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Sample records for optical atomic magnetometer

  1. Optical atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  2. Magnetoencephalography with Optically Pumped Atomic Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter; Colombo, Anthony; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Carter, Tony; Berry, Christopher; Young, Amber; McKay, Jim; Weisend, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We are working to develop a 36-channel array of optically pumped atomic magnetometers (AMs) to perform magnetoencephalography (MEG) with the goal of localizing magnetic sources within the human brain. The 36-channel array will consist of nine 4-channel sensor modules where the channels within each sensor will be spaced by 18 mm and each sensor will cover a 40 mm by 40 mm area of the head. In a previous 4-channel AM prototype, we demonstrated the measurement of evoked responses in both the auditory and somatosensory cortexes. This prototype had a 5 fT/Hz1/2 sensitivity. In the current version of the AM under development we are maintaining the previous sensitivity while implementing several improvements, including increasing the bandwidth from 20 Hz to more than 100 Hz, reducing the separation of the active volume of the AM from exterior of the sensor from 25 mm to 10 mm or less, and reducing the active sensor volume by a factor >10 to ~15 mm3. We will present results on the performance of our most recent AM prototype and progress toward developing a complete MEG system including a person-sized magnetic shield to provide a low-noise magnetic environment for MEG measurements.

  3. All-optical vector atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, B; Zhivun, E; Hovde, D C; Budker, D

    2014-07-04

    We demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in cesium vapor. Vector capability is added by effective modulation of the field along orthogonal axes and subsequent demodulation of the magnetic-resonance frequency. This modulation is provided by the ac Stark shift induced by circularly polarized laser beams. The sensor exhibits a demonstrated rms noise floor of ∼65  fT/√[Hz] in measurement of the field magnitude and 0.5  mrad/√[Hz] in the field direction; elimination of technical noise would improve these sensitivities to 12  fT/√[Hz] and 10  μrad/√[Hz], respectively. Applications for this all-optical vector magnetometer would include magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, such as the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  4. Multichannel optical atomic magnetometer operating in unshielded environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bevilacqua, Giuseppe; Chessa, Piero; Dancheva, Yordanka

    2016-01-01

    A multi-channel atomic magnetometer operating in an unshielded environment is described and characterised. The magnetometer is based on D1 optical pumping and D2 polarimetry of Cs vapour contained in gas-buffered cells. Several technical implementations are described and discussed in detail. The demonstrated sensitivity of the setup is 100fT/Hz^1/2 when operating in the difference mode.

  5. Atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  6. Four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Anthony P; Carter, Tony R; Borna, Amir; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Johnson, Cort N; Dagel, Amber L; Schwindt, Peter D D

    2016-07-11

    We have developed a four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that incorporates a passive diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE allows us to achieve a long, 18-mm gradiometer baseline in a compact footprint on the head. Using gradiometry, the sensitivities of the channels are 1/2, and the 3-dB bandwidths are approximately 90 Hz, which are both sufficient to perform MEG. Additionally, the channels are highly uniform, which offers the possibility of employing standard MEG post-processing techniques. This module will serve as a building block of an array for magnetic source localization.

  7. The magneto-optical effect of cold atoms in an integrating sphere for atomic clock and optical magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Jinyin; Meng, Yanling; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Yaning; Liu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the magneto-optical effect of cold atoms in an integrating sphere both experimentally and theoretically. The dependence of magneto-optical rotation angle on the biased magnetic field, the probe light intensity, and the probe light detuning are investigated. The probe light background is blocked and the shot noise is strongly suppressed. This detection scheme may provide a new approach for high contrast cold atom clock and cold atom optical magnetometer.

  8. Magnetic induction tomography using an all-optical ⁸⁷Rb atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenbrock, Arne; Jurgilas, Sarunas; Dow, Albert; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate magnetic induction tomography (MIT) with an all-optical atomic magnetometer. Our instrument creates a conductivity map of conductive objects. Both the shape and size of the imaged samples compare very well with the actual shape and size. Given the potential of all-optical atomic magnetometers for miniaturization and extreme sensitivity, the proof-of-principle presented in this Letter opens up promising avenues in the development of instrumentation for MIT.

  9. A Subfemtotesla Atomic Magnetometer Based on Hybrid Optical Pumping of Potassium and Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cai, Hongwei; Ding, Ming; Quan, Wei; Fang, Jiancheng

    2016-05-01

    Atomic magnetometers, based on detection of Larmor spin precession of optically pumped atoms, have been researched and applied extensively. Higher sensitivity and spatial resolution combined with no cryogenic cooling of atomic magnetometers would enable many applications with low cost, including the magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ultrahigh sensitivity atomic magnetometer is considered to be the main development direction for the future. Hybrid optical pumping has been proposed to improve the efficiency of nuclear polarization. But it can also be used for magnetic field measurement. This method can control absorption of optical pumping light, which is benefit for improving the uniformity of alkali metal atoms polarization and the sensitivity of atomic magnetometer. In addition, it allows optical pumping in the absence of quenching gas. We conduct experiments with a hybrid optically pumped atomic magnetometer using a cell containing potassium and rubidium. By adjusting the density ratio of alkali metal and the pumping laser conditions, we measured the magnetic field sensitivity better than 0.7 fT/sqrt(Hz).

  10. Harmonic detection of magnetic resonance for sensitivity improvement of optical atomic magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbaran, M.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Hamidi, S. M.; Khalkhali, S. M. H.

    2017-02-01

    Highly sensitive atomic magnetometers use optically detected magnetic resonance of atomic spins to measure extremely weak magnetic field changes. The magnetometer sensitivity is directly proportional to the ratio of intensity to line-shape of the resonance signal. To obtain narrower resonance signal, we implemented harmonic detection of magnetic resonance method in Mx configuration. The nonlinear spin polarization dynamics in detection of the higher harmonics were employed in phenomenological Bloch equations. The measured and simulated harmonic components of the resonance signals in frequency domain yielded significantly narrower line-width accompanying much improved sensitivity. Our results confirm the sensitivity improvement by a factor of two in optical atomic magnetometer via second harmonic signal which can open a new insight in the weak magnetic field measurement system design.

  11. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  12. A plateau in the sensitivity of a compact optically pumped atomic magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuhiko Mizutani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a compact optically pumped atomic magnetometer (OPAM, there is a plateau in the sensitivity where the dependence of the sensitivity on pumping power is small compared with that predicted by the uniform polarization model. The mechanism that generates this plateau was explained by numerical analysis. The distribution of spin polarization in the alkali metal cell of an OPAM was modeled using the Bloch equation incorporating a diffusion term and an equation for the attenuation of the pump beam. The model was well-fitted to the experimental results for a module with a cubic cell with 20 mm sides and pump and probe beams with 8 mm diameter. On the plateau, strong magnetic response was generated at the regions that were not illuminated directly by the intense pump beam, while at the same time spin polarization as large as 0.5 was maintained due to diffusion of the spin-polarized atoms. Thus, the sensitivity of the magnetometer monitored with a probe beam decreases only slightly with increasing pump beam intensity because the spin polarization under an intense pump beam is saturated. This plateau, which is characteristic of this type of magnetometer using a narrow pump and probe beams, can be used in arrays of magnetometers because it enables stable operation with little sensitivity fluctuation from changes in pump beam power.

  13. Development of an optically pumped atomic magnetometer using a K-Rb hybrid cell and its application to magnetocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Ito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an optically pumped atomic magnetometer using a hybrid cell of K and Rb. The hybrid optical pumping technique can apply dense alkali-metal vapor to the sensor head and leads to high signal intensity. We use dense Rb vapor as probed atoms, and achieve a sensitivity of approximately 100 fTrms/Hz1/2 around 10 Hz. In this case, the sensitivity is limited by the system noise, and the magnetic linewidth is narrower than that for direct Rb optical pumping. We demonstrated magnetocardiography using the magnetometer and obtained clear human magnetocardiograms.

  14. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  15. Atomic magnetometer for human magnetoencephalograpy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (<5 fTesla/{radical}Hz), fiber-optically coupled magnetometer to detect magnetic fields produced by the human brain. This is the first demonstration of a noncryogenic sensor that could replace cryogenic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and is an important advance in realizing cost-effective MEG. Within the sensor, a rubidium vapor is optically pumped with 795 laser light while field-induced optical rotations are measured with 780 nm laser light. Both beams share a single optical axis to maximize simplicity and compactness. In collaboration with neuroscientists at The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, NM, the evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer and a commercial SQUID-based MEG system with signals comparing favorably. Multi-sensor operation has been demonstrated with two AMs placed on opposite sides of the head. Straightforward miniaturization would enable high-density sensor arrays for whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  16. An optically modulated zero-field atomic magnetometer with suppressed spin-exchange broadening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, R; Knappe, S; Kitching, J

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate an optically pumped (87)Rb magnetometer in a microfabricated vapor cell based on a zero-field dispersive resonance generated by optical modulation of the (87)Rb ground state energy levels. The magnetometer is operated in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime where high magnetic field sensitivities can be achieved. This device can be useful in applications requiring array-based magnetometers where radio frequency magnetic fields can induce cross-talk among adjacent sensors or affect the source of the magnetic field being measured.

  17. An atomic spin precession detection method based on electro-optic modulation in an all-optical K-Rb hybrid atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanhui; Liu, Xuejing; Li, Yang; Yao, Han; Dai, Lingling; Yang, Biyao; Ding, Ming

    2017-07-01

    We present an ultrahigh-sensitivity electro-optic modulator (EOM) detection method for detecting the atomic Larmor precession in an all-optical K-Rb hybrid atomic magnetometer operating in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime. A magnetic field sensitivity of ~10 f T Hz-1/2 has been achieved by optimizing the probe laser parameters and the EOM modulation conditions, which is comparable to that with the Faraday modulation method and has a better performance than the balanced polarimetry method in the low frequency range. The EOM detection method in the atomic magnetometer presents several advantages, such as simple structure, no extra magnetic noise, moderate thermal effect, high measurement sensitivity and reliable stability. It is demonstrated to be feasible for the improved compactness and simplicity of atomic magnetic field measurement devices in the future.

  18. Dynamic analysis of atomic magnetometer and co-magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shihu, E-mail: 65980623@qq.com; Yu, Linke; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Some unsteady-state solutions of Bloch equation which well-describe the behavior of a magnetometer are obtained. These solutions are in accord with the experimental result of alkali-metal magnetometer and co-magnetometer gyroscope. Many interesting phenomena can be also achieved via the solutions. First, the measuring direction of a magnetometer changes with the variation of external magnetic field along z axis. And it could be used for measuring high frequency magnetic field. Then it can be extended that the co-magnetometer without compensated field can get better performance than simple atomic magnetometer due to the effect of polarized noble gas. Finally, we discussed the limits (bandwidth and so on) of atomic magnetometer and co-magnetometer with the Bloch equation of spins. These phenomena, which have not been mentioned before, may contribute to the development of atomic magnetometer and co-magnetometer gyroscope.

  19. Diffusive Suppression of AC-Stark Shifts in Atomic Magnetometers

    CERN Document Server

    Sulai, I A; Kauer, M; Smetana, G S; Wakai, R T; Walker, T G

    2012-01-01

    In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small sub-volume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field.

  20. Measurement Sensitivity Improvement of All-Optical Atomic Spin Magnetometer by Suppressing Noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiyuan; Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng

    2016-06-17

    Quantum manipulation technology and photoelectric detection technology have jointly facilitated the rapid development of ultra-sensitive atomic spin magnetometers. To improve the output signal and sensitivity of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) atomic spin magnetometer, the noises influencing on the output signal and the sensitivity were analyzed, and the corresponding noise suppression methods were presented. The magnetic field noises, including the residual magnetic field noise and the light shift noise, were reduced to approximately zero by employing the magnetic field compensation method and by adjusting the frequency of the pump beam, respectively. With respect to the operation temperature, the simulation results showed that the temperature of the potassium atomic spin magnetometer realizing the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime was 180 °C. Moreover, the fluctuation noises of the frequency and the power were suppressed by using the frequency and the power stable systems. The experimental power stability results showed that the light intensity stability was enhanced 10%. Contrast experiments on the sensitivity were carried out to demonstrate the validity of the suppression methods. Finally, a sensitivity of 13 fT/Hz(1/2) was successfully achieved by suppressing noises and optimizing parameters.

  1. Orientational dependence of optically detected magnetic resonance signals in laser-driven atomic magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Simone; Dolgovskiy, Vladimir; Scholtes, Theo; Grujić, Zoran D.; Lebedev, Victor; Weis, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the dependence of lock-in-demodulated M_x-magnetometer signals on the orientation of the static magnetic field B0 of interest. Magnetic resonance spectra for 2400 discrete orientations of B0 covering a 4π solid angle have been recorded by a PC-controlled steering and data acquisition system. Off-line fits by previously derived lineshape functions allow us to extract the relevant resonance parameters (shape, amplitude, width, and phase) and to represent their dependence on the orientation of B0 with respect to the laser beam propagation direction. We have performed this study for two distinct M_x-magnetometer configurations, in which the rf-field is either parallel or perpendicular to the light propagation direction. The results confirm well the algebraic theoretical model functions. We suggest that small discrepancies are related to hitherto uninvestigated atomic alignment contributions.

  2. Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Wakai, Ronald T; Walker, Thad G

    2012-06-15

    We describe an array of spin-exchange-relaxation-free optical magnetometers designed for detection of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). The individual magnetometers are configured with a small volume with intense optical pumping, surrounded by a large pump-free region. Spin-polarized atoms that diffuse out of the optical pumping region precess in the ambient magnetic field and are detected by a probe laser. Four such magnetometers, at the corners of a 7 cm square, are configured for gradiometry by feeding back the output of one magnetometer to a field coil to null uniform magnetic field noise at frequencies up to 200 Hz. We present the first measurements of fMCG signals using an atomic magnetometer.

  3. On-site monitoring of atomic density number for an all-optical atomic magnetometer based on atomic spin exchange relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng; Chen, Xiyuan; Ding, Ming; Shan, Guangcun; Hu, Zhaohui; Quan, Wei

    2016-07-25

    We present a method for monitoring the atomic density number on site based on atomic spin exchange relaxation. When the spin polarization P ≪ 1, the atomic density numbers could be estimated by measuring magnetic resonance linewidth in an applied DC magnetic field by using an all-optical atomic magnetometer. The density measurement results showed that the experimental results the theoretical predictions had a good consistency in the investigated temperature range from 413 K to 463 K, while, the experimental results were approximately 1.5 ∼ 2 times less than the theoretical predictions estimated from the saturated vapor pressure curve. These deviations were mainly induced by the radiative heat transfer efficiency, which inevitably leaded to a lower temperature in cell than the setting temperature.

  4. A compact, high performance atomic magnetometer for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishal K; Wakai, Ronald T

    2013-11-21

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2 × 2 × 5 cm3 and is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography recordings can be obtained using our AM.

  5. Optically transduced MEMS magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Langlois, Eric

    2014-03-18

    MEMS magnetometers with optically transduced resonator displacement are described herein. Improved sensitivity, crosstalk reduction, and extended dynamic range may be achieved with devices including a deflectable resonator suspended from the support, a first grating extending from the support and disposed over the resonator, a pair of drive electrodes to drive an alternating current through the resonator, and a second grating in the resonator overlapping the first grating to form a multi-layer grating having apertures that vary dimensionally in response to deflection occurring as the resonator mechanically resonates in a plane parallel to the first grating in the presence of a magnetic field as a function of the Lorentz force resulting from the alternating current. A plurality of such multi-layer gratings may be disposed across a length of the resonator to provide greater dynamic range and/or accommodate fabrication tolerances.

  6. All optical vector magnetometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector magnetic...

  7. Optimal densities of alkali metal atoms in an optically pumped K-Rb hybrid atomic magnetometer considering the spatial distribution of spin polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yosuke; Sato, Daichi; Kamada, Keigo; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2016-07-11

    An optically pumped K-Rb hybrid atomic magnetometer can be a useful tool for biomagnetic measurements due to the high spatial homogeneity of its sensor property inside a cell. However, because the property varies depending on the densities of potassium and rubidium atoms, optimization of the densities is essential. In this study, by using the Bloch equations of K and Rb and considering the spatial distribution of the spin polarization, we confirmed that the calculation results of spin polarization behavior are in good agreement with the experimental data. Using our model, we calculated the spatial distribution of the spin polarization and found that the optimal density of K atoms is 3 × 1019 m-3 and the optimal density ratio is nK/nRb ~ 400 to maximize the output signal and enhance spatial homogeneity of the sensor property.

  8. A Compact, High Performance Atomic Magnetometer for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Vishal K

    2013-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2x2x5 cm^3 and it is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is <10 fT/sqrt(Hz), which is comparable to cryogenically cooled superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) recordings can be obtained using our AM.

  9. Experimental Investigation on a Highly Sensitive Atomic Magnetometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-Guang; XU Yun-Fei; WANG Zhao-Ying; LIU Yun-Xian; LIN Qiang

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-optical atomic magnetometer based on the magnetooptical effect which uses the advanced technique of single laser beam detection is reported and demonstrated experimentally.A sensitivityof 0.5 pT/Hz1/2 is obtained by analyzing the magnetic noise spectrum,which exceeds that of most traditional magnetometers.This kind of atomic magnetometer is very compact,has a low power consumption,and has a high theoretical sensitivity limit,which make it suitable for many applications.

  10. Human MCG measurements with a high-sensitivity potassium atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, K; Ito, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2012-06-01

    Measuring biomagnetic fields, such as magnetocardiograms (MCGs), is important for investigating biological functions. To address to this need, we developed an optically pumped atomic magnetometer. In this study, human MCGs were acquired using a potassium atomic magnetometer without any modulating systems. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is comparable to that of high-T(c) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and is sufficient for acquiring human MCGs. The activity of a human heart estimated from the MCG maps agrees well with that measured with SQUID magnetometers. Thus, our magnetometer produces reliable results, which demonstrate the potential of our atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic measurements.

  11. Multi-sensor magnetoencephalography with atomic magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cort N.; Schwindt, P. D. D.; Weisend, M.

    2013-09-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with two independent, simultaneously operating rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometers. Evoked responses from auditory stimulation were recorded from multiple subjects with two multi-channel magnetometers located on opposite sides of the head. Signal processing techniques enabled by multi-channel measurements were used to improve signal quality. This is the first demonstration of multi-sensor atomic magnetometer magnetoencephalography and provides a framework for developing a non-cryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography array for source localization.

  12. NQR detection of explosive simulants using RF atomic magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a highly selective spectroscopic method that can be used to detect and identify a number of chemicals of interest to the defense, national security, and law enforcement community. In the past, there have been several documented attempts to utilize NQR to detect nitrogen bearing explosives using induction sensors to detect the NQR RF signatures. We present here our work on the NQR detection of explosive simulants using optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers. RF atomic magnetometers can provide an order of magnitude (or more) improvement in sensitivity versus induction sensors and can enable mitigation of RF interference, which has classically has been a problem for conventional NQR using induction sensors. We present the theory of operation of optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers along with the result of laboratory work on the detection of explosive simulant material. An outline of ongoing work will also be presented along with a path for a fieldable detection system.

  13. Magnetoencephalography with a two-color pump probe atomic magnetometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-07-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with a compact, fiber-coupled rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer. Optical pumping is performed on the D1 transition and Faraday rotation is measured on the D2 transition. The beams share an optical axis, with dichroic optics preparing beam polarizations appropriately. A sensitivity of <5 fT/{radical}Hz is achieved. Evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer. Recordings were validated by comparison with those taken by a commercial magnetoencephalography system. The design is amenable to arraying sensors around the head, providing a framework for noncryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  14. Magnetic-field-compensation optical vector magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoyan, Aram; Shmavonyan, Svetlana; Khanbekyan, Alen; Khanbekyan, Karen; Marinelli, Carmela; Mariotti, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    A concept for an optical magnetometer used for the measurement of magnitude and direction of a magnetic field (B-field) in two orthogonal directions is developed based on double scanning of a B-field to compensate the measured field to zero value, which is monitored by a resonant magneto-optical process in an unshielded atomic vapor cell. Implementation of the technique using the nonlinear Hanle effect on the D2 line of rubidium demonstrates viability and efficiency of the proposed concept. The ways to enhance characteristics of the suggested technique and optimize its performance, as well as the possible extension to three-axis magnetometry, are discussed.

  15. NMR detection with an atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savukov, I M

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate detection of NMR signals using a non-cryogenic atomic magnetometer and describe several novel applications of this technique. A water free induction decay (FID) signal in a 0.5 $\\mu$T field is detected using a spin-exchange-relaxation-free K magnetometer and the possibility of using a multi-channel magnetometer for 3-D MRI requiring only a single FID signal is described. We also demonstrate detection of less than $10^{13}$ $^{129}$Xe atoms whose NMR signal is enhanced by a factor of 540 due to Fermi-contact interaction with K atoms. This technique allows detection of less than $10^{9}$ $^{129}$Xe spins in a flowing system suitable for remote NMR applications.

  16. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Deans, Cameron; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  17. Three-axis atomic magnetometer based on spin precession modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. C.; Dong, H. F., E-mail: hfdong@buaa.edu.cn; Hu, X. Y.; Chen, L.; Gao, Y. [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrate a three-axis atomic magnetometer with one intensity-modulated pump beam and one orthogonal probe beam. The main field component is measured using the resonance of the pumping light, while the transverse field components are measured simultaneously using the optical rotation of the probe beam modulated by the spin precession. It is an all-optical magnetometer without using any modulation field or radio frequency field. Magnetic field sensitivity of 0.8 pT/Hz{sup 1∕2} is achieved under a bias field of 2 μT.

  18. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I; Karaulanov, T

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of a cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to a magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1 mm×1.4 mm in about 6 min of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discussed. We discuss several measures to increase the sensitivity to reach a resolution 1 mm×1 mm.

  19. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savukov, I

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1x1.4 mm2 in about six minutes of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discuss...

  20. CPT Magnetometer with Atomic Energy Level Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-Bin; DU Run-Chang; LIU Chao-Yang; GU Si-Hong

    2008-01-01

    We propose and experimentally investigate a coherent population trapping state based magnetometer prototype with87 Rb atoms.Through modulating Zeeman sublevels with an ac magnetic field,not only a phase sensitive detection scheme suitable for miniature magnetometer is realized,but also the detection resolution of magnetic field intensity could be improved by a factor of two.Our study result indicates that it is a promising low power consumption miniature sensitive low magnetic field sensor offering spatially resolved measurement at the sub-millimetre level.

  1. A Miniature Wide Band Atomic Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    atomic magnetometer CSAC – Chip scale atomic clock DAC – Digital to Analog Converter DARPA – Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DBR...Finally, the heater frequencies must not beat with the Laser servo’s modulation. Heater amplifiers This circuit is essentially an audio power...amplifier for the heater waveforms. The heater waveforms are made on the DAC board and then amplified in this circuit. The heater PCB consists of 4

  2. Method of performing MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich; Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Espy, Michelle A; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Kraus, Jr., Robert Henry; Zotev, Vadim Sergeyevich

    2013-08-27

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing an in-situ magnetic resonance imaging of an object. The method includes the steps of providing an atomic magnetometer, coupling a magnetic field generated by magnetically resonating samples of the object through a flux transformer to the atomic magnetometer and measuring a magnetic resonance of the atomic magnetometer.

  3. Remote detection of rotating machinery with a portable atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmugi, Luca; Gori, Lorenzo; Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate remote detection of rotating machinery, using an atomic magnetometer at room temperature and in an unshielded environment. The system relies on the coupling of the AC magnetic signature of the target with the spin-polarized, precessing atomic vapor of a radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometer. The AC magnetic signatures of rotating equipment or electric motors appear as sidebands in the power spectrum of the atomic sensor, which can be tuned to avoid noisy bands that would otherwise hamper detection. A portable apparatus is implemented and experimentally tested. Proof-of-concept investigations are performed with test targets mimicking possible applications, and the operational conditions for optimum detection are determined. Our instrument provides comparable or better performance than a commercial fluxgate and allows detection of rotating machinery behind a wall. These results demonstrate the potential for ultrasensitive devices for remote industrial and usage monitoring, security, and surveillance.

  4. High sensitivity optically pumped quantum magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiporlini, Valentina; Alameh, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Quantum magnetometers based on optical pumping can achieve sensitivity as high as what SQUID-based devices can attain. In this paper, we discuss the principle of operation and the optimal design of an optically pumped quantum magnetometer. The ultimate intrinsic sensitivity is calculated showing that optimal performance of the magnetometer is attained with an optical pump power of 20 μW and an operation temperature of 48°C. Results show that the ultimate intrinsic sensitivity of the quantum magnetometer that can be achieved is 327 fT/Hz(½) over a bandwidth of 26 Hz and that this sensitivity drops to 130 pT/Hz(½) in the presence of environmental noise. The quantum magnetometer is shown to be capable of detecting a sinusoidal magnetic field of amplitude as low as 15 pT oscillating at 25 Hz.

  5. Remote detected Low-Field MRI using an optically pumped atomic magnetometer combined with a liquid cooled pre-polarization coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilschenz, Ingo; Ito, Yosuke; Natsukawa, Hiroaki; Oida, Takenori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices are widely used in basic and clinical biomagnetic measurements such as low-field magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography primarily because they exhibit high sensitivity at low frequencies and have a wide bandwidth. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they require cryogenic coolants, which are rather expensive and not easily available. Meanwhile, with the advances in laser technology in the past few years, optically pumped atomic magnetometers (OPAMs) have been shown to be a good alternative as they can have adequate noise levels and are several millimeters in size, which makes them significantly easier to use. In this study, we used an OPAM module operating at a Larmor frequency of 5 kHz to acquire NMR and MRI signals. This study presents these initial results as well as our initial attempts at imaging using this OPAM module. In addition, we have designed a liquid-cooled pre-polarizing coil that reduces the measurement time significantly.

  6. Remote detected Low-Field MRI using an optically pumped atomic magnetometer combined with a liquid cooled pre-polarization coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilschenz, Ingo; Ito, Yosuke; Natsukawa, Hiroaki; Oida, Takenori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices are widely used in basic and clinical biomagnetic measurements such as low-field magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography primarily because they exhibit high sensitivity at low frequencies and have a wide bandwidth. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they require cryogenic coolants, which are rather expensive and not easily available. Meanwhile, with the advances in laser technology in the past few years, optically pumped atomic magnetometers (OPAMs) have been shown to be a good alternative as they can have adequate noise levels and are several millimeters in size, which makes them significantly easier to use. In this study, we used an OPAM module operating at a Larmor frequency of 5kHz to acquire NMR and MRI signals. This study presents these initial results as well as our initial attempts at imaging using this OPAM module. In addition, we have designed a liquid-cooled pre-polarizing coil that reduces the measurement time significantly.

  7. The atomic magnetometer: A new era in biomagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, Ronald T., E-mail: rtwakai@wisc.edu [1005 Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 1111 Highland Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-11-07

    The high cost and impracticality of SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) magnetometers has limited the expansion of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG), especially in countries where the cost of liquid helium is high. A recent breakthrough, however, has the potential to radically change this situation. In 2003, a group at Princeton University demonstrated an atomic magnetometer, known as the SERF (spin-exchange free relaxation) magnetometer, with unprecedented sensitivity. Since then, several research groups have utilized SERF magnetometers to record MEG, MCG, and fetal MCG signals. Despite some modest drawbacks, it now seems almost certain that SERF magnetometers can replace SQUIDs for many applications. With a price tag that is likely to be far less than that of SQUIDs, SERF magnetometers can propel the next wave of growth in biomagnetism.

  8. Ultrasensitive magnetometer using a single atom

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, I; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B; Wunderlich, Ch

    2014-01-01

    Precision sensing, and in particular high precision magnetometry, is a central goal of research into quantum technologies. For magnetometers often trade-offs exist between sensitivity, spatial resolution, and frequency range. The precision, and thus the sensitivity of magnetometry scales as $1/\\sqrt {T_2}$ with the phase coherence time, $T_2$, of the sensing system playing the role of a key determinant. Adapting a dynamical decoupling scheme that allows for extending $T_2$ by orders of magnitude and merging it with a magnetic sensing protocol, we achieve a measurement sensitivity even for high frequency fields close to the standard quantum limit. Using a single atomic ion as a sensor, we experimentally attain a sensitivity of $4$ pT Hz$^{-1/2}$ for an alternating-current (AC) magnetic field near 14 MHz. Based on the principle demonstrated here, this unprecedented sensitivity combined with spatial resolution in the nanometer range and tuneability from direct-current to the gigahertz range could be used for mag...

  9. Ultrasensitive Magnetometer using a Single Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, I; Cai, J-M; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B; Wunderlich, Ch

    2016-06-17

    Precision sensing, and in particular high precision magnetometry, is a central goal of research into quantum technologies. For magnetometers, often trade-offs exist between sensitivity, spatial resolution, and frequency range. The precision, and thus the sensitivity of magnetometry, scales as 1/sqrt[T_{2}] with the phase coherence time T_{2} of the sensing system playing the role of a key determinant. Adapting a dynamical decoupling scheme that allows for extending T_{2} by orders of magnitude and merging it with a magnetic sensing protocol, we achieve a measurement sensitivity even for high frequency fields close to the standard quantum limit. Using a single atomic ion as a sensor, we experimentally attain a sensitivity of 4.6  pT/sqrt[Hz] for an alternating-current magnetic field near 14 MHz. Based on the principle demonstrated here, this unprecedented sensitivity combined with spatial resolution in the nanometer range and tunability from direct current to the gigahertz range could be used for magnetic imaging in as of yet inaccessible parameter regimes.

  10. Highly stable atomic vector magnetometer based on free spin precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afach, S; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Grujić, Z D; Hayen, L; Hélaine, V; Kasprzak, M; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Piegsa, F M; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severjins, N; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-08-24

    We present a magnetometer based on optically pumped Cs atoms that measures the magnitude and direction of a 1 μT magnetic field. Multiple circularly polarized laser beams were used to probe the free spin precession of the Cs atoms. The design was optimized for long-time stability and achieves a scalar resolution better than 300 fT for integration times ranging from 80 ms to 1000 s. The best scalar resolution of less than 80 fT was reached with integration times of 1.6 to 6 s. We were able to measure the magnetic field direction with a resolution better than 10 μrad for integration times from 10 s up to 2000 s.

  11. Multi-channel atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography: a configuration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Begus, Samo; Xia, Hui; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Jazbinsek, Vojko; Trontelj, Zvonko; Romalis, Michael V

    2014-04-01

    Atomic magnetometers are emerging as an alternative to SQUID magnetometers for detection of biological magnetic fields. They have been used to measure both the magnetocardiography (MCG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. One of the virtues of the atomic magnetometers is their ability to operate as a multi-channel detector while using many common elements. Here we study two configurations of such a multi-channel atomic magnetometer optimized for MEG detection. We describe measurements of auditory evoked fields (AEF) from a human brain as well as localization of dipolar phantoms and auditory evoked fields. A clear N100m peak in AEF was observed with a signal-to-noise ratio of higher than 10 after averaging of 250 stimuli. Currently the intrinsic magnetic noise level is 4fTHz(-1/2) at 10Hz. We compare the performance of the two systems in regards to current source localization and discuss future development of atomic MEG systems.

  12. Detection of J-coupling using atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Micah P.; Crawford, Charles W.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-09-22

    An embodiment of a method of detecting a J-coupling includes providing a polarized analyte adjacent to a vapor cell of an atomic magnetometer; and measuring one or more J-coupling parameters using the atomic magnetometer. According to an embodiment, measuring the one or more J-coupling parameters includes detecting a magnetic field created by the polarized analyte as the magnetic field evolves under a J-coupling interaction.

  13. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The PowerPoint presentation focused on research goals, specific information about the atomic magnetometer, response and resolution factors of the SERF magnetometer, FC+AM systems, tests of field transfer and resolution on FC, gradient cancellation, testing of AM performance, ideas for a multi-channel AM, including preliminary sensitivity testing, and a description of a 6 channel DAQ system. A few ideas for future work ended the presentation.

  14. Characteristics and performance of an intensity-modulated optically pumped magnetometer in comparison to the classical M(x) magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Volkmar; Ijsselsteijn, Rob; Scholtes, Theo; Woetzel, Stefan; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2012-06-18

    We compare the performance of two methods for the synchronization of the atomic spins in optically pumped magnetometers: intensity modulation of the pump light and the classical M(x) method using B(1) field modulation. Both techniques use the same set-up and measure the resulting features of the light after passing a micro-fabricated Cs cell. The intensity-modulated pumping shows several advantages: better noise-limited magnetic field sensitivity, misalignment between pumping and spin synchronization is excluded, and magnetometer arrays without any cross-talk can be easily set up.

  15. All-optical, Three-axis Fiber Laser Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    E-1 1.  INTRODUCTION ...achieved with other magnetic field sensing technologies such as those based on flux gates and fiber optic magnetostrictive sensors. The deployed...ALL-OPTICAL, THREE-AXIS FIBER LASER MAGNETOMETER 1. INTRODUCTION This report describes the development of an undersea fiber optic magnetometer

  16. In situ triaxial magnetic field compensation for the spin-exchange-relaxation-free atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Qin, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) atomic magnetometer is an ultra-high sensitivity magnetometer, but it must be operated in a magnetic field with strength less than about 10 nT. Magnetic field compensation is an effective way to shield the magnetic field, and this paper demonstrates an in situ triaxial magnetic field compensation system for operating the SERF atomic magnetometer. The proposed hardware is based on optical pumping, which uses some part of the SERF atomic magnetometer itself, and the compensation method is implemented by analyzing the dynamics of the atomic spin. The experimental setup for this compensation system is described, and with this configuration, a residual magnetic field of strength less than 2 nT (±0.38 nT in the x axis, ±0.43 nT in the y axis, and ±1.62 nT in the z axis) has been achieved after compensation. The SERF atomic magnetometer was then used to verify that the residual triaxial magnetic fields were coincident with what were achieved by the compensation system.

  17. Light intensity stabilization based on the second harmonic of the photoelastic modulator detection in the atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lihong; Fang, Jiancheng; Li, Rujie; Jiang, Liwei; Ding, Ming; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-14

    The fluctuations of the probe light intensity seriously affect the performance of the sensitive atomic magnetometer. Here we propose a novel method for the intensity stabilization based on the second harmonic component of the photoelastic modulator (PEM) detection in the atomic magnetometer. The method not only could be used to eliminate the intensity fluctuations of the laser source, but also remove the fluctuations from the optical components caused by the environment. A relative fluctuation of the light intensity of 0.035% was achieved and the corresponding fluctuation of the output signal of the atomic magnetometer has decreased about two orders of magnitude from 4.06% to 0.041%. As the scheme proposed here only contains optical devices and does not require additional feedback controlled equipments, it is especially suitable for the integration of the atomic magnetometer.

  18. Vectorized magnetometer for space applications using electrical readout of atomic scale defects in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Corey J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Anders, Mark A.; Lenahan, Patrick M.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetometers are essential for scientific investigation of planetary bodies and are therefore ubiquitous on missions in space. Fluxgate and optically pumped atomic gas based magnetometers are typically flown because of their proven performance, reliability, and ability to adhere to the strict requirements associated with space missions. However, their complexity, size, and cost prevent their applicability in smaller missions involving cubesats. Conventional solid-state based magnetometers pose a viable solution, though many are prone to radiation damage and plagued with temperature instabilities. In this work, we report on the development of a new self-calibrating, solid-state based magnetometer which measures magnetic field induced changes in current within a SiC pn junction caused by the interaction of external magnetic fields with the atomic scale defects intrinsic to the semiconductor. Unlike heritage designs, the magnetometer does not require inductive sensing elements, high frequency radio, and/or optical circuitry and can be made significantly more compact and lightweight, thus enabling missions leveraging swarms of cubesats capable of science returns not possible with a single large-scale satellite. Additionally, the robustness of the SiC semiconductor allows for operation in extreme conditions such as the hot Venusian surface and the high radiation environment of the Jovian system.

  19. Vectorized magnetometer for space applications using electrical readout of atomic scale defects in silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Corey J; Blacksberg, Jordana; Anders, Mark A; Lenahan, Patrick M

    2016-11-28

    Magnetometers are essential for scientific investigation of planetary bodies and are therefore ubiquitous on missions in space. Fluxgate and optically pumped atomic gas based magnetometers are typically flown because of their proven performance, reliability, and ability to adhere to the strict requirements associated with space missions. However, their complexity, size, and cost prevent their applicability in smaller missions involving cubesats. Conventional solid-state based magnetometers pose a viable solution, though many are prone to radiation damage and plagued with temperature instabilities. In this work, we report on the development of a new self-calibrating, solid-state based magnetometer which measures magnetic field induced changes in current within a SiC pn junction caused by the interaction of external magnetic fields with the atomic scale defects intrinsic to the semiconductor. Unlike heritage designs, the magnetometer does not require inductive sensing elements, high frequency radio, and/or optical circuitry and can be made significantly more compact and lightweight, thus enabling missions leveraging swarms of cubesats capable of science returns not possible with a single large-scale satellite. Additionally, the robustness of the SiC semiconductor allows for operation in extreme conditions such as the hot Venusian surface and the high radiation environment of the Jovian system.

  20. Advances in the research of atomic magnetometer%原子磁力仪研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋芳; 杨宇山; 郑振宇; 鲁永康; 张昌达

    2011-01-01

    原子磁力仪是利用量子理论并结合光学方法技术的一种磁力仪.由于它具备高灵敏度,无需低温条件,可小型化等诸多优点,成为人们高度关注的新型磁力仪.本文从主要量子磁力仪的概况出发,列表介绍了包括原子磁力仪在内的磁力仪名称,工作原理及灵敏度,进而对原子磁力仪的原理,国内外研究现状进行了综述,最后简要描述了原子磁力仪的应用前景,着重指出我国应不失时机的开展原子磁力仪的研究.%Atomic magnetometer which use of quantum theory and combine with optical methods and techniques is a magnetometer. Because it has high sensitivity without the need for low-temperature conditions, can be miniaturized, and has many other advantages, atomic magnetometer become a new magnetometer with high degree of concern. In this paper, from an overview of the main quantum magnetometer, the list presented the name, working principle and sensitivity of main quantum magnetometer, including atomic magnetometer. This article also describes the basic principles of atomic magnetometer, and an overview of research at home and abroad for the magnetometer progress and development prospects. In the end it stressed that China should lose no time in carrying out the study of atomic magnetometer.

  1. Polarization enhanced Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance with an atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Michael W.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Espy, Michelle A.; Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) has been demonstrated for the detection of 14-N in explosive compounds. Application of a material specific radio-frequency (RF) pulse excites a response typically detected with a wire- wound antenna. NQR is non-contact and material specific, however fields produced by NQR are typically very weak, making demonstration of practical utility challenging. For certain materials, the NQR signal can be increased by transferring polarization from hydrogen nuclei to nitrogen nuclei using external magnetic fields. This polarization enhancement (PE) can enhance the NQR signal by an order of magnitude or more. Atomic magnetometers (AM) have been shown to improve detection sensitivity beyond a conventional antenna by a similar amount. AM sensors are immune to piezo-electric effects that hamper conventional NQR, and can be combined to form a gradiometer for effective RF noise cancellation. In principle, combining polarization enhancement with atomic magnetometer detection should yield improvement in signal-to-noise ratio that is the product of the two methods, 100-fold or more over conventional NQR. However both methods are even more exotic than traditional NQR, and have never been combined due to challenges in operating a large magnetic field and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensor in proximity. Here we present NQR with and without PE with an atomic magnetometer, demonstrating signal enhancement greater than 20-fold for ammonium nitrate. We also demonstrate PE for PETN using a traditional coil for detection with an enhancement factor of 10. Experimental methods and future applications are discussed.

  2. Optically-Modulated Miniature Magnetometer (OMMM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design, fabricate, and calibrate a compact helium magnetometer for high-accuracy measurements of Earth’s magnetic field Provide vector and scalar measurements...

  3. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda

    2016-09-01

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  4. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Swarupananda

    2016-01-01

    The three axis magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only reflected signal from the polarimeter, thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors or / and high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  5. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  6. A full optically operated magnetometer array: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselsteijn, R; Kielpinski, M; Woetzel, S; Scholtes, T; Kessler, E; Stolz, R; Schultze, V; Meyer, H-G

    2012-11-01

    We show the operation of an optically pumped magnetometer array in a 50 μT magnetic field. The various components for a fully optical and non-magnetic detector unit were constructed and evaluated, from which a prototype unit was assembled with fiber coupled electronics. In this unit the magnetometers were operated using the intensity modulated method and heated with an off-resonant laser. Calculations on the temperature distribution were used to design the magnetometer array. Different magnetometers in such a detector unit were characterized and showed identical performance. Without applying noise reduction schemes, the obtained magnetic field resolution is a factor 2.5 above the shot noise level down to frequencies of about 7 Hz.

  7. Optofluidic magnetometer developed in a microstructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiani, A; Konstantaki, M; Margulis, W; Pissadakis, S

    2012-11-01

    A directional, in-fiber optofluidic magnetometer based on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) Bragg-grating infiltrated with a ferrofluidic defect is presented. Upon application of a magnetic field, the ferrofluidic defect moves along the length of the MOF Bragg grating, modifying its reflection spectrum. The magnetometer is capable of measuring magnetic fields from 317 to 2500 G. The operational principle of such in-fiber magnetic field probe allows the elaboration of directional measurements of the magnetic field flux.

  8. Optimizations of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer based on potassium and rubidium hybrid optical pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Yang; Zou, Sheng

    2014-12-01

    The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with two alkali species were solved, whose steady-state solution is used to optimize the parameters. The demand of the power of the pump beam is large for hybrid optical pumping. Moreover, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer increases with the increase of the power density of the pump beam. The density ratio between the two alkali species is especially important for hybrid optical pumping magnetometer. A simple expression for optimizing the density ratio is proposed in this paper, which can help to determine the mole faction of the alkali atoms in fabricating the hybrid cell before the cell is sealed. The spin-exchange rate between the two alkali species is proportional to the saturated density of the alkali vapor, which is highly dependent on the temperature of the cell. Consequently, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer is dependent on the temperature of the cell. We proposed the thermal optimization of the hybrid cell for a hybrid optical pumping magnetometer, which can improve the sensitivity especially when the power of the pump beam is low. With these optimizations, a sensitivity of approximately 5 fT/Hz(1/2) is achieved with gradiometer arrangement.

  9. Stray magnetic field compensation with a scalar atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, J.; Bevilacqua, G.; Biancalana, V.; Cecchi, R.; Dancheva, Y.; Moi, L.

    2010-06-01

    We describe a system for the compensation of time-dependent stray magnetic fields using a dual channel scalar magnetometer based on nonlinear Faraday rotation in synchronously optically pumped Cs vapor. We detail the active control strategy, with an emphasis on the electronic circuitry, based on a simple phase-locked-loop integrated circuit. The performance and limits of the system developed are tested and discussed. The system was applied to significantly improve the detection of free induction decay signals from protons of remotely magnetized water precessing in an ultralow magnetic field.

  10. Stray Magnetic Field Compensation with a Scalar Atomic Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Belfi, Jacopo; Biancalana, Valerio; Cecchi, Roberto; Dancheva, Yordanka; Moi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a system for the compensation of time-dependent stray magnetic fields using a dual channel scalar magnetometer based on non-linear Faraday rotation in synchronously optically pumped Cs vapour. We detail the active control strategy, with an emphasis on the electronic circuitry, based on a simple phase-locked-loop integrated circuit. The performance and limits of the system developed are tested and discussed. The system was applied to significantly improve the detection of free induction decay signals from protons of remotely magnetized water precessing in an ultra-low magnetic field.

  11. Multi-flux-transformer MRI detection with an atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, Igor; Karaulanov, Todor

    2014-12-01

    Recently, anatomical ultra-low field (ULF) MRI has been demonstrated with an atomic magnetometer (AM). A flux-transformer (FT) has been used for decoupling MRI fields and gradients to avoid their negative effects on AM performance. The field of view (FOV) was limited because of the need to compromise between the size of the FT input coil and MRI sensitivity per voxel. Multi-channel acquisition is a well-known solution to increase FOV without significantly reducing sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate twofold FOV increase with the use of three FT input coils. We also show that it is possible to use a single atomic magnetometer and single acquisition channel to acquire three independent MRI signals by applying a frequency-encoding gradient along the direction of the detection array span. The approach can be generalized to more channels and can be critical for imaging applications of non-cryogenic ULF MRI where FOV needs to be large, including head, hand, spine, and whole-body imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radio-frequency tunable atomic magnetometer for detection of solid-state NQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-K.; Sauer, K. L.; Seltzer, S. J.; Alem, O.; Romalis, M. V.

    2007-06-01

    We constructed a potassium atomic magnetometer which resonantly detects rf magnetic fields with subfemtotesla sensitivity. The resonance frequency is set by the Zeeman resonance of the potassium atoms in a static magnetic field applied to the magnetometer cell. Strong optical pumping of the potassium atoms into a stretched state reduces spin-exchange broadening of the Zeeman resonance, resulting in relatively small linewidth of about 200 Hz (half-width at half-maximum). The magnetometer was used to detect ^14N NQR signal from powdered ammonium nitrate at 423 kHz, with sensitivity an order of magnitude higher than with a conventional room temperature pickup coil with comparable geometry. The demonstrated sensitivity of 0.24 fT/Hz^1/2 can be improved by several means, including use of higher power lasers for pumping and probing. Our technique can potentially be used to develop a mobile, open-access NQR spectrometer for detection of nitrogen-containing solids of interest in security applications.

  13. Progress on the Global Network of Optical Magnetometers to search for Exotic physics (GNOME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Dmitri; Gnome Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We discuss progress on the construction, implementation, and coordination of a network of geographically separated, time-synchronized ultrasensitive atomic magnetometers and comagnetometers to search for correlated transient signals heralding new physics. The Global Network of Optical Magnetometers to search for Exotic physics (GNOME) is sensitive to nuclear and electron spin couplings to various exotic fields generated by astrophysical sources. A specific example of new physics detectable with the GNOME, presently unconstrained by previous experiments, is a network of domain walls of light pseudoscalar (axion-like) fields. Supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation, Simons Foundation, and the National Science Foundation.

  14. Coherent population trapping magnetometer by differential detecting magneto-optic rotation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yi; Gu, Si-Hong

    2016-09-01

    A pocket coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic magnetometer scheme that uses a vertical cavity surface emitting laser as a light source is proposed and experimentally investigated. Using the differential detecting magneto-optic rotation effect, a CPT spectrum with the background canceled and a high signal-to-noise ratio is obtained. The experimental results reveal that the sensitivity of the proposed scheme can be improved by half an order, and the ability to detect weak magnetic fields is extended one-fold. Therefore, the proposed scheme is suited to realize a pocket-size CPT magnetometer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304362 and 61434005).

  15. Laser pumping Cs atom magnetometer of theory research based on gradient tensor measuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhang; Chong Kang; Wang Qingtao; Lei Cheng; Zheng Caiping, E-mail: zhangyang@hrbeu.edu.cn [College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-02-01

    At present, due to space exploration, military technology, geological exploration, magnetic navigation, medical diagnosis and biological magnetic fields study of the needs of research and development, the magnetometer is given strong driving force. In this paper, it will discuss the theoretical analysis and system design of laser pumping cesium magnetometer, cesium atomic energy level formed hyperfine structure with the I-J coupling, the hyperfine structure has been further split into Zeeman sublevels for the effects of magnetic field. To use laser pump and RF magnetic field make electrons transition in the hyperfine structure to produce the results of magneto-optical double resonance, and ultimately through the resonant frequency will be able to achieve accurate value of the external magnetic field. On this basis, we further have a discussion about magnetic gradient tensor measuring method. To a large extent, it increases the magnetic field measurement of information.

  16. Electromagnetic Imaging with Atomic Magnetometers: A Novel Approach to Security and Surveillance

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    We describe our research programme on the use of atomic magnetometers to detect conductive objects via electromagnetic induction. The extreme sensitivity of atomic magnetometers at low frequencies, up to seven orders of magnitude higher than a coil-based system, permits deep penetration through different media and barriers, and in various operative environments. This eliminates the limitations usually associated with electromagnetic detection.

  17. A self-sustaining atomic magnetometer with τ(-1) averaging property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C; Wang, S G; Feng, Y Y; Zhao, L; Wang, L J

    2016-06-30

    Quantum measurement using coherent superposition of intrinsic atomic states has the advantage of being absolute measurement and can form metrological standards. One example is the absolute measurement of magnetic field by monitoring the Larmor precession of atomic spins whilst another being the Ramsey type atomic clock. Yet, in almost all coherent quantum measurement, the precision is limited by the coherence time beyond which, the uncertainty decreases only as τ(-1/2). Here we show that by non-destructively measuring the phase of the Larmor precession and regenerating the coherence via optical pumping, the self-sustaining Larmor precession signal can persist indefinitely. Consequently, the precision of the magnetometer increases with time following a much faster τ(-1) rule. A mean sensitivity of 240  from 1 Hz to 10 Hz is realized, being close to the shot noise level. This method of coherence regeneration may also find important applications in improving the performance of atomic clocks.

  18. MAGNETOMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, M.A.

    1958-11-18

    A magnetometer ls described, partlcularly to a device which accurately indicates the polarity and intensity of a magnetlc field. The main feature of the invention is a unique probe construction in combinatlon wlth a magnetic fleld detector system. The probe comprises two coils connected in series opposition for energization with an a-c voltage. The voltage lnduced in a third coll on the probe, a pick-up coil, is distorted by the presence of an external field to produce even harmonic voltages. A controlled d-c current is passed through the energized coils to counter the dlstortlon and reduce tbe even harmonic content to a null. When the null point is reached, the d-c current is a measure of the external magnetic field strength, and the phase of the pickup coil voltage indicates tbe field polarlty.

  19. The Magsat scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Magsat scalar magnetometer is derived from optical pumping magnetometers flown on the orbiting geophysical observatories. The basic sensor, a cross-coupled arrangement of absorption cells, photodiodes, and amplifiers, oscillates at the Larmor frequency of atomic moments precessing about the ambient field direction. The Larmor frequency output is accumulated digitally and stored for transfer to the spacecraft telemetry stream. In orbit the instrument has met its principal objective of calibrating the vector magnetometer and providing scalar field data.

  20. Detection of NMR signals with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savukov, I M; Seltzer, S J

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate detection of proton NMR signals with a radio frequency atomic magnetometer tuned to the NMR frequency of 62 kHz. High-frequency operation of the atomic magnetometer makes it relatively insensitive to ambient magnetic field noise. We obtain magnetic field sensitivity of 7 fT/Hz$^{1/2}$ using only a thin aluminum shield. We also derive an expression for the fundamental sensitivity limit of a surface inductive pick-up coil as a function of frequency and find that an atomic rf magnetometer is intrinsically more sensitive than a coil of comparable size for frequencies below about 50 MHz.

  1. Noise characterization of an atomic magnetometer at sub-millihertz frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Mateos, I; Zhivun, E; Budker, D; Wurm, D; Ramos-Castro, J

    2015-01-01

    Noise measurements have been carried out in the LISA bandwidth (0.1 mHz to 100 mHz) to characterize an all-optical atomic magnetometer based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. This was done in order to assess if the technology can be used for space missions with demanding low-frequency requirements like the LISA concept. Magnetometry for low-frequency applications is usually limited by $1/f$ noise and thermal drifts, which become the dominant contributions at sub-millihertz frequencies. Magnetic field measurements with atomic magnetometers are not immune to low-frequency fluctuations and significant excess noise may arise due to external elements, such as temperature fluctuations or intrinsic noise in the electronics. In addition, low-frequency drifts in the applied magnetic field have been identified in order to distinguish their noise contribution from that of the sensor. We have found the technology suitable for LISA in terms of sensitivity, although further work must be done to characterize the low-fr...

  2. Integration of micro-fabricated atomic magnetometers on military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gregory; Mhaskar, Rahul; Prouty, Mark; Miller, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    A new generation of ultra-high sensitivity magnetic sensors based on innovative micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are being developed and incorporated into military systems. Specifically, we are currently working to fully integrate the latest generation of MicroFabricated Atomic Magnetometers (MFAMs) developed by Geometrics on defense mobility systems such as unmanned systems, military vehicles and handheld units. Recent reductions in size, weight, and power of these sensors has enabled new deployment opportunities for improved sensitivity to targets of interest, but has also introduced new challenges associated with noise mitigation, mission configuration planning, and data processing. Our work is focused on overcoming the practical aspects of integrating these sensors with various military platforms. Implications associated with utilizing these combined sensor systems in working environments are addressed in order to optimize signal-to-noise ratios, detection probabilities, and false alarm mitigation. Specifically, we present collaborative work that bridges the gap between commercial specialists and operation platform integration organizations including magnetic signature characterization and mitigation as well as the development of simulation tools that consider a wide array of sensor, environmental, platform, and mission-level parameters. We discuss unique deployment concepts for explosive hazard target geolocation, and data processing. Applications include configurations for undersea and underground threat detection - particularly those associated with stationary or mobile explosives and compact metallic targets such as munitions, subsea threats, and other hazardous objects. We show the potential of current and future features of miniaturized magnetic sensors including very high magnetic field sensitivities, bandwidth selectivity, and array processing.

  3. A highly stable atomic vector magnetometer based on free spin precession

    CERN Document Server

    Afach, S; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Grujic, Z D; Hayen, L; Helaine, V; Kasprzak, M; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H -C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemiere, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Piegsa, F M; Prashanth, P N; Quemener, G; Rawlik, M; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severjins, N; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-01-01

    We present a magnetometer based on optically pumped Cs atoms that measures the magnitude and direction of a 1 $\\mu$T magnetic field. Multiple circularly polarized laser beams were used to probe the free spin precession of the Cs atoms. The design was optimized for long-time stability and achieves a scalar resolution better than 300 fT for integration times ranging from 80 ms to 1000 s. The best scalar resolution of less than 80 fT was reached with integration times of 1.6 to 6 s. We were able to measure the magnetic field direction with a resolution better than 10 $\\mu$rad for integration times from 10 s up to 2000 s.

  4. Magnetometer suitable for Earth field measurement based on transient atomic response

    CERN Document Server

    Lenci, L; Valente, P; Failache, H; Lezama, A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of a simple atomic magnetometer using $^{87}$Rb vapor suitable for Earth magnetic field monitoring. The magnetometer is based on time-domain determination of the transient precession frequency of the atomic alignment around the measured field. A sensitivity of 1.5 nT/$\\sqrt{Hz}$ is demonstrated on the measurement of the Earth magnetic field in the laboratory. We discuss the different parameters determining the magnetometer precision and accuracy and predict a sensitivity of 30 pT/$\\sqrt{Hz}$

  5. Improving Sensitivity and Bandwidth of an Atomic Magnetometer using Quantum Non-Demolition Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishal; Vasilakis, Georgios; Romalis, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The fundamental sensitivity of an atomic magnetometer is limited by spin projection noise. In the case of uniform spin relaxation, it is well understood that it is not possible to improve the sensitivity using spin squeezing induced by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement for measurement time scales longer than spin relaxation time [1, 2]. It is however possible to increase the bandwidth of the magnetometer using QND measurement. Here we experimentally demonstrate, in excellent agreement with the theory, an improvement in the bandwidth of our scalar alkali vapor atomic magnetometer using continuous QND measurement. We also investigate the possibility of improving sensitivity of our magnetometer in the special case in which the spin relaxation is time dependent. The case of time dependent spin relaxation naturally arises in high polarization regime in an alkali-alkali spin-exchange relaxation dominated atomic sample. [1] S. F. Huelga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3865 -- 3868, 1997. [2] M. Auzinsh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173002, 2004.

  6. Loop-locked coherent population trapping magnetometer based on a fiber electro-optic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Feng, Y Y; Xu, Chi; Xue, H B; Sun, Li

    2014-04-01

    We have set up a coherent population trapping (CPT)-based magnetometer prototype with the D1 line of ⁸⁷Rb atoms. The dichromatic light field is derived from a fiber electro-optic modulator (FEOM) connected to an external cavity laser diode. A CPT resonance signal with a 516 Hz linewidth is observed. By feeding back the derivative of the resonance curve to the FEOM with a proportional integral controller, of which the voltage output is directly converted to the measured magnetic field intensity, the resonance peak is locked to the environmental magnetic field. The measurement data we have achieved are well matched with the data measured by a commercial fluxgate magnetometer within 2 nT, and the sensitivity is better than 8 pT/√Hz in a parallel B field.

  7. Magnetocardiography with a modular spin-exchange relaxation-free atomic magnetometer array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyllie, R; Kauer, M; Smetana, G S; Wakai, R T; Walker, T G

    2012-05-07

    We present a portable four-channel atomic magnetometer array operating in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime. The magnetometer array has several design features intended to maximize its suitability for biomagnetic measurement, specifically foetal magnetocardiography, such as a compact modular design and fibre-coupled lasers. The modular design allows the independent positioning and orientation of each magnetometer. Using this array in a magnetically shielded room, we acquire adult magnetocadiograms. These measurements were taken with a 6-11 fT Hz(-1/2) single-channel baseline sensitivity that is consistent with the independently measured noise level of the magnetically shielded room.

  8. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kasper; Thomas, Rodrigo A; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette; Balabas, Mikhail V; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the frst detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the tempor...

  9. A method for calibrating coil constants by using an atomic spin co-magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng; Chen, Xi-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Spin polarized noble gases can precess in an applied magnetic field by referring to Larmor precession, based on which we present a novel method to calibrate magnetic coil constants with hyperpolarized helium-3 by using an atomic spin magnetometer based on potassium. Spin polarized alkali metal atoms can hyperpolarize the helium-3 gas via spin-exchange optical pumping. After several hours of polarization, the polarization of helium-3 goes into a steady state, then optical pumping is stopped to realize a dark state. In such a dark state, the Larmor precession of hyperpolarized helium-3 in an applied magnetic field can be detected by spin-polarized alkali metal atoms, which are not influenced by the additional magnetic field induced by light shift. Through analyzing and extracting this Larmor precession frequency, the magnitude of the applied magnetic field can be obtained. Experimental results show that the residual magnetic field in the magnetic shielding is 5.50 ± 0.05 nT, and the coil constants are 163.02 ± 0.18 nT/mA, 168.22 ± 0.06 nT/mA, and 137.05 ± 0.04 nT/mA in the x, y and z directions, respectively.

  10. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kasper; Budvytyte, Rima; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette M.; Balabas, Mikhail V.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars D.; Stærkind, Hans C.; Müller, Jörg H.; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the first detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the temporal shape of the nerve impulse. This work opens new ways towards implementing optical magnetometers as practical devices for medical diagnostics.

  11. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kasper; Budvytyte, Rima; Thomas, Rodrigo A; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette M; Balabas, Mikhail V; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars D; Stærkind, Hans C; Müller, Jörg H; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S

    2016-07-15

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the first detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the temporal shape of the nerve impulse. This work opens new ways towards implementing optical magnetometers as practical devices for medical diagnostics.

  12. Flat-response spin-exchange relaxation free atomic magnetometer under negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Joon; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Moon, Han Seb; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate that the use of negative feedback extends the detection bandwidth of an atomic magnetometer in a spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime. A flat-frequency response from zero to 190 Hz was achieved, which is nearly a three-fold enhancement while maintaining sensitivity, 3 fT/Hz1/2 at 100 Hz. With the extension of the bandwidth, the linear correlation between measured signals and a magne-tocardiographic field synthesized for comparison was increased from 0.21 to 0.74. This result supports the feasibility of measuring weak biomagnetic signals containing multiple frequency components using a SERF atomic magnetometer under negative feedback.

  13. Magnetic-resonance imaging of the human brain with an atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I; Karaulanov, T

    2013-07-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is conventionally performed in very high fields, and this leads to some restrictions in applications. To remove such restrictions, the ultra-low field MRI approach has been proposed. Because of the loss of sensitivity, the detection methods based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in a shielded room were used. Atomic magnetometers have similar sensitivity as SQUIDs and can also be used for MRI, but there are some technical difficulties to overcome. We demonstrate that MRI of the human brain can be obtained with an atomic magnetometer with in-plane resolution of 3 mm in 13 min.

  14. Eddy current imaging with an atomic radio-frequency magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Wickenbrock, Arne; Blanchard, John W; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We use a radio-frequency $^{85}$Rb alkali-vapor cell magnetometer based on a paraffin-coated cell with long spin-coherence time and a small, low-inductance driving coil to create highly resolved conductivity maps of different objects. We resolve sub-mm features in conductive objects, we characterize the frequency response of our technique, and by operating at frequencies up to 250 kHz we are able to discriminate between differently conductive materials based on the induced response. The method is suited to cover a wide range of driving frequencies and can potentially be used for detecting non-metallic objects with low DC conductivity.

  15. Ultralow field NMR spectrometer with an atomic magnetometer near room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guobin; Li, Xiaofeng; Sun, Xianping; Feng, Jiwen; Ye, Chaohui; Zhou, Xin

    2013-12-01

    We present a Cs atomic magnetometer with a sensitivity of 150fT/Hz(1/2) operating near room temperature. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal of 125μL tap water was detected at an ultralow magnetic field down to 47nT, with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the NMR signal approaching 50 after eight averages. Relaxivity experiments with a Gd(DTPA) contrast agent in zero field were performed, in order to show the magnetometer's ability to measure spin-lattice relaxation time with high accuracy. This demonstrates the feasibility of an ultralow field NMR spectrometer based on a Cs atomic magnetometer, which has a low working temperature, short data acquisition time and high sensitivity. This kind of NMR spectrometer has great potential in applications such as chemical analysis and magnetic relaxometry detection in ultralow or zero fields.

  16. Eddy current imaging with an atomic radio-frequency magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickenbrock, Arne, E-mail: wickenbr@uni-mainz.de [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Leefer, Nathan; Blanchard, John W. [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Budker, Dmitry [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-02

    We use a radio-frequency {sup 85}Rb alkali-vapor cell magnetometer based on a paraffin-coated cell with long spin-coherence time and a small, low-inductance driving coil to create highly resolved conductivity maps of different objects. We resolve sub-mm features in conductive objects, we characterize the frequency response of our technique, and by operating at frequencies up to 250 kHz we are able to discriminate between differently conductive materials based on the induced response. The method is suited to cover a wide range of driving frequencies and can potentially be used for detecting non-metallic objects with low DC conductivity.

  17. Microtesla NMR J-coupling spectroscopy with an unshielded atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bevilacqua, Giuseppe; Baranga, Andrei Ben-Amar; Dancheva, Yordanka; Rossi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental data and theoretical interpretation of NMR spectra of remotely magnetized samples, detected in an unshielded environment by means of a differential atomic magnetometer. The measurements are performed in an ultra-low-field at an intermediate regime, where the J-coupling and the Zeeman energies have comparable values and produce rather complex line sets, which are satisfactorily interpreted.

  18. Microtesla NMR J-coupling spectroscopy with an unshielded atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Giuseppe; Biancalana, Valerio; Baranga, Andrei Ben-Amar; Dancheva, Yordanka; Rossi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    We present experimental data and theoretical interpretation of NMR spectra of remotely magnetized samples, detected in an unshielded environment by means of a differential atomic magnetometer. The measurements are performed in an ultra-low-field at an intermediate regime, where the J-coupling and the Zeeman energies have comparable values and produce rather complex line sets, which are satisfactorily interpreted.

  19. Magnetoencephalography with a two-color pump-probe, fiber-coupled atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cort; Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Weisend, Michael

    2010-12-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with a compact, fiber-coupled rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer. Optical pumping is performed on the D1 transition and Faraday rotation is measured on the D2 transition. The beams share an optical axis, with dichroic optics preparing beam polarizations appropriately. A sensitivity of magnetoencephalography system. The design is amenable to arraying sensors around the head, providing a framework for noncryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  20. Magnetocardiography with a modular spin-exchange relaxation free atomic magnetometer array

    CERN Document Server

    Wyllie, R; Smetana, G; Wakai, R; Walker, T

    2011-01-01

    We present a portable four-channel atomic magnetometer array operating in the spin exchange relaxation-free regime. The magnetometer array has several design features intended to maximize its suitability for biomagnetic measurement, specifically foetal magnetocardiography, such as a compact modular design, and fibre coupled lasers. The modular design allows the independent positioning and orientation of each magnetometer, in principle allowing for non-planar array geometries. Using this array in a magnetically shielded room, we acquire adult magnetocadiograms. These measurements were taken with a 6-11 fT Hz^(-1/2) single-channel baseline sensitivity that is consistent with the independently measured noise level of the magnetically shielded room.

  1. Optical atomic magnetometry for magnetic induction tomography of the heart

    CERN Document Server

    Deans, Cameron; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometers for magnetic induction tomography measurements. We demonstrate the imaging of dummy targets of varying conductivities placed in the proximity of the sensor, in an unshielded environment at room-temperature and without background subtraction. The images produced by the system accurately reproduce the characteristics of the actual objects. Furthermore, we perform finite element simulations in order to assess the potential for measuring low-conductivity biological tissues with our system. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an instrument based on optical atomic magnetometers for magnetic induction tomography imaging of biological samples, in particular for mapping anomalous conductivity in the heart.

  2. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Optically Pumped Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). In addition, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.

  3. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Optically Pumped Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-04-22

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). In addition, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.

  4. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  5. Gradient-echo 3D imaging of Rb polarization in fiber-coupled atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I

    2015-07-01

    The analogy between atomic and nuclear spins is exploited to implement 3D imaging of polarization inside the cell of an atomic magnetometer. The resolution of 0.8mm×1.2mm×1.4mm has been demonstrated with the gradient-echo imaging method. The imaging can be used in many applications. One such an application is the evaluation of active volume of an atomic magnetometer for sensitivity analysis and optimization. It has been found that imaging resolution is limited due to de-phasing from spin-exchange collisions and diffusion in the presence of gradients, and for a given magnetometer operational parameters, the imaging sequence has been optimized. Diffusion decay of the signal in the presence of gradients has been modeled numerically and analytically, and the analytical results, which agreed with numerical simulations, have been used to fit the spin-echo gradient measurements to extract the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient was found in agreement with previous measurements.

  6. Global Network of Optical Magnetometers for Exotic Physics Novel scheme for exotic physics searches

    CERN Document Server

    Pustelny, S; Pankow, C; Ledbetter, M P; Wlodarczyk, P; Wcislo, P; Pospelov, M; Smith, J; Read, J; Gawlik, W; Budker, D

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel experimental scheme enabling investigation of transient exotic spin couplings. The scheme is based on synchronous measurements of optical-magnetometer signals of several devices operating in magnetically shielded environments in distant locations ($\\gtrsim100$ km). Although signatures of such exotic couplings may be present in a signal of the single magnetometer, it would be challenging to extract them from noise. With correlation measurements of signals from the magnetometers, not only the effects can be identified but their nature may also be investigated. The ability of the network to investigate physics beyond the Standard Model is discussed by considering the spin coupling to stable topological defects (e.g. domain walls) of axion-like fields. It is shown that the network consisting of sensitive optical magnetometers is capable to probe an axion-like-field parameter space unconstrained by other experiments.

  7. Synchronous Optical Pumping of Quantum Revival Beats for Atomic Magnetometery

    CERN Document Server

    Seltzer, S J; Romalis, M V

    2006-01-01

    We observe quantum beats with periodic revivals due to non-linear spacing of Zeeman levels in the ground state of potassium atoms and demonstrate their synchronous optical pumping by double modulation of the pumping light at the Larmor frequency and the revival frequency. We show that synchronous pumping increases the degree of spin polarization by a factor of 4. As a practical example, we explore the application of this double-modulation technique to atomic magnetometers operating in the geomagnetic field range and find that it can increase the sensitivity and reduce magnetic field orientation-dependent measurement errors endemic to alkali-metal magnetometers.

  8. Optical atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, N; Gill, P; Tino, G M

    2014-01-01

    In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femto-second optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today's best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in $10^{18}$. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.

  9. An atomic magnetometer with autonomous frequency stabilization and large dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Mishra, S; Behera, R; Poornima; Dasgupta, K

    2015-06-01

    The operation of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer using elliptically polarized resonant light is demonstrated. It is based on measurement of zero magnetic field resonance in degenerate two level systems using polarimetric detection. The transmitted light through the polarimeter is used for laser frequency stabilization, whereas reflected light is used for magnetic field measurement. Thus, the experimental geometry allows autonomous frequency stabilization of the laser frequency leading to compact operation of the overall device and has a preliminary sensitivity of <10 pT/Hz(1/2) @ 1 Hz. Additionally, the dynamic range of the device is improved by feedback controlling the bias magnetic field without compromising on its sensitivity.

  10. An atomic magnetometer with autonomous frequency stabilization and large dynamic range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, S., E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com; Poornima,; Dasgupta, K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 85 (India); Mishra, S.; Behera, R. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The operation of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer using elliptically polarized resonant light is demonstrated. It is based on measurement of zero magnetic field resonance in degenerate two level systems using polarimetric detection. The transmitted light through the polarimeter is used for laser frequency stabilization, whereas reflected light is used for magnetic field measurement. Thus, the experimental geometry allows autonomous frequency stabilization of the laser frequency leading to compact operation of the overall device and has a preliminary sensitivity of <10 pT/Hz{sup 1/2} @ 1 Hz. Additionally, the dynamic range of the device is improved by feedback controlling the bias magnetic field without compromising on its sensitivity.

  11. The implementation of high speed digital PSD in optically pumping magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Cheng, Defu; Zhou, Zhijian; Ma, Ming; Wang, Chao; Hu, Ruifan

    2017-01-01

    The 4He optically pumping magnetometer is a kind of high resolution instrument for measuring magnetic field intensity. Its response speed cannot meet the requirements in some experiments. By analyzing many factors, Phase Sensitive Detector (PSD) which is the key part of the lock-in amplifier processes data at a very slow speed is found. To improve its performance, this paper introduces a parallel digital phase sensitive detector based on coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm. The cost time of the parallel digital phase sensitive detector is only 5.1% of the previous one. It can greatly enhance the response speed of the 4He optically pumping magnetometer.

  12. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G.; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S. John; London, Shaughn M.; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm3 so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  13. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S John; London, Shaughn M; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm(3) so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  14. Improved Optical Magnetometer Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Ring-Cavity Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Bhaskar Roy; Kim, Moochan; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    We propose and simulate a ring-gyro optical magnetometer based on polarization rotation of an optical field in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system. By properly choosing the polarization orientations of the optical field and the transition energy levels, the transparency conditions for the polarization components are derived for the EIT system inserted into the ring-cavity setup as a cell. As the optical field passes through the cell, the fluctuations of the Rabi frequency as well as the density inside the cell, due to the fluctuations in the laser field, give rise to the dephasing of the polarization vector. We show that using the setup it is possible to achieve very sensitive measurement of the magnetic field. Besides, by making several round trips of the photons, the dephasing effects can be removed by some suitable dynamical decoupling schemes implemented with additional waveplates in the setup. This enables us to obtain long interrogation length for the EIT based optical magnetometer.

  15. Nuclear-Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Co-Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalis, Michael; Komack, Tom; Ghost, Rajat

    2008-01-01

    An experimental nuclear-spin gyroscope is based on an alkali-metal/noblegas co-magnetometer, which automatically cancels the effects of magnetic fields. Whereas the performances of prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes are limited by sensitivity to magnetic fields, this gyroscope is insensitive to magnetic fields and to other external perturbations. In addition, relative to prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes, this one exhibits greater sensitivity to rotation. There is commercial interest in development of small, highly sensitive gyroscopes. The present experimental device could be a prototype for development of nuclear spin gyroscopes suitable for navigation. In comparison with fiber-optic gyroscopes, these gyroscopes would draw less power and would be smaller, lighter, more sensitive, and less costly.

  16. A remotely interrogated all-optical Rb-87 magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patton, B.; Versolato, O. O.; Hovde, D. C.; Corsini, E.; Higbie, J. M.; Budker, D.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic magnetometry was performed at Earth's magnetic field over a free-space distance of ten meters. Two laser beams aimed at a distant alkali-vapor cell excited and detected the Rb-87 magnetic resonance, allowing the magnetic field within the cell to be interrogated remotely. Operated as a driven

  17. Detecting molecules and cells labeled with magnetic particles using an atomic magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Dindi; Ruangchaithaweesuk, Songtham; Yao Li; Xu Shoujun, E-mail: sxu7@uh.edu [University of Houston, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The detection of magnetically labeled molecules and cells involves three essential parameters: sensitivity, spatial resolution, and molecular specificity. We report on the use of atomic magnetometry and its derivative techniques to achieve high performance in terms of all these parameters. With a sensitivity of 80 fT/{radical}Hz for dc magnetic fields, we show that 7,000 streptavidin-conjugated magnetic microparticles magnetized by a permanent magnet produce a magnetic field of 650 pT; this result predicts that a single such particle can be detected during one second of signal averaging. Spatial information is obtained using a scanning magnetic imaging scheme. The spatial resolution is 20 {mu}m with a detection distance of more than 1 cm; this distance is much longer than that in previous reports. The molecular specificity is achieved using force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy, which currently uses an atomic magnetometer for detection. As an example, we perform measurement of magnetically labeled human CD4+ T cells, whose count in the blood is the diagnostic criterion for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Magnetic particles that are specifically bound to the cells are resolved from nonspecifically bound particles and quantitatively correlate with the number of cells. The magnetic particles have an overall size of 2.8 {mu}m, with a magnetic core in nanometer regime. The combination of our techniques is predicted to be useful in molecular and cellular imaging.

  18. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Nieddu, Thomas; Chormaic, Sile Nic

    2015-01-01

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed ...

  19. An Optically Pumped Magnetometer Working in the Light-Shift Dispersed Mz Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Volkmar; Schillig, Bastian; IJsselsteijn, Rob; Scholtes, Theo; Woetzel, Stefan; Stolz, Ronny

    2017-03-10

    We present an optically pumped magnetometer working in a new operational mode-the light-shift dispersed Mz (LSD-Mz) mode. It is realized combining various features; (1) high power off-resonant optical pumping; (2) Mz configuration, where pumping light and magnetic field of interest are oriented parallel to each other; (3) use of small alkali metal vapor cells of identical properties in integrated array structures, where two such cells are pumped by circularly polarized light of opposite helicity; and (4) subtraction of the Mz signals of these two cells. The LSD-Mz magnetometer's performance depends on the inherent and very complex interplay of input parameters. In order to find the configuration of optimal magnetometer resolution, a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters by means of Latin Hypercube Sampling was carried out. The resulting datasets of the multi-dimensional parameter space exploration were assessed by a subsequent physically reasonable interpretation. Finally, the best shot-noise limited magnetic field resolution was determined within that parameter space. As the result, using two 50 mm3 integrated vapor cells a magnetic field resolution below 10 fT/√Hz at Earth's magnetic field strength is possible.

  20. Ultra-sensitive broad-dynamic range optical magnetometer with instance response to magnetic field changes

    CERN Document Server

    Wlodarczyk, Przemyslaw; Zachorowski, Jerzy; Lipinski, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate one of the most sensitive devices for measuring magnetic fields, the, so-called, AMOR magnetometer. The device exploits a specific nonlinear optical phenomenon (amplitude-modulated nonlinear magneto-optical rotation) for ultra-precise magnetic field detection. It allows measuring the field with a sensitivity of 10^-14 T/Hz^-1/2 within a dynamic range of 10-4 T. Such high sensitivity and the dynamic range covering the Earth magnetic field are desired in context of many practical application of the device. By elaborating the electronic model of the magnetometer we study its different characteristics in various arrangements. It allows us to optimize the device regarding different requirements, e.g., technical simplicity, data processing, etc. It is shown that the device may be automated operating it in the self-oscillation mode. Particularly, we show that the magnetometer instantly responses to the magnetic field change. Our numerical analyses are confirmed with experimental results obtained in on...

  1. Apparatus for Measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron using a Cohabiting Atomic-Mercury Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C A; Chouder, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Harris, P G; Heckel, B R; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kilvington, I; Lamoreaux, S K; May, D J; Pendlebury, J M; Richardson, J D; Shiers, D B; Smith, K F; van der Grinten, M

    2013-01-01

    A description is presented of apparatus used to carry out an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron, at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble. The experiment incorporated a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer in order to reduce spurious signals from magnetic field fluctuations. The result has been published in an earlier letter; here, the methods and equipment used are discussed in detail.

  2. A dead-zone free ⁴He atomic magnetometer with intensity-modulated linearly polarized light and a liquid crystal polarization rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Peng, X; Lin, Z; Guo, H

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical (4)He atomic magnetometer experimental scheme based on an original Bell-Bloom configuration. A single intensity-modulated linearly polarized laser beam is used both for generating spin polarization within a single (4)He vapor and probing the spin precessing under a static magnetic field. The transmitted light signal from the vapor is then phase-sensitively detected at the modulation frequency and its harmonics, which lead to the atomic magnetic resonance signals. Based on this structure, a liquid crystal is added in our magnetometer system and constitutes a polarization rotator. By controlling the voltage applied on the liquid crystal, the light linear polarization vector can be kept perpendicular with the ambient magnetic field direction, which in turn provides the maximum resonance signal amplitude. Moreover, the system exhibits a magnetic-field noise floor of about 2pT/√Hz, which is not degraded due to the presence of the liquid crystal and varying magnetic field direction. The experiment results prove that our method can eliminate the dead-zone effect, improve the system spatial isotropy, and thus be suitable in mobile applications.

  3. Hg-201 (+) CO-Magnetometer for HG-199(+) Trapped Ion Space Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Taghavi, Shervin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Local magnetic field strength in a trapped ion atomic clock is measured in real time, with high accuracy and without degrading clock performance, and the measurement is used to compensate for ambient magnetic field perturbations. First and second isotopes of an element are co-located within the linear ion trap. The first isotope has a resonant microwave transition between two hyperfine energy states, and the second isotope has a resonant Zeeman transition. Optical sources emit ultraviolet light that optically pump both isotopes. A microwave radiation source simultaneously emits microwave fields resonant with the first isotope's clock transition and the second isotope's Zeeman transition, and an optical detector measures the fluorescence from optically pumping both isotopes. The second isotope's Zeeman transition provides the measure of magnetic field strength, and the measurement is used to compensate the first isotope's clock transition or to adjust the applied C-field to reduce the effects of ambient magnetic field perturbations.

  4. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieddu, Thomas; Gokhroo, Vandna; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2016-05-01

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed and, recently, several schemes to implement optical memories have been proposed. We also discuss some possible directions where this research field may head, in particular, in relation to the use of optical nanofibres that can support higher-order modes with an associated orbital angular momentum.

  5. Ultra-low-field NMR relaxation and diffusion measurements using an optical magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganssle, Paul J; Shin, Hyun D; Seltzer, Scott J; Bajaj, Vikram S; Ledbetter, Micah P; Budker, Dmitry; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John; Pines, Alexander

    2014-09-08

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and diffusometry are important tools for the characterization of heterogeneous materials and porous media, with applications including medical imaging, food characterization and oil-well logging. These methods can be extremely effective in applications where high-resolution NMR is either unnecessary, impractical, or both, as is the case in the emerging field of portable chemical characterization. Here, we present a proof-of-concept experiment demonstrating the use of high-sensitivity optical magnetometers as detectors for ultra-low-field NMR relaxation and diffusion measurements.

  6. Enhancement of Scattering Efficiency and Development of Optical Magnetometer Using Quantum Measurement Set Up

    CERN Document Server

    Raja, Sufi O

    2016-01-01

    Quantum measurement principle is employed to detect water quality and presence of nano-colloids. The setup uses spatially low coherent light source, for which the outcome of measurement is dependent on the presence of a reflecting surface and a linear polarizer. The introduction of a reflecting surface induces enhanced side scattering. The enhancement has specific patterns for pure water, ions and nanoparticles and can be employed to detect refractive index of liquids at high sensitivity. The differential enhancement can be used as an optical magnetometer that sensitively senses magnetic moments of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles at concentration untenable by other measurement techniques.

  7. Searches for Exotic Transient Signals with a Global Network of Optical Magnetometers for Exotic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pustelny, S

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we describe a novel scheme for searching for physics beyond the Standard Model. The idea is based on correlation of time-synchronized readouts of distant ($\\gtrsim$100~km) optical magnetometers. Such an approach limits hard-to-identify local transient noise, providing the system with unique capabilities of identification of global transient events. Careful analysis of the signal can reveal the nature of the events (e.g., its nonmagnetic origin), which opens avenues for new class of exotic-physics searches (searches for global transient exotic spin couplings) and tests of yet unverified theoretical models.

  8. Magnetoencephalography with a Cs-based high-sensitivity compact atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jingwei; Wan, Shuangai; Sun, Yifan; Dou, Rongshe; Guo, Yuhao; Wei, Kequan; He, Kaiyan; Qin, Jie; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made in developing a new generation of magnetoencephalography (MEG) with a spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF)-based atomic magnetometer (AM). An AM employs alkali atoms to detect weak magnetic fields. A compact AM array with high sensitivity is crucial to the design; however, most proposed compact AMs are potassium (K)- or rubidium (Rb)-based with single beam configurations. In the present study, a pump-probe two beam configuration with a Cesium (Cs)-based AM (Cs-AM) is introduced to detect human neuronal magnetic fields. The length of the vapor cell is 4 mm, which can fully satisfy the need of designing a compact sensor array. Compared with state-of-the-art compact AMs, our new Cs-AM has two advantages. First, it can be operated in a SERF regime, requiring much lower heating temperature, which benefits the sensor with a closer distance to scalp due to ease of thermal insulation and less electric heating noise interference. Second, the two-beam configuration in the design can achieve higher sensitivity. It is free of magnetic modulation, which is necessary in one-beam AMs; however, such modulation may cause other interference in multi-channel circumstances. In the frequency band between 10 Hz and 30 Hz, the noise level of the proposed Cs-AM is approximately 10 f T/Hz1/2, which is comparable with state-of-the-art K- or Rb-based compact AMs. The performance of the Cs-AM was verified by measuring human auditory evoked fields (AEFs) in reference to commercial superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) channels. By using a Cs-AM, we observed a clear peak in AEFs around 100 ms (M100) with a much larger amplitude compared with that of a SQUID, and the temporal profiles of the two devices were in good agreement. The results indicate the possibility of using the compact Cs-AM for MEG recordings, and the current Cs-AM has the potential to be designed for multi-sensor arrays and gradiometers for future neuroscience

  9. Optical angular momentum and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2017-02-28

    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Spectrally selective optical pumping in Doppler-broadened cesium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Hai; Zeng, Xian-Jin; Li, Qing-Meng; Huang, Qiang; Sun, Wei-Min

    2013-05-01

    The D1 line spectrally selective pumping process in Doppler-broadened cesium is analyzed by solving the optical Bloch equations. The process, described by a three-level model with the Λ scheme, shows that the saturation intensity of broadened atoms is three orders of magnitude larger than that of resting atoms. The |Fg = 3> → |Fe = 4> resonance pumping can result in the ground state |Fg = 4, mF = 4> sublevel having a maximum population of 0.157 and the population difference would be about 0.01 in two adjacent magnetic sublevels of the hyperfine (HF) state Fg = 4. To enhance the anisotropy in the ground state, we suggest employing dichromatic optical HF pumping by adding a laser to excite D1 line |Fg = 4> → |Fe = 3> transition, in which the cesium magnetometer sensitivity increases by half a magnitude and is unaffected by the nonlinear Zeeman effect even in Earth's average magnetic field.

  11. Deep cooling of optically trapped atoms implemented by magnetic levitation without transverse confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zhou, Tianwei; Zhai, Yueyang; Xiang, Jinggang; Luan, Tian; Huang, Qi; Yang, Shifeng; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Xuzong

    2017-05-01

    We report a setup for the deep cooling of atoms in an optical trap. The deep cooling is implemented by eliminating the influence of gravity using specially constructed magnetic coils. Compared to the conventional method of generating a magnetic levitating force, the lower trap frequency achieved in our setup provides a lower limit of temperature and more freedoms to Bose gases with a simpler solution. A final temperature as low as ˜ 6 nK is achieved in the optical trap, and the atomic density is decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude during the second stage of evaporative cooling. This deep cooling of optically trapped atoms holds promise for many applications, such as atomic interferometers, atomic gyroscopes, and magnetometers, as well as many basic scientific research directions, such as quantum simulations and atom optics.

  12. The mesospheric sodium layer as a remotely, optically pumped magnetometer for investigation of Birkeland currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Magnar G.; Matzka, Jürgen; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter

    2016-04-01

    By means of optical pumping, it is possible to use the naturally occurring sodium layer in the mesosphere to measure Earth's scalar magnetic field at ~90 km above ground. This is an altitude not accessible by other means than rockets, which only will provide point measurements of very short time scales. We are planning to modify the sodium lidar at ALOMAR in Northern Norway to be able, for the first time, to measure and monitor the magnetic field in situ in the high latitude mesosphere over longer time scales. The planned modifications to the lidar instrument will allow alternating between the new magnetometer mode and its present mode for atmospheric temperatures and winds. The technique, which has been proposed earlier for measurements at low or mid-latitudes for studies of Earth's internal magnetic field, will in our project be applied to high latitudes in the auroral zone. This opens for a completely new domain of measurements of externally generated geomagnetic variations related to currents in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. In particular, we aim to measure the magnetic field variations in close vicinity to Birkeland currents associated with particle precipitation events penetrating to altitudes below 90 km and small-scale, discrete auroral arcs. It is, furthermore, anticipated that it will be possible to detect horizontal current structures in the E-layer on much smaller length scales than it is presently possible from ground observations alone. During the project we plan take advantage of the rich space science infrastructure located in northern Norway, including ALOMAR, EISCAT and the Tromsø Geophysical Observatory magnetometer network. If possible, we also aim to make measurements in conjunction with overpasses of the SWARM satellites.

  13. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (magnetometer that utilizes a novel optical (interferometric) detection technique. Further miniaturization and low-power operation are key advantages of this magnetometer, when compared to systems using SQUIDs which require liquid Helium temperatures and associated overhead to achieve similar sensitivity levels.

  14. Detection of Target ssDNA Using a Microfabricated Hall Magnetometer with Correlated Optical Readout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Hira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensing biological agents at the genomic level, while enhancing the response time for biodetection over commonly used, optics-based techniques such as nucleic acid microarrays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, is an important criterion for new biosensors. Here, we describe the successful detection of a 35-base, single-strand nucleic acid target by Hall-based magnetic transduction as a mimic for pathogenic DNA target detection. The detection platform has low background, large signal amplification following target binding and can discriminate a single, 350 nm superparamagnetic bead labeled with DNA. Detection of the target sequence was demonstrated at 364 pM (<2 target DNA strands per bead target DNA in the presence of 36 μM nontarget (noncomplementary DNA (<10 ppm target DNA using optical microscopy detection on a GaAs Hall mimic. The use of Hall magnetometers as magnetic transduction biosensors holds promise for multiplexing applications that can greatly improve point-of-care (POC diagnostics and subsequent medical care.

  15. Optical lattice on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, D.; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    Optical dipole traps and atom chips are two very powerful tools for the quantum manipulation of neutral atoms. We demonstrate that both methods can be combined by creating an optical lattice potential on an atom chip. A red-detuned laser beam is retroreflected using the atom chip surface as a high......-quality mirror, generating a vertical array of purely optical oblate traps. We transfer thermal atoms from the chip into the lattice and observe cooling into the two-dimensional regime. Using a chip-generated Bose-Einstein condensate, we demonstrate coherent Bloch oscillations in the lattice....

  16. Atoms, molecules and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Ingolf V

    2015-01-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginner...

  17. Optimized Condition for Buffer Gas in Cesium Atomic Magnetometer%铯原子磁力仪中缓冲气体的最佳条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆萌; 张军海; 曾宪金; 黄强; 孙伟民

    2013-01-01

    介绍了基于共振吸收法检测椭圆率变化的全光铯原子磁力仪的基本原理.为了降低工作介质碱金属铯原子的横向弛豫速率,延长自旋极化时间,使磁力仪达到较高的磁测灵敏度,通常将最外层电子排列稳定的惰性气体He和双原子分子N2作为缓冲气体充入铯原子气室中,这样既能有效地减少极化原子与气室壁碰撞的几率,又可以很好地避免辐射陷阱现象.分析了He和N2的压强对Cs原子极化程度及磁力仪输出信号的影响,给出了100℃时实现无自旋交换弛豫铯原子磁力仪的最佳压强:He约为3.9×104 Pa,N2约为3.6×103 Pa.%This paper described the principle of an all-optical cesium magnetometer based on absorptive detection.In order to reduce transverse relaxation rate and to maximize spin polarization time of the alkali-metal atoms,it is usually to fill the inert gas He and the diatomic molecule N2 which are used as buffer gases into the cell to achieve high measuring sensitivity.Not only the collision probability of polarized atoms with the cell wall but also the radiation trapping can be reduced or avoid by this approach.The relationships between the output signals of this magnetometer with buffer gas pressures were expressed here.After a detail theoretical analysis,it was found that the optimal gas pressure of the buffer gas was about 3.9 × 104 Pa for helium (He) and 3.6 × 103 Pa for nitrogen (N2).

  18. High-sensitivity operation of single-beam optically pumped magnetometer in a kHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I.; Kim, Y. J.; Shah, V.; Boshier, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPM) can be used in various applications, from magnetoencephalography to magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). OPMs provide high sensitivity and have the significant advantage of non-cryogenic operation. To date, many magnetometers have been demonstrated with sensitivity close to 1 fT, but most devices are not commercialized. Most recently, QuSpin developed a model of OPM that is low cost, high sensitivity, and convenient for users, which operates in a single-beam configuration. Here we developed a theory of single-beam (or parallel two-beam) magnetometers and showed that it is possible to achieve good sensitivity beyond their usual frequency range by tuning the magnetic field. Experimentally we have tested and optimized a QuSpin OPM for operation in the frequency range from DC to 1.7 kHz, and found that the performance was only slightly inferior despite the expected decrease due to deviation from the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime.

  19. Steerable optical tweezers for ultracold atom studies

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Kris O.; McKellar, Thomas; Fekete, Julia; Rakonjac, Ana; Deb, Amita B.; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We report on the implementation of an optical tweezer system for controlled transport of ultracold atoms along a narrow, static confinement channel. The tweezer system is based on high-efficiency acousto-optical deflectors and offers two-dimensional control over beam position. This opens up the possibility for tracking the transport channel when shuttling atomic clouds along the guide, forestalling atom spilling. Multiple clouds can be tracked independently by time-shared tweezer beams addres...

  20. Optical tweezer manipulation for atom tetris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosub; Lee, Woojun; Ahn, Jaewook

    2017-04-01

    Atoms can be individually captured and guided by light through optical dipole-trapping. However, applying this to many atoms simultaneously has been difficult due to the low inertia of atoms. Recently dynamically-controlled laser beams achieved such demonstrations, enabling a bottom-up approach to form arbitrary atom lattices, deterministic atom loading, atom-sorting, and even single-atom-level machinery. Here we report the latest improvements of the single-atom-level dynamic holographic optical tweezers. With the hardware and software upgrades to be explained in the text, the overall performance has improved to form arbitrary 2D lattices of a size about N=20, with success probability exceeding 50%.

  1. Integrated microchip incorporating atomic magnetometer and microfluidic channel for NMR and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Micah P.; Savukov, Igor M.; Budker, Dmitry; Shah, Vishal K.; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John; Michalak, David J.; Xu, Shoujun; Pines, Alexander

    2011-08-09

    An integral microfluidic device includes an alkali vapor cell and microfluidic channel, which can be used to detect magnetism for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Small magnetic fields in the vicinity of the vapor cell can be measured by optically polarizing and probing the spin precession in the small magnetic field. This can then be used to detect the magnetic field of in encoded analyte in the adjacent microfluidic channel. The magnetism in the microfluidic channel can be modulated by applying an appropriate series of radio or audio frequency pulses upstream from the microfluidic chip (the remote detection modality) to yield a sensitive means of detecting NMR and MRI.

  2. Nanostructured optical nanofibres for atom trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Mark; Phelan, Ciarán; Deasy, Kieran; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    We propose an optical dipole trap for cold neutral atoms based on the electric field produced from the evanescent fields in a hollow rectangular slot cut through an optical nanofibre. In particular, we discuss the trap performance in relation to laser-cooled rubidium atoms and show that a far off-resonance, blue-detuned field combined with the attractive surface-atom interaction potential from the dielectric material forms a stable trapping configuration. With the addition of a red-detuned field, we demonstrate how three dimensional confinement of the atoms at a distance of 140 - 200 nm from the fibre surface within the slot can be accomplished. This scheme facilitates optical coupling between the atoms and the nanofibre that could be exploited for quantum communication schemes using ensembles of laser-cooled atoms.

  3. Nanostructured optical nanofibres for atom trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, M.; Truong, V. G.; Phelan, C. F.; Deasy, K.; Chormaic, S. Nic

    2014-05-01

    We propose an optical dipole trap for cold, neutral atoms based on the electric field produced from the evanescent fields in a hollow, rectangular slot cut through an optical nanofibre. In particular, we discuss the trap performance in relation to laser-cooled rubidium atoms and show that a far off-resonance, blue-detuned field combined with the attractive surface-atom interaction potential from the dielectric material forms a stable trapping configuration. With the addition of a red-detuned field, we demonstrate how three dimensional confinement of the atoms at a distance of 140-200 nm from the fibre surface within the slot can be accomplished. This scheme facilitates optical coupling between the atoms and the nanofibre that could be exploited for quantum communication schemes using ensembles of laser-cooled atoms.

  4. Diffraction limited optics for single atom manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sortais, Y R P; Browaeys, A; Fournet, P; Grangier, P; Lamare, M; Lance, A M; Marion, H; Mercier, R; Messin, G; Tuchendler, C

    2006-01-01

    We present an optical system designed to capture and observe a single neutral atom in an optical dipole trap, created by focussing a laser beam using a large numerical aperture N.A.=0.5 aspheric lens. We experimentally evaluate the performance of the optical system and show that it is diffraction limited over a broad spectral range (~ 200 nm) with a large transverse field (+/- 25 microns). The optical tweezer created at the focal point of the lens is able to trap single atoms of 87Rb and to detect them individually with a large collection efficiency. We measure the oscillation frequency of the atom in the dipole trap, and use this value as an independent determination of the waist of the optical tweezer. Finally, we produce with the same lens two dipole traps separated by 2.2 microns and show that the imaging system can resolve the two atoms.

  5. Spectrally selective optical pumping in Doppler-broadened cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun-Hai; Zeng Xian-Jin; Li Qing-Meng; Huang Qiang; Sun Wei-Min

    2013-01-01

    The D1 line spectrally selective pumping process in Doppler-broadened cesium is analyzed by solving the optical Bloch equations.The process,described by a three-level model with the A scheme,shows that the saturation intensity of broadened atoms is three orders of magnitude larger than that of resting atoms.The |Fg =3> → |Fe-4> resonance pumping can result in the ground state |Fg =4,mF =4> sublevel having a maximum population of 0.157 and the population difference would be about 0.01 in two adjacent magnetic sublevels of the hyperfine (HF) state Fg =4.To enhance the anisotropy in the ground state,we suggest employing dichromatic optical HF pumping by adding a laser to excite D1 line |Fg =4> → |Fe =3>transition,in which the cesium magnetometer sensitivity increases by half a magnitude and is unaffected by the nonlinear Zeeman effect even in Earth's average magnetic field.

  6. Magnetometer Based on the Opto-Electronic Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsko, Andrey B.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically propose and discuss properties of two schemes of an all-optical self-oscillating magnetometer based on an opto-electronic oscillator stabilized with an atomic vapor cell. Proof of the principle DC magnetic field measurements characterized with 2 x 10(exp -7) G sensitivity and 1 - 1000 mG dynamic range in one of the schemes are demonstrated.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics in atom optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wenyu; Dyrting, S.; Milburn, G.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    In this paper theoretical work on classical and quantum nonlinear dynamics of cold atoms is reported. The basic concepts in nonlinear dynamics are reviewed and then applied to the motion of atoms in time-dependent standing waves and to the atomic bouncer. The quantum dynamics for the cases of regular and chaotic classical dynamics is described. The effect of spontaneous emission and external noise is also discussed. 104 refs., 1 tab., 21 figs.

  8. Laser controlled atom source for optical clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Ole; He, Wei; Świerad, Dariusz; Smith, Lyndsie; Hughes, Joshua; Bongs, Kai; Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-11-01

    Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations. We demonstrate fast (sub 100 ms), cold and controlled emission of strontium atomic vapours from bulk strontium oxide irradiated by a simple low power diode laser. Our results demonstrate that millions of strontium atoms from the vapour can be captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Our method enables over an order of magnitude reduction in scale of the apparatus. Future applications range from satellite clocks testing general relativity to portable clocks for inertial navigation systems and relativistic geodesy.

  9. Miniaturized optical system for atomic fountain clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü De-Sheng; Qu Qiu-Zhi; Wang Bin; Zhao Jian-Bo; Li Tang; Liu Liang; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Using modularized components, we have built a miniaturized optical system for 87Rb atomic fountain clock that is fitted on an 80 cm × 60 cm optical breadboard. Compared with the conventional optical setup on the table, our system is more compact, more robust and miniaturized. Taking advantage of this system, laser beams are transmitted through eight optical fibre patch cords from the optical breadboard to an ultra high vacuum system. This optical setup has operated for five months in our fountain system and required no alignment.

  10. Cavity Optomechanical Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Forstner, S; Knittel, J; van Ooijen, E D; Swaim, J D; Harris, G I; Szorkovszky, A; Bowen, W P; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H

    2011-01-01

    A cavity optomechanical magnetometer is demonstrated where the magnetic field induced expansion of a magnetostrictive material is transduced onto the physical structure of a highly compliant optical microresonator. The resulting motion is read out optically with ultra-high sensitivity. Detecting the magnetostrictive deformation of Terfenol-D with a toroidal whispering gallery mode (TWGM) resonator a peak sensitivity of 400 nT/Hz^.5 was achieved with theoretical modelling predicting that sensitivities of up to 500 fT/Hz^.5 may be possible. This chip-based magnetometer combines high-sensitivity and large dynamic range with small size and room temperature operation.

  11. Cavity optomechanical magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, S; Prams, S; Knittel, J; van Ooijen, E D; Swaim, J D; Harris, G I; Szorkovszky, A; Bowen, W P; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H

    2012-03-23

    A cavity optomechanical magnetometer is demonstrated. The magnetic-field-induced expansion of a magnetostrictive material is resonantly transduced onto the physical structure of a highly compliant optical microresonator and read out optically with ultrahigh sensitivity. A peak magnetic field sensitivity of 400  nT  Hz(-1/2) is achieved, with theoretical modeling predicting the possibility of sensitivities below 1  pT  Hz(-1/2). This chip-based magnetometer combines high sensitivity and large dynamic range with small size and room temperature operation.

  12. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, established in 1965, continues its tradition of excellence with Volume 32, published in honor of Founding Editor Sir David Bates upon his retirement as editorof the series. This volume presents reviews of topics related to the applications of atomic and molecular physics to atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

  13. Delocalized Entanglement of Atoms in optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Vollbrecht, K. G. H.; Cirac, J. I.

    2006-01-01

    We show how to detect and quantify entanglement of atoms in optical lattices in terms of correlations functions of the momentum distribution. These distributions can be measured directly in the experiments. We introduce two kinds of entanglement measures related to the position and the spin of the atoms.

  14. Designing Zeeman slower for strontium atoms - towards optical atomic clock

    CERN Document Server

    Bober, Marcin; Gawlik, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    We report on design and construction of a Zeeman slower for strontium atoms which will be used in an optical atomic clock experiment. The paper describes briefly required specifications of the device, possible solutions, and concentrates on the chosen design. The magnetic field produced by the built Zeeman slower has been measured and compared with the simulations. The system consisting of an oven and Zeeman slower are designed to produce an atomic beam of 10-12 s-1 flux and final velocity of ~30 m/s.

  15. Designing Zeeman slower for strontium atoms - towards optical atomic clock

    OpenAIRE

    Bober, Marcin; Zachorowski, Jerzy; Gawlik, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    We report on design and construction of a Zeeman slower for strontium atoms which will be used in an optical atomic clock experiment. The paper describes briefly required specifications of the device, possible solutions, and concentrates on the chosen design. The magnetic field produced by the built Zeeman slower has been measured and compared with the simulations. The system consisting of an oven and Zeeman slower are designed to produce an atomic beam of 10-12 s-1 flux and final velocity of...

  16. Development of an in situ magnetoelastic magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, I. G.; Ding, A.; Xu, Y. B. [Electronics Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Reported here is the development and implementation of an integrated in situ magnetoelastic measurement setup with a MOKE magnetometer, repositionable electromagnet, and sample transfer/straining device. The former were used within a molecular beam epitaxial vacuum growth chamber. Consequently the magnetostriction constants for both Cr capped and uncapped Fe/GaAs(100) films were acquired without film oxidization occurring. Samples were bent in a four point bending geometry to produce a quantifiable tensile mechanical strain on the films during magnetoelastic measurements. In addition, a laser measurement system was developed to confirm the induced strain in the samples.

  17. Transverse optical and atomic pattern formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L

    2016-01-01

    The study of transverse optical pattern formation has been studied extensively in nonlinear optics, with a recent experimental interest in studying the phenomenon using cold atoms, which can undergo real-space self-organization. Here, we describe our experimental observation of pattern formation in cold atoms, which occurs using less than 1 microWatt of applied power. We show that the optical patterns and the self-organized atomic structures undergo continuous symmetry-breaking, which is characteristic of non-equilibrium phenomena in a multimode system. To theoretically describe pattern formation in cold atoms, we present a self-consistent model that allows for tight atomic bunching in the applied optical lattice. We derive the nonlinear refractive index of a gas of multi-level atoms in an optical lattice, and we derive the threshold conditions under which pattern formation occurs. We show that, by using small detunings and sub-Doppler temperatures, one achieves two orders of magnitude reduced intensity thres...

  18. Magneto-Optical Trap for Thulium Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Sukachev, D; Chebakov, K; Akimov, A; Kanorsky, S; Kolachevsky, N; Sorokin, V

    2010-01-01

    Thulium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap using a strong transition at 410 nm with a small branching ratio. We trap up to $7\\times10^{4}$ atoms at a temperature of 0.8(2) mK after deceleration in a 40 cm long Zeeman slower. Optical leaks from the cooling cycle influence the lifetime of atoms in the MOT which varies between 0.3 -1.5 s in our experiments. The lower limit for the leaking rate from the upper cooling level is measured to be 22(6) s$^{-1}$. The repumping laser transferring the atomic population out of the F=3 hyperfine ground-state sublevel gives a 30% increase for the lifetime and the number of atoms in the trap.

  19. Laser pumped (4)He magnetometer with light shift suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zaisheng; Wang, He; Peng, Xiang; Wu, Teng; Guo, Hong

    2016-11-01

    We report a laser-pumped (4)He atomic magnetometer with light shift suppression through the atomic sensor itself. A linearly polarized light is used to optically align the (4)He metastable atoms and we monitor the magneto-optical double resonance (MODR) signals produced by the left- and right-circularly orthogonal components. It is shown that light shift leads to the atomic alignment to orientation conversion effect, and thus, the difference between the two MODR signals. One of these two MODR signals is locked at the Larmor frequency and is used to measure the ambient magnetic field, while the differential signal is, simultaneously, fed back to suppress the light shift. The scheme could be of the advantage to the design of compact magnetometers by reducing the systematic errors due to light shift.

  20. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R; Arimondo, Ennio

    2006-01-01

    Volume 54 of the Advances Series contains ten contributions, covering a diversity of subject areas in atomic, molecular and optical physics. The article by Regal and Jin reviews the properties of a Fermi degenerate gas of cold potassium atoms in the crossover regime between the Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules and the condensation of fermionic atom pairs. The transition between the two regions can be probed by varying an external magnetic field. Sherson, Julsgaard and Polzik explore the manner in which light and atoms can be entangled, with applications to quantum information processing

  1. Determining the direction of a geometrical/optical reference axis in the coordinate system of a triaxial magnetometer sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.

    2002-01-01

    The reference coordinate axes of a magnetic vector field sensor are related to the instrument digital output vector (U) over bar by the calibration matrix C and the offset vector (O) over bar. In addition, this reference coordinate system must be related to (at least) two externally accessible...... optical or geometrical axes in order to be able to determine the precise orientation of the magnetic coordinate axes in an external reference system. Two methods for determining a reference axis in the sensor coordinates are discussed: (1) using a triaxial coil facility to measure the sensor orientation...... for two different positions, rotated about a fixed reference axis; (2) in the Earth's field the magnetometer sensor is rotated about a fixed axis into a number of (at least three) positions....

  2. Committee on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, James [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) is a standing activity of the National Research Council (NRC) that operates under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. CAMOS is one of five standing committees of the BPA that are charged with assisting it in achieving its goals—monitoring the health of physics and astronomy, identifying important new developments at the scientific forefronts, fostering interactions with other fields, strengthening connections to technology, facilitating effective service to the nation, and enhancing education in physics. CAMOS provides these capabilities for the atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) sciences.

  3. AMR magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ripka, P; Platil, A; Doescher, M; Lenssen, K M H; Hauser, H

    2003-01-01

    Simple anisotropic magnetoresistance magnetometer with improved parameters was developed. New flipping circuits deliver optimized current pulse with 2.8 A amplitude. New type of signal processing uses switched integrator to avoid the most noisy time intervals. The achieved linearity is 0.2% in the +-200 mu T range without feedback and 0.04% using integrated feedback coil. The magnetometer noise at 1 Hz is 2 nT/Hz sup 1 sup / sup 2 , uncompensated temperature coefficient of sensitivity is -0.25%/K without the feedback and 0.01%/K with feedback. Temperature offset drift is typically 10 nT/K.

  4. An Atom Trap Relying on Optical Pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Bouyer, P; Dahan, M B; Michaud, A; Salomon, C; Dalibard, J

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated a new radiation pressure trap which relies on optical pumping and does not require any magnetic field. It employs six circularly polarized divergent beams and works on the red of a $J_{g} \\longrightarrow J_{e} = J_{g} + 1$ atomic transition with $J_{g} \\geq 1/2$. We have demonstrated this trap with cesium atoms from a vapour cell using the 852 nm $J_{g} = 4 \\longrightarrow J_{e} = 5$ resonance transition. The trap contained up to $3 \\cdot 10^{7}$ atoms in a cloud of $1/\\sqrt{e}$ radius of 330 $\\mu$m.

  5. A high-sensitivity push-pull magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breschi, E.; Grujić, Z. D.; Knowles, P.; Weis, A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe our approach to atomic magnetometry based on the push-pull optical pumping technique. Cesium vapor is pumped and probed by a resonant laser beam whose circular polarization is modulated synchronously with the spin evolution dynamics induced by a static magnetic field. The magnetometer is operated in a phase-locked loop, and it has an intrinsic sensitivity below 20fT/√Hz , using a room temperature paraffin-coated cell. We use the magnetometer to monitor magnetic field fluctuations with a sensitivity of 300fT/√Hz .

  6. A high-sensitivity push-pull magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Breschi, E; Knowles, P; Weis, A

    2013-01-01

    We describe our approach to atomic magnetometry based on the push-pull optical pumping technique. Cesium vapor is pumped and probed by a resonant laser beam whose circular polarization is modulated synchronously with the spin evolution dynamics induced by a static magnetic field. The magnetometer is operated in a phase-locked loop, and it has an intrinsic sensitivity below 20fT/\\sqrt(Hz) using a room temperature paraffin-coated cell. We use the magnetometer to monitor magnetic field fluctuations with a sensitivity of 300fT/\\sqrt(Hz).

  7. Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

  8. Magnetometer Based on Optoelectronic Microwave Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute; Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey

    2005-01-01

    proposed instrument, intended mainly for use as a magnetometer, would include an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) stabilized by an atomic cell that could play the role of a magnetically tunable microwave filter. The microwave frequency would vary with the magnetic field in the cell, thereby providing an indication of the magnetic field. The proposed magnetometer would offer a combination of high accuracy and high sensitivity, characterized by flux densities of less than a picotesla. In comparison with prior magnetometers, the proposed magnetometer could, in principle, be constructed as a compact, lightweight instrument: It could fit into a package of about 10 by 10 by 10 cm and would have a mass <0.5 kg. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, an OEO is a hybrid of photonic and electronic components that generates highly spectrally pure microwave radiation, and optical radiation modulated by the microwave radiation, through direct conversion between laser light and microwave radiation in an optoelectronic feedback loop. As used here, "atomic cell" signifies a cell containing a vapor, the constituent atoms of which can be made to undergo transitions between quantum states, denoted hyperfine levels, when excited by light in a suitable wavelength range. The laser light must be in this range. The energy difference between the hyperfine levels defines the microwave frequency. In the proposed instrument (see figure), light from a laser would be introduced into an electro-optical modulator (EOM). Amplitude-modulated light from the exit port of the EOM would pass through a fiber-optic splitter having two output branches. The light in one branch would be sent through an atomic cell to a photodiode. The light in the other branch would constitute the microwave-modulated optical output. Part of the light leaving the atomic cell could also be used to stabilize the laser at a frequency in the vicinity of the desired hyperfine or other quantum transition. The

  9. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics.

  10. Steerable optical tweezers for ultracold atom studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K O; McKellar, T; Fekete, J; Rakonjac, A; Deb, A B; Kjærgaard, N

    2014-04-01

    We report on the implementation of an optical tweezer system for controlled transport of ultracold atoms along a narrow, static confinement channel. The tweezer system is based on high-efficiency acousto-optic deflectors and offers two-dimensional control over beam position. This opens up the possibility for tracking the transport channel when shuttling atomic clouds along it, forestalling atom spilling. Multiple clouds can be tracked independently by time-shared tweezer beams addressing individual sites in the channel. The deflectors are controlled using a multichannel direct digital synthesizer, which receives instructions on a submicrosecond time scale from a field-programmable gate array. Using the tweezer system, we demonstrate sequential binary splitting of an ultracold 87Rb cloud into 2(5) clouds.

  11. Cold atoms in a rotating optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Christopher J.

    2009-05-01

    We have demonstrated a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a two-dimensional optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Our arrangement also allows the periodicity of the optical lattice to be varied dynamically, producing a 2D ``accordion lattice'' [1]. The angles of the laser beams are controlled by acousto-optic deflectors and this allows smooth changes with little heating of the trapped cold (rubidium) atoms. We have loaded a BEC into lattices with periodicities ranging from 1.8μm to 18μm, observing the collapse and revival of the diffraction orders of the condensate over a large range of lattice parameters as recently reported by a group in NIST [2]. We have also imaged atoms in situ in a 2D lattice over a range of lattice periodicities. Ultracold atoms in a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the atoms in the rotating frame resembles that of a charged particle in a strong magnetic field. In the future, we plan to use this to investigate a range of phenomena such as the analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect. [4pt] [1] R. A. Williams, J. D. Pillet, S. Al-Assam, B. Fletcher, M. Shotter, and C. J. Foot, ``Dynamic optical lattices: two-dimensional rotating and accordion lattices for ultracold atoms,'' Opt. Express 16, 16977-16983 (2008) [0pt] [2] J. H. Huckans, I. B. Spielman, B. Laburthe Tolra, W. D. Phillips, and J. V. Porto, Quantum and Classical Dynamics of a BEC in a Large-Period Optical Lattice, arXiv:0901.1386v1

  12. Deterministic Entanglement via Molecular Dissociation in Integrated Atom Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bo; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei; Schmiedmayer, J.; Recati, Alessio; Astrakharchik, Grigory E.; Calarco, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Deterministic entanglement of neutral cold atoms can be achieved by combining several already available techniques like the creation/dissociation of neutral diatomic molecules, manipulating atoms with micro fabricated structures (atom chips) and detecting single atoms with almost 100% efficiency. Manipulating this entanglement with integrated/linear atom optics will open a new perspective for quantum information processing with neutral atoms.

  13. Atoms, molecules and optical physics 1. Atoms and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Ingolf V.; Schulz, Claus-Peter

    2015-09-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginners.

  14. Optical method of atomic ordering estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prutskij, T. [Instituto de Ciencias, BUAP, Privada 17 Norte, No 3417, col. San Miguel Huyeotlipan, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Attolini, G. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A - 43010, Parma (Italy); Lantratov, V.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-04

    It is well known that within metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) grown semiconductor III-V ternary alloys atomically ordered regions are spontaneously formed during the epitaxial growth. This ordering leads to bandgap reduction and to valence bands splitting, and therefore to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission polarization. The same phenomenon occurs within quaternary semiconductor alloys. While the ordering in ternary alloys is widely studied, for quaternaries there have been only a few detailed experimental studies of it, probably because of the absence of appropriate methods of its detection. Here we propose an optical method to reveal atomic ordering within quaternary alloys by measuring the PL emission polarization.

  15. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-02-01

    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  16. A Rubidium M$_{\\mathrm{x}}$-magnetometer for Measurements on Solid State Spins

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Daniel; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based M$_{\\mathrm{x}}$-magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  17. On-chip optical detection of laser cooled atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Su, P; Tscherneck, M; Holmes, M; Bigelow, N

    2004-10-18

    We have used an optical fiber based system to implement optical detection of atoms trapped on a reflective "atom-chip". A fiber pair forms an emitter-detector setup that is bonded to the atom-chip surface to optically detect and probe laser cooled atoms trapped in a surface magneto-optical trap. We demonstrate the utility of this scheme by measuring the linewidth of the Cs D2 line at different laser intensities.

  18. Optical atomic phase reference and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, L; Cornell, E H; Abdelrahmann, A

    2017-08-06

    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10(-20) As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, ΔΦ/Φtotal ≤ 10(-20), that could make an important impact in gravity wave science.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Optical atomic phase reference and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, L.; Cornell, E. H.; Abdelrahmann, A.

    2017-06-01

    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10-20. As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, ΔΦ/Φtotal ≤ 10-20, that could make an important impact in gravity wave science. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  20. The Global Network of Optical Magnetometers for Exotic physics (GNOME): A novel scheme to search for physics beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustelny, Szymon [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson Kimball, Derek F. [Department of Physics, California State University, Hayward, CA (United States); Pankow, Chris [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology, and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Ledbetter, Micah P. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wlodarczyk, Przemyslaw [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Wcislo, Piotr [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun (Poland); Pospelov, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Smith, Joshua R.; Read, Jocelyn [Gravitational-Wave Physics and Astronomy Center, Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, CA (United States); Gawlik, Wojciech [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Budker, Dmitry [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A novel experimental scheme enabling the investigation of transient exotic spin couplings is discussed. The scheme is based on synchronous measurements of optical-magnetometer signals from several devices operating in magnetically shielded environments in distant locations (>or similar 100 km). Although signatures of such exotic couplings may be present in the signal from a single magnetometer, it would be challenging to distinguish them from noise. By analyzing the correlation between signals from multiple, geographically separated magnetometers, it is not only possible to identify the exotic transient but also to investigate its nature. The ability of the network to probe presently unconstrained physics beyond the Standard Model is examined by considering the spin coupling to stable topological defects (e.g., domain walls) of axion-like fields. In the spirit of this research, a brief ({proportional_to}2 hours) demonstration experiment involving two magnetometers located in Krakow and Berkeley ({proportional_to}9000 km separation) is presented and discussion of the data-analysis approaches that may allow identification of transient signals is provided. The prospects of the network are outlined in the last part of the paper. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. A Distributed Magnetometer Network

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, John; Freund, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Various possiblities for a distributed magnetometer network are considered. We discuss strategies such as croudsourcing smartphone magnetometer data, the use of trees as magnetometers, and performing interferometry using magnetometer arrays to synthesize the magnetometers into the world's largest telescope. Geophysical and other applications of such a network are discussed.

  2. Generating Entanglement between Atomic Spins with Low-Noise Probing of an Optical Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Kevin C; Greve, Graham P; Thompson, James K

    2015-01-01

    Atomic projection noise limits the ultimate precision of all atomic sensors, including clocks, inertial sensors, magnetometers, etc. The independent quantum collapse of $N$ atoms into a definite state (for example spin up or down) leads to an uncertainty $\\Delta \\theta_{SQL}=1/\\sqrt{N}$ in the estimate of the quantum phase accumulated during a Ramsey sequence or its many generalizations. This phase uncertainty is referred to as the standard quantum limit. Creating quantum entanglement between the $N$ atoms can allow the atoms to partially cancel each other's quantum noise, leading to reduced noise in the phase estimate below the standard quantum limit. Recent experiments have demonstrated up to $10$~dB of phase noise reduction relative to the SQL by making collective spin measurements. This is achieved by trapping laser-cooled Rb atoms in an optical cavity and precisely measuring the shift of the cavity resonance frequency by an amount that depends on the number of atoms in spin up. Detecting the probe light ...

  3. Light-shift suppression in a miniaturized Mx optically pumped Cs magnetometer array with enhanced resonance signal using off-resonant laser pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Theo; Schultze, Volkmar; IJsselsteijn, Rob; Woetzel, Stefan; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2012-12-31

    The performance of an optically pumped Mx magnetometer with miniaturized Cs cell at earth's magnetic field strength (50 μT) is investigated. Operation using detuned high intensity laser light is shown to be superior to the conventional resonant operation in terms of the projected shot-noise-limited ( 50 fT/√Hz) and the actual noise-limited sensitivity using a noise compensation method. The Zeeman light shift effect, emerging due to the off-resonant circularly polarized laser radiation and leading to a strong orientational dependence of the measurement, is suppressed by averaging two identical magnetometer configurations pumped with oppositely circularly polarized light. A residual heading error within the range of 14 nT, limited by the present experimental characterization setup, was achieved.

  4. Nonadiabatic quantum chaos in atom optics

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V

    2012-01-01

    Coherent dynamics of atomic matter waves in a standing-wave laser field is studied. In the dressed-state picture, wave packets of ballistic two-level atoms propagate simultaneously in two optical potentials. The probability to make a transition from one potential to another one is maximal when centroids of wave packets cross the field nodes and is given by a simple formula with the single exponent, the Landau--Zener parameter $\\kappa$. If $\\kappa \\gg 1$, the motion is essentially adiabatic. If $\\kappa \\ll 1$, it is (almost) resonant and periodic. If $\\kappa \\simeq 1$, atom makes nonadiabatic transitions with a splitting of its wave packet at each node and strong complexification of the wave function as compared to the two other cases. This effect is referred as nonadiabatic quantum chaos. Proliferation of wave packets at $\\kappa \\simeq 1$ is shown to be connected closely with chaotic center-of-mass motion in the semiclassical theory of point-like atoms with positive values of the maximal Lyapunov exponent. Th...

  5. Magneto-Optical Trapping of Holmium Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, J; Stratis, G; Saffman, M

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate sub-Doppler laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the rare earth element Holmium. Atoms are loaded from an atomic beam source and captured in six-beam $\\sigma_+ - \\sigma_-$ molasses using a strong $J=15/2 \\leftrightarrow J=17/2$ cycling transition at $\\lambda=410.5~\\rm nm$. Due to the small difference in hyperfine splittings and Land\\'e $g$-factors in the lower and upper levels of the cooling transition the MOT is self-repumped without additional repump light, and deep sub-Doppler cooling is achieved with the magnetic trap turned on. We measure the leakage out of the cycling transition to metastable states and find a branching ratio $\\sim 10^{-5}$ which is adequate for state resolved measurements on hyperfine encoded qubits.

  6. Continuous optical measurement of cold atomic spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory A.

    Quantum measurement is one of the most important features of quantum theory. Although mathematical predictions have been verified in great detail, practical implementation has lagged behind. Only recently have people begun to take advantage of quantum measurement properties to produce new technologies. This research helps fill that technological gap by experimental examination of a continuous, optical measurement for an ensemble of cold atomic spins. The essential physics reduces to the interaction between an atomic ensemble and a weak optical field, which has many well known results. While this work demonstrates many novel applications of the interaction, it also shows that the whole can be more than the sum of the individual parts. Starting with basic characterization of the measurement system using laser-cooled caesium atoms, the mean value of a spin component is obtained in real time. In essence, the angular momentum of the atomic spins creates a Faraday-like rotation in the polarization of a laser probe beam. With slight modifications, additional spin components are also observed, and are shown to be in good agreement with predictions. In measuring spin dynamics, it is important to account for effects of the probe on the spin states as well. Capitalizing on this as a resource, the probe-induced ac-Stark shift is used to transform a quasi-classical spin-coherent state into a highly quantum Schrodinger cat type of superposition between two spin states. Finally, this work combines all the previous results to demonstrate how a continuous measurement of the spin with a carefully crafted evolution created in part by the probe, allows for nearly real-time determination of the complete spin density matrix. In a single 1.5 millisecond run, a spin density matrix is determined with fidelities ranging from about 85% to 90% across a wide spectrum of test states.

  7. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, F B

    1995-01-01

    With this volume, Methods of Experimental Physics becomes Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, a name change which reflects the evolution of todays science. This volume is the first of three which will provide a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics; the three volumes as a set will form an excellent experimental handbook for the field. The wide availability of tunable lasers in the pastseveral years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.

  8. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material and detailed descriptions of important recent developments.

  9. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    2000-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material and detailed descriptions of important recent developments.

  10. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    2001-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material and detailed descriptions of important recent developments.

  11. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, F B; Lucatorto, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Combined with Volumes 29A and 29B, this volume is a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, as well as an excellent experimental handbook for the field. Thewide availability of tunable lasers in the past several years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.

  12. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material as well as detailed descriptions of important recent developments.

  13. Few Atom Detection and Manipulation Using Optical Nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Kieran; Watkins, Amy; Morrissey, Michael; Schmidt, Regine; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    We study the coupling of spontaneously emitted photons from laser-cooled 85Rb atoms to the guided modes of an optical nanofibre to demonstrate the potential such fibres offer as tools for detecting and manipulating cold atoms, even when the number of atoms is very small. We also demonstrate the integration of an optical nanofibre into an absorption spectroscopy setup, showcasing the ability of the evanescent field around nanofibres to interact with atoms in close proximity to the fibre. In principle, trapping of single atoms in engineered optical potentials on the surface of the fibre should facilitate entanglement between distant atoms mediated via the guided modes of the nanofibre.

  14. Runaway evaporation for optically dressed atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkowski, David

    2010-01-01

    Forced evaporative cooling in a far-off-resonance optical dipole trap is proved to be an efficient method to produce fermionic- or bosonic-degenerated gases. However in most of the experiences, the reduction of the potential height occurs with a diminution of the collision elastic rate. Taking advantage of a long-living excited state, like in two-electron atoms, I propose a new scheme, based on an optical knife, where the forced evaporation can be driven independently of the trap confinement. In this context, the runaway regime might be achieved leading to a substantial improvement of the cooling efficiency. The comparison with the different methods for forced evaporation is discussed in the presence or not of three-body recombination losses.

  15. Scalar magnetometers for space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz

    ratio is a basic atomic constant for the SI units of magnetic and electric current. The classical proton free precession, the Overhauser forced oscillation and a new field cycling Overhauser are presented. Alkali metal vapor magnetometers, although not absolute in the same sense as the classical proton...

  16. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Crepaz; Li Yuan Ley; Rainer Dumke

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage...

  17. Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J Q; Nori, Franco

    2011-06-29

    Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence and can behave like artificial atoms. Recent technological advances have made it possible to implement atomic-physics and quantum-optics experiments on a chip using these artificial atoms. This Review presents a brief overview of the progress achieved so far in this rapidly advancing field. We not only discuss phenomena analogous to those in atomic physics and quantum optics with natural atoms, but also highlight those not occurring in natural atoms. In addition, we summarize several prospective directions in this emerging interdisciplinary field.

  18. Optical investigation of electromagnetic fuel atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Cornel; Beniuga, Marius

    2016-12-01

    The devices that ensure atomization of fluids (injectors and atomizers) are largely employed in contemporary technology. Injectors play a very important part in the functioning of various systems based on combustion of liquid fuels, such as internal combustion engines and turbines, jet engines, furnaces etc. During operation, these devices are subjected to important pressures and need to work within very strict parameters. It is therefore important to have very precise active surfaces. The present work aimed to investigate such devices after certain degrees of usage in order to verify the evolution of surface micro-characteristics and their influence upon operating parameters. In order to achieve the abovementioned purpose, an optical evaluation of the surface was conducted using laser profilometry. Surface measurements were conducted on several injectors, after various degrees of usage, by aid of a laser profilometer equipped with a confocal sensor that has a vertical working range of 13mm and a resolution of 1μm1. After the surface micro-topography was measured, 3D and 2D representations, as well as individual profiles of the active surfaces, were analyzed and the significant parameters were determined. Surface wear and presence of combustion residues was analyzed in terms of its influence upon operating conditions.

  19. Entanglement properties between two atoms in the binomial optical field interacting with two entangled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘堂昆; 张康隆; 陶宇; 单传家; 刘继兵

    2016-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the degree of entanglement between two atoms in a system of the binomial optical field interacting with two arbitrary entangled atoms is investigated. The influence of the strength of the dipole–dipole interaction between two atoms, probabilities of the Bernoulli trial, and particle number of the binomial optical field on the temporal evolution of the atomic entanglement are discussed. The result shows that the two atoms are always in the entanglement state. Moreover, if and only if the two atoms are initially in the maximally entangled state, the entanglement evolution is not affected by the parameters, and the degree of entanglement is always kept as 1.

  20. Stochastic electrodynamics simulations for collective atom response in optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark D.; Jenkins, Stewart D.; Bronstein, Yael; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2017-08-01

    We study the collective optical response of an atomic ensemble confined within a single-mode optical cavity by stochastic electrodynamics simulations that include the effects of atomic position correlations, internal level structure, and spatial variations in cavity coupling strength and atom density. In the limit of low light intensity, the simulations exactly reproduce the full quantum field-theoretical description for cold stationary atoms and at higher light intensities we introduce semiclassical approximations to atomic saturation that we compare with the exact solution in the case of two atoms. We find that collective subradiant modes of the atoms, with very narrow linewidths, can be coupled to the cavity field by spatial variation of the atomic transition frequency and resolved at low intensities, and show that they can be specifically driven by tailored transverse pumping beams. We show that the cavity optical response, in particular both the subradiant mode profile and the resonance shift of the cavity mode, can be used as a diagnostic tool for the position correlations of the atoms and hence the atomic quantum many-body phase. The quantum effects are found to be most prominent close to the narrow subradiant mode resonances at high light intensities. Although an optical cavity can generally strongly enhance quantum fluctuations via light confinement, we show that the semiclassical approximation to the stochastic electrodynamics model provides at least a qualitative agreement with the exact optical response outside the subradiant mode resonances even in the presence of significant saturation of the atoms.

  1. On-chip optical trapping for atomic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maximillian A.; Salim, Evan; Farkas, Daniel; Duggan, Janet; Ivory, Megan; Anderson, Dana

    2014-09-01

    To simplify applications that rely on optical trapping of cold and ultracold atoms, ColdQuanta is developing techniques to incorporate miniature optical components onto in-vacuum atom chips. The result is a hybrid atom chip that combines an in-vacuum micro-optical bench for optical control with an atom chip for magnetic control. Placing optical components on a chip inside of the vacuum system produces a compact system that can be targeted to specific experiments, in this case the generation of optical lattices. Applications that can benefit from this technology include timekeeping, inertial sensing, gravimetry, quantum information, and emulation of quantum many-body systems. ColdQuanta's GlasSi atom chip technology incorporates glass windows in the plane of a silicon atom chip. In conjunction with the in-vacuum micro-optical bench, optical lattices can be generated within a few hundred microns of an atom chip window through which single atomic lattice sites can be imaged with sub-micron spatial resolution. The result is a quantum gas microscope that allows optical lattices to be studied at the level of single lattice sites. Similar to what ColdQuanta has achieved with magneto-optical traps (MOTs) in its miniMOT system and with Bose- Einstein condensates (BECs) in its RuBECi(R) system, ColdQuanta seeks to apply the on-chip optical bench technology to studies of optical lattices in a commercially available, turnkey system. These techniques are currently being considered for lattice experiments in NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) slated for flight on the International Space Station.

  2. Momentum Transfer of an Atom Moving in an Optical Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬涛; 徐至展

    2001-01-01

    When an atom moves in an optical cavity, the total momentum of the atom does not remain constant. We study a two-level atom moving slowly in an optical cavity, and give the time dependence of its mean momentum. It is found that when the initial momentum of the atom is larger than that of the photon, the mean momentum oscillates around a value less than the initial value. But, if the initial momentum is less than the momentum of the photon, the mean momentum of the atom is greater than its initial value in most cases.

  3. Eliminating light shifts in single-atom optical traps

    CERN Document Server

    Hutzler, Nicholas R; Yu, Yichao; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    Microscopically controlled neutral atoms in optical tweezers and lattices have led to exciting advances in the study of quantum information and quantum many-body systems. The light shifts of atomic levels from the trapping potential in these systems can result in detrimental effects such as fluctuating dipole force heating, inhomogeneous detunings, and inhibition of laser cooling, which limits the atomic species that can be manipulated. In particular, these light shifts can be large enough to prevent loading into optical tweezers directly from a magneto-optical trap. We present a general solution to these limitations by loading, cooling, and imaging single atoms with temporally alternating beams. Because this technique does not depend on any specific spectral properties, we expect it to enable the optical tweezer method to control nearly any atomic or molecular species that can be laser cooled and optically trapped. Furthermore, we present an analysis of the role of heating and required cooling for single ato...

  4. Characterizing optical dipole trap via fluorescence of trapped cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; GENG Tao; YAN Shubin; LI Gang; ZHANG Jing; WANG Junmin; PENG Kunchi; ZHANG Tiancai

    2006-01-01

    Optical dipole trap (ODT) is becoming an important tool of manipulating neutral atoms. In this paper ODT is realized with a far-off resonant laser beam strongly focused in the magneto-optical trap (MOT) of cesium atoms. The light shift is measured by simply monitoring the fluorescence of the atoms in the magneto-optical trap and the optical dipole trap simultaneously. The advantages of our experimental scheme are discussed, and the effect of the beam waist and power on the potential of dipole trap as well as heating rate is analyzed.

  5. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  6. Suspension of atoms using optical pulses, and application to gravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K J; Burke, J H T; Sackett, C A

    2009-04-17

    Atoms from a (87)Rb condensate are suspended against gravity using repeated reflections from a pulsed optical standing wave. Up to 100 reflections are observed, yielding suspension times of over 100 ms. The local gravitational acceleration can be determined from the pulse rate required to achieve suspension. Further, a gravitationally sensitive atom interferometer was implemented using the suspended atoms. This technique could potentially provide a precision measurement of gravity without requiring the atoms to fall a large distance.

  7. Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms at Addressable Optical Lattice Sites and Atoms in Confined Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Félix Riou, Aaron Reinhard, Laura A. Zundel, David S. Weiss. Spontaneous-emission- induced transition rates between atomic states in optical lattices...complementary technique to measure the hyperfine states at each lattice site. We developed a technique to cool atoms so that they are mostly in the vibrational ...28-Feb-2013 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms at Addressable Optical Lattice

  8. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  9. Super-resolution microscopy of single atoms in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Alberti, Andrea; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Karski, Michał; Reimann, René; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    We report on image processing techniques and experimental procedures to determine the lattice-site positions of single atoms in an optical lattice with high reliability, even for limited acquisition time or optical resolution. Determining the positions of atoms beyond the diffraction limit relies on parametric deconvolution in close analogy to methods employed in super-resolution microscopy. We develop a deconvolution method that makes effective use of the prior knowledge of the optical transfer function, noise properties, and discreteness of the optical lattice. We show that accurate knowledge of the image formation process enables a dramatic improvement on the localization reliability. This is especially relevant for closely packed ensembles of atoms where the separation between particles cannot be directly optically resolved. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimental methods to precisely reconstruct the point spread function with sub-pixel resolution from fluorescence images of single atoms, and we give a m...

  10. Atom optical shop testing of electrostatic lenses using an atom interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hromada, Ivan; Holmgren, William F; Gregoire, Maxwell D; Cronin, Alexander D

    2013-01-01

    We used an atom interferometer for atom optical shop testing of lenses for atomic de Broglie waves. We measured focal lengths and spherical aberrations of electrostatic lenses in three independent ways based on contrast data, phase data, or calculations of de Broglie wavefront curvature. We report focal lengths of -2.5 km and -21.7 km with 5% uncertainty for different lenses. All three methods give consistent results. Understanding how lenses magnify and distort atom interference fringes helps improve atom beam velocity measurements made with phase choppers [New J. Phys. 13, 115007 (2011)], which in turn will improve the accuracy of atomic polarizability measurements.

  11. Manipulating atomic states via optical orbital angular-momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optical orbital angular-momentum(OAM)has more complex mechanics than the spin degree of photons,and may have a broad range of application.Manipulating atomic states via OAM has become an interesting topic.In this paper,we first review the general theory of generating adiabatic gauge field in ultracold atomic systems by coupling atoms to external optical fields with OAM,and point out the applications of the generated adiabatic gauge field.Then,we review our work in this field,including the generation of macroscopic superposition of vortex-antivortex states and spin Hall effect(SHE)in cold atoms.

  12. Dispersive Optical Interface Based on Nanofiber-Trapped Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dawkins, S T; Reitz, D; Vetsch, E; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2011-01-01

    We dispersively interface an ensemble of one thousand atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding a tapered optical nanofiber. This method relies on the azimuthally-asymmetric coupling of the ensemble with the evanescent field of an off-resonant probe beam, transmitted through the nanofiber. The resulting birefringence and dispersion are significant; we observe a phase shift per atom of $\\sim$\\,1\\,mrad at a detuning of six times the natural linewidth, corresponding to an effective resonant optical density per atom of 2.7\\,%. Moreover, we utilize this strong dispersion to non-destructively determine the number of atoms.

  13. Cold Atom Source Containing Multiple Magneto-Optical Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Kohel, James; Kellogg, James; Lim, Lawrence; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus that serves as a source of a cold beam of atoms contains multiple two-dimensional (2D) magneto-optical traps (MOTs). (Cold beams of atoms are used in atomic clocks and in diverse scientific experiments and applications.) The multiple-2D-MOT design of this cold atom source stands in contrast to single-2D-MOT designs of prior cold atom sources of the same type. The advantages afforded by the present design are that this apparatus is smaller than prior designs.

  14. Detecting magnetically guided atoms with an optical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Albrecht; Hessmo, Björn; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2006-01-15

    We show that a low-finesse cavity can be efficient for detecting neutral atoms. The low finesse can be compensated for by decreasing the mode waist of the cavity. We have used a near-concentric resonator with a beam waist of 12 microm and a finesse of only 1100 to detect magnetically guided Rb atoms with a detection sensitivity of 0.1 atom in the mode volume. For future experiments on single-atom detection and cavity QED applications, it should be beneficial to use miniaturized optical resonators integrated on atom chips.

  15. Atomic-Scale Confinement of Resonant Optical Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Johannes; Großmann, Swen; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Häckel, Tim; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Huang, Jer-Shing; Biagioni, Paolo; Prangsma, Jord C.; Hecht, Bert

    2012-11-01

    In the presence of matter there is no fundamental limit preventing confinement of visible light even down to atomic scales. Achieving such confinement and the corresponding intensity enhancement inevitably requires simultaneous control over atomic-scale details of material structures and over the optical modes that such structures support. By means of self-assembly we have obtained side-by-side aligned gold nanorod dimers with robust atomically-defined gaps reaching below 0.5 nm. The existence of atomically-confined light fields in these gaps is demonstrated by observing extreme Coulomb splitting of corresponding symmetric and anti-symmetric dimer eigenmodes of more than 800 meV in white-light scattering experiments. Our results open new perspectives for atomically-resolved spectroscopic imaging, deeply nonlinear optics, ultra-sensing, cavity optomechanics as well as for the realization of novel quantum-optical devices.

  16. A Nanofiber-Based Optical Conveyor Belt for Cold Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Schneeweiss, Philipp; Mitsch, Rudolf; Reitz, Daniel; Vetsch, Eugen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate optical transport of cold cesium atoms over millimeter-scale distances along an optical nanofiber. The atoms are trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a two-color evanescent field surrounding the nanofiber, far red- and blue-detuned with respect to the atomic transition. The blue-detuned field is a propagating nanofiber-guided mode while the red-detuned field is a standing-wave mode which leads to the periodic axial confinement of the atoms. Here, this standing wave is used for transporting the atoms along the nanofiber by mutually detuning the two counter-propagating fields which form the standing wave. The performance and limitations of the nanofiber-based transport are evaluated and possible applications are discussed.

  17. Extremely nonlocal optical nonlinearities in atoms trapped near a waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Stimming, Hans Peter; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear optical phenomena are typically local. Here we predict the possibility of highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities for light propagating in atomic media trapped near a nano-waveguide, where long-range interactions between the atoms can be tailored. When the atoms are in an electromagnetically-induced transparency configuration, the atomic interactions are translated to long-range interactions between photons and thus to highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities. We derive and analyze the governing nonlinear propagation equation, finding a roton-like excitation spectrum for light and the emergence of long-range order in its output intensity. These predictions open the door to studies of unexplored wave dynamics and many-body physics with highly-nonlocal interactions of optical fields in one dimension.

  18. Miniature Optical Atomic Clock: Stabilization of a Kerr Comb Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenkov, A A; Liang, W; Ilchenko, V S; Byrd, J; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical clocks consist of a pendulum and a clockwork that translates the pendulum period to displayed time. The most advanced clocks utilize optical transitions in atoms in place of the pendulum and an optical frequency comb generated by a femtosecond laser as the clockwork. The comb must be stabilized at two points along its frequency spectrum: one with a laser to lock a comb line to a transition in the atom, and another through self referencing to stabilize the frequency interval between the comb lines. This approach requires advanced techniques, so optical atomic clocks are currently laboratory devices in specialized labs. In this paper we leverage unique properties of Kerr comb oscillators for realization of optical atomic clocks in miniature form factors. In particular, we describe a clock based on D1 transition of 87Rb that fits in the palm of the hand, and can be further miniaturized to chip scale.

  19. Dynamics of an all-optical atomic spin gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wan, Shuangai; Yuan, Heng

    2013-10-20

    We present the transfer function of an all-optical atomic spin gyroscope through a series of differential equations and validate the transfer function by experimental test. A transfer function is the basis for further control system design. We build the differential equations based on a complete set of Bloch equations describing the all-optical atomic spin gyroscope, and obtain the transfer function through application of the Laplace transformation to these differential equations. Moreover, we experimentally validate the transfer function in an all-optical Cs-Xe129 atomic spin gyroscope through a series of step responses. This transfer function is convenient for analysis of the form of control system required. Furthermore, it is available for the design of the control system specifically to improve the performance of all-optical atomic spin gyroscopes.

  20. Rotating optical tubes for vertical transport of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rsheed, Anwar; Lyras, Andreas; Aldossary, Omar M.; Lembessis, Vassilis E.

    2016-12-01

    The classical dynamics of a cold atom trapped inside a vertical rotating helical optical tube (HOT) is investigated by taking also into account the gravitational field. The resulting equations of motion are solved numerically. The rotation of the HOT induces a vertical motion for an atom initially at rest. The motion is a result of the action of two inertial forces, namely, the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force. Both inertial forces force the atom to rotate in a direction opposite to that of the angular velocity of the HOT. The frequency and the turning points of the atom's global oscillation can be controlled by the value and the direction of the angular velocity of the HOT. However, at large values of the angular velocity of the HOT the atom can escape from the global oscillation and be transported along the axis of the HOT. In this case, the rotating HOT operates as an optical Archimedes' screw for atoms.

  1. Rotating Optical Tubes: An Archimedes' Screw for Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Rsheed, Anwar Al; Aldossary, Omar M; Lembessis, Vassilis E

    2016-01-01

    The classical dynamics of a cold atom trapped inside a vertical rotating helical optical tube (HOT) is investigated by taking also into account the gravitational field. The resulting equations of motion are solved numerically. The rotation induces a vertical motion for an atom initially at rest. The motion is a result of the action of two inertial forces, namely the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force. Both inertial forces force the atom to rotate in a direction opposite to that of the angular velocity of the HOT. The frequency and the turning points of the atom's global oscillation can be controlled by the value and the direction of the angular velocity of the HOT. However, at large values of the angular velocity of the HOT the atom can escape from the global oscillation and be transported along the axis of the HOT. In this case, the rotating HOT operates as an Optical Archimedes' Screw (OAS) for atoms.

  2. Experimental constraint on dark matter detection with optical atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wcisło, P.; Morzyński, P.; Bober, M.; Cygan, A.; Lisak, D.; Ciuryło, R.; Zawada, M.

    2016-12-01

    The total mass density of the Universe appears to be dominated by dark matter. However, beyond its gravitational interactions at the galactic scale, little is known about its nature1. Several proposals have been advanced in recent years for the detection of dark matter2-4. In particular, a network of atomic clocks could be used to search for transient indicators of hypothetical dark matter5 in the form of stable topological defects; for example, monopoles, strings or domain walls6. The clocks become desynchronized when a dark-matter object sweeps through the network. This pioneering approach5 requires a comparison between at least two distant optical atomic clocks7-9. Here, by exploiting differences in the susceptibilities of the atoms and the cavity to the fine-structure constant10,11, we show that a single optical atomic clock12 is already sensitive to dark-matter events. This implies that existing optical atomic clocks13,14 can serve as a global topological-defect dark-matter observatory, without any further developments in experimental apparatus or the need for long phase-noise-compensated optical-fibre links15. Using optical atomic clocks, we explored a new dimension of astrophysical observations by constraining the strength of atomic coupling to hypothetical dark-matter cosmic objects. Under the conditions of our experiments, the degree of constraint was found to exceed the previously reported limits16 by more than three orders of magnitude.

  3. Fold optics path: an improvement for an atomic fountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Rong; Zhou Zi-Chao; Shi Chun-Yan; Zhao Jian-Bo; Li Tang; Wang Yu-zhu

    2011-01-01

    A fold optical path is utilized to capture and launch atoms in the atomic fountain.This improved technique reduces the laser power needed by 60 percent,facilitates suppression of the laser power fluctuations,and leads to a more simple and stable system.

  4. Atomic quantum superposition state generation via optical probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ersbak Bang; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Negretti, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a protocol to prepare an atomic ensemble in a superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable states. The protocol relies on conditional measurements performed on a light field, which interacts with the atoms inside an optical cavity prior to detection, and we...

  5. Atomic fountains and optical clocks at SYRTE: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, M; De Sarlo, L; Guéna, J; Laurent, Ph; Coq, Y Le; Targat, R Le; Lodewyck, J; Lours, M; Rosenbusch, P; Rovera, D; Bize, S

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on the work done with the LNE-SYRTE atomic clock ensemble during the last 10 years. We cover progress made in atomic fountains and in their application to timekeeping. We also cover the development of optical lattice clocks based on strontium and on mercury. We report on tests of fundamental physical laws made with these highly accurate atomic clocks. We also report on work relevant to a future possible redefinition of the SI second.

  6. Transmission Spectrum of an Optical Cavity Containing N Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Leslie, S; Brown, K R; Stamper-Kurn, D M; Whaley, K B; Leslie, Sabrina; Shenvi, Neil; Brown, Kenneth R.; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2003-01-01

    The transmission spectrum of a high-finesse optical cavity containing an arbitrary number of trapped atoms is presented. We take spatial and motional effects into account and show that in the limit of strong coupling, the important spectral features can be determined for an arbitrary number of atoms, N. We also show that these results have important ramifications in limiting our ability to determine the number of atoms in the cavity.

  7. Optical resonance and two-level atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, L

    1987-01-01

    ""Coherent and lucid…a valuable summary of a subject to which [the authors] have made significant contributions by their own research."" - Contemporary PhysicsOffering an admirably clear account of the basic principles behind all quantum optical resonance phenomena, and hailed as a valuable contribution to the literature of nonlinear optics, this distinguished work provides graduate students and research physicists probing fields such as laser physics, quantum optics, nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, and resonance optics an ideal introduction to the study of the interaction of electroma

  8. Anti-Parity-Time Symmetric Optics via Flying Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Peng; Shen, Ce; Qu, Weizhi; Wen, Jianming; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    The recently-developed notion of 'parity-time (PT) symmetry' in optical systems with a controlled gain-loss interplay has spawned an intriguing way of achieving optical behaviors that are presently unattainable with standard arrangements. In most experimental studies so far, however, the implementations rely highly on the advances of nanotechnologies and sophisticated fabrication techniques to synthesize solid-state materials. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of optical anti-PT symmetry, a counterpart of conventional PT symmetry, in a warm atomic-vapor cell. By exploiting rapid coherence transport via flying atoms, our scheme illustrates essential features of anti-PT symmetry with an unprecedented precision on phase-transition threshold, and substantially reduces experimental complexity and cost. This result represents a significant advance in non-Hermitian optics by bridging a firm connection with the field of atomic, molecular and optical physics, where novel phenomena and applications i...

  9. R-matrix theory of atomic collisions. Application to atomic, molecular and optical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Philip G. [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Mathematics and Physics

    2011-07-01

    Commencing with a self-contained overview of atomic collision theory, this monograph presents recent developments of R-matrix theory and its applications to a wide-range of atomic molecular and optical processes. These developments include electron and photon collisions with atoms, ions and molecules required in the analysis of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, multiphoton processes required in the analysis of superintense laser interactions with atoms and molecules and positron collisions with atoms and molecules required in antimatter studies of scientific and technological importance. Basic mathematical results and general and widely used R-matrix computer programs are summarized in the appendices. (orig.)

  10. R-Matrix Theory of Atomic Collisions Application to Atomic, Molecular and Optical Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Philip George

    2011-01-01

    Commencing with a self-contained overview of atomic collision theory, this monograph presents recent developments of R-matrix theory and its applications to a wide-range of atomic molecular and optical processes. These developments include electron and photon collisions with atoms, ions and molecules required in the analysis of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, multiphoton processes required in the analysis of superintense laser interactions with atoms and molecules and positron collisions with atoms and molecules required in antimatter studies of scientific and technologial importance. Basic mathematical results and general and widely used R-matrix computer programs are summarized in the appendices.

  11. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2013-05-01

    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  12. A Novel Gravito-Optical Surface Trap for Neutral Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chun-Xia; WANG Zhengling; YIN Jian-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose a novel gravito-optical surface trap (GOST) for neutral atoms based on one-dimensional intensity gradient cooling. The surface optical trap is composed of a blue-detuned reduced semi-Gaussian laser beam (SGB), a far-blue-detuned dark hollow beam and the gravity field.

  13. Nonlinear coherent dynamics of an atom in an optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Argonov, V Y

    2006-01-01

    We consider a simple model of lossless interaction between a two-level single atom and a standing-wave single-mode laser field which creates a one-dimensional optical lattice. Internal dynamics of the atom is governed by the laser field which is treated to be classical with a large number of photons. Center-of-mass classical atomic motion is governed by the optical potential and the internal atomic degree of freedom. The resulting Hamilton-Schr\\"odinger equations of motion are a five-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system with two integrals of motion. The main focus of the paper is chaotic atomic motion that may be quantified strictly by positive values of the maximal Lyapunov exponent. It is shown that atom, depending on the value of its total energy, can either oscillate chaotically in a well of the optical potential or fly ballistically with weak chaotic oscillations of its momentum or wander in the optical lattice changing the direction of motion in a chaotic way. In the regime of chaotic wandering atomic...

  14. Nanofiber-based optical trapping of cold neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Vetsch, Eugen; Mitsch, Rudolf; Reitz, Daniel; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental techniques and results related to the optimization and characterization of our nanofiber-based atom trap [Vetsch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010)]. The atoms are confined in an optical lattice which is created using a two-color evanescent field surrounding the optical nanofiber. For this purpose, the polarization state of the trapping light fields has to be properly adjusted. We demonstrate that this can be accomplished by analyzing the light scattered by the nanofiber. Furthermore, we show that loading the nanofiber trap from a magneto-optical trap leads to sub-Doppler temperatures of the trapped atomic ensemble and yields a sub-Poissonian distribution of the number of trapped atoms per trapping site.

  15. Optical pumping of rubidium atoms in a parahydrogen matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jonathan; Arnott, W. Patrick; Christy, Tim; Hartzell, Chase; Kanagin, Andrew; Momose, Takamasa; Patterson, David; Upadhyay, Sunil

    2016-05-01

    Building on prior work with rubidium atoms in a cryogenic argon matrix, we have grown solid parahydrogen crystals doped with rubidium atoms. Typical rubidium densities are on the order of 1017 cm-3. We have demonstrated optical pumping of the atomic spin of the implanted rubidium atoms; the measured spin polarization signals are roughly one order of magnitude larger than what was achieved in argon matrices. The combination of high atomic densities and optical addressability make this a promising experimental platform for applications such as magnetometry and fundamental physics measurements. Spin lifetimes (T1) on the order of 1 second have been observed. Progress towards measuring coherence times (T2) will be discussed. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY 1265905.

  16. Studies of Ultracold Strontium Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A. J.; Martinez de Escobar, Y. N.; Mickelson, P. G.; Killian, T. C.

    2008-05-01

    We survey recent experiments with ultracold strontium performed in our group. Trapping and cooling occurs in three stages: successive magneto-optical traps (MOTs) operating on 461 nm and 689 nm transitions of strontium, respectively, are loaded to cool atoms to a temperature of 1 μK. Finally, atoms are loaded into a far-off-resonance optical dipole trap (ODT). We examine the loading characteristics, thermalization, and lifetime of atoms held within the ODT. We also perform spectroscopy of atoms held within the ODT. During laser cooling, we are able to manipulate the energy levels of the atoms and shelve them into metastable states using 707 nm and 3 μm lasers. These experiments reveal interesting physics of ultracold strontium.

  17. Spontaneous emergence of free-space optical and atomic patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous formation of patterns in dynamical systems is a rich non-equilibrium phenomenon that is studied in fields ranging from atomic physics to cosmology. Here, we report our observation of coupled optical-atomic pattern formation, which results in the creation of self-organized, multimode structures in free-space laser-driven cold atoms. We show that this process gives rise to spontaneous three-dimensional Sisyphus cooling even at very low light intensities and the emergence of self-organized atomic structures on multiple spatial scales.

  18. Detecting magnetically guided atoms with an optical cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Albrecht; Hessmo, Björn; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    We show that a low finesse cavity can be efficient for detecting neutral atoms. The low finesse can be compensated for by decreasing the mode waist of the cavity. We have used a near concentric resonator with a beam waist of 12$\\mu$m and a finesse of only 1100 to detect magnetically guided Rb atoms with a detection sensitivity of 0.1 atom in the mode volume. For future experiments on single atom detection and cavity QED applications, it should be very beneficial to use miniaturized optical re...

  19. Veselago lensing with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Leder, Martin; Weitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Veselago pointed out that electromagnetic wave theory allows for materials with a negative index of refraction, in which most known optical phenomena would be reversed. A slab of such a material can focus light by negative refraction, an imaging technique strikingly different from conventional positive refractive index optics, where curved surfaces bend the rays to form an image of an object. Here we demonstrate Veselago lensing for matter waves, using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A relativistic, i.e. photon-like, dispersion relation for rubidium atoms is realized with a bichromatic optical lattice potential. We rely on a Raman $\\pi$-pulse technique to transfer atoms between two different branches of the dispersion relation, resulting in a focusing completely analogous to the effect described by Veselago for light waves. Future prospects of the demonstrated effects include novel sub-de Broglie wave imaging applications.

  20. Spin-velocity correlations of optically pumped atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, R., III; McGuyer, B. H.; Olsen, B. A.; Happer, W.

    2012-08-01

    We present efficient theoretical tools for describing the optical pumping of atoms by light propagating at arbitrary directions with respect to an external magnetic field, at buffer-gas pressures that are small enough for velocity-selective optical pumping (VSOP) but large enough to cause substantial collisional relaxation of the velocities and the spin. These are the conditions for the sodium atoms at an altitude of about 100 km that are used as guidestars for adaptive optics in modern ground-based telescopes to correct for aberrations due to atmospheric turbulence. We use spin and velocity relaxation modes to describe the distribution of atoms in spin space (including both populations and coherences) and velocity space. Cusp kernels are used to describe velocity-changing collisions. Optical pumping operators are represented as a sum of poles in the complex velocity plane. Signals simulated with these methods are in excellent agreement with previous experiments and with preliminary experiments in our laboratory.

  1. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Atom optics employs the modern techniques of quantum optics and laser cooling to enable applications which often outperform current standard technologies. Atomic matter wave interferometers allow for ultra-precise sensors; metrology and clocks are pushed to an extraordinary accuracy of 17 digits using single atoms. Miniaturization and integration are driven forward for both atomic clocks and atom optical circuits. With the miniaturization of information-storage and -processing devices, the scale of single atoms is approached in solid state devices, where the laws of quantum physics lead to novel, advantageous features and functionalities. An upcoming branch of atom optics is the control of single atoms, potentially allowing solid state devices to be built atom by atom; some of which would be applicable in future quantum information processing devices. Selective manipulation of individual atoms also enables trace analysis of extremely rare isotopes. Additionally, sources of neutral atoms with high brightness are being developed and, if combined with photo ionization, even novel focused ion beam sources are within reach. Ultracold chemistry is fertilized by atomic techniques, when reactions of chemical constituents are investigated between ions, atoms, molecules, trapped or aligned in designed fields and cooled to ultra-low temperatures such that the reaction kinetics can be studied in a completely state-resolved manner. Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications Contents Sensitive gravity-gradiometry with atom interferometry: progress towards an improved determination of the gravitational constant F Sorrentino, Y-H Lien, G Rosi, L Cacciapuoti, M Prevedelli and G M Tino A single-atom detector integrated on an atom chip: fabrication, characterization and application D Heine, W Rohringer, D Fischer, M Wilzbach, T Raub, S Loziczky, XiYuan Liu, S Groth, B Hessmo and J Schmiedmayer Interaction of a propagating guided matter wave with a localized potential G L Gattobigio, A

  2. Aristoteles magnetometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward J.; Marquedant, Roy J.; Langel, Robert; Acuna, Mario

    1991-12-01

    A magnetometer system capable of meeting the stringent requirements of the Aristoteles mission is described. The system will comprise a three axis or Vector Flux gas Magnetometer (VFM) and a highly accurate resonance magnetometer, the Scalar Helium Magnetometer (SHM). Basic operational features of these instruments are described and their performance is related to the scientific objectives of the mission appropriate to the geomagnetic field measurements. The major requirements imposed on the spacecraft are summarized. Photographs and diagrams of both instruments are presented along with graphs of the sensitivity of the SHM to magnetic field orientation.

  3. Double resonance fequency light shift compensation in optically oriented laser-pumped alkali atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, A. A., E-mail: lexusbar@gmail.com; Ermak, S. V.; Sagitov, E. A.; Smolin, R. V.; Semenov, V. V. [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The contributions of the vector and scalar components to the magnetically dependent microwave transition frequency light shift are analyzed and the compensation of these components is experimentally demonstrated for the {sup 87}Rb atoms optically oriented by a laser tuned to the D{sub 2} line of the head doublet. The Allan variance is studied as a function of the averaging time for a tandem of optically pumped quantum magnetometers (OPQMs), one of which is based on a low-frequency spin oscillator while another is based on a quantum microwave discriminator with a resonance frequency that corresponds to magnetically dependent transitions between HFS sublevels with the extremal value of the magnetic quantum number. It is shown that the compensation of the scalar and vector components of the light shift in OPQMs reduces the Allan variance at averaging times that exceed hundreds of seconds compared to a quantum discriminator based on the magnetically independent 0–0 transition. In this case, the minimal Allan variance in OPQMs at the end resonance is achieved at considerably longer averaging times than in the case of the quantum discriminator that is tuned to the 0–0 transition frequency.

  4. Ultrastable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schioppo, M.; Brown, R. C.; McGrew, W. F.; Hinkley, N.; Fasano, R. J.; Beloy, K.; Yoon, T. H.; Milani, G.; Nicolodi, D.; Sherman, J. A.; Phillips, N. B.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic clocks based on optical transitions are the most stable, and therefore precise, timekeepers available. These clocks operate by alternating intervals of atomic interrogation with the 'dead' time required for quantum state preparation and readout. This non-continuous interrogation of the atom system results in the Dick effect, an aliasing of frequency noise from the laser interrogating the atomic transition. Despite recent advances in optical clock stability that have been achieved by improving laser coherence, the Dick effect has continually limited the performance of optical clocks. Here we implement a robust solution to overcome this limitation: a zero-dead-time optical clock that is based on the interleaved interrogation of two cold-atom ensembles. This clock exhibits vanishingly small Dick noise, thereby achieving an unprecedented fractional frequency instability assessed to be for an averaging time τ in seconds. We also consider alternate dual-atom-ensemble schemes to extend laser coherence and reduce the standard quantum limit of clock stability, achieving a spectroscopy line quality factor of Q > 4 × 1015.

  5. A dynamic magneto-optical trap for atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Jo; Bateman, James; Himsworth, Matt

    2016-01-01

    We describe a dynamic magneto-optical trap (MOT) suitable for the use with vacuum systems in which optical access is limited to a single window. This technique facilitates the long-standing desire of producing integrated atom chips, many of which are likely to have severely restricted optical access compared with conventional vacuum chambers. This "switching-MOT" relies on the synchronized pulsing of optical and magnetic fields at audio frequencies. The trap's beam geometry is obtained using a planar mirror surface, and does not require a patterned substrate or bulky optics inside the vacuum chamber. Central to the design is a novel magnetic field geometry that requires no external quadrupole or bias coils which leads toward a very compact system. We have implemented the trap for $^{85}$Rb and shown that it is capable of capturing 2 million atoms and directly cooling below the Doppler temperature.

  6. A dynamic magneto-optical trap for atom chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Jo; Roy, Ritayan; Bateman, James; Himsworth, Matt

    2016-11-01

    We describe a dynamic magneto-optical trap (MOT) suitable for the use with vacuum systems in which optical access is limited to a single window. This technique facilitates the long-standing desire of producing integrated atom chips, many of which are likely to have severely restricted optical access compared with conventional vacuum chambers. This ‘switching-MOT’ relies on the synchronized pulsing of optical and magnetic fields at audio frequencies. The trap’s beam geometry is obtained using a planar mirror surface, and does not require a patterned substrate or bulky optics inside the vacuum chamber. Central to the design is a novel magnetic field geometry that requires no external quadrupole or bias coils which leads toward a very compact system. We have implemented the trap for 85Rb and shown that it is capable of capturing 2 million atoms and directly cooling below the Doppler temperature.

  7. Production and detection of atomic hexadecapole at Earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, V M; Auzinsh, M; Gawlik, W; Grisins, P; Higbie, J M; Jackson Kimball, D F; Krzemien, L; Ledbetter, M P; Pustelny, S; Rochester, S M; Yashchuk, V V; Budker, D

    2008-07-21

    Optical magnetometers measure magnetic fields with extremely high precision and without cryogenics. However, at geomagnetic fields, important for applications from landmine removal to archaeology, they suffer from nonlinear Zeeman splitting, leading to systematic dependence on sensor orientation. We present experimental results on a method of eliminating this systematic error, using the hexadecapole atomic polarization moment. In particular, we demonstrate selective production of the atomic hexadecapole moment at Earth's magnetic field and verify its immunity to nonlinear Zeeman splitting. This technique promises to eliminate directional errors in all-optical atomic magnetometers, potentially improving their measurement accuracy by several orders of magnitude.

  8. Hamiltonian chaos with a cold atom in an optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V

    2012-01-01

    We consider a basic model of the lossless interaction between a moving two-level atom and a standing-wave single-mode laser field. Classical treatment of the translational atomic motion provides the semiclassical Hamilton-Schrodinger equations which are a 5D nonlinear dynamical system with two integrals of motion. The atomic dynamics can be regular or chaotic in dependence on values of the control parameters, the atom-field detuning and recoil frequency. We develop a semiclassical theory of the chaotic atomic transport in terms of a random walk of the atomic electric dipole moment $u$. Based on a jump-like behavior of this variable for atoms crossing nodes of the standing wave, we construct a stochastic map that specifies the center-of-mass motion. We find the relations between the detuning, recoil frequency and the atomic energy, under which atoms may move in a optical lattice in a chaotic way. We obtain the analytical conditions under which deterministic atomic transport has fractal properties and explain a...

  9. Ultra-cold atoms in far-detuned optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, P H

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and construction of a laser cooling experiment for the study of optical lattices, and reports on the results of experiments aimed at 'quantum state preparation' by means of resolved-sideband Raman cooling in a far-detuned optical lattice. Preliminary experiments were performed on cold atoms in a magneto-optical trap, in an optical molasses and in an optical lattice to determine their properties and optimise the conditions for the loading of a far-detuned optical lattice. Temperature measurement techniques such as ballistic expansion and recoil-induced resonances were used. The vibrational levels and coherences of the optical lattice were investigated with conventional probe absorption spectroscopy and a novel method based on coherent transients, which revealed evidence that the anharmonicity of the potential wells is the dominant factor in determining the widths of Raman transitions between levels. A two-dimensional far-detuned (non-dissipative) lattice was loaded from a spati...

  10. Anisotropic optical trapping of ultracold erbium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Lepers, Maxence; Dulieu, Olivier; --,

    2013-01-01

    Ultracold atoms confined in a dipole trap are submitted to a potential whose depth is proportional to the real part of their dynamic dipole polarizability. The atoms also experience photon scattering whose rate is proportional to the imaginary part of their dynamic dipole polarizability. In this article we calculate the complex dynamic dipole polarizability of ground-state erbium, a rare-earth atom that was recently Bose-condensed. The polarizability is calculated with the sum-over-state formula inherent to second-order perturbation theory. The summation is performed on transition energies and transition dipole moments from ground-state erbium, which are computed using the Racah-Slater least-square fitting procedure provided by the Cowan codes. This allows us to predict 9 unobserved odd-parity energy levels of total angular momentum J=5, 6 and 7, in the range 25000-31000 cm-1 above the ground state. Regarding the trapping potential, we find that ground-state erbium essentially behaves like a spherically-symme...

  11. Quantum optical circulator controlled by a single chirally coupled atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheucher, Michael; Hilico, Adèle; Will, Elisa; Volz, Jürgen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2016-12-01

    Integrated nonreciprocal optical components, which have an inherent asymmetry between their forward and backward propagation direction, are key for routing signals in photonic circuits. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-integrated quantum optical circulator operated by a single atom. Its nonreciprocal behavior arises from the chiral interaction between the atom and the transversally confined light. We demonstrate that the internal quantum state of the atom controls the operation direction of the circulator and that it features a strongly nonlinear response at the single-photon level. This enables, for example, photon number–dependent routing and novel quantum simulation protocols. Furthermore, such a circulator can in principle be prepared in a coherent superposition of its operational states and may become a key element for quantum information processing in scalable integrated optical circuits.

  12. Prospects of Optical Single Atom Detection for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep

    2015-10-01

    We will discuss the prospects of optically detecting single atoms captured in a cryogenic thin film of a noble gas such as neon. This proposed detection scheme, when coupled with a recoil separator, could be used to measure rare nuclear reactions relevant for nuclear astrophysics. In particular, we will focus on the 22Ne(α, n)25Mg reaction, which is an important source of neutrons for the s-process. Noble gas solids are an attractive medium because they are optically transparent and provide efficient, pure, stable, & chemically inert confinement for a wide variety of atomic and molecular species. Atoms embedded inside of noble gas solids have a fluorescence spectrum that is often significantly shifted from its absorption spectrum. This makes possible the detection of individual fluorescence photons against a background of intense excitation light, which can be suppressed using the appropriate optical filters. We will report on our efforts to optically detect single Yb atoms in solid Ne. Yb is an ideal candidate for initial studies because it emits a strong green fluorescence when excited by blue light and it has an atomic structure that very closely resembles that of Mg. This work is supported by funds from Michigan State University.

  13. Evaluation of atomic constants for optical radiation, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylstra, C. D.; Schneider, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Atomic constants for optical radiation are discussed which include transition probabilities, line strengths, and oscillator strengths for both dipole and quadrupole transitions, as well as the associated matrix elements needed for line broadening calculations. Atomic constants were computed for a wide selection of elements and lines. An existing computer program was used, with modifications to include, in an approximate manner, the effect of equivalent electrons, and to enable reordering and restructuring of the output for publication. This program is suitable for fast, low cost computation of the optical constants, using the Coulomb approximation formalism for LS coupling.

  14. Generating and probing entangled states for optical atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    The precision of quantum measurements is inherently limited by projection noise caused by the measurement process itself. Spin squeezing and more complex forms of entanglement have been proposed as ways of surpassing this limitation. In our system, a high-finesse asymmetric micromirror-based optical cavity can mediate the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating entanglement in an 171 Yb optical lattice clock. I will discuss approaches for creating, characterizing, and optimally utilizing these nonclassical states for precision measurement, as well as recent progress toward their realization. This research is supported by DARPA QuASAR, NSF, and NSERC.

  15. Atom-loss-induced quantum optical bi-stability switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Bao-Jun; Cui Fu-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a system composed of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate and an optical cavity with the two sides coupled dispersively.By adopting discrete-mode approximation for the condensate,taking atom loss as a necessary part of the model to analyze the evolution of the system,while using trial and errormethod to find out steady states of the system as a reference,numerical simulation demonstrates that with a constant pump,atom loss will trigger a quantum optical bi-stability switch,which predicts a new interesting phenomenon for experiments to verify.

  16. Super-resolution microscopy of single atoms in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Andrea; Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Karski, Michał; Reimann, René; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    We report on image processing techniques and experimental procedures to determine the lattice-site positions of single atoms in an optical lattice with high reliability, even for limited acquisition time or optical resolution. Determining the positions of atoms beyond the diffraction limit relies on parametric deconvolution in close analogy to methods employed in super-resolution microscopy. We develop a deconvolution method that makes effective use of the prior knowledge of the optical transfer function, noise properties, and discreteness of the optical lattice. We show that accurate knowledge of the image formation process enables a dramatic improvement on the localization reliability. This allows us to demonstrate super-resolution of the atoms’ position in closely packed ensembles where the separation between particles cannot be directly optically resolved. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimental methods to precisely reconstruct the point spread function with sub-pixel resolution from fluorescence images of single atoms, and we give a mathematical foundation thereof. We also discuss discretized image sampling in pixel detectors and provide a quantitative model of noise sources in electron multiplying CCD cameras. The techniques developed here are not only beneficial to neutral atom experiments, but could also be employed to improve the localization precision of trapped ions for ultra precise force sensing.

  17. Quasi-Magic optical traps for Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S; Saffman, M

    2011-01-01

    We propose blue-detuned optical traps that are suitable for trapping of both ground state and Rydberg excited atoms. Addition of a background compensation field or suitable choice of the trap geometry provides a magic trapping condition for ground and Rydberg atoms at the trap center. Deviations from the magic condition at finite temperature are calculated. Designs that achieve less than 200 kHz differential trap shift between Cs ground and 125s Rydberg states for 10 {\\mu}K Cs atoms are presented. Consideration of the trapping potential and photoionization rates

  18. Triangular and honeycomb lattices of cold atoms in optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Shabnam; Miniatura, Christian; Grémaud, Benoît.

    2015-10-01

    We consider a two-dimensional homogeneous ensemble of cold bosonic atoms loaded inside two optical cavities and pumped by a far-detuned external laser field. We examine the conditions for these atoms to self-organize into triangular and honeycomb lattices as a result of superradiance. By collectively scattering the pump photons, the atoms feed the initially empty cavity modes. As a result, the superposition of the pump and cavity fields creates a space-periodic light-shift external potential and atoms self-organize into the potential wells of this optical lattice. Depending on the phase of the cavity fields with respect to the pump laser, these minima can either form a triangular or a hexagonal lattice. By numerically solving the dynamical equations of the coupled atom-cavity system, we have shown that the two stable atomic structures at long times are the triangular lattice and the honeycomb lattice with equally populated sites. We have also studied how to drive atoms from one lattice structure to another by dynamically changing the phase of the cavity fields with respect to the pump laser.

  19. Edge Transport in 2D Cold Atom Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    V. W. Scarola; Sarma, S. Das

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically study the observable response of edge currents in two dimensional cold atom optical lattices. As an example we use Gutzwiller mean-field theory to relate persistent edge currents surrounding a Mott insulator in a slowly rotating trapped Bose-Hubbard system to time of flight measurements. We briefly discuss an application, the detection of Chern number using edge currents of a topologically ordered optical lattice insulator.

  20. Optical bistability and multistability via atomic coherence in the quasi-Λ-type atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state optical bistability(OB) and optical multistability(OM) behavior in the quasi——type atomic system driven by a probe field and a coherent coupling field inside a unidirectional ring cavity are shown,and the effects of coupling-field detuning and coupling-field intensity on the OB and OM behavior are investigated. The transition from OB to OM or vice versa is found by varying the detuning of the coherent coupling field or by adjusting the intensity of the coupling field. The influence of the atomic cooperation parameter on the OM behavior is also discussed.

  1. Atomic processes in optically thin plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastra, Jelle S.; Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; Mehdipour, Missagh; Raassen, Ton; Urdampilleta, Igone

    2016-10-01

    The Universe contains a broad range of plasmas with quite different properties depending on distinct physical processes. In this contribution we give an overview of recent developments in modeling such plasmas with a focus on X-ray emission and absorption. Despite the fact that such plasmas have been investigated already for decades, and that overall there is a good understanding of the basic processes, there are still areas, where improvements have to be made that are important for the analysis of astrophysical plasmas. We present recent work on the update of atomic parameters in the codes that describe the emission from collisional plasmas, where older approximations are being replaced now by more accurate data. Further we discuss the development of models for photo-ionised plasmas in the context of outflows around supermassive black holes and models for charge transfer that are needed for analyzing the data from the upcoming ASTRO-H satellite.

  2. Detecting atoms trapped in an optical lattice using a tapered optical nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, T; Busch, Th

    2014-12-29

    Optical detection of structures with dimensions smaller than an optical wavelength requires devices that work on scales beyond the diffraction limit. Here we present the possibility of using a tapered optical nanofiber as a detector to resolve individual atoms trapped in an optical lattice in the Mott insulator phase. We show that the small size of the fiber combined with an enhanced photon collection rate can allow for the attainment of large and reliable measurement signals.

  3. Quantum state preparation using multi-level-atom optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Th [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Deasy, K [Photonics Centre, Tyndall National Institute, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Chormaic, S Nic [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2007-10-15

    One of the most important characteristics for controlling processes on the quantum scale is the fidelity or robustness of the techniques being used. In the case of single atoms localized in micro-traps, it was recently shown that the use of time-dependent tunnelling interactions in a multi-trap setup can be viewed as analogous to the area of multi-level optics. The atom's centre-of-mass can then be controlled with a high fidelity, using a STIRAP-type process. Here, we review previous work that led to the development of multi-level atom optics and present two examples of our most recent work on quantum state preparation.

  4. Quantum state preparation using multi-level-atom optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Th; Deasy, K.; Chormaic, S. Nic

    2007-10-01

    One of the most important characteristics for controlling processes on the quantum scale is the fidelity or robustness of the techniques being used. In the case of single atoms localized in micro-traps, it was recently shown that the use of time-dependent tunnelling interactions in a multi-trap setup can be viewed as analogous to the area of multi-level optics. The atom's centre-of-mass can then be controlled with a high fidelity, using a STIRAP-type process. Here, we review previous work that led to the development of multi-level atom optics and present two examples of our most recent work on quantum state preparation.

  5. Electrical and optical characterization of atomically thin WS₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Thanasis; Yang, Huafeng; Jalil, Rashid; Chapman, James; Novoselov, Kostya S; Mishchenko, Artem

    2014-07-21

    Atomically thin layers of materials, which are just a few atoms in thickness, present an attractive option for future electronic devices. Herein we characterize, optically and electronically, atomically thin tungsten disulphide (WS2), a layered semiconductor. We provide the distinctive Raman and photoluminescence signatures for single layers, and prepare field-effect transistors where atomically thin WS2 serves as the conductive channel. The transistors present mobilities μ = 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and exhibit ON/OFF ratios exceeding 100,000. Our results show that WS2 is an attractive option for applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and pave the way for further studies in this two-dimensional material.

  6. State-selective all-optical detection of Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Karlewski, Florian; Grimmel, Jens; Sándor, Nóra; Fortágh, and József

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-optical protocol for detecting population in a selected Rydberg state of alkali atoms. The detection scheme is based on the interaction of an ensemble of ultracold atoms with two laser pulses: one weak probe pulse which is resonant with the transition between the ground state and the first excited state, and a pulse with high intensity which couples the first excited state to the selected Rydberg state. We show that by monitoring the absorption signal of the probe laser over time, one can deduce the initial population of the Rydberg state. Furthermore, it is shown that - for suitable experimental conditions - the dynamical absorption curve contains information on the initial coherence between the ground state and the selected Rydberg state. We present the results of a proof-of-principle measurement performed on a cold gas of $^{87}$Rb atoms. The method is expected to find application in quantum computing protocols based on Rydberg atoms.

  7. Counting atoms using interaction blockade in an optical superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheinet, P; Trotzky, S; Feld, M; Schnorrberger, U; Moreno-Cardoner, M; Fölling, S; Bloch, I

    2008-08-29

    We report on the observation of an interaction blockade effect for ultracold atoms in optical lattices, analogous to the Coulomb blockade observed in mesoscopic solid state systems. When the lattice sites are converted into biased double wells, we detect a discrete set of steps in the well population for increasing bias potentials. These correspond to tunneling resonances where the atom number on each side of the barrier changes one by one. This allows us to count and control the number of atoms within a given well. By evaluating the amplitude of the different plateaus, we can fully determine the number distribution of the atoms in the lattice, which we demonstrate for the case of a superfluid and Mott insulating regime of 87Rb.

  8. Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms; Horloge a reseau optique a atomes de strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillard, X

    2008-01-15

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr{sup 87} using the {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr{sup 87} atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10{sup -15} and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10{sup -15} level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr{sup 88} by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10{sup -14}. (author)

  9. Laser and Optical Subsystem for NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohel, James; Kellogg, James; Elliott, Ethan; Krutzik, Markus; Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We describe the design and validation of the laser and optics subsystem for NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), a multi-user facility being developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for studies of ultra-cold quantum gases in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station. Ultra-cold atoms will be generated in CAL by employing a combination of laser cooling techniques and evaporative cooling in a microchip-based magnetic trap. Laser cooling and absorption imaging detection of bosonic mixtures of 87 Rb and 39 K or 41 K will be accomplished using a high-power (up to 500 mW ex-fiber), frequency-agile dual wavelength (767 nm and 780 nm) laser and optical subsystem. The CAL laser and optical subsystem also includes the capability to generate high-power multi-frequency optical pulses at 784.87 nm to realize a dual-species Bragg atom interferometer. Currently at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

  10. Cold atoms in optical lattices a Hamiltonian ratchet

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, T S; Hutchings, N A C; Isherwood, M R

    2002-01-01

    We investigate a new type of quantum ratchet which may be realised by cold atoms in a double-well optical lattice which is pulsed with unequal periods. The classical dynamics is chaotic and we find the classical diffusion rate $D$ is asymmetric in momentum up to a finite time $t_r$. The quantum behaviour produces a corresponding asymmetry in the momentum distribution which is 'frozen-in' by Dynamical Localisation provided the break-time $t^* > t_r$. We conclude that the cold atom ratchets require $Db/ \\hbar \\sim 1$ where b is a small deviation from period-one pulses.

  11. Stability comparison of two absolute gravimeters: optical versus atomic interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Gillot, Pierre; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Merlet, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    We report the direct comparison between the stabilities of two mobile absolute gravimeters of different technology: the LNE-SYRTE Cold Atom Gravimeter and FG5X\\#216 of the Universit\\'e du Luxembourg. These instruments rely on two different principles of operation: atomic and optical interferometry. The comparison took place in the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics in Luxembourg, at the beginning of the last International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters, ICAG-2013. We analyse a 2h10 duration common measurement, and find that the CAG shows better immunity with respect to changes in the level of vibration noise, as well as a slightly better short term stability.

  12. Energy spectrum of fermionized bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Han; Haichao Zhang; Yuzhu Wang

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum of fermionized bosonic atoms, which behave very much like spinless noninteracting fermions, in optical lattices by means of the perturbation expansion and the retarded Green's function method. The results show that the energy spectrum splits into two energy bands with single-occupation; the fermionized bosonic atom occupies nonvanishing energy state and left hole has a vanishing energy at any given momentum, and the system is in Mott-insulating state with a energy gap.Using the characteristic of energy spectra we obtained a criterion with which one can judge whether the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas is achieved or not.

  13. Simulating quantum-optical phenomena with cold atoms in optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos [Departament d' Optica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Vega, Ines de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Porras, Diego [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ignacio Cirac, J, E-mail: carlos.navarrete@uv.es, E-mail: ines.devega@uni-ulm.de, E-mail: diego.porras@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: ignacio.cirac@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    We propose a scheme involving cold atoms trapped in optical lattices to observe different phenomena traditionally linked to quantum-optical systems. The basic idea consists of connecting the trapped atomic state to a non-trapped state through a Raman scheme. The coupling between these two types of atoms (trapped and free) turns out to be similar to that describing light-matter interaction within the rotating-wave approximation, the role of matter and photons being played by the trapped and free atoms, respectively. We explain in particular how to observe phenomena arising from the collective spontaneous emission of atomic and harmonic oscillator samples, such as superradiance and directional emission. We also show how the same setup can simulate Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonians with extended hopping as well as Ising models with long-range interactions. We believe that this system can be realized with state of the art technology.

  14. Topological Quantum Optics in Two-Dimensional Atomic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, J.; Borregaard, J.; Chang, D. E.; Pichler, H.; Yelin, S. F.; Zoller, P.; Lukin, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate that two-dimensional atomic emitter arrays with subwavelength spacing constitute topologically protected quantum optical systems where the photon propagation is robust against large imperfections while losses associated with free space emission are strongly suppressed. Breaking time-reversal symmetry with a magnetic field results in gapped photonic bands with nontrivial Chern numbers and topologically protected, long-lived edge states. Due to the inherent nonlinearity of constituent emitters, such systems provide a platform for exploring quantum optical analogs of interacting topological systems.

  15. Hanbury Brown and Twiss and other atom-atom correlations: advances in quantum atom optics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago, two astronomers, R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, invented a new method to measure the angular diameter of stars, in spite of the atmospheric fluctuations. Their proposal prompted a hot debate among physicists : how might two particles (photons), emitted independently (at opposite extremities of a star) , behave in a correlated way when detected ? It was only after the development of R Glauber's full quantum analysis that the effect was understood as a two particle quantum interference effect. From a modern perspective, it can be viewed as an early example of the amazing properties of pairs of entangled particles. The effect has now been observed with bosonic and fermionic atoms, stressing its fully quantum character. After putting these experiments in a historical perspective, I will present recent results, and comment on their significance. I will also show how our single atom detection scheme has allowed us to demonstrate the creation of atom pairs by non linear mixing of matter wa...

  16. Gravitational wave detection with optical lattice atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kolkowitz, Shimon; Langellier, Nicholas; Lukin, Mikhail D; Walsworth, Ronald L; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a space-based gravitational wave detector consisting of two spatially separated, drag-free satellites sharing ultra-stable optical laser light over a single baseline. Each satellite contains an optical lattice atomic clock, which serves as a sensitive, narrowband detector of the local frequency of the shared laser light. A synchronized two-clock comparison between the satellites will be sensitive to the effective Doppler shifts induced by incident gravitational waves (GWs) at a level competitive with other proposed space-based GW detectors, while providing complementary features. The detected signal is a differential frequency shift of the shared laser light due to the relative velocity of the satellites, rather than a phase shift arising from the relative satellite positions, and the detection window can be tuned through the control sequence applied to the atoms' internal states. This scheme enables the detection of GWs from continuous, spectrally narrow sources, such as compact binary inspirals, ...

  17. Searching for dark matter with optical atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislo, Piotr; Bober, Marcin; Cygan, Agata; Lisak, Daniel; Ciurylo, Roman; Zawada, Michal

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions of modern physics is the existence of yet unknown forms of matter and interactions. The total mass density of the Universe appears to be dominated by some hypothetical dark matter (DM). However, beyond its gravitational interaction at galactic scale, little is known about the DM nature and properties. One possibility is that it has a form of stable topological defects built from light scalar fields which, for nonzero DM-SM coupling, would result in transient variations of fundamental constants. Optical atomic clocks, highly sensitive to variations of the fine-structure constant, seem to be natural candidates for such searches. Here we demonstrate the first experimental constraint on the strength of transient DM-SM coupling determined with optical atomic clocks. Instead of measuring the phase difference between two distant clocks we determine a common component of their readouts. We show that our constraint, even for one-day measurement, greatly exceeds previous laboratory...

  18. Optical detection of the quantization of collective atomic motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahms, Nathan; Botter, Thierry; Schreppler, Sydney; Brooks, Daniel W C; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2012-03-30

    We directly measure the quantized collective motion of a gas of thousands of ultracold atoms, coupled to light in a high-finesse optical cavity. We detect strong asymmetries, as high as 3:1, in the intensity of light scattered into low- and high-energy motional sidebands. Owing to high cavity-atom cooperativity, the optical output of the cavity contains a spectroscopic record of the energy exchanged between light and motion, directly quantifying the heat deposited by a quantum position measurement's backaction. Such backaction selectively causes the phonon occupation of the observed collective modes to increase with the measurement rate. These results, in addition to providing a method for calibrating the motion of low-occupation mechanical systems, offer new possibilities for investigating collective modes of degenerate gases and for diagnosing optomechanical measurement backaction.

  19. Magneto-optical trap for neutral mercury atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hong-Li; Yin Shi-Qi; Liu Kang-Kang; Qian Jun; Xu Zhen; Hong Tao; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Due to its low sensitivity to blackbody radiation,neutral mercury is a good candidate for the most accurate optical lattice clock.Here we report the observation of cold mercury atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT).Because of the high vapor pressure at room temperature,the mercury source and the cold pump were cooled down to-40 ℃ and-70 ℃,respectively,to keep the science chamber in an ultra-high vacuum of 6× 10-9 Pa.Limited by the power of the UV cooling laser,the one beam folded MOT configuration was adopted,and 1.5× 105 Hg-202 atoms were observed by fluorescence detection.

  20. Bottle atom trapping configuration by optical dipole forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Aldossary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bottle beam configuration is a light field created by the interference of a pair of Laguerre–Gauss light beams with zero orbital angular momentum. In this work we show the theoretical study of the bottle beam as well as the use of this beam for the creation of a novel atom optical dipole trap namely the bottle atom trap. In such a trap the resulting dark trapping region is three-dimensional and has a cylindrical symmetry. These promising results show that this trap is a nice candidate for trapping Bose–Einstein condensates and may serve as an optical tweezer mechanism potentially useful for trapping micron-sized dielectric particles.

  1. An atom interferometer with a shaken optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Weidner, C A; Kosloff, Ronnie; Anderson, and Dana Z

    2016-01-01

    We introduce shaken lattice interferometry with atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The atoms undergo an interferometer sequence of splitting, propagation, reflection, and recombination by phase modulation of the lattice through a sequence of shaking functions. Each function in the sequence is determined by a learning procedure that is implemented with a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations determine the momentum state of the atoms, which is experimentally accessible with time-of-flight imaging. The shaking function is then optimized to achieve the desired state transitions. The sensitivity of the interferometer to perturbations such as those introduced by inertial forces scales the same way as for conventional matter wave interferometers. The shaken lattice interferometer may be optimized to sense signals of interest while rejecting others, such as the measurement of an AC signal while rejecting a DC bias.

  2. Remote atomic clock synchronization via satellites and optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Piester, D; Fujieda, M; Feldmann, T; Bauch, A

    2011-01-01

    In the global network of institutions engaged with the realization of International Atomic Time (TAI), atomic clocks and time scales are compared by means of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and by employing telecommunication satellites for two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT). The frequencies of the state-of-the-art primary caesium fountain clocks can be compared at the level of 10e-15 (relative, 1 day averaging) and time scales can be synchronized with an uncertainty of one nanosecond. Future improvements of worldwide clock comparisons will require also an improvement of the local signal distribution systems. For example, the future ACES (atomic clock ensemble in space) mission shall demonstrate remote time scale comparisons at the uncertainty level of 100 ps. To ensure that the ACES ground instrument will be synchronized to the local time scale at PTB without a significant uncertainty contribution, we have developed a means for calibrated clock comparisons through optical fibers. An un...

  3. An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Stephan; Nölleke, Christian; Hahn, Carolin; Reiserer, Andreas; Neuzner, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Mücke, Martin; Figueroa, Eden; Bochmann, Joerg; Rempe, Gerhard

    2012-04-11

    Quantum networks are distributed quantum many-body systems with tailored topology and controlled information exchange. They are the backbone of distributed quantum computing architectures and quantum communication. Here we present a prototype of such a quantum network based on single atoms embedded in optical cavities. We show that atom-cavity systems form universal nodes capable of sending, receiving, storing and releasing photonic quantum information. Quantum connectivity between nodes is achieved in the conceptually most fundamental way-by the coherent exchange of a single photon. We demonstrate the faithful transfer of an atomic quantum state and the creation of entanglement between two identical nodes in separate laboratories. The non-local state that is created is manipulated by local quantum bit (qubit) rotation. This efficient cavity-based approach to quantum networking is particularly promising because it offers a clear perspective for scalability, thus paving the way towards large-scale quantum networks and their applications.

  4. An Elementary Quantum Network of Single Atoms in Optical Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Stephan; Hahn, Carolin; Reiserer, Andreas; Neuzner, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Mücke, Martin; Figueroa, Eden; Bochmann, Jörg; Rempe, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Quantum networks are distributed quantum many-body systems with tailored topology and controlled information exchange. They are the backbone of distributed quantum computing architectures and quantum communication. Here we present a prototype of such a quantum network based on single atoms embedded in optical cavities. We show that atom-cavity systems form universal nodes capable of sending, receiving, storing and releasing photonic quantum information. Quantum connectivity between nodes is achieved in the conceptually most fundamental way: by the coherent exchange of a single photon. We demonstrate the faithful transfer of an atomic quantum state and the creation of entanglement between two identical nodes in independent laboratories. The created nonlocal state is manipulated by local qubit rotation. This efficient cavity-based approach to quantum networking is particularly promising as it offers a clear perspective for scalability, thus paving the way towards large-scale quantum networks and their applicati...

  5. Optical dipole trapping of radium atoms for EDM search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, W. L.; Sulai, I. A.; Parker, R. H.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Singh, J.

    2010-03-01

    We are developing an EDM search based on laser-cooled and trapped Ra-225 (half-life = 15 d) atoms. Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, Ra-225 is predicted to be 2-3 orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than Hg-199, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. Recently, we have succeeded in transferring Ra-226 atoms from a MOT into an optical dipole trap formed by a fiber laser beam at 1550 nm. For the EDM measurement, the cold atoms will be moved into the neighboring vacuum chamber inside magnetic shields where a pair of electrodes apply a 10 kV cm-1electric field. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Quantum simulations with ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel

    2017-09-08

    Quantum simulation, a subdiscipline of quantum computation, can provide valuable insight into difficult quantum problems in physics or chemistry. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices represent an ideal platform for simulations of quantum many-body problems. Within this setting, quantum gas microscopes enable single atom observation and manipulation in large samples. Ultracold atom-based quantum simulators have already been used to probe quantum magnetism, to realize and detect topological quantum matter, and to study quantum systems with controlled long-range interactions. Experiments on many-body systems out of equilibrium have also provided results in regimes unavailable to the most advanced supercomputers. We review recent experimental progress in this field and comment on future directions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Unconditional preparation of entanglement between atoms in cascaded optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, S; Gu, M; Parkins, S; Clark, Stephen; Peng, Amy; Gu, Mile; Parkins, Scott

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to unconditionally entangle the internal states of atoms trapped in separate high finesse optical cavities. The scheme uses the technique of quantum reservoir engineering in a cascaded cavity QED setting, and for ideal (lossless) coupling between the cavities generates an entangled pure state. Highly entangled states are also shown to be possible for realizable cavity QED parameters and with nonideal coupling.

  8. Unconditional preparation of entanglement between atoms in cascaded optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephen; Peng, Amy; Gu, Mile; Parkins, Scott

    2003-10-24

    We propose a scheme to unconditionally entangle the internal states of atoms trapped in separate high-finesse optical cavities. The scheme uses the technique of quantum reservoir engineering in a cascaded cavity-QED setting, and for ideal (lossless) coupling between the cavities generates an entangled pure state. Highly entangled states are also shown to be possible for realizable cavity-QED parameters and with nonideal coupling.

  9. Optical Microcavity: Sensing down to Single Molecules and Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Su

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses fundamentals of dielectric, low-loss, optical micro-resonator sensing, including figures of merit and a variety of microcavity designs, and future perspectives in microcavity-based optical sensing. Resonance frequency and quality (Q factor are altered as a means of detecting a small system perturbation, resulting in realization of optical sensing of a small amount of sample materials, down to even single molecules. Sensitivity, Q factor, minimum detectable index change, noises (in sensor system components and microcavity system including environments, microcavity size, and mode volume are essential parameters to be considered for optical sensing applications. Whispering gallery mode, photonic crystal, and slot-type microcavities typically provide compact, high-quality optical resonance modes for optical sensing applications. Surface Bloch modes induced on photonic crystals are shown to be a promising candidate thanks to large field overlap with a sample and ultra-high-Q resonances. Quantum optics effects based on microcavity quantum electrodynamics (QED would provide novel single-photo-level detection of even single atoms and molecules via detection of doublet vacuum Rabi splitting peaks in strong coupling.

  10. Optical microcavity: sensing down to single molecules and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Tomoyuki; Tang, Lingling; Su, Shu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This review article discusses fundamentals of dielectric, low-loss, optical micro-resonator sensing, including figures of merit and a variety of microcavity designs, and future perspectives in microcavity-based optical sensing. Resonance frequency and quality (Q) factor are altered as a means of detecting a small system perturbation, resulting in realization of optical sensing of a small amount of sample materials, down to even single molecules. Sensitivity, Q factor, minimum detectable index change, noises (in sensor system components and microcavity system including environments), microcavity size, and mode volume are essential parameters to be considered for optical sensing applications. Whispering gallery mode, photonic crystal, and slot-type microcavities typically provide compact, high-quality optical resonance modes for optical sensing applications. Surface Bloch modes induced on photonic crystals are shown to be a promising candidate thanks to large field overlap with a sample and ultra-high-Q resonances. Quantum optics effects based on microcavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) would provide novel single-photo-level detection of even single atoms and molecules via detection of doublet vacuum Rabi splitting peaks in strong coupling.

  11. Editorial . Quantum fluctuations and coherence in optical and atomic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschner, Jürgen; Gatti, Alessandra; Maître, Agnès; Morigi, Giovanna

    2003-03-01

    From simple interference fringes, over molecular wave packets, to nonlinear optical patterns - the fundamental interaction between light and matter leads to the formation of structures in many areas of atomic and optical physics. Sophisticated technology in experimental quantum optics, as well as modern computational tools available to theorists, have led to spectacular achievements in the investigation of quantum structures. This special issue is dedicated to recent developments in this area. It presents a selection of examples where quantum dynamics, fluctuations, and coherence generate structures in time or in space or where such structures are observed experimentally. The examples range from coherence phenomena in condensed matter, over atoms in optical structures, entanglement in light and matter, to quantum patterns in nonlinear optics and quantum imaging. The combination of such seemingly diverse subjects formed the basis of a successful European TMR network, "Quantum Structures" (visit http://cnqo.phys.strath.ac.uk/~gianluca/QSTRUCT/). This special issue partly re.ects the results and collaborations of the network, going however well beyond its scope by including contributions from a global community and from many related topics which were not addressed directly in the network. The aim of this issue is to present side by side these di.erent topics, all of which are loosely summarized under quantum structures, to highlight their common aspects, their di.erences, and the progress which resulted from the mutual exchange of results, methods, and knowledge. To guide the reader, we have organized the articles into subsections which follow a rough division into structures in material systems and structures in optical .elds. Nevertheless, in the following introduction we point out connections between the contributions which go beyond these usual criteria, thus highlighting the truly interdisciplinary nature of quantum structures. Much of the progress in atom optics

  12. Arrays of microscopic magnetic traps for cold atoms and their applications in atom optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印建平; 高伟建; 胡建军

    2002-01-01

    A single microscopic magnetic trap for neutral atoms using planar current-carrying wires was proposed and studiedtheoretically by Weinstein et al. In this paper, we propose three structures of composite current-carrying wires to provide1D, 2D and 3D arrays of microscopic magnetic traps for cold alkali atoms. The spatial distributions of magnetic fieldsgenerated by these structures are calculated and the field gradient and curvature in each single microtrap are analysed.Our study shows that arrays of microscopic magnetic traps can be used to provide 1D, 2D or 3D atomic magneticlattices, and even to realize 1D, 2D and 3D arrays of magneto-optical traps, and so on.

  13. Extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensen, Ole

    2015-06-05

    In this thesis, the phase diagrams and dynamics of various extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices are studied. Hubbard models are the primary description for many interacting particles in periodic potentials with the paramount example of the electrons in solids. The very same models describe the behavior of ultracold quantum gases trapped in the periodic potentials generated by interfering beams of laser light. These optical lattices provide an unprecedented access to the fundamentals of the many-particle physics that govern the properties of solid-state materials. They can be used to simulate solid-state systems and validate the approximations and simplifications made in theoretical models. This thesis revisits the numerous approximations underlying the standard Hubbard models with special regard to optical lattice experiments. The incorporation of the interaction between particles on adjacent lattice sites leads to extended Hubbard models. Offsite interactions have a strong influence on the phase boundaries and can give rise to novel correlated quantum phases. The extended models are studied with the numerical methods of exact diagonalization and time evolution, a cluster Gutzwiller approximation, as well as with the strong-coupling expansion approach. In total, this thesis demonstrates the high relevance of beyond-Hubbard processes for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Extended Hubbard models can be employed to tackle unexplained problems of solid-state physics as well as enter previously inaccessible regimes.

  14. Fluorescence spectra of atomic ensembles in a magneto-optical trap as an optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Seokchan; Kang, Sungsam; Kim, Wook-Rae; Kim, Jung-Ryul; An, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) as an optical lattice. Fluorescence spectra of atoms trapped in a MOT with a passively phase-stabilized beam configuration have been measured by means of the photon-counting heterodyne spectroscopy. We observe a narrow Rayleigh peak and well-resolved Raman sidebands in the fluorescence spectra which clearly show that the MOT itself behaves as a three-dimensional optical lattice. Optical-lattice-like properties of the phase-stabilized MOT such as vibrational frequencies and lineshapes of Rayleigh peak and Raman sidebands are investigated systematically for various trap conditions.

  15. Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions of 87Rb atoms in an optical nanofiber trap

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J; Hoffman, J E; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate optical trapping of 87Rb atoms using a two-color evanescent field around an optical nanofiber. In our trapping geometry, a blue-detuned traveling wave whose polarization is nearly parallel to the polarization of a red-detuned standing wave produce significant vector light shifts that lead to broadening of the absorption profile of a near-resonant beam at the trapping site. A model that includes scalar, vector, and tensor light shifts of the probe transition $5S_{1/2}$-$5P_{3/2}$ from the trapping beams; weighted by the temperature-dependent position of the atoms in the trap qualitatively describe the observed asymmetric profile, and explained differences with previous experiments that used Cs atoms. The model provides a consistent way to extract the number of atoms in the trap.

  16. Scalar magnetometers for space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz

    A survey of existing instrumentation and developments is presented emphasizing instrumentation for in-flight calibration of vector magnetometers on magnetic mapping missions. Proton free or forced precession magnetometers are at the focus as calibration references, because the proton gyromagnetic...

  17. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three orthogonal flux-gate magnetometer elements, (spinning twin fluxgate magnetometer prior to GOES-8) provide magnetic field measurements in three mutually...

  18. Theory of Atom Optics: Feynman's Path Integral Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Lü-bi

    2006-01-01

    The present theory of atom optics is established mainly on the Schr(o)dinger equations or the matrix mechanics equation.The authors present a new theoretical formulation of atom optics: Feynman's path integral theory.Its advantage is that one can describe the diffraction and interference of atoms passing through slits (or grating),apertures,and standing wave laser field in Earth's gravitational field by using a type of wave function and calculation is simple.For this reason,we derive the wave functions of particles in the following configurations: single slit (and slit with the van der Waals interaction),double slit,N slit,rectangular aperture,circular aperture,the Mach-Zehndertype interferometer,the interferometer with the Raman beams,the Sagnac effect,the Aharonov-Casher effect,the Kapitza-Dirac diffraction effect,and the Aharonov-Bohm effect.The authors give a wave function of the state of particles on the screen in abovementioned configurations.Our formulas show good agreement with present experimental measurements.

  19. Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of polymeric carboxyl phthalocyanine coordinated with rare earth atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Zonghua; Chen, Jishi; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Fushi

    2017-04-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of the polymeric carboxyl phthalocyanine with lanthanum (LaPPc.COOH), holmium (HoPPc.COOH) and ytterbium (YbPPc.COOH) as centric atom, were investigated by the Z-scan method using a picosecond 532 nm laser. The synthesized phthalocyanines had steric polymeric structure and dissolved well in aqueous solution. The nonlinear optical response of them was attributed to the reverse saturable absorption and self-focus refraction. The nonlinear absorption properties decreased with the centric atoms changing from La, Ho to Yb. The largest second-order hyperpolarizability and optical limiting response threshold of LaPPc.COOH were 3.89 × 10-29 esu and 0.32 J/cm2, respectively. The reverse saturable absorption was explained by a three level mode of singlet excited state under the picosecond irradiation. The result indicates the steric structure presented additive stability of these polymeric phthalocyanines for their application as potential optical limiting materials.

  20. The atom in an intense optical field (2nd revised and enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delone, N. B.; Krainov, V. P.

    The basic features characterizing multiphoton processes are examined, and descriptions are given of such phenomena as the multiphoton ionization of atoms, multiphoton resonance, and the perturbation of the bound-state spectrum in atoms in an optical field. The design of an experiment for measuring the interaction of laser radiation with atoms is proposed. Particular attention is given to nonlinear atomic susceptibilities, the effect of multifrequency laser radiation, and the behavior of highly excited atoms in an intense optical field.

  1. Atom in an intense optical field (2nd revised and enlarged edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delone, N.B.; Krainov, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    The basic features characterizing multiphoton processes are examined, and descriptions are given of such phenomena as the multiphoton ionization of atoms, multiphoton resonance, and the perturbation of the bound-state spectrum in atoms in an optical field. The design of an experiment for measuring the interaction of laser radiation with atoms is proposed. Particular attention is given to nonlinear atomic susceptibilities, the effect of multifrequency laser radiation, and the behavior of highly excited atoms in an intense optical field.

  2. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Dearborn, D.; Fischer, D.; Le, G.; Leinweber, H. K.; Leneman, D.; Magnes, W.; Means, J. D.; Moldwin, M. B.; Nakamura, R.; Pierce, D.; Plaschke, F.; Rowe, K. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R.; Hagen, C.; Jernej, I.; Valavanoglou, A.; Richter, I.

    2016-03-01

    The success of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission depends on the accurate measurement of the magnetic field on all four spacecraft. To ensure this success, two independently designed and built fluxgate magnetometers were developed, avoiding single-point failures. The magnetometers were dubbed the digital fluxgate (DFG), which uses an ASIC implementation and was supplied by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the analogue magnetometer (AFG) with a more traditional circuit board design supplied by the University of California, Los Angeles. A stringent magnetic cleanliness program was executed under the supervision of the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory. To achieve mission objectives, the calibration determined on the ground will be refined in space to ensure all eight magnetometers are precisely inter-calibrated. Near real-time data plays a key role in the transmission of high-resolution observations stored on board so rapid processing of the low-resolution data is required. This article describes these instruments, the magnetic cleanliness program, and the instrument pre-launch calibrations, the planned in-flight calibration program, and the information flow that provides the data on the rapid time scale needed for mission success.

  3. Deterministic quantum nonlinear optics with single atoms and virtual photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockum, Anton Frisk; Miranowicz, Adam; Macrı, Vincenzo; Savasta, Salvatore; Nori, Franco

    2017-06-01

    We show how analogs of a large number of well-known nonlinear-optics phenomena can be realized with one or more two-level atoms coupled to one or more resonator modes. Through higher-order processes, where virtual photons are created and annihilated, an effective deterministic coupling between two states of such a system can be created. In this way, analogs of three-wave mixing, four-wave mixing, higher-harmonic and -subharmonic generation (i.e., up- and down-conversion), multiphoton absorption, parametric amplification, Raman and hyper-Raman scattering, the Kerr effect, and other nonlinear processes can be realized. In contrast to most conventional implementations of nonlinear optics, these analogs can reach unit efficiency, only use a minimal number of photons (they do not require any strong external drive), and do not require more than two atomic levels. The strength of the effective coupling in our proposed setups becomes weaker the more intermediate transition steps are needed. However, given the recent experimental progress in ultrastrong light-matter coupling and improvement of coherence times for engineered quantum systems, especially in the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics, we estimate that many of these nonlinear-optics analogs can be realized with currently available technology.

  4. Nonlinear optical properties of atomic vapor and semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Doseok [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    This thesis contains the study of highly forbidden resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) in atomic potassium vapor using tunable picosecond pulses. Various output characteristics of vapor SHG have been investigated including the input intensity dependence, potassium vapor density dependence, buffer gas pressure dependence, and spatial profile. Recently, the discovery of new nonlinear optical crystals such as barium borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO) and lithium borate (LiB3O5, LBO) has greatly improved the performance of a tunable coherent optical devices based on optical parametric generation and amplification. In the second part of this thesis, a homebuilt picosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier (OPG/OPA) system is described in detail, including its construction details and output characteristics. This laser device has found many useful applications in spectroscopic studies including surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy via sum-frequency generation (SFG). The last part of this thesis reports studies on multiphoton-excited photoluminescence from porous silicon and GaN. Multiphoton excitation and photoluminescence can give numerous complementary information about semiconductors not obtainable with one-photon, above-bandgap excitation.

  5. Single atom visibility in STEM optical depth sectioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Findlay, Scott D.; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    The continuing development of aberration correctors for the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) offers the possibility of locating single atoms in crystals in 3D via optical depth sectioning. The main factors that determine the feasibility of such an approach are visibility and dose requirements. Here, we show how Poisson's statistics can be quantitatively incorporated into STEM image simulations and demonstrate that the 3D location of single cerium atoms in wurtzite-type aluminum nitride is indeed feasible under large-angle illumination conditions with a relatively low dose. We also show that chromatic aberration does not presently represent a limitation provided a cold field emission source is used. These results suggest efforts into improved aberration corrector designs for larger illumination angles that offer significant potential for 3D structure determination of materials.

  6. Atomic and Molecular Data for Optical Stellar Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Heiter, U; Asplund, M; Barklem, P S; Bergemann, M; Magrini, L; Masseron, T; Mikolaitis, Š; Pickering, J C; Ruffoni, M P

    2015-01-01

    High-precision spectroscopy of large stellar samples plays a crucial role for several topical issues in astrophysics. Examples include studying the chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way galaxy, tracing the origin of chemical elements, and characterizing planetary host stars. Data are accumulating from instruments that obtain high-quality spectra of stars in the ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelength regions on a routine basis. These instruments are located at ground-based 2- to 10-m class telescopes around the world, in addition to the spectrographs with unique capabilities available at the Hubble Space Telescope. The interpretation of these spectra requires high-quality transition data for numerous species, in particular neutral and singly ionized atoms, and di- or triatomic molecules. We rely heavily on the continuous efforts of laboratory astrophysics groups that produce and improve the relevant experimental and theoretical atomic and molecular data. The compilation of the best available ...

  7. Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications. PMID:23945738

  8. Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles using Optical Nanofibers: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Morrissey, Michael J; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining ground in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension on this work to molecules will be introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for particular applications.

  9. Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Síle Nic Chormaic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications.

  10. PAMOP: Petascale Atomic, Molecular and Optical Collision Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, Brendan M; Pindzola, Michael S; Müller, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Petaflop architectures are currently being utilized efficiently to perform large scale computations in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Collisions. We solve the Schr\\"odinger or Dirac equation for the appropriate collision problem using the R-matrix or R-matrix with pseudo-states approach. We briefly outline the parallel methodology used and implemented for the current suite of Breit-Pauli and DARC codes. In this report, various examples are shown from our theoretical results compared with experimental results obtained from Synchrotron Radiation facilities where the Cray architecture at HLRS is playing an integral part in our computational projects.

  11. Fast transport, atom sample splitting, and single-atom qubit supply in two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps

    CERN Document Server

    Schlosser, Malte; Gierl, Christian; Teichmann, Stephan; Tichelmann, Sascha; Birkl, Gerhard; 10.1088/1367-2630/14/12/123034

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of optical micro-traps created by microoptical elements present a versatile and scalable architecture for neutral atom quantum information processing, quantum simulation, and the manipulation of ultra-cold quantum gases. In this article, we demonstrate advanced capabilities of this approach by introducing novel techniques and functionalities as well as the combined operation of previously separately implemented functions. We introduce piezo-actuator based transport of atom ensembles over distances of more than one trap separation, examine the capabilities of rapid atom transport provided by acousto-optical beam steering, and analyze the adiabaticity limit for atom transport in these configurations. We implement a spatial light modulator with 8-bit transmission control for the per-site adjustment of the trap depth and the number of atoms loaded. We combine single-site addressing, trap depth control, and atom transport in one configuration for demonstrating the splitting of atom ensembles...

  12. Two-dimensional novel optical lattices with multi-well traps for cold atoms or molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfa Lu; Xianming Ji; Jianping Yin

    2006-01-01

    We propose some new schemes to constitute two-dimensional (2D) array of multi-well optical dipole traps for cold atoms (or molecules) by using an optical system consisting of a binary π-phase grating and a 2D array of rectangle microlens. We calculate the intensity distribution of each optical well in 2D array of multi-well traps and its geometric parameters and so on. The proposed 2D array of multi-well traps can be used to form novel 2D optical lattices with cold atoms (or molecules), and form various novel optical crystals with cold atoms (or molecules), or to perform quantum computing and quantum information processing on an atom chip, even to realize an array of all-optical multi-well atomic (or molecular) BoseEinstein condensates (BECs) on an all-optical integrated atom (or molecule) chip.

  13. 基于STM32的铯光泵磁力仪数据采集系统%Data Acquisition System of Cesium Optical-pump Magnetometer Based on STM32

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭俊杰; 陈永泰

    2016-01-01

    文中针对铯光泵磁力仪,设计了一种基于STM32F103ZET6处理器和现场可编辑门阵列(FP-GA)的数据采集系统,实现了对输出信号采集后的高精度测量,并且利用传感器实现了对铯光泵磁力仪的探头姿态检测.文中简要介绍了铯光泵磁力仪的基本原理和系统结构.重点针对数据采集系统的要求,介绍了该系统软件设计思路和具体细节.经过实验验证,系统样机基本工作状态良好,达到设计要求.%Aiming at cesium optical-pump magnetometer, a data acquisition system based on STM32F103ZET6 and FPGA was designed, which realized high precision measurement of the output signal and attitude detection of magnetometer probe by u-sing a sensor . Cesium optical-pump magnetometer measurement principle and system circuit structure were briefly introduced firstly. Then the requirements for the data acquisition system was focused on and how to design the various modules of the circuit was introduced. After that ,the ideas of system software design was analyzed and described in detail .The results show that the da-ta acquisition system is in good working order and can meet design requirements well.

  14. Fourier synthesis of asymmetrical optical potentials for atoms; Fourier-Synthese von asymmetrischen optischen Potentialen fuer Atome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritt, G.

    2007-07-13

    In this work a dissipationless asymmetrical optical potential for cold atoms was produced. In a first step a new type of optical lattice was generated, whose spatial periodicity only corresponds to a quarter of the wavelength of the light used for the generation. This corresponds to the half of the periodicity of a conventional optical lattice, which is formed by the light of the same wavelength. The generation of this new type of optical lattice was reached by the use of two degenerated raman transitions. Virtual processes occur, in which four photons are involved. In conventional optical lattices however virtual two-photon processes occur. By spatially superimposing this optical lattice with a conventional optical lattice an asymmetrical optical potential could be formed. By diffraction of a Bose Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms at the transient activated asymmetrical potential the asymmetrical structure was proven. (orig.)

  15. Open-Loop Control in Quantum Optics: Two-Level Atom in Modulated Optical Field

    CERN Document Server

    Saifullah, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The methods of mathematical control theory are widely used in the modern physics, but still they are less popular in quantum science. We will discuss the aspects of control theory, which are the most useful in applications to the real problems of quantum optics. We apply this technique to control the behavior of the two-level quantum particles (atoms) in the modulated external optical field in the frame of the so called "semi classical model", where quantum two-level atomic system (all other levels are neglected) interacts with classical electromagnetic field. In this paper we propose a simple model of feedforward (open-loop) control for the quantum particle system, which is a basement for further investigation of two-level quantum particle in the external one-dimensional optical field.

  16. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'Skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-06-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom-atom and atom-wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom-atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the 1S0-3P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time.

  17. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    CERN Document Server

    Okaba, Shoichi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom-atom and atom-wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturisation. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kKagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF) are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom-atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the $^1 S_0-{}^3P_1$ (m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibresHC-PCFs improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time.

  18. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-06-17

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom-atom and atom-wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom-atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the (1)S0-(3)P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time.

  19. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Workshop Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Jr., Lloyd [University of Southern California

    1997-09-21

    This document contains the final reports from the five panels that comprised a Workshop held to explore future directions, scientific impacts and technological connections of research in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. This workshop was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division and was held at the Westfields International Conference Center in Chantilly, Virginia on September 21-24, 1997. The workshop was chaired by Lloyd Armstrong, Jr., University of Southern California and the five panels focused on the following topics: Panel A: Interactions of Atoms and Molecules with Photons - Low Field Daniel Kleppner (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), chair Panel B: Interactions of Atoms and Molecules with Photons - High Field Phil Bucksbaum (University of Michigan), chair Panel C: Surface Interactions with Photons, Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules J. Wayne Rabalais (University of Houston), chair Panel D: Theory of Structure and Dynamics Chris Greene (University of Colorado), chair Panel E: Nano- and Mesocopic Structures Paul Alivisatos (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), chair The choice of focus areas reflects areas of significant interest to DOE/BES but is clearly not intended to span all fields encompassed by the designation of atomic, molecular and optical physics, nor even all areas that would be considered for review and funding under DOE’s AMOP program. In a similar vein, not all research that might be suggested under these topics in this report would be appropriate for consideration by DOE’s AMOP program. The workshop format included overview presentations from each of the panel chairs, followed by an intensive series of panel discussion sessions held over a two-day period. The panels were comprised of scientists from the U. S. and abroad, many of whom are not supported by DOE’s AMOP Program. This workshop was held in lieu of the customary “Contractors Meeting” held annually for

  20. The IRM fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, H.; Kloecker, N.; Oelschlaegel, W.; Haeusler, B.; Acuna, M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the three-axis fluxgate magnetometer instrument on board the AMPTE IRM spacecraft. Important features of the instrument are its wide dynamic range (0.1-60,000 nT), a high resolution (16-bit analog to digital conversion) and the capability to operate automatically or via telecommand in two gain states. In addition, the wave activity is monitored in all three components up to 50 Hz. Inflight checkout proved the nominal functioning of the instrument in all modes.

  1. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  2. Quantum atomic lithography via cross-cavity optical Stern-Gerlach setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, C. E.; Batalhão, T. B.; Bachelard, R.; de Moraes Neto, G. D.; de Ponte, M. A.; Moussa, M. H. Y.

    2014-10-01

    We present a fully quantum scheme to perform 2D atomic lithography based on a cross-cavity optical Stern-Gerlach setup: an array of two mutually orthogonal cavities crossed by an atomic beam perpendicular to their optical axes, which is made to interact with two identical modes. After deriving an analytical solution for the atomic momentum distribution, we introduce a protocol allowing us to control the atomic deflection by manipulating the amplitudes and phases of the cavity field states.

  3. The Saga of Light-Matter Interaction and Magneto-optical Effects Applications to Atomic Magnetometry, Laser-cooled Atoms, Atomic Clocks, Geomagnetism, and Plant Bio-magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Eric P.

    The quest to expand the limited sensorial domain, in particular to bridge the inability to gauge magnetic fields near and far, has driven the fabrication of remedial tools. The interaction of ferromagnetic material with a magnetic field had been the only available technique to gauge that field for several millennium. The advent of electricity and associated classical phenomena captured in the four Maxwell equations, were a step forward. In the early 1900s, the model of quantum mechanics provided a two-way leap forward. One came from the newly understood interaction of light and matter, and more specifically the three-way coupling of photons, atoms' angular momenta, and magnetic field, which are the foundations of atomic magnetometry. The other came from magnetically sensitive quantum effects in a fabricated energy-ladder form of matter cooled to a temperature below that of the energy steps; these quantum effects gave rise to the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Research using atomic magnetometers and SQUIDs has resulted in thousands of publications, text books, and conferences. The current status in each field is well described in Refs. [48,49,38,42] and all references therein. In this work we develop and investigate techniques and applications pertaining to atomic magnetometry. [Full text: eric.corsini gmail.com].

  4. Optical precursor with four-wave mixing and storage based on a cold-atom ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Yun Kun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-03-06

    We observed optical precursors in four-wave mixing based on a cold-atom gas. Optical precursors appear at the edges of pulses of the generated optical field, and propagate through the atomic medium without absorption. Theoretical analysis suggests that these precursors correspond to high-frequency components of the signal pulse, which means the atoms cannot respond quickly to rapid changes in the electromagnetic field. In contrast, the low-frequency signal components are absorbed by the atoms during transmission. We also showed experimentally that the backward precursor can be stored using a Raman transition of the atomic ensemble and retrieved later.

  5. Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of lithium and ytterbium atoms towards production of ultracold polar molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Okano, M; Muramatsu, M; Doi, K; Uetake, S; Takasu, Y; Takahashi, Y

    2009-01-01

    We have successfully implemented the first simultaneous magneto-optical trapping (MOT) of lithium ($^6$Li) and ytterbium ($^{174}$Yb) atoms, towards production of ultracold polar molecules of LiYb. For this purpose, we developed the dual atomic oven which contains both atomic species as an atom source and successfully observed the spectra of the Li and Yb atoms in the atomic beams from the dual atomic oven. We constructed the vacuum chamber including the glass cell with the windows made of zinc selenium (ZnSe) for the CO$_2$ lasers, which are the useful light sources of optical trapping for evaporative and sympathetic cooling. Typical atom numbers and temperatures in the compressed MOT are 7$\\times10^3$ atoms, 640 $\\mu$K for $^6$Li, 7$\\times10^4$ atoms and 60 $\\mu$K for $^{174}$Yb, respectively.

  6. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field are reviewed. The potentials of different approaches are compared quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  7. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here we review the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field. We compare the potential of different approaches quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  8. Nonlinear control of chaotic walking of atoms in an optical lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Argonov V.; Prants, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Centre-of-mass atomic motion in an optical lattice near the resonance is shown to be a chaotic walking due to the interplay between coherent internal atomic dynamics and spontaneous emission. Statistical properties of chaotic atomic motion can be controlled by the single parameter, the detuning between the atomic transition frequency and the laser frequency. We derive a Fokker-Planck equation in the energetic space to describe the atomic transport near the resonance and demonstrate numericall...

  9. Ultraslow Helical Optical Bullets and Their Acceleration in Magneto-Optically Controlled Coherent Atomic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Hang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a scheme to produce ultraslow (3+1)-dimensional helical optical solitons, alias helical optical bullets, in a resonant three-level $\\Lambda$-type atomic system via quantum coherence. We show that, due to the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency, the helical optical bullets can propagate with an ultraslow velocity up to $10^{-5}$ $c$ ($c$ is the light speed in vacuum) in longitudinal direction and a slow rotational motion (with velocity $10^{-7}$ $c$) in transverse directions. The generation power of such optical bullets can be lowered to microwatt, and their stability can be achieved by using a Bessel optical lattice potential formed by a far-detuned laser field. We also show that the transverse rotational motion of the optical bullets can be accelerated by applying a time-dependent Stern-Gerlach magnetic field. Because of the untraslow velocity in the longitudinal direction, a significant acceleration of the rotational motion of optical bullets may be observed for a very short medium...

  10. Optical phase conjugation in atomic beams and vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, John James

    1997-07-01

    Optical phase conjugation in atomic beams and vapors using alkali metal atoms as the nonlinear medium is examined. The significance of the sodium system is that the nonlinear gain is high due to the hyperfine system, which behaves as a Raman system. The gains observed were larger than 100 in cases involving two separate pump lasers. The gain is also seen to be more complicated than a Raman system. The frequency of the beams is examined for three separate configurations. We examine a self pumped configuration, an externally pumped configuration consisting of two pump lasers and a probe, and a ring configuration. The observed gain in a self pumped configuration is a result of a mixture of a three level Mollow type gain and a Raman gain. The initial cavity laser is a result of the Mollow gain, and the conjugate produced is seen to arise from the interaction of the cavity beams with the initial pump beam to produce the conjugate. In the externally pumped scheme, the gain is due to Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) in a double-Λ Raman system. There is an equilibrium that is obtained that is responsible for the high gains observed in this particular setup. The bandwidth of the ground state two photon induced coherence is less than the natural lifetime, indicating CPT as the gain mechanism. In the ring configuration, we observed two separate gains. There is a forward and a backward gain. These two oscillations occur together for a 430 MHZ bandwidth which coincides with the observed width of the phase conjugate oscillation. The design of our vapor cells is discussed in depth. The heat pipe configuration, necessary to successfully conduct these experiments is shown in detail. The design of our atomic beams is also discussed.

  11. Multi-level cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms using an optical nanofibre interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ravi; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin optical fibres integrated into cold atom setups are proving to be ideal building blocks for atom-photon hybrid quantum networks. Such optical nanofibres (ONF) can be used for the demonstration of nonlinear optics and quantum interference phenomena in atomic media. Here, we report on the observation of multilevel cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofibre to interface cold $^{87}$Rb atoms through the intense evanescent fields that can be achieved at ultralow probe and coupling powers. Both the probe (at 780 nm) and the coupling (at 776 nm) beams propagate through the nanofibre. The observed multipeak transparency spectra of the probe beam could offer a method for simultaneously slowing down multiple wavelengths in an optical nanofibre or for generating ONF-guided entangled beams, showing the potential of such an atom-nanofibre system for quantum information. We also demonstrate all-optical-switching in the all fibred system using the obtained EIT effect.

  12. Iterative Magnetometer Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

  13. Superconductive imaging surface magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jr., William C.; van Hulsteyn, David B.; Flynn, Edward R.

    1991-01-01

    An improved pick-up coil system for use with Superconducting Quantum Interference Device gradiometers and magnetometers involving the use of superconducting plates near conventional pick-up coil arrangements to provide imaging of nearby dipole sources and to deflect environmental magnetic noise away from the pick-up coils. This allows the practice of gradiometry and magnetometry in magnetically unshielded environments. One embodiment uses a hemispherically shaped superconducting plate with interior pick-up coils, allowing brain wave measurements to be made on human patients. another embodiment using flat superconducting plates could be used in non-destructive evaluation of materials.

  14. Cavity-aided magnetic-resonance microscopy of atoms in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Purdy, Tom P; Brooks, Daniel W C; Botter, Thierry; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for investigating the microscopic properties and dynamics of physical systems. In this work we demonstrate state-sensitive MRI of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. Single-shot spatial resolution is 120 nm, well below the lattice spacing, and number sensitivity is +/-2.4 for 150 atoms on a single site, well below Poissonian atom-number fluctuations. We achieve this by combining high-spatial-resolution control over the atomic spin using an atom chip, together with nearly quantum-limited spin measurement, obtained by dispersively coupling the atoms to light in a high-finesse optical cavity. The MRI is minimally disruptive of the atoms' internal state, preserving the magnetisation of the gas for subsequent experiments. Using this technique, we observe the nonequilibrium transport dynamics of the atoms among individual lattice sites. We see the atom cloud initially expand ballistically, followed by the onset of interaction-inhibited transport.

  15. The dynamic properties of the two-level entangled atom in an optical field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of an optical field and one of the entangled atoms is analyzed in detail in this paper. Furthermore, the dynamic properties of the two-level entangled atom are manifested. The properties of the action are dependent on the initial state of the atom. After detecting the atom out of the field, we can obtain the state of the other atom moving in the field. It is shown that the state of the atom out of the field influences the dynamic properties of the atom in the field.

  16. Heisenberg-scaled magnetometer with dipolar spin-1 condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haijun; Wang, Anbang; Tan, Qing-Shou; Zhang, Wenxian; Yi, Su

    2016-04-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a Heisenberg-scaled magnetometer using dipolar spin-1 condensates. The input state of magnetometer is prepared by slowly sweeping a transverse magnetic field to zero, which yields a highly entangled spin state of N atoms. We show that this process is protected by a parity symmetry such that the state preparation time is within the reach of the current experiment. We also propose a parity measurement with a Stern-Gerlach apparatus which is shown to approach the optimal measurement in the large atom number limit. Finally, we show that the phase estimation sensitivity of the proposed scheme roughly follows the Heisenberg scaling.

  17. Hexapole-compensated magneto-optical trap on a mesoscopic atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jöllenbeck, S.; Mahnke, J.; Randoll, R.

    2011-01-01

    Magneto-optical traps on atom chips are usually restricted to small atomic samples due to a limited capture volume caused primarily by distorted field configurations. Here we present a magneto-optical trap based on a millimeter-sized wire structure which generates a magnetic field with minimized...... distortions. Together with the loading from a high-flux two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, we achieve a loading rate of 8.4×1010 atoms/s and maximum number of 8.7×109 captured atoms. The wire structure is placed outside of the vacuum to enable a further adaptation to new scientific objectives. Since all...

  18. Dynamics of trapped atoms around an optical nanofiber probed through polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Pablo; Fatemi, Fredrik K.; Orozco, Luis A.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    The evanescent field outside an optical nanofiber (ONF) can create optical traps for neutral atoms. We present a non-destructive method to characterize such trapping potentials. An off-resonance linearly polarized probe beam that propagates through the ONF experiences a slow axis of polarization produced by trapped atoms on opposite sides along the ONF. The transverse atomic motion is imprinted onto the probe polarization through the changing atomic index of of refraction. By applying a transient impulse, we measure a time-dependent polarization rotation of the probe beam that provides both a rapid and non-destructive measurement of the optical trapping frequencies.

  19. Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppo, M; McGrew, W F; Hinkley, N; Fasano, R J; Beloy, K; Yoon, T H; Milani, G; Nicolodi, D; Sherman, J A; Phillips, N B; Oates, C W; Ludlow, A D

    2016-01-01

    Atomic clocks based on optical transitions are the most stable, and therefore precise, timekeepers available. These clocks operate by alternating intervals of atomic interrogation with dead time required for quantum state preparation and readout. This non-continuous interrogation of the atom system results in the Dick effect, an aliasing of frequency noise of the laser interrogating the atomic transition. Despite recent advances in optical clock stability achieved by improving laser coherence, the Dick effect has continually limited optical clock performance. Here we implement a robust solution to overcome this limitation: a zero-dead-time optical clock based on the interleaved interrogation of two cold-atom ensembles. This clock exhibits vanishingly small Dick noise, thereby achieving an unprecedented fractional frequency instability of $6 \\times 10^{-17} / \\sqrt{\\tau}$ for an averaging time $\\tau$ in seconds. We also consider alternate dual-atom-ensemble schemes to extend laser coherence and reduce the stan...

  20. Fiber-optic based in situ atomic spectroscopy for manufacturing of x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasoff, George; Metting, Christopher J.; von Bredow, Hasso

    2016-09-01

    The manufacturing of multilayer Laue (MLL) components for X-ray optics by physical vapor deposition (PVD) requires high precision and accuracy that presents a significant process control challenge. Currently, no process control system provides the accuracy, long-term stability and broad capability for adoption in the manufacturing of X-ray optics. In situ atomic absorption spectroscopy is a promising process control solution, capable of monitoring the deposition rate and chemical composition of extremely thin metal silicide films during deposition and overcoming many limitations of the traditional methods. A novel in situ PVD process control system for the manufacturing of high-precision thin films, based on combined atomic absorption/emission spectrometry in the vicinity of the deposited substrate, is described. By monitoring the atomic concentration in the plasma region independently from the film growth on the deposited substrate, the method allows deposition control of extremely thin films, compound thin films and complex multilayer structures. It provides deposition rate and film composition measurements that can be further utilized for dynamic feedback process control. The system comprises a reconfigurable hardware module located outside the deposition chamber with hollow cathode light sources and a fiber-optic-based frame installed inside the deposition chamber. Recent experimental results from in situ monitoring of Al and Si thin films deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at a variety of plasma conditions and monitoring configurations are presented. The results validate the operation of the system in the deposition of compound thin films and provide a path forward for use in manufacturing of X-Ray optics.

  1. Optical dipole mirror for cold atoms based on a metallic diffraction grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa; Panas, Roman

    2014-01-01

    and numerically determined mirror efficiencies are close to 100%. The intensity of SPPs above a real grating coupler and the atomic trajectories, as well as the momentum dispersion of the atom cloud being reflected, are computed. A suggestion is given as to how the plasmonic mirror might serve as an optical atom...

  2. Switching of light with light using cold atoms inside a hollow optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajcsy, Michal; Hofferberth, S.; Peyronel, Thibault

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-optical switch that operates with a few hundred photons per switching pulse. The light-light interaction is mediated by laser-cooled atoms. The required strong interaction between atoms and light is achieved by simultaneously confining photons and atoms inside the microscopic...

  3. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  4. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-20

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  5. Quantum logic operations on two distant atoms trapped in two optical-fibre-connected cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ying-Qiao; Zhang Shou; Yeon Kyu-Hwang; Yu Seong-Cho

    2011-01-01

    Based on the coupling of two distant three-level atoms in two separate optical cavities connected with two optical fibres,schemes on the generation of several two-qubit logic gates are discussed under the conditions of △ =δ -2v cos πk/2 (》) g/2 and (v~ g).Discussion and analysis of the fidelity,gate time and experimental setups show that our schemes are feasible with current optical cavity,atomic trap and optical fibre techniques.Moreover,the atom-cavityfibre coupling can be used to generate an N-qubit nonlocal entanglement and transfer quantum information among N distant atoms by arranging N atom-cavity assemblages in a line and connecting each two adjacent cavities with two optical fibres.

  6. Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz;

    2000-01-01

    The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...

  7. Efficient Scheme for the Generation of Atomic Schroedinger Cat States in an Optical Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGShi-Biao; LINLi-Hua; JIANGYun-Kun

    2003-01-01

    An efficient scheme is proposed for the generation of atomic Schroedinger cat states in an optical cavity. In the scheme N three-level atoms are loaded in the optical cavity. Raman coupling of two ground states is achieved via a laser tield and the cavity mode. The cavity mode is always in the vacuum state and the atoms have no probability of being populated in the excited state. Thus, the scheme is insensitive to both the cavity decay and spontaneous emission.

  8. Efficient Scheme for the Generation of Atomic Schrodinger Cat States in an Optical Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao; LIN Li-Hua; JIANG Yun-Kun

    2003-01-01

    An efficient scheme is proposed for the generation of atomic Schrodinger cat states in an optical cavity. Inthe scheme N three-level atoms are loaded in the optical cavity. Raman coupling of two ground states is achieved via alaser field and the cavity mode. The cavity mode is always in the vacuum state and the atoms have no probability ofbeing populated in the excited state. Thus, the scheme is insensitive to both the cavity decay and spontaneous emission.

  9. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Juan, M L; Besga, B; Brennen, G; Molina-Terriza, G; Volz, T

    2015-01-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same...

  10. Shot-noise-limited magnetometer with sub-picotesla sensitivity at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Anielski, Pawel; Gawlik, Wojciech; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2014-11-01

    We report a photon shot-noise-limited (SNL) optical magnetometer based on amplitude modulated optical rotation using a room-temperature (85)Rb vapor in a cell with anti-relaxation coating. The instrument achieves a room-temperature sensitivity of 70 fT / √Hz at 7.6 μT. Experimental scaling of noise with optical power, in agreement with theoretical predictions, confirms the SNL behaviour from 5 μT to 75 μT. The combination of best-in-class sensitivity and SNL operation makes the system a promising candidate for application of squeezed light to a state-of-the-art atomic sensor.

  11. Atomic population distribution in the output ports of cold-atom interferometers with optical splitting and recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Ilo-Okeke, Ebubechukwu O

    2010-01-01

    Cold-atom interferometers with optical splitting and recombination use off-resonant laser beams to split a cloud of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) into two clouds that travel along different paths and are then recombined again using optical beams. After the recombination, the BEC in general populates both the cloud at rest and the moving clouds. Measuring relative number of atoms in each of these clouds yields information about the relative phase shift accumulated by the atoms in the two moving clouds during the interferometric cycle. We derive the expression for the probability of finding any given number of atoms in each of the clouds, discuss features of the probability density distribution, analyze its dependence on the relative accumulated phase shift as a function of the strength of the interatomic interactions, and compare our results with experiment.

  12. The Level-split of the Two-level Entangled Atom in an Optical Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhuoliang; HUANG Ting; GUO Guangcan; YI Youming

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of a two-level entangled atom in an optical field with circular polarization is studied in this paper. The interaction of an optical field and one of the entangled atoms is analyzed in detail. A general solution of the SchrAo¨Gdinger equation about the motion of the entangled atom is obtained. The properties of the action are dependent on the initial state of the atom. By detecting the entangled atom out of the field, we can obtain the state of the other atom moving in the field. It is shown that the state of the atom out of the field will influence the energies of the split-levels of the atom in the field.

  13. High accuracy measure of atomic polarizability in an optical lattice clock

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, J. A.; Lemke, N. D.; Hinkley, N.; Pizzocaro, M.; Fox, R. W.; Ludlow, A. D.; Oates, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Despite being a canonical example of quantum mechanical perturbation theory, as well as one of the earliest observed spectroscopic shifts, the Stark effect contributes the largest source of uncertainty in a modern optical atomic clock through blackbody radiation. By employing an ultracold, trapped atomic ensemble and high stability optical clock, we characterize the quadratic Stark effect with unprecedented precision. We report the ytterbium optical clock's sensitivity to electric fields (suc...

  14. Kinetic inductance magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luomahaara, Juho; Vesterinen, Visa; Grönberg, Leif; Hassel, Juha

    2014-09-10

    Sensing ultra-low magnetic fields has various applications in the fields of science, medicine and industry. There is a growing need for a sensor that can be operated in ambient environments where magnetic shielding is limited or magnetic field manipulation is involved. To this end, here we demonstrate a new magnetometer with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The device is based on the current nonlinearity of superconducting material stemming from kinetic inductance. A further benefit of our approach is of extreme simplicity: the device is fabricated from a single layer of niobium nitride. Moreover, radio frequency multiplexing techniques can be applied, enabling the simultaneous readout of multiple sensors, for example, in biomagnetic measurements requiring data from large sensor arrays.

  15. Miniature Laser Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Robert; Brown, Andy

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a miniature laser magnetometer (MLM) that will measure the scalar magnitude and vector components of near-Earth magnetic fields. The MLM incorporates a number of technical innovations to achieve high-accuracy and high-resolution performance while significantly reducing the size of the laser-pumped helium magnetometer for use on small satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). and electronics sections that has the capability of measuring both the scalar magnetic field magnitude and the vector magnetic field components. Further more, the high-accuracy scalar measurements are used to calibrate and correct the vector component measurements in order to achieve superior vector accuracy and stability. The correction algorithm applied to the vector components for calibration and the same cell for vector and scalar measurements are major innovations. The separate sensor and electronics section of the MLM instrument allow the sensor to be installed on a boom or otherwise located away from electronics and other noisy magnetic components. The MLM s miniaturization will be accomplished through the use of advanced miniaturized components and packaging methods for the MLM sensor and electronics. The MLM conceptual design includes three key innovations. The first is a new non-magnetic laser package that will allow the placement of the laser pump source near the helium cell sensing elements. The second innovation is the design of compact, nested, triaxial Braunbek coils used in the vector measurements that reduce the coil size by a factor of two compared to existing Helmholtz coils with similar field-generation performance. The third innovation is a compact sensor design that reduces the sensor volume by a factor of eight compared to MLM s predecessor.

  16. Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber

    CERN Document Server

    Vetsch, E; Sagué, G; Schmidt, R; Dawkins, S T; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2009-01-01

    Trapping and optically interfacing laser-cooled neutral atoms is an essential requirement for their use in advanced quantum technologies. Here we simultaneously realize both of these tasks with cesium atoms interacting with a multi-color evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber. The atoms are localized in a one-dimensional optical lattice about 200 nm above the nanofiber surface and can be efficiently interrogated with a resonant light field sent through the nanofiber. Our technique opens the route towards the direct integration of laser-cooled atomic ensembles within fiber networks, an important prerequisite for large scale quantum communication schemes. Moreover, it is ideally suited to the realization of hybrid quantum systems that combine atoms with, e.g., solid state quantum devices.

  17. All-optical production and trapping of metastable noble gas atoms down to the single atom regime

    CERN Document Server

    Kohler, M; Sahling, P; Sieveke, C; Jerschabek, N; Kalinowski, M B; Becker, C; Sengstock, K

    2014-01-01

    The determination of isotope ratios of noble gas atoms has many applications e.g. in physics, nuclear arms control, and earth sciences. For several applications, the concentration of specific noble gas isotopes (e.g. Kr and Ar) is so low that single atom detection is highly desirable for a precise determination of the concentration. As an important step in this direction, we demonstrate operation of a krypton Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) setup based on a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for metastable Kr atoms excited by all-optical means. Compared to other state-of-the-art techniques for preparing metastable noble gas atoms, all-optical production is capable of overcoming limitations regarding minimal probe volume and avoiding cross-contamination of the samples. In addition, it allows for a compact and reliable setup. We identify optimal parameters of our experimental setup by employing the most abundant isotope Kr-84, and demonstrate single atom detection within a 3D MOT.

  18. Influence of Atomic Motion on a Microlaser in an Optical Standing-Wave Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬涛; 冯勋立; 张文琦; 徐至展

    2002-01-01

    We study the microlaser in an optical standing-wave cavity injected with two-level atoms. The results have shown the obvious infIuence of atomic centre-of-mass motion on the microlaser, such as the photon distribution, the linewidth and the frequency shift. It was found that when the momentum of atoms is comparable to that of photons, the influence of atomic motion is dominated and the number of photons in the microlaser can be greatly enhanced, owing to part of the atomic kinetic energy being transferred to the resonator. This work provides a comparison of the related studies on the atomic motion under special assumptions.

  19. Characterizing and imaging magnetic nanoparticles by optical magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, A.; Colombo, S.; Dolgovskiy, V.; Grujić, Z. D.; Lebedev, V.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    We review our ongoing work on deploying optical (atomic) magnetometry for measuring the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) samples, yielding MNP size distributions, and other sample parameters like Néel relaxation time τ, saturation magnetisation Ms , anisotropy constant K and magnetic susceptibility χ. We address magnetorelaxation (MRX) signals, in which the decaying magnetisation M(t) following a magnetising pulse is recorded by a single atomic magnetometer or by a novel magnetic source imaging camera (MSIC) allowing spatially resolved MRX studies of distributed MNP samples. We further show that optical magnetometers can be used for a direct measurement of the M(H) and dM/dH(H) dependencies of MNP samples, the latter forming the basis for an optical magnetometer implementation of the MPI (Magnetic Particle Imaging) method. All experiments are in view of developing biomedical imaging modalities.

  20. Interference and dynamics of light from a distance-controlled atom pair in an optical cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Neuzner, Andreas; Morin, Olivier; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Interference is central to quantum physics and occurs when indistinguishable paths exist, like in a double-slit experiment. Replacing the two slits with two single atoms introduces optical non-linearities for which nontrivial interference phenomena are predicted. Their observation, however, has been hampered by difficulties in preparing the required atomic distribution, controlling the optical phases and detecting the faint light. Here we overcome all of these experimental challenges by combining an optical lattice for atom localisation, an imaging system with single-site resolution, and an optical resonator for light steering. We observe resonator-induced saturation of resonance fluorescence for constructive interference of the scattered light and nonzero emission with huge photon bunching for destructive interference. The latter is explained by atomic saturation and photon pair generation. Our experimental setting is scalable and allows one to realize the Tavis-Cummings model for any number of atoms and pho...

  1. Magneto-Optical Trapping of Ytterbium Atoms with a 398.9 nm Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng-Yi; XIONG Zhuan-Xian; LIANG Jie; HE Ling-Xiang; LU Bao-Long

    2008-01-01

    We report the realization of ytterbium magneto-optical trap (MOT) operating on the dipole-allowed 1S0 - 1P1 transition at 398.9nm. The MOT is loaded by a slowed atomic beam produced by a Zeeman slower. All seven stable isotopes of Yb atoms could be trapped separately at different laser detuning values. Over 107 174Yb atoms are collected in the MOT, whereas the atom number of fermionic isotope 171Yb is roughly 2.3 × 106 due to a lower abundance. Without the Zeeman slower, the trapped atom numbers are one order of magnitude lower.Both the even and odd isotopes are recognized as excellent candidates of optical clock transition, so the cooling and trapping of ytterbium atoms by the blue MOT is an important step for building an optical clock.

  2. Negative refraction of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices with nonuniform artificial gauge fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ai-Xia, E-mail: zhangax@nwnu.edu.cn; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study the reflection and refraction of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices exposed to a nonuniform artificial magnetic field. The introduction of the nonuniform artificial magnetic field to the optical lattice for suitable designer magnetic potential barrier can lead to a series of intriguing reflection and refraction phenomena of atoms, including reflection, positive refraction, negative refraction and atomic matter wave splitting. Both the occurrence and the distribution of these reflection and refraction scenarios can be coherently controlled by the nonuniform artificial magnetic field. In particular, the regions close to the boundary of reflection demonstrate two more interesting propagation modes, i.e., a reflected branch of atoms comprising a positive or negative refracted branch of atoms with almost same atom population will be excited simultaneously at the magnetic potential barrier. The results can be a guide for the coherent control of the matter waves in optical lattices and the design of new atom optics devices. - Highlights: • Ultra-cold atoms in OL with nonuniform magnetic field are studied. • Matter wave reflection, refraction and splitting are coherently controlled. • Results provide a guide for the design of new atomic optics devices.

  3. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom–atom and atom–wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom–atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the 1S0−3P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time. PMID:24934478

  4. Laser threshold magnetometer reaching attotesla precision

    CERN Document Server

    Jeske, Jan; Greentree, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new type of sensor, which uses diamond containing the optically active nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres as a laser medium. The magnetometer can be operated at room-temperature and generates light that can be readily fibre coupled, thereby permitting use in industrial applications and remote sensing. By combining laser pumping with a radio-frequency Rabi-drive field, an external magnetic field changes the fluorescence of the NV centres. We use this change in fluorescence level to push the laser above threshold, turning it on with an intensity controlled by the external magnetic field, which provides a coherent amplification of the readout signal with very high contrast. This provides the advantage over conventional NV-based magnetometers which use fluorescence measurements, based on incoherent photon emission, and are currently experimentally limited to few $\\rm{nT}/\\sqrt{\\rm{Hz}}$. By contrast we predict that an NV-based laser threshold magnetometer with a volume of 1mm$^3$ can achieve shot-noise li...

  5. Evolution of nonlinear optical properties: from gold atomic clusters to plasmonic nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Reji; Chantharasupawong, Panit; Qian, Huifeng; Jin, Rongchao; Thomas, Jayan

    2012-09-12

    Atomic clusters of metals are an emerging class of extremely interesting materials occupying the intermediate size regime between atoms and nanoparticles. Here we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) characteristics of ultrasmall, atomically precise clusters of gold, which are smaller than the critical size for electronic energy quantization (∼2 nm). Our studies reveal remarkable features of the distinct evolution of the optical nonlinearity as the clusters progress in size from the nonplasmonic regime to the plasmonic regime. We ascertain that the smallest atomic clusters do not show saturable absorption at the surface plasmon wavelength of larger gold nanocrystals (>2 nm). Consequently, the third-order optical nonlinearity in these ultrasmall gold clusters exhibits a significantly lower threshold for optical power limiting. This limiting efficiency, which is superior to that of plasmonic nanocrystals, is highly beneficial for optical limiting applications.

  6. Observation and measurement of interaction-induced dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigi, Valentina; Bimbard, Erwan; Stanojevic, Jovica; Hilliard, Andrew J; Nogrette, Florence; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Grangier, Philippe

    2012-12-07

    We observe and measure dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical nonlinearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within the medium. The measurements allow a direct estimation of the "blockaded fraction" of atoms within the atomic ensemble.

  7. Rectified optical force on dark-state atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, E. A.; Kosachiov, D. V.

    1997-12-01

    We show that an imperfection of velocity-selective coherent population trapping (VSCPT) in three-level atoms excited by standing light waves causes a rectified force on cooled atoms. The rectified force as well as the cooling force are calculated both analytically and numerically for 0953-4075/30/24/010/img5 and cascade three-level systems. Combination of these forces with the VSCPT mechanism can lead to localization of very cold atoms in potential wells created by the rectified force. This effect should be taken into account in experiments with VSCPT in standing waves, and can be used for realizing superlattices of cold atoms, in particular, cold Rydberg atoms.

  8. SCALAR MULTI-PASS ATOMIC MAGNETOMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    active volume including relaxation on cell walls. 4 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Fig. 6...measurements, and suppression of spin-exchange relaxation to achieve the highest sensitivity per unit volume. We developed a new multi-pass cell geometry...suppression of spin-exchange relaxation to achieve the highest sensitivity per unit volume. During the project we developed a new multi-pass cell geometry

  9. Optical Signatures of Antiferromagnetic Ordering of Fermionic Atoms in an Optical Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cordobes Aguilar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We show how off-resonant light scattering can provide quantitative information on antiferromagnetic ordering of a two-species fermionic atomic gas in a tightly-confined two-dimensional optical lattice. We analyze the emerging magnetic ordering of atoms in the mean-field and in random phase approximations and show how the many-body static and dynamic correlations, evaluated in the standard Feynman-Dyson perturbation series, can be detected in the scattered light signal. The staggered magnetization reveals itself in the magnetic Bragg peaks of the individual spin components. These magnetic peaks, however, can be considerably suppressed in the absence of a true long-range antiferromagnetic order. The light scattered outside the diffraction orders can be collected by a lens with highly improved signal-to-shot-noise ratio when the diffraction maxima are blocked. The collective and single-particle excitations are identified in the spectrum of the scattered light. We find that the spin-conserving and spin-exchanging atomic transitions convey information on density, longitudinal spin, and transverse spin correlations. The different correlations and scattering processes exhibit characteristic angular distribution profiles for the scattered light, and e.g., the diagnostic signal of transverse spin correlations could be separated from the optical response by the scattering direction, frequency, or polarization. We also analyze the detection accuracy by estimating the number of required measurements, constrained by the heating rate that is determined by inelastic light-scattering events. The imaging technique could be extended to the two-species fermionic states in other regions of the phase diagram where the ground-state properties are still not fully understood.

  10. Towards a Re-definition of the Second Based on Optical Atomic Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase in accuracy and stability of optical atomic clocks compared to the caesium atomic clock as primary standard of time and frequency asks for a future re-definition of the second in the International System of Units (SI). The status of the optical clocks based on either single ions in radio-frequency traps or on neutral atoms stored in an optical lattice is described with special emphasis of the current work at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Besides the development and operation of different optical clocks with estimated fractional uncertainties in the 10^-18 range, the supporting work on ultra-stable lasers as core elements and the means to compare remote optical clocks via transportable standards, optical fibers, or transportable clocks is reported. Finally, the conditions, methods and next steps are discussed that are the prerequisites for a future re-definition of the second.

  11. Optical control of the spin of a magnetic atom in a semiconductor quantum dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besombes L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of single spins in solids is a key but challenging step for any spin-based solid-state quantumcomputing device. Thanks to their expected long coherence time, localized spins on magnetic atoms in a semiconductor host could be an interesting media to store quantum information in the solid state. Optical probing and control of the spin of individual or pairs of Manganese (Mn atoms (S = 5/2 have been obtained in II-VI and IIIV semiconductor quantum dots during the last years. In this paper, we review recently developed optical control experiments of the spin of an individual Mn atoms in II-VI semiconductor self-assembled or strain-free quantum dots (QDs.We first show that the fine structure of the Mn atom and especially a strained induced magnetic anisotropy is the main parameter controlling the spin memory of the magnetic atom at zero magnetic field. We then demonstrate that the energy of any spin state of a Mn atom or pairs of Mn atom can be independently tuned by using the optical Stark effect induced by a resonant laser field. The strong coupling with the resonant laser field modifies the Mn fine structure and consequently its dynamics.We then describe the spin dynamics of a Mn atom under this strong resonant optical excitation. In addition to standard optical pumping expected for a resonant excitation, we show that the Mn spin population can be trapped in the state which is resonantly excited. This effect is modeled considering the coherent spin dynamics of the coupled electronic and nuclear spin of the Mn atom optically dressed by a resonant laser field. Finally, we discuss the spin dynamics of a Mn atom in strain-free QDs and show that these structures should permit a fast optical coherent control of an individual Mn spin.

  12. A compact microchip atomic clock based on all-optical interrogation of ultra-cold trapped Rb atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, D. M.; Zozulya, A.; Anderson, D. Z.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a compact atomic clock that uses all-optical interrogation of ultra-cold Rb atoms that are magnetically trapped near the surface of an atom microchip. The interrogation scheme, which combines electromagnetically induced transparency with Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields, can achieve an atomic shot-noise-level performance better than 10^{-13}/sqrt{tau} for 106 atoms. A two-color Mach-Zehnder interferometer can detect a 100-pW probe beam at the optical shot-noise level using conventional photodetectors. This measurement scheme is nondestructive and therefore can be used to increase the operational duty cycle by reusing the trapped atoms for multiple clock cycles. Numerical calculations of the density matrix equations are used to identify realistic operating parameters at which AC Stark shifts are eliminated. By considering fluctuations in these parameters, we estimate that AC Stark shifts can be canceled to a level better than 2×10-14. An overview of the apparatus is presented with estimates of cycle time and power consumption.

  13. Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers first in-orbit results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratter, Isabelle; Léger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier; Brocco, Laura; Vigneron, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Swarm mission will provide the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal evolution. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched together on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument was designed by CEA-Leti and developed in close partnership with CNES, with scientific support from IPGP. Its operating principle is based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state. It makes use of the Zeeman's effect to transduce the magnetic field into a frequency, the signal being amplified by optical pumping. The primary role of the ASM is to provide absolute measurements of the magnetic field's strength at 1 Hz, for the in-flight calibration of the VFM. As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performance is crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to its innovative design, the ASM offers the best precision, resolution and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performance all along the orbit. In addition, thanks to an original architecture, the ASM implements on an experimental basis a capacity for providing simultaneously vector measurements at 1 Hz. This new feature makes it the first instrument capable of delivering both scalar and vector measurements simultaneously at the same point. Swarm offers a unique opportunity to validate the ASM vector data in orbit by comparison with the VFM's. Furthermore, the ASM can provide scalar data at a much higher sampling rate, when run in "burst" mode at 250 Hz, with a 100 Hz measurement bandwidth. An analysis of the spectral content of the magnetic field above 1 Hz becomes thus

  14. Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This 2009 NASA SBIR Phase 1 proposal for an innovative Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) is a response to subtopic S1.06 Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument...

  15. Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This 2009 NASA SBIR Phase 2 proposal for an innovative Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) is a response to subtopic S1.06 Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument...

  16. Spatial distribution of optically induced atomic excitation in a dense and cold atomic ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Fofanov, Ya A; Sokolov, I M; Havey, M D

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of our general theoretical results developed previously in JETP 112, 246 (2011), we calculate the spatial distribution of atoms excited in a dense and cold atomic cloud by weak monochromatic light. We also study the atomic distribution over different Zeeman sublevels of the excited state in different parts of the cloud. The dependence of this distribution of atomic excitation on the density of the atomic ensemble and the frequency of external emission is investigated. We show that in the boundary regions of the cloud the orientation and alignment of atomic angular momentum takes place. Analysis of the spatial distribution of atomic excitation shows no noticeable signs of light localization effects even in those parameter regimes where the Ioffe-Regel criterium of strong localization is satisfied. However, comparative calculations performed in the framework of the scalar approximation to the dipole-dipole interaction reveals explicit manifestation of strong localization under some conditions.

  17. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A completely nonmagnetic calibration platform has been developed and constructed at DTU Space (Technical University of Denmark). It is intended for on-site scalar calibration of high-precise fluxgate magnetometers. An enhanced version of the same platform is being built at the Czech Technical Uni...... through custom-made optical incremental sensors. The system is controlled by a microcontroller, which executes commands from a computer. The properties of the system as well as calibration and measurement results will be presented. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...

  18. Coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a 3D optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yang; Corcovilos, Theodore A; Kumar, Aishwarya; Weiss, David S

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate arbitrary coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a $5\\times 5\\times 5$ array formed by an optical lattice. Addressing is accomplished using rapidly reconfigurable crossed laser beams to selectively ac Stark shift target atoms, so that only target atoms are resonant with state-changing microwaves. The effect of these targeted single qubit gates on the quantum information stored in non-targeted atoms is smaller than $3\\times 10^{-3}$ in state fidelity. This is an important step along the path of converting the scalability promise of neutral atoms into reality.

  19. Coherent Addressing of Individual Neutral Atoms in a 3D Optical Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A; Kumar, Aishwarya; Weiss, David S

    2015-07-24

    We demonstrate arbitrary coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a 5×5×5 array formed by an optical lattice. Addressing is accomplished using rapidly reconfigurable crossed laser beams to selectively ac Stark shift target atoms, so that only target atoms are resonant with state-changing microwaves. The effect of these targeted single qubit gates on the quantum information stored in nontargeted atoms is smaller than 3×10^{-3} in state fidelity. This is an important step along the path of converting the scalability promise of neutral atoms into reality.

  20. Enhanced optical cross section via collective coupling of atomic dipoles in a 2D array

    CERN Document Server

    Bettles, Robert J; Adams, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the optical cross section is an enticing goal in light-matter interactions, due to its fundamental role in quantum and non-linear optics. Here, we show how dipolar interactions can suppress off-axis scattering in a two-dimensional atomic array, leading to a subradiant collective mode where the optical cross section is enhanced by an order of magnitude. As a consequence, it is possible to attain an optical depth which implies high fidelity extinction, from a monolayer. Using realistic experimental parameters, we also model how lattice vacancies and the atomic trapping depth affect the transmission, concluding that such high extinction should be possible, using current experimental techniques.

  1. Controlling steady-state and dynamical properties of atomic optical bistability

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical and experimental studies of atomic optical bistability and multistability, and their dynamical properties in systems with two- and three-level inhomogeneously-broadened atoms inside an optical cavity. By making use of the modified linear absorption and dispersion, as well as the greatly enhanced nonlinearity in the three-level electromagnetically induced transparency system, the optical bistablity and efficient all-optical switching can be achieved at relatively low laser powers, which can be well controlled and manipulated. Un

  2. Hong-Ou-Mandel atom interferometry in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Brian; Kaufman, Adam; Reynolds, Collin; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Hazzard, Kaden; Rey, Ana Maria; Regal, Cindy

    2014-05-01

    We present recent work in which we demonstrate near-complete control over all the internal and external degrees of freedom of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms trapped in sub-micron optical tweezers. Utilizing this control for two atoms in two optical tweezers, we implement a massive-particle analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer where atom tunneling plays the role of the photon beamsplitter. The interferometer is used to probe the effect of atomic indistinguishability on the two-atom dynamics for a variety of initial conditions. These experiments demonstrate the viability of the optical tweezer platform for bottom-up generation of low-entropy quantum systems and pave the way toward the direct observation of quantum dynamics in more complex finite-sized systems.

  3. Sub-Doppler temperature measurements of laser-cooled atoms using optical nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Laura; Deasy, Kieran; Daly, Mark J.; Morrissey, Michael J.; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the average temperature of a cloud of cold 85Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap using an optical nanofibre. A periodic spatial variation is applied to the magnetic fields generated by the trapping coils and this causes the trap centre to oscillate, which, in turn, causes the cloud of cold atoms to oscillate. The optical nanofibre is used to collect the fluorescence emitted by the cold atoms, and the frequency response between the motion of the centre of the oscillating trap and the cloud of atoms is determined. This allows us to make measurements of cloud temperature both above and below the Doppler limit, thereby paving the way for nanofibres to be integrated with ultracold atoms for hybrid quantum devices.

  4. Optical-bistability-enabled control of resonant light transmission for an atom-cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The control of light transmission through a standing-wave Fabry-Pérot cavity containing atoms is theoretically and numerically investigated, when the cavity mode beam and an intersecting control beam are both close to specific atomic resonances. A four-level atomic system is considered and its interaction with the cavity mode is studied by solving for the cavity field and atomic state populations. The conditions for optical bistability of the atom-cavity system are obtained. The response of the intracavity intensity to an intersecting beam on atomic resonance is understood in the presence of stationary atoms (closed system) and nonstatic atoms (open system) in the cavity. The nonstatic system of atoms is modelled by adjusting the atomic state populations to represent the exchange of atoms in the cavity mode, which corresponds to a thermal environment where atoms are moving in and out of the cavity mode volume. The control behavior with three- and two-level atomic systems is also studied, and the rich physics arising out of these systems for closed and open atomic systems is discussed. The solutions to the models are used to interpret the steady-state and transient behavior observed by Sharma et al. [Phys. Rev. A 91, 043824 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.043824.

  5. Quantum Correlation of Two Entangled Atoms Interacting with the Binomial Optical Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing

    2016-10-01

    Quantum correlations of two atoms in a system of two entangled atoms interacting with the binomial optical field are investigated. In eight different initial states of the two atoms, the influence of the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction, probabilities of a the Bernoulli trial and particle number of the binomial optical field on the temporal evolution of the geometrical quantum discord between two atoms are discussed. The result shows that two atoms always exist the correlation for different parameters. In addition, when and only when the two atoms are initially in the maximally entangled state, the temporal evolution of geometrical quantum discord is not affected by the parameters, and always keep in the degree of geometrical quantum discord that is a fixed value.

  6. Optically induced conical intersections in traps for ultracold atoms and molecules.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, A.O.G.; Hutson, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We show that conical intersections can be created in laboratory coordinates by dressing a parabolic trap for ultracold atoms or molecules with a combination of optical and static magnetic fields. The resulting ring trap can support single-particle states with half-integer rotational quantization and many-particle states with persistent flow. Two well-separated atomic or molecular states are brought into near-resonance by an optical field and tuned across each other with an inhomogeneous magne...

  7. An atomic beam source for fast loading of a magneto-optical trap under high vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowall, P.D.; Hilliard, Andrew; Grünzweig, T.

    2012-01-01

    is capable of loading 90 of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) in less than 7 s while maintaining a low vacuum pressure of 10 -11 Torr. The transverse velocity components of the atomic beam are measured to be within typical capture velocities of a rubidium MOT. Finally, we show that the atomic beam can be turned...

  8. High-flux two-dimensional magneto-optical-trap source for cold lithium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiecke, T.G.; Gensemer, S.D.; Ludewig, A.; Walraven, J.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT) as a beam source for cold Li-6 atoms. The source is side loaded from an oven operated at temperatures in the range 600 less than or similar to T less than or similar to 700 K. The performance is analyzed by loading the atoms into a

  9. Analyzing quantum jumps of one and two atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reick, Sebastian; Mølmer, Klaus; Alt, Wolfgang;

    2010-01-01

    We induce quantum jumps between the hyperfine ground states of one and two cesium atoms, strongly coupled to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator, and analyze the resulting random telegraph signals. We identify experimental parameters to deduce the atomic spin state nondestructively from ...

  10. Photon-correlation measurements of atomic-cloud temperature using an optical nanofiber

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, J A; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

    2015-01-01

    We develop a temperature measurement of an atomic cloud based on the temporal correlations of fluorescence photons evanescently coupled into an optical nanofiber. We measure the temporal width of the intensity-intensity correlation function due to atomic transit time and use it to determine the most probable atomic velocity, hence the temperature. This technique agrees well with standard time-of-flight temperature measurements. We confirm our results with trajectory simulations.

  11. A Realization of a Quasi-Random Walk for Atoms in Time-Dependent Optical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hinkel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the time dependent dynamics of an atom in a two-color pumped cavity, longitudinally through a side mirror and transversally via direct driving of the atomic dipole. The beating of the two driving frequencies leads to a time dependent effective optical potential that forces the atom into a non-trivial motion, strongly resembling a discrete random walk behavior between lattice sites. We provide both numerical and analytical analysis of such a quasi-random walk behavior.

  12. Making optical atomic clocks more stable with $10^{-16}$ level laser stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Y Y; Lemke, N D; Fox, R W; Sherman, J A; Ma, L -S; Oates, C W

    2011-01-01

    The superb precision of an atomic clock is derived from its stability. Atomic clocks based on optical (rather than microwave) frequencies are attractive because of their potential for high stability, which scales with operational frequency. Nevertheless, optical clocks have not yet realized this vast potential, due in large part to limitations of the laser used to excite the atomic resonance. To address this problem, we demonstrate a cavity-stabilized laser system with a reduced thermal noise floor, exhibiting a fractional frequency instability of $2 \\times 10^{-16}$. We use this laser as a stable optical source in a Yb optical lattice clock to resolve an ultranarrow 1 Hz transition linewidth. With the stable laser source and the signal to noise ratio (S/N) afforded by the Yb optical clock, we dramatically reduce key stability limitations of the clock, and make measurements consistent with a clock instability of $5 \\times 10^{-16} / \\sqrt{\\tau}$.

  13. Hybrid Quantum System of a Nanofiber Mode Coupled to Two Chains of Optically Trapped Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Zoubi, Hashem

    2010-01-01

    A tapered optical nanofiber simultaneously used to trap and optically interface of cold atoms through evanescent fields constitutes a new and well controllable hybrid quantum system. The atoms are trapped in two parallel 1D optical lattices generated by suitable far blue and red detuned evanescent field modes very close to opposite sides of the nanofiber surface. Collective electronic excitations (excitons) of each of the optical lattices are resonantly coupled to the second lattice forming symmetric and antisymmetric common excitons. In contrast to the inverse cube dependence of the individual atomic dipole-dipole interaction, we analytically find an exponentially decaying coupling strength with distance between the lattices. The resulting symmetric (bright) excitons strongly interact with the resonant nanofiber photons to form fiber polaritons, which can be observed through linear optical spectra. For large enough wave vectors the polariton decay rate to free space is strongly reduced, which should render t...

  14. Hyperparallel optical quantum computation assisted by atomic ensembles embedded in double-sided optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-08-01

    We propose an effective, scalable, hyperparallel photonic quantum computation scheme in which photonic qubits are hyperencoded both in the spatial degrees of freedom (DOF) and the polarization DOF of each photon. The deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-cnot) gate on a two-photon system is attainable with our interesting interface between the polarized photon and the collective spin wave (magnon) of an atomic ensemble embedded in a double-sided optical cavity, and it doubles the operations in the conventional quantum cnot gate. Moreover, we present a compact hyper-cnotN gate on N +1 hyperencoded photons with only two auxiliary cavity-magnon systems, not more, and it can be faithfully constituted with current experimental techniques. Our proposal enables various applications with the hyperencoded photons in quantum computing and quantum networks.

  15. Precision control of magneto-optically cooled rubidium atoms (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Chormaic, S.; Yarovitskiy, A.; Shortt, B.; Deasy, K.; Morrissey, M.

    2005-06-01

    Research interest in designing sources of cold atoms has significantly increased during the past ten years with the development of suitable laser sources for magneto-optical trapping and the further mastering of evaporative cooling in order to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation. The magneto-optical trap is now viewed as a standard research facility worldwide and has opened up many new exciting research directions in atomic physics. One area of interest is that of combining spherical microcavities with cold atomic sources in order to achieve efficient photon exchange between the cavity and atom for further understandings of cavity quantum electrodynamics. This could eventually lead to atom entanglement via photon exchange which would have implications for quantum logic design. However, initial attempts to achieve such interactions have been hindered by inadequate control and manipulation of the cold atom source. Here, we present work on designing and building an ultra-stable source of magneto-optically cooled rubidium atoms with a temperature in the tens of microKelvin range. We discuss the different cooling mechanisms involved in the process and present a suitable experimental arrangement including details on the ultra-high vacuum chamber, the laser systems being used and the source of rubidium vapour. Finally, we discuss some future direction for the research including the diffraction of atoms from gratings and micron-sized objects and the parameter control of the cloud of atoms.

  16. Correlated hopping of bosonic atoms induced by optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckholt, Maria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, Garching, D-85478 (Germany); Garcia-Ripoll, Juan Jose [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, c/Serrano 113b, Madrid E-28006 (Spain)], E-mail: maria.eckholt@mpq.mpg.de

    2009-09-15

    In this work, we analyze a particular setup with ultracold atoms trapped in state-dependent lattices. We show that any asymmetry in the contact interaction translates into one of two classes of correlated hopping. After deriving the effective lattice Hamiltonian for the atoms, we obtain analytically and numerically the different phases and quantum phase transitions. We find for weak correlated hopping both Mott insulators and charge density waves, while for stronger correlated hopping the system transitions into a pair superfluid. We demonstrate that this phase exists for a wide range of interaction asymmetries and has interesting correlation properties that differentiate it from an ordinary atomic Bose-Einstein condensate.

  17. Controllable Persistent Atom Current of Bose-Einstein Condensates in an Optical Lattice Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Gong-Ping; LIANG Jiu-Qing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the macroscopic quantum state of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices is studied by solving the periodic Gross-Pitaevskii equation in one-dimensional geometry. It is shown that an exact solution seen to be a travelling wave of excited macroscopic quantum states resultes in a persistent atom current, which can be controlled by adjusting of the barrier height of the optical periodic potential. A critical condition to generate the travelling wave is demonstrated and we moreover propose a practical experiment to realize the persistent atom current in a toroidal atom waveguide.

  18. Excitation Spectrum of Spin-1 Bosonic Atoms in an Optical Lattice with High Filling Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing-Min

    2007-01-01

    The Green's function and the higher-order correlation functions of spin-1 cold atoms in an optical lattice are defined.Because we consider the problem of spin-1 Bose condensed atoms in an optical lattice with high filling factors,I.e.,the number density of Bose condensed atoms no is large,the fluctuation of them can be neglected and we take mean-field approximation for the higher-order terms.The excitation spectra for both the polar case and the ferromagnetic case are obtained and analyzed.

  19. Nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The theory of Bloembergen and Pershan for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is extended to a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal, i.e., a single planar atomic lattice, placed between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real 2D system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. As a particular case that contains all the essential physical features, second-order harmonic generation is considered. The theory, due to its simplicity that stems from the special character of a single planar atomic lattice, is able to elucidate and explain the rich experimental details of harmonic generation from a 2D atomic crystal.

  20. Nonlinear magneto-optical effects in cold atoms of 87Rb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ling-Xiang; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2004-01-01

    With laser-cooled cold 87Rb atoms as a magneto-optical medium, a weak right circularly polarized probe field and frequency modulation technique are used to detect the magnetic distribution of the quadrupole field. A two-peak dispersion-like signal other than that of the usual nonlinear magneto-optical effect mentioned in other papers is obtained.

  1. Coherent matter wave optics on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip.......Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip....

  2. Spin Accumulation of Spinor Atoms in Optical Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; JIANG Zhan-Feng

    2007-01-01

    We obtain an effective spin correlation Hamiltonian describing the interaction of light with a two-level atom, then we investigate the classical trajectory of the two-level atom system by numerical integration of the Heisenberg equation of motion. Our results show that the spin accumulation is a very popular phenomenon as long as the spin character cannot be ignored in the Hamiltonian. We propose experimental protocol to observe this new phenomenon in further experiments.

  3. Interaction of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms with higher order modes of an optical nanofibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Gokhroo, Vandna; Deasy, Kieran; Maimaiti, Aili; Frawley, Mary C.; Phelan, Ciarán; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Optical nanofibres are used to confine light to sub-wavelength regions and are very promising tools for the development of optical fibre-based quantum networks using cold, neutral atoms. To date, experimental studies on atoms near nanofibres have focussed on fundamental fibre mode interactions. In this work, we demonstrate the integration of a few-mode optical nanofibre into a magneto-optical trap for 87Rb atoms. The nanofibre, with a waist diameter of ∼700 nm, supports both the fundamental and first group of higher order modes (HOMs) and is used for atomic fluorescence and absorption studies. In general, light propagating in higher order fibre modes has a greater evanescent field extension around the waist in comparison with the fundamental mode. By exploiting this behaviour, we demonstrate that the detected signal of fluorescent photons emitted from a cloud of cold atoms centred at the nanofibre waist is larger if HOMs are also included. In particular, the signal from HOMs appears to be about six times larger than that obtained for the fundamental mode. Absorption of on-resonance, HOM probe light by the laser-cooled atoms is also observed. These advances should facilitate the realization of atom trapping schemes based on HOM interference.

  4. Magnetic field-induced spectroscopy of forbidden optical transitions with application to lattice-based optical atomic clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Oates, C W; Hoyt, C W; Barber, Z W; Hollberg, L

    2006-03-01

    We develop a method of spectroscopy that uses a weak static magnetic field to enable direct optical excitation of forbidden electric-dipole transitions that are otherwise prohibitively weak. The power of this scheme is demonstrated using the important application of optical atomic clocks based on neutral atoms confined to an optical lattice. The simple experimental implementation of this method--a single clock laser combined with a dc magnetic field--relaxes stringent requirements in current lattice-based clocks (e.g., magnetic field shielding and light polarization), and could therefore expedite the realization of the extraordinary performance level predicted for these clocks. We estimate that a clock using alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Yb could achieve a fractional frequency uncertainty of well below 10(-17) for the metrologically preferred even isotopes.

  5. Ultrafast All-optical Modulation Exploiting the Vibrational Dynamic of Metallic Meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Biqin; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Hao F; Sun, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Optical control over elementary molecular vibration establishes fundamental capabilities for exploiting the broad range of optical linear and nonlinear phenomena. However, experimental demonstration of the coherently driven molecular vibration remains a challenge task due to the weak optical force imposed on natural materials. Here we report the design of "meta-atom" that exhibits giant artificial optical nonlinearity. These "meta-atoms" support co-localized magnetic resonance at optical frequency and vibration resonance at GHz frequency with a deep-sub-diffraction-limit spatial confinement (${\\lambda}^2/100$). The coherent coupling of those two distinct resonances manifests a strong optical force, which is fundamentally different from the commonly studied form of radiation forces, the gradient forces, or photo-thermal induced deformation. It results in a giant third-order susceptibility $\\chi^{(3)}$ of $10^{-13}$ $m^2$/$V^2$, which is more than six orders of magnitude larger than that found in natural materi...

  6. Feasibility of a feedback control of atomic self-organization in an optical cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, D. A., E-mail: ivanov-den@yandex.ru; Ivanova, T. Yu. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Many interesting nonlinear effects are based on the strong interaction of motional degrees of freedom of atoms with an optical cavity field. Among them is the spatial self-organization of atoms in a pattern where the atoms group in either odd or even sites of the cavity-induced optical potential. An experimental observation of this effect can be simplified by using, along with the original cavity-induced feedback, an additional electronic feedback based on the detection of light leaking the cavity and the control of the optical potential for the atoms. Following our previous study, we show that this approach is more efficient from the laser power perspective than the original scheme without the electronic feedback.

  7. Observation of Parity-Time Symmetry in Optically Induced Atomic Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Sheng, Jiteng; Yang, Liu; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; He, Bing; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    A wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can possess entirely real eigenvalues when they have parity-time (PT) symmetric potentials. Due to their unusual properties, this family of non-Hermitian systems has recently attracted considerable attention in diverse areas of physics, especially in coupled gain-loss waveguides and optical lattices. Given that multi-level atoms can be quite efficient in judiciously synthesizing refractive index profiles, schemes based on atomic coherence have been recently proposed to realize optical potentials with PT-symmetric properties. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time PT-symmetric optical lattices in a coherently-prepared four-level N-type atomic system. By appropriately tuning the pertinent atomic parameters, the onset of PT symmetry breaking is observed through measuring an abrupt phase-shift jump. The experimental realization of such readily reconfigurable and effectively controllable PT-symmetric periodic lattice structures sets a new stage for further...

  8. Coherence and Raman sideband cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, J D; Zibrov, A S; Vuletić, V; Lukin, M D

    2012-01-01

    We investigate quantum control of a single atom in an optical tweezer trap created by a tightly focused optical beam. We show that longitudinal polarization components in the dipole trap arising from the breakdown of the paraxial approximation give rise to significant internal-state decoherence. We show that this effect can be mitigated by appropriate choice of magnetic bias field, enabling Raman sideband cooling of a single atom close to its three-dimensional ground state in an optical trap with a beam waist as small as $w=900$ nm. We achieve vibrational occupation numbers of $\\bar{n}_r = 0.01$ and $\\bar{n}_a = 8$ in the radial and axial directions of the trap, corresponding to an rms size of the atomic wavepacket of 24 nm and 270 nm, respectively. This represents a promising starting point for future hybrid quantum systems where atoms are placed in close proximity to surfaces.

  9. One-Atom-Thick IR Metamaterials and Transformation Optics Using Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Vakil, Ashkan

    2011-01-01

    Here we theoretically show, by designing and manipulating spatially inhomogeneous, non-uniform conductivity patterns across a single flake of graphene, that this single-atom-layered material can serve as a "one-atom-thick" platform for infrared metamaterials and transformation optical devices. It is known that by varying the chemical potential using gate electric and/or magnetic fields, the graphene conductivity in the THz and IR frequencies can be changed. This versatility provides the possibility that different "patches" on a single flake of graphene possess different conductivities, suggesting a mechanism to construct "single-atom-thick" IR metamaterials and transformation optical structures. Our computer simulation results pave the way for envisioning numerous IR photonic functions and metamaterial concepts-all on a "one-atom-thick" platform-of such we list a few here: edge waveguides, bent ribbon-like paths guiding light, photonic splitters and combiners, "one-atom-thick" IR scattering elements as buildi...

  10. Ultra-cold mechanical resonators coupled to atoms in an optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    We propose an experiment utilizing an array of cooled micro-cantilevers coupled to a sample of ultra-cold atoms trapped near a micro-fabricated surface. The cantilevers allow individual lattice site addressing for atomic state control and readout, and potentially may be useful in optical lattice quantum computation schemes. Assuming resonators can be cooled to their vibrational ground state, the implementation of a two-qubit controlled-NOT gate with atomic internal states and the motional states of the resonator is described. We also consider a protocol for entangling two or more cantilevers on the atom chip with different resonance frequencies, using the trapped atoms as an intermediary. Although similar experiments could be carried out with magnetic microchip traps, the optical confinement scheme we consider may exhibit reduced near-field magnetic noise and decoherence. Prospects for using this novel system for tests of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales or quantum information processing are discussed.

  11. Observation of single neutral atoms in a large-magnetic-gradient vapour-cell magneto-optical trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; He Jun; Qiu Ying; Yang Bao-Dong; Zhao Jiang-Yan; Zhang Tian-Cai; Wang Jun-Min

    2008-01-01

    Single caesium atoms in a large-magnetic-gradient vapour-cell magneto-optical trap have been identified. The trapping of individual atoms is marked by the steps in fluorescence signal corresponding to the capture or loss of single atoms. The typical magnetic gradient is about 29 mT/cm, which evidently reduces the capture rate of magneto-optical trap.

  12. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  13. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Rathod; P K Singh; Vasant Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45° with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope 174Yb and the fermionic isotope 171Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  14. Investigation of ultracold atoms and molecules in a dark magneto-optical trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li-Rong; Ji Zhong-Hua; Yuan Jin-Peng; Yang Yan; Zhao Yan-Ting; Ma Jie; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,ultracold atoms and molecules in a dark magneto-optical trap (MOT) are studied via depumping the cesium cold atoms into the dark hyperfine ground state.The collision rate is reduced to 0.45 s-1 and the density of the atoms is increased to 5.6 × 1011 cm-3 when the fractional population of the atoms in the bright hyperfine ground state is as low as 0.15.The vibrational spectra of the ultracold cesium molecules are also studied in a standard MOT and in a dark MOT separately.The experimental results are analyzed by using the perturbative quantum approach.

  15. Magneto-optical Trapping through a Transparent Silicon Carbide Atom Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Huet, Landry; Morvan, Erwan; Sarazin, Nicolas; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Reichel, Jakob; Guerlin, Christine; Schwartz, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of trapping about one hundred million rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap with several of the beams passing through a transparent atom chip mounted on a vacuum cell wall. The chip is made of a gold microcircuit deposited on a silicon carbide substrate, with favorable thermal conductivity. We show how a retro-reflected configuration can efficiently address the chip birefringence issues, allowing atom trapping at arbitrary distances from the chip. We also demonstrate detection through the chip, granting a large numerical aperture. This configuration is compared to other atom chip devices, and some possible applications are discussed.

  16. Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagué, G; Vetsch, E; Alt, W; Meschede, D; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2007-10-19

    The strong evanescent field around ultrathin unclad optical fibers bears a high potential for detecting, trapping, and manipulating cold atoms. Introducing such a fiber into a cold-atom cloud, we investigate the interaction of a small number of cold cesium atoms with the guided fiber mode and with the fiber surface. Using high resolution spectroscopy, we observe and analyze light-induced dipole forces, van der Waals interaction, and a significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of the atoms. The latter can be assigned to the modification of the vacuum modes by the fiber.

  17. Divalent Rydberg atoms in optical lattices: intensity landscape and magic trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Topcu, Turker

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theoretical understanding of trapping divalent Rydberg atoms in optical lattices. Because the size of the Rydberg electron cloud can be comparable to the scale of spatial variations of laser intensity, we pay special attention to averaging optical fields over the atomic wavefunctions. Optical potential is proportional to the ac Stark polarizability. We find that in the independent particle approximation for the valence electrons, this polarizability breaks into two contributions: the singly ionized core polarizability and the contribution from the Rydberg electron. Unlike the usually employed free electron polarizability, the Rydberg contribution depends both on laser intensity profile and the rotational symmetry of the total electronic wavefunction. We focus on the $J=0$ Rydberg states of Sr and evaluate the dynamic polarizabilities of the 5s$n$s($^1S_0$) and 5s$n$p($^3P_0$) Rydberg states. We specifically choose Sr atom for its optical lattice clock applications. We find that there are several ...

  18. Resonant optical control of the spin of a single Cr atom in a quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente-Sampietro, A.; Utsumi, H.; Boukari, H.; Kuroda, S.; Besombes, L.

    2017-01-01

    A Cr atom in a semiconductor host carries a localized spin with an intrinsic large spin to strain coupling, which is particularly promising for the development of hybrid spin-mechanical systems and coherent mechanical spin driving. We demonstrate here that the spin of an individual Cr atom inserted in a semiconductor quantum dot can be controlled optically. We first show that a Cr spin can be prepared by resonant optical pumping. Monitoring the time dependence of the intensity of the resonant fluorescence of the quantum dot during this process permits us to probe the dynamics of the optical initialization of the Cr spin. Using this initialization and readout technique we measured a Cr spin relaxation time at T =5 K in the microsecond range. We finally demonstrate that, under a resonant single-mode laser field, the energy of any spin state of an individual Cr atom can be independently tuned by using the optical Stark effect.

  19. Dynamical properties of moving atom–atom entanglement and entanglement between two atoms with optical field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Abdel-Khalek; S H A Halawani

    2015-12-01

    Quantum information technology largely relies on a sophisticated and fragile resource, called quantum entanglement, which exhibits a highly nontrivial manifestation of the coherent superposition of the states of composite quantum systems. In this paper, we study the interaction between the general and even coherent fields with moving and stationary two two-level atoms. In this regard, this paper investigates the von Neumann entropy and the atoms–field tangle as a measure of entanglement between the general and even coherent fields with the two atoms. Also, the entanglement between the two atoms using concurrence and negativity during time evolution is discussed. This paper examines the effects of multiphoton transitions and initial state setting on the entanglement for the system under consideration. Finally, the results demonstrate an important phenomenon such as the sudden death and birth of entanglement when the two atoms are initially in entangled states.

  20. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  1. Polarization-selective optical nonlinearities in cold Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hui; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    We study the interaction between a probe and a trigger weak fields in a sample of cold rubidium atoms in the presence of a coupling and a dressing strong fields. Dipole Rydberg blockade may occur and can be set to depend on the probe and trigger polarizations giving rise to diverse regimes of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with a concomitant small probe and trigger absorption and dispersion. This is shown to be relevant to the implementation of polarization conditional probe and trigger cross nonlinearities in cold Rydberg atoms.

  2. A dark-line two-dimensional magneto-optical trap of 85Rb atoms with high optical depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanchao; Chen, J F; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Shuyu; Loy, M M T; Wong, G K L; Du, Shengwang

    2012-07-01

    We describe the apparatus of a dark-line two-dimensional (2D) magneto-optical trap (MOT) of (85)Rb cold atoms with high optical depth (OD). Different from the conventional configuration, two (of three) pairs of trapping laser beams in our 2D MOT setup do not follow the symmetry axes of the quadrupole magnetic field: they are aligned with 45° angles to the longitudinal axis. Two orthogonal repumping laser beams have a dark-line volume in the longitudinal axis at their cross over. With a total trapping laser power of 40 mW and repumping laser power of 18 mW, we obtain an atomic OD up to 160 in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) scheme, which corresponds to an atomic-density-length product NL = 2.05 × 10(15) m(-2). In a closed two-state system, the OD can become as large as more than 600. Our 2D MOT configuration allows full optical access of the atoms in its longitudinal direction without interfering with the trapping and repumping laser beams spatially. Moreover, the zero magnetic field along the longitudinal axis allows the cold atoms maintain a long ground-state coherence time without switching off the MOT magnetic field, which makes it possible to operate the MOT at a high repetition rate and a high duty cycle. Our 2D MOT is ideal for atomic-ensemble-based quantum optics applications, such as EIT, entangled photon pair generation, optical quantum memory, and quantum information processing.

  3. Graphene-like optical light field and its interaction with two-level atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembessis, V. E.; Courtial, Johannes; Radwell, N.; Selyem, A.; Franke-Arnold, S.; Aldossary, O. M.; Babiker, M.

    2015-12-01

    The theoretical basis leading to the creation of a light field with a hexagonal honeycomb structure resembling graphene is considered along with its experimental realization and its interaction with atoms. It is argued that associated with such a light field is an optical dipole potential which leads to the diffraction of the atoms, but the details depend on whether the transverse spread of the atomic wave packet is larger than the transverse dimensions of the optical lattice (resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect) or smaller (optical Stern-Gerlach effect). Another effect in this context involves the creation of gauge fields due to the Berry phase acquired by the atom moving in the light field. The experimental realization of the light field with a honeycomb hexagonal structure is described using holographic methods and we proceed to explore the atom diffraction in the Kapitza-Dirac regime as well as the optical Stern-Gerlach regime, leading to momentum distributions with characteristic but different hexagonal structures. The artificial gauge fields too are shown to have the same hexagonal spatial structure and their magnitude can be significantly large. The effects are discussed with reference to typical parameters for the atoms and the fields.

  4. Continuously transferring cold atoms in caesium double magneto-optical trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shu-Bin; Geng Tao; Zhang Tian-Cai; Wang Jun-Min

    2006-01-01

    We have established a caesium double magneto-optical trap (MOT) system for cavity-QED experiment, and demonstrated the continuous transfer of cold caesium atoms from the vapour-cell MOT with a pressure of ~ 1 × 10-6 Pa to the ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) MOT with a pressure of ~ 8 × 10-8 Pa via a focused continuous-wave transfer laser beam. The effect of frequency detuning as well as the intensity of the transfer beam is systematically investigated, which makes the transverse cooling adequate before the atoms leak out of the vapour-cell MOT to reduce divergence of the cold atomic beam. The typical cold atomic flux got from vapour-cell MOT is ~ 2 × 107 atoms/s. About 5 × 106 caesium atoms are recaptured in the UHV MOT.

  5. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a

  6. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  7. Low atomic number coating for XEUS silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumb, D.H.; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Krumrey, M.

    2008-01-01

    of XEUS graze angles are presented. Reflectance is significantly enhanced for low energies when a low atomic number over-coating is applied. Modeling of the layer thicknesses and roughness is used to investigate the dependence on the layer thicknesses, metal and over coat material choices. We compare...

  8. Measurement of "optical" transition probabilities in the silver atom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, J.; Smit, J.A.

    1958-01-01

    For 22 spectral lines of the silver atom the probability of spontaneous transition has been derived from measurements of the emission intensity of the line and the population of the corresponding upper level. The medium of excitation was the column of a vertical arc discharge in air of atmospheric

  9. Holographic optical traps for atom-based topological Kondo devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, F.; Bruce, G. D.; Trombettoni, A.; Cassettari, D.; Babujian, H.; Korepin, V. E.; Sodano, P.

    2016-07-01

    The topological Kondo (TK) model has been proposed in solid-state quantum devices as a way to realize non-Fermi liquid behaviors in a controllable setting. Another motivation behind the TK model proposal is the demand to demonstrate the quantum dynamical properties of Majorana fermions, which are at the heart of their potential use in topological quantum computation. Here we consider a junction of crossed Tonks-Girardeau gases arranged in a star-geometry (forming a Y-junction), and we perform a theoretical analysis of this system showing that it provides a physical realization of the TK model in the realm of cold atom systems. Using computer-generated holography, we experimentally implement a Y-junction suitable for atom trapping, with controllable and independent parameters. The junction and the transverse size of the atom waveguides are of the order of 5 μm, leading to favorable estimates for the Kondo temperature and for the coupling across the junction. Since our results show that all the required theoretical and experimental ingredients are available, this provides the demonstration of an ultracold atom device that may in principle exhibit the TK effect.

  10. Resolved Atomic Interaction Sidebands in an Optical Clock Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    interrogated by a linearly polarized laser with bare Rabi frequency B and detuning from the atomic resonance . The Pauli exclusion principle forces...are populated. The population of transverse modes is accounted for as a renormalization of the interaction parameter. The interaction part of the

  11. Magnetic microtraps for cavity QED, Bose-Einstein condensates, and atom optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Benjamin L.

    The system comprised of an atom strongly coupled to photons, known as cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), provides a rich experimental setting for quantum information processing, both in the implementation of quantum logic gates and in the development of quantum networks. Moreover, studies of cavity QED will help elucidate the dynamics of continuously observed open quantum systems with quantum-limited feedback. To achieve these goals in cavity QED, a neutral atom must be tightly confined inside a high-finesse cavity with small mode volume for long periods of time. Microfabricated wires on a substrate---known as an atom chip---can create a sufficiently high-curvature magnetic potential to trap atoms in the Lamb-Dicke regime. We have recently integrated an optical fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with such a device. The microwires allow the on-chip collection and laser cooling of neutral atoms, and allow the magnetic waveguiding of these atoms to an Ioffe trap inside the cavity mode. Magnetically trapped intracavity atoms have been detected with this cavity QED system. A similar experiment employing microdisks and photonic bandgap cavities is nearing completion. With these more exotic cavities, a robust and scalable atom-cavity chip system will deeply probe the strong coupling regime of cavity QED with magnetically trapped atoms. Atom chips have found great success in producing and manipulating Bose-Einstein condensates and in creating novel atom optical elements. An on-chip BEC has been attained in a miniaturized system incorporating an atom chip designed for atom interferometry and for studies of Josephson effects of a BEC in a double-well potential. Using similar microfabrication techniques, we created and demonstrated a specular magnetic atom mirror formed from a standard computer hard drive. This device, in conjunction with micron-sized charged circular pads, can produce a 1-D ring trap which may prove useful for studying Tonks gases in a ring geometry and for

  12. An Arduino-Based Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Mike

    2017-01-01

    An Arduino-based system with a triple axis magnetometer chip may be used to plot both the strength and direction of the magnetic field of a magnet directly on a sheet of paper. Before taking measurements, it is necessary either to correct for or to eliminate soft and hard iron effects. The same sensor may be used to determine the presence of soft…

  13. Optical bistability enabled control of resonant light transmission for an atom-cavity system

    CERN Document Server

    Sawant, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The control of light transmission through a Fabry-Perot cavity containing atoms is theoretically investigated, when the cavity mode beam and an intersecting control beam are both close to specific atomic resonances. A four-level atomic system is considered and its interaction with the cavity mode is studied by solving for the time dependent cavity field and atomic state populations. The conditions for optical bistability of the atom-cavity system are obtained in steady state limit. For an ensemble of atoms in the cavity mode, the response of the intra-cavity light intensity to the intersecting resonant beam is understood for stationary atoms (closed system) and non-static atoms (open system). The open system is modelled by adjusting the atomic state populations to represent the exchange of atoms in the cavity mode, with the thermal environment. The solutions to the model are used to qualitatively explain the observed steady state and transient behaviour of the light in the cavity mode, in Sharma et. al. [1]. ...

  14. [Portable magnetometers for detecting magnetic pathogenic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomaev, G V; Vodenikov, S K; Vasil'ev, M Iu

    1997-01-01

    Perspective magnetometers needed to solve many problems of electromagnetic ecology are presented. A magnetometer block scheme is presented, its work and engineering philosophy described. High thermal stability and linear characteristics of the device are ensured by the compensation measurements. Results of measuring the attenuation of magnetic field of the Earth inside various objects by the magnetometer are presented.

  15. Observation and measurement of "giant" dispersive optical non-linearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Parigi, Valentina; Stanojevic, Jovica; Hilliard, Andrew J; Nogrette, Florence; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Grangier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We observe and measure dispersive optical non-linearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical non-linearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within the medium. The measurements allow a direct estimation of the "blockaded fraction" of atoms within the atomic ensemble.

  16. Evaluation of atomic constants for optical radiation, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylstra, C. D.; Schneider, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Various atomic constant for 23 elements from helium to mercury were computed and are presented in tables. The data given for each element start with the element name, its atomic number, its ionic state, and the designation and series limit for each parent configuration. This is followed by information on the energy level, parent configuration, and designation for each term available to the program. The matrix elements subtables are ordered by the sequence numbers, which represent the initial and final levels of the transitions. Each subtable gives the following: configuration of the core or parent, designation and energy level for the reference state, effective principal quantum number, energy of the series limit, value of the matrix element for the reference state interacting with itself, and sum of all of the dipole matrix elements listed in the subtable. Dipole and quadrupole interaction data are also given.

  17. Computational challenges in atomic, molecular and optical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth T

    2002-06-15

    Six challenges are discussed. These are the laser-driven helium atom; the laser-driven hydrogen molecule and hydrogen molecular ion; electron scattering (with ionization) from one-electron atoms; the vibrational and rotational structure of molecules such as H(3)(+) and water at their dissociation limits; laser-heated clusters; and quantum degeneracy and Bose-Einstein condensation. The first four concern fundamental few-body systems where use of high-performance computing (HPC) is currently making possible accurate modelling from first principles. This leads to reliable predictions and support for laboratory experiment as well as true understanding of the dynamics. Important aspects of these challenges addressable only via a terascale facility are set out. Such a facility makes the last two challenges in the above list meaningfully accessible for the first time, and the scientific interest together with the prospective role for HPC in these is emphasized.

  18. Optically Controlled Distributed Quantum Computing Using Atomic Ensembles As Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    Distribution approved for public release. 8 Figure 7: Schematic Illustration of a network of small-scale quantum...quantum bits in different systems, for example, Rb atoms and NV diamond, preferably using telecom fibres. In this paper, we describe a quantum frequency...converter (QFC) that will perform this telecom band qubit conversion. The QFC is based on periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides. For

  19. Many-Body Quantum Optics with Decaying Atomic Spin States: ($\\gamma$, $\\kappa$) Dicke model

    CERN Document Server

    Gelhausen, Jan; Strack, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We provide a theory for quantum-optical realizations of the open Dicke model with internal, atomic spin states subject to uncorrelated, single-site spontaneous emission with rate $\\gamma$. This introduces a second decay channel for excitations to irreversibly dissipate into the environment, in addition to the photon loss with rate $\\kappa$. We compute the mean-field non-equilibrium steady states for spin and photon observables in the long-time limit, $t\\rightarrow \\infty$. Although $\\gamma$ does not conserve the total angular momentum of the spin array, we argue that our solution is exact in the thermodynamic limit, for the number of atoms $N\\rightarrow \\infty$. In light of recent and upcoming experiments realizing superradiant phase transitions using internal atomic states with pinned atoms in optical lattices, our work lays the foundation for the pursuit of a new class of open quantum magnets coupled to quantum light.

  20. Efficient loading of a single neutral atom into an optical microscopic tweezer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军; 刘贝; 刁文婷; 王杰英; 靳刚; 王军民

    2015-01-01

    A single atom in a magneto–optical trap (MOT) with trap size (hundreds of micrometers) can be transferred into an optical microscopic tweezer with a probability of∼100%. The ability to transfer a single atom into two traps back and forth allows us to study the loading process. The loading probability is found to be insensitive to the geometric overlap of the MOT and the tweezer. It is therefore possible to perform simultaneously loading of a single atom into all sites of the tweezer array for many qubits. In particular, we present a simulation of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays of an optical microscopic tweezer. We find the same qualitative behavior for all of the trap parameters.

  1. X-ray-excited optical luminescence of impurity atom in semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M; Tanaka, Y; Komuro, S; Morikawa, T; Aoyagi, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2001-03-01

    We observed the x-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) of erbium-doped silicon (Si:Er) thin films to make a site-selective x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement of an optically active Er atom. The undulator beam was used for the increment of the electron population in the excited state, and following XEOL at an infrared wavelength of 1.54 microm with minimum absorption loss in the host Si was detected. The edge-jump and XAFS oscillation were successfully obtained at the Er L(III)-edge. This spectrum originated from inner-shell excitation and relaxation of only the optically active Er atom, indicating that site-selectivity at an atomic level was achieved.

  2. Nonlinear effects in optical pumping of a cold and slow atomic beam

    KAUST Repository

    Porfido, N.

    2015-10-12

    By photoionizing hyperfine (HF) levels of the Cs state 62P3/2 in a slow and cold atom beam, we find how their population depends on the excitation laser power. The long time (around 180μs) spent by the slow atoms inside the resonant laser beam is large enough to enable exploration of a unique atom-light interaction regime heavily affected by time-dependent optical pumping. We demonstrate that, under such conditions, the onset of nonlinear effects in the population dynamics and optical pumping occurs at excitation laser intensities much smaller than the conventional respective saturation values. The evolution of population within the HF structure is calculated by numerical integration of the multilevel optical Bloch equations. The agreement between numerical results and experiment outcomes is excellent. All main features in the experimental findings are explained by the occurrence of “dark” and “bright” resonances leading to power-dependent branching coefficients.

  3. Efficient loading of a single neutral atom into an optical microscopic tweezer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Liu, Bei; Diao, Wen-Ting; Wang, Jie-Ying; Jin, Gang; Wang, Jun-Min

    2015-04-01

    A single atom in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) with trap size (hundreds of micrometers) can be transferred into an optical microscopic tweezer with a probability of ~ 100%. The ability to transfer a single atom into two traps back and forth allows us to study the loading process. The loading probability is found to be insensitive to the geometric overlap of the MOT and the tweezer. It is therefore possible to perform simultaneously loading of a single atom into all sites of the tweezer array for many qubits. In particular, we present a simulation of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays of an optical microscopic tweezer. We find the same qualitative behavior for all of the trap parameters. Project supported by the National Major Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921601) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61205215, 11274213, and 61475091).

  4. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  5. Emergence of correlated optics in one-dimensional waveguides for classical and quantum atomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruostekoski, Janne; Javanainen, Juha

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the emergence of correlated optical phenomena in the transmission of light through a waveguide that confines classical or ultracold quantum degenerate atomic ensembles. The conditions of the correlated collective response are identified in terms of atom density, thermal broadening, and photon losses by using stochastic Monte Carlo simulations and transfer matrix methods of transport theory. We also calculate the "cooperative Lamb shift" for the waveguide transmission resonance, and discuss line shifts that are specific to effectively one-dimensional waveguide systems.

  6. Nonlinear interaction of meta-atoms through optical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Kapitanova, P. V.; Filonov, D. S.; Belov, P. A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Powell, D. A. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Lapine, M., E-mail: mlapine@physics.usyd.edu.au [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); McPhedran, R. C. [Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-01-06

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multi-frequency nonlinear coupling mechanism between split-ring resonators. We engineer the coupling between two microwave resonators through optical interaction, whilst suppressing the direct electromagnetic coupling. This allows for a power-dependent interaction between the otherwise independent resonators, opening interesting opportunities to address applications in signal processing, filtering, directional coupling, and electromagnetic compatibility.

  7. Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robens, Carsten; Zopes, Jonathan; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-02-10

    We create low-entropy states of neutral atoms by utilizing a conceptually new optical-lattice technique that relies on a high-precision, high-bandwidth synthesis of light polarization. Polarization-synthesized optical lattices provide two fully controllable optical lattice potentials, each of them confining only atoms in either one of the two long-lived hyperfine states. By employing one lattice as the storage register and the other one as the shift register, we provide a proof of concept using four atoms that selected regions of the periodic potential can be filled with one particle per site. We expect that our results can be scaled up to thousands of atoms by employing an atom-sorting algorithm with logarithmic complexity, which is enabled by polarization-synthesized optical lattices. Vibrational entropy is subsequently removed by sideband cooling methods. Our results pave the way for a bottom-up approach to creating ultralow-entropy states of a many-body system.

  8. A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Waseem S; Gillen, Jonathon I; Peng, Amy; Fölling, Simon; Greiner, Markus

    2009-11-05

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in creating complex atomic many-body quantum systems. One approach is to use macroscopic, effectively thermodynamic ensembles of ultracold atoms to create quantum gases and strongly correlated states of matter, and to analyse the bulk properties of the ensemble. For example, bosonic and fermionic atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice can be used for quantum simulations of solid-state models. The opposite approach is to build up microscopic quantum systems atom-by-atom, with complete control over all degrees of freedom. The atoms or ions act as qubits and allow the realization of quantum gates, with the goal of creating highly controllable quantum information systems. Until now, the macroscopic and microscopic strategies have been fairly disconnected. Here we present a quantum gas 'microscope' that bridges the two approaches, realizing a system in which atoms of a macroscopic ensemble are detected individually and a complete set of degrees of freedom for each of them is determined through preparation and measurement. By implementing a high-resolution optical imaging system, single atoms are detected with near-unity fidelity on individual sites of a Hubbard-regime optical lattice. The lattice itself is generated by projecting a holographic mask through the imaging system. It has an arbitrary geometry, chosen to support both strong tunnel coupling between lattice sites and strong on-site confinement. Our approach can be used to directly detect strongly correlated states of matter; in the context of condensed matter simulation, this corresponds to the detection of individual electrons in the simulated crystal. Also, the quantum gas microscope may enable addressing and read-out of large-scale quantum information systems based on ultracold atoms.

  9. Electronic and optical properties of BxNyCz monolayers with adsorption of hydrogen atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, L.; Azevedo, S.; de Lima Bernardo, B.

    2017-03-01

    We apply first-principles calculations, using density functional theory, to analyze the electronic and optical properties of monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of 2D hexagonal boron nitrite (h-BN). It also investigated the effects of the adsorption of hydrogen atoms in different atoms at the edge of the h-BN nanodomain. We calculate the electronic band structure, the complex dielectric function and the optical conductivity. For such systems, the calculations demonstrate that the compounds exhibit a prominent excitement in the visible and near-infrared regions. In this form, the present study provides physical basis for potential applications of the considered materials in optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale.

  10. Magneto-optical trap formed by elliptically polarised light waves for Mg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudnikov, O. N.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Goncharov, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a magneto-optical trap (MOT) formed by elliptically polarised waves for 24Mg atoms on a closed optical 3P2 → 3D3 (λ = 383.8 nm) transition in the ɛ - θ - ɛ¯ configuration of the field. Compared with a known MOT formed by circularly polarised waves (σ+ - σ- configuration), the suggested configuration of the trap formed by fields of ɛ - θ - ɛ¯ configuration allows deeper sub-Doppler cooling of trapped 24Mg atoms, which cannot be implemented in a conventional trap formed by fields of σ+ - σ- configuration.

  11. Growth of magnetic cobalt/chromium nano-arrays by atom-optical lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atoneche, F; Malik, D; Kirilyuk, A; Toonen, A J; Etteger, A F van; Rasing, Th, E-mail: f.atoneche@science.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-06

    Arrays of magnetic cobalt/chromium (Co-Cr) nanolines are grown by depositing an atomic beam of Co-Cr alloy through a laser standing wave (SW) at {lambda}/2 = 212.8 nm onto a substrate. During deposition, only the chromium atoms are resonantly affected by the optical potential created by the SW, causing a periodic modulation of the chromium concentration and consequently of the magnetic properties. Magnetic force microscopy and magneto-optical Kerr effect studies reveal a patterned magnetic structure on the substrate surface.

  12. Growth of magnetic cobalt/chromium nano-arrays by atom-optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoneche, F.; Malik, D.; Kirilyuk, A.; Toonen, A. J.; van Etteger, A. F.; Rasing, Th

    2011-07-01

    Arrays of magnetic cobalt/chromium (Co-Cr) nanolines are grown by depositing an atomic beam of Co-Cr alloy through a laser standing wave (SW) at λ/2 = 212.8 nm onto a substrate. During deposition, only the chromium atoms are resonantly affected by the optical potential created by the SW, causing a periodic modulation of the chromium concentration and consequently of the magnetic properties. Magnetic force microscopy and magneto-optical Kerr effect studies reveal a patterned magnetic structure on the substrate surface.

  13. All-optical switching in an open V-type atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the optical bistability (OB) and absorption properties of a weak probe field in an open V-type three-level atomic system have been investigated. We found that the OB threshold could be reduced via spontaneously generated coherence (SGC), coherent and incoherent pump fields, atomic injection, and exit rates. We also found that the threshold intensity of OB in an open system was less than that in the closed system. The all-optical switching due to the OB has also been discussed.

  14. Concurrence Measurement for the Two-Qubit Optical and Atomic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concurrence provides us an effective approach to quantify entanglement, which is quite important in quantum information processing applications. In the paper, we mainly review some direct concurrence measurement protocols of the two-qubit optical or atomic system. We first introduce the concept of concurrence for a two-qubit system. Second, we explain the approaches of the concurrence measurement in both a linear and a nonlinear optical system. Third, we introduce some protocols for measuring the concurrence of the atomic entanglement system.

  15. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F=1 atomic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sooshin; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y

    2016-01-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of $^{23}$Na atoms in the $F=1$ hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations under a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the $F=1$ absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of $^{23}$Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in quantitative analysis of $F=1$ spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali atoms with $I=3/2$ nuclear spin such as $^{87}$Rb.

  16. Note: A four-pass acousto-optic modulator system for laser cooling of sodium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Wang, Dajun

    2017-07-01

    We present a four-pass acousto-optic modulator (AOM) system for providing the repumping light for laser cooling of sodium atoms. With only one 400 MHz AOM, we achieve a tunable laser frequency shift around 1.6 GHz with total efficiency up to 30%. This setup provides an alternative over conventional methods to generate a sodium repumping light using more expensive high frequency AOMs or electro-optical modulators (EOMs) in the GHz domain. This compact and reliable setup can be easily adapted to other frequencies and may find applications in laser spectroscopy, laser cooling and trapping, and coherent manipulation of atomic quantum states.

  17. Theory of atom optics: Feynman's path integral approach (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü-bi DENG

    2008-01-01

    In the preceding paper, we discussed eight configurations of particle Fraunhofer diffraction. In this pa-per, we consider nine configurations of particle Fresnel dif-fraction, and have derived the wave functions of particles in these configurations. Furthermore, the author presents a new inertial navigator principle. Its devised accuracy is not lower than that of the inertial navigator based on cold atom inter-ferometer. The new inertial navigator is named as ABSE inertial navigator. ABSE is abbreviation for Aharonov-Bohrn-Sagnac effect.

  18. Quantum Entanglement and Correlation of Two Qubit Atoms Interacting with the Coherent State Optical Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing

    2017-10-01

    Using the three criterions of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord, we investigate the quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics of two two-level atoms interacting with the coherent state optical field. We discuss the influence of different photon number of the mean square fluctuations on the temporal evolution of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord between two atoms when the two atoms are initially in specific three states. The results show that different photon number of the mean square fluctuations can lead to different effects of quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics.

  19. Quantum Entanglement and Correlation of Two Qubit Atoms Interacting with the Coherent State Optical Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing

    2017-08-01

    Using the three criterions of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord, we investigate the quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics of two two-level atoms interacting with the coherent state optical field. We discuss the influence of different photon number of the mean square fluctuations on the temporal evolution of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord between two atoms when the two atoms are initially in specific three states. The results show that different photon number of the mean square fluctuations can lead to different effects of quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics.

  20. Optical readout of the quantum collective motion of an array of atomic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Thierry; Brooks, Daniel W C; Schreppler, Sydney; Brahms, Nathan; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2013-04-12

    We create an ultracold-atom-based cavity optomechanical system in which the center-of-mass modes of motion of as many as six distinguishable atomic ensembles are prepared and optically detected near their ground states. We demonstrate that the collective motional state of one atomic ensemble can be selectively addressed while preserving neighboring ensembles near their ground states to better than 95% per excitation quantum. We also show that our system offers nanometer-scale spatial resolution of each atomic ensemble via optomechanical imaging. This technique enables the in situ parallel sensing of potential landscapes, a capability relevant to active research areas of atomic physics and force-field detection in optomechanics.

  1. Enhanced Raman sideband cooling of caesium atoms in a vapour-loaded magneto-optical trap

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y; Feng, G; Nute, J; Piano, S; Hackermuller, L; Ma, J; Xiao, L; Jia, S

    2015-01-01

    We report enhanced three-dimensional degenerated Raman sideband cooling (3D DRSC) of caesium (Cs) atoms in a standard single-cell vapour-loading magneto-optical trap. Our improved scheme involves using a separate repumping laser and optimized lattice detuning. We load $1.5 \\times 10^7$ atoms into the Raman lattice with a detuning of -15.5 GHz (to the ground F = 3 state). Enhanced 3D DRSC is used to cool them from 60 $\\mu$K to 1.7 $\\mu$K within 12 ms and the number of obtained atoms is about $1.2 \\times 10^7$. A theoretical model is proposed to simulate the measured number of trapped atoms. The result shows good agreement with the experimental data. The technique paves the way for loading a large number of ultracold Cs atoms into a crossed dipole trap and efficient evaporative cooling in a single-cell system.

  2. Enhanced Raman sideband cooling of caesium atoms in a vapour-loaded magneto-optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wu, J.; Feng, G.; Nute, J.; Piano, S.; Hackermüller, L.; Ma, J.; Xiao, L.; Jia, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report enhanced three-dimensional degenerated Raman sideband cooling (3D DRSC) of caesium (Cs) atoms in a standard single-cell vapour-loaded magneto-optical trap. Our improved scheme involves using a separate repumping laser and optimized lattice detuning. We load 1.5 × 107 atoms into the Raman lattice with a detuning of -15.5 GHz (to the ground F = 3 state). Enhanced 3D DRSC is used to cool them from 60 µK to 1.7 µK within 12 ms and the number of obtained atoms is about 1.2 × 107. A theoretical model is proposed to simulate the measured number of trapped atoms. The result shows good agreement with the experimental data. The technique paves the way for loading a large number of ultracold Cs atoms into a crossed dipole trap and efficient evaporative cooling in a single-cell system.

  3. Bimodal momentum distribution of laser-cooled atoms in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Dion, Claude M; Kastberg, Anders; Sjölund, Peder

    2016-01-01

    We study, numerically and experimentally, the momentum distribution of atoms cooled in optical lattices. Using semi-classical simulations, we show that this distribution is bimodal, made up of a central feature corresponding to "cold", trapped atoms, with tails of "hot", untrapped atoms, and that this holds true also for very shallow potentials. Careful analysis of the distribution of high-momentum untrapped atoms, both from simulations and experiments, shows that the tails of the distribution does not follow a normal law, hinting at a power-law distribution and non-ergodic behavior. We also revisit the phenomenon of d\\'ecrochage, the potential depth below which the temperature of the atoms starts increasing.

  4. Optical Pattern Formation in Cold Atoms: Explaining the Red-Blue Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittberger, Bonnie; Gauthier, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The study of pattern formation in atomic systems has provided new insight into fundamental many-body physics and low-light-level nonlinear optics. Pattern formation in cold atoms in particular is of great interest in condensed matter physics and quantum information science because atoms undergo self-organization at ultralow input powers. We recently reported the first observation of pattern formation in cold atoms but found that our results were not accurately described by any existing theoretical model of pattern formation. Previous models describing pattern formation in cold atoms predict that pattern formation should occur using both red and blue-detuned pump beams, favoring a lower threshold for blue detunings. This disagrees with our recent work, in which we only observed pattern formation with red-detuned pump beams. Previous models also assume a two-level atom, which cannot account for the cooling processes that arise when beams counterpropagate through a cold atomic vapor. We describe a new model for pattern formation that accounts for Sisyphus cooling in multi-level atoms, which gives rise to a new nonlinearity via spatial organization of the atoms. This spatial organization causes a sharp red-blue detuning asymmetry, which agrees well with our experimental observations. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grant #PHY-1206040.

  5. All-optical switching in a continuously operated and strongly coupled atom-cavity system

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate collective strong coupling, optical bi-stability (OB) and all-optical switching in a system consisting of ultracold 85Rb atoms, trapped in a dark magneto-optical trap (DMOT), coupled to an optical Fabry-Perot cavity. The strong coupling is established by measuring the vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS) of a weak on-axis probe beam. The dependence of VRS on the probe beam power is measured and bi-stability in the cavity transmission is observed. We demonstrate control over the transmission of the probe beam through the atom-cavity system using a free-space off-axis control beam and show that the cavity transmission can be switched on and off in micro-second timescales using micro-Watt control powers. The utility of the system as a tool for sensitive, in-situ and rapid measurements is envisaged.

  6. Delivering pulsed and phase stable light to atoms of an optical clock

    CERN Document Server

    Falke, Stephan; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In optical clocks, transitions of ions or neutral atoms are interrogated using pulsed ultra-narrow laser fields. Systematic phase chirps of the laser or changes of the optical path length during the measurement cause a shift of the frequency seen by the interrogated atoms. While the stabilization of cw-optical links is now a well established technique even on long distances, phase stable links for pulsed light pose additional challanges and have not been demonstrated so far. In addition to possible temperature or pressure drift of the laboratory, which may lead to a Doppler shift by steadily changing the optical path length, the pulsing of the clock laser light calls for short settling times of stabilization locks. Our optical path length stabilization uses retro-reflected light from a mirror that is fixed with respect to the interrogated atoms and synthetic signals during the dark time. Length changes and frequency chirps are compensated for by the switching AOM. For our strontium optical lattice clock we ha...

  7. Optical and magnetic properties of a transparent garnet film for atomic physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Saito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the optical and magnetic properties of a transparent magnetic garnet with a particular focus on its applications to atomic physics experiments. The garnet film used in this study was a magnetically soft material that was originally designed for a Faraday rotator at optical communication wavelengths in the near infrared region. The film had a thickness of 2.1 μm and a small optical loss at a wavelength of λ=780 nm resonant with Rb atoms. The Faraday effect was also small and, thus, barely affected the polarization of light at λ=780 nm. In contrast, large Faraday rotation angles at shorter wavelengths enabled us to visualize magnetic domains, which were perpendicularly magnetized in alternate directions with a period of 3.6 μm. We confirmed the generation of an evanescent wave on the garnet film, which can be used for the optical observation and manipulation of atoms on the surface of the film. Finally, we demonstrated a magnetic mirror for laser-cooled Rb atoms using the garnet film.

  8. Zeeman effect and optical pumping in atomic rubidium: a teaching experiment in quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, R.J.; Adams, S.; Seddon, G.; Golby, J.A.; Massey, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe an experiment developed recently in an undergraduate laboratory to measure the Zeeman splitting of the ground state of atomic rubidium. An optical pumping technique is employed and the magnetic field is calibrated by using free-electron spin resonance. Multiphoton absorption and power broadening of transitions are also investigated and a number of quantum principles introduced experimentally.

  9. Observation of Motion Dependent Nonlinear Dispersion with Narrow Linewidth Atoms in an Optical Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Westergaard, Philip G; Tieri, David; Matin, Rastin; Cooper, John; Holland, Murray; Ye, Jun; Thomsen, Jan W

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to state-of-the-art laser frequency stabilisation using ultra-stable cavities, it has been proposed to exploit the non-linear effects from coupling of atoms with a narrow atomic transition to an optical cavity. Here we have constructed such a system and observed non-linear phase shifts of a narrow optical line by strong coupling of a sample of strontium-88 atoms to an optical cavity. The sample temperature of a few mK provides a domain where the Doppler energy scale is several orders of magnitude larger than the narrow linewidth of the optical transition. This makes the system sensitive to velocity dependent multi-photon scattering events (Dopplerons) that affect the cavity transmission significantly while leaving the phase signature relatively unaffected. By varying the number of atoms and the intra-cavity power we systematically study this non-linear phase signature which displays roughly the same features as for much lower temperature samples. This demonstration in a relatively simple sys...

  10. Essay: Fifty years of atomic, molecular and optical physics in Physical Review Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroche, Serge

    2008-10-17

    The fiftieth anniversary of Physical Review Letters is a good opportunity to review the extraordinary progress of atomic, molecular, and optical physics reported in this journal during the past half-century. As both a witness and an actor of this story, I recall personal experiences and reflect about the past, present, and possible future of my field of research.

  11. Optical and magnetic properties of a transparent garnet film for atomic physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mari; Tajima, Ryoichi; Kiyosawa, Ryota; Nagata, Yugo; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the optical and magnetic properties of a transparent magnetic garnet with a particular focus on its applications to atomic physics experiments. The garnet film used in this study was a magnetically soft material that was originally designed for a Faraday rotator at optical communication wavelengths in the near infrared region. The film had a thickness of 2.1 μm and a small optical loss at a wavelength of λ =780 nm resonant with Rb atoms. The Faraday effect was also small and, thus, barely affected the polarization of light at λ =780 nm. In contrast, large Faraday rotation angles at shorter wavelengths enabled us to visualize magnetic domains, which were perpendicularly magnetized in alternate directions with a period of 3.6 μm. We confirmed the generation of an evanescent wave on the garnet film, which can be used for the optical observation and manipulation of atoms on the surface of the film. Finally, we demonstrated a magnetic mirror for laser-cooled Rb atoms using the garnet film.

  12. Interaction of laser-cooled $^{87}$Rb atoms with higher order modes of an optical nanofiber

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ravi; Maimaiti, Aili; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary C; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    Optical nanofibers can be used to confine light to submicron regions and are very promising for the realization of optical fiber-based quantum networks using cold, neutral atoms. Light propagating in the higher order modes of a nanofiber has a greater evanescent field extension around the waist in comparison with the fundamental mode, leading to a stronger interaction with the surrounding environment. In this work, we report on the integration of a few-mode, optical nanofiber, with a waist diameter of ~700 nm, into a magneto-optical trap for $^{87}$Rb atoms. The nanofiber is fabricated from 80 $\\mu$m diameter fiber using a brushed hydrogen-oxygen flame pulling rig. We show that absorption by laser-cooled atoms around the waist of the nanofiber is stronger when probe light is guided in the higher order modes than in the fundamental mode. As predicted by Masalov and Minogin*, fluorescent light from the atoms coupling in to the nanofiber through the waist has a higher pumping rate (5.8 times) for the higher-orde...

  13. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  14. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2008-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations.

  15. Light storage in a cold atomic ensemble with a high optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Chough, Young-Tak; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2017-06-01

    A quantum memory with a high storage efficiency and a long coherence time is an essential element in quantum information applications. Here, we report our recent development of an optical quantum memory with a rubidium-87 cold atom ensemble. By increasing the optical depth of the medium, we have achieved a storage efficiency of 65% and a coherence time of 51 μs for a weak laser pulse. The result of a numerical analysis based on the Maxwell-Bloch equations agrees well with the experimental results. Our result paves the way toward an efficient optical quantum memory and may find applications in photonic quantum information processing.

  16. Atomic Bloch-Zener oscillations and Stückelberg interferometry in optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Sebastian; Salger, Tobias; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2010-11-19

    We report on experiments investigating quantum transport and band interferometry of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a two-band miniband structure, realized with a Fourier-synthesized optical lattice potential. Bloch-Zener oscillations, the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling between the two bands, are observed. When the relative phase between paths in different bands is varied, an interference signal is observed, demonstrating the coherence of the dynamics in the miniband system. Measured fringe patterns of this Stückelberg interferometer allow us to interferometrically map out the band structure of the optical lattice over the full Brillouin zone.

  17. Communication: atomic force detection of single-molecule nonlinear optical vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Prasoon; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-04-28

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows for a highly sensitive detection of spectroscopic signals. This has been first demonstrated for NMR of a single molecule and recently extended to stimulated Raman in the optical regime. We theoretically investigate the use of optical forces to detect time and frequency domain nonlinear optical signals. We show that, with proper phase matching, the AFM-detected signals closely resemble coherent heterodyne-detected signals. Applications are made to AFM-detected and heterodyne-detected vibrational resonances in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (χ((3))) and sum or difference frequency generation (χ((2))).

  18. Preparation of an Exponentially Rising Optical Pulse for Efficient Excitation of Single Atoms in Free Space

    CERN Document Server

    Dao, Hoang Lan; Maslennikov, Gleb; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We report on a simple method to prepare optical pulses with exponentially rising envelope on the time scale of a few ns. The scheme is based on the exponential transfer function of a fast transistor, which generates an exponentially rising envelope that is transferred first on a radio frequency carrier, and then on a coherent cw laser beam with an electro-optical phase modulator (EOM). The temporally shaped sideband is then extracted with an optical resonator and can be used to efficiently excite a single Rb-87 atom.

  19. Optical detection of potassium chloride vapor using collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; Saarela, Jaakko; Toivonen, Juha

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and selective optical technique to detect potassium chloride (KCl) vapor is introduced. The technique is based on the photofragmentation of KCl molecules, using a pulsed UV laser, and optical probing of the temporarily increased amount of potassium atoms with a near-infrared laser. The two laser beams are aligned to go through the sample volume along the same optical path. The performance of the technique is demonstrated by detecting KCl concentrations from 25 ppb to 30 ppm in a temperature-controlled cell.

  20. An ultracold, optically trapped mixture of {87}Rb and metastable {4}He atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, Adonis Silva; Vassen, Wim; Knoop, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We report on the realization of an ultracold (<25~muK) mixture of rubidium ({87}Rb) and metastable triplet helium ({4}He) in an optical dipole trap. Our scheme involves laser cooling in a dual-species magneto-optical trap, simultaneous MW- and RF-induced forced evaporative cooling in a quadrupole magnetic trap, and transfer to a single-beam optical dipole trap. We observe long trapping lifetimes for the doubly spin-stretched spin-state mixture and measure much shorter lifetimes for other spin-state combinations. We discuss prospects for realizing quantum degenerate mixtures of alkali-metal and metastable helium atoms.

  1. Frequency-doubled telecom fiber laser for a cold atom interferometer using optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Fabien; Bidel, Yannick; Dieu, Emily; Zahzam, Nassim; Cadoret, Malo; Bresson, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    A compact and robust frequency-doubled telecom laser system at 780 nm is presented for a rubidium cold atom interferometer using optical lattices. Adopting an optical switch at 1.5 μm and a dual-wavelength second harmonic generation system, only one laser amplifier is required for the laser system. Our system delivers a 900 mW laser beam with a detuning of 110 GHz for the optical lattice and a 650 mW laser beam with an adjustable detuning between 0 and -1 GHz for the laser cooling, the detection and the Raman transitions.

  2. Frequency doubled telecom fiber laser for a cold atom interferometer using optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Theron, Fabien; Dieu, Emily; Zahzam, Nassim; Cadoret, Malo; Zahzam, Nassim; Bresson, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    A compact and robust laser system, based on a frequency-doubled telecom laser, providing all the lasers needed for a rubidium cold atom interferometer using optical lattices is presented. Thanks to an optical switch at 1.5 \\mu m and a dual-wavelength second harmonic generation system, only one laser amplifier is needed for all the laser system. Our system delivers at 780 nm a power of 900 mW with a detuning of 110 GHz for the optical lattice and a power of 650 mW with an adjustable detuning between 0 and -1 GHz for the laser cooling, the detection and the Raman transitions.

  3. Fault-tolerant quantum repeater with atomic ensembles and linear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Z B; Schmiedmayer, J; Zhao, B; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Zhao, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed remarkable experimental progresses on photon manipulation for quantum communication (QC). However, current probabilistic entangled photon sources and the difficulty of storing photons limit these experiments to moderate distances (about 10-100 km for quantum cryptography and a few photonic qubits. For long-distance (>1000 km) QC, one must realize quantum network with many communication nodes via the quantum repeater (QR) protocol. The existing implementations of QR seem to be not enough. Here we propose an efficient, fault-tolerant long-distance QC architecture with linear-optical robust entangler and atomic-ensemble-based quantum memory for photonic polarization qubits; the architecture is based on two-photon interference, which is about 10^8 times more stable than single-photon interference for atomic-ensemble-based single photons. Incorporating several significant recent advances on atomic-ensemble-based techniques and linear-optical entanglement purification, our scheme faithfu...

  4. A telecom-wavelength atomic quantum memory in optical fiber for heralded polarization qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jeongwan; Puigibert, Marcel li Grimau; Verma, Varun B; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Photon-based quantum information processing promises new technologies including optical quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and distributed quantum networks. Polarization-encoded photons at telecommunication wavelengths provide a compelling platform for practical realization of these technologies. However, despite important success towards building elementary components compatible with this platform, including sources of entangled photons, efficient single photon detectors, and on-chip quantum circuits, a missing element has been atomic quantum memory that directly allows for reversible mapping of quantum states encoded in the polarization degree of a telecom-wavelength photon. Here we demonstrate the quantum storage and retrieval of polarization states of heralded single-photons at telecom-wavelength by implementing the atomic frequency comb protocol in an ensemble of erbium atoms doped into an optical fiber. Despite remaining limitations in our proof-of-principle demonstration such as small storage eff...

  5. Optical meta-atom for localization of light with quantized energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lannebère, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to confine light into a small region of space is of paramount importance in many areas of modern science. Here, we suggest a mechanism to store a quantized "bit" of light - with a very precise amount of energy - in an open core-shell plasmonic structure ("meta-atom") with a nonlinear optical response. Notwithstanding the trapped light state is embedded in the radiation continuum, its lifetime is not limited by the radiation loss. Interestingly, it is shown that the interplay between the nonlinear response and volume plasmons enables breaking fundamental reciprocity restrictions, and coupling very efficiently an external light source to the meta-atom. The collision of an incident optical pulse with the meta-atom may be used to release the trapped radiation "bit".

  6. Magic-wavelength optical dipole trap of cesium and rubidium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junmin; Cheng, Yongjie; Guo, Shanlong; Yang, Baodong; He, Jun

    2012-06-01

    Optical dipole traps (ODT) with far-off-resonance laser are important tools in more and more present cold-atom experiments, which allow confinement of laser-cooled atoms with a long storage time. Particularly, the magic wavelength ODT can cancel the position-dependent spatially inhomogeneous light shift of desired atomic transition, which is introduced by the ODT laser beam. Now it plays an important role in the state-insensitive quantum engineering and the atomic optical clock. To verify the magic wavelength or the magic wavelength combination for D2 line transition of cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) atoms, we calculated and analyzed the light shift of the 133Cs 6S1/2 - 6P3/2 transition for a monochromatic ODT, and also the 87Rb 5S1/2 - 5P3/2 transition for a dichromatic ODT with a laser frequency ratio of 2:1. Also a dichromatic magic-wavelength ODT laser system for 87Rb atoms is proposed and experimentally realized by employing the quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling technique with telecom laser and fiber amplifier.

  7. Optical cooling and trapping of highly magnetic atoms: the benefits of a spontaneous spin polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Davide; Sidorenkov, Leonid A.; Bouazza, Chayma; Maineult, Wilfried; Dalibard, Jean; Nascimbene, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    From the study of long-range-interacting systems to the simulation of gauge fields, open-shell lanthanide atoms with their large magnetic moment and narrow optical transitions open novel directions in the field of ultracold quantum gases. As for other atomic species, the magneto-optical trap (MOT) is the working horse of experiments but its operation is challenging, due to the large electronic spin of the atoms. Here we present an experimental study of narrow-line dysprosium MOTs. We show that the combination of radiation pressure and gravitational forces leads to a spontaneous polarization of the electronic spin. The spin composition is measured using a Stern–Gerlach separation of spin levels, revealing that the gas becomes almost fully spin-polarized for large laser frequency detunings. In this regime, we reach the optimal operation of the MOT, with samples of typically 3× {10}8 atoms at a temperature of 15 μK. The spin polarization reduces the complexity of the radiative cooling description, which allows for a simple model accounting for our measurements. We also measure the rate of density-dependent atom losses, finding good agreement with a model based on light-induced Van der Waals forces. A minimal two-body loss rate β ∼ 2× {10}-11 cm3 s–1 is reached in the spin-polarized regime. Our results constitute a benchmark for the experimental study of ultracold gases of magnetic lanthanide atoms.

  8. Generation of a cold pulsed beam of Rb atoms by transfer from a 3D magneto-optic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Chanu, Sapam Ranjita; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for producing a cold pulsed beam of atoms by transferring a cloud of atoms trapped in a three dimensional magneto-optic trap (MOT). The MOT is loaded by heating a getter source of Rb atoms. We show that it is advantageous to transfer with two beams (with a small angle between them) compared to a single beam, because the atoms stop interacting with the beams in the two-beam technique, which results in a Gaussian velocity distribution. The atoms are further cooled in optical molasses by turning off the MOT magnetic field before the transfer beams are turned on.

  9. Real-time near-field terahertz imaging with atomic optical fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. G.; Šibalić, N.; de Melo, N. R.; Kondo, J. M.; Adams, C. S.; Weatherill, K. J.

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) near-field imaging is a flourishing discipline, with applications from fundamental studies of beam propagation to the characterization of metamaterials and waveguides. Beating the diffraction limit typically involves rastering structures or detectors with length scale shorter than the radiation wavelength; in the THz domain this has been achieved using a number of techniques including scattering tips and apertures. Alternatively, mapping THz fields onto an optical wavelength and imaging the visible light removes the requirement for scanning a local probe, speeding up image collection times. Here, we report THz-to-optical conversion using a gas of highly excited Rydberg atoms. By collecting THz-induced optical fluorescence we demonstrate a real-time image of a THz standing wave and use well-known atomic properties to calibrate the THz field strength.

  10. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Abou Chaaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  11. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chaaya, Adib; Viter, Roman; Bechelany, Mikhael; Alute, Zanda; Erts, Donats; Zalesskaya, Anastasiya; Kovalevskis, Kristaps; Rouessac, Vincent; Smyntyna, Valentyn; Miele, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms inside a high-finesse optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiteng; Kumar, Santosh; Sedlacek, Jonathon; Chao, Yuanxi; Fan, Haoquan; Shaffer, James

    2016-05-01

    We present experimental work on the observation of Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) inside a high-finesse optical cavity. We show that a cold atomic cloud with controllable number of atoms can be transported into the cavity by using a focus-tunable lens. Rydberg atoms are excited via a two-photon transition in a ladder-type EIT configuration. A three-peak structure in the cavity transmission can be observed when Rydberg EIT atoms are generated inside the cavity. The two side peaks are caused by ``bright state polaritons'', while the central peak corresponds to a ``dark-state polariton'' The cavity Rydberg EIT system can be useful for single photon generation using the Rydberg blockade effect, studying many-body physics, and generating novel quantum states amongst many other applications. This work is supported by AFOSR.

  13. Optical response of gas-phase atoms at less than $\\lambda/80$ from a dielectric surface

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, K A; Hughes, I G; Sargsyan, A; Sarkisyan, D; Adams, C S

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental observations of atom-light interactions within tens of nanometers (down to 11~nm) of a sapphire surface. Using photon counting we detect the fluorescence from of order one thousand Rb or Cs atoms, confined in a vapor with thickness much less than the optical excitation wavelength. The asymmetry in the spectral lineshape provides a direct read-out of the atom-surface potential. A numerical fit indicates a power-law $-C_{\\alpha}/r^{\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha=3.02\\pm0.06$ confirming that the van der Waals interaction dominates over other effects. The extreme sensitivity of our photon-counting technique may allow the search for atom-surface bound states.

  14. A portable magneto-optical trap with prospects for atom interferometry in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Winch, J.; Briggs, J.; Freer, S.; Moustoukas, D.; Powell-Gill, S.; Squire, C.; Lamb, A.; Rammeloo, C.; Stray, B.; Voulazeris, G.; Zhu, L.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Rodgers, A.; Stabrawa, A.; Boddice, D.; Plant, S. R.; Tuckwell, G. W.; Bongs, K.; Metje, N.; Holynski, M.

    2017-06-01

    The high precision and scalable technology offered by atom interferometry has the opportunity to profoundly affect gravity surveys, enabling the detection of features of either smaller size or greater depth. While such systems are already starting to enter into the commercial market, significant reductions are required in order to reach the size, weight and power of conventional devices. In this article, the potential for atom interferometry based gravimetry is assessed, suggesting that the key opportunity resides within the development of gravity gradiometry sensors to enable drastic improvements in measurement time. To push forward in realizing more compact systems, techniques have been pursued to realize a highly portable magneto-optical trap system, which represents the core package of an atom interferometry system. This can create clouds of 107 atoms within a system package of 20 l and 10 kg, consuming 80 W of power. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  15. A Fiber Optic Catalytic Sensor for Neutral Atom Measurements in Oxygen Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Vesel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented sensor for neutral oxygen atom measurement in oxygen plasma is a catalytic probe which uses fiber optics and infrared detection system to measure the gray body radiation of the catalyst. The density of neutral atoms can be determined from the temperature curve of the probe, because the catalyst is heated predominantly by the dissipation of energy caused by the heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral atoms. The advantages of this sensor are that it is simple, reliable, easy to use, noninvasive, quantitative and can be used in plasma discharge regions. By using different catalyst materials the sensor can also be applied for detection of neutral atoms in other plasmas. Sensor design, operation, example measurements and new measurement procedure for systematic characterization are presented.

  16. Optical response of gas-phase atoms at less than λ/80 from a dielectric surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, K A; Keaveney, J; Hughes, I G; Sargsyan, A; Sarkisyan, D; Adams, C S

    2014-06-27

    We present experimental observations of atom-light interactions within tens of nanometers (down to 11 nm) of a sapphire surface. Using photon counting we detect the fluorescence from of order one thousand Rb or Cs atoms, confined in a vapor with thickness much less than the optical excitation wavelength. The asymmetry in the spectral line shape provides a direct readout of the atom-surface potential. A numerical fit indicates a power law -C(α)/r(α) with α = 3.02 ± 0.06 confirming that the van der Waals interaction dominates over other effects. The extreme sensitivity of our photon-counting technique may allow the search for atom-surface bound states.

  17. Laser cooling a neutral atom to the three-dimensional vibrational ground state of an optical tweezer

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Adam M; Regal, Cindy A

    2012-01-01

    We report three-dimensional ground state cooling of a single neutral atom in an optical tweezer. After employing Raman sideband cooling for 33 ms, we measure via sideband spectroscopy a three-dimensional ground state occupation of ~90%. Ground state neutral atoms in optical tweezers will be instrumental in numerous quantum logic applications and for nanophotonic interfaces that require a versatile platform for storing, moving, and manipulating ultracold single neutral atoms.

  18. Blackbody radiation shift in the Sr optical atomic clock

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Safronova, U I; Kozlov, M G; Clark, Charles W

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the static and dynamic polarizabilities of the 5s^2 ^1S_0 and 5s5p ^3P_0^o states of Sr using the high-precision relativistic configuration interaction + all-order method. Our calculation explains the discrepancy between the recent experimental 5s^2 ^1S_0 - 5s5p ^3P_0^o dc Stark shift measurement \\Delta \\alpha = 247.374(7) a.u. [Middelmann et. al, arXiv:1208.2848 (2012)] and the earlier theoretical result of 261(4) a.u. [Porsev and Derevianko, Phys. Rev. A 74, 020502R (2006)]. Our present value of 247.5 a.u. is in excellent agreement with the experimental result. We also evaluated the dynamic correction to the BBR shift with 1 % uncertainty; -0.1492(16) Hz. The dynamic correction to the BBR shift is unusually large in the case of Sr (7 %) and it enters significantly into the uncertainty budget of the Sr optical lattice clock. We suggest future experiments that could further reduce the present uncertainties.

  19. Temperature Sensitivity of an Atomic Vapor Cell-Based Dispersion-Enhanced Optical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, K.; Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.; Luckay, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the response of an optical cavity to a change in optical path length, through the use of an intracavity fast-light medium, has previously been demonstrated experimentally and described theoretically for an atomic vapor cell as the intracavity resonant absorber. This phenomenon may be used to enhance both the scale factor and sensitivity of an optical cavity mode to the change in path length, e.g. in gyroscopic applications. We study the temperature sensitivity of the on-resonant scale factor enhancement, S(sub o), due to the thermal sensitivity of the lower-level atom density in an atomic vapor cell, specifically for the case of the Rb-87 D(sub 2) transition. A semi-empirical model of the temperature-dependence of the absorption profile, characterized by two parameters, a(sub o)(T) and gamma(sub a)(T) allows the temperature-dependence of the cavity response, S(sub o)(T) and dS(sub o)/dT to be predicted over a range of temperature. We compare the predictions to experiment. Our model will be useful in determining the useful range for S(sub o), given the practical constraints on temperature stability for an atomic vapor cell.

  20. A high repetition rate experimental setup for quantum non-linear optics with cold Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Hannes; Ball, Simon W.; Huillery, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Using electromagnetically induced transparency and photon storage, the strong dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms and the resulting dipole blockade can be mapped onto light fields to realise optical non-linearities and interactions at the single photon level. We report on the realisation of an experimental apparatus designed to study interactions between single photons stored as Rydberg excitations in optically trapped microscopic ensembles of ultracold 87Rb atoms. A pair of in-vacuum high numerical aperture lenses focus excitation and trapping beams down to 1 μm, well below the Rydberg blockade. Thanks to efficient magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading from an atomic beam generated by a 2D MOT and the ability to recycle the microscopic ensembles more than 20000 times without significant atom loss, we achieve effective repetition rates exceeding 110 kHz to obtain good photon counting statistics on reasonable time scales. To demonstrate the functionality of the setup, we present evidence of strong photon interactions including saturation of photon storage and the retrieval of non-classical light. Using in-vacuum antennae operating at up to 40 GHz, we perform microwave spectroscopy on photons stored as Rydberg excitations and observe an interaction induced change in lineshape depending on the number of stored photons.