: schmalzl@ill.fr [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Outstation at ILL, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Schmidt, W. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Outstation at ILL, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Raymond, S. [Université Grenoble Alpes and CEA Grenoble, INAC MEM, 38054 Grenoble (France); Feilbach, H. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Peter Grünberg Institut PGI 6, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Mounier, C. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Vettard, B. [Université Grenoble Alpes and CEA Grenoble, INAC MEM, 38054 Grenoble (France); Brückel, T. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-05-21

    After nearly 40 years of successful operation the cold three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, has been relocated to a new position and the primary spectrometer has been upgraded. Latest modern optical components are employed. A new guide in combination with a virtual source concept and a double focusing monochromator guarantee highest flux. With its high unpolarized and polarized neutron flux IN12 allows for demanding experiments. A velocity selector in the guide ensures a clean beam and a very low background. A gain in flux of about an order of magnitude at the sample position has been achieved compared to the previous instrument and IN12's wavelength range now extends far into the warmish region.

  12. A collinear tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer for infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG GuanJun; CHI ChaoXian; XING XiaoPeng; DING ChuanFan; ZHOU MingFei

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus based on collinear tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been designed for the measurement of infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions in the gas phase.The ions from a pulsed laser vaporization supersonic ion source are skimmed and mass separated by a Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer.The ion of interest is mass selected,decelerated and dissociated by a tunable IR laser.The fragment and parent ions are reaccelerated and mass analyzed by the second time-of-flight mass spectrometer.A simple new assembly integrated with mass gate,deceleration and reacceleration ion optics was designed,which allows us to measure the infrared spectra of mass selected ions with high sensitivity and easy timing synchronization.

  13. Developing small vacuum spark as an x-ray source for calibration of an x-ray focusing crystal spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd [Photonic Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Karami, Mohammad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-10-15

    A new technique of x-ray focusing crystal spectrometers' calibration is the desired result. For this purpose the spectrometer is designed to register radiated copper K{alpha} and K{beta} lines by using a flat {alpha}-quartz crystal. This experiment uses pre-breakdown x-ray emissions in low vacuum of about 2.5-3 mbar. At this pressure the pinch will not form so the plasma will not radiate. The anode material is copper and the capacity of the capacitor bank is 22.6 nF. This experiment designed and mounted a repetitive triggering system to save the operator time making hundreds of shots. This emission amount is good for calibration and geometrical adjustment of an optical crystal x-ray focusing spectrometer.

  14. Developing small vacuum spark as an x-ray source for calibration of an x-ray focusing crystal spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Karami, Mohammad; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2012-10-01

    A new technique of x-ray focusing crystal spectrometers' calibration is the desired result. For this purpose the spectrometer is designed to register radiated copper Kα and Kβ lines by using a flat α-quartz crystal. This experiment uses pre-breakdown x-ray emissions in low vacuum of about 2.5-3 mbar. At this pressure the pinch will not form so the plasma will not radiate. The anode material is copper and the capacity of the capacitor bank is 22.6 nF. This experiment designed and mounted a repetitive triggering system to save the operator time making hundreds of shots. This emission amount is good for calibration and geometrical adjustment of an optical crystal x-ray focusing spectrometer.

  15. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Oliver; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Welgand, M.; Umbach, E.; Bar, M.; Heske, C.; Denlinger, J.; Chuang, Y.-D.; McKinney, W.; Hussain, Z.; Gullikson, E.; Jones, M.; Batson, P.; Nelles, B.; Follath, R.

    2009-06-11

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft s-rays that coverst the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite is slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as (30 x 3000) micrometers squared, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scatters (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken with 10 min.

  16. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Oliver; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Umbach, E.; Bar, M.; Heske, Clemens; Denlinger, Jonathan; Chuang, Y.-D.; McKinney, Wayne; Hussain, Zahid; Gullikson, Eric; Jones, M.; Batson, Phil; Nelles, B.; Follath, R.

    2009-03-09

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft x-rays that covers the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite its slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as 30x3000 mu m2, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken within 10 min.

  17. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-06-05

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni L..cap alpha../sub 1/ /sub 2/ lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures.

  18. Spectrometers for RF breakdown studies for CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, M.; Ziemann, V.; Ekelöf, T.; Dubrovskiy, A.; Ruber, R.

    2016-08-01

    An e+e- collider of several TeV energy will be needed for the precision studies of any new physics discovered at the LHC collider at CERN. One promising candidate is CLIC, a linear collider which is based on a two-beam acceleration scheme that efficiently solves the problem of power distribution to the acceleration structures. The phenomenon that currently prevents achieving high accelerating gradients in high energy accelerators such as the CLIC is the electrical breakdown at very high electrical field. The ongoing experimental work within the CLIC collaboration is trying to benchmark the theoretical models focusing on the physics of vacuum breakdown which is responsible for the discharges. In order to validate the feasibility of accelerating structures and observe the characteristics of the vacuum discharges and their eroding effects on the structure two dedicated spectrometers are now commissioned at the high-power test-stands at CERN. First, the so called Flashbox has opened up a possibility for non-invasive studies of the emitted breakdown currents during two-beam acceleration experiments. It gives a unique possibility to measure the energy of electrons and ions in combination with the arrival time spectra and to put that in context with accelerated beam, which is not possible at any of the other existing test-stands. The second instrument, a spectrometer for detection of the dark and breakdown currents, is operated at one of the 12 GHz stand-alone test-stands at CERN. Built for high repetition rate operation it can measure the spatial and energy distributions of the electrons emitted from the acceleration structure during a single RF pulse. Two new analysis tools: discharge impedance tracking and tomographic image reconstruction, applied to the data from the spectrometer make possible for the first time to obtain the location of the breakdown inside the structure both in the transversal and longitudinal direction thus giving a more complete picture of the

  19. The total spectral radiant flux calibration using a spherical spectrometer at National Institute of Metrology China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiqiang; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    At present day, in the field of lighting the incandescent lamps are phasing out. The solid state lighting products, i.e. LED, and the related market are developing very fast in China for its promising application, due to the energy-saving and the colorful features. For the quality control and the commercial trade purpose, it is highly necessary to measure the optical parameters of LED light sources with a fast, easy and affordable facility. Therefore, more test labs use the spherical spectrometer to measure LED. The quasi- monochrome of LED and the V(lambda) of silicon photodetector mismatch problem is reduced or avoided, because the total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) is measured, and all the optical parameters are calculate from the TSRF. In such a way, the spherical spectrometer calibration requires TSRF standard lamps instead of the traditional total flux standard lamps. National Institute of Metrology China (NIM) has studied and developed the facilities for TSRF measurement and provides related calibration services. This paper shows the TSRF standard lamp calibration procedure using a spherical spectrometer in every-day calibration and its traceable link to the primary SI unit at NIM. The sphere is of 1.5 m diameter, and installed with a spectrometer and a silicon photodetector. It also shows the detail of data process, such as the spectral absorption correction method and the calculation of the result derived from the spectral readings. The TSRF calibration covers the spectra range of 350 nm to 1050 nm, with a measurement uncertainty of 3.6% 1.8% (k=2).

  20. Conceptual design of a Disk Chopper Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copley, J.R.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1997-09-01

    We describe methods that we have used for the conceptual design of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the Cold Neutron Research Facility, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Most of the discussion concerns the multiple chopper system. No single design method is best in every situation. We believe that an analytical approach is preferable, whenever possible. Graphical methods of expressing problems have been very instructive. We have also found it useful, and occasionally invaluable, to cross-check results obtained using different methods, such as analytical integration and ray-tracing.

  1. Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

    2012-05-02

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  2. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  3. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  4. Covariances for Gamma Spectrometer Efficiency Calibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An essential part of the efficiency calibration of gamma spectrometers is the determination of uncertainties on the results. Although this is routinely done, it often does not include the correlations between efficiencies at different energies. These can be important in the subsequent use of the detectors to obtain activities for a set of dosimetry reactions. If those values are not mutually independent, then obviously that fact could impact the validity of adjustments or of other conclusions resulting from the analysis. Examples are given of detector calibrations in which the correlations are calculated and propagated through an analysis of measured activities.

  5. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Springston, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Koontz, A [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Aiken, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  6. Prismatic analyzer concept for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas O.; Marko, M.; Freeman, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype...... inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor...

  7. A compact positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dao-Wu; LIU Jun-Hui; ZHANG Zhi-Ming; WANG Bao-Yi; ZHANG Tian-Bao; WEI Long

    2011-01-01

    Using LYSO scintillator coupled on HAMAMATSU R9800(a fast photomultiplier)to form the small size γ-ray detectors,a compact lifetime spectrometer has been built for the positron annihilation experiments.The system time resolution FWHM=193 ps and the coincidence counting rate -8 cps/μCi were achieved.A lifetime value of 219±1 ps of positron annihilation in well annealed Si was tested,which is in agreement with the typical values published in the previous lectures.

  8. The crystal barrel spectrometer at LEAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aker, E.; Amsler, C.; Barnett, B.M.; Meyer, C.A.; Noble, A.; Schmid, B.; Urner, D. (Zurich Univ. (Switzerland)); Augustin, I.; Bluem, P.; Engelhardt, D.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Matthaey, H.; Rohrbach, W.; Schott, W.; Sutton, C.; Walther, D.; Winter, N. (Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)); Baker, C.A.; Batty, C.J.; Hessey, N.P. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)); Beckmann, R.; Friedrich, J.; Heinsius, J.; Kaemmle, B.; Kiel, T.; Sidiropoulos, K.; Strohbusch, U.; Wiedner, U. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany)); Birien, P.; Bistirlich, J.; Bossingham, R.; Bossy, H.; Case, T.; Crowe, K.M. (LBL, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Braune, K.; Dederichs, K.; Duennweber, W.; Emerich, H.; Faessler, M.A.; Felix, C.; Folger, G.; Illinger, P.; Jamnik, D.; Kolo, C.; Koenigsmann, K.; Krennrich, F.; Meyer-Berkhout, U.; Staude, A.; Voelcker, C.; Zupancic, C. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany)); Bugg, D.V.; Sanjari, A.H. (Queen Mary and Westfield Coll., London (United Kingdom)); Burchell, M.; Doser, M.; Landua,; Crystal Barrel Collaboration

    1992-09-15

    The Crystal Barrel spectrometer used at LEAR, CERN to study the products of anti pp and anti pd annihilations is described. A 1380 element array of CsI crystals measures photons from the decay of [pi][sup 0], [eta], [eta]' and [omega] mesons. A segmented drift chamber in a 1.5 T magnetic field is used to identify and measure charged particles. A fast on-line trigger on charged and neutral multiplicities and on the invariant mass of secondary particles is available. The performance of the detector is discussed. (orig.).

  9. The Omega spectrometer in the West Hall.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Inside the hut which sits on top of the superconducting magnet are the TV cameras that observe the particle events occurring in the spark chambers in the magnet gap below. On the background the two beam lines feeding the spectrometer target, for separated hadrons up to 40 GeV, on the right, for 80 GeV electrons, on the left, respectively. The latter strikes a radiator thus sending into Omega tagged photons up to 80 GeV. On the foreground, the two sections of the large gas Cerenkov counter working at atmospheric pressure, used for trigger purpose.

  10. Thermal emission spectrometer experiment - Mars Observer mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Anderson, Donald L.; Chase, Stillman C.; Clark, Roger N.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Malin, Michael C.; Pearl, John C.; Carpenter, James; Bandiera, Nuno; Brown, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the thermal emission spectrometer (TES) designed for the Mars Observer mission. The TES measurements of the surface and the atmosphere of Mars will be used to determine and map the composition of the surface rocks, minerals, and the condensates. Examples of information that will be obtained from TES data include mineral abundance maps, condensate properties and their distribution in time and space, aerosol properties and their distribution in time and space, the rock abundance, the polar energy balance, and properties of gaseous species. Where appropriate, these derived parameters will be distributed in the form of gridded map, to allow direct comparison with other derived data sets.

  11. Scientific expectations from the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Volker

    2003-03-01

    The spectrometer SPI - one of the two main instruments aboard ESA's INTEGRAL - is dedicated to high resolution gamma-ray line spectroscopy with modest imaging. SPI will mainly concentrate on the study of lines from radioactive isotopes. A wealth of new information is expected from interstellar line emission with narrow line profiles. But existing results are also expected from profile measurements of individual line emitting objects such as supernovae, supernova remnants, novae or stellar black hole systems. In addition, sensitive measurements of continuum emission from compact sources and from interstellar space are expected, especially in the sub-MeV region.

  12. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R. C.; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-06-07

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  13. Comparison of properties of digital spectrometer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanova, Monika; Dryak, Pavel; Kovar, Petr; Auerbach, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    We have tested two digital spectrometer systems, the DSP 9660 and Lynx(®) modules, connected to a HPGe detector. Lynx(®) is a fully integrated 32K channel signal analyzer based on digital signal processing techniques, which offers advanced digital stabilization. The model DSP 9660 digitalizes the signal directly at a very high sampling rate. The evaluated properties were integral nonlinearity, differential linearity, channel profiles, resolution and throughput. We found that the DSP system has slightly inferior resolution and throughput in comparison with the Lynx(®) system.

  14. Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Engineering Flight Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Shoen, Steven S.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) successfully completed its first set of engineering test flights. HyTES was developed in support of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). HyspIRI is one of the Tier II Decadal Survey missions. HyTES currently provides both high spectral resolution (17 nm) and high spatial resolution (2-5m) data in the thermal infrared (7.5-12 micron) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. HyTES data will be used to help determine the optimum band positions for the HyspIRI Thermal Infrared (TIR) sensor and provide antecedent data for HyspIRI related studies.

  15. Design of a Slab Waveguide Multiaperture Fourier Spectrometer for Water Vapor Measurements in Earth's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kenneth; Florjańczyk, Mirosław; Solheim, Brian; Scott, Alan; Quine, Ben; Cheben, Pavel

    Concept, theory and design of a new type of waveguide device, a multiaperture Fourier-transform planar waveguide spectrometer[1], implemented as a prototype instrument is pre-sented. The spectrometer's objective is to demonstrate the ability of the new slab waveguide technology for application in remote sensing instruments[2]. The spectrometer will use a limb viewing configuration to detect the 1.36um waveband allowing concentrations of water vapor in earth's atmosphere to be measured[3]. The most challenging aspects of the design, assembly and calibration are presented. Focus will be given to the effects of packaging the spectrometer and interfacing to the detector array. Stress-induced birefringence will affect the performance of the waveguides, therefore the design of a stress-free mounting over a range of temperatures is important. Spectral retrieval algo-rithms will have to correct for expected fabrication errors in the waveguides. Data processing algorithms will also be developed to correct for non-uniformities of input brightness through the array, making use of MMI output couplers to capture both the in-phase and anti-phase interferometer outputs. A performance assessment of an existing breadboard spectrometer will demonstrate the capability of the instrument. REFERENCES 1. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Multiaper-n ture planar waveguide spectrometer formed by arrayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Expr. 15(26), 18176-18189 (2007). 2. M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. n Lapointe, A. Scott, B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Slab waveguiode spatial heterodyne spectrom-eters for remote sensing from space," Optical sensors 2009. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 7356 (2009)., pp. 73560V-73560V-7 (2009). 3. A. Scott, M. Florjáczyk, P. Cheben, S. Janz, n B. Solheim, and D.-X. Xu, "Micro-interferometer with high throughput for remote sensing." MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems VIII. Proceedings of the SPIE

  16. A broadband ultrafast transient absorption spectrometer covering the range from near-infrared (NIR) down to green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhammer, Uli; Jeunesse, Pierre; Stresing, Gerhard; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    We present a new development for pump-probe absorption spectroscopy that allows the simultaneous measurement from the green part of the visible spectrum (510 nm) over the whole near-infrared range to >1600 nm, corresponding to 0.77-2.40 eV. The system is based on a sub-picosecond supercontinuum generated in bulk material used as a broadband probe that is dispersed with a custom-made prism spectrometer and detected by an InGaAs array with extended sensitivity to the visible. Two versions, with and without probe referencing, are implemented for operation at laser repetition rates of a few hertz and kilohertz, respectively. After presentation of the optical configuration of the spectrometer, its performance is characterized and further illustrated on two time scales, with the ultrafast radiolysis of isopropanol induced by a picosecond electron pulse and with the instantaneous response of a BK7 plate to a femtosecond light pulse. The photophysics of the dye IR-140 is resolved from the femto- to picosecond regime. Stable and easy day-to-day routine use of the spectrometer also can be achieved in non-optical laboratory surroundings. For operation in a hazardous environment, the optical probe beams can be transported to the detector unit by optical fibers.

  17. A wide field of view plasma spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Möbius, E.; Harper, R. W.; Kihara, K. H.; Bower, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a fundamentally new type of space plasma spectrometer, the wide field of view plasma spectrometer, whose field of view is > 1.25π ster using fewer resources than traditional methods. The enabling component is analogous to a pinhole camera with an electrostatic energy-angle filter at the image plane. Particle energy-per-charge is selected with a tunable bias voltage applied to the filter plate relative to the pinhole aperture plate. For a given bias voltage, charged particles from different directions are focused by different angles to different locations. Particles with appropriate locations and angles can transit the filter plate and are measured using a microchannel plate detector with a position-sensitive anode. Full energy and angle coverage are obtained using a single high-voltage power supply, resulting in considerable resource savings and allowing measurements at fast timescales. We present laboratory prototype measurements and simulations demonstrating the instrument concept and discuss optimizations of the instrument design for application to space measurements.

  18. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  19. Permanent magnet system of alpha magnetic spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS) is the first large magnetic spectrometer in space. Its precursor flight was completed successfully in June 1998. The key part of AMS is the permanent magnet system, which was built by the Institute of Electric Engineering, the Institute of High Energy Physics and the Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. This system includes a permanent magnet made of high grade NdFeB and a support structure. The unique design of the permanent magnet based on the magic ring fulfills the severe requirements on the magnetic field leakage and the dipole moment for space experiments. The permanent magnet weighs about 2 tons, and provides a geometric acceptance of 0.6 m2 ·sr and an analyzing power BL2 of 0.135 T·m2. It works up to 40℃ without demagnetization. The main structure is a thin double shell, which undergoes the strong magnetic force and torque of the permanent magnet, as well as the large load during launching and landing. The permanent magnet system fulfills the requirements from AMS, and satisfies the strict safety standards of NASA.

  20. Permanent magnet system of alpha magnetic spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈和生

    2000-01-01

    Alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS) is the first large magnetic spectrometer in space. Its precursor flight was completed successfully in June 1998. The key part of AMS is the permanent magnet system, which was built by the Institute of Electric Engineering, the Institute of High Energy Physics and the Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. This system includes a permanent magnet made of high grade NdFeB and a support structure. The unique design of the permanent magnet based on the magic ring fulfills the severe requirements on the magnetic field leakage and the dipole moment for space experiments. The permanent magnet weighs about 2 tons, and provides a geometric acceptance of 0.6 m2·sr and an analyzing power BL2 of 0.135 T·m2. It works up to 40℃ without demagnetization. The main structure is a thin double shell, which undergoes the strong magnetic force and torque of the permanent magnet, as well as the large load during launching and landing. The permanent magnet system fulfills the requirem

  1. Software Polarization Spectrometer "PolariS"

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Izumi; Kano, Amane; Kuroo, Makoto; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M; Kuji, Seisuke; Kuno, Nario

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a software-based polarization spectrometer, PolariS, to acquire full-Stokes spectra with a very high spectral resolution of 61 Hz. The primary aim of PolariS is to measure the magnetic fields in dense star-forming cores by detecting the Zeeman splitting of molecular emission lines. The spectrometer consists of a commercially available digital sampler and a Linux computer. The computer is equipped with a graphics processing unit (GPU) to process FFT and cross-correlation using the CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) library developed by NVIDIA. Thanks to a high degree of precision in quantization of the analog-to-digital converter and arithmetic in the GPU, PolariS offers excellent performances in linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, bandpass flatness and stability. The software has been released under the MIT License and is available to the public. In this paper, we report the design of PolariS and its performance verified through engineering tests and commissioning observations.

  2. The MAGNEX spectrometer: results and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Cappuzzello, F; Carbone, D; Cavallaro, M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the main achievements and future perspectives of the MAGNEX spectrometer at the INFN-LNS laboratory in Catania (Italy). MAGNEX is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer for the detection of the ions emitted in nuclear collisions below Fermi energy. In the first part of the paper an overview of the MAGNEX features is presented. The successful application to the precise reconstruction of the momentum vector, to the identification of the ion masses and to the determination of the transport efficiency is demonstrated by in-beam tests. In the second part, an overview of the most relevant scientific achievements is given. Results from nuclear elastic and inelastic scattering as well as from transfer and charge exchange reactions in a wide range of masses of the colliding systems and incident energies are shown. The role of MAGNEX in solving old and new puzzles in nuclear structure and direct reaction mechanisms is emphasized. One example is the recently observed signature of the long search...

  3. Near-infrared imaging spectrometer onboard NEXTSat-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woong-Seob; Park, Sung-Joon; Moon, Bongkon; Lee, Dae-Hee; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Park, Won-Kee; Park, Youngsik; Kim, Il-Joong; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Lee, Dukhang; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Minjin; Ko, Jongwan; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Chae, Jangsoo; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    The NISS (Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history) is the near-infrared instrument optimized to the first next generation of small satellite (NEXTSat-1) in Korea. The spectro-photometric capability in the near-infrared range is a unique function of the NISS. The major scientific mission is to study the cosmic star formation history in local and distant universe. For those purposes, the NISS will perform the large areal imaging spectroscopic survey for astronomical objects and low background regions. We have paid careful attention to reduce the volume and to increase the total throughput. The newly implemented off-axis optics has a wide field of view (2° x 2°) and a wide wavelength range from 0.9 to 3.8μm. The mechanical structure is designed to consider launching conditions and passive cooling of the telescope. The compact dewar after relay-lens module is to operate the infrared detector and spectral filters at 80K stage. The independent integration of relay-lens part and primary-secondary mirror assembly alleviates the complex alignment process. We confirmed that the telescope and the infrared sensor can be cooled down to around 200K and 80K, respectively. The engineering qualification model of the NISS was tested in the space environment including the launch-induced vibration and shock. The NISS will be expected to demonstrate core technologies related to the development of the future infrared space telescope in Korea.

  4. Geodetic Mobil Solar Spectrometer for JASON Altimeter Satellite Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Becker-Ross, H.; Florek, S.; Okruss, M.

    Atmospheric water vapor is a crucial factor in achieving highest accuracies for space geodetic measurements. Water vapor causes a delay of the propagation time of the altimeter satellite signal, which propagates into errors for the determination of surface heights. Knowledge of the precipitable water vapor (PW) enables a tropospheric correction of the satellite signal. Therefore, different remote sensing techniques have been pursued to measure the PW continuously. The prototype Geodetic Mobil Solar Spectrometer (GEMOSS) was developed at the Geodesy and Geodynamics Laboratory (GGL, ETH Zurich) in cooperation with the Institute of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (ISAS) (Berlin, Germany). A new optical approach allows the simultaneous measurement of numerous single absorption lines of water vapor in the wide range between 728 nm and 915 nm. The large number of available absorption lines increases the accuracy of the absolute PW retrievals considerably. GEMOSS has been deployed during two campaigns in Greece in the framework of the EU-project GAVDOS, which deals with the calibration of the altimeter satellite JASON. During the overfly of JASON, the ground-based determination of PW enables the correction of the satellite measurements due to tropospheric water vapor. Comparisons with radiometer and radiosondes data allow to assess the accuracy and reliability of GEMOSS. The instrumental advancement of GEMOSS is presented together with the results of the campaigns carried out.

  5. The x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer onboard Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Herder, J. W.; Bagnali, D.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barret, D.; Bastia, P.; Bisotti, M.; Boyce, K.; Cara, C.; Ceballos, M.; Corcione, L.; Cobo, B.; Colasanti, L.; de Plaa, J.; DiPirro, M.; Doriese, W. B.; Ezoe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Gatti, F.; Gottardi, L.; Guttridge, P.; den Hartog, R.; Hepburn, I.; Kelley, R.; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P. A. J.; van der Kuur, J.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Mitsuda, K.; Mineo, T.; Natalucci, L.; Ohashi, T.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Perinati, E.; Piro, L.; Pigot, C.; Porter, F. S.; Rauw, G.; Ravera, L.; Renotte, E.; Sauvageot, J.-L.; Schmid, C.; Sciortino, S.; Shirron, P.; Takei, Y.; Torrioli, G.; Tsujimoto, M.; Valenziano, L.; Willingale, D.; de Vries, C.; van Weers, H.; Wilms, J.; Yamasaki, N. Y.

    2012-09-01

    One of the instruments on the Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) which was one of the three missions under study as one of the L-class missions of ESA, is the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS). This instrument, which will provide high-spectral resolution images, is based on X-ray micro-calorimeters with Transition Edge Sensor (TES) and absorbers that consist of metal and semi-metal layers and a multiplexed SQUID readout. The array (32 x 32 pixels) provides an energy resolution of Athena optics, the XMS instrument must be capable of processing high counting rates, while maintaining the spectral resolution and a low deadtime. In addition, an anti-coincidence detector is required to suppress the particle-induced background. Compared to the requirements for the same instrument on IXO, the performance requirements have been relaxed to fit into the much more restricted boundary conditions of Athena. In this paper we illustrate some of the science achievable with the instrument. We describe the results of design studies for the focal plane assembly and the cooling systems. Also, the system and its required spacecraft resources will be given.

  6. NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Ohtake, Makiko; Arai, Takehiko; Arai, Tomoko; Hirata, Naru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Honda, Chikatoshi; Imae, Naoya; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Matsuoka, Moe; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakato, Aiko; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Osawa, Takahito; Senshu, Hiroki; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Kohji; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Palomba, Ernesto; Ozaki, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 μm. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 μm-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K ( -85°C), which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 μm wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

  7. NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Ohtake, Makiko; Arai, Takehiko; Arai, Tomoko; Hirata, Naru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Honda, Chikatoshi; Imae, Naoya; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Matsuoka, Moe; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakato, Aiko; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Osawa, Takahito; Senshu, Hiroki; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Kohji; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Palomba, Ernesto; Ozaki, Masanobu

    2017-07-01

    NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 μm. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 μm-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K (-85°C), which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 μm wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

  8. NO2 tropospheric profiles with spatially scanning DOAS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, Samuele; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Petritoli, Andrea; Kostadinov, Ivan; Premuda, Margherita; Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    A simple algorithm, developed at ISAC Institute, to retrieve gas concentration's profiles by means of Tropospheric Gas Analyser Spectrometer (TropoGAS), adopting Off-Axis DOAS methodology is presented. Combining previously selected measurements obtained at different line of sight, we calculate the concentration along the first 2 km of troposphere. The first step is aimed to evaluate in the same spectral region (from 430nm to 495nm) by means of our DOAS processor the slant columns of NO2 and O4, and to separate the tropospheric part from the total one. Measurements are performed in the subsequent angles of sight: a=1,2,4,8,16,32° above the horizon and one measurement is taken along the sun direction. The second step consists of the use of measured O4 slant column to evaluate the correct optical path needed to calculate NO2 concentration form measured NO2 tropospheric slant column. Profiles of NO2 and other gases absorbing in this spectral range (such as CHOCHO) are shown and compared with the ground value obtained from ARPA in-situ analyser network. Finally we discuss the applicability of this technique in urban air quality monitoring and future possible improvements of the method.

  9. Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2010-10-05

    A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

  10. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two...

  11. Standoff gas identification and application with FTIR imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chensheng; Sun, Wei; Li, Biao; Zhang, Zhijie; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Tang, Wei; Yu, Hui

    2016-11-01

    FTIR imaging spectrometer has significant meaning in the fields like industrial plume emission monitoring and public security monitoring. In this paper, a LWIR FTIR imaging spectrometer is applied to realize the field gas identification experiment. First, the structure and design of this spectrometer is indicated and discussed. Based on the algorithms research, the related gas identification software is developed. To verify this design, both lab and field experiments are realized. The lab experiment is applied to verify the spectral identification algorithm. The field trial is applied to analyze the gas components, and the results show that this spectrometer can realize the gas elements identification in real time.

  12. Uncooled near- and mid-IR spectrometer engine. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Agiltron proposes to develop an extremely compact and high sensitivity uncooled near- and mid-infrared (NMIR) spectrometer engine for planetary compositional...

  13. Remote sensing of stratospheric O3 and NO2 using a portable and compact DOAS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, M. M.; Jiménez, R.; Wolfram, E.; Tocho, J. O.; Quel, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of passive and active remote sensing systems has largely contributed to advance our understanding of important atmospheric phenomena. Here we present a compact and portable passive DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) system, developed for measuring the vertical column density (VCD) of multiple atmospheric trace gases. We highlight the main characteristics of the system components: a mini-spectrometer (HR4000, Ocean Optics), two optical fibers (400 μm of core, 6 m and 25 cm of longitude), an external shutter and the control/data processing software. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) VCDs are derived from solar spectra acquired during twilights (87° - 91° zenithal angles) using the DOAS technique. The analysis is carried out by solving the Beer-Lambert-Bouger (BLB) law for the main atmospheric absorbers at selected wavelength ranges. The algorithm minimizes the fitting residuals to the BLB law, having as unknown the slant column density (SCD) of the species to determine. We present measurements carried out at the Marambio Antarctic Base (64° 14' 25'' S; 56° 37' 21'' W, 197 m asl) during January - February 2008. In addition, we compare our results with co-located measurements performed with EVA, a visible absorption spectrometer of Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, Spain), a Dobson spectrophotometer of Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN, Argentine) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), on board AURA satellite.

  14. SHARAQ spectrometer for high-resolution studies for RI-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michimasa, S., E-mail: mitimasa@cns.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Takaki, M.; Sasamoto, Y. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Dozono, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nishi, T. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ota, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Baba, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Baba, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fujii, T.; Go, S.; Kawase, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kisamori, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Kubota, Y.; Lee, C.S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsubara, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Miki, K. [RCNP, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Miya, H. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Report on recent achievement of the SHARAQ spectrometer. • Demonstration of two ion optics modes for high-resolution spectroscopy. • Discussion on measured transport matrix elements by comparison with designed values. • Demonstration of event-by-event momentum tagging by the achromatic transport. • Achievement of momentum resolution of 1/8100 by the dispersion-matching transport. -- Abstract: The SHARAQ spectrometer and High-Resolution Beamline, which began operation in March 2009, have been put into use for six experiments using charge exchange reactions with radioactive isotope beams. For experiments at SHARAQ, detector developments and ion optics studies continue to improve performance in high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy. We have introduced improved timing resolution with CVD diamond detectors, high count-rate beamline tracking detectors and development of multi-particle detection by cathode-readout drift chambers. Ion-optics studies for the high-resolution achromatic (HA) and dispersion-matching (DM) transport modes are also reported here. Momentum tagging in the HA mode demonstrated an improvement in spectroscopic resolution with respect to the momentum spread of the radioactive beam. For the DM transportation mode, a momentum resolution of 1/8100 (FWHM) was achieved by taking into account the positions and angles of the beam at the third focal plane of BigRIPS.

  15. Design of smartphone-based spectrometer to assess fresh meat color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngkee; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Yuan H. Brad; Bae, Euiwon

    2017-02-01

    Based on its integrated camera, new optical attachment, and inherent computing power, we propose an instrument design and validation that can potentially provide an objective and accurate method to determine surface meat color change and myoglobin redox forms using a smartphone-based spectrometer. System is designed to be used as a reflection spectrometer which mimics the conventional spectrometry commonly used for meat color assessment. We utilize a 3D printing technique to make an optical cradle which holds all of the optical components for light collection, collimation, dispersion, and a suitable chamber. A light, which reflects a sample, enters a pinhole and is subsequently collimated by a convex lens. A diffraction grating spreads the wavelength over the camera's pixels to display a high resolution of spectrum. Pixel values in the smartphone image are translated to calibrate the wavelength values through three laser pointers which have different wavelength; 405, 532, 650 nm. Using an in-house app, the camera images are converted into a spectrum in the visible wavelength range based on the exterior light source. A controlled experiment simulating the refrigeration and shelving of the meat has been conducted and the results showed the capability to accurately measure the color change in quantitative and spectroscopic manner. We expect that this technology can be adapted to any smartphone and used to conduct a field-deployable color spectrum assay as a more practical application tool for various food sectors.

  16. Optical Transmission Properties of Dielectric Aperture Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao

    Optical detection devices such as optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are widely used in many applications for the functions of measurements, inspections and analysis. Due to the large dimension of prisms and gratings, the traditional optical devices normally occupy a large space with complicated components. Since cheaper and smaller optical devices are always in demand, miniaturization has been kept going for years. Thanks to recent fabrication advances, nanophotonic devices such as semiconductor laser chips have been growing in number and diversity. However, the optical biosensor chips and the optical spectrometer chips are seldom reported in the literature. For the reason of improving system integration, the study of ultra-compact, low-cost, high-performance and easy-alignment optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are imperative. This thesis is an endeavor in these two subjects and will present our research work on studying the optical transmission properties of dielectric aperture arrays and developing new optical biosensors and optical spectrometers. The first half of the thesis demonstrates that the optical phase shift associated with the surface plasmon (SP) assisted extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) in nano-hole arrays fabricated in a metal film has a strong dependence on the material refractive index value in close proximity to the holes. A novel refractive index sensor based on detecting the EOT phase shift is proposed by building a model. This device readily provides a 2-D biosensor array platform for non-labeled real-time detection of a variety of organic and biological molecules in a sensor chip format, which leads to a high packing density, minimal analyte volumes, and a large number of parallel channels while facilitating high resolution imaging and supporting a large space-bandwidth product (SBP). Simulation (FDTD Solutions, Lumerical Solutions Inc) results indicate an achievable sensitivity limit of 4.37x10-9 refractive index

  17. The Raman Laser Spectrometer for the ExoMars Rover Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Fernando; Maurice, Sylvestre; Hutchinson, Ian; Moral, Andoni; Perez, Carlos; Diaz, Carlos; Colombo, Maria; Belenguer, Tomas; Lopez-Reyes, Guillermo; Sansano, Antonio; Forni, Olivier; Parot, Yann; Striebig, Nicolas; Woodward, Simon; Howe, Chris; Tarcea, Nicolau; Rodriguez, Pablo; Seoane, Laura; Santiago, Amaia; Rodriguez-Prieto, Jose A.; Medina, Jesús; Gallego, Paloma; Canchal, Rosario; Santamaría, Pilar; Ramos, Gonzalo; Vago, Jorge L.; RLS Team

    2017-07-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) on board the ESA/Roscosmos ExoMars 2020 mission will provide precise identification of the mineral phases and the possibility to detect organics on the Red Planet. The RLS will work on the powdered samples prepared inside the Pasteur analytical suite and collected on the surface and subsurface by a drill system. Raman spectroscopy is a well-known analytical technique based on the inelastic scattering by matter of incident monochromatic light (the Raman effect) that has many applications in laboratory and industry, yet to be used in space applications. Raman spectrometers will be included in two Mars rovers scheduled to be launched in 2020. The Raman instrument for ExoMars 2020 consists of three main units: (1) a transmission spectrograph coupled to a CCD detector; (2) an electronics box, including the excitation laser that controls the instrument functions; and (3) an optical head with an autofocus mechanism illuminating and collecting the scattered light from the spot under investigation. The optical head is connected to the excitation laser and the spectrometer by optical fibers. The instrument also has two targets positioned inside the rover analytical laboratory for onboard Raman spectral calibration. The aim of this article was to present a detailed description of the RLS instrument, including its operation on Mars. To verify RLS operation before launch and to prepare science scenarios for the mission, a simulator of the sample analysis chain has been developed by the team. The results obtained are also discussed. Finally, the potential of the Raman instrument for use in field conditions is addressed. By using a ruggedized prototype, also developed by our team, a wide range of terrestrial analog sites across the world have been studied. These investigations allowed preparing a large collection of real, in situ spectra of samples from different geological processes and periods of Earth evolution. On this basis, we are working

  18. Miniaturized Waveguide Fourier Transform Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To characterize the IR optical properties of the metal-coated hollow waveguide ensemble; configure the Hollow Waveguide FTS (HWFTS) chip in such a way that we...

  19. Milli X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Eagle III Micro XRF unit is similar to a traditional XRF unit, with the primary difference being that the X-rays are focused by a polycapillary optic into a spot...

  20. O3 and NO2 vertical columns using SAOZ UV-Visible spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazmiño A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview of ground-based SAOZ spectrometer for measurements of O3 and NO2 total vertical columns. Due to instrument conception (zenith measurement in the Visible, the SAOZ is the only instrument that could measure continuously and at all latitudes up to the polar circle in winter. It can be operated in bad weather conditions (cloudy, rainy or snowing and it has the advantage of spectral self-calibration and completely automatic mode. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy technique is used allowing a self-calibration of different atmospheric constituents on the respective absorption cross-section.