Sample records for optic flow coding

  1. Low Delay Wyner-Ziv Coding Using Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Forchhammer, Søren


    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm that exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of the Side Information (SI). The SI can be seen as a noisy version of the source, and the lower the noise the higher the RD performance of the decoder. The SI...... on preceding frames for the generation of the SI by means of Optical Flow (OF), which is also used in the refinement step of the SI for enhanced RD performance. Compared with a state-of-the-art extrapolation-based decoder the proposed solution achieves RD Bjontegaard gains up to 1.3 dB....

  2. Side Information and Noise Learning for Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow and Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Huang, Xin


    Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes using optical flow to improve side information generation and clustering to improve noise modeling. The optical flow technique is exploited at the decoder side to compensate weaknesses of block based methods, when using motion-compensation to generate......Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The coding efficiency of DVC critically depends on the quality of side information generation and accuracy of noise modeling. This paper considers...... side information frames. Clustering is introduced to capture cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in the noise modeling. This paper also proposes techniques to learn from previously decoded (WZ) frames. Different techniques are combined by calculating a number of candidate soft side...

  3. Distributed multi-hypothesis coding of depth maps using texture motion information and optical flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Rakêt, Lars Lau


    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm allowing a shift of complexity from the encoder to the decoder. Depth maps are images enabling the calculation of the distance of an object from the camera, which can be used in multiview coding in order to generate virtual views, but also...... information, a block-based and an optical flow-based methods are employed. Finally we fuse the proposed Side Informations using a multi-hypothesis DVC decoder, which allows us to exploit the strengths of all the proposed methods at the same time....

  4. Multi-hypothesis Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding including Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Luong, Huynh Van


    Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding is an efficient Distributed Video coding solution providing new features such as low complexity encoding, by mainly exploiting the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of decoder side information. The accuracy of the decoder side...... information has a major impact on the performance of TDWZ. In this paper, a novel multi-hypothesis based TDWZ video coding is presented to exploit the redundancy between multiple side information and the source information. The decoder used optical flow for side information calculation. Compared with the best...

  5. Multi-hypothesis Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding including Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Luong, Huynh Van;


    information has a major impact on the performance of TDWZ. In this paper, a novel multi-hypothesis based TDWZ video coding is presented to exploit the redundancy between multiple side information and the source information. The decoder used optical flow for side information calculation. Compared with the best...... available single estimation mode TDWZ, the proposed multi-hypothesis based TDWZ achieves robustly better Rate-Distortion (RD) performance and the overall improvement is up to 0.6 dB at high bitrate and up to 2 dB compared with the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....

  6. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane


    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  7. Exploiting the Error-Correcting Capabilities of Low Density Parity Check Codes in Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Søgaard, Jacob; Salmistraro, Matteo;


    . Thereafter methods for exploiting the error-correcting capabilities of the LDPCA code in DVC are investigated. The proposed frame interpolation includes a symmetric flow constraint to the standard forward-backward frame interpolation scheme, which improves quality and handling of large motion. The three......, an average bitrate saving of more than 40% is achieved compared to DISCOVER on Wyner-Ziv frames. In addition we also exploit and investigate the internal error-correcting capabilities of the LDPCA code in order to make it more robust to errors. We investigate how to achieve this goal by only modifying...

  8. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl


    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes.......Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  9. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C


    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  10. Wavefront coding with adaptive optics (United States)

    Agbana, Temitope E.; Soloviev, Oleg; Bezzubik, Vitalii; Patlan, Vsevolod; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb


    We have implemented an extended depth of field optical system by wavefront coding with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror. This approach provides a versatile extension to standard wavefront coding based on fixed phase mask. First experimental results validate the feasibility of the use of adaptive optics for variable depth wavefront coding in imaging optical systems.

  11. Connectivity Reveals Sources of Predictive Coding Signals in Early Visual Cortex During Processing of Visual Optic Flow. (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas


    Superimposed on the visual feed-forward pathway, feedback connections convey higher level information to cortical areas lower in the hierarchy. A prominent framework for these connections is the theory of predictive coding where high-level areas send stimulus interpretations to lower level areas that compare them with sensory input. Along these lines, a growing body of neuroimaging studies shows that predictable stimuli lead to reduced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses compared with matched nonpredictable counterparts, especially in early visual cortex (EVC) including areas V1-V3. The sources of these modulatory feedback signals are largely unknown. Here, we re-examined the robust finding of relative BOLD suppression in EVC evident during processing of coherent compared with random motion. Using functional connectivity analysis, we show an optic flow-dependent increase of functional connectivity between BOLD suppressed EVC and a network of visual motion areas including MST, V3A, V6, the cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv), and precuneus (Pc). Connectivity decreased between EVC and 2 areas known to encode heading direction: entorhinal cortex (EC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Our results provide first evidence that BOLD suppression in EVC for predictable stimuli is indeed mediated by specific high-level areas, in accord with the theory of predictive coding.

  12. Driver Code for Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Rao, Shanti


    A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

  13. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David


    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  14. Code flows : Visualizing structural evolution of source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David


    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual met

  15. New Codes for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yousif Ahmed


    Full Text Available A new code structure with zero in-phase cross correlation for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA system is proposed, and called zero vectors combinatorial (ZVC. This code is constructed in a simple algebraic way using Euclidean vectors and combinatorial theories based on the relationship between the number of users N and the weight W. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross correlation (CC is always zero, which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise (PIIN are reduced. Bit error rate (BER performance is compared with previous reported codes. Therefore, theoretically, we demonstrate the performance of ZVC code with the related equations. In addition, the structure of the encoder/decoder based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs and the proposed system have been analyzed theoretically by taking into consideration the effects of some noises. The results characterizing BER with respect to the total number of active users show that ZVC code offers a significantly improved performance over previous reported codes by supporting large numbers of users at BER≥ 10-9. A comprehensive simulation study has been carried out using a commercial optical system simulator “VPI™”. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed code managed to reduce the hardware complexity and eventually the cost.

  16. Flow Analysis of Code Customizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders; Sestoft, Peter


    Inconsistency between metadata and code customizations is a major concern in modern, configurable enterprise systems. The increasing reliance on metadata, in the form of XML files, and code customizations, in the form of Java files, has led to a hybrid development platform. The expected consisten...

  17. All-optical analog-to-digital conversion using optical interconnection for gray code coding (United States)

    Nishitani, Takashi; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Kazuyoshi


    The gray code based all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) using optical interconnection is described. Recent tremendous growths of optical communications and digital signal processing have encouraged the demand of high-speed and high-resolution ADC. To pursue a high-speed and high-resolution ADC, optical approaches have attracted much attention recently. ADC generally consists of three procedures: sampling, quantization and coding. Whereas the optical sampling techniques have been proposed and realized, the optical quantization and coding techniques have investigated depending on various applications. For the application to the binary detection of a high-speed digital signal, we previously proposed an all-optical ADC which consists of optical quantization using self-frequency shifting in a fiber and optical coding using optical interconnection for general binary code. In addition, since we can easily prepare optical interconnection patterns corresponding to the various codes, this technique can be used in any coding schemes. In this paper, we demonstrate the gray code based all-optical ADC to verify its scalability. Experimental results show that the 8-levels analog signals can be successfully converted into the bitwise allocated 3-bit gray code.

  18. Spike Code Flow in Cultured Neuronal Networks. (United States)

    Tamura, Shinichi; Nishitani, Yoshi; Hosokawa, Chie; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Sawai, Hajime; Kamimura, Takuya; Yagi, Yasushi; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Chen, Yen-Wei


    We observed spike trains produced by one-shot electrical stimulation with 8 × 8 multielectrodes in cultured neuronal networks. Each electrode accepted spikes from several neurons. We extracted the short codes from spike trains and obtained a code spectrum with a nominal time accuracy of 1%. We then constructed code flow maps as movies of the electrode array to observe the code flow of "1101" and "1011," which are typical pseudorandom sequence such as that we often encountered in a literature and our experiments. They seemed to flow from one electrode to the neighboring one and maintained their shape to some extent. To quantify the flow, we calculated the "maximum cross-correlations" among neighboring electrodes, to find the direction of maximum flow of the codes with lengths less than 8. Normalized maximum cross-correlations were almost constant irrespective of code. Furthermore, if the spike trains were shuffled in interval orders or in electrodes, they became significantly small. Thus, the analysis suggested that local codes of approximately constant shape propagated and conveyed information across the network. Hence, the codes can serve as visible and trackable marks of propagating spike waves as well as evaluating information flow in the neuronal network.

  19. Optical Packet Switching Scheme Using Multi-optical-code Labels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-wen; ZHANG Qi; YU Chong-xiu; XIN Xiang-jun; XIONG Fei


    Proposed is a novel optical code(OC) label switching scheme in which an optical label is constructed by multiple parallel optical codes. The performances of splitting loss and BER are simulated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed label can be correctly recognized to perform packet switching. Compared with reported schemes using one OC as a label, the splitting loss in our proposal is lowered.

  20. Robust Optical Flow Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Pérez


    Full Text Available n this work, we describe an implementation of the variational method proposed by Brox etal. in 2004, which yields accurate optical flows with low running times. It has several benefitswith respect to the method of Horn and Schunck: it is more robust to the presence of outliers,produces piecewise-smooth flow fields and can cope with constant brightness changes. Thismethod relies on the brightness and gradient constancy assumptions, using the information ofthe image intensities and the image gradients to find correspondences. It also generalizes theuse of continuous L1 functionals, which help mitigate the effect of outliers and create a TotalVariation (TV regularization. Additionally, it introduces a simple temporal regularizationscheme that enforces a continuous temporal coherence of the flow fields.

  1. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrymgeour, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boye, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adelsberger, Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  2. A Multidimensional Code For Isothermal Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Jones, T W; Hong, S S; Kim, Jongsoo; Ryu, Dongsu


    We present a multi-dimensional numerical code to solve isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (IMHD) equations for use in modeling astrophysical flows. First, we have built a one-dimensional code which is based on an explicit finite-difference method on an Eulerian grid, called the total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme. Recipes for building the one-dimensional IMHD code, including the normalized right and left eigenvectors of the IMHD Jacobian matrix, are presented. Then, we have extended the one-dimensional code to a multi-dimensional IMHD code through a Strang-type dimensional splitting. In the multi-dimensional code, an explicit cleaning step has been included to eliminate non-zero $\

  3. Optic flow and autonomous navigation. (United States)

    Campani, M; Giachetti, A; Torre, V


    Many animals, especially insects, compute and use optic flow to control their motion direction and to avoid obstacles. Recent advances in computer vision have shown that an adequate optic flow can be computed from image sequences. Therefore studying whether artificial systems, such as robots, can use optic flow for similar purposes is of particular interest. Experiments are reviewed that suggest the possible use of optic flow for the navigation of a robot moving in indoor and outdoor environments. The optic flow is used to detect and localise obstacles in indoor scenes, such as corridors, offices, and laboratories. These routines are based on the computation of a reduced optic flow. The robot is usually able to avoid large obstacles such as a chair or a person. The avoidance performances of the proposed algorithm critically depend on the optomotor reaction of the robot. The optic flow can be used to understand the ego-motion in outdoor scenes, that is, to obtain information on the absolute velocity of the moving vehicle and to detect the presence of other moving objects. A critical step is the correction of the optic flow for shocks and vibrations present during image acquisition. The results obtained suggest that optic flow can be successfully used by biological and artificial systems to control their navigation. Moreover, both systems require fast and accurate optomotor reactions and need to compensate for the instability of the viewed world.

  4. Soliton coding for secured optical communication link

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh; Idrus, Sevia Mahdaliza


    Nonlinear behavior of light such as chaos can be observed during propagation of a laser beam inside the microring resonator (MRR) systems. This Brief highlights the design of a system of MRRs to generate a series of logic codes. An optical soliton is used to generate an entangled photon. The ultra-short soliton pulses provide the required communication signals to generate a pair of polarization entangled photons required for quantum keys. In the frequency domain, MRRs can be used to generate optical millimetre-wave solitons with a broadband frequency of 0?100 GHz. The soliton signals are multi

  5. Deterministic mediated superdense coding with linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavičić, Mladen, E-mail: [Department of Physics—Nanooptics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices (CEMS), Photonics and Quantum Optics Unit, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)


    We present a scheme of deterministic mediated superdense coding of entangled photon states employing only linear-optics elements. Ideally, we are able to deterministically transfer four messages by manipulating just one of the photons. Two degrees of freedom, polarization and spatial, are used. A new kind of source of heralded down-converted photon pairs conditioned on detection of another pair with an efficiency of 92% is proposed. Realistic probabilistic experimental verification of the scheme with such a source of preselected pairs is feasible with today's technology. We obtain the channel capacity of 1.78 bits for a full-fledged implementation. - Highlights: • Deterministic linear optics mediated superdense coding is proposed. • Two degrees of freedom, polarization and spatial, are used. • Heralded source of conditioned entangled photon pairs, 92% efficient, is proposed.

  6. Optical implementation of a unitarily correctable code (United States)

    Schreiter, K. M.; Pasieka, A.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Resch, K. J.; Kribs, D. W.


    Noise poses a challenge for any real-world implementation in quantum information science. The theory of quantum error correction deals with this problem via methods to encode and recover quantum information in a way that is resilient against that noise. Unitarily correctable codes are an error correction technique wherein a single unitary recovery operation is applied without the need for an ancilla Hilbert space. Here, we present an optical implementation of a nontrivial unitarily correctable code for a noisy quantum channel with no decoherence-free subspaces or noiseless subsystems. We show that recovery of our initial states is achieved with high fidelity (≥0.97) , quantitatively proving the efficacy of this unitarily correctable code.

  7. Optical diagnostics of intermittent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The efficiency of combined use of different optical techniques for flow diagnostics is demonstrated with the practically important case of intense swirling flows. It is shown that, when applied separately, commonly used optical measuring techniques, such as laser Doppler anemometry and particle...... image velocimetry, frequently give erroneous results, especially for the transition flow and developed nonstationary flow. However, their combined use in diagnostics of unsteady (intermittent) flows significantly improves both the temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Such a complex approach...... is for the first time applied for diagnostics of the flow pattern in a closed cylinder with a rotating end face with the aim of studying the changeover from the steady axisymmetric to unsteady asymmetric flow over a wide range of flow parameters. It is found that such a transition is notable for azimuthal...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a new method for robust and accurate optical flow estimation. The significance of this work is twofold. Firstly, the idea of bi-directional scheme is adopted to reduce the model error of optical flow equation, which allows the second order Taylor's expansion of optical flow equation for accurate solution without much extra computational burden; Secondly, this paper establishs a new optical flow equation based on LSCM (Local Structure Constancy Model) instead of BCM (Brightness Constancy Model), namely the optical flow equation does not act on scalar but on tensor-valued (matrix-valued) field, due to the two reason: (1) structure tensor-value contains local spatial structure information, which provides us more useable cues for computation than scalar; (2) local image structure is less sensitive to illumination variation than intensity, which weakens the disturbance of non-uniform illumination in real sequences. Qualitative and quantitative results for synthetic and real-world scenes show that the new method can produce an accurate and robust results.

  9. New Two-dimensional Modified Quadratic Congruence Code/Optical Orthogonal Code for OCDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; QIU Luo-lin; ZHANG Jin-rong; TANG Xian-lun; CAO Chang-xiu


    A new family of two-dimensional optical orthogonal code(2-DOOC), namely, modified quadratic congruence code(MQCC )/optical orthogonal code(OOC) is proposed who employs MQCC and OOC as wavelength hopping and time-spreading patterns, respectively. Through analyzing the performance of MQCC/OOC, we can see that the correlation properties of the MQCC/OOC are still ideal. Simultaneously, our analysis shows that the proposed new code families can get more cardinalities than other codes and can improve the bit error rate(BER) of optical code division multiple access(OCDMA) effectively.

  10. OPR1000 RCP Flow Coastdown Analysis using SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Seyun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Korean nuclear industry developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for the safety analysis of PWRs, named SPACE(Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plant). Current loss of flow transient analysis of OPR1000 uses COAST code to calculate transient RCS(Reactor Coolant System) flow. The COAST code calculates RCS loop flow using pump performance curves and RCP(Reactor Coolant Pump) inertia. In this paper, SPACE code is used to reproduce RCS flowrates calculated by COAST code. The loss of flow transient is transient initiated by reduction of forced reactor coolant circulation. Typical loss of flow transients are complete loss of flow(CLOF) and locked rotor(LR). OPR1000 RCP flow coastdown analysis was performed using SPACE using simplified nodalization. Complete loss of flow(4 RCP trip) was analyzed. The results show good agreement with those from COAST code, which is CE code for calculating RCS flow during loss of flow transients. Through this study, we confirmed that SPACE code can be used instead of COAST code for RCP flow coastdown analysis.

  11. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin


    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  12. Enumerative Encoding of TMTR Codes for Optical Recording Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Hui-Feng


    Full Text Available We propose a new time-varying maximum transition run (TMTR code for DVD recording systems, which has a rate higher than the EFMPlus code and a lower power spectral density (PSD at low frequencies. An enumeration method for constructing the new TMTR code is presented. Computer simulations indicate that the proposed TMTR code outperforms the EFMPlus code in error performance when applied to partial response optical recording channels.

  13. A novel all-optical label processing based on multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences for optical packet switching networks (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun; Xu, Bo; Ling, Yun


    This paper proposes an all-optical label processing scheme that uses the multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences (MOOCS)-based optical label for optical packet switching (OPS) (MOOCS-OPS) networks. In this scheme, each MOOCS is a permutation or combination of the multiple optical orthogonal codes (MOOC) selected from the multiple-groups optical orthogonal codes (MGOOC). Following a comparison of different optical label processing (OLP) schemes, the principles of MOOCS-OPS network are given and analyzed. Firstly, theoretical analyses are used to prove that MOOCS is able to greatly enlarge the number of available optical labels when compared to the previous single optical orthogonal code (SOOC) for OPS (SOOC-OPS) network. Then, the key units of the MOOCS-based optical label packets, including optical packet generation, optical label erasing, optical label extraction and optical label rewriting etc., are given and studied. These results are used to verify that the proposed MOOCS-OPS scheme is feasible.

  14. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. (United States)

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit


    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  15. A Review on Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (United States)

    Kaur, Navpreet; Goyal, Rakesh; Rani, Monika


    This manuscript deals with analysis of Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SACOCDMA) system. The major noise source in optical CDMA is co-channel interference from other users known as multiple access interference (MAI). The system performance in terms of bit error rate (BER) degrades as a result of increased MAI. It is perceived that number of users and type of codes used for optical system directly decide the performance of system. MAI can be restricted by efficient designing of optical codes and implementing them with unique architecture to accommodate more number of users. Hence, it is a necessity to design a technique like spectral direct detection (SDD) technique with modified double weight code, which can provide better cardinality and good correlation property.

  16. Computer aided power flow software engineering and code generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, R. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland)


    In this paper a software engineering concept is described which permits the automatic solution of a non-linear set of network equations. The power flow equation set can be seen as a defined subset of a network equation set. The automated solution process is the numerical Newton-Raphson solution process of the power flow equations where the key code parts are the numeric mismatch and the numeric Jacobian term computation. It is shown that both the Jacobian and the mismatch term source code can be automatically generated in a conventional language such as Fortran or C. Thereby one starts from a high level, symbolic language with automatic differentiation and code generation facilities. As a result of this software engineering process an efficient, very high quality newton-Raphson solution code is generated which allows easier implementation of network equation model enhancements and easier code maintenance as compared to hand-coded Fortran or C code.

  17. Computer aided power flow software engineering and code generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, R. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland)


    In this paper a software engineering concept is described which permits the automatic solution of a non-linear set of network equations. The power flow equation set can be seen as a defined subset of a network equation set. The automated solution process is the numerical Newton-Raphson solution process of the power flow equations where the key code parts are the numeric mismatch and the numeric Jacobian term computation. It is shown that both the Jacobian and the mismatch term source code can be automatically generated in a conventional language such as Fortran or C. Thereby one starts from a high level, symbolic language with automatic differentiation and code generation facilities. As a result of this software engineering process an efficient, very high quality Newton-Raphson solution code is generated which allows easier implementation of network equation model enhancements and easier code maintenance as compared to hand-coded Fortran or C code.

  18. Insect vision: controlling actions through optic flow. (United States)

    Collett, Thomas S


    Insects depend upon optic flow to supply much of their information about the three-dimensional structure of the world. Many insects use translational flow to measure the distance of objects from themselves. A recent study has provided new insights into the way Drosophila use optic flow to pick out a close target to approach.

  19. Experimental proposal of probabilistic superdense coding with linear optical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qing; Li Jian; Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    In this paper, we propose an experimental scheme of probabilistic superdense coding assisted with linear optical manipulations, photon entanglement produced from parametric down-conversion and postselection from coincidence measurements. The proposal is feasible by current experimental technology.

  20. ComboCoding: Combined intra-/inter-flow network coding for TCP over disruptive MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chia Chen


    Full Text Available TCP over wireless networks is challenging due to random losses and ACK interference. Although network coding schemes have been proposed to improve TCP robustness against extreme random losses, a critical problem still remains of DATA–ACK interference. To address this issue, we use inter-flow coding between DATA and ACK to reduce the number of transmissions among nodes. In addition, we also utilize a “pipeline” random linear coding scheme with adaptive redundancy to overcome high packet loss over unreliable links. The resulting coding scheme, ComboCoding, combines intra-flow and inter-flow coding to provide robust TCP transmission in disruptive wireless networks. The main contributions of our scheme are twofold; the efficient combination of random linear coding and XOR coding on bi-directional streams (DATA and ACK, and the novel redundancy control scheme that adapts to time-varying and space-varying link loss. The adaptive ComboCoding was tested on a variable hop string topology with unstable links and on a multipath MANET with dynamic topology. Simulation results show that TCP with ComboCoding delivers higher throughput than with other coding options in high loss and mobile scenarios, while introducing minimal overhead in normal operation.

  1. Optical code division multiple access secure communications systems with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key user code (United States)

    Gao, Kaiqiang; Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xinzhi; Shang, Chao; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Jian


    An optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) secure communications system scheme with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key (Pol-SK) bipolar user code is proposed and demonstrated. Compared to fix code OCDMA, by constantly changing the user code, the performance of anti-eavesdropping is greatly improved. The Pol-SK OCDMA experiment with a 10 Gchip/s user code and a 1.25 Gb/s user data of payload has been realized, which means this scheme has better tolerance and could be easily realized.

  2. Totally Coded Method for Signal Flow Graph Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-bo; ZHOU Mei-hua


    After a code-table has been established by means of node association information from signal flow graph, the totally coded method (TCM) is applied merely in the domain of code operation beyond any figure-earching algorithm. The code-series (CS) have the holoinformation nature, so that both the content and the sign of each gain- term can be determined via the coded method. The principle of this method is simple and it is suited for computer programming. The capability of the computer-aided analysis for switched current network(SIN) can be enhanced.

  3. Iterated decoding of modified product codes in optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn


    Appendix I of the standard ITU-T G.975 contains several codes that have been proposed for improved performance of optical transmission. While the original application was submarine cables, the codes are now also used in terrestrial systems where wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is introduced...

  4. Reed-Solomon Turbo Product Codes for Optical Communications: From Code Optimization to Decoder Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bidan Raphaël


    Full Text Available Abstract Turbo product codes (TPCs are an attractive solution to improve link budgets and reduce systems costs by relaxing the requirements on expensive optical devices in high capacity optical transport systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of Reed-Solomon (RS turbo product codes for 40 Gbps transmission over optical transport networks and 10 Gbps transmission over passive optical networks. An algorithmic study is first performed in order to design RS TPCs that are compatible with the performance requirements imposed by the two applications. Then, a novel ultrahigh-speed parallel architecture for turbo decoding of product codes is described. A comparison with binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH TPCs is performed. The results show that high-rate RS TPCs offer a better complexity/performance tradeoff than BCH TPCs for low-cost Gbps fiber optic communications.

  5. Reed-Solomon Turbo Product Codes for Optical Communications: From Code Optimization to Decoder Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Pyndiah


    Full Text Available Turbo product codes (TPCs are an attractive solution to improve link budgets and reduce systems costs by relaxing the requirements on expensive optical devices in high capacity optical transport systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of Reed-Solomon (RS turbo product codes for 40 Gbps transmission over optical transport networks and 10 Gbps transmission over passive optical networks. An algorithmic study is first performed in order to design RS TPCs that are compatible with the performance requirements imposed by the two applications. Then, a novel ultrahigh-speed parallel architecture for turbo decoding of product codes is described. A comparison with binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH TPCs is performed. The results show that high-rate RS TPCs offer a better complexity/performance tradeoff than BCH TPCs for low-cost Gbps fiber optic communications.

  6. Optical encryption of personal identification information using orthogonal code (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Alam, Mohammad S.


    Optical information processing techniques have been developed for information security and fraud deterrent applications. Several encryption methods have been proposed in the literature, which includes optical double random-phase encryption, polarization encoding, encryption and verification using a multiplexed minimum average correlation energy phase-encrypted filter. All these reports employed a pseudo-random number for the code. But as such numbers are not uncorrelated, the security is not guaranteed because a wrong code may also extract some of the features of the coded information. The objective of the paper is to develop an optical security system employing orthogonal code for protection of personal identification information. As the orthogonal codes have zero or minimum cross-correlation depending on the offset between the codes, a wrong code can not decrypt any information. Here a simple encryption technique is proposed in spatial domain, where the input images are first spread in one dimension using an optical lens and then multiplied by the respective code. Finally, the individual encrypted images are superimposed on a common spatial domain. The individual images can then be decrypted by correlating the received signal with the respective address code. Computer simulation results show that any information containing binary characters can be encrypted and then decrypted successfully. The encrypted images are found to be secure, because no unwanted reproduction is possible without having the appropriate code. The technique also offers an efficient use of the storage or transmission capacity. Therefore, the proposed optical encryption technique can be applied to securing personal identification or similar information.

  7. Linear-optics manipulations of photon-loss codes

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszek, K; Banaszek, Konrad; Wasilewski, Wojciech


    We discuss codes for protecting logical qubits carried by optical fields from the effects of amplitude damping, i.e. linear photon loss. We demonstrate that the correctability condition for one-photon loss imposes limitations on the range of manipulations than can be implemented with passive linear-optics networks.

  8. Modified Three-Dimensional Multicarrier Optical Prime Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Yadav


    Full Text Available We propose a mathematical model for novel three-dimensional multicarrier optical codes in terms of wavelength/time/space based on the prime sequence algorithm. The proposed model has been extensively simulated on MATLAB for prime numbers (P to analyze the performance of code in terms of autocorrelation and cross-correlation. The simulated outcome resembles the mathematical model and gives better results over other methods available in the literature as far as autocorrelation and cross-correlation are concerned. The proposed 3D optical codes are more efficient in terms of cardinality, improved security, and providing quality of services.

  9. Coded ultrasound for blood flow estimation using subband processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, F.; Udesen, J.; Jensen, J.A.;


    This paper investigates the use of coded excitation for blood flow estimation in medical ultrasound. Traditional autocorrelation estimators use narrow-band excitation signals to provide sufficient signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and velocity estimation performance. In this paper, broadband coded sign...

  10. Optical code division multiple access fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prucnal, Paul R


    Code-division multiple access (CDMA) technology has been widely adopted in cell phones. Its astonishing success has led many to evaluate the promise of this technology for optical networks. This field has come to be known as Optical CDMA (OCDMA). Surveying the field from its infancy to the current state, Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamentals and Applications offers the first comprehensive treatment of OCDMA from technology to systems.The book opens with a historical perspective, demonstrating the growth and development of the technologies that would eventually evolve into today's

  11. RAYS: a geometrical optics code for EBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Goldfinger, R.C.


    The theory, structure, and operation of the code are described. Mathematical details of equilibrium subroutiones for slab, bumpy torus, and tokamak plasma geometry are presented. Wave dispersion and absorption subroutines are presented for frequencies ranging from ion cyclotron frequency to electron cyclotron frequency. Graphics postprocessors for RAYS output data are also described.

  12. Control grid motion estimation for efficient application of optical flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, Christine M


    Motion estimation is a long-standing cornerstone of image and video processing. Most notably, motion estimation serves as the foundation for many of today's ubiquitous video coding standards including H.264. Motion estimators also play key roles in countless other applications that serve the consumer, industrial, biomedical, and military sectors. Of the many available motion estimation techniques, optical flow is widely regarded as most flexible. The flexibility offered by optical flow is particularly useful for complex registration and interpolation problems, but comes at a considerable compu

  13. Improved FEC Code Based on Concatenated Code for Optical Transmission Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jian-guo; JIANG Ze; MAO You-ju


    The improved three novel schemes of the super forward error correction(super-FEC) concatenated codes are proposed after the development trend of long-haul optical transmission systems and the defects of the existing FEC codes have been analyzed. The performance simulation of the Reed-Solomon(RS)+Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocguenghem(BCH) inner-outer serial concatenated code is implemented and the conceptions of encoding/decoding the parallel-concatenated code are presented. Furthermore,the simulation results for the RS(255,239)+RS(255,239) code and the RS(255,239)+RS(255,223) code show that the two consecutive concatenated codes are a superior coding scheme with such advantages as the better error correction,moderate redundancy and easy realization compared to the classic RS(255,239) code and other codes,and their signal to noise ratio gains are respectively 2~3 dB more than that of the RS(255,239)code at the bit error rate of 1×10-13. Finally,the frame structure of the novel consecutive concatenated code is arranged to lay a firm foundation in designing its hardware.

  14. QR code optical encryption using spatially incoherent illumination (United States)

    Cheremkhin, P. A.; Krasnov, V. V.; Rodin, V. G.; Starikov, R. S.


    Optical encryption is an actively developing field of science. The majority of encryption techniques use coherent illumination and suffer from speckle noise, which severely limits their applicability. The spatially incoherent encryption technique does not have this drawback, but its effectiveness is dependent on the Fourier spectrum properties of the image to be encrypted. The application of a quick response (QR) code in the capacity of a data container solves this problem, and the embedded error correction code also enables errorless decryption. The optical encryption of digital information in the form of QR codes using spatially incoherent illumination was implemented experimentally. The encryption is based on the optical convolution of the image to be encrypted with the kinoform point spread function, which serves as an encryption key. Two liquid crystal spatial light modulators were used in the experimental setup for the QR code and the kinoform imaging, respectively. The quality of the encryption and decryption was analyzed in relation to the QR code size. Decryption was conducted digitally. The successful decryption of encrypted QR codes of up to 129  ×  129 pixels was demonstrated. A comparison with the coherent QR code encryption technique showed that the proposed technique has a signal-to-noise ratio that is at least two times higher.

  15. Coded ultrasound for blood flow estimation using subband processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael bachmann


    This paper further investigates the use of coded excitation for blood flow estimation in medical ultrasound. Traditional autocorrelation estimators use narrow-band excitation signals to provide sufficient signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and velocity estimation performance. In this paper, broadband...... was carried out using an experimental ultrasound scanner and a commercial linear array 7 MHz transducer. A circulating flow rig was scanned with a beam-to-flow angle of 60 degrees. The flow in the rig was laminar and had a parabolic flow-profile with a peak velocity of 0.09 m/s. The mean relative standard...

  16. Noncoherent Spectral Optical CDMA System Using 1D Active Weight Two-Code Keying Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Chyun Yeh


    Full Text Available We propose a new family of one-dimensional (1D active weight two-code keying (TCK in spectral amplitude coding (SAC optical code division multiple access (OCDMA networks. We use encoding and decoding transfer functions to operate the 1D active weight TCK. The proposed structure includes an optical line terminal (OLT and optical network units (ONUs to produce the encoding and decoding codes of the proposed OLT and ONUs, respectively. The proposed ONU uses the modified cross-correlation to remove interferences from other simultaneous users, that is, the multiuser interference (MUI. When the phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN is the most important noise, the modified cross-correlation suppresses the PIIN. In the numerical results, we find that the bit error rate (BER for the proposed system using the 1D active weight TCK codes outperforms that for two other systems using the 1D M-Seq codes and 1D balanced incomplete block design (BIBD codes. The effective source power for the proposed system can achieve −10 dBm, which has less power than that for the other systems.

  17. Study on New Concatenated Code in WDM Optical Transmission Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jian-guo; JIANG Ze; MAO You-ju; YE Wen-wei


    A new concatenated code of RS(255,239)+BCH(2 040,1 930) code to be suitable for WDM optical transmission systems is proposed.The simulation results show that this new concatenated code,compared with the RS(255,239)+CSOC(k0/n0=6/7,J=8) code in ITU-T G.75.1,has a lower redundancy and better error-correction performance,furthermore,its net coding gain(NCG) is respectively 0.46 dB,0.43 dB more than that of RS(255,239)+CSOC(k0/n0 =6/7,J=8) code and BCH(3 860,3 824)+BCH(2 040,1 930) code in ITU-T G.75.1 at the third iteration for the bit error rate(BER) of 10-12.Therefore,the new super forward error correction(Super-FEC) concatenated code can be better used in ultra long-haul,ultra large-capacity and ultra high-speed WDM optical communication systems.

  18. Finding Elephant Flows for Optical Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioreze, Tiago; Oude Wolbers, Mattijs; Meent, van de Remco; Pras, Aiko


    Optical networks are fast and reliable networks that enable, amongst others, dedicated light paths to be established for elephant IP flows. Elephant IP flows are characterized by being small in number, but long in time and high in traffic volume. Moving these flows from the general IP network to ded

  19. All-optical network coding for DPSK signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Da Ros, Francesco; Peucheret, Christophe


    All-optical network coding for path protection is experimentally demonstrated using four-wave mixing in SOAs for10 Gbit/s NRZ-DPSK signals with error free performance. The total power penalty after two cascaded XOR stage is only 2 dB.......All-optical network coding for path protection is experimentally demonstrated using four-wave mixing in SOAs for10 Gbit/s NRZ-DPSK signals with error free performance. The total power penalty after two cascaded XOR stage is only 2 dB....

  20. Single integrated device for optical CDMA code processing in dual-code environment. (United States)

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Greiner, Christoph M; Iazkov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W; Wang, Ting; Prucnal, Paul R


    We report on the design, fabrication and performance of a matching integrated optical CDMA encoder-decoder pair based on holographic Bragg reflector technology. Simultaneous encoding/decoding operation of two multiple wavelength-hopping time-spreading codes was successfully demonstrated and shown to support two error-free OCDMA links at OC-24. A double-pass scheme was employed in the devices to enable the use of longer code length.

  1. Coded illumination for motion-blur free imaging of cells on cell-phone based imaging flow cytometer (United States)

    Saxena, Manish; Gorthi, Sai Siva


    Cell-phone based imaging flow cytometry can be realized by flowing cells through the microfluidic devices, and capturing their images with an optically enhanced camera of the cell-phone. Throughput in flow cytometers is usually enhanced by increasing the flow rate of cells. However, maximum frame rate of camera system limits the achievable flow rate. Beyond this, the images become highly blurred due to motion-smear. We propose to address this issue with coded illumination, which enables recovery of high-fidelity images of cells far beyond their motion-blur limit. This paper presents simulation results of deblurring the synthetically generated cell/bead images under such coded illumination.

  2. FLASH: A finite element computer code for variably saturated flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.


    A numerical model was developed for use in performance assessment studies at the INEL. The numerical model, referred to as the FLASH computer code, is designed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow in fractured-porous media. The code is specifically designed to model variably saturated flow in an arid site vadose zone and saturated flow in an unconfined aquifer. In addition, the code also has the capability to simulate heat conduction in the vadose zone. This report presents the following: description of the conceptual frame-work and mathematical theory; derivations of the finite element techniques and algorithms; computational examples that illustrate the capability of the code; and input instructions for the general use of the code. The FLASH computer code is aimed at providing environmental scientists at the INEL with a predictive tool for the subsurface water pathway. This numerical model is expected to be widely used in performance assessments for: (1) the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process and (2) compliance studies required by the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A.

  3. On a Decomposition Model for Optical Flow (United States)

    Abhau, Jochen; Belhachmi, Zakaria; Scherzer, Otmar

    In this paper we present a variational method for determining cartoon and texture components of the optical flow of a noisy image sequence. The method is realized by reformulating the optical flow problem first as a variational denoising problem for multi-channel data and then by applying decomposition methods. Thanks to the general formulation, several norms can be used for the decomposition. We study a decomposition for the optical flow into bounded variation and oscillating component in greater detail. Numerical examples demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach.

  4. Nonlinear Krylov acceleration of reacting flow codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, R.; Smith, P.; Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    We are working on computational simulations of three-dimensional reactive flows in applications encompassing a broad range of chemical engineering problems. Examples of such processes are coal (pulverized and fluidized bed) and gas combustion, petroleum processing (cracking), and metallurgical operations such as smelting. These simulations involve an interplay of various physical and chemical factors such as fluid dynamics with turbulence, convective and radiative heat transfer, multiphase effects such as fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions, and chemical reaction. The governing equations resulting from modeling these processes are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled, thereby rendering their solution by traditional iterative methods (such as nonlinear line Gauss-Seidel methods) very difficult and sometimes impossible. Hence we are exploring the use of nonlinear Krylov techniques (such as CMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) to accelerate and stabilize the existing solver. This strategy allows us to take advantage of the problem-definition capabilities of the existing solver. The overall approach amounts to using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) method and its variants as nonlinear preconditioners for the nonlinear Krylov method. We have also adapted a backtracking approach for inexact Newton methods to damp the Newton step in the nonlinear Krylov method. This will be a report on work in progress. Preliminary results with nonlinear GMRES have been very encouraging: in many cases the number of line Gauss-Seidel sweeps has been reduced by about a factor of 5, and increased robustness of the underlying solver has also been observed.

  5. Optical antialiasing filters based on complementary Golay codes. (United States)

    Leger, J R; Schuler, J; Morphis, N; Knowlden, R


    An optical filter that has an ideal response for removing aliasing noise from a sampled imaging system is described. The all-phase filter uses complementary Golay codes to achieve an optimum low-pass transfer function with no sidelobes. A computer model shows that the optical system has the expected performance in the ideal case, but degrades somewhat with wavelength variations and image aberrations. An experimental demonstration of the filter shows the optical transfer function performance and the response to imagery with a sampled detector.

  6. Spatial code division multiplexing in optical data processing (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Mendlovic, David; Solomon, Jonathan


    The increasing popularity of optical communication has also brought a demand for broader bandwidth. The natural trend was to implement methods from traditional communication on optical fibers. One of the most effective "traditional" methods is code division multiple access (CDMA). In this paper, we suggest the use of this approach for spatial coding applied to images, and for superresolution. In spatial coding, the approach is to multiplex several filters into one plane while keeping their mutual orthogonality. It is shown that within specific restrictions the output of all the filters can be sampled in the original image resolution and fully recovered through an all-optical setup. A theoretical analysis of such a setup is brought as well as experimental demonstrations are presented. Implementation for invariant pattern recognition is suggested. In superresolution, we propose using code division multiplexing in order to transfer a wider range of frequencies. Traditional methods for super resolution have sacrificed field of view for resolution. These methods multiplexed the signal on different carriers. Code division multiplexing for such a usage, has been shown to have superior capabilities, nearing almost Shannon's channel capacity limit. To enable such multiplexing we propose a unique setup that creates an incoherent cosine transform of the image. A theoretical analysis of the setup is brought and later compared with the empirical results.

  7. Duality based optical flow algorithms with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    We consider the popular TV-L1 optical flow formulation, and the so-called duality based algorithm for minimizing the TV-L1 energy. The original formulation is extended to allow for vector valued images, and minimization results are given. In addition we consider different definitions of total...... variation regularization, and related formulations of the optical flow problem that may be used with a duality based algorithm. We present a highly optimized algorithmic setup to estimate optical flows, and give five novel applications. The first application is registration of medical images, where X......-ray images of different hands, taken using different imaging devices are registered using a TV-L1 optical flow algorithm. We propose to regularize the input images, using sparsity enhancing regularization of the image gradient to improve registration results. The second application is registration of 2D...

  8. Duality based optical flow algorithms with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    We consider the popular TV-L1 optical flow formulation, and the so-called duality based algorithm for minimizing the TV-L1 energy. The original formulation is extended to allow for vector valued images, and minimization results are given. In addition we consider different definitions of total...... variation regularization, and related formulations of the optical flow problem that may be used with a duality based algorithm. We present a highly optimized algorithmic setup to estimate optical flows, and give five novel applications. The first application is registration of medical images, where X......-ray images of different hands, taken using different imaging devices are registered using a TV-L1 optical flow algorithm. We propose to regularize the input images, using sparsity enhancing regularization of the image gradient to improve registration results. The second application is registration of 2D...

  9. Coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager and applications (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.


    Starting in 2001, we proposed and extensively demonstrated (using a DMD: Digital Micromirror Device) an agile pixel Spatial Light Modulator (SLM)-based optical imager based on single pixel photo-detection (also called a single pixel camera) that is suited for operations with both coherent and incoherent light across broad spectral bands. This imager design operates with the agile pixels programmed in a limited SNR operations starring time-multiplexed mode where acquisition of image irradiance (i.e., intensity) data is done one agile pixel at a time across the SLM plane where the incident image radiation is present. Motivated by modern day advances in RF wireless, optical wired communications and electronic signal processing technologies and using our prior-art SLM-based optical imager design, described using a surprisingly simple approach is a new imager design called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that has the ability to alleviate some of the key prior imager fundamental limitations. The agile pixel in the CAOS imager can operate in different time-frequency coding modes like Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Data from a first CAOS camera demonstration is described along with novel designs of CAOS-based optical instruments for various applications.

  10. Pencil: Finite-difference Code for Compressible Hydrodynamic Flows (United States)

    Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang


    The Pencil code is a high-order finite-difference code for compressible hydrodynamic flows with magnetic fields. It is highly modular and can easily be adapted to different types of problems. The code runs efficiently under MPI on massively parallel shared- or distributed-memory computers, like e.g. large Beowulf clusters. The Pencil code is primarily designed to deal with weakly compressible turbulent flows. To achieve good parallelization, explicit (as opposed to compact) finite differences are used. Typical scientific targets include driven MHD turbulence in a periodic box, convection in a slab with non-periodic upper and lower boundaries, a convective star embedded in a fully nonperiodic box, accretion disc turbulence in the shearing sheet approximation, self-gravity, non-local radiation transfer, dust particle evolution with feedback on the gas, etc. A range of artificial viscosity and diffusion schemes can be invoked to deal with supersonic flows. For direct simulations regular viscosity and diffusion is being used. The code is written in well-commented Fortran90.

  11. Flow line asymmetric nonimaging concentrating optics (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland


    Nonimaging Optics has shown that it achieves the theoretical limits by utilizing thermodynamic principles rather than conventional optics. Hence in this paper the condition of the "best" design are both defined and fulfilled in the framework of thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for the designs of thermal and even photovoltaic systems, even illumination and optical communication tasks. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, geometric flux field and radiative heat transfer while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background. Some of the new development of flow line designs will be introduced and the connection between the thermodynamics and flow line design will be officially formulated in the framework of geometric flux field. A new way of using geometric flux to design nonimaging optics will be introduced. And finally, we discuss the possibility of 3D ideal nonimaing optics.

  12. Demonstration of optical steganography transmission using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering. (United States)

    Hong, Xuezhi; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing


    A novel approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for optical steganography transmission in WDM networks using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering. A temporal phase coded stealth channel is temporally and spectrally overlaid onto a public WDM channel. Direct detection of the public channel is achieved in the presence of the stealth channel. The interference from the public channel is suppressed by spectral notching before the detection of the optical stealth signal. The approach is shown to have good compatibility and robustness to the existing WDM network for optical steganography transmission.

  13. CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.;


    The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × ...

  14. Coded Ultrasound for Blood Flow Estimation Using Subband Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachamnn


    the excitation signal is broadband and has good spatial resolution after pulse compression. This means that time can be saved by using the same data for B-mode imaging and blood flow estimation. Two different coding schemes are used in this paper, Barker codes and Golay codes. The performance of the codes...... signals are used to increase SNR, followed by subband processing. The received broadband signal is filtered using a set of narrow-band filters. Estimating the velocity in each of the bands and averaging the results yields better performance compared with what would be possible when transmitting a narrow......-band pulse directly. Also, the spatial resolution of the narrow-band pulse would be too poor for brightness-mode (B-mode) imaging, and additional transmissions would be required to update the B-mode image. For the described approach in the paper, there is no need for additional transmissions, because...

  15. Fast QC-LDPC code for free space optical communication (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qi; Udeh, Chinonso Paschal; Wu, Rangzhong


    Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication systems use the atmosphere as a propagation medium. Hence the atmospheric turbulence effects lead to multiplicative noise related with signal intensity. In order to suppress the signal fading induced by multiplicative noise, we propose a fast Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code for FSO Communication systems. As a linear block code based on sparse matrix, the performances of QC-LDPC is extremely near to the Shannon limit. Currently, the studies on LDPC code in FSO Communications is mainly focused on Gauss-channel and Rayleigh-channel, respectively. In this study, the LDPC code design over atmospheric turbulence channel which is nether Gauss-channel nor Rayleigh-channel is closer to the practical situation. Based on the characteristics of atmospheric channel, which is modeled as logarithmic-normal distribution and K-distribution, we designed a special QC-LDPC code, and deduced the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). An irregular QC-LDPC code for fast coding, of which the rates are variable, is proposed in this paper. The proposed code achieves excellent performance of LDPC codes and can present the characteristics of high efficiency in low rate, stable in high rate and less number of iteration. The result of belief propagation (BP) decoding shows that the bit error rate (BER) obviously reduced as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increased. Therefore, the LDPC channel coding technology can effectively improve the performance of FSO. At the same time, the BER, after decoding reduces with the increase of SNR arbitrarily, and not having error limitation platform phenomenon with error rate slowing down.

  16. Load Flow Analysis Using Real Coded Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himakar Udatha


    Full Text Available This paper presents a Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA for finding the load flow solution of electrical power systems. The proposed method is based on the minimization of the real and reactive power mismatches at various buses. The traditional methods such as Gauss-Seidel method and Newton-Raphson (NR method have certain drawbacks under abnormal operating condition. In order to overcome these problems, the load flow solution based on Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA is presented in this paper. Two cross over techniques, Arithmetic crossover and heuristic crossover are used to solve the power flow problem. The proposed method is applied for 3-bus, 5-bus and 6-bus systems and the results are presented.

  17. All-optical code routing in interconnected optical CDMA and WDM ring networks. (United States)

    Deng, Yanhua; Fok, Mable P; Prucnal, Paul R; Wang, Ting


    We propose an all-optical hybrid network composed of optical code division multiple access (CDMA) rings interconnecting through a reconfigurable wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) metro area ring. This network retains the advantages of both the optical CDMA and WDM techniques, including asynchronous access and differentiated quality of service, while removing the hard limit on the number of subscribers and increasing network flexibility. The all-optical network is enabled by using nonlinear optical loop mirrors in an add/drop router (ADR) that performs code conversion, dropping, and switching asynchronously. We experimentally demonstrate the functionalities of the ADR in the proposed scheme asynchronously and obtain error-free performance. The bit-error rate measurements show acceptable power penalties for different code routes.

  18. Performance analysis of multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences-based optical labels for optical packet switching networks (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Ma, Chunli; Wang, Zhengsuan; Qiu, Kun


    Multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences (MOOCS)-based optical labels for optical packet switching (MOOCS-OPS) were proposed and studied in our previous works. In order to evaluate the performances of the MOOCS-OPS networks resulting from interference of the MOOCS-based optical labels, we utilize a new study method that applies the independent case of multiple optical orthogonal codes to derive the probability function of the MOOCS-OPS networks for the first time. Additionally, the optical label processing time, the utilization efficiency, and the packet loss rate in the MOOCS-OPS networks are also considered. We discuss the performance and efficiency characteristics with a variety of parameters, and compare some characteristics of the system employed by a single optical orthogonal code or MOOCS-based optical labels. The performances of the system are also calculated, and our results verify that the method and the networks are effective. Moreover, it is found that performances of the MOOCS-OPS networks would, negatively, be worsened, compared with the single optical orthogonal code-based optical label for optical packet switching; however, the MOOCS-OPS networks can greatly enlarge the scalability of the optical packet switching networks.

  19. CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.


    The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3...... × 106 and 15 × 106. The necessary grid resolution, domain size, and iterative convergence criteria to have consistent results are discussed, and suggestions are given for best practice. For the fully turbulent results four out of seven codes provide consistent results. For the laminar...

  20. Modification of the ion-optics code GIOS89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.L.; Davids, C.N.


    The general ion-optics code GIOS is a very powerful and useful program for calculating the ion optics of an electromagnetic system. It was used extensively in the design and operation of the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA). In the original version of the program a feature is described which allows the initial beam density to be varied with angle, energy, mass, or position. In fact, this feature was never implemented, and only isotropic beam densities are available. In order to make more reliable calculations of reaction yields and FMA transport efficiencies, it is important to be able to use more realistic beam density distributions.

  1. Experimental demonstration of tunable multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences-based optical label for optical packets switching (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun; Zhou, Heng; Ling, Yun; Wang, Yawei; Xu, Bo


    In this paper, the tunable multiple optical orthogonal codes sequences (MOOCS)-based optical label for optical packet switching (OPS) (MOOCS-OPS) is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The tunable MOOCS-based optical label is performed by using fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based optical en/decoders group and optical switches configured by using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and the optical label is erased by using Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA). Some waveforms of the MOOCS-based optical label, optical packet including the MOOCS-based optical label and the payloads are obtained, the switching control mechanism and the switching matrix are discussed, the bit error rate (BER) performance of this system is also studied. These experimental results show that the tunable MOOCS-OPS scheme is effective.

  2. Capacity-Approaching Superposition Coding for Optical Fiber Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    We report on the first experimental demonstration of superposition coded modulation (SCM) for polarization-multiplexed coherent-detection optical fiber links. The proposed coded modulation scheme is combined with phase-shifted bit-to-symbol mapping (PSM) in order to achieve geometric and passive...... shaping of the signal's waveform. The output constellations in SCM-PSM exhibit nonbijective quasi-Gaussian statistical distributions that asymptotically reach the Shannon capacity limit, showing up to 0.7 dB sensitivity improvement for 256-ary SCM-PSM with respect to 256-ary quadrature amplitude...... modulation (QAM). The characteristic wave formation based on superposition of antipodal symbols and the lack of need for additional encoders for signal shaping, greatly reduces the transmitter and receiver processing complexity in comparison to conventional alternatives. Single-level coding strategy (SL-SCM...

  3. Distributed flow sensing using optical hot -wire grid. (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Botao; Chen, Rongzhang; Chen, Kevin P


    An optical hot-wire flow sensing grid is presented using a single piece of self-heated optical fiber to perform distributed flow measurement. The flow-induced temperature loss profiles along the fiber are interrogated by the in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering, and spatially resolved in millimeter resolution using optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). The flow rate, position, and flow direction are retrieved simultaneously. Both electrical and optical on-fiber heating were demonstrated to suit different flow sensing applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to study the performance of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA systems using Vector Combinatorial (VC code under various optical parameters. This code can be constructed by an algebraic way based on Euclidian vectors for any positive integer number. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross-correlation is always one which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise are reduced. Transmitter and receiver structures based on unchirped fiber Bragg grating (FBGs using VC code and taking into account effects of the intensity, shot and thermal noise sources is demonstrated. The impact of the fiber distance effects on bit error rate (BER is reported using a commercial optical systems simulator, virtual photonic instrument, VPITM. The VC code is compared mathematically with reported codes which use similar techniques. We analyzed and characterized the fiber link, received power, BER and channel spacing. The performance and optimization of VC code in SAC-OCDMA system is reported. By comparing the theoretical and simulation results taken from VPITM, we have demonstrated that, for a high number of users, even if data rate is higher, the effective power source is adequate when the VC is used. Also it is found that as the channel spacing width goes from very narrow to wider, the BER decreases, best performance occurs at a spacing bandwidth between 0.8 and 1 nm. We have shown that the SAC system utilizing VC code significantly improves the performance compared with the reported codes.

  5. Experimental demonstration of all-optical CDMA using bipolar codes (United States)

    Dennis, Tasshi


    Fiber optic networks capable of supporting a large pool of subscribers, many simultaneous users, and high data rates are receiving heightened interest as solutions to a growing communications need. The experiments reported in this study constitute the first experimental demonstration of a novel bipolar equivalent code-division multiple-access (CDMA) scheme. The sophisticated encoding increases noise tolerance, provides user security, and enables network flexibility. The scheme is based on an established bipolar radio frequency (RF) technique adapted to the unipolar optical domain. Whereas the phase of an RF signal can be readily detected, the high carrier frequency ( ~ 200 THz at 1.5 μm) of an optical wave necessitates that optical signals be detected and processed solely by intensity. Asynchronous operation makes the CDMA scheme data rate independent, while all-optical implementation avoids the bandwidth limitations imposed by electrical processing. A proof-of-principle experiment was conducted by spectrally encoding an erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) using a diffraction grating and an amplitude mask. The optical properties of the system were measured and the bipolar correlation of codes was verified. The practical implementation of the scheme was investigated by the design, construction, and operation of a fiber-based testbed. Correlation measurements performed with modulated signals confirmed that the scheme can recover a binary information symbol while rejecting multiple access interference. A theoretical analysis of the optical correlation process was conducted, which identified key optical parameters important to future implementations. The theory of excess noise associated with the photodetection of a thermal source was considered, followed by noise measurements of a light bulb and the erbium-doped SFS used for spectral encoding. Finally, the ability of the proposed scheme to effectively transmit data was investigated. Signal-to- noise

  6. Optical schemes for speckle suppression by Barker code diffractive optical elements. (United States)

    Lapchuk, A; Kryuchyn, A; Petrov, V; Shyhovets, O V; Pashkevich, G A; Bogdan, O V; Kononov, A; Klymenko, A


    A method for speckle suppression based on Barker code and M-sequence code diffractive optical elements (DOEs) is analyzed. An analytical formula for the dependence of speckle contrast on the wavelength of the laser illumination is derived. It is shown that speckle contrast has a wide maximum around the optimal wavelength that makes it possible to obtain large speckle suppression by using only one DOE for red, green, and blue laser illumination. Optical schemes for implementing this method are analyzed. It is shown that the method can use a simple liquid-crystal panel for phase rotation instead of a moving DOE; however, this approach requires a high frequency of liquid-crystal switching. A simple optical scheme is proposed using a 1D Barker code DOE and a simple 1D liquid-crystal panel, which does not require a high frequency of liquid-crystal switching or high-accuracy DOE movement.

  7. All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Lin; Huang, Zhitong


    A novel optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) network coding scheme is proposed over passive optical network (PON) system. The proposed scheme for all-optical virtual private network (VPN) does not only improve transmission efficiency, but also realize full-duplex communication mode in a single fiber. Compared with the traditional all-optical VPN architectures, the all-optical OFDM network coding scheme can support higher speed, more flexible bandwidth allocation, and higher spectrum efficiency. In order to reduce the difficulty of alignment for encoding operation between inter-communication traffic, the width of OFDM subcarrier pulse is stretched in our proposed scheme. The feasibility of all-optical OFDM network coding scheme for VPN is verified, and the relevant simulation results show that the full-duplex inter-communication traffic stream can be transmitted successfully. Furthermore, the tolerance of misalignment existing in inter-ONUs traffic is investigated and analyzed for all-optical encoding operation, and the difficulty of pulse alignment is proved to be lower.

  8. A code for optically thick and hot photoionized media

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, A M; Collin, S


    We describe a code designed for hot media {(T $\\ge$} a few 10$^4$ K), optically thick to Compton scattering. It computes the structure of a plane-parallel slab of gas in thermal and ionization equilibrium, illuminated on one or on both sides by a given spectrum. Contrary to the other photoionization codes, it solves the transfer of the continuum and of the lines in a two stream approximation, without using the local escape probability formalism to approximate the line transfer. We stress the importance of taking into account the returning flux even for small column densities (10$^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$), and we show that the escape probability approximation can lead to strong errors in the thermal and ionization structure, as well as in the emitted spectrum, for a Thomson thickness larger than a few tenths. The transfer code is coupled with a Monte Carlo code which allows to take into account Compton and inverse Compton diffusions, and to compute the spectrum emitted up to MeV energies, in any geometry. Comparisons ...

  9. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila


    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  10. Protection of data carriers using secure optical codes (United States)

    Peters, John A.; Schilling, Andreas; Staub, René; Tompkin, Wayne R.


    Smartcard technologies, combined with biometric-enabled access control systems, are required for many high-security government ID card programs. However, recent field trials with some of the most secure biometric systems have indicated that smartcards are still vulnerable to well equipped and highly motivated counterfeiters. In this paper, we present the Kinegram Secure Memory Technology which not only provides a first-level visual verification procedure, but also reinforces the existing chip-based security measures. This security concept involves the use of securely-coded data (stored in an optically variable device) which communicates with the encoded hashed information stored in the chip memory via a smartcard reader device.

  11. Simulation of Code Spectrum and Code Flow of Cultured Neuronal Networks. (United States)

    Tamura, Shinichi; Nishitani, Yoshi; Hosokawa, Chie; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Sawai, Hajime


    It has been shown that, in cultured neuronal networks on a multielectrode, pseudorandom-like sequences (codes) are detected, and they flow with some spatial decay constant. Each cultured neuronal network is characterized by a specific spectrum curve. That is, we may consider the spectrum curve as a "signature" of its associated neuronal network that is dependent on the characteristics of neurons and network configuration, including the weight distribution. In the present study, we used an integrate-and-fire model of neurons with intrinsic and instantaneous fluctuations of characteristics for performing a simulation of a code spectrum from multielectrodes on a 2D mesh neural network. We showed that it is possible to estimate the characteristics of neurons such as the distribution of number of neurons around each electrode and their refractory periods. Although this process is a reverse problem and theoretically the solutions are not sufficiently guaranteed, the parameters seem to be consistent with those of neurons. That is, the proposed neural network model may adequately reflect the behavior of a cultured neuronal network. Furthermore, such prospect is discussed that code analysis will provide a base of communication within a neural network that will also create a base of natural intelligence.

  12. Variational optical flow computation in real time. (United States)

    Bruhn, Andrés; Weickert, Joachim; Feddern, Christian; Kohlberger, Timo; Schnörr, Christoph


    This paper investigates the usefulness of bidirectional multigrid methods for variational optical flow computations. Although these numerical schemes are among the fastest methods for solving equation systems, they are rarely applied in the field of computer vision. We demonstrate how to employ those numerical methods for the treatment of variational optical flow formulations and show that the efficiency of this approach even allows for real-time performance on standard PCs. As a representative for variational optic flow methods, we consider the recently introduced combined local-global method. It can be considered as a noise-robust generalization of the Horn and Schunck technique. We present a decoupled, as well as a coupled, version of the classical Gauss-Seidel solver, and we develop several multgrid implementations based on a discretization coarse grid approximation. In contrast, with standard bidirectional multigrid algorithms, we take advantage of intergrid transfer operators that allow for nondyadic grid hierarchies. As a consequence, no restrictions concerning the image size or the number of traversed levels have to be imposed. In the experimental section, we juxtapose the developed multigrid schemes and demonstrate their superior performance when compared to unidirectional multgrid methods and nonhierachical solvers. For the well-known 316 x 252 Yosemite sequence, we succeeded in computing the complete set of dense flow fields in three quarters of a second on a 3.06-GHz Pentium4 PC. This corresponds to a frame rate of 18 flow fields per second which outperforms the widely-used Gauss-Seidel method by almost three orders of magnitude.

  13. A New Three-Dimensional Code for Simulation of Ion Beam Extraction: Ion Optics Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Dazhi; HUANG Tao; HU Quan; YANG Zhonghai


    A new thee-dimensional code, ion optics simulator (IOS), to simulate ion beam extraction is developed in visual C++ language. The theoretical model, the flowchart of code, and the results of calculation as an example are presented.

  14. A passive optical network based on optical code division multiplexing and time division multiple access technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A passive optical network (PON) scheme based on optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) for the downstream traffics is proposed and analyzed in detail. In the PON, the downstream traffics are broadcasted by OCDM technology to guarantee the security, while the upstream traffics pass through the same optical fiber by the common time division multiple access (TDMA) technology to decrease the cost.This schemes are denoted as OCDM/TDMA-PON, which can be applied to an optical access network (OAN) with full services on demand, such as Internet protocol, video on demand, tele-presence and high quality audio. The proposed OCDM/TDMA-PON scheme combines advantages of PON, TDMA, and OCDM technology. Simulation results indicate that the designed scheme improves the OAN performance,and enhances flexibility and scalability of the system.

  15. Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency. (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Cui, Li; Feng, Yijun; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Zhu, Bo


    Metasurfaces have promised great possibilities in full control of the electromagnetic wavefront by spatially manipulating the phase characteristics across the interface. Here, we report a scheme to realize broadband backward scattering reduction through diffusion-like microwave reflection by utilizing a flexible indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-based ultrathin coding metasurface (less than 0.1 wavelength thick) with high optical transparence. The diffusion-like scattering is caused by the destructive interference of the scattered far-field electromagnetic wave, which is further attributed to the randomly distributed reflection phases on the metasurface composed of pre-designed meta-atoms arranged with a computer-generated pseudorandom coding sequence. Both simulation and measurement on fabricated prototype sample have been carried out to validate its performance, demonstrating a polarization-independent broadband (nearly from 8 GHz to 15 GHz) 10 dB scattering reduction with good oblique performance. The excellent performances can also be preserved to conformal cases when the flexible metasurface is uniformly wrapped around a metallic cylinder. The proposed metasurface may create new opportunities to tailor the exotic microwave scattering features with simultaneously high transmittance in visible frequencies, which could provide crucial benefits in many practical uses, such as window and solar panel applications.

  16. BOA, Beam Optics Analyzer A Particle-In-Cell Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuc Bui


    The program was tasked with implementing time dependent analysis of charges particles into an existing finite element code with adaptive meshing, called Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA). BOA was initially funded by a DOE Phase II program to use the finite element method with adaptive meshing to track particles in unstructured meshes. It uses modern programming techniques, state-of-the-art data structures, so that new methods, features and capabilities are easily added and maintained. This Phase II program was funded to implement plasma simulations in BOA and extend its capabilities to model thermal electrons, secondary emissions, self magnetic field and implement a more comprehensive post-processing and feature-rich GUI. The program was successful in implementing thermal electrons, secondary emissions, and self magnetic field calculations. The BOA GUI was also upgraded significantly, and CCR is receiving interest from the microwave tube and semiconductor equipment industry for the code. Implementation of PIC analysis was partially successful. Computational resource requirements for modeling more than 2000 particles begin to exceed the capability of most readily available computers. Modern plasma analysis typically requires modeling of approximately 2 million particles or more. The problem is that tracking many particles in an unstructured mesh that is adapting becomes inefficient. In particular memory requirements become excessive. This probably makes particle tracking in unstructured meshes currently unfeasible with commonly available computer resources. Consequently, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. is exploring hybrid codes where the electromagnetic fields are solved on the unstructured, adaptive mesh while particles are tracked on a fixed mesh. Efficient interpolation routines should be able to transfer information between nodes of the two meshes. If successfully developed, this could provide high accuracy and reasonable computational efficiency.

  17. Bridging Inter-flow and Intra-flow Network Coding for Video Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;


    transmission approach to decide how much and when to send redundancy in the network, and a minimalistic feedback mechanism to guarantee delivery of generations of the different flows. Given the delay constraints of video applications, we proposed a simple yet effective coding mechanism, Block Coding On The Fly...... (BCFly), that allows a block encoder to be fed on-the-fly, thus reducing the delay to accumulate enough packets that is introduced by typical generation based NC techniques. Our measurements and comparison to forwarding and COPE show that CORE not only outperforms these schemes even for small packet...

  18. Statistical Inverse Formulation of Optical Flow with Uncertainty Quantification

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jie


    Optical flow refers to the visual motion observed between two consecutive images. Since the degree of freedom is typically much larger than the constraints imposed by the image observations, the straightforward formulation of optical flow inference is an ill-posed problem. By setting some type of additional "regularity" constraints, classical approaches formulate a well-posed optical flow inference problem in the form of a parameterized set of variational equations. In this work we build a mathematical connection, focused on optical flow methods, between classical variational optical flow approaches and Bayesian statistical inversion. A classical optical flow solution is in fact identical to a maximum a posteriori estimator under the assumptions of linear model with additive independent Gaussian noise and a Gaussian prior distribution. Unlike classical approaches, the statistical inversion approach to optical flow estimation not only allows for "point" estimates, but also provides a distribution of solutions ...

  19. Design of variable-weight quadratic congruence code for optical CDMA (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Cheng, Wen-Qing; Chen, Fu-Jun


    A variable-weight code family referred to as variable-weight quadratic congruence code (VWQCC) is constructed by algebraic transformation for incoherent synchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems. Compared with quadratic congruence code (QCC), VWQCC doubles the code cardinality and provides the multiple code-sets with variable code-weight. Moreover, the bit-error rate (BER) performance of VWQCC is superior to those of conventional variable-weight codes by removing or padding pulses under the same chip power assumption. The experiment results show that VWQCC can be well applied to the OCDMA with quality of service (QoS) requirements.

  20. Cluster optical coding: from biochips to counterfeit security (United States)

    Haglmueller, Jakob; Alguel, Yilmaz; Mayer, Christian; Matyushin, Viacheslav; Bauer, Georg; Pittner, Fritz; Leitner, Alfred; Aussenegg, Franz R.; Schalkhammer, Thomas G.


    Spatially tuned resonant nano-clusters allow high local field enhancement when exited by electromagnetic radiation. A number of phenomena had been described and subsequently applied to novel nano- and bionano-devices. Decisive for these types of devices and sensors is the precise nanometric assembly, coupling the local field surrounding a cluster to allow resonance with other elements interacting with this field. In particular, the distance cluster-mirror or cluster-fluorophore gives rise to a variety of enhancement phenomena. High throughput transducers using metal cluster resonance technology are based on surface-enhancement of metal cluster light absorption (SEA). The optical property for the analytical application of metal cluster films is the so-called anomalous absorption. At a well defined nanometric distance of a cluster to a mirror the reflected electromagnetic field has the same phase at the position of the absorbing cluster as the incident fields. This feedback mechanism strongly enhances the effective cluster absorption coefficient. The system is characterised by a narrow reflection minimum. Based on this SEA-phenomenon (licensed to and further developed and optimized by NovemberAG, Germany Erlangen) a number of commercial products have been constructed. Brandsealing(R) uses the patented SEA cluster technology to produce optical codings. Cluster SEA thin film systems show a characteristic color-flip effect and are extremely mechanically and thermally robust. This is the basis for its application as an unique security feature. The specific spectroscopic properties as e.g. narrow band multi-resonance of the cluster layers allow the authentication of the optical code which can be easily achieved with a mobile hand-held reader developed by november AG and Siemens AG. Thus, these features are machine-readable which makes them superior to comparable technologies. Cluster labels are available in two formats: as a label for tamper-proof product packaging, and

  1. Design of Optical Systems with Extended Depth of Field: An Educational Approach to Wavefront Coding Techniques (United States)

    Ferran, C.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.


    A practical activity designed to introduce wavefront coding techniques as a method to extend the depth of field in optical systems is presented. The activity is suitable for advanced undergraduate students since it combines different topics in optical engineering such as optical system design, aberration theory, Fourier optics, and digital image…

  2. Optical flow based finger stroke detection (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongdi; Li, Bin; Wang, Kongqiao


    Finger stroke detection is an important topic in hand based Human Computer Interaction (HCI) system. Few research studies have carried out effective solutions to this problem. In this paper, we present a novel approach for stroke detection based on mono vision. Via analyzing the optical flow field within the finger area, our method is able to detect finger stroke under various camera position and visual angles. We present a thorough evaluation for each component of the algorithm, and show its efficiency and effectiveness on solving difficult stroke detection problems.

  3. Optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting with the help of QR code (United States)

    Deng, Xiaopeng


    A novel optical image encryption based on real-valued coding and subtracting is proposed with the help of quick response (QR) code. In the encryption process, the original image to be encoded is firstly transformed into the corresponding QR code, and then the corresponding QR code is encoded into two phase-only masks (POMs) by using basic vector operations. Finally, the absolute values of the real or imaginary parts of the two POMs are chosen as the ciphertexts. In decryption process, the QR code can be approximately restored by recording the intensity of the subtraction between the ciphertexts, and hence the original image can be retrieved without any quality loss by scanning the restored QR code with a smartphone. Simulation results and actual smartphone collected results show that the method is feasible and has strong tolerance to noise, phase difference and ratio between intensities of the two decryption light beams.

  4. QR code based noise-free optical encryption and decryption of a gray scale image (United States)

    Jiao, Shuming; Zou, Wenbin; Li, Xia


    In optical encryption systems, speckle noise is one major challenge in obtaining high quality decrypted images. This problem can be addressed by employing a QR code based noise-free scheme. Previous works have been conducted for optically encrypting a few characters or a short expression employing QR codes. This paper proposes a practical scheme for optically encrypting and decrypting a gray-scale image based on QR codes for the first time. The proposed scheme is compatible with common QR code generators and readers. Numerical simulation results reveal the proposed method can encrypt and decrypt an input image correctly.

  5. Experimental realization of the analogy of quantum dense coding in classical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenwei; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Zhang, Xiong; Song, Xinbing, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Fractional Signals and Systems, 100081, Beijing (China)


    We report on the experimental realization of the analogy of quantum dense coding in classical optical communication using classical optical correlations. Compared to quantum dense coding that uses pairs of photons entangled in polarization, we find that the proposed design exhibits many advantages. Considering that it is convenient to realize in optical communication, the attainable channel capacity in the experiment for dense coding can reach 2 bits, which is higher than that of the usual quantum coding capacity (1.585 bits). This increased channel capacity has been proven experimentally by transmitting ASCII characters in 12 quaternary digitals instead of the usual 24 bits.

  6. Noise tolerance in optical waveguide circuits for recognition of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation codes (United States)

    Inoshita, Kensuke; Hama, Yoshimitsu; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Goto, Nobuo


    In photonic label routers, various optical signal processing functions are required; these include optical label extraction, recognition of the label, optical switching and buffering controlled by signals based on the label information and network routing tables, and label rewriting. Among these functions, we focus on photonic label recognition. We have proposed two kinds of optical waveguide circuits to recognize 16 quadrature amplitude modulation codes, i.e., recognition from the minimum output port and from the maximum output port. The recognition function was theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by finite-difference beam-propagation method. We discuss noise tolerance in the circuit and show numerically simulated results to evaluate bit-error-rate (BER) characteristics against optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). The OSNR required to obtain a BER less than 1.0×10-3 for the symbol rate of 2.5 GBaud was 14.5 and 27.0 dB for recognition from the minimum and maximum output, respectively.

  7. Variable weight Khazani-Syed code using hybrid fixed-dynamic technique for optical code division multiple access system (United States)

    Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah


    Future Internet consists of a wide spectrum of applications with different bit rates and quality of service (QoS) requirements. Prioritizing the services is essential to ensure that the delivery of information is at its best. Existing technologies have demonstrated how service differentiation techniques can be implemented in optical networks using data link and network layer operations. However, a physical layer approach can further improve system performance at a prescribed received signal quality by applying control at the bit level. This paper proposes a coding algorithm to support optical domain service differentiation using spectral amplitude coding techniques within an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) scenario. A particular user or service has a varying weight applied to obtain the desired signal quality. The properties of the new code are compared with other OCDMA codes proposed for service differentiation. In addition, a mathematical model is developed for performance evaluation of the proposed code using two different detection techniques, namely direct decoding and complementary subtraction.

  8. Influenza dell'optic flow sul controllo posturale



    The study of optic flow on postural control may explain how self-motion perception contributes to postural stability in young males and females and how such function changes in the old falls risk population. Study I: The aim was to examine the optic flow effect on postural control in young people (n=24), using stabilometry and surface-electromyography. Subjects viewed expansion and contraction optic flow stimuli which were presented full field, in the foveral or in the peripheral visual fi...

  9. Comparison of secondary flows predicted by a viscous code and an inviscid code with experimental data for a turning duct (United States)

    Schwab, J. R.; Povinelli, L. A.


    A comparison of the secondary flows computed by the viscous Kreskovsky-Briley-McDonald code and the inviscid Denton code with benchmark experimental data for turning duct is presented. The viscous code is a fully parabolized space-marching Navier-Stokes solver while the inviscid code is a time-marching Euler solver. The experimental data were collected by Taylor, Whitelaw, and Yianneskis with a laser Doppler velocimeter system in a 90 deg turning duct of square cross-section. The agreement between the viscous and inviscid computations was generally very good for the streamwise primary velocity and the radial secondary velocity, except at the walls, where slip conditions were specified for the inviscid code. The agreement between both the computations and the experimental data was not as close, especially at the 60.0 deg and 77.5 deg angular positions within the duct. This disagreement was attributed to incomplete modelling of the vortex development near the suction surface.

  10. Using Optic Flow for the Estimation of Travel Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lappe


    Full Text Available Much research on optic flow has been concerned with the estimation of heading and the control of the direction of self-motion. In my presentation I will instead focus on a different use of optic flow, namely the estimation of the distance that one has traveled. Optic flow in itself does not provide travel distance, only the combination of distance and speed (time-to-contact is directly available. However, when scaling information from the environment is present, such as the distance to the ground when standing or walking on flat terrain, an integration of the optical velocity can yield ego-speed and travel distance. I will present experiments that show that humans can use optic flow for the estimation of travel distance, but that they often under- and, in some conditions, overestimate a movement's extent. I will then present a model of travel distance estimation from optic flow that is based on leaky path integration.

  11. Multiple Access Network Information-flow And Correction codes

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Hongyi; Jaggi, Sidharth; Ho, Tracey


    The network communication scenario where one or more receivers request all the information transmitted by different sources is considered. We introduce distributed polynomial-time network codes in the presence of malicious nodes. Our codes can achieve any point inside the rate region of multiple-source multicast transmission scenarios both in the cases of coherent and non-coherent network coding. For both cases the encoding and decoding algorithm runs in poly(|E|)exp(s) time, where poly(|E|) is a polynomial function of the number of edges |E| in the network and exp(s) is an exponential function of the number of sources s. Our codes are fully distributed and different sources require no knowledge of the data transmitted by their peers. Our codes are "end-to-end", that is, all nodes apart from the sources and the receivers are oblivious to the adversaries present in the network and simply implement random linear network coding.

  12. An Optical Multicast Routing with Minimal Network Coding Operations in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanlin Liu


    Full Text Available Network coding can improve the optical multicast routing performance in terms of network throughput, bandwidth utilization, and traffic load balance. But network coding needs high encoding operations costs in all-optical WDM networks due to shortage of optical RAM. In the paper, the network coding operation is defined to evaluate the number of network coding operation cost in the paper. An optical multicast routing algorithm based on minimal number of network coding operations is proposed to improve the multicast capacity. Two heuristic criteria are designed to establish the multicast routing with low network coding cost and high multicast capacity. One is to select one path from the former K shortest paths with the least probability of dropping the multicast maximal capacity. The other is to select the path with lowest potential coding operations with the highest link shared degree among the multiple wavelength disjoint paths cluster from source to each destination. Comparing with the other multicast routing based on network coding, simulation results show that the proposed multicast routing algorithm can effectively reduce the times of network coding operations, can improve the probability of reaching multicast maximal capacity, and can keep the less multicast routing link cost for optical WDM networks.

  13. Optical Code Generating Device Using 1×N Asymmetric Hollow Waveguide Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abang Annuar EHSAN; Sahbudin SHAARI; Mohd Kamil ABD.RAHMAN; Kee Mohd Rafique KEE ZAINAL ABIDIN


    An optical code generating device for security access system application is presented. The code generating device constructed using asymmetric hollow optical waveguide coupler design provides a unique series of output light intensities which are successively used as an optical code. The design of the waveguide is made using two major components which are asymmetric Y-junction splitter and a linear taper. Waveguiding is done using a hollow waveguide structure. Construction of higher level 1×N hollow waveguide coupler is done utilizing a basic 1×2 asymmetric waveguide coupler design together with a cascaded design scheme. Non-sequential ray tracing of the asymmetric hollow optical waveguide couplers is performed to predict the optical transmission properties of the waveguide. A representation of the code combination that can be generated from the device is obtained using combinatory number theory.

  14. An Efficient Retransmission Based on Network Coding with Unicast Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Tan, Yuanquan; Wang, Xing


    Recently, network coding technique has emerged as a promising approach that supports reliable transmission over wireless loss channels. In existing protocols where users have no interest in considering the encoded packets they had in coding or decoding operations, this rule is expensive and inef-ficient. This paper studies the impact of encoded packets in the reliable unicast network coding via some theoretical analysis. Using our approach, receivers do not only store the encoded packets they overheard, but also report these information to their neighbors, such that users enable to take account of encoded packets in their coding decisions as well as decoding operations. Moreover, we propose a redistribution algorithm to maximize the coding opportunities, which achieves better retransmission efficiency. Finally, theoretical analysis and simulation results for a wheel network illustrate the improve-ment in retransmissions efficiency due to the encoded packets.

  15. Optical Orthogonal Code Construction Using Rejected Delays Reuse for Increasing SubWavelength-Switching Capacity (United States)

    Khattab, Tamer M. S.; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.


    Using a mathematical proof, the authors establish that in element-by-element greedy algorithms based on extended set representation of optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), smaller delay elements rejected during a construction step can be accepted in later steps. They design a novel algorithm that exploits this property and call it the rejected delays reuse (RDR) greedy algorithm. They show that employing the RDR method leads to code lengths that are shorter than those achieved for OOCs constructed using the classical greedy algorithm for the same code weight and the same number of simultaneous codes constraints. They then define a quantitative measure (factor) for OOCs efficiency based on its ability to expand subwavelength-switching capacity. They call this factor the expansion efficiency factor. They use this factor to show that reducing the code length, for the same code constraints, enhances the capacity of subwavelength optical code switched networks.

  16. Optical encryption and QR codes: secure and noise-free information retrieval. (United States)

    Barrera, John Fredy; Mira, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto


    We introduce for the first time the concept of an information "container" before a standard optical encrypting procedure. The "container" selected is a QR code which offers the main advantage of being tolerant to pollutant speckle noise. Besides, the QR code can be read by smartphones, a massively used device. Additionally, QR code includes another secure step to the encrypting benefits the optical methods provide. The QR is generated by means of worldwide free available software. The concept development probes that speckle noise polluting the outcomes of normal optical encrypting procedures can be avoided, then making more attractive the adoption of these techniques. Actual smartphone collected results are shown to validate our proposal.

  17. The combinatorial construction for a class of optimal optical orthogonal codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐煜; 殷剑兴


    Optical orthogonal code (OOC) has good correlation properties. It has many important appli-cations in a fiber-optic code-division multiple access channel. In this paper, a combinatorial construction foroptimal (15p, 5, 1) optical orthogonal codes with p congruent to 1 modulo 4 and greater than 5 is given byapplying Weil's Theorem. From this, when v is a product of primes congruent to 1 modulo 4 and greater than5, an optimal (15v, 5, 1)-OOC can be obtained by applying a known recursive construction.

  18. Coded-subcarrier-aided chromatic dispersion monitoring scheme for flexible optical OFDM networks. (United States)

    Tse, Kam-Hon; Chan, Chun-Kit


    A simple coded-subcarrier aided scheme is proposed to perform chromatic dispersion monitoring in flexible optical OFDM networks. A pair of coded label subcarriers is added to both edges of the optical OFDM signal spectrum at the edge transmitter node. Upon reception at any intermediate or the receiver node, chromatic dispersion estimation is performed, via simple direct detection, followed by electronic correlation procedures with the designated code sequences. The feasibility and the performance of the proposed scheme have been experimentally characterized. It provides a cost-effective monitoring solution for the optical OFDM signals across intermediate nodes in flexible OFDM networks.

  19. Meanline Analysis of Turbines with Choked Flow in the Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.


    The Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is a new meanline/streamline turbomachinery modeling tool being developed at NASA GRC. During the development process, a limitation of the code was discovered in relation to the analysis of choked flow in axial turbines. This paper describes the relevant physics for choked flow as well as the changes made to OTAC to enable analysis in this flow regime.

  20. Maestro and Castro: Simulation Codes for Astrophysical Flows (United States)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann; Beckner, Vince; Bell, John; Friesen, Brian; Jacobs, Adam; Katz, Maximilian P.; Malone, Christopher; Nonaka, Andrew; Zhang, Weiqun


    Stellar explosions are multiphysics problems—modeling them requires the coordinated input of gravity solvers, reaction networks, radiation transport, and hydrodynamics together with microphysics recipes to describe the physics of matter under extreme conditions. Furthermore, these models involve following a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, which puts tough demands on simulation codes. We developed the codes Maestro and Castro to meet the computational challenges of these problems. Maestro uses a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamics to efficiently model convection. Castro solves the fully compressible radiation hydrodynamics equations to capture the explosive phases of stellar phenomena. Both codes are built upon the BoxLib adaptive mesh refinement library, which prepares them for next-generation exascale computers. Common microphysics shared between the codes allows us to transfer a problem from the low Mach number regime in Maestro to the explosive regime in Castro. Importantly, both codes are freely available ( We will describe the design of the codes and some of their science applications, as well as future development directions.Support for development was provided by NSF award AST-1211563 and DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics grant DE-FG02-87ER40317 to Stony Brook and by the Applied Mathematics Program of the DOE Office of Advance Scientific Computing Research under US DOE contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 to LBNL.

  1. Recommendations for computer code selection of a flow and transport code to be used in undisturbed vadose zone calculations for TWRS immobilized environmental analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VOOGD, J.A.


    An analysis of three software proposals is performed to recommend a computer code for immobilized low activity waste flow and transport modeling. The document uses criteria restablished in HNF-1839, ''Computer Code Selection Criteria for Flow and Transport Codes to be Used in Undisturbed Vadose Zone Calculation for TWRS Environmental Analyses'' as the basis for this analysis.

  2. Low-Cost Encoding Device for Optical Code Division Multiple Access System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Ab-Rahman


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Instead of using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG to develop the coded spectrums, which consist of expensive elements, the grating also are highly sensitive to environmental changes and this will contribute to the increment of capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX. Approach: This study presented the development of low-cost 16-ports encoding device for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA systems based on Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG devices and optical switches. The encoding device is one of the new technologies that used to transmit the coded data in the optical communication system by using AWG and optical switches. It provided a high security for data transmission due to all data will be transmitted in binary code form. The output signals from AWG were coded with a binary code that given to an optical switch before it signal modulate with the carrier and transmitted to the receiver. The 16-ports encoding device used 16 Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT toggle switches to control the polarization of voltage source from +5 V to -5 V for 16 optical switches. When +5 V was given, the optical switch will give code '1' and vice versa. Results: We found that the insertion loss, crosstalk, uniformity and Optical Signal-Noise-Ratio (OSNR for the developed prototype are Conclusion: We had successful developed the AWG-based OCDMA encoding device prototype and characterized using linearity testing and continuous signal testing. The developed prototype was expected to be applied in the optical communication system on Passive Optical Networks (PONs.

  3. Micro fibre optic flow checker for the medical analysis application. (United States)

    Wang, Danping


    Two micro fibre optic flow checkers are presented in this paper. They are used for a medical analysis to control a solvent flow up to 1microl/min resolution. A fibre optic sensor as well as a hydraulic system are the principle components of these flow checkers. This paper describes the principle and the experiment setup. It gives the linearity, the repeatability and the stability results.

  4. Different Types of Coding Input Data In Optical Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Ružbarský


    Full Text Available Optical fiber transmission systems are currently the most widely used transmission media. Their development in time had improved their characteristics to such an extent that they gradually replaced very popular copper cable connections. Inspite of that optical fibers still have not reached perfection and constant improvement is needed. Apart from notable advantages such as large data transfer, few numbers of repeaters required on the transmission path or higher safety of transmitted data, optical fiber has also drawbacks that include not sufficient purity optical fibers, fiber fragility and also higher proclivity to nonlinear effects. Weaknesses of optical systems can be depressed by e.g. a selection of an appropriate laser, a proper combination of materials used for fiber production during the manufacture process, or even by using an encryption of transmitted data. This article is focused on the comparison of optical signal properties in various source encoding types of input data.

  5. COCOA CMS Object-oriented Code for Optical Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, P


    COCOA is a C++ software that is able to reconstruct the positions, angular orientations, and internal optical parameters of any optical system described by a seamless combination of many different types of optical objects. The program also handles the propagation of uncertainties, which makes it very useful to simulate the system in the design phase. The software is currently in use by the different optical alignment systems of CMS and is integrated in the CMS framework so that it can read the geometry description from simple text files or the CMS XML format, and the input and output data from text files, ROOT trees, or an Oracle or MySQL database.

  6. Imaging flow cytometer using computation and spatially coded filter (United States)

    Han, Yuanyuan; Lo, Yu-Hwa


    Flow cytometry analyzes multiple physical characteristics of a large population of single cells as cells flow in a fluid stream through an excitation light beam. Flow cytometers measure fluorescence and light scattering from which information about the biological and physical properties of individual cells are obtained. Although flow cytometers have massive statistical power due to their single cell resolution and high throughput, they produce no information about cell morphology or spatial resolution offered by microscopy, which is a much wanted feature missing in almost all flow cytometers. In this paper, we invent a method of spatial-temporal transformation to provide flow cytometers with cell imaging capabilities. The method uses mathematical algorithms and a specially designed spatial filter as the only hardware needed to give flow cytometers imaging capabilities. Instead of CCDs or any megapixel cameras found in any imaging systems, we obtain high quality image of fast moving cells in a flow cytometer using photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors, thus obtaining high throughput in manners fully compatible with existing cytometers. In fact our approach can be applied to retrofit traditional flow cytometers to become imaging flow cytometers at a minimum cost. To prove the concept, we demonstrate cell imaging for cells travelling at a velocity of 0.2 m/s in a microfluidic channel, corresponding to a throughput of approximately 1,000 cells per second.

  7. Low-Cost Encoding Device for Optical Code Division Multiple Access System


    Mohammad S. Ab-Rahman; Boonchuan Ng; Norshilawati M. Ibrahim; Sahbudin Shaari


    Problem statement: Instead of using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) to develop the coded spectrums, which consist of expensive elements, the grating also are highly sensitive to environmental changes and this will contribute to the increment of capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX). Approach: This study presented the development of low-cost 16-ports encoding device for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) systems based on Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) devices and optical ...

  8. Coded optical time domain reflectometry: principle and applications (United States)

    Park, Namkyoo; Lee, Jeonghwan; Park, Jonghan; Shim, Jae Gwang; Yoon, Hosung; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Kyoungmin; Byun, Jae-Oh; Bolognini, Gabriele; Lee, Duckey; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio


    In this paper, we will briefly outline our contributions for the physical realization of coded OTDR, along with its principles and also highlight recent key results related with its applications. For the communication network application, we report a multi-port / multi-wavelength, high-speed supervisory system for the in-service monitoring of a bidirectional WDM-PON system transmission line up to 16 ports x 32 nodes (512 users) capacity. Monitoring of individual branch traces up to 60 km was achieved with the application of a 127-bit simplex code, corresponding to a 7.5dB SNR coding gain effectively reducing the measurement time about 30 times when compared to conventional average mode OTDR. Transmission experiments showed negligible penalty from the monitoring system to the transmission signal quality, at a 2.5Gbps / 125Mbps (down / up stream) data rate. As an application to sensor network, a Raman scattering based coded-OTDR distributed temperature sensor system will be presented. Utilizing a 255-bit Simplex coded OTDR together with optimized sensing link (composed of cascaded fibers with different Raman coefficients), significant enhancement in the interrogation distance (19.5km from coding gain, and 9.6km from link-combination optimization) was achieved to result a total sensing range of 37km (at 17m/3K spatial/temperature resolution), employing a conventional off-shelf low power (80mW) laser diode.

  9. Multiple-valued logic-protected coding for an optical non-quantum communication line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antipov, A. L.; Bykovsky, A. Yu.; Vasiliev, N. A.; Egorov, A. A.


    A simple and cheap method of secret coding in an optical line is proposed based on multiple-valued logic. This method is shown to have very high cryptography resources and is designated for bidirectional information exchange in a team of mobile robots, where quantum teleportation coding cannot yet b

  10. Optimal Filter Estimation for Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Brad


    Full Text Available Optical flow algorithms offer a way to estimate motion from a sequence of images. The computation of optical flow plays a key-role in several computer vision applications, including motion detection and segmentation, frame interpolation, three-dimensional scene reconstruction, robot navigation and video compression. In the case of gradient based optical flow implementation, the pre-filtering step plays a vital role, not only for accurate computation of optical flow, but also for the improvement of performance. Generally, in optical flow computation, filtering is used at the initial level on original input images and afterwards, the images are resized. In this paper, we propose an image filtering approach as a pre-processing step for the Lucas-Kanade pyramidal optical flow algorithm. Based on a study of different types of filtering methods and applied on the Iterative Refined Lucas-Kanade, we have concluded on the best filtering practice. As the Gaussian smoothing filter was selected, an empirical approach for the Gaussian variance estimation was introduced. Tested on the Middlebury image sequences, a correlation between the image intensity value and the standard deviation value of the Gaussian function was established. Finally, we have found that our selection method offers a better performance for the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm.

  11. Optical wavefront distortion due to supersonic flow fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhiQiang; FU Song


    The optical wavefront distortion caused by a supersonic flow field around a half model of blunt nose cone was studied in a wind tunnel. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure the dis-totted optical wavefront. Interesting optical parameters including the peak variation (PV), root of mean square (RMS) and Strehl ratio were obtained under different test conditions during the experiment. During the establishing process of the flow field in the wind tunnel test section, the wavefront shape was unstable. However after the flow field reached the steady flow state, the wavefront shape kept sta-ble, and the relative error of wavefront aberration was found small. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor developed was proved to be credible in measuring quantitatively the optical phase change of light traveling through the flow field around model window.

  12. Optical PIV and LDV Comparisons of Internal Flow Investigations in SHF Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wuibaut


    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between two sets of experimental results in a centrifugal flow pump. The tested impeller is the so-called SHF impeller for which many experimental data have been continuously produced to built databases for CFD code validations with various levels of approximation. Measurements have been performed using optical techniques: 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV technique on an air test model and 2D laser doppler velocimetry (LDV technique on a water model, both for different flow rates. For the present study, results obtained by these optical techniques are compared together in terms of phase averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations inside the impeller flow passage for design flow rate.

  13. DOWNFLOW code and LIDAR technology for lava flow analysis and hazard assessment at Mount Etna


    Alessandro Fornaciai; Simone Tarquini; Massimiliano Favalli


    The use of a lava-flow simulation (DOWNFLOW) probabilistic code and airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology are combined to analyze the emplacement of compound lava flow fields at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy). The goal was to assess the hazard posed by lava flows. The LIDAR-derived time series acquired during the 2006 Mount Etna eruption records the changing topography of an active lava-flow field. These short-time-interval, high-resolution topographic surveys provide a detailed...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ou; Wu Jiangxing; Lan Julong


    A new segmented correlating decoder of synchronous optical CDMA using modified prime sequence codes is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed under the assumption of Poisson shot noise model for the receiver photodetector. The decoder technique is shown to be more effective to improve the bit error probability performance than the method using an optical hard-limiter.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag


    A comprehensive, high fidelity model for pebble flow has been developed and embodied in the PEBBLES computer code. In this paper, a description of the physical artifacts included in the model is presented and some results from using the computer code for predicting the features of pebble flow and packing in a realistic pebble bed reactor design are shown. The sensitivity of models to various physical parameters is also discussed.

  16. The development of an intelligent interface to a computational fluid dynamics flow-solver code (United States)

    Williams, Anthony D.


    Researchers at NASA Lewis are currently developing an 'intelligent' interface to aid in the development and use of large, computational fluid dynamics flow-solver codes for studying the internal fluid behavior of aerospace propulsion systems. This paper discusses the requirements, design, and implementation of an intelligent interface to Proteus, a general purpose, three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes flow solver. The interface is called PROTAIS to denote its introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) concepts to the Proteus code.

  17. Beam-splitting code for light scattering by ice crystal particles within geometric-optics approximation (United States)

    Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Borovoi, Anatoli G.


    The open-source beam-splitting code is described which implements the geometric-optics approximation to light scattering by convex faceted particles. This code is written in C++ as a library which can be easy applied to a particular light scattering problem. The code uses only standard components, that makes it to be a cross-platform solution and provides its compatibility to popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE's). The included example of solving the light scattering by a randomly oriented ice crystal is written using Qt 5.1, consequently it is a cross-platform solution, too. Both physical and computational aspects of the beam-splitting algorithm are discussed. Computational speed of the beam-splitting code is obviously higher compared to the conventional ray-tracing codes. A comparison of the phase matrix as computed by our code with the ray-tracing code by A. Macke shows excellent agreement.

  18. Towards Effective Intra-flow Network Coding in Software Defined Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Zhu


    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs have potential to provide convenient broadband wireless Internet access to mobile users.With the support of Software-Defined Networking (SDN paradigm that separates control plane and data plane, WMNs can be easily deployed and managed. In addition, by exploiting the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and the spatial diversity of multi-hop wireless networks, intra-flow network coding has shown a greater benefit in comparison with traditional routing paradigms in data transmission for WMNs. In this paper, we develop a novel OpenCoding protocol, which combines the SDN technique with intra-flow network coding for WMNs. Our developed protocol can simplify the deployment and management of the network and improve network performance. In OpenCoding, a controller that works on the control plane makes routing decisions for mesh routers and the hop-by-hop forwarding function is replaced by network coding functions in data plane. We analyze the overhead of OpenCoding. Through a simulation study, we show the effectiveness of the OpenCoding protocol in comparison with existing schemes. Our data shows that OpenCoding outperforms both traditional routing and intra-flow network coding schemes.

  19. All-optical hash code generation and verification for low latency communications. (United States)

    Paquot, Yvan; Schröder, Jochen; Pelusi, Mark D; Eggleton, Benjamin J


    We introduce an all-optical, format transparent hash code generator and a hash comparator for data packets verification with low latency at high baudrate. The device is reconfigurable and able to generate hash codes based on arbitrary functions and perform the comparison directly in the optical domain. Hash codes are calculated with custom interferometric circuits implemented with a Fourier domain optical processor. A novel nonlinear scheme featuring multiple four-wave mixing processes in a single waveguide is implemented for simultaneous phase and amplitude comparison of the hash codes before and after transmission. We demonstrate the technique with single polarisation BPSK and QPSK signals up to a data rate of 80 Gb/s.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Anne M. [JLAB; Shinn, Michelle D. [JLAB


    We present details on a graphical interface for the open source software program Optical Propagation Code, or OPC. This interface, written in Java, allows a user with no knowledge of OPC to create an optical system, with lenses, mirrors, apertures, etc. and the appropriate drifts between them. The Java code creates the appropriate Perl script that serves as the input for OPC. The mode profile is then output at each optical element. The display can be either an intensity profile along the x axis, or as an isometric 3D plot which can be tilted and rotated. These profiles can be saved. Examples of the input and output will be presented.

  1. Energy-Delay Considerations in Coded Packet Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Lucani, Daniel E


    We consider a line of terminals which is connected by packet erasure channels and where random linear network coding is carried out at each node prior to transmission. In particular, we address an online approach in which each terminal has local information to be conveyed to the base station at the end of the line and provide a queueing theoretic analysis of this scenario. First, a genie-aided scenario is considered and the average delay and average transmission energy depending on the link erasure probabilities and the Poisson arrival rates at each node are analyzed. We then assume that all nodes cannot send and receive at the same time. The transmitting nodes in the network send coded data packets before stopping to wait for the receiving nodes to acknowledge the number of degrees of freedom, if any, that are required to decode correctly the information. We analyze this problem for an infinite queue size at the terminals and show that there is an optimal number of coded data packets at each node, in terms o...

  2. Using wavefront coding technique as an optical encryption system: reliability analysis and vulnerabilities assessment (United States)

    Konnik, Mikhail V.


    Wavefront coding paradigm can be used not only for compensation of aberrations and depth-of-field improvement but also for an optical encryption. An optical convolution of the image with the PSF occurs when a diffractive optical element (DOE) with a known point spread function (PSF) is placed in the optical path. In this case, an optically encoded image is registered instead of the true image. Decoding of the registered image can be performed using standard digital deconvolution methods. In such class of optical-digital systems, the PSF of the DOE is used as an encryption key. Therefore, a reliability and cryptographic resistance of such an encryption method depends on the size and complexity of the PSF used for optical encoding. This paper gives a preliminary analysis on reliability and possible vulnerabilities of such an encryption method. Experimental results on brute-force attack on the optically encrypted images are presented. Reliability estimation of optical coding based on wavefront coding paradigm is evaluated. An analysis of possible vulnerabilities is provided.

  3. DOWNFLOW code and LIDAR technology for lava flow analysis and hazard assessment at Mount Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fornaciai


    Full Text Available The use of a lava-flow simulation (DOWNFLOW probabilistic code and airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR technology are combined to analyze the emplacement of compound lava flow fields at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy. The goal was to assess the hazard posed by lava flows. The LIDAR-derived time series acquired during the 2006 Mount Etna eruption records the changing topography of an active lava-flow field. These short-time-interval, high-resolution topographic surveys provide a detailed quantitative picture of the topographic changes. The results highlight how the flow field evolves as a number of narrow (5-15 m wide disjointed flow units that are fed simultaneously by uneven lava pulses that advance within formed channels. These flow units have widely ranging advance velocities (3-90 m/h. Overflows, bifurcations and braiding are also clearly displayed. In such a complex scenario, the suitability of deterministic codes for lava-flow simulation can be hampered by the fundamental difficulty of measuring the flow parameters (e.g. the lava discharge rate, or the lava viscosity of a single flow unit. However, the DOWNFLOW probabilistic code approaches this point statistically and needs no direct knowledge of flow parameters. DOWNFLOW intrinsically accounts for complexities and perturbations of lava flows by randomly varying the pre-eruption topography. This DOWNFLOW code is systematically applied here over Mount Etna, to derive a lava-flow hazard map based on: (i the topography of the volcano; (ii the probability density function for vent opening; and (iii a law for the expected lava-flow length for all of the computational vents considered. Changes in the hazard due to the recent morphological evolution of Mount Etna have also been addressed.

  4. Two-Phase Flow in Geothermal Wells: Development and Uses of a Good Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Ramirez, Jaime


    A computer code is developed for vertical two-phase flow in geothermal wellbores. The two-phase correlations used were developed by Orkiszewski (1967) and others and are widely applicable in the oil and gas industry. The computer code is compared to the flowing survey measurements from wells in the East Mesa, Cerro Prieto, and Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal fields with success. Well data from the Svartsengi field in Iceland are also used. Several applications of the computer code are considered. They range from reservoir analysis to wellbore deposition studies. It is considered that accurate and workable wellbore simulators have an important role to play in geothermal reservoir engineering.

  5. Performance Analysis of Dual Unipolar/Bipolar Spectral Code in Optical CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Yen


    Full Text Available This study analyzes and calculates dual unipolar and bipolar coded configurations of spectral-amplitude-coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA systems by using simulation methods. The important feature of the SAC-OCDMA systems is that multiple access interference (MAI can be eliminated by code sequences of a fixed in-phase cross-correlation value. This property can be effectively canceled multiple access interference by using balance detection schemes. This study uses Walsh-Hadamard codes as signature codes for the unipolar and bipolar schemes. The coder and decoder structures are based on optical filters of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs. The simulation results of unipolar/bipolar coding structures are first presented by commercial simulation obtained using OptiSystem software. The simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER through use of the bipolar coding method is superior to the unipolar scheme, especially when the received effect power is large. When the system needs good performance to transmit multimedia data, we can use bipolar scheme in the network. If the users only transmit voice data, the unipolar method can be employed. The eye diagram also shows that the bipolar encoding structure exhibits a wider opening than the unipolar encoding structure. The flexible implementation of codewords assigns and integratable hardware designs for the scheme with FBGs to realize dual coding OCDMA system is proposed.

  6. Bragg optics computer codes for neutron scattering instrument design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovici, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Berliner, R.R. [Missouri Univ. Research Reactor, Columbia, MO (United States); Stoica, A.D. [Institute of Physics and Technology of Materials, Bucharest (Romania)


    Computer codes for neutron crystal spectrometer design, optimization and experiment planning are described. Phase space distributions, linewidths and absolute intensities are calculated by matrix methods in an extension of the Cooper-Nathans resolution function formalism. For modeling the Bragg reflection on bent crystals the lamellar approximation is used. Optimization is done by satisfying conditions of focusing in scattering and in real space, and by numerically maximizing figures of merit. Examples for three-axis and two-axis spectrometers are given.

  7. Insect-Inspired Optical-Flow Navigation Sensors (United States)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Morookian, John M.; Chahl, Javan; Soccol, Dean; Hines, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven


    Integrated circuits that exploit optical flow to sense motions of computer mice on or near surfaces ( optical mouse chips ) are used as navigation sensors in a class of small flying robots now undergoing development for potential use in such applications as exploration, search, and surveillance. The basic principles of these robots were described briefly in Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Small Flying Robots (NPO-30545), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 61. To recapitulate from the cited prior article: The concept of optical flow can be defined, loosely, as the use of texture in images as a source of motion cues. The flight-control and navigation systems of these robots are inspired largely by the designs and functions of the vision systems and brains of insects, which have been demonstrated to utilize optical flow (as detected by their eyes and brains) resulting from their own motions in the environment. Optical flow has been shown to be very effective as a means of avoiding obstacles and controlling speeds and altitudes in robotic navigation. Prior systems used in experiments on navigating by means of optical flow have involved the use of panoramic optics, high-resolution image sensors, and programmable imagedata- processing computers.

  8. Large Eddy Simulation of Flow in Turbine Cascades Using LESTool and UNCLE Codes (United States)

    Huang, P. G.


    During the period December 23,1997 and December August 31,2004, we accomplished the development of 2 CFD codes for DNS/LES/RANS simulation of turbine cascade flows, namely LESTool and UNCLE. LESTool is a structured code making use of 5th order upwind differencing scheme and UNCLE is a second-order-accuracy unstructured code. LESTool has both Dynamic SGS and Spalart's DES models and UNCLE makes use of URANS and DES models. The current report provides a description of methodologies used in the codes.

  9. Large Eddy Simulation of Flow in Turbine Cascades Using LEST and UNCLE Codes (United States)

    Ashpis, David (Technical Monitor); Huang, P. G.


    During the period December 23, 1997 and December August 31, 2004, we accomplished the development of 2 CFD codes for DNS/LES/RANS simulation of turbine cascade flows, namely LESTool and UNCLE. LESTool is a structured code making use of 5th order upwind differencing scheme and UNCLE is a second-order-accuracy unstructured code. LESTool has both Dynamic SGS and Sparlart's DES models and UNCLE makes use of URANS and DES models. The current report provides a description of methodologies used in the codes.

  10. Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Hong-zhao; Qin, Yi


    Based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code, a new optical encryption technology that only needs to record one intensity distribution is proposed. In this encryption process, firstly, the QR code is generated from the information to be encrypted; and then the generated QR code is placed in the input plane of 4-f system to have a double random phase encryption. For only one intensity distribution in the output plane is recorded as the ciphertext, the encryption process is greatly simplified. In the decryption process, the corresponding QR code is retrieved using phase retrieval algorithm. A priori information about QR code is used as support constraint in the input plane, which helps solve the stagnation problem. The original information can be recovered without distortion by scanning the QR code. The encryption process can be implemented either optically or digitally, and the decryption process uses digital method. In addition, the security of the proposed optical encryption technology is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations show that this optical encryption system is invulnerable to various attacks, and suitable for harsh transmission conditions.

  11. Dense Descriptors for Optical Flow Estimation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie


    Full Text Available Estimating the displacements of intensity patterns between sequential frames is a very well-studied problem, which is usually referred to as optical flow estimation. The first assumption among many of the methods in the field is the brightness constancy during movements of pixels between frames. This assumption is proven to be not true in general, and therefore, the use of photometric invariant constraints has been studied in the past. One other solution can be sought by use of structural descriptors rather than pixels for estimating the optical flow. Unlike sparse feature detection/description techniques and since the problem of optical flow estimation tries to find a dense flow field, a dense structural representation of individual pixels and their neighbors is computed and then used for matching and optical flow estimation. Here, a comparative study is carried out by extending the framework of SIFT-flow to include more dense descriptors, and comprehensive comparisons are given. Overall, the work can be considered as a baseline for stimulating more interest in the use of dense descriptors for optical flow estimation.

  12. SolTrace: A Ray-Tracing Code for Complex Solar Optical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelin, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewandowski, Allan [Allan Lewandowski Solar Consulting LLC, Evergreen, CO (United States)


    SolTrace is an optical simulation tool designed to model optical systems used in concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The code was first written in early 2003, but has seen significant modifications and changes since its inception, including conversion from a Pascal-based software development platform to C++. SolTrace is unique in that it can model virtually any optical system utilizingthe sun as the source. It has been made available for free and as such is in use worldwide by industry, universities, and research laboratories. The fundamental design of the code is discussed, including enhancements and improvements over the earlier version. Comparisons are made with other optical modeling tools, both non-commercial and commercial in nature. Finally, modeled results are shownfor some typical CSP systems and, in one case, compared to measured optical data.

  13. Preliminary validation of the MATRA-LMR-FB code for the flow blockage in a subassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Ha, K. S.; Kwon, Y. M.; Chang, W. P.; Lee, Y. B.; Heo, S


    To analyze the flow blockage in a subassembly of a Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), the MATRA-LMR-FB code has been developed and validated for the existing experimental data. Compared to the MATRA-LMR code, which had been successfully applied for the core thermal-hydraulic design of KALIMER, the MATRA-LMR-FB code includes some advanced modeling features. Firstly, the Distributed Resistance Model (DRM), which enables a very accurate description of the effects of wire-wrap and blockage in a flow path, is developed for the MATRA-LMR-FB code. Secondly, the hybrid difference method is used to minimize the numerical diffusion especially at the low flow region such as recirculating wakes after blockage. In addition, the code is equipped with various turbulent mixing models to describe the active mixing due to the turbulent motions as accurate as possible. For the validation of the MATRA-LMR-FB code the ORNL THORS test and KOS 169-pin test are analyzed. Based on the analysis results for the temperature data, the accuracy of the code is evaluated quantitatively. The MATRA-LMR-FB code predicts very accurately the exit temperatures measured in the subassembly with wire-wrap. However, the predicted temperatures for the experiment with spacer grid show some deviations from the measured. To enhance the accuracy of the MATRA-LMR-FB for the flow path with grid spacers, it is suggested to improve the models for pressure loss due to spacer grid and the modeling method for blockage itself. The developed MATRA-LMR-FB code is evaluated to be applied to the flow blockage analysis of KALIMER-600 which adopts the wire-wrapped subassemblies.

  14. Multiple-access Network Information-flow and Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Dikaliotis, Theodoros K; Jaggi, Sidharth; Vyetrenko, Svitlana; Yao, Hongyi; Effros, Michelle; Kliewer, Joerg; Erez, Elona


    This work considers the multiple-access multicast error-correction scenario over a packetized network with $z$ malicious edge adversaries. The network has min-cut $m$ and packets of length $\\ell$, and each sink demands all information from the set of sources $\\sources$. The capacity region is characterized for both a "side-channel" model (where sources and sinks share some random bits that are secret from the adversary) and an "omniscient" adversarial model (where no limitations on the adversary's knowledge are assumed). In the "side-channel" adversarial model, the use of a secret channel allows higher rates to be achieved compared to the "omniscient" adversarial model, and a polynomial-complexity capacity-achieving code is provided. For the "omniscient" adversarial model, two capacity-achieving constructions are given: the first is based on random subspace code design and has complexity exponential in $\\ell m$, while the second uses a novel multiple-field-extension technique and has $O(\\ell m^{|\\sources|})$ ...

  15. A good performance watermarking LDPC code used in high-speed optical fiber communication system (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Li, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng; He, Wenxue


    A watermarking LDPC code, which is a strategy designed to improve the performance of the traditional LDPC code, was introduced. By inserting some pre-defined watermarking bits into original LDPC code, we can obtain a more correct estimation about the noise level in the fiber channel. Then we use them to modify the probability distribution function (PDF) used in the initial process of belief propagation (BP) decoding algorithm. This algorithm was tested in a 128 Gb/s PDM-DQPSK optical communication system and results showed that the watermarking LDPC code had a better tolerances to polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and nonlinearity than that of traditional LDPC code. Also, by losing about 2.4% of redundancy for watermarking bits, the decoding efficiency of the watermarking LDPC code is about twice of the traditional one.

  16. Development of 3-D Flow Analysis Code for Fuel Assembly using Unstructured Grid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Hyon Kook; Kim, Jong Eun; Ahn, Jong Ki; Yang, Seung Yong [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes are very complex and required a suitable turbulence model to be predicted accurately. Final objective of this study is to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system. In order to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system, the following researches are made: - Development of numerical algorithm for CFD code's solver - Grid and geometric connectivity data - Development of software(PowerCFD code) for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system - Modulation of software(PowerCFD code) - Development of turbulence model - Development of analysis module of RANS/LES hybrid models - Analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer - Basic study on LES analysis - Development of main frame on pre/post processors based on GUI - Algorithm for fully-developed flow.

  17. Optical encryption of digital data in form of quick response code using spatially incoherent illumination (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Rostislav S.


    Applications of optical methods for encryption purposes have been attracting interest of researchers for decades. The most popular are coherent techniques such as double random phase encoding. Its main advantage is high security due to transformation of spectrum of image to be encrypted into white spectrum via use of first phase random mask which allows for encrypted images with white spectra. Downsides are necessity of using holographic registration scheme and speckle noise occurring due to coherent illumination. Elimination of these disadvantages is possible via usage of incoherent illumination. In this case, phase registration no longer matters, which means that there is no need for holographic setup, and speckle noise is gone. Recently, encryption of digital information in form of binary images has become quite popular. Advantages of using quick response (QR) code in capacity of data container for optical encryption include: 1) any data represented as QR code will have close to white (excluding zero spatial frequency) Fourier spectrum which have good overlapping with encryption key spectrum; 2) built-in algorithm for image scale and orientation correction which simplifies decoding of decrypted QR codes; 3) embedded error correction code allows for successful decryption of information even in case of partial corruption of decrypted image. Optical encryption of digital data in form QR codes using spatially incoherent illumination was experimentally implemented. Two liquid crystal spatial light modulators were used in experimental setup for QR code and encrypting kinoform imaging respectively. Decryption was conducted digitally. Successful decryption of encrypted QR codes is demonstrated.

  18. Optical transfer function analysis of circular-pupil wavefront coding systems with separable phase masks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ting-Yu; Liu Qin-Xiao; Yu Fei-Hong


    This paper proposes a simple method to achieve the optical transfer function of a circular pupil wavefront coding system with a separable phase mask in Cartesian coordinates.Based on the stationary phase method,the optical transfer function of the circular pupil system can be easily obtained from the optical transfer function of the rectangular pupil system by modifying the cut-off frequency and the on-axial modulation transfer function.Finally,a system with a cubic phase mask is used as an example to illustrate the way to achieve the optical transfer function of the circular pupil system from the rectangular pupil system.

  19. Flow diagnostics using fibre optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Vasudevan; Srikanth Padbidri; M Chandra Kishore


    Research in the area of flow diagnostics using fibre-optics started in our laboratory in early 1998. The first-ever multi-component wind tunnel balance in the world, working with fibre-optic sensors was built and demonstrated in 1999. Since then, several new applications of the technique in the area of fluid dynamic load measurements have been tried successfully. Very recently, fibre-optic sensors have been effectively used for underwater applications, where conventional measurements are relatively very difficult. Since, different physical perturbations affect optical power flowing in a fibre in different ways, unique signatures can be obtained which allow absolute or relative measurement of the incident disturbances. Immunity to electromagnetic or radio frequency interference, high temperature capability, low fatigue, high sensitivity, small size, good corrosion resistance and the capability to embed sensors within the model surface are some of the very attractive features of fibre-optic based instrumentation systems. In this paper, we describe the results of experiments of aerodynamic load measurements at hypersonic speeds (Mach 8·35 and 7·0) and studies carried out recently in a water tunnel over a lifting hypersonic vehicle with a 2-component fibre-optic strain-gauge balance.

  20. Photoacoustic Doppler flow measurement in optically scattering media (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.


    We recently observed the photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles. Here, we apply the effect to measure blood-mimicking fluid flow in an optically scattering medium. The light scattering in the medium decreases the amplitude of the photoacoustic Doppler signal but does not affect either the magnitude or the directional discrimination of the photoacoustic Doppler shift. This technology may hold promise for a new Doppler method for measuring blood flow in microcirculation with high sensitivity.

  1. Optical flow based velocity estimation for mobile robots (United States)

    Li, Xiuzhi; Zhao, Guanrong; Jia, Songmin; Qin, Baoling; Yang, Ailin


    This paper presents an optical flow based novel technique to perceive the instant motion velocity of mobile robots. The primary focus of this study is to determine the robot's ego-motion using displacement field in temporally consecutive image pairs. In contrast to most previous approaches for estimating velocity, we employ a polynomial expansion based dense optical flow approach and propose a quadratic model based RANSAC refinement of flow fields to render our method more robust with respect to noise and outliers. Accordingly, techniques for geometrical transformation and interpretation of the inter-frame motion are presented. Advantages of our proposal are validated by real experimental results conducted on Pioneer robot.

  2. Experimental study of non-binary LDPC coding for long-haul coherent optical QPSK transmissions. (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoliang; Arabaci, Murat; Yaman, Fatih; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting; Inada, Yoshihisa; Ogata, Takaaki; Aoki, Yasuhiro


    The performance of rate-0.8 4-ary LDPC code has been studied in a 50 GHz-spaced 40 Gb/s DWDM system with PDM-QPSK modulation. The net effective coding gain of 10 dB is obtained at BER of 10(-6). With the aid of time-interleaving polarization multiplexing and MAP detection, 10,560 km transmission over legacy dispersion managed fiber is achieved without any countable errors. The proposed nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC code achieves an uncoded BER threshold at 4×10(-2). Potential issues like phase ambiguity and coding length are also discussed when implementing LDPC in current coherent optical systems. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Proof-Carrying Code Based Tool for Secure Information Flow of Assembly Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Muthana


    Full Text Available Problem statement: How a host (the code consumer can determine with certainty that a downloaded program received from untrusted source (the code producer will maintain the confidentiality of the data it manipulates and it is safe to install and execute. Approach: The approach adopted for verifying that a downloaded program will not leak confidential data to unauthorized parties was based on the concept of Proof-Carrying Code (PCC. A mobile program (in its assembly form was analyzed for information flow security based on the concept of proof-carrying code. The security policy was centered on a type system for analyzing information flows within assembly programs based on the notion of noninterference. Results: A verification tool for verifying assembly programs for information flow security was built. The tool certifies SPARC assembly programs for secure information flow by statically analyzing the program based on the idea of Proof-Carrying Code (PCC. The tool operated directly on the machine-code requiring only the inputs and outputs of the code annotated with security levels. The tool provided a windows user interface enabling the users to control the verification process. The proofs that untrusted program did not leak sensitive information were generated and checked on the host machine and if they are valid, then the untrusted program can be installed and executed safely. Conclusion: By basing proof-carrying code infrastructure on information flow analysis type-system, a sufficient assurance of protecting confidential data manipulated by the mobile program can be obtained. This assurance was come due to the fact that type systems provide a sufficient guarantee of protecting confidentiality.

  4. Functional Doppler optical coherence tomography for cortical blood flow imaging (United States)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Liu, Gangjun; Nguyen, Elaine; Choi, Bernard; Chen, Zhongping


    Optical methods have been widely used in basic neuroscience research to study the cerebral blood flow dynamics in order to overcome the low spatial resolution associated with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Although laser Doppler imaging and laser speckle imaging can map out en face cortical hemodynamics and columns, depth resolution is not available. Two-photon microscopy has been used for mapping cortical activity. However, flow measurement requires fluorescent dye injection, which can be problematic. The noninvasive and high resolution tomographic capabilities of optical coherence tomography make it a promising technique for mapping depth resolved cortical blood flow. Here, we present a functional Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging modality for quantitative evaluation of cortical blood flow in a mouse model. Fast, repeated, Doppler OCT scans across a vessel of interest were performed to record flow dynamic information with a high temporal resolution of the cardiac cycles. Spectral Doppler analysis of continuous Doppler images demonstrates how the velocity components and longitudinally projected flow-volume-rate change over time, thereby providing complementary temporal flow information to the spatially distributed flow information of Doppler OCT. The proposed functional Doppler OCT imaging modality can be used to diagnose vessel stenosis/blockage or monitor blood flow changes due to pharmacological agents/neuronal activities. Non-invasive in-vivo mice experiments were performed to verify the capabilities of function Doppler OCT.

  5. An Approach to a Method of Construction of (F, K, 1) Optical Orthogonal Codes from Block Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    (F, K, 1) Optical orthogonal codes (OOC) are the best address codes applied to optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) communication systems, but the construction of the codes is very complex. In this paper, a method of construction of the OOC from block design is discussed and a method of computer aid design is presented, by which we can construct desired (F, K, 1) OOC easily.

  6. Optimum source concepts for optical intersatellite links with RZ coding (United States)

    Strasser, Martin M.; Winzer, Peter J.; Leeb, Walter R.


    We discuss several potential methods of generating optical RZ data signals, distinguishing between direct RZ modulation and modulation of a primary pulse train which is either generated by using a modelocked laser, by sinusoidally driving of an external modulator, or by gainswitching of a laser diode. We analyze the properties of each method with regard to the most critical aspects for space-borne laser communication systems such as repetition rate, duty cycle, extinction ratio, frequency chirp, timing jitter, robustness, complexity, commercial availability, and lifetime. Most modelocked lasers are highly sensitive to ambient perturbations, necessitating accurate temperature control and mechanical stabilization. Also, they typically provide pulses with less than 10% duty cycle, which can result in a decreased sensitivity of optically preamplified receivers. Directly modulated semiconductor lasers are compact and robust but suffer from large frequency chirp, which deteriorates the receiver sensitivity. One reliable RZ source is a conventional DFB semiconductor laser with two intensity modulators, one for pulse generation and one for data modulation. Both Mach-Zehnder modulators co-packaged with a laser diode or monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulators should be considered. These modulators can provide almost transform-limited pulses at high repetition rates and with duty cycles of about 30%. Robustness and lifetime are highly promising.

  7. Assessment of subchannel code ASSERT-PV for flow-distribution predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava-Dominguez, A., E-mail:; Rao, Y.F., E-mail:; Waddington, G.M., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Assessment of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for the prediction of flow distribution. • Open literature and in-house experimental data to quantify ASSERT-PV predictions. • Model changes assessed against vertical and horizontal flow experiments. • Improvement of flow-distribution predictions under CANDU-relevant conditions. - Abstract: This paper reports an assessment of the recently released subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for the prediction of flow-distribution in fuel bundles, including subchannel void fraction, quality and mass fluxes. Experimental data from open literature and from in-house tests are used to assess the flow-distribution models in ASSERT-PV 3.2. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 are compared to those from previous code versions. Separate-effects sensitivity studies are performed to quantify the contribution of each flow-distribution model change or enhancement to the improvement in flow-distribution prediction. The assessment demonstrates significant improvement in the prediction of flow-distribution in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles.

  8. Experimental scrambling and noise reduction applied to the optical encryption of QR codes. (United States)

    Barrera, John Fredy; Vélez, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto


    In this contribution, we implement two techniques to reinforce optical encryption, which we restrict in particular to the QR codes, but could be applied in a general encoding situation. To our knowledge, we present the first experimental-positional optical scrambling merged with an optical encryption procedure. The inclusion of an experimental scrambling technique in an optical encryption protocol, in particular dealing with a QR code "container", adds more protection to the encoding proposal. Additionally, a nonlinear normalization technique is applied to reduce the noise over the recovered images besides increasing the security against attacks. The opto-digital techniques employ an interferometric arrangement and a joint transform correlator encrypting architecture. The experimental results demonstrate the capability of the methods to accomplish the task.

  9. ABAREX -- A neutron spherical optical-statistical-model code -- A user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B. [ed.; Lawson, R.D.


    The contemporary version of the neutron spherical optical-statistical-model code ABAREX is summarized with the objective of providing detailed operational guidance for the user. The physical concepts involved are very briefly outlined. The code is described in some detail and a number of explicit examples are given. With this document one should very quickly become fluent with the use of ABAREX. While the code has operated on a number of computing systems, this version is specifically tailored for the VAX/VMS work station and/or the IBM-compatible personal computer.

  10. Simulating radiative astrophysical flows with the PLUTO code: A non-equilibrium, multi-species cooling function

    CERN Document Server

    Tesileanu, O; Massaglia, S


    Time-dependent cooling processes are of paramount importance in the evolution of astrophysical gaseous nebulae and, in particular, when radiative shocks are present. The present work introduces a necessary set of tools that can be used to model radiative astrophysical flows in the optically-thin plasma limit. We aim to provide reliable and accurate predictions of emission line ratios and radiative cooling losses in astrophysical simulations of shocked flows. Moreover, we discuss numerical implementation aspects to ease future improvements and implementation in other MHD numerical codes. The most important source of radiative cooling for our plasma conditions comes from the collisionally-excited line radiation. We evolve a chemical network, including 29 ion species, to compute the ionization balance in non-equilibrium conditions. After a series of validations and tests, typical astrophysical setups are simulated in 1D and 2D, employing both the present cooling model and a simplified one. The influence of the c...

  11. Hybrid optical-digital encryption system based on wavefront coding paradigm (United States)

    Konnik, Mikhail V.


    The wavefront coding is a widely used in the optical systems to compensate aberrations and increase the depth of field. This paper presents experimental results on application of the wavefront coding paradigm for data encryption. We use a synthesised diffractive optical element (DOE) to deliberately introduce a phase distortion during the images registration process to encode the acquired image. In this case, an optical convolution of the input image with the point spread function (PSF) of the DOE is registered. The encryption is performed optically, and is therefore is fast and secure. Since the introduced distortion is the same across the image, the decryption is performed digitally using deconvolution methods. However, due to noise and finite accuracy of a photosensor, the reconstructed image is degraded but still readable. The experimental results, which are presented in this paper, indicate that the proposed hybrid optical-digital system can be implemented as a portable device using inexpensive off-the-shelf components. We present the results of optical encryption and digital restoration with quantitative estimations of the images quality. Details of hardware optical implementation of the hybrid optical-digital encryption system are discussed.

  12. Massively parallel data processing for quantitative total flow imaging with optical coherence microscopy and tomography (United States)

    Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Szlag, Daniel; Marchand, Paul J.; Kumar, Ashwin S.; Lasser, Theo


    We present an application of massively parallel processing of quantitative flow measurements data acquired using spectral optical coherence microscopy (SOCM). The need for massive signal processing of these particular datasets has been a major hurdle for many applications based on SOCM. In view of this difficulty, we implemented and adapted quantitative total flow estimation algorithms on graphics processing units (GPU) and achieved a 150 fold reduction in processing time when compared to a former CPU implementation. As SOCM constitutes the microscopy counterpart to spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT), the developed processing procedure can be applied to both imaging modalities. We present the developed DLL library integrated in MATLAB (with an example) and have included the source code for adaptations and future improvements. Catalogue identifier: AFBT_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 913552 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 270876249 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: CUDA/C, MATLAB. Computer: Intel x64 CPU, GPU supporting CUDA technology. Operating system: 64-bit Windows 7 Professional. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, CPU code has been vectorized in MATLAB, CUDA code has been parallelized. RAM: Dependent on users parameters, typically between several gigabytes and several tens of gigabytes Classification: 6.5, 18. Nature of problem: Speed up of data processing in optical coherence microscopy Solution method: Utilization of GPU for massively parallel data processing Additional comments: Compiled DLL library with source code and documentation, example of utilization (MATLAB script with raw data) Running time: 1,8 s for one B-scan (150 × faster in comparison to the CPU

  13. Optical density measurements in a multiphase cryogenic fluid flow system (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Wiley, John; Gregory, Don A.


    An accurate determination of fluid flow in a cryogenic propulsion environment is difficult under the best of circumstances. The extreme thermal environment increases the mechanical constraints, and variable density conditions create havoc with traditional flow measurement schemes. Presented here are secondary results of cryogenic testing of an all-optical sensor capable of a mass flow measurement by directly interrogating the fluid's density state and a determination of the fluid's velocity. The sensor's measurement basis does not rely on any inherent assumptions as to the state of the fluid flow (density or otherwise). The fluid sensing interaction model will be discussed. Current test and evaluation data and future development work will be presented.

  14. Some Examples of the Application and Validation of the NUFT Subsurface Flow and Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J


    This report was written as partial fulfillment of a subcontract from DOD/DOE Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) as part of a project directed by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The report documents examples of field validation of the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport model (NUFT) code for environmental remediation, with emphasis on soil vapor extraction, and describes some of the modifications needed to integrate the code into the DOD Groundwater Modeling System (GMS, 2000). Note that this report highlights only a subset of the full capabilities of the NUFT code.

  15. Documenting Spreadsheets with Pseudo-Code: an Exercise with Cash-Flow and Loans

    CERN Document Server

    Paine, Jocelyn


    "Look before you leap"; "a stitch in time saves nine"; "more haste, less speed". Many proverbs declare the wisdom of planning before doing. We suggest how to apply this to Excel, by explaining and specifying spreadsheets before coding them, so there will always be documentation for auditors and maintenance programmers. The specification method uses "pseudo-code": code that, for precision and conciseness, resembles a programming language, but is not executable. It is, however, based on the notation used by our Excelsior spreadsheet generator, which is executable. This paper is structured as a tutorial, in which we develop a simple cash-flow and loans spreadsheet.

  16. Spatial-phase code-division multiple-access system with multiplexed Fourier holography switching for reconfigurable optical interconnection. (United States)

    Takasago, K; Takekawa, M; Shirakawa, A; Kannari, F


    A new, to our knowledge, space-variant optical interconnection system based on a spatial-phase code-division multiple-access technique with multiplexed Fourier holography is described. In this technique a signal beam is spread over wide spatial frequencies by an M-sequence pseudorandom phase code. At a receiver side a selected signal beam is properly decoded, and at the same time its spatial pattern is shaped with a Fourier hologram, which is recorded by light that is encoded with the same M-sequence phase mask as the desired signal beam and by light whose spatial beam pattern is shaped to a signal routing pattern. Using the multiplexed holography, we can simultaneously route multisignal flows into individually specified receiver elements. The routing pattern can also be varied by means of switching the encoding phase code or replacing the hologram. We demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment with a doubly multiplexed hologram that enables simultaneous routing of two signal beams. Using a numerical model, we showed that the proposed scheme can manage more than 250 routing patterns for one signal flow with one multiplexed hologram at a signal-to-noise ratio of ~5.

  17. Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 2: Development of the computer code (United States)

    Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.


    There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow equations to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. The development of a computer code to solve a three dimensional unsteady approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block emplicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is described. Results of calculations of several Cartesian test cases are presented. The computer code can be applied to more complex flow fields such as these encountered on rotating airfoils.

  18. Computer code selection criteria for flow and transport code(s) to be used in undisturbed vadose zone calculations for TWRS environmental analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.


    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, and disposal of waste currently being held in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In order to successfully carry out its mission, TWRS must perform environmental analyses describing the consequences of tank contents leaking from tanks and associated facilities during the storage, retrieval, or closure periods and immobilized low-activity tank waste contaminants leaving disposal facilities. Because of the large size of the facilities and the great depth of the dry zone (known as the vadose zone) underneath the facilities, sophisticated computer codes are needed to model the transport of the tank contents or contaminants. This document presents the code selection criteria for those vadose zone analyses (a subset of the above analyses) where the hydraulic properties of the vadose zone are constant in time the geochemical behavior of the contaminant-soil interaction can be described by simple models, and the geologic or engineered structures are complicated enough to require a two-or three dimensional model. Thus, simple analyses would not need to use the fairly sophisticated codes which would meet the selection criteria in this document. Similarly, those analyses which involve complex chemical modeling (such as those analyses involving large tank leaks or those analyses involving the modeling of contaminant release from glass waste forms) are excluded. The analyses covered here are those where the movement of contaminants can be relatively simply calculated from the moisture flow. These code selection criteria are based on the information from the low-level waste programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as well as experience gained in the DOE Complex in applying these criteria. Appendix table A-1 provides a comparison between the criteria in these documents and those used here. This document does not define the models (that

  19. Superdense Coding over Optical Fiber Links with Complete Bell-State Measurements (United States)

    Williams, Brian P.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Humble, Travis S.


    Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. We report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. We demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665 ±0.018 , and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer.

  20. High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique (United States)

    Zhao, Shengmei; Wang, Le; Liang, Wenqiang; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan


    In this paper, we propose a high performance optical encryption (OE) scheme based on computational ghost imaging (GI) with QR code and compressive sensing (CS) technique, named QR-CGI-OE scheme. N random phase screens, generated by Alice, is a secret key and be shared with its authorized user, Bob. The information is first encoded by Alice with QR code, and the QR-coded image is then encrypted with the aid of computational ghost imaging optical system. Here, measurement results from the GI optical system's bucket detector are the encrypted information and be transmitted to Bob. With the key, Bob decrypts the encrypted information to obtain the QR-coded image with GI and CS techniques, and further recovers the information by QR decoding. The experimental and numerical simulated results show that the authorized users can recover completely the original image, whereas the eavesdroppers can not acquire any information about the image even the eavesdropping ratio (ER) is up to 60% at the given measurement times. For the proposed scheme, the number of bits sent from Alice to Bob are reduced considerably and the robustness is enhanced significantly. Meantime, the measurement times in GI system is reduced and the quality of the reconstructed QR-coded image is improved.

  1. Performance of Manchester-coded payload in an optical FSK labeling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva;


    The modulation crosstalk between combined frequency-shift keying (FSK) and intensity modulation (IM) in an optical label-switching network is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. A comparison between the performance of nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) and Manchester-coded payload is made. It is...

  2. A new technique of recognition for coded targets in optical 3D measurement (United States)

    Guo, Changye; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Cui, Haihua; Dai, Ning; Weng, Jinping


    A new technique for coded targets recognition in optical 3D-measurement application is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, point cloud registration is based on homologous features, such as the curvature, which is time-consuming and not reliable. For this, we paste some coded targets onto the surface of the object to be measured to improve the optimum target location and accurate correspondence among multi-source images. Circular coded targets are used, and an algorithm to automatically detecting them is proposed. This algorithm extracts targets with intensive bimodal histogram features from complex background, and filters noise according to their size, shape and intensity. In addition, the coded targets' identification is conducted out by their ring codes. We affine them around the circle inversely, set foreground and background respectively as 1 and 0 to constitute a binary number, and finally shift one bit every time to calculate a decimal one of the binary number to determine a minimum decimal number as its code. In this 3Dmeasurement application, we build a mutual relationship between different viewpoints containing three or more coded targets with different codes. Experiments show that it is of efficiency to obtain global surface data of an object to be measured and is robust to the projection angles and noise.

  3. Performance Analysis of Dual Unipolar/Bipolar Spectral Code in Optical CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Yen


    Full Text Available This study analyzes and calculates dual unipolar and bipolar coded configurations of spectral-amplitude-coding opticalcode division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA systems by using simulation methods. The important feature of theSAC-OCDMA systems is that multiple access interference (MAI can be eliminated by code sequences of a fixed inphasecross-correlation value. This property can be effectively canceled multiple access interference by using balancedetection schemes. This study uses Walsh-Hadamard codes as signature codes for the unipolar and bipolar schemes.The coder and decoder structures are based on optical filters of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs. The simulation results ofunipolar/bipolar coding structures are first presented by commercial simulation obtained using OptiSystem software.The simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER through use of the bipolar coding method is superior to theunipolar scheme, especially when the received effect power is large. When the system needs good performance totransmit multimedia data, we can use bipolar scheme in the network. If the users only transmit voice data, the unipolarmethod can be employed. The eye diagram also shows that the bipolar encoding structure exhibits a wider openingthan the unipolar encoding structure. The flexible implementation of codewords assigns and integratable hardwaredesigns for the scheme with FBGs to realize dual coding OCDMA system is proposed.

  4. Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for extended sensing range using probe dithering and cyclic coding (United States)

    Iribas, Haritz; Loayssa, Alayn; Sauser, Florian; Llera, Miguel; Le Floch, Sébastien


    We present an enhanced performance Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor that uses dual probes waves with optical frequency modulation and cyclic coding. The frequency modulation serves to increase the probe power that can be injected in the fiber before the onset of non-local effects and noise generated by spontaneous Brillouin scattering. This leads to higher detected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is further increased by the coding gain. The enhanced SNR translates to extended range for the sensor, with experiments demonstrating 1-m spatial resolution over a 164 km fiber loop with a 3-MHz Brillouin frequency shift measurement precision at the worst contrast position. In addition, we introduce a study of the power limits that can be injected in the fiber with cyclic coding before the appearance of distortions in the decoded signal.

  5. Joint robustness security in optical OFDM access system with Turbo-coded subcarrier rotation. (United States)

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Wang, Yongjun


    This paper proposes a novel robust physical secure method for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) access system based on Turbo-coded subcarrier rotation. It can realize a secure communication while keep robustness to channel noise. The subcarrier rotation is controlled by the interleaver module of Turbo coding, which is under the charge of Logistic map. The random puncturing can further enhance the security. The channel feedback can ensure the puncturing module working at a suitable coding rate. A 72.28 Gb/s encrypted 16QAM-OFDM signal is successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The results show robust performance under different channel noise conditions and good resistance to illegal optical network unit (ONU).

  6. Security authentication with a three-dimensional optical phase code using random forest classifier: an overview (United States)

    Markman, Adam; Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram


    We overview our recent work [1] on utilizing three-dimensional (3D) optical phase codes for object authentication using the random forest classifier. A simple 3D optical phase code (OPC) is generated by combining multiple diffusers and glass slides. This tag is then placed on a quick-response (QR) code, which is a barcode capable of storing information and can be scanned under non-uniform illumination conditions, rotation, and slight degradation. A coherent light source illuminates the OPC and the transmitted light is captured by a CCD to record the unique signature. Feature extraction on the signature is performed and inputted into a pre-trained random-forest classifier for authentication.

  7. Dynamic optical aberration correction with adaptive coded apertures techniques in conformal imaging (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Pengbin; Zhang, Binglong


    Conformal imaging systems are confronted with dynamic aberration in optical design processing. In classical optical designs, for combination high requirements of field of view, optical speed, environmental adaption and imaging quality, further enhancements can be achieved only by the introduction of increased complexity of aberration corrector. In recent years of computational imaging, the adaptive coded apertures techniques which has several potential advantages over more traditional optical systems is particularly suitable for military infrared imaging systems. The merits of this new concept include low mass, volume and moments of inertia, potentially lower costs, graceful failure modes, steerable fields of regard with no macroscopic moving parts. Example application for conformal imaging system design where the elements of a set of binary coded aperture masks are applied are optimization designed is presented in this paper, simulation results show that the optical performance is closely related to the mask design and the reconstruction algorithm optimization. As a dynamic aberration corrector, a binary-amplitude mask located at the aperture stop is optimized to mitigate dynamic optical aberrations when the field of regard changes and allow sufficient information to be recorded by the detector for the recovery of a sharp image using digital image restoration in conformal optical system.

  8. Parallel Processor for 3D Recovery from Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Hugo Barron-Zambrano


    Full Text Available 3D recovery from motion has received a major effort in computer vision systems in the recent years. The main problem lies in the number of operations and memory accesses to be performed by the majority of the existing techniques when translated to hardware or software implementations. This paper proposes a parallel processor for 3D recovery from optical flow. Its main feature is the maximum reuse of data and the low number of clock cycles to calculate the optical flow, along with the precision with which 3D recovery is achieved. The results of the proposed architecture as well as those from processor synthesis are presented.

  9. Response properties of cat AMLS neurons to optic flow stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Baowang(李宝旺); LI; Bing(李兵); CHEN; Hui(陈辉); XU; Ying(徐颖); DIAO; Yuncheng(刁云程)


    Spiral and translation stimuli were used to investigate the response properties of cat AMLS (anteromedial lateral suprasylvian area) neurons to optic flow. The overwhelming majority of cells could be significantly excited by the two modes of stimuli and most responsive cells displayed obvious direction selectivity. It is the first time to find a visual area in mammalian brain preferring rotation stimuli. Two representative hypotheses are discussed here on the neural mechanism of optic flow analysis in visual cortex, and some new viewpoints are proposed to explain the experimental results.

  10. Optical studies of shock generated transient supersonic base flows (United States)

    Liang, P.-Y.; Bershader, D.; Wray, A.


    A shock tube employing interferometric and schlieren techniques is used to study transient base flow phenomena following shock wave passage over two plane bluff bodies: a hemicircular cylinder and a cylinder with the Galileo Jovian probe profile. An attempt is made to understand the physics of transition from transient to steady state flow, and to provide code verification for a study employing the Illiac IV computer. Transient base flow interactions include a series of shock diffraction, regular, and Mach reflections, coupled with boundary layer development, separation, and recompression. Vorticity generation and transport underlie these features. The quantitative verification of the computer code includes comparisons of transient pressure and density fields, near wake geometries, and bow shock standoff distances.

  11. Solar optical codes evaluation for modeling and analyzing complex solar receiver geometries (United States)

    Yellowhair, Julius; Ortega, Jesus D.; Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford K.


    Solar optical modeling tools are valuable for modeling and predicting the performance of solar technology systems. Four optical modeling tools were evaluated using the National Solar Thermal Test Facility heliostat field combined with flat plate receiver geometry as a benchmark. The four optical modeling tools evaluated were DELSOL, HELIOS, SolTrace, and Tonatiuh. All are available for free from their respective developers. DELSOL and HELIOS both use a convolution of the sunshape and optical errors for rapid calculation of the incident irradiance profiles on the receiver surfaces. SolTrace and Tonatiuh use ray-tracing methods to intersect the reflected solar rays with the receiver surfaces and construct irradiance profiles. We found the ray-tracing tools, although slower in computation speed, to be more flexible for modeling complex receiver geometries, whereas DELSOL and HELIOS were limited to standard receiver geometries such as flat plate, cylinder, and cavity receivers. We also list the strengths and deficiencies of the tools to show tool preference depending on the modeling and design needs. We provide an example of using SolTrace for modeling nonconventional receiver geometries. The goal is to transfer the irradiance profiles on the receiver surfaces calculated in an optical code to a computational fluid dynamics code such as ANSYS Fluent. This approach eliminates the need for using discrete ordinance or discrete radiation transfer models, which are computationally intensive, within the CFD code. The irradiance profiles on the receiver surfaces then allows for thermal and fluid analysis on the receiver.

  12. Flow measurement using speckle in optical coherence tomography images (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Stromski, Steven


    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is a valuable tool for depth-resolved flow measurements in tissue. However, DOCT suffers from two disadvantages: it is insensitive to flow in the direction normal to the imaging beam, and it requires knowledge of the phase of the demodulated signal. We present an alternative method of extracting flow information, using speckle of conventional amplitude optical coherence tomography images. The two techniques can be shown to be essentially equivalent, with the distinction that speckle methods are sensitive to flow in all directions but do not provide information on the direction of flow. It is well known in other imaging modalities that moving scatterers cause a time-varying speckle pattern. Due to the pixel-by-pixel acquisition scheme of conventional OCT, time-varying speckle is manifested as a change of OCT image spatial speckle frequencies. We tested the ability of speckle to provide quantitative flow information using a flow phantom (a tube filled with Intralipid flowing at a constant volumetric flow rate). Initially, m-scans were taken at over the center of the tube. Images were averaged to reduce noise and the region corresponding to the center one-quarter of the tube lumen was selected. Sequential a-scans were concatenated, the Fourier transform performed, and a ratio of high to low spatial frequencies computed. We found that, over a range of velocities, this ratio bore a linear relation to flow velocity. For two-dimensional imaging, the program was modified to use a sliding window. Parabolic flow profile was visualized inside the tube. This study shows the feasibility of extracting quantitative flow data in all directions without phase information.

  13. Experimental Study on Time-Spread/Wavelength-Hop Optical Code Division Multiplexing with Dispersion-Compensating En/Decoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki; Tamai; Hideyuki; Iwamura; Naoki; Minato; Saeko; Oshiba


    10Gbit/s time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code generation and decoding are performed by dispersion-compensating fiber Bragg grating (FBG) en/decoder pair. Error-free 10km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission of 10Gbit/s optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) has been experimentally demonstrated.

  14. Flow patterns on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography reveal flow directions at retinal vessel bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Li, Xiao Q; Munch, Inger C


    PURPOSE: To study intravascular characteristics of flowing blood in retinal vessels using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Examination of selected arterial bifurcations and venous sites of confluence in 25 healthy 11-year-old children recruited as an ad hoc subsample...... be determined using SD-OCT. This feature may assist the identification of flow reversal near sites of vascular occlusion, the analysis of blood flow near vascular malformations and the segmentation of retinal SD-OCT images....

  15. CFD Code Validation against Stratified Air-Water Flow Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Terzuoli


    Full Text Available Pressurized thermal shock (PTS modelling has been identified as one of the most important industrial needs related to nuclear reactor safety. A severe PTS scenario limiting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV lifetime is the cold water emergency core cooling (ECC injection into the cold leg during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA. Since it represents a big challenge for numerical simulations, this scenario was selected within the European Platform for Nuclear Reactor Simulations (NURESIM Integrated Project as a reference two-phase problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFDs code validation. This paper presents a CFD analysis of a stratified air-water flow experimental investigation performed at the Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse in 1985, which shares some common physical features with the ECC injection in PWR cold leg. Numerical simulations have been carried out with two commercial codes (Fluent and Ansys CFX, and a research code (NEPTUNE CFD. The aim of this work, carried out at the University of Pisa within the NURESIM IP, is to validate the free surface flow model implemented in the codes against experimental data, and to perform code-to-code benchmarking. Obtained results suggest the relevance of three-dimensional effects and stress the importance of a suitable interface drag modelling.

  16. Discontinuity-preserving optical flow algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Lei; Li Jinzong; Li Dongdong


    A modification of Horn and Schunk's approach is investigated, which leads to a better preservation of flow discontinuities.It improves Horn-Schunk model in three aspects: (1) It replaces the smooth weight coefficient in the energy equation by the variable weight coefficient.(2) It adopts a novel method to compute the mean velocity.The novel method also reflects the effect of the intensity difference on the image velocity diffusion.(3) It introduces a more efficient iterative method than the Gauss-Seidel method to solve the associated Euler-Lagrange equation.The experiment results validate the better effect of the improved method on preserving discontinuities.

  17. Quantum optical coherence can survive photon losses: a continuous-variable quantum erasure correcting code

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Huck, Alexander; Niset, Julien; Leuchs, Gerd; Cerf, Nicolas J; Andersen, Ulrik L


    A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code (QECC) that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information technologies, it is believed that QECC will play a similarly crucial role in tomorrow's quantum information systems. Here, we report on the first experimental demonstration of a quantum erasure-correcting code that overcomes the devastating effect of photon losses. Whereas {\\it errors} translate, in an information theoretic language, the noise affecting a transmission line, {\\it erasures} correspond to the in-line probabilistic loss of photons. Our quantum code protects a four-mode entangled mesoscopic state of light against erasures, and its associated encoding and decoding operations only require linear optics and Gaussian resources. Since in-line attenuation is generally the strongest limitation to quantum co...

  18. Network coding based joint signaling and dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for inter optical network unit communication in passive optical networks (United States)

    Wei, Pei; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng


    As an innovative and promising technology, network coding has been introduced to passive optical networks (PON) in recent years to support inter optical network unit (ONU) communication, yet the signaling process and dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) in PON with network coding (NC-PON) still need further study. Thus, we propose a joint signaling and DBA scheme for efficiently supporting differentiated services of inter ONU communication in NC-PON. In the proposed joint scheme, the signaling process lays the foundation to fulfill network coding in PON, and it can not only avoid the potential threat to downstream security in previous schemes but also be suitable for the proposed hybrid dynamic bandwidth allocation (HDBA) scheme. In HDBA, a DBA cycle is divided into two sub-cycles for applying different coding, scheduling and bandwidth allocation strategies to differentiated classes of services. Besides, as network traffic load varies, the entire upstream transmission window for all REPORT messages slides accordingly, leaving the transmission time of one or two sub-cycles to overlap with the bandwidth allocation calculation time at the optical line terminal (the OLT), so that the upstream idle time can be efficiently eliminated. Performance evaluation results validate that compared with the existing two DBA algorithms deployed in NC-PON, HDBA demonstrates the best quality of service (QoS) support in terms of delay for all classes of services, especially guarantees the end-to-end delay bound of high class services. Specifically, HDBA can eliminate queuing delay and scheduling delay of high class services, reduce those of lower class services by at least 20%, and reduce the average end-to-end delay of all services over 50%. Moreover, HDBA also achieves the maximum delay fairness between coded and uncoded lower class services, and medium delay fairness for high class services.

  19. Optical diagnostics for turbulent and multiphase flows: Particle image velocimetry and photorefractive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hern, T.J.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shagam, R.N.; Blanchat, T.K.; Chu, T.Y.; Tassin-Leger, A.L.; Henderson, J.A.


    This report summarizes the work performed under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project ``Optical Diagnostics for Turbulent and Multiphase Flows.`` Advanced optical diagnostics have been investigated and developed for flow field measurements, including capabilities for measurement in turbulent, multiphase, and heated flows. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) includes several techniques for measurement of instantaneous flow field velocities and associated turbulence quantities. Nonlinear photorefractive optical materials have been investigated for the possibility of measuring turbulence quantities (turbulent spectrum) more directly. The two-dimensional PIV techniques developed under this LDRD were shown to work well, and were compared with more traditional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Three-dimensional PIV techniques were developed and tested, but due to several experimental difficulties were not as successful. The photorefractive techniques were tested, and both potential capabilities and possible problem areas were elucidated.

  20. Fiber optic liquid mass flow sensor and method (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Gregory, Don Allen (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Pedersen, Kevin W. (Inventor)


    A method and apparatus are provided for sensing the mass flow rate of a fluid flowing through a pipe. A light beam containing plural individual wavelengths is projected from one side of the pipe across the width of the pipe so as to pass through the fluid under test. Fiber optic couplers located at least two positions on the opposite side of the pipe are used to detect the light beam. A determination is then made of the relative strengths of the light beam for each wavelength at the at least two positions and based at least in part on these relative strengths, the mass flow rate of the fluid is determined.

  1. A new family of two-dimensional triple-codeweight asymmetric optical orthogonal code for OCDMA networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxi Yin; Wei Liang; Le Ma; Liqiao Qin


    A new generation algorithm of two-dimensional triple-codeweight asymmetric optical orthogonal codes for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. The code cardinality is obtained and the error-probability performance for corresponding OCDMA system is analyzed. The codes with two constraints (i.e., auto- and cross-correlation properties) being unequal are taken into account. On the premise of fixed system resources, the code cardinality can be significantly improved. By analysis of the error-probability performance, it is shown that the codes with different parameters have different performances. Therefore, this type of codes can be applied to support diverse quality of service (QoS) and satisfy the quality requirement of different multimedia or distinct users, and simultaneously make the better use of bandwidth resources in optical networks.

  2. Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.


    A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air

  3. Optical Flow Structure Effects in Children’s Postural Control (United States)

    Barela, José A.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of distance and optic flow structure on visual information and body sway coupling in children and young adults. Thirty children (from 4 to 12 years of age) and 10 young adults stood upright inside of a moving room oscillating at 0.2 Hz, at 0.25 and 1.5 m from the front wall, and under three optical flow conditions (global, central, and peripheral). Effect of distance and optic flow structure on the coupling of visual information and body sway is age-dependent, with 4-year-olds being more affected at 0.25 m distance than older children and adults are. No such difference was observed at 1.5 m from the front wall. Moreover, 4-year-olds’ sway was larger and displayed higher variability. These results suggest that despite being able to accommodate change resulting from varying optic flow conditions, young children have difficulty in dodging stronger visual stimuli. Lastly, difference in sway performance may be due to immature inter-modality sensory reweighting. PMID:27352305

  4. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua


    In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...

  5. Self-motion Perception from Optic Flow and Rotation Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Beintema (Jaap)


    textabstractThe value of optic flow for retrieving movement direction was recognised already two centuries ago by astronomers, searching the sky for meteorite showers. The point from which the shower appeared to emanate they termed the radiant, knowing it indicated the direction along which the mete

  6. Optically measured microvascular blood flow contrast of malignant breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Choe

    Full Text Available Microvascular blood flow contrast is an important hemodynamic and metabolic parameter with potential to enhance in vivo breast cancer detection and therapy monitoring. Here we report on non-invasive line-scan measurements of malignant breast tumors with a hand-held optical probe in the remission geometry. The probe employs diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS, a near-infrared optical method that quantifies deep tissue microvascular blood flow. Tumor-to-normal perfusion ratios are derived from thirty-two human subjects. Mean (95% confidence interval tumor-to-normal ratio using surrounding normal tissue was 2.25 (1.92-2.63; tumor-to-normal ratio using normal tissues at the corresponding tumor location in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.94-2.66, and using normal tissue in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.90-2.70. Thus, the mean tumor-to-normal ratios were significantly different from unity irrespective of the normal tissue chosen, implying that tumors have significantly higher blood flow than normal tissues. Therefore, the study demonstrates existence of breast cancer contrast in blood flow measured by DCS. The new, optically accessible cancer contrast holds potential for cancer detection and therapy monitoring applications, and it is likely to be especially useful when combined with diffuse optical spectroscopy/tomography.

  7. Self-motion Perception from Optic Flow and Rotation Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Beintema (Jaap)


    textabstractThe value of optic flow for retrieving movement direction was recognised already two centuries ago by astronomers, searching the sky for meteorite showers. The point from which the shower appeared to emanate they termed the radiant, knowing it indicated the direction along which the mete

  8. Open-Source Development of the Petascale Reactive Flow and Transport Code PFLOTRAN (United States)

    Hammond, G. E.; Andre, B.; Bisht, G.; Johnson, T.; Karra, S.; Lichtner, P. C.; Mills, R. T.


    Open-source software development has become increasingly popular in recent years. Open-source encourages collaborative and transparent software development and promotes unlimited free redistribution of source code to the public. Open-source development is good for science as it reveals implementation details that are critical to scientific reproducibility, but generally excluded from journal publications. In addition, research funds that would have been spent on licensing fees can be redirected to code development that benefits more scientists. In 2006, the developers of PFLOTRAN open-sourced their code under the U.S. Department of Energy SciDAC-II program. Since that time, the code has gained popularity among code developers and users from around the world seeking to employ PFLOTRAN to simulate thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and biogeochemical processes in the Earth's surface/subsurface environment. PFLOTRAN is a massively-parallel subsurface reactive multiphase flow and transport simulator designed from the ground up to run efficiently on computing platforms ranging from the laptop to leadership-class supercomputers, all from a single code base. The code employs domain decomposition for parallelism and is founded upon the well-established and open-source parallel PETSc and HDF5 frameworks. PFLOTRAN leverages modern Fortran (i.e. Fortran 2003-2008) in its extensible object-oriented design. The use of this progressive, yet domain-friendly programming language has greatly facilitated collaboration in the code's software development. Over the past year, PFLOTRAN's top-level data structures were refactored as Fortran classes (i.e. extendible derived types) to improve the flexibility of the code, ease the addition of new process models, and enable coupling to external simulators. For instance, PFLOTRAN has been coupled to the parallel electrical resistivity tomography code E4D to enable hydrogeophysical inversion while the same code base can be used as a third

  9. A Computer Code for Swirling Turbulent Axisymmetric Recirculating Flows in Practical Isothermal Combustor Geometries (United States)

    Lilley, D. G.; Rhode, D. L.


    A primitive pressure-velocity variable finite difference computer code was developed to predict swirling recirculating inert turbulent flows in axisymmetric combustors in general, and for application to a specific idealized combustion chamber with sudden or gradual expansion. The technique involves a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, a line relaxation procedure for efficient solution of the equations, a two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model, a stairstep boundary representation of the expansion flow, and realistic accommodation of swirl effects. A user's manual, dealing with the computational problem, showing how the mathematical basis and computational scheme may be translated into a computer program is presented. A flow chart, FORTRAN IV listing, notes about various subroutines and a user's guide are supplied as an aid to prospective users of the code.

  10. Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access and Wavelength Division Multiplexing: Hybrid Scheme Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susthitha Menon


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hybrid Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access (OCDMA and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM have flourished as successful schemes for expanding the transmission capacity as well as enhancing the security for OCDMA. However, a comprehensive review related to this hybrid system are lacking currently. Approach: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on OCDMA-WDM overlay systems, including our hybrid approach of one-dimensional coding of SAC OCDMA with WDM signals. In addition, we present an additional review of other categorios of hybrid WDM/OCDMA schemes, where codes of OCDMA can be employed on each WDM wavelength. Furthermore, an essential background of OCDMA, recent coding techniques and security issues are also presented. Results: Our results indicate that the feasibility of transmitting both OCDMA and WDM users on the same spectrum band can be achieved using MQC family code with an acceptable performance as well as good data confidentiality. In addition, the WDM interference signals can be suppressed properly for detection of optical broadband CDMA using notch filters. Conclusion: The paper provides a comprehensive overview of hybrid OCDMA-WDM systems and can be used as a baseline study for other scientists in the similar scope of research.

  11. Rate-adaptive modulation and coding for optical fiber transmission systems (United States)

    Gho, Gwang-Hyun; Kahn, Joseph M.


    Rate-adaptive optical transmission techniques adjust information bit rate based on transmission distance and other factors affecting signal quality. These techniques enable increased bit rates over shorter links, while enabling transmission over longer links when regeneration is not available. They are likely to become more important with increasing network traffic and a continuing evolution toward optically switched mesh networks, which make signal quality more variable. We propose a rate-adaptive scheme using variable-rate forward error correction (FEC) codes and variable constellations with a fixed symbol rate, quantifying how achievable bit rates vary with distance. The scheme uses serially concatenated Reed-Solomon codes and an inner repetition code to vary the code rate, combined with singlecarrier polarization-multiplexed M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (PM-M-QAM) with variable M and digital coherent detection. A rate adaptation algorithm uses the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or the FEC decoder input bit-error ratio (BER) estimated by a receiver to determine the FEC code rate and constellation size that maximizes the information bit rate while satisfying a target FEC decoder output BER and an SNR margin, yielding a peak rate of 200 Gbit/s in a nominal 50-GHz channel bandwidth. We simulate single-channel transmission through a long-haul fiber system incorporating numerous optical switches, evaluating the impact of fiber nonlinearity and bandwidth narrowing. With zero SNR margin, we achieve bit rates of 200/100/50 Gbit/s over distances of 650/2000/3000 km. Compared to an ideal coding scheme, the proposed scheme exhibits a performance gap ranging from about 6.4 dB at 650 km to 7.5 dB at 5000 km.

  12. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control. (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie


    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects.

  13. Novel secure and bandwidth efficient optical code division multiplexed system for future access networks (United States)

    Singh, Simranjit


    In this paper, a spectrally coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system using a hybrid modulation scheme has been investigated. The idea is to propose an effective approach for simultaneous improvement of the system capacity and security. Data formats, NRZ (non-return to zero), DQPSK (differential quadrature phase shift keying), and PoISk (polarisation shift keying) are used to get the orthogonal modulated signal. It is observed that the proposed hybrid modulation provides efficient utilisation of bandwidth, increases the data capacity and enhances the data confidentiality over existing OCDMA systems. Further, the proposed system performance is compared with the current state-of-the-art OCDMA schemes.

  14. Power flow from a dipole emitter near an optical antenna. (United States)

    Huang, Kevin C Y; Jun, Young Chul; Seo, Min-Kyo; Brongersma, Mark L


    Current methods to calculate the emission enhancement of a quantum emitter coupled to an optical antenna of arbitrary geometry rely on analyzing the total Poynting vector power flow out of the emitter or the dyadic Green functions from full-field numerical simulations. Unfortunately, these methods do not provide information regarding the nature of the dominant energy decay pathways. We present a new approach that allows for a rigorous separation, quantification, and visualization of the emitter output power flow captured by an antenna and the subsequent reradiation power flow to the far field. Such analysis reveals unprecedented details of the emitter/antenna coupling mechanisms and thus opens up new design strategies for strongly interacting emitter/antenna systems used in sensing, active plasmonics and metamaterials, and quantum optics.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A reliable validation based on the optical flow visualization for numerical simulations of complex flowfields is addressed in this paper.Several test cases,including two-dimensional,axisymmetric and three-dimensional flowfields,were presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the validation and gain credibility of numerical solutions of complex flowfields.In the validation,images of these flowfields were constructed from numerical results based on the principle of the optical flow visualization,and compared directly with experimental interferograms.Because both experimental and numerical results are of identical physical representation,the agreement between them can be evaluated effectively by examining flow structures as well as checking discrepancies in density.The study shows that the reliable validation can be achieved by using the direct comparison between numerical and experiment results without any loss of accuracy in either of them.

  16. PFLOTRAN: Reactive Flow & Transport Code for Use on Laptops to Leadership-Class Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan; Mills, Richard T.


    PFLOTRAN, a next-generation reactive flow and transport code for modeling subsurface processes, has been designed from the ground up to run efficiently on machines ranging from leadership-class supercomputers to laptops. Based on an object-oriented design, the code is easily extensible to incorporate additional processes. It can interface seamlessly with Fortran 9X, C and C++ codes. Domain decomposition parallelism is employed, with the PETSc parallel framework used to manage parallel solvers, data structures and communication. Features of the code include a modular input file, implementation of high-performance I/O using parallel HDF5, ability to perform multiple realization simulations with multiple processors per realization in a seamless manner, and multiple modes for multiphase flow and multicomponent geochemical transport. Chemical reactions currently implemented in the code include homogeneous aqueous complexing reactions and heterogeneous mineral precipitation/dissolution, ion exchange, surface complexation and a multirate kinetic sorption model. PFLOTRAN has demonstrated petascale performance using 2{sup 17} processor cores with over 2 billion degrees of freedom. Accomplishments achieved to date include applications to the Hanford 300 Area and modeling CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep geologic formations.

  17. Optical fiber sensor temperature coded for concentration measurement of oil-biodiesel blends (United States)

    Possetti, Gustavo Rafael Collere; Kamikawachi, Ricardo Canute; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José Luís


    This work describes the operation of an optical fiber sensor employed in the determination of remaining oil concentration in oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor is based both on the sensitivity of a long period grating to changes in the surroundings refractive index and on the thermo-optical properties of oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor response is provided by a temperature coded interrogation unit that employs an auxiliary fiber Bragg grating. The standard metrological analysis of an optimized sensor showed that is possible to detect until 0.10% v/v of oil in oil-biodiesel blends.

  18. A New Code for Numerical Simulation of MHD Astrophysical Flows With Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikov, Igor; Protasov, Viktor


    The new code for numerical simulation of magnetic hydrodynamical astrophysical flows with consideration of chemical reactions is given in the paper. At the heart of the code - the new original low-dissipation numerical method based on a combination of operator splitting approach and piecewise-parabolic method on the local stencil. The details of the numerical method are described; the main tests and the scheme of parallel implementation are shown. The chemodynamics of the hydrogen while the turbulent formation of molecular clouds is modeled.

  19. National Combustion Code Validated Against Lean Direct Injection Flow Field Data (United States)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.


    Most combustion processes have, in some way or another, a recirculating flow field. This recirculation stabilizes the reaction zone, or flame, but an unnecessarily large recirculation zone can result in high nitrogen oxide (NOx) values for combustion systems. The size of this recirculation zone is crucial to the performance of state-of-the-art, low-emissions hardware. If this is a large-scale combustion process, the flow field will probably be turbulent and, therefore, three-dimensional. This research dealt primarily with flow fields resulting from lean direct injection (LDI) concepts, as described in Research & Technology 2001. LDI is a concept that depends heavily on the design of the swirler. The LDI concept has the potential to reduce NOx values from 50 to 70 percent of current values, with good flame stability characteristics. It is cost effective and (hopefully) beneficial to do most of the design work for an LDI swirler using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are CAE tools that can calculate three-dimensional flows in complex geometries. However, CFD codes are only beginning to correctly calculate the flow fields for complex devices, and the related combustion models usually remove a large portion of the flow physics.

  20. Simulation of a Synthetic Jet in Quiescent Air Using TLNS3D Flow Code (United States)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Turkel, Eli


    Although the actuator geometry is highly three-dimensional, the outer flowfield is nominally two-dimensional because of the high aspect ratio of the rectangular slot. For the present study, this configuration is modeled as a two-dimensional problem. A multi-block structured grid available at the CFDVAL2004 website is used as a baseline grid. The periodic motion of the diaphragm is simulated by specifying a sinusoidal velocity at the diaphragm surface with a frequency of 450 Hz, corresponding to the experimental setup. The amplitude is chosen so that the maximum Mach number at the jet exit is approximately 0.1, to replicate the experimental conditions. At the solid walls zero slip, zero injection, adiabatic temperature and zero pressure gradient conditions are imposed. In the external region, symmetry conditions are imposed on the side (vertical) boundaries and far-field conditions are imposed on the top boundary. A nominal free-stream Mach number of 0.001 is imposed in the free stream to simulate incompressible flow conditions in the TLNS3D code, which solves compressible flow equations. The code was run in unsteady (URANS) mode until the periodicity was established. The time-mean quantities were obtained by running the code for at least another 15 periods and averaging the flow quantities over these periods. The phase-locked average of flow quantities were assumed to be coincident with their values during the last full time period.

  1. Determination of Horizontal Motion through Optical Flow Computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞志和; FrankM.Caimi


    For intelligent/autonomous subsea vehicles,reliable short-range horizontal positioning is difficult to achieve,particularly over flat bottom topography.A potential solution proposed in this paper utilized a passive optical sensing method to estimate the vehicle displacement using the bottom surface texture.The suggested optical flow method does not require any feature correspondences in images and it is robust in allowing brightness changes between image frames.Fundamentally,this method is similar to correlation methods attempting to match images and compute the motion disparity.However,in correlation methods,searching a neighbor region blindly for best match is lengthy.Main contributions of this paper come from the analysis showing that optical flow computation based on the general model cannot avoid errors except for null motion although the sign of optical flow keeps correct,and from the development of an iterative shifting method based on the error characteristics to accurately determine motions.Advantages of the proposed method are verified by real image experiments.

  2. Optical information encryption based on incoherent superposition with the help of the QR code (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong


    In this paper, a novel optical information encryption approach is proposed with the help of QR code. This method is based on the concept of incoherent superposition which we introduce for the first time. The information to be encrypted is first transformed into the corresponding QR code, and thereafter the QR code is further encrypted into two phase only masks analytically by use of the intensity superposition of two diffraction wave fields. The proposed method has several advantages over the previous interference-based method, such as a higher security level, a better robustness against noise attack, a more relaxed work condition, and so on. Numerical simulation results and actual smartphone collected results are shown to validate our proposal.

  3. Single neural code for blur in subjects with different interocular optical blur orientation. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Aiswaryah; Sawides, Lucie; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Peli, Eli; Marcos, Susana


    The ability of the visual system to compensate for differences in blur orientation between eyes is not well understood. We measured the orientation of the internal blur code in both eyes of the same subject monocularly by presenting pairs of images blurred with real ocular point spread functions (PSFs) of similar blur magnitude but varying in orientations. Subjects assigned a level of confidence to their selection of the best perceived image in each pair. Using a classification-images-inspired paradigm and applying a reverse correlation technique, a classification map was obtained from the weighted averages of the PSFs, representing the internal blur code. Positive and negative neural PSFs were obtained from the classification map, representing the neural blur for best and worse perceived blur, respectively. The neural PSF was found to be highly correlated in both eyes, even for eyes with different ocular PSF orientations (rPos = 0.95; rNeg = 0.99; p neural PSF was closer to the orientation of the ocular PSF of the eye with the better optical quality (average difference was ∼10°), while the orientation of the positive and negative neural PSFs tended to be orthogonal. These results suggest a single internal code for blur with orientation driven by the orientation of the optical blur of the eye with better optical quality.

  4. Development of a Computational Framework on Fluid-Solid Mixture Flow Simulations for the COMPASS Code (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Morita, Koji; Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    The COMPASS code is designed based on the moving particle semi-implicit method to simulate various complex mesoscale phenomena relevant to core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In this study, a computational framework for fluid-solid mixture flow simulations was developed for the COMPASS code. The passively moving solid model was used to simulate hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and solids. Mechanical interactions between solids were modeled by the distinct element method. A multi-time-step algorithm was introduced to couple these two calculations. The proposed computational framework for fluid-solid mixture flow simulations was verified by the comparison between experimental and numerical studies on the water-dam break with multiple solid rods.

  5. A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Wan


    We describe a framework for large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate. This framework uses a fractional-step method with fourth-order finite difference on a staggered mesh. We present several laminar examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer flow. We find that the case with Reθ ≈ 2.5 × 105 agrees well with available experimental measurements of wall friction, streamwise velocity profiles and turbulent intensities. We demonstrate that for cases with extremely large Reynolds numbers (Reθ = 1012), the present LES can reasonably predict the flow with a coarse mesh. The parallel implementation of the LES code demonstrates reasonable scaling on O(103) cores. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Shock-Patching Code for Ultra-Relativistic Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, L; Laguna, P


    We have developed a one-dimensional code to solve ultra-relativistic hydrodynamic problems, using the Glimm method for an accurate treatment of shocks and contact discontinuities. The implementation of the Glimm method is based on an exact Riemann solver and van der Corput sampling sequence. In order to improve computational efficiency, the Glimm method is replaced by a finite differencing scheme in those regions where the fluid flow is sufficiently smooth. The accuracy and convergence of this hybrid method is investigated in tests involving planar, cylindrically and spherically symmetric flows that exhibit strong shocks and Lorentz factors of up to $\\sim 2000$. This hybrid code has proven to be successful in simulating the interaction between a thin, ultra-relativistic, spherical shell and a low density stationary medium, a situation likely to appear in Gamma-Ray Bursts, supernovae explosions, pulsar winds and AGNs.

  7. A computer code for three-dimensional incompressible flows using nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate systems (United States)

    Chen, Y. S.


    In this report, a numerical method for solving the equations of motion of three-dimensional incompressible flows in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate (BFC) systems has been developed. The equations of motion are transformed to a generalized curvilinear coordinate system from which the transformed equations are discretized using finite difference approximations in the transformed domain. The hybrid scheme is used to approximate the convection terms in the governing equations. Solutions of the finite difference equations are obtained iteratively by using a pressure-velocity correction algorithm (SIMPLE-C). Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent flow problems are employed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the present computer code. The user's guide and computer program listing of the present code are also included.

  8. AMICON: A multi-model interpretative code for two phase flow instrumentation with uncertainty analysis (United States)

    Teague, J. W., II


    The code was designed to calculate mass fluxes and mass flux standard deviations, as well as certain other fluid physical properties. Several models are used to compute mass fluxes and uncertainties since some models provide more reliable results than others under certain flow situations. The program was specifically prepared to compute these variables using data gathered from spoolpiece instrumentation on the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) and written to an Engineering Units (EU) data set.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A reliable validation based on the optical flow visualization for numerical simula-tions of complex flowfields is addressed in this paper. Several test cases, including two-dimensional,axisymmetric and three-dimensional flowfields, were presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the validation and gain credibility of numerical solutions of complex flowfields. In the validation, imagesof these flowfields were constructed from numerical results based on the principle of the optical flowvisualization, and compared directly with experimental interferograms. Because both experimental and numerical results axe of identical physical representation, the agreement between them can be evaluatedeffectively by examining flow structures as well as checking discrepancies in density. The study shows that the reliable validation can be achieved by using the direct comparison between numerical and experiment results without any loss of accuracy in either of them.

  10. Vision System for Relative Motion Estimation from Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Sokolov


    Full Text Available For the recent years there was an increasing interest in different methods of motion analysis based on visual data acquisition. Vision systems, intended to obtain quantitative data regarding motion in real time are especially in demand. This paper talks about the vision systems that allow the receipt of information on relative object motion in real time. It is shown, that the algorithms solving a wide range of practical problems by definition of relative movement can be generated on the basis of the known algorithms of an optical flow calculation. One of the system's goals is the creation of economically efficient intellectual sensor prototype in order to estimate relative objects motion based on optic flow. The results of the experiments with a prototype system model are shown.

  11. Optic flow stabilizes flight in ruby-throated hummingbirds. (United States)

    Ros, Ivo G; Biewener, Andrew A


    Flying birds rely on visual cues for retinal image stabilization by negating rotation-induced optic flow, the motion of the visual panorama across the retina, through corrective eye and head movements. In combination with vestibular and proprioceptive feedback, birds may also use visual cues to stabilize their body during flight. Here, we test whether artificially induced wide-field motion generated through projected visual patterns elicits maneuvers in body orientation and flight position, in addition to stabilizing vision. To test this hypothesis, we present hummingbirds flying freely within a 1.2 m cylindrical visual arena with a virtual surround rotated at different speeds about its vertical axis. The birds responded robustly to these visual perturbations by rotating their heads and bodies with the moving visual surround, and by adjusting their flight trajectories, following the surround. Thus, similar to insects, hummingbirds appear to use optic flow cues to control flight maneuvers as well as to stabilize their visual inputs.

  12. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  13. Adaptive coded spreading OFDM signal for dynamic-λ optical access network (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun


    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates a novel adaptive coded spreading (ACS) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal for dynamic distributed optical ring-based access network. The wavelength can be assigned to different remote nodes (RNs) according to the traffic demand of optical network unit (ONU). The ACS can provide dynamic spreading gain to different signals according to the split ratio or transmission length, which offers flexible power budget for the network. A 10×13.12 Gb/s OFDM access with ACS is successfully demonstrated over two RNs and 120 km transmission in the experiment. The demonstrated method may be viewed as one promising for future optical metro access network.

  14. Towards a Fair and Efficient Packet Scheduling Scheme in Inter-Flow Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang


    Full Text Available Network coding techniques are usually applied upon network-layer protocols to improve throughput in wireless networks. In scenarios with multiple unicast sessions, fairness is also an important factor. Therefore, a network coding-aware packet-scheduling algorithm is required. A packet-scheduling algorithm determines which packet to send next from a node’s packet backlog. Existing protocols mostly employ a basic round-robin scheduling algorithm to give “equal” opportunities to different packet flows. In fact, this “equal”-opportunity scheduling is neither fair, nor efficient. This paper intends to accentuate the importance of a coding-aware scheduling scheme. With a good scheduling scheme, we can gain more control over the per-flow throughput and fairness. Specifically, we first formulate a static scheduling problem and propose an algorithm to find the optimal scheduling scheme. We then extend the technique to a dynamic setting and, later, to practical routing protocols. Results show that the algorithm is comparatively scalable, and it can improve the throughput gain when the network is not severely saturated. The fairness among flows is drastically improved as a result of this scheduling scheme.

  15. BICM-ID with Physical Layer Network Coding in TWR Free Space Optical Communication Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A. Saeed Al-Rubaie


    Full Text Available Physical layer network coding (PNC is a promising technique to improve the network throughput in a two-way relay (TWR channel for two users to exchange messages across a wireless network. The PNC technique incorporating a TWR channel is embraced by a free space optical (FSO communication link for full utilization of network resources, namely TWR-FSO PNC. In this paper, bit interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding (BICM-ID is adopted to combat the deleterious effect of the turbulence channel by saving the message being transmitted to increase the reliability of the system. Moreover, based on this technique, comparative studies between end-to-end BICM-ID code, non-iterative convolutional coded and uncoded systems are carried out. Furthermore, this paper presents the extrinsic information transfer (ExIT charts to evaluate the performance of BICM-ID code combined with the TWR-FSO PNC system. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant bit error rate (BER performance improvement through the introduction of an iterative process between a soft demapper and decoder. Similarly, Monte Carlo simulation results are provided to support the findings. Subsequently, the ExIT functions of the two receiver components are thoroughly analysed for a variety of parameters under the influence of a turbulence-induced channel fading, demonstrating the convergence behaviour of BICM-ID to enable the TWR-FSO PNC system, effectively mitigating the impact of the fading turbulence channel.

  16. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults. (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathryn W; Loughlin, Patrick J; Redfern, Mark S; Sparto, Patrick J


    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: (1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), (2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and (3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (P(vel)) was calculated for consecutive 5s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the P(vel). P(vel) was greater in older adults in all conditions (phabituation. P(vel) of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between Trials 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in P(vel) following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization.

  17. Over 10 dB Net Coding Gain Based on 20% Overhead Hard Decision Forward Error Correction in 100G Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bomin; Larsen, Knud J.; Zibar, Darko;


    We propose a product code with shortened BCH component codes for 100G optical communication systems. Simulation result shows that 10 dB net coding gain is promising at post- FEC BER of 1E-15.......We propose a product code with shortened BCH component codes for 100G optical communication systems. Simulation result shows that 10 dB net coding gain is promising at post- FEC BER of 1E-15....

  18. Dynamic quality of service differentiation using fixed code weight in optical CDMA networks (United States)

    Kakaee, Majid H.; Essa, Shawnim I.; Abd, Thanaa H.; Seyedzadeh, Saleh


    The emergence of network-driven applications, such as internet, video conferencing, and online gaming, brings in the need for a network the environments with capability of providing diverse Quality of Services (QoS). In this paper, a new code family of novel spreading sequences, called a Multi-Service (MS) code, has been constructed to support multiple services in Optical- Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The proposed method uses fixed weight for all services, however reducing the interfering codewords for the users requiring higher QoS. The performance of the proposed code is demonstrated using mathematical analysis. It shown that the total number of served users with satisfactory BER of 10-9 using NB=2 is 82, while they are only 36 and 10 when NB=3 and 4 respectively. The developed MS code is compared with variable-weight codes such as Variable Weight-Khazani Syed (VW-KS) and Multi-Weight-Random Diagonal (MW-RD). Different numbers of basic users (NB) are used to support triple-play services (audio, data and video) with different QoS requirements. Furthermore, reference to the BER of 10-12, 10-9, and 10-3 for video, data and audio, respectively, the system can support up to 45 total users. Hence, results show that the technique can clearly provide a relative QoS differentiation with lower value of basic users can support larger number of subscribers as well as better performance in terms of acceptable BER of 10-9 at fixed code weight.

  19. Motion compensated frame interpolation with a symmetric optical flow constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Roholm, Lars; Bruhn, Andrés;


    We consider the problem of interpolating frames in an image sequence. For this purpose accurate motion estimation can be very helpful. We propose to move the motion estimation from the surrounding frames directly to the unknown frame by parametrizing the optical flow objective function such that ......We consider the problem of interpolating frames in an image sequence. For this purpose accurate motion estimation can be very helpful. We propose to move the motion estimation from the surrounding frames directly to the unknown frame by parametrizing the optical flow objective function...... such that the interpolation assumption is directly modeled. This reparametrization is a powerful trick that results in a number of appealing properties, in particular the motion estimation becomes more robust to noise and large displacements, and the computational workload is more than halved compared to usual bidirectional...... methods. The proposed reparametrization is generic and can be applied to almost every existing algorithm. In this paper we illustrate its advantages by considering the classic TV-L1 optical flow algorithm as a prototype. We demonstrate that this widely used method can produce results that are competitive...

  20. Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B. [Chalk River Laboratories (Canada); Unrau, D. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)


    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.

  1. UNSAT-H Version 1. 0: unsaturated flow code documentation and applications for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Jones, T.L.


    Waste mangement practices at the Hanford Site have relied havily on near-surface burial. Predicting the future performance of any burial site in terms of the migration of buried contaminants requires a model capable of simulating water flow in the unsaturated soils above the buried waste. The model currently being developed to meet this need is UNSAT-H, which was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for assessing the water dynamics of near-surface waste-disposal sites at the Hanfrod Site. The code will primarily be used to predict deep drainage (i.e., recharge) as a function of environmental conditions such as climate, soil type, and vegetation. UNSAT-H will also simulate various waste-management practices such as placing surface barriers over waste sites. UNSAT-H is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamics processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and uptake of water from soil by plants. UNSAT-H is designed to utilize two auxiliary codes. These codes are DATAINH, which is used to process the input data, and DATAOUT, which is used to process the UNSAT-H output. Operation of the code requires three separate steps. First, the problem to be simulated must be conceptualized in terms of boundary conditions, available data, and soil properties. Next, the data must be correctly formatted for input. Finally, the unput data must be processed, UNSAT-H run, and the output data processed for analysis. This report includes three examples of code use. In the first example, a benchmark test case is run in which the results of UNSAT-H simulations of infiltration are compared with an analytical solution and a numerical solution. The comparisons show excellent agreement for the specific test case, and this agreement provides vertification of the infiltration portion of the UNSAT-H code. The other two examples of code use are a simulation of a layered soil and one of plant transpiration.

  2. Preliminary Analysis for Flow Blockage of Plate Fuel using a Commercial CFD Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Pil; Park, Suki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A plate-type fuel assembly is widely used in the research reactors in order to enhance power density. This type fuel assembly consists of a number of fuel plates, supporting plates, and narrow rectangular cooling channels between the fuel plates. Due to the narrow rectangular channels consisting of parallel plate fuels and side plates, the cooling channels are isolated from each other so that the cross flow between the channels are completely restricted. When blockage at the inlet of the channel occurs, therefore, the coolant flow through the blocked channel will be greatly reduced or completely interrupted. Accordingly, the blocked channel loses its own cooling capability. This event may cause initiation of nucleate boiling and two phase flow instability (FI) in the blocked channel. In recent years, CFD analyses of flow blockage of a research reactor have been performed by many researchers. The present study reports a 3-dimensional CFD simulation using two-phase model for flow blockage of two channels of a plate-type fuel assembly. The present result shows limited information since the simulation is working at the moment. However, the present study indicates that it is possible to predict a damage propagation of a plate-type fuel assembly due to the flow instability caused by flow blockage using a commercial CFD code.

  3. Development of an Unstructured Mesh Code for Flows About Complete Vehicles (United States)

    Peraire, Jaime; Gupta, K. K. (Technical Monitor)


    This report describes the research work undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, under NASA Research Grant NAG4-157. The aim of this research is to identify effective algorithms and methodologies for the efficient and routine solution of flow simulations about complete vehicle configurations. For over ten years we have received support from NASA to develop unstructured mesh methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics. As a result of this effort a methodology based on the use of unstructured adapted meshes of tetrahedra and finite volume flow solvers has been developed. A number of gridding algorithms, flow solvers, and adaptive strategies have been proposed. The most successful algorithms developed from the basis of the unstructured mesh system FELISA. The FELISA system has been extensively for the analysis of transonic and hypersonic flows about complete vehicle configurations. The system is highly automatic and allows for the routine aerodynamic analysis of complex configurations starting from CAD data. The code has been parallelized and utilizes efficient solution algorithms. For hypersonic flows, a version of the code which incorporates real gas effects, has been produced. The FELISA system is also a component of the STARS aeroservoelastic system developed at NASA Dryden. One of the latest developments before the start of this grant was to extend the system to include viscous effects. This required the development of viscous generators, capable of generating the anisotropic grids required to represent boundary layers, and viscous flow solvers. We show some sample hypersonic viscous computations using the developed viscous generators and solvers. Although this initial results were encouraging it became apparent that in order to develop a fully functional capability for viscous flows, several advances in solution accuracy, robustness and efficiency were required. In this grant we set out to investigate some novel methodologies that could lead to the

  4. Modeling of Multisize Bubbly Flow and Application to the Simulation of Boiling Flows with the Neptune_CFD Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Morel


    Full Text Available This paper describes the modeling of boiling multisize bubbly flows and its application to the simulation of the DEBORA experiment. We follow the method proposed originally by Kamp, assuming a given mathematical expression for the bubble diameter pdf. The original model is completed by the addition of some new terms for vapor compressibility and phase change. The liquid-to-interface heat transfer term, which essentially determines the bubbles condensation rate in the DEBORA experiment, is also modeled with care. First numerical results realized with the Neptune_CFD code are presented and discussed.

  5. Design and Cost Performance of Decoding Technique for Hybrid Subcarrier Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. K.Z. Sahbudin; M. K. Abdullah; M. Mokhtar; S. Hitam; S. B.A. Anas


    ...) deploying the Khazani-Syed code was proposed. It was proposed as a mean of increasing the maximum number of simultaneous active users by increasing the subcarrier and/or the SAC-OCDMA code word...

  6. Optical Flow Cell for Measuring Size, Velocity and Composition of Flowing Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammer-ul Hassan


    Full Text Available Here an optical flow cell with two light paths is reported that can accurately quantify the size and velocity of droplets flowing through a microchannel. The flow cell can measure the time taken for droplets to pass between and through two conjoined light paths, and thereby is capable of measuring the velocities (0.2–5.45 mm/s and sizes of droplets (length > 0.8 mm. The composition of the droplet can also be accurately quantified via optical absorption measurements. The device has a small footprint and uses low-powered, low-cost components, which make it ideally suited for use in field-deployable and portable analytical devices.

  7. Quantum optical coherence can survive photon losses using a continuous-variable quantum erasure-correcting code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Sabuncu, Metin; Huck, Alexander


    A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information t...... is generally the strongest limitation to quantum communication, such an erasure-correcting code provides a new tool for establishing quantum optical coherence over longer distances.......A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information...... technologies, it is believed that quantum error-correcting code will play a similarly crucial role in tomorrow's quantum information systems. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of a quantum erasure-correcting code that overcomes the devastating effect of photon losses. Our quantum code is based...

  8. MIMO free space optical communication based on orthogonal space time block code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HuiQin; KE XiZheng; ZHAO Li


    School of Automation & Information Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China An appropriate coding method that can reduce the error rate of communication system is especially Important to the free space optical communication. STBC (space-time block code) is an orthogonal encoding method Integrating space domain and time domain. The technology can combat fading effectlvely and improve error rate performance. In this paper, first, an STBC fit for optical communication with Intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) is proposed by combining the orthogonality of the Alamouti space-time code and the QPPM modulation. Then, the error rate performance of the system Is analyzed under four cases: with or without channel fading, with or without background radiation. At last, this scheme is confirmed by Monte Carlo approach. It is shown that this method not only realizes the full speed rate transmission, and can improve the error rate performance of the system effectively, but also overcomes the scintillation effect exerted by atmosphere turbulence. When the symbol error probability (SEP) is 2×103, according to the 1×1 system, the sending power of the 2×1 system is nearly reduced by 3.5 dBJ, and the 2×2 system Is nearly reduced by 9 dBJ.

  9. Secure Communications in High Speed Fiber Optical Networks Using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, I; Bond, S; Welty, R; Du, Y; Yoo, S; Reinhardt, C; Behymer, E; Sperry, V; Kobayashi, N


    This project is focused on the development of advanced components and system technologies for secure data transmission on high-speed fiber optic data systems. This work capitalizes on (1) a strong relationship with outstanding faculty at the University of California-Davis who are experts in high speed fiber-optic networks, (2) the realization that code division multiple access (CDMA) is emerging as a bandwidth enhancing technique for fiber optic networks, (3) the realization that CDMA of sufficient complexity forms the basis for almost unbreakable one-time key transmissions, (4) our concepts for superior components for implementing CDMA, (5) our expertise in semiconductor device processing and (6) our Center for Nano and Microtechnology, which is where the majority of the experimental work was done. Here we present a novel device concept, which will push the limits of current technology, and will simultaneously solve system implementation issues by investigating new state-of-the-art fiber technologies. This will enable the development of secure communication systems for the transmission and reception of messages on deployed commercial fiber optic networks, through the CDMA phase encoding of broad bandwidth pulses. CDMA technology has been developed as a multiplexing technology, much like wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or time division multiplexing (TDM), to increase the potential number of users on a given communication link. A novel application of the techniques created for CDMA is to generate secure communication through physical layer encoding. Physical layer encoding devices are developed which utilize semiconductor waveguides with fast carrier response times to phase encode spectral components of a secure signal. Current commercial technology, most commonly a spatial light modulator, allows phase codes to be changed at rates of only 10's of Hertz ({approx}25ms response). The use of fast (picosecond to nanosecond) carrier dynamics of semiconductors

  10. Evaluation of turbulence models in the PARC code for transonic diffuser flows (United States)

    Georgiadis, N. J.; Drummond, J. E.; Leonard, B. P.


    Flows through a transonic diffuser were investigated with the PARC code using five turbulence models to determine the effects of turbulence model selection on flow prediction. Three of the turbulence models were algebraic models: Thomas (the standard algebraic turbulence model in PARC), Baldwin-Lomax, and Modified Mixing Length-Thomas (MMLT). The other two models were the low Reynolds number k-epsilon models of Chien and Speziale. Three diffuser flows, referred to as the no-shock, weak-shock, and strong-shock cases, were calculated with each model to conduct the evaluation. Pressure distributions, velocity profiles, locations of shocks, and maximum Mach numbers in the duct were the flow quantities compared. Overall, the Chien k-epsilon model was the most accurate of the five models when considering results obtained for all three cases. However, the MMLT model provided solutions as accurate as the Chien model for the no-shock and the weak-shock cases, at a substantially lower computational cost (measured in CPU time required to obtain converged solutions). The strong shock flow, which included a region of shock-induced flow separation, was only predicted well by the two k-epsilon models.

  11. Off-design computer code for calculating the aerodynamic performance of axial-flow fans and compressors (United States)

    Schmidt, James F.


    An off-design axial-flow compressor code is presented and is available from COSMIC for predicting the aerodynamic performance maps of fans and compressors. Steady axisymmetric flow is assumed and the aerodynamic solution reduces to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. A streamline curvature method is used for calculating this flow-field outside the blade rows. This code allows for bleed flows and the first five stators can be reset for each rotational speed, capabilities which are necessary for large multistage compressors. The accuracy of the off-design performance predictions depend upon the validity of the flow loss and deviation correlation models. These empirical correlations for the flow loss and deviation are used to model the real flow effects and the off-design code will compute through small reverse flow regions. The input to this off-design code is fully described and a user's example case for a two-stage fan is included with complete input and output data sets. Also, a comparison of the off-design code predictions with experimental data is included which generally shows good agreement.

  12. Optical CDMA with Embedded Spectral-Polarization Coding over Double Balanced Differential-Detector (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Yen, Chih-Ta; Chen, Bo-Hau

    A spectral-polarization coding (SPC) optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) configuration structured over arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) router is proposed. The polarization-division double balanced detector is adopted to execute difference detection and enhances system performance. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived by taking the effect of PIIN into account. The result indicates that there would be up to 9-dB SNR improvement than the conventional spectral-amplitude coding (SAC) structures with Walsh-Hadamard codes. Mathematical deriving results of the SNR demonstrate the system embedded with the orthogonal state of polarization (SOP) will suppress effectively phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN). In addition, we will analyze the relations about bit error rate (BER) vs. the number of active users under the different encoding schemes and compare them with our proposed scheme. The BER vs. the effective power under the different encoding scheme with the same number of simultaneous active user conditions are also revealed. Finally, the polarization-matched factor and the difference between simulated and experimental values are discussed.

  13. Development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code TFC2D for fluid flow with various turbulence models and numerical schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Yeop; In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    The development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code is made. The present code contains 9 kinds of turbulence models that are widely used. They include a standard k-{epsilon} model and 8 kinds of low Reynolds number ones. They also include 6 kinds of numerical schemes including 5 kinds of low order schemes and 1 kind of high order scheme such as QUICK. To verify the present numerical code, pipe flow, channel flow and expansion pipe flow are solved by this code with various options of turbulence models and numerical schemes and the calculated outputs are compared to experimental data. Furthermore, the discretization error that originates from the use of standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model with wall function is much more diminished by introducing a new grid system than a conventional one in the present code. 23 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  14. Design of Optical Wireless Networks with Fair Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Tomaszewski


    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for optimising the wireless optical network that carries elastic packet traffic. The particular focus is on modelling the effect of elastic traffic flows slowing down in response to the decrease of the optical transmission systems’ capacity at bad weather conditions. A mathematical programming model of the network design problem is presented that assumes that the packet rates of elastic traffic flows decrease fairly. While practically any subset of network links can be simultaneously affected by unfavourable transmission conditions, a particular challenge of solving the problem results from a huge number of network states considered in the model. Therefore, how the problem can be solved by generating the most unfavourable network states is presented. Moreover, it is proved that it is entirely sufficient to consider only the states that correspond to the decrease of capacity on a single link. Finally, as the general problem is nonlinear, it is shown that the problem can be transformed to a linear MIP problem and solved effectively when single-path routing of traffic flows is assumed.

  15. Thermal Cracking Analysis during Pipe Cooling of Mass Concrete Using Particle Flow Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li


    Full Text Available Pipe cooling systems are among the potentially effective measures to control the temperature of mass concrete. However, if not properly controlled, thermal cracking in concrete, especially near water pipes, might occur, as experienced in many mass concrete structures. In this paper, a new numerical approach to simulate thermal cracking based on particle flow code is used to shed more light onto the process of thermal crack propagation and the effect of thermal cracks on thermal fields. Key details of the simulation, including the procedure of obtaining thermal and mechanical properties of particles, are presented. Importantly, a heat flow boundary based on an analytical solution is proposed and used in particle flow code in two dimensions to simulate the effect of pipe cooling. The simulation results are in good agreement with the monitored temperature data and observations on cored specimens from a real concrete gravity dam, giving confidence to the appropriateness of the adopted simulation. The simulated results also clearly demonstrate why thermal cracks occur and how they propagate, as well as the influence of such cracks on thermal fields.

  16. The piecewise-linear predictor-corrector code - A Lagrangian-remap method for astrophysical flows (United States)

    Lufkin, Eric A.; Hawley, John F.


    We describe a time-explicit finite-difference algorithm for solving the nonlinear fluid equations. The method is similar to existing Eulerian schemes in its use of operator-splitting and artificial viscosity, except that we solve the Lagrangian equations of motion with a predictor-corrector and then remap onto a fixed Eulerian grid. The remap is formulated to eliminate errors associated with coordinate singularities, with a general prescription for remaps of arbitrary order. We perform a comprehensive series of tests on standard problems. Self-convergence tests show that the code has a second-order rate of convergence in smooth, two-dimensional flow, with pressure forces, gravity, and curvilinear geometry included. While not as accurate on idealized problems as high-order Riemann-solving schemes, the predictor-corrector Lagrangian-remap code has great flexibility for application to a variety of astrophysical problems.

  17. Bio-bar-code functionalized magnetic nanoparticle label for ultrasensitive flow injection chemiluminescence detection of DNA hybridization. (United States)

    Bi, Sai; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Shusheng


    A signal amplification strategy based on bio-bar-code functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as labels holds promise to improve the sensitivity and detection limit of the detection of DNA hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphisms by flow injection chemiluminescence assays.

  18. Optical Electronic Bragg Reflection Sensor System with Hydrodynamic Flow Applications (United States)

    Lyons, D. R.


    This project, as described in the following report, involved design and fabrication of fiber optic sensors for the detection and measurement of dynamic fluid density variations. These devices are created using UV (ultraviolet) ablation and generally modified transverse holographic fiber grating techniques. The resulting phase gratings created on or immediately underneath the flat portion of D-shaped optical waveguides are characterized as evanescent field sensing devices. The primary applications include the sensor portion of a real-time localized or distributed measurement system for hydrodynamic flow, fluid density measurements, and phase change phenomena. Several design modifications were implemented in an attempt to accomplish the tasks specified in our original proposal. In addition, we have established key collaborative relationships with numerous people and institutions.

  19. Readability dependence on lithography conditions for printing code marks using a squared optical fiber matrix and light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Kato, Kazuhide; Iwasaki, Jun-ya; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki


    The direct readability of code marks printed using a new exposure system was investigated. In the new exposure system, code-mark patterns were printed using LEDs as exposure sources and squared optical-fiber ends as code-mark elements. A 10 × 10 fiber matrix was fabricated, and light emitted from each LED was led to each fiber. Because gaps appeared between the code-mark cells, a long exposure time was adopted, and the gaps between cells were eliminated by giving an overdose of light. After code-mark patterns were stably printed, their readability was investigated using a commercial code-mark reader. It was found that all the printed code marks were readable without errors. In concrete, same 100 identical marks printed on a wafer were readable. Moreover, six kinds of marks were repeatedly detected more than 100 times with no reading errors.

  20. Optical flow with structure information for epithelial image mosaicing. (United States)

    Ali, Sharib; Faraz, Khuram; Daul, Christian; Blondel, Walter


    Mosaicing of biological tissue surfaces is challenging due to the weak image textures. This contribution presents a mosaicing algorithm based on a robust and accurate variational optical flow scheme. A Riesz pyramid based multiscale approach aims at overcoming the "flattening-out" problem at coarser levels. Moreover, the structure information present in images of epithelial surfaces is incorporated into the data-term to improve the algorithm robustness. The algorithm accuracy is first assessed with simulated sequences and then used for mosaicing standard clinical endoscopic data.

  1. Evaluation of nozzle shapes for an optical flow meter (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.


    Numerical modeling is performed for turbulent flow in axisymmetric nozzles using Creare's computer program FLUENT/BFC. The primary objective of the project was to assist Spectron Development Laboratories in selecting an optimum nozzle shape for an optical flowmeter. The nozzle performance is evaluated for various length to diameter ratios, area contraction ratios, and Reynolds numbers. The computations have demonstrated that a cubic profile nozzle with length to diameter ratio of 1.6 and area contraction ratio of 6.2 can decrease the velocity profile non-uniformity from 15 percent at the entrance to 1 percent at the exit. The configuration is recommended for further investigation.

  2. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang


    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  3. Real-time planar flow velocity measurements using an optical flow algorithm implemented on GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, N


    This paper presents a high speed implementation of an optical flow algorithm which computes planar velocity fields in an experimental flow. Real-time computation of the flow velocity field allows the experimentalist to have instantaneous access to quantitative features of the flow. This can be very useful in many situations: fast evaluation of the performances and characteristics of a new setup, design optimization, easier and faster parametric studies, etc. It can also be a valuable measurement tool for closed-loop flow control experiments where fast estimation of the state of the flow is needed. The algorithm is implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The accuracy of the computation is shown. Computation speed and scalability are highlighted along with guidelines for further improvements. The system architecture is flexible, scalable and can be adapted on the fly in order to process higher resolutions or achieve higher precision. The set-up is applied on a Backward-Facing Step (BFS) flow in a hydro...

  4. A 3D Spectral Anelastic Hydrodynamic Code for Shearing, Stratified Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, J A; Barranco, Joseph A.; Marcus, Philip S.


    We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) spectral hydrodynamic code to study vortex dynamics in rotating, shearing, stratified systems (e.g. the atmosphere of gas giant planets, protoplanetary disks around newly forming protostars). The time-independent background state is stably stratified in the vertical direction and has a unidirectional linear shear flow aligned with one horizontal axis. Superposed on this background state is an unsteady, subsonic flow that is evolved with the Euler equations subject to the anelastic approximation to filter acoustic phenomena. A Fourier-Fourier basis in a set of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates that advect with the background shear is used for spectral expansions in the two horizontal directions. For the vertical direction, two different sets of basis functions have been implemented: (1) Chebyshev polynomials on a truncated, finite domain, and (2) rational Chebyshev functions on an infinite domain. Use of this latter set is equivalent to transforming the infinite domain to ...

  5. Polarization-, carrier-, and format-selectable optical flow generation based on a multi-flow transmitter using passive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katopodis, V.; Spyropoulou, M.; Tsokos, C.;


    . Multiflow operation is realized by two polymer boards allowing optical carrier management and optional polarization multiplexing on chip. Optical carrier generation is performed also on chip using three tunable InP gain chips hybridly integrated on the input polyboard. Single and dual optical flow...

  6. Golay sequences coded coherent optical OFDM for long-haul transmission (United States)

    Qin, Cui; Ma, Xiangrong; Hua, Tao; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Huilong; Zhang, Jian


    We propose to use binary Golay sequences in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) to improve the long-haul transmission performance. The Golay sequences are generated by binary Reed-Muller codes, which have low peak-to-average power ratio and certain error correction capability. A low-complexity decoding algorithm for the Golay sequences is then proposed to recover the signal. Under same spectral efficiency, the QPSK modulated OFDM with binary Golay sequences coding with and without discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spreading (DFTS-QPSK-GOFDM and QPSK-GOFDM) are compared with the normal BPSK modulated OFDM with and without DFT spreading (DFTS-BPSK-OFDM and BPSK-OFDM) after long-haul transmission. At a 7% forward error correction code threshold (Q2 factor of 8.5 dB), it is shown that DFTS-QPSK-GOFDM outperforms DFTS-BPSK-OFDM by extending the transmission distance by 29% and 18%, in non-dispersion managed and dispersion managed links, respectively.

  7. Novel 2D-sequential color code system employing Image Sensor Communications for Optical Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Nguyen


    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.7r1 Optical Wireless Communications Task Group (TG7r1, also known as the revision of the IEEE 802.15.7 Visible Light Communication standard targeting the commercial usage of visible light communication systems, is of interest in this paper. The paper is mainly concerned with Image Sensor Communications (ISC of TG7r1; however, the major challenge facing ISC, as addressed in the Technical Consideration Document (TCD of TG7r1, is Image Sensor Compatibility among the variety of different commercial cameras on the market. One of the most challenging but interesting compatibility requirements is the need to support the verified presence of frame rate variation. This paper proposes a novel design for 2D-sequential color code. Compared to a QR-code-based sequential transmission, the proposed design of 2D-sequential code can overcome the above challenge that it is compatible with different frame rate variations and different shutter operations, and has the ability to mitigate the rolling effect as well as the rotating effect while effectively minimizing transmission overhead. Practical implementations are demonstrated and a performance comparison is presented.

  8. Application of CFD code for simulation of an inclined snow chute flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Aggarwal


    Full Text Available In this paper, 2-D simulation of a 61 m long inclined snow chute flow and its interaction with a catch dam type obstacle has been carried out at Dhundhi field research station near Manali, Himachal Pradesh (India using a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD code ANSYS Fluent. Eulerian non-granular multiphase model was chosen to model the snow flow in the surrounding atmospheric air domain. Both air and snow were assumed as laminar and incompressible fluids. User defined functions(UDF were written for the computation of bi-viscous Bingham fluid viscosity and wall shear stress of snow to account for the slip at the interface between the flowing snow and the stationary snow chute surface. Using the proposed CFD model, the velocity, dynamic pressure and debris deposition were simulatedfor flowing snow mass in the chute. Experiments were performed on the snow chute to validate the simulated results. On comparison, the simulated results were found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Numerical instability in a 2D gyrokinetic code caused by divergent E X B flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, J.A.; Dimits, Y.M.; Langdon, A.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    In this paper, a numerical instability first observed in an 2D electrostatic gyrokinetic code is described. The instability should also be present in some form in many versons of particle-in-cell simulation codes that employ guiding center drifts. A perturbation analysis of the instability is given and its results agree quantitatively with the observations from the gyrokinetic code in all respects. The basic mechanism is a false divergence of the E X B flow caused by the interpolation between the grid and the particles as coupled with the specific numerical method for calculating E = -{del} {phi}. Stability or instability depends in detail on the specific choice of particle interpolation method and field method. One common interpolation method, subtracted dipole, is stable. Other commonly used interpolation methods, linear and quadratic, are unstable when combined with a finite difference for the electric field. Linear and quadratic interpolation can be rendered stable if combined with another method for the electric field, the analytic differential of the interpolated potential.

  10. Numerical Instability in a 2D Gyrokinetic Code Caused by Divergent E × B Flow (United States)

    Byers, J. A.; Dimits, A. M.; Matsuda, Y.; Langdon, A. B.


    In this paper, a numerical instability first observed in a 2D electrostatic gyrokinetic code is described. The instability should also be present in some form in many versons of particle-in-cell simulation codes that employ guiding center drifts. A perturbation analysis of the instability is given and its results agree quantitatively with the observations from the gyrokinetic code in all respects. The basic mechanism is a false divergence of the E × B flow caused by the interpolation between the grid and the particles as coupled with the specific numerical method for calculating E - ∇φ. Stability or instability depends in detail on the specific choice of particle interpolation method and field method. One common interpolation method, subtracted dipole, is stable. Other commonly used interpolation methods, linear and quadratic, are unstable when combined with a finite difference for the electric field. Linear and quadratic interpolation can be rendered stable if combined with another method for the electric field, the analytic differential of the interpolated potential.

  11. Optic Flow Information Influencing Heading Perception during Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederick C. Niehorster


    Full Text Available We investigated what roles global spatial frequency, surface structure, and foreground motion play in heading perception during simulated rotation from optic flow. The display (110°Hx94°V simulated walking on a straight path over a ground plane (depth range: 1.4–50 m at 2 m/s while fixating a target off to one side (mean R/T ratios: ±1, ±2, ±3 under six display conditions. Four displays consisted of nonexpanding dots that were distributed so as to manipulate the amount of foreground motion and the presence of surface structure. In one further display the ground was covered with disks that expanded during the trial and lastly a textured ground display was created with the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the disk ground. At the end of each 1s trial, observers indicated their perceived heading along a line at the display's center. Mean heading biases were smaller for the textured than for the disk ground, for the displays with more foreground motion and for the displays with surface structure defined by dot motion than without. We conclude that while spatial frequency content is not a crucial factor, dense motion parallax and surface structure in optic flow are important for accurate heading perception during rotation.

  12. Visual guidance based on optic flow: a biorobotic approach. (United States)

    Franceschini, Nicolas


    This paper addresses some basic questions as to how vision links up with action and serves to guide locomotion in both biological and artificial creatures. The thorough knowledge gained during the past five decades on insects' sensory-motor abilities and the neuronal substrates involved has provided us with a rich source of inspiration for designing tomorrow's self-guided vehicles and micro-vehicles, which will be able to cope with unforeseen events on the ground, under water, in the air, in space, on other planets, and inside the human body. Insects can teach us some useful tricks for designing agile autonomous robots. Since constructing a "biorobot" first requires exactly formulating the biological principles presumably involved, it gives us a unique opportunity of checking the soundness and robustness of these principles by bringing them face to face with the real physical world. "Biorobotics" therefore goes one step beyond computer simulation. It leads to experimenting with real physical robots which have to pass the stringent test of the real world. Biorobotics provide us with a new tool, which can help neurobiologists and neuroethologists to identify and investigate worthwhile issues in the field of sensory-motor control. Here we describe some of the visually guided terrestrial and aerial robots we have developed since 1985 on the basis of our biological findings. All these robots behave in response to the optic flow, i.e., they work by measuring the slip speed of the retinal image. Optic flow is sensed on-board by miniature electro-optical velocity sensors. The very principle of these sensors was based on studies in which we recorded the responses of single identified neurons to single photoreceptor stimulation in a model visual system: the fly's compound eye.

  13. Real-Time Optical Monitoring of Flow Kinetics and Gas Phase Reactions Under High-Pressure OMCVD Conditions (United States)

    Dietz, N.; McCall, S.; Bachmann, K. J.


    This contribution addresses the real-time optical characterization of gas flow and gas phase reactions as they play a crucial role for chemical vapor phase depositions utilizing elevated and high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) conditions. The objectives of these experiments are to validate on the basis of results on real-time optical diagnostics process models simulation codes, and provide input parameter sets needed for analysis and control of chemical vapor deposition at elevated pressures. Access to microgravity is required to retain high pressure conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for successful acquisition and interpretation of the optical data. In this contribution, we describe the design and construction of the HPCVD system, which include access ports for various optical methods of real-time process monitoring and to analyze the initial stages of heteroepitaxy and steady-state growth in the different pressure ranges. To analyze the onset of turbulence, provisions are made for implementation of experimental methods for in-situ characterization of the nature of flow. This knowledge will be the basis for the design definition of experiments under microgravity, where gas flow conditions, gas phase and surface chemistry, might be analyzed by remote controlled real-time diagnostics tools, developed in this research project.

  14. Prediction of Flow Regimes and Thermal Hydraulic Parameters in Two-Phase Natural Circulation by RELAP5 and TRACE Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet-Anh Phung


    Full Text Available In earlier study we have demonstrated that RELAP5 can predict flow instability parameters (flow rate, oscillation period, temperature, and pressure in single channel tests in CIRCUS-IV facility. The main goals of this work are to (i validate RELAP5 and TRACE capabilities in prediction of two-phase flow instability and flow regimes and (ii assess the effect of improvement in flow regime identification on code predictions. Most of the results of RELAP5 and TRACE calculation are in reasonable agreement with experimental data from CIRCUS-IV. However, both codes misidentified instantaneous flow regimes which were observed in the test with high speed camera. One of the reasons for the incorrect identification of the flow regimes is the small tube flow regime transition model in RELAP5 and the combined bubbly-slug flow regime in TRACE. We found that calculation results are sensitive to flow regime boundaries of RELAP5 which were modified in order to match the experimental data on flow regimes. Although the flow regime became closer to the experimental one, other predicted thermal hydraulic parameters showed larger discrepancy with the experimental data than with the base case calculations where flow regimes were misidentified.

  15. Hybrid scheduling mechanisms for Next-generation Passive Optical Networks based on network coding (United States)

    Zhao, Jijun; Bai, Wei; Liu, Xin; Feng, Nan; Maier, Martin


    Network coding (NC) integrated into Passive Optical Networks (PONs) is regarded as a promising solution to achieve higher throughput and energy efficiency. To efficiently support multimedia traffic under this new transmission mode, novel NC-based hybrid scheduling mechanisms for Next-generation PONs (NG-PONs) including energy management, time slot management, resource allocation, and Quality-of-Service (QoS) scheduling are proposed in this paper. First, we design an energy-saving scheme that is based on Bidirectional Centric Scheduling (BCS) to reduce the energy consumption of both the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Units (ONUs). Next, we propose an intra-ONU scheduling and an inter-ONU scheduling scheme, which takes NC into account to support service differentiation and QoS assurance. The presented simulation results show that BCS achieves higher energy efficiency under low traffic loads, clearly outperforming the alternative NC-based Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme. Furthermore, BCS is shown to provide better QoS assurance.

  16. Effect of oxygen flow on the structure and optical properties of the Gd2O3 optical films (United States)

    Wang, Siyu; Ma, Ping; Pu, Yunti; Qiao, Zhao; Zhang, Mingxiao; Lu, Zhongwen; Peng, Dongxu


    Gd2O3 thin films were deposited by Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) under the oxygen flow of 0 sccm~30 sccm. The structure and optical properties of the Gd2O3 optical films were investigated by Lambdar950 spectrophotometer, laser calorimetry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). When oxygen flow was less than 10 sccm, with the increase of oxygen flow, the transmittance of the films increased, at the same time absorptance and the surface roughness of the films decreased. While the flow was more than 10 sccm, with the increase of the flow rate, the surface roughness of the films increased, but the transmittance and absorptance did not show any apparent change. The results show that both the structure and optical properties are closely related to the flow of oxygen. XPS measurements demonstrated that when the oxygen flow increase from 0 sccm to 10 sccm, the defect oxygen decreases. But when the oxygen flow increase from 10 sccm to 30 sccm, the defect oxygen increase. The XPS spectra show that when the oxygen flow was 10 sccm, the defect oxygen was the least. Thus when the oxygen flow was 10 sccm, the structure and optical properties of the Gd2O3 optical films were the best.

  17. Numerical modeling of immiscible two-phase flow in micro-models using a commercial CFD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadia, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.


    Off-the-shelf CFD software is being used to analyze everything from flow over airplanes to lab-on-a-chip designs. So, how accurately can two-phase immiscible flow be modeled flowing through some small-scale models of porous media? We evaluate the capability of the CFD code FLUENT{trademark} to model immiscible flow in micro-scale, bench-top stereolithography models. By comparing the flow results to experimental models we show that accurate 3D modeling is possible.

  18. Performance improvement of hybrid subcarrier multiplexing optical spectrum code division multiplexing system using spectral direct decoding detection technique (United States)

    Sahbudin, R. K. Z.; Abdullah, M. K.; Mokhtar, M.


    This paper proposes a hybrid subcarrier multiplexing/optical spectrum code division multiplexing (SCM/OSCDM) system for the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Optical spectrum code division multiple-access (OSCDMA) is one of the multiplexing techniques that is becoming popular because of the flexibility in the allocation of channels, ability to operate asynchronously, enhanced privacy and increased capacity in bursty nature networks. On the other hand, subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) technique is able to enhance the channel data rate of OSCDMA systems. In this paper, a newly developed detection technique for the OSCDM called spectral direct decoding (SDD) detection technique is compared mathematically with the AND subtraction detection technique. The system utilizes a new unified code construction named KS (Khazani-Syed) code. The results characterizing the bit-error-rate (BER) show that SDD offers a significant improved performance at BER of 10 -9.

  19. Code and Solution Verification of 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in the Gust Erosion Chamber (United States)

    Yuen, A.; Bombardelli, F. A.


    Erosion microcosms are devices commonly used to investigate the erosion and transport characteristics of sediments at the bed of rivers, lakes, or estuaries. In order to understand the results these devices provide, the bed shear stress and flow field need to be accurately described. In this research, the UMCES Gust Erosion Microcosm System (U-GEMS) is numerically modeled using Finite Volume Method. The primary aims are to simulate the bed shear stress distribution at the surface of the sediment core/bottom of the microcosm, and to validate the U-GEMS produces uniform bed shear stress at the bottom of the microcosm. The mathematical model equations are solved by on a Cartesian non-uniform grid. Multiple numerical runs were developed with different input conditions and configurations. Prior to developing the U-GEMS model, the General Moving Objects (GMO) model and different momentum algorithms in the code were verified. Code verification of these solvers was done via simulating the flow inside the top wall driven square cavity on different mesh sizes to obtain order of convergence. The GMO model was used to simulate the top wall in the top wall driven square cavity as well as the rotating disk in the U-GEMS. Components simulated with the GMO model were rigid bodies that could have any type of motion. In addition cross-verification was conducted as results were compared with numerical results by Ghia et al. (1982), and good agreement was found. Next, CFD results were validated by simulating the flow within the conventional microcosm system without suction and injection. Good agreement was found when the experimental results by Khalili et al. (2008) were compared. After the ability of the CFD solver was proved through the above code verification steps. The model was utilized to simulate the U-GEMS. The solution was verified via classic mesh convergence study on four consecutive mesh sizes, in addition to that Grid Convergence Index (GCI) was calculated and based on

  20. NRZ versus RZ over Absolute Added Correlative coding in optical metro-access networks (United States)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Elsherif, Mohamed A.; Le Minh, Hoa; Malekmohammadi, Amin


    This paper comparatively investigates the transmission performance of absolute added correlative coding (AACC) using non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) pulse shapes with a binary intensity modulation direct detection receiver in 40 Gb/s optical metro-access networks operating at 1550 nm. It is shown that, for AACC transmission, the NRZ impulse shaping is superior in comparison to RZ in spectral efficiency, dispersion tolerance, residual dispersion and self-phase modulation (SPM) tolerance. However, RZ-AACC experiences a 1-2 dB advantage in receiver sensitivity over NRZ-AACC for back-to-back configuration as well as after 300-km single-mode fiber delivery.

  1. Investigation of Coherent Multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access for Optical Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tamini


    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM has proved to be a promising technique to increase the reach and bit rate both in long‑haul communications and in passive optical networks. This paper, for the first time, investigates the use of OFDM combined with electrical CDMA in presence of coherent detection as a multiple access scheme. The proposed multicarrier‑CDMA system is simulated using Walsh‑Hadamard codes and its performance is compared to that of coherent WDM-OFDM system in terms of bit‑error‑rate and bandwidth efficiency. It is shown that MC‑CDMA benefits from better spectral efficiency while its performance slightly deteriorates in comparison to WDM-OFDM when the number of users is increased.

  2. Quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer based on regularized optical flow algorithm (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Vargas, Javier; Wang, Shouyu; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Fei


    Cell detections and analysis are important in various fields, such as medical observations and disease diagnoses. In order to analyze the cell parameters as well as observe the samples directly, in this paper, we present an improved quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer, which can monitor the quantitative phase distributions of bio-samples and realize cellular parameter statistics. The proposed system is able to recover the phase imaging of biological samples in the expanded field of view via a regularized optical flow demodulation algorithm. This algorithm reconstructs the phase distribution with high accuracy with only two interferograms acquired at different time points simplifying the scanning system. Additionally, the method is totally automatic, and therefore it is convenient for establishing a quantitative phase cytometer. Moreover, the phase retrieval approach is robust against noise and background. Excitingly, red blood cells are readily investigated with the quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer system.

  3. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua;


    , it is applied a crowd tracker in every frame, allowing us to detect and track the crowds. Our system gives the output as a graphic overlay, i.e it adds arrows and colors to the original frame sequence, in order to identify crowds and their movements. For the evaluation, we check when our system detect certains......In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...... events on the crowds, such as merging, splitting and collision....

  4. A 3D-CFD code for accurate prediction of fluid flows and fluid forces in seals (United States)

    Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.


    Current and future turbomachinery requires advanced seal configurations to control leakage, inhibit mixing of incompatible fluids and to control the rotodynamic response. In recognition of a deficiency in the existing predictive methodology for seals, a seven year effort was established in 1990 by NASA's Office of Aeronautics Exploration and Technology, under the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion program, to develop validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) concepts, codes and analyses for seals. The effort will provide NASA and the U.S. Aerospace Industry with advanced CFD scientific codes and industrial codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals. An advanced 3D CFD cylindrical seal code has been developed, incorporating state-of-the-art computational methodology for flow analysis in straight, tapered and stepped seals. Relevant computational features of the code include: stationary/rotating coordinates, cylindrical and general Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) systems, high order differencing schemes, colocated variable arrangement, advanced turbulence models, incompressible/compressible flows, and moving grids. This paper presents the current status of code development, code demonstration for predicting rotordynamic coefficients, numerical parametric study of entrance loss coefficients for generic annular seals, and plans for code extensions to labyrinth, damping, and other seal configurations.

  5. High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions. (United States)

    Du, Jing; Wang, Jian


    Bessel beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) with helical phase fronts exp(ilφ)(l=0;±1;±2;…), where φ is the azimuthal angle and l corresponds to the topological number, are orthogonal with each other. This feature of Bessel beams provides a new dimension to code/decode data information on the OAM state of light, and the theoretical infinity of topological number enables possible high-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications. Moreover, Bessel beams are nondiffracting beams having the ability to recover by themselves in the face of obstructions, which is important for free-space optical communications relying on line-of-sight operation. By utilizing the OAM and nondiffracting characteristics of Bessel beams, we experimentally demonstrate 12 m distance obstruction-free optical m-ary coding/decoding using visible Bessel beams in a free-space optical communication system. We also study the bit error rate (BER) performance of hexadecimal and 32-ary coding/decoding based on Bessel beams with different topological numbers. After receiving 500 symbols at the receiver side, a zero BER of hexadecimal coding/decoding is observed when the obstruction is placed along the propagation path of light.

  6. A Novel Optical Morse Code-Based Electronic Lock Using the Ambient Light Sensor and Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tan Lee


    Full Text Available In this work, a novel electronic lock that can encode and decode optical signals, modulated using Morse code conventions, was developed to build a smart home security system based on the Internet of Things (IoT. There are five topics of interest in this research: (1 optical Morse code encoder; (2 optical Morse code decoder; (3 ambient light sensor circuit; (4 fuzzy controller; (5 cloud monitoring system. We take advantage of the light-emitting components as the encoder, which are readily available in hand-held mobile devices (e.g., Smart phones and photoresistors and a microcontroller as the decoder. By Wi-Fi transferring, even without a personal computer, real-time information about this lock can be uploaded to the cloud service platform, and helps users to ensure home safety on the remote monitoring system. By using the ambient light sensor and fuzzy controller in this novel optical Morse code-based electronic lock, experimental results show that the reliability of this system is much improved from 65% to 100%. That means that it is highly resistant to different illumination conditions in the work environment, and therefore all functions, including coding, emitting, receiving, decoding, uploading and cloud monitoring, can work well. Furthermore, besides the convenience and cost reduction, by incorporating traditional keys into smart phones, as a consumer electronics, our proposed system is suitable for users of all ages because of a user-friendly operation interface.

  7. Projectile Two-dimensional Coordinate Measurement Method Based on Optical Fiber Coding Fire and its Coordinate Distribution Probability (United States)

    Li, Hanshan; Lei, Zhiyong


    To improve projectile coordinate measurement precision in fire measurement system, this paper introduces the optical fiber coding fire measurement method and principle, sets up their measurement model, and analyzes coordinate errors by using the differential method. To study the projectile coordinate position distribution, using the mathematical statistics hypothesis method to analyze their distributing law, firing dispersion and probability of projectile shooting the object center were put under study. The results show that exponential distribution testing is relatively reasonable to ensure projectile position distribution on the given significance level. Through experimentation and calculation, the optical fiber coding fire measurement method is scientific and feasible, which can gain accurate projectile coordinate position.

  8. Experimental Electrically Reconfigurable Time-Domain Spectral Amplitude Encoding/Decoding in an Optical Code Division Multiple Access System (United States)

    Tainta, Santiago; Erro, María J.; Garde, María J.; Muriel, Miguel A.


    An electrically reconfigurable time-domain spectral amplitude encoding/decoding scheme is proposed herein. The setup is based on the concept of temporally pulse shaping dual to spatial arrangements. The transmitter is based on a short pulse source and uses two conjugate dispersive fiber gratings and an electro-optic intensity modulator placed in between. Proof of concept results are shown for an optical pulse train operating at 1.25 Gbps using codes from the Hadamard family with a length of eight chips. The system is electrically reconfigurable, compatible with fiber systems, and permits scalability in the size of the codes by modifying only the modulator velocity.

  9. Eigenanalysis of a neural network for optic flow processing (United States)

    Weber, F.; Eichner, H.; Cuntz, H.; Borst, A.


    Flies gain information about self-motion during free flight by processing images of the environment moving across their retina. The visual course control center in the brain of the blowfly contains, among others, a population of ten neurons, the so-called vertical system (VS) cells that are mainly sensitive to downward motion. VS cells are assumed to encode information about rotational optic flow induced by self-motion (Krapp and Hengstenberg 1996 Nature 384 463-6). Recent evidence supports a connectivity scheme between the VS cells where neurons with neighboring receptive fields are connected to each other by electrical synapses at the axonal terminals, whereas the boundary neurons in the network are reciprocally coupled via inhibitory synapses (Haag and Borst 2004 Nat. Neurosci. 7 628-34 Farrow et al 2005 J. Neurosci. 25 3985-93 Cuntz et al 2007 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA). Here, we investigate the functional properties of the VS network and its connectivity scheme by reducing a biophysically realistic network to a simplified model, where each cell is represented by a dendritic and axonal compartment only. Eigenanalysis of this model reveals that the whole population of VS cells projects the synaptic input provided from local motion detectors on to its behaviorally relevant components. The two major eigenvectors consist of a horizontal and a slanted line representing the distribution of vertical motion components across the fly's azimuth. They are, thus, ideally suited for reliably encoding translational and rotational whole-field optic flow induced by respective flight maneuvers. The dimensionality reduction compensates for the contrast and texture dependence of the local motion detectors of the correlation-type, which becomes particularly pronounced when confronted with natural images and their highly inhomogeneous contrast distribution.

  10. Peripheral processing facilitates optic flow-based depth perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglin Li


    Full Text Available Flying insects, such as flies or bees, rely on consistent information regarding the depth structure of the environment when performing their flight maneuvers in cluttered natural environments. These behaviors include avoiding collisions, approaching targets or spatial navigation. Insects are thought to obtain depth information visually from the retinal image displacements (`optic flow' during translational ego-motion. Optic flow in the insect visual system is processed by a mechanism that can be modeled by correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs. However, it is still an open question how spatial information can be extracted reliably from the responses of the highly contrast- and pattern-dependent EMD responses, especially if the vast range of light intensities encountered in natural environments is taken into account. This question will be addressed here by systematically modeling the peripheral visual system of flies, including various adaptive mechanisms. Different model variants of the peripheral visual system were stimulated with image sequences that mimic the panoramic visual input during translational ego-motion in various natural environments, and the resulting peripheral signals were fed into an array of EMDs. We characterized the influence of each peripheral computational unit on the representation of spatial information in the EMD responses. Our model simulations reveal that information about the overall light level needs to be eliminated from the EMD input as is accomplished under light-adapted conditions in the insect peripheral visual system. The response characteristics of large monopolar cells resemble that of a band-pass filter, which reduces the contrast dependency of EMDs strongly, effectively enhancing the representation of the nearness of objects and, especially, of their contours. We furthermore show that local brightness adaptation of photoreceptors allows for spatial vision under a wide range of dynamic light

  11. A verification and validation of the new implementation of subcooled flow boiling in a CFD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear


    Subcooled flow boiling in a heated channel occurs when the liquid bulk temperature is lower than the saturation temperature and the wall temperature is higher. FLUENT computational fluid dynamics code uses Eulerian Multiphase Model to analyze this phenomenon. In FLUENT previous versions, the heat transfer correlations and the source terms of the conservation equations were added to the model using User Defined Functions (UDFs). Currently, these models are among the options of the FLUENT without the need to use UDFs. The comparison of the FLUENT calculations with experimental data for the void fraction presented a wide range of variation in the results, with values from satisfactory to poor results. There was the same problem in the previous versions. The fit factors of the FLUENT that control condensation and boiling in the system can be used to improve the results. This study showed a strong need for verification and validation of these calculations, along with a sensitivity analysis of the main parameters. (author)

  12. Reservoir simulation with MUFITS code: Extension for double porosity reservoirs and flows in horizontal wells (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey


    Numerical modelling of multiphase flows in porous medium is necessary in many applications concerning subsurface utilization. An incomplete list of those applications includes oil and gas fields exploration, underground carbon dioxide storage and geothermal energy production. The numerical simulations are conducted using complicated computer programs called reservoir simulators. A robust simulator should include a wide range of modelling options covering various exploration techniques, rock and fluid properties, and geological settings. In this work we present a recent development of new options in MUFITS code [1]. The first option concerns modelling of multiphase flows in double-porosity double-permeability reservoirs. We describe internal representation of reservoir models in MUFITS, which are constructed as a 3D graph of grid blocks, pipe segments, interfaces, etc. In case of double porosity reservoir, two linked nodes of the graph correspond to a grid cell. We simulate the 6th SPE comparative problem [2] and a five-spot geothermal production problem to validate the option. The second option concerns modelling of flows in porous medium coupled with flows in horizontal wells that are represented in the 3D graph as a sequence of pipe segments linked with pipe junctions. The well completions link the pipe segments with reservoir. The hydraulics in the wellbore, i.e. the frictional pressure drop, is calculated in accordance with Haaland's formula. We validate the option against the 7th SPE comparative problem [3]. We acknowledge financial support by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No RFBR-15-31-20585). References [1] Afanasyev, A. MUFITS Reservoir Simulation Software ( [2] Firoozabadi A. et al. Sixth SPE Comparative Solution Project: Dual-Porosity Simulators // J. Petrol. Tech. 1990. V.42. N.6. P.710-715. [3] Nghiem L., et al. Seventh SPE Comparative Solution Project: Modelling of Horizontal Wells in Reservoir Simulation

  13. Design of Excess 3 to BCD code converter using electro-optic effect of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers for efficient data transmission (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Chanderkanta; Amphawan, Angela


    Excess 3 code is one of the most important codes used for efficient data storage and transmission. It is a non-weighted code and also known as self complimenting code. In this paper, a four bit optical Excess 3 to BCD code converter is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  14. Frequency-swept coherently detected spectral amplitude code for flexible implicit optical label switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng Cao; Fushen Chen; Zhigao Yang


    A new optical label switching system with coherently detected implicit spectral amplitude code(SAC)labels is proposed in this letter.The implicit SAC labels are recognized using a frequency-swept local light source oscillator.Intensity modulation payloads of 625 Mb/s and 1.25 Gb/s are considered.Label and pavload bit error rate(BER) performances are assessed and compared by simulations.The results reveal that,at a BER value of 10-9,-32.4dBm label received power can be obtained.In addition,8.3-dB optical signal-to-noise ratio(OSNR) is obtained when carrying a payload of 625 Mb/s.The label BER value hardly reaches 10-9 if the payload bit rate is at 1.25 Gb/s; however,a high payload bit rate only has little influence on received payload quality at a BER value of 10-9.Finally,a payload of 1.25 Gb/s could obtain-28.2 dBm received power and 9.5-dB OSNR.

  15. Investigations of high-speed optical transmission systems employing Absolute Added Correlative Coding (AACC) (United States)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Elsherif, Mohamed A.; Malekmohammadi, Amin


    A novel multilevel modulation format based on partial-response signaling called Absolute Added Correlative Coding (AACC) is proposed and numerically demonstrated for high-speed fiber-optic communication systems. A bit error rate (BER) estimation model for the proposed multilevel format has also been developed. The performance of AACC is examined and compared against other prevailing On-Off-Keying and multilevel modulation formats e.g. non-return-to-zero (NRZ), 50% return-to-zero (RZ), 67% carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CS-RZ), duobinary and four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (4-PAM) in terms of receiver sensitivity, spectral efficiency and dispersion tolerance. Calculated receiver sensitivity at a BER of 10-9 and chromatic dispersion tolerance of the proposed system are ˜-28.3 dBm and ˜336 ps/nm, respectively. The performance of AACC is delineated to be improved by 7.8 dB in terms of receiver sensitivity compared to 4-PAM in back-to-back scenario. The comparison results also show a clear advantage of AACC in achieving longer fiber transmission distance due to the higher dispersion tolerance in optical access networks.

  16. Detection of linear ego-acceleration from optic flow. (United States)

    Festl, Freya; Recktenwald, Fabian; Yuan, Chunrong; Mallot, Hanspeter A


    Human observers are able to estimate various ego-motion parameters from optic flow, including rotation, translational heading, time-to-collision (TTC), time-to-passage (TTP), etc. The perception of linear ego-acceleration or deceleration, i.e., changes of translational velocity, is less well understood. While time-to-passage experiments indicate that ego-acceleration is neglected, subjects are able to keep their (perceived) speed constant under changing conditions, indicating that some sense of ego-acceleration or velocity change must be present. In this paper, we analyze the relation of ego-acceleration estimates and geometrical parameters of the environment using simulated flights through cylindrical and conic (narrowing or widening) corridors. Theoretical analysis shows that a logarithmic ego-acceleration parameter, called the acceleration rate ρ, can be calculated from retinal acceleration measurements. This parameter is independent of the geometrical layout of the scene; if veridical ego-motion is known at some instant in time, acceleration rate allows updating of ego-motion without further depth-velocity calibration. Results indicate, however, that subjects systematically confuse ego-acceleration with corridor narrowing and ego-deceleration with corridor widening, while veridically judging ego-acceleration in straight corridors. We conclude that judgments of ego-acceleration are based on first-order retinal flow and do not make use of acceleration rate or retinal acceleration.

  17. Terminated and Tailbiting Spatially Coupled Codes with Optimized Bit Mappings for Spectrally Efficient Fiber-Optical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Häger, Christian; Brännström, Fredrik; Alvarado, Alex; Agrell, Erik


    We study the design of spectrally efficient fiber-optical communication systems based on different spatially coupled (SC) forward error correction (FEC) schemes. In particular, we optimize the allocation of the coded bits from the FEC encoder to the modulation bits of the signal constellation. Two SC code classes are considered. The codes in the first class are protograph-based low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes which are decoded using iterative soft-decision decoding. The codes in the second class are generalized LDPC codes which are decoded using iterative hard-decision decoding. For both code classes, the bit allocation is optimized for the terminated and tailbiting SC cases based on a density evolution analysis. An optimized bit allocation can significantly improve the performance of tailbiting SC codes codes over the baseline sequential allocation, up to the point where they have a comparable gap to capacity as their terminated counterparts, at a lower FEC overhead. For the considered terminated SC co...

  18. Optical flow based Kalman filter for body joint prediction and tracking using HOG-LBP matching (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Kendricks, Kimberley D.; Asari, Vijayan K.; Tuttle, Ronald F.


    We propose a real-time novel framework for tracking specific joints in the human body on low resolution imagery using optical flow based Kalman tracker without the need of a depth sensor. Body joint tracking is necessary for a variety of surveillance based applications such as recognizing gait signatures of individuals, identifying the motion patterns associated with a particular action and the corresponding interactions with objects in the scene to classify a certain activity. The proposed framework consists of two stages; the initialization stage and the tracking stage. In the initialization stage, the joints to be tracked are either manually marked or automatically obtained from other joint detection algorithms in the first few frames within a window of interest and appropriate image descriptions of each joint are computed. We employ the use of a well-known image coding scheme known as the Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to represent the joint local region where this image coding removes the variance to non-uniform lighting conditions as well as enhances the underlying edges and corner. The image descriptions of the joint region would then include a histogram computed from the LBP-coded ROI and a HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradients) descriptor to represent the edge information. Next the tracking stage can be divided into two phases: Optical flow based detection of joints in corresponding frames of the sequence and prediction /correction phases of Kalman tracker with respect to the joint coordinates. Lucas Kanade optical flow is used to locate the individual joints in consecutive frames of the video based on their location in the previous frame. But more often, mismatches can occur due to the rotation of the joint region and the rotation variance of the optical flow matching technique. The mismatch is then determined by comparing the joint region descriptors using Chi-squared metric between a pair of frames and depending on this statistic, either the prediction

  19. Non-binary coded modulation for FMF-based coherent optical transport networks (United States)

    Lin, Changyu

    The Internet has fundamentally changed the way of modern communication. Current trends indicate that high-capacity demands are not going to be saturated anytime soon. From Shannon's theory, we know that information capacity is a logarithmic function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but a linear function of the number of dimensions. Ideally, we can increase the capacity by increasing the launch power, however, due to the nonlinear characteristics of silica optical fibers that imposes a constraint on the maximum achievable optical-signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). So there exists a nonlinear capacity limit on the standard single mode fiber (SSMF). In order to satisfy never ending capacity demands, there are several attempts to employ additional degrees of freedom in transmission system, such as few-mode fibers (FMFs), which can dramatically improve the spectral efficiency. On the other hand, for the given physical links and network equipment, an effective solution to relax the OSNR requirement is based on forward error correction (FEC), as the response to the demands of high speed reliable transmission. In this dissertation, we first discuss the model of FMF with nonlinear effects considered. Secondly, we simulate the FMF based OFDM system with various compensation and modulation schemes. Thirdly, we propose tandem-turbo-product nonbinary byte-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) for next-generation high-speed optical transmission systems. Fourthly, we study the Q factor and mutual information as threshold in BICM scheme. Lastly, an experimental study of the limits of nonlinearity compensation with digital signal processing has been conducted.

  20. Flow, heat transfer, and free surface shape during the optical fiber drawing process (United States)

    Xiao, Zhihui


    A two-dimensional finite element model is introduced for analyzing glass and gas flows, heat transfer, and fiber formation during the optical fiber drawing process. This study consists of simulations in three different areas: the upper region, the tip region, and the whole furnace region. Conjugating the glass and gas flows and heat transfer, the shapes of an optical fiber as free surfaces in the upper neck-down and the tip regions are separately obtained by solving the coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equations. In the upper region simulation, a surface-to-surface radiation model is used for the enclosure which consists of the wall and the glass surface, and the Rosseland approximation radiation model is employed to account for the radiation effect in the glass region. In the tip region simulation, only the glass fiber region is considered and a convective heat transfer model on the fiber surface is employed to account for the energy exchange between the fiber surface and the purge gas. In the fiber, radiation in the axial direction is included. The whole furnace simulation uses a calculated fiber neck-down shape and an assumed fiber tip shape as a fixed interface and computes the convective heat transfer coefficient profile in the tip region which was used in the tip region simulation. The glass viscosity is temperature-dependent and significantly affects the fiber shape. The finite element code FIDAP is used in the study. The effects of various operating conditions such as draw speed, wall temperature distribution, and gas flow rate are studied.

  1. Application of flow network models of SINDA/FLUINT{sup TM} to a nuclear power plant system thermal hydraulic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ji Bum [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Woon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to enhance the dynamic and interactive simulation capability of a system thermal hydraulic code for nuclear power plant, applicability of flow network models in SINDA/FLUINT{sup TM} has been tested by modeling feedwater system and coupling to DSNP which is one of a system thermal hydraulic simulation code for a pressurized heavy water reactor. The feedwater system is selected since it is one of the most important balance of plant systems with a potential to greatly affect the behavior of nuclear steam supply system. The flow network model of this feedwater system consists of condenser, condensate pumps, low and high pressure heaters, deaerator, feedwater pumps, and control valves. This complicated flow network is modeled and coupled to DSNP and it is tested for several normal and abnormal transient conditions such turbine load maneuvering, turbine trip, and loss of class IV power. The results show reasonable behavior of the coupled code and also gives a good dynamic and interactive simulation capabilities for the several mild transient conditions. It has been found that coupling system thermal hydraulic code with a flow network code is a proper way of upgrading simulation capability of DSNP to mature nuclear plant analyzer (NPA). 5 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  2. Integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling for passive optical networks with inter-ONU traffic (United States)

    Li, Yan; Dai, Shifang; Wu, Weiwei


    Recently, with the soaring of traffic among optical network units (ONUs), network coding (NC) is becoming an appealing technique for improving the performance of passive optical networks (PONs) with such inter-ONU traffic. However, in the existed NC-based PONs, NC can only be implemented by buffering inter-ONU traffic at the optical line terminal (OLT) to wait for the establishment of coding condition, such passive uncertain waiting severely limits the effect of NC technique. In this paper, we will study integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling in which the scheduling of inter-ONU traffic within each ONU will be undertaken by the OLT to actively facilitate the forming of coding inter-ONU traffic based on the global inter-ONU traffic distribution, and then the performance of PONs with inter-ONU traffic can be significantly improved. We firstly design two report message patterns and an inter-ONU traffic transmission framework as the basis for the integrated coding-aware intra-ONU scheduling. Three specific scheduling strategies are then proposed for adapting diverse global inter-ONU traffic distributions. The effectiveness of the work is finally evaluated by both theoretical analysis and simulations.

  3. Laser speckle contrast imaging of cerebral blood flow of newborn mice at optical clearing (United States)

    Timoshina, Polina A.; Zinchenko, Ekaterina M.; Tuchina, Daria K.; Sagatova, Madina M.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Tuchin, Valery V.


    In this work, we consider the use of optical clearing agents to improve imaging quality of the cerebral blood flow of newborn mice. Aqueous 60%-glycerol solution, aqueous 70%-OmnipaqueTM(300) solution and OmnipaqueTM (300) solution in water/DMSO(25%/5%) were selected as the optical clearing agents. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) was used for imaging of cerebral blood flow in newborn mice brain during topical optical clearing of tissuesin the area of the fontanelle. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of glycerol and Omnipaque solutions as optical clearing agents for investigation of cerebral blood flow in newborn mice without scalp removing and skull thinning.

  4. An Object Detection Method Using Wavelet Optical Flow and Hybrid Linear-Nonlinear Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Han


    Full Text Available We propose a new computational intelligence method using wavelet optical flow and hybrid linear-nonlinear classifier for object detection. With the existing optical flow methods, it is difficult to accurately estimate moving objects with diverse speeds. We propose a wavelet-based optical flow method, which uses wavelet decomposition in optical flow motion estimation. The algorithm can accurately detect moving objects with variable speeds in a scene. In addition, we use the hybrid linear-nonlinear classifier (HLNLC to classify moving objects and static background. HLNLC transforms a nonoptimal scalar variable into its likelihood ratio and uses a scalar quantity as the decision variable. This approach is appropriate for the classification of optical flow feature vectors with unequal variance matrices. The experimental results confirm that our proposed object detection method has an improved accuracy and computation efficiency over other state-of-the-art methods.

  5. The November 2002 Pyroclastic Flows at El Reventador, Ecuador: Computer Simulations Using the TITAN Thin-layer Code (United States)

    Burkett, B.; Sheridan, M. F.


    On November 3, 2002, El Reventador volcano, located on the eastern flank of the Ecuadorian Andes, produced a sudden, violent eruption culminating in a 17km high column containing mostly steam and ash. Explosions in the initial phase created a summit crater while generating four lithic-rich andesitic pyroclastic flows. The longest of these flows traveled ESE out of the breached caldera, obliquely overriding the 200-400m southern caldera wall, reaching the Quijos River 8km distant. This flow crossed the major oil pipelines of Ecuador, displacing a pressurized crude oil pipeline more than 100m. The flows contained mostly lithic fragments with only minor juvenile pumice. The accompanying ash-cloud surge deposited a thin layer on top of the PF deposit, indicating an abundance of gas within the flow. The eruption came with practically no warning and yet had a large socio- economic impact for Ecuador. While the flows themselves resulted in no loss of life, the lack of significant precursor activity underscores the necessity for detailed pre-eruption knowledge of the potential hazards and risk zones around a particular volcano so as to be prepared in the event of such "surprise" eruptions. In conjunction with field mapping, computer models of volcanogenic flows can be used not only to identify risk zones but to understand the evolution of these flows. A new set of computer simulations using the TITAN ( thin-layer code allows a more complete exploration of important flow properties associated with this type of eruption. Realizations of this code simulate the path, extent, flow thickness, velocity, and momentum of the flows given the set of initial conditions (volume, starting location, flux hydrograph, internal friction, and basal friction). The TITAN code was used to simulate the four lithic-rich pyroclastic flows generated at the beginning of the 2002 eruption. Using field estimated volumes and starting positions of the PFs, simulations of the two

  6. Design of flow chamber with electronic cell volume capability and light detection optics for multilaser flow cytometry. (United States)

    Schuette, W H; Shackney, S E; Plowman, F A; Tipton, H W; Smith, C A; MacCollum, M A


    A multibeam optical detection system has been developed with a high optical efficiency, achieved through a reduction in the number of optical interfaces employed in the system. This reduction is made possible by a combination of employing simple lenses, gluing the objective lens directly upon the face of the flow cuvette and the extraction of only one fluorescence signal from each laser beam. A modified flow chamber is also described that includes fluidic resistance elements for the elimination of most of the electric shielding normally associated with electronic cell volume measurements.

  7. Design and performance of coded aperture optical elements for the CESR-TA x-ray beam size monitor (United States)

    Alexander, J. P.; Chatterjee, A.; Conolly, C.; Edwards, E.; Ehrlichman, M. P.; Flanagan, J. W.; Fontes, E.; Heltsley, B. K.; Lyndaker, A.; Peterson, D. P.; Rider, N. T.; Rubin, D. L.; Seeley, R.; Shanks, J.


    We describe the design and performance of optical elements for an x-ray beam size monitor (xBSM), a device measuring e+ and e- beam sizes in the CESR-TA storage ring. The device can measure vertical beam sizes of 10 - 100 μm on a turn-by-turn, bunch-by-bunch basis at e± beam energies of ~ 2 - 5 GeV. x-rays produced by a hard-bend magnet pass through a single- or multiple-slit (coded aperture) optical element onto a detector. The coded aperture slit pattern and thickness of masking material forming that pattern can both be tuned for optimal resolving power. We describe several such optical elements and show how well predictions of simple models track measured performances.

  8. Design and performance of coded aperture optical elements for the CESR-TA x-ray beam size monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, J P; Conolly, C; Edwards, E; Ehrlichman, M P; Flanagan, J W; Fontes, E; Heltsley, B K; Lyndaker, A; Peterson, D P; Rider, N T; Rubin, D L; Seeley, R; Shanks, J


    We describe the design and performance of optical elements for an x-ray beam size monitor (xBSM), a device measuring $e^+$ and $e^-$ beam sizes in the CESR-TA storage ring. The device can measure vertical beam sizes of $10-100~\\mu$m on a turn-by-turn, bunch-by-bunch basis at $e^\\pm$ beam energies of $\\sim2-5~$GeV. X-rays produced by a hard-bend magnet pass through a single- or multiple-slit (coded aperture) optical element onto a detector. The coded aperture slit pattern and thickness of masking material forming that pattern can both be tuned for optimal resolving power. We describe several such optical elements and show how well predictions of simple models track measured performances.

  9. A Distributed Flow Rate Control Algorithm for Networked Agent System with Multiple Coding Rates to Optimize Multimedia Data Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zeng


    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technologies, mobile communication applies more and more extensively in the various walks of life. The social network of both fixed and mobile users can be seen as networked agent system. At present, kinds of devices and access network technology are widely used. Different users in this networked agent system may need different coding rates multimedia data due to their heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a distributed flow rate control algorithm to optimize multimedia data transmission of the networked agent system with the coexisting various coding rates. In this proposed algorithm, transmission path and upload bandwidth of different coding rate data between source node, fixed and mobile nodes are appropriately arranged and controlled. On the one hand, this algorithm can provide user nodes with differentiated coding rate data and corresponding flow rate. On the other hand, it makes the different coding rate data and user nodes networked, which realizes the sharing of upload bandwidth of user nodes which require different coding rate data. The study conducts mathematical modeling on the proposed algorithm and compares the system that adopts the proposed algorithm with the existing system based on the simulation experiment and mathematical analysis. The results show that the system that adopts the proposed algorithm achieves higher upload bandwidth utilization of user nodes and lower upload bandwidth consumption of source node.

  10. Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang


    Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.

  11. Clinical use of optical coherence tomography and fractional flow reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Vladimir


    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of each diagnostic method is to serve as a guide in deciding about the right patient treatment. During myocardial revascularization the decision to perform revascularization is usually not easy to make, especially in case of borderline stenosis. It has been proven that it is not enough to base morphological evaluation of coronary artery vessel stenosis solely on angiography. It is necessary to include additional modern diagnostic methods for functional analysis and detailed morphological analysis using fractional flow reserve (FFR and optical coherence tomography (OCT, respectively. Case reports. In the first case report we showed the significance of morphological analysis using OCT and proved that it was not lumen stenosis. The second and the third case reports showed the complementarity between functional analysis (FFR and morphological analysis (OCT of stenosis in solving a complex coronary disease. The fourth case report showed the significance of OCT in dealing with the recurrent stent restenosis. Conclusion. By these short case reports we confirmed that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI guided by angiography is definitely not enough in deciding about myocardial revascularization especially in patients with a complex coronary disease. In certain cases FFR and OCT procedures can be complementary methods and improve quality of revascularization, particularly in the case of recurrent in-stent restenosis.

  12. Development of realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes ; development of thermal hydraulic test requirements for multidimensional flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Yull; Yoon, Sang Hyuk; Noh, Sang Woo; Lee, Il Suk [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)


    This study is concerned with developing a multidimensional flow model required for the system analysis code MARS to more mechanistically simulate a variety of thermal hydraulic phenomena in the nuclear stem supply system. The capability of the MARS code as a thermal hydraulic analysis tool for optimized system design can be expanded by improving the current calculational methods and adding new models. In this study the relevant literature was surveyed on the multidimensional flow models that may potentially be applied to the multidimensional analysis code. Research items were critically reviewed and suggested to better predict the multidimensional thermal hydraulic behavior and to identify test requirements. A small-scale preliminary test was performed in the downcomer formed by two vertical plates to analyze multidimensional flow pattern in a simple geometry. The experimental result may be applied to the code for analysis of the fluid impingement to the reactor downcomer wall. Also, data were collected to find out the controlling parameters for the one-dimensional and multidimensional flow behavior. 22 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  13. Implementation of the Actuator Cylinder Flow Model in the HAWC2 code for Aeroelastic Simulations on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe


    The paper presents the implementation of the Actuator Cylinder (AC) flow model in the HAWC2 aeroelastic code originally developed for simulation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) aeroelasticity. This is done within the DeepWind project where the main objective is to explore the competitivene...

  14. Core 2D. A code for non-isothermal water flow and reactive solute transport. Users manual version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, J.; Juncosa, R.; Delgado, J.; Montenegro, L. [Universidad de A Coruna (Spain)


    Understanding natural groundwater quality patterns, quantifying groundwater pollution and assessing the effects of waste disposal, require modeling tools accounting for water flow, and transport of heat and dissolved species as well as their complex interactions with solid and gases phases. This report contains the users manual of CORE ''2D Version V.2.0, a COde for modeling water flow (saturated and unsaturated), heat transport and multicomponent Reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. it is an updated and improved version of CORE-LE-2D V0 (Samper et al., 1988) which in turns is an extended version of TRANQUI, a previous reactive transport code (ENRESA, 1995). All these codes were developed within the context of Research Projects funded by ENRESA and the European Commission. (Author)

  15. Real time mass flow rate measurement using multiple fan beam optical tomography. (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, R; Leong, L C; Chan, K S; Rahiman, M H; Pang, J F


    This paper presents the implementing multiple fan beam projection technique using optical fibre sensors for a tomography system. From the dynamic experiment of solid/gas flow using plastic beads in a gravity flow rig, the designed optical fibre sensors are reliable in measuring the mass flow rate below 40% of flow. Another important matter that has been discussed is the image processing rate or IPR. Generally, the applied image reconstruction algorithms, the construction of the sensor and also the designed software are considered to be reliable and suitable to perform real-time image reconstruction and mass flow rate measurements.

  16. Deep-space and near-Earth optical communications by coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B


    In order to achieve multi-gigabit transmission (projected for 2020) for the use in interplanetary communications, the usage of large number of time slots in pulse-position modulation (PPM), typically used in deep-space applications, is needed, which imposes stringent requirements on system design and implementation. As an alternative satisfying high-bandwidth demands of future interplanetary communications, while keeping the system cost and power consumption reasonably low, in this paper, we describe the use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as an additional degree of freedom. The OAM is associated with azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. Because OAM eigenstates are orthogonal the can be used as basis functions for N-dimensional signaling. The OAM modulation and multiplexing can, therefore, be used, in combination with other degrees of freedom, to solve the high-bandwidth requirements of future deep-space and near-Earth optical communications. The main challenge for OAM deep-space communication represents the link between a spacecraft probe and the Earth station because in the presence of atmospheric turbulence the orthogonality between OAM states is no longer preserved. We will show that in combination with LDPC codes, the OAM-based modulation schemes can operate even under strong atmospheric turbulence regime. In addition, the spectral efficiency of proposed scheme is N2/log2N times better than that of PPM.

  17. Four-Dimensional Coded Modulation with Bit-wise Decoders for Future Optical Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarado, Alex


    Coded modulation (CM) is the combination of forward error correction (FEC) and multilevel constellations. Coherent optical communication systems result in a four-dimensional (4D) signal space, which naturally leads to 4D-CM transceivers. A practically attractive design paradigm is to use a bit-wise decoder, where the detection process is (suboptimally) separated into two steps: soft-decision demapping followed by binary decoding. In this paper, bit-wise decoders are studied from an information-theoretic viewpoint. 4D constellations with up to 4096 constellation points are considered. Metrics to predict the post-FEC bit-error rate (BER) of bit-wise decoders are analyzed. The mutual information is shown to fail at predicting the post-FEC BER of bit-wise decoders and the so-called generalized mutual information is shown to be a much more robust metric. It is also shown that constellations that transmit and receive information in each polarization and quadrature independently (e.g., PM-QPSK, PM-16QAM, and PM-64QA...

  18. Localized measurement of longitudinal and transverse flow velocities in colloidal suspensions using optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, N.; Van Leeuwen, T.G.; Kalkman, J.


    We report on localized measurement of the longitudinal and transverse flow velocities in a colloidal suspension using optical coherence tomography. We present a model for the path-length resolved autocorrelation function including diffusion and flow, which we experimentally verify. For flow that is

  19. Simulating Magnetohydrodynamical Flow with Constrained Transport and Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Algorithms and Tests of the AstroBEAR Code (United States)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Frank, Adam; Varnière, Peggy; Mitran, Sorin; Jones, Thomas W.


    A description is given of the algorithms implemented in the AstroBEAR adaptive mesh-refinement code for ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The code provides several high-resolution shock-capturing schemes which are constructed to maintain conserved quantities of the flow in a finite-volume sense. Divergence-free magnetic field topologies are maintained to machine precision by collating the components of the magnetic field on a cell-interface staggered grid and utilizing the constrained transport approach for integrating the induction equations. The maintenance of magnetic field topologies on adaptive grids is achieved using prolongation and restriction operators which preserve the divergence and curl of the magnetic field across collocated grids of different resolutions. The robustness and correctness of the code is demonstrated by comparing the numerical solution of various tests with analytical solutions or previously published numerical solutions obtained by other codes.

  20. Workshop report - A validation study of Navier-Stokes codes for transverse injection into a Mach 2 flow (United States)

    Eklund, Dean R.; Northam, G. B.; Mcdaniel, J. C.; Smith, Cliff


    A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) competition was held at the Third Scramjet Combustor Modeling Workshop to assess the current state-of-the-art in CFD codes for the analysis of scramjet combustors. Solutions from six three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes were compared for the case of staged injection of air behind a step into a Mach 2 flow. This case was investigated experimentally at the University of Virginia and extensive in-stream data was obtained. Code-to-code comparisons have been made with regard to both accuracy and efficiency. The turbulence models employed in the solutions are believed to be a major source of discrepancy between the six solutions.

  1. Use of a Viscous Flow Simulation Code for Static Aeroelastic Analysis of a Wing at High-Lift Conditions (United States)

    Akaydin, H. Dogus; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Nhan


    In this paper, we present a static aeroelastic analysis of a wind tunnel test model of a wing in high-lift configuration using a viscous flow simulation code. The model wing was tailored to deform during the tests by amounts similar to a composite airliner wing in highlift conditions. This required use of a viscous flow analysis to predict the lift coefficient of the deformed wing accurately. We thus utilized an existing static aeroelastic analysis framework that involves an inviscid flow code (Cart3d) to predict the deformed shape of the wing, then utilized a viscous flow code (Overflow) to compute the aerodynamic loads on the deformed wing. This way, we reduced the cost of flow simulations needed for this analysis while still being able to predict the aerodynamic forces with reasonable accuracy. Our results suggest that the lift of the deformed wing may be higher or lower than that of the non-deformed wing, and the washout deformation of the wing is the key factor that changes the lift of the deformed wing in two distinct ways: while it decreases the lift at low to moderate angles of attack simply by lowering local angles of attack along the span, it increases the lift at high angles of attack by alleviating separation.

  2. Application of S{gamma} Model for the Mechanistic Bubble Size Prediction in the Subcooled Boiling Flow with CFD Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, B. J.; Song, C. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Splawski, A.; Lo, S. [CD-adapco, Melville (United States)


    Accurate simulation of subcooled boiling flow is essential for the operation and safety of nuclear power plants (NPP). In recent years, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes has been extended to the analysis of multi-dimensional two-phase flow for the NPP. Among the applications of CFD code for the NPP analysis, the first target was selected as a mechanistic prediction of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) in PWR. In DNB-type CHF (Critical Heat Flux), the expected flow regime is bubbly or churn turbulent flow in the high mass flux and high heat flux condition and thus subcooled boiling is also one of the key phenomena for the precise prediction of DNB. In this paper, S{gamma},which is a mechanistic transport equation for the bubble parameters, was examined in a CFD code with the objective of enhancing the prediction capability of subcooled boiling flows. The models were applied in the STAR-CD 4.12 software

  3. Optical flow based guidance system design for semi-strapdown image homing guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lan


    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on semi-strapdown image homing guided (SSIHG system design based on optical flow for a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF axial-symmetric skid-to-turn missile. Three optical flow algorithms suitable for large displacements are introduced and compared. The influence of different displacements on computational accuracy of the three algorithms is analyzed statistically. The total optical flow of the SSIHG missile is obtained using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm, which is the best among the three for large displacements. After removing the rotational optical flow caused by rotation of the gimbal and missile body from the total optical flow, the remaining translational optical flow is smoothed via Kalman filtering. The circular navigation guidance (CNG law with impact angle constraint is then obtained utilizing the smoothed translational optical flow and position of the target image. Simulations are carried out under both disturbed and undisturbed conditions, and results indicate the proposed guidance strategy for SSIHG missiles can result in a precise target hit with a desired impact angle without the need for the time-to-go parameter.

  4. User's guide for the computer code COLTS for calculating the coupled laminar and turbulent flow over a Jovian entry probe (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Graeves, R. A.


    A user's guide for a computer code 'COLTS' (Coupled Laminar and Turbulent Solutions) is provided which calculates the laminar and turbulent hypersonic flows with radiation and coupled ablation injection past a Jovian entry probe. Time-dependent viscous-shock-layer equations are used to describe the flow field. These equations are solved by an explicit, two-step, time-asymptotic finite-difference method. Eddy viscosity in the turbulent flow is approximated by a two-layer model. In all, 19 chemical species are used to describe the injection of carbon-phenolic ablator in the hydrogen-helium gas mixture. The equilibrium composition of the mixture is determined by a free-energy minimization technique. A detailed frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient for various species is considered to obtain the radiative flux. The code is written for a CDC-CYBER-203 computer and is capable of providing solutions for ablated probe shapes also.

  5. Longitudinal optical monitoring of blood flow in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (United States)

    Cochran, J. M.; Chung, S. H.; Leproux, A.; Baker, W. B.; Busch, D. R.; DeMichele, A. M.; Tchou, J.; Tromberg, B. J.; Yodh, A. G.


    We measure tissue blood flow markers in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and investigate their correlation to pathologic complete response in a pilot longitudinal patient study (n  =  4). Tumor blood flow is quantified optically by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), and tissue optical properties, blood oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration are derived from concurrent diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI). The study represents the first longitudinal DCS measurement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in humans over the entire course of treatment; it therefore offers a first correlation between DCS flow indices and pathologic complete response. The use of absolute optical properties measured by DOSI facilitates significant improvement of DCS blood flow calculation, which typically assumes optical properties based on literature values. Additionally, the combination of the DCS blood flow index and the tissue oxygen saturation from DOSI permits investigation of tissue oxygen metabolism. Pilot results from four patients suggest that lower blood flow in the lesion-bearing breast is correlated with pathologic complete response. Both absolute lesion blood flow and lesion flow relative to the contralateral breast exhibit potential for characterization of pathological response. This initial demonstration of the combined optical approach for chemotherapy monitoring provides incentive for more comprehensive studies in the future and can help power those investigations.

  6. Development and implementation of a fluid flow code to evaluate block hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses (United States)

    Um, Jeong-Gi; Han, Jisu; Lee, Dahye; Cho, Taechin


    A computer program code was developed to estimate the hydraulic head distribution through the 2-D DFN(discrete fracture network) blocks considering hydraulic aperture of the individual fractures, and to determine flow quantity, directional block hydraulic conductivity and principal hydraulic conductivity tensor according to fracture geometry such as orientation, frequency and size of the fracture network systems. The generated stochastic DFN system is assumed to have a network structure in which the equivalent flow pipe composed linear fractures is complexly connected. DFN systems often include individual or group of sub-network that are isolated from a network that can act as fluid flow passages from one flow boundary to another, and the fluid flow is completely blocked due to lack of connectivity. Fractures that are completely or partially isolated in the DFN system do not contribute to the overall fluid flow through the DFN system and add to the burden of numerical computation. This sometimes leads to numerical instability and failure to provide a solution. In this study, geometric and mathematical routines were designed and implemented to classify and eliminate such sub-networks. The developed program code can calculate the total head at each node connected to the flow path with various aperture as well as hydraulic conductivity of the individual flow pipe using the SOR method. Numerical experiments have been carried out to explore the applicability of the developed program code. A total of 108 stochastic 2-D DFN blocks of 20 m×20 m with various hydraulic aperture were prepared using two joint sets with fixed input parameters of fracture orientation, frequency and size distribution. The hydraulic anisotropy and the chance for equivalent continuum behavior of the DFN system were found to depend on the variability of fracture aperture.

  7. Thermal-Flow Code for Modeling Gas Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Joints (United States)

    Wang, Qunzhen; Mathias, Edward C.; Heman, Joe R.; Smith, Cory W.


    A new, thermal-flow simulation code, called SFLOW. has been developed to model the gas dynamics, heat transfer, as well as O-ring and flow path erosion inside the space shuttle solid rocket motor joints by combining SINDA/Glo, a commercial thermal analyzer. and SHARPO, a general-purpose CFD code developed at Thiokol Propulsion. SHARP was modified so that friction, heat transfer, mass addition, as well as minor losses in one-dimensional flow can be taken into account. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the combustion gas in the leak paths are calculated in SHARP by solving the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations while the heat conduction in the solid is modeled by SINDA/G. The two codes are coupled by the heat flux at the solid-gas interface. A few test cases are presented and the results from SFLOW agree very well with the exact solutions or experimental data. These cases include Fanno flow where friction is important, Rayleigh flow where heat transfer between gas and solid is important, flow with mass addition due to the erosion of the solid wall, a transient volume venting process, as well as some transient one-dimensional flows with analytical solutions. In addition, SFLOW is applied to model the RSRM nozzle joint 4 subscale hot-flow tests and the predicted pressures, temperatures (both gas and solid), and O-ring erosions agree well with the experimental data. It was also found that the heat transfer between gas and solid has a major effect on the pressures and temperatures of the fill bottles in the RSRM nozzle joint 4 configuration No. 8 test.

  8. All-optical 4-bit binary to binary coded decimal converter with the help of semiconductor optical amplifier-assisted Sagnac switch (United States)

    Bhattachryya, Arunava; Kumar Gayen, Dilip; Chattopadhyay, Tanay


    All-optical 4-bit binary to binary coded decimal (BCD) converter has been proposed and described, with the help of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-assisted Sagnac interferometric switches in this manuscript. The paper describes all-optical conversion scheme using a set of all-optical switches. BCD is common in computer systems that display numeric values, especially in those consisting solely of digital logic with no microprocessor. In many personal computers, the basic input/output system (BIOS) keep the date and time in BCD format. The operations of the circuit are studied theoretically and analyzed through numerical simulations. The model accounts for the SOA small signal gain, line-width enhancement factor and carrier lifetime, the switching pulse energy and width, and the Sagnac loop asymmetry. By undertaking a detailed numerical simulation the influence of these key parameters on the metrics that determine the quality of switching is thoroughly investigated.

  9. Horn-Schunck Optical Flow with a Multi-Scale Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Meinhardt-Llopis


    Full Text Available The seminal work of Horn and Schunck is the first variational method for optical flow estimation. It introduced a novel framework where the optical flow is computed as the solution of a minimization problem. From the assumption that pixel intensities do not change over time, the optical flow constraint equation is derived. This equation relates the optical flow with the derivatives of the image. There are infinitely many vector fields that satisfy the optical flow constraint, thus the problem is ill-posed. To overcome this problem, Horn and Schunck introduced an additional regularity condition that restricts the possible solutions. Their method minimizes both the optical flow constraint and the magnitude of the variations of the flow field, producing smooth vector fields. One of the limitations of this method is that, typically, it can only estimate small motions. In the presence of large displacements, this method fails when the gradient of the image is not smooth enough. In this work, we describe an implementation of the original Horn and Schunck method and also introduce a multi-scale strategy in order to deal with larger displacements. For this multi-scale strategy, we create a pyramidal structure of downsampled images and change the optical flow constraint equation with a nonlinear formulation. In order to tackle this nonlinear formula, we linearize it and solve the method iteratively in each scale. In this sense, there are two common approaches: one approach that computes the motion increment in the iterations; or the one we follow, that computes the full flow during the iterations. The solutions are incrementally refined over the scales. This pyramidal structure is a standard tool in many optical flow methods.

  10. A Line Search Multilevel Truncated Newton Algorithm for Computing the Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Garrido


    Full Text Available We describe the implementation details and give the experimental results of three optimization algorithms for dense optical flow computation. In particular, using a line search strategy, we evaluate the performance of the unilevel truncated Newton method (LSTN, a multiresolution truncated Newton (MR/LSTN and a full multigrid truncated Newton (FMG/LSTN. We use three image sequences and four models of optical flow for performance evaluation. The FMG/LSTN algorithm is shown to lead to better optical flow estimation with less computational work than both the LSTN and MR/LSTN algorithms.

  11. Chip-interleaved optical code division multiple access relying on a photon-counting iterative successive interference canceller for free-space optical channels. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Rong; Hanzo, Lajos


    In this paper, we design a novel Poisson photon-counting based iterative successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme for transmission over free-space optical (FSO) channels in the presence of both multiple access interference (MAI) as well as Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading, shot-noise and background light. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme exhibits a strong MAI suppression capability. Importantly, an order of magnitude of BER improvements may be achieved compared to the conventional chip-level optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) photon-counting detector.

  12. Investigation into the flow field around a maneuvering submarine using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code (United States)

    Rhee, Bong

    The accurate and efficient prediction of hydrodynamic forces and moments on a maneuvering submarine has been achieved by investigating the flow physics involving the interaction of the vortical flow shed from the sail and the cross-flow boundary layer of the hull. In this investigation, a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computer code is used to simulate the most important physical effects related to maneuvering. It is applied to a generic axisymmetric body with the relatively simple case of the flow around an unappended hull at an angle of attack. After the code is validated for this simple case, it is validated for the case of a submarine with various appendages attached to the hull moving at an angle of drift. All six components of predicted forces and moments for various drift angles are compared with experimental data. Calculated pressure coefficients along the azimuthal angle are compared with experimental data and discussed to show the effect of the sail and the stern appendages. To understand the main flow features for a submarine in a straight flight, the RANS code is applied to simulate SUBOFF axisymmetric body at zero angle of attack in a straight-line basin. Pressure coefficient, skin friction coefficient, mean velocity components and the Reynolds shear stresses are compared with experimental data and discussed. The physical aspects of the interaction between the vortical flow shed by the sail and the cross-flow boundary layer on the hull are explained in greater detail. The understanding of this interaction is very important to characterize accurately the hydrodynamic behavior of a maneuvering submarine.

  13. Comparison of Particle Flow Code and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Modelling of Landslide Run outs (United States)

    Preh, A.; Poisel, R.; Hungr, O.


    In most continuum mechanics methods modelling the run out of landslides the moving mass is divided into a number of elements, the velocities of which can be established by numerical integration of Newtońs second law (Lagrangian solution). The methods are based on fluid mechanics modelling the movements of an equivalent fluid. In 2004, McDougall and Hungr presented a three-dimensional numerical model for rapid landslides, e.g. debris flows and rock avalanches, called DAN3D.The method is based on the previous work of Hungr (1995) and is using an integrated two-dimensional Lagrangian solution and meshless Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) principle to maintain continuity. DAN3D has an open rheological kernel, allowing the use of frictional (with constant porepressure ratio) and Voellmy rheologies and gives the possibility to change material rheology along the path. Discontinuum (granular) mechanics methods model the run out mass as an assembly of particles moving down a surface. Each particle is followed exactly as it moves and interacts with the surface and with its neighbours. Every particle is checked on contacts with every other particle in every time step using a special cell-logic for contact detection in order to reduce the computational effort. The Discrete Element code PFC3D was adapted in order to make possible discontinuum mechanics models of run outs. Punta Thurwieser Rock Avalanche and Frank Slide were modelled by DAN as well as by PFC3D. The simulations showed correspondingly that the parameters necessary to get results coinciding with observations in nature are completely different. The maximum velocity distributions due to DAN3D reveal that areas of different maximum flow velocity are next to each other in Punta Thurwieser run out whereas the distribution of maximum flow velocity shows almost constant maximum flow velocity over the width of the run out regarding Frank Slide. Some 30 percent of total kinetic energy is rotational kinetic energy in

  14. Real-time optical flow estimation on a GPU for a skied-steered mobile robot (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.


    Accurate egomotion estimation is required for mobile robot navigation. Often the egomotion is estimated using optical flow algorithms. For an accurate estimation of optical flow most of modern algorithms require high memory resources and processor speed. However simple single-board computers that control the motion of the robot usually do not provide such resources. On the other hand, most of modern single-board computers are equipped with an embedded GPU that could be used in parallel with a CPU to improve the performance of the optical flow estimation algorithm. This paper presents a new Z-flow algorithm for efficient computation of an optical flow using an embedded GPU. The algorithm is based on the phase correlation optical flow estimation and provide a real-time performance on a low cost embedded GPU. The layered optical flow model is used. Layer segmentation is performed using graph-cut algorithm with a time derivative based energy function. Such approach makes the algorithm both fast and robust in low light and low texture conditions. The algorithm implementation for a Raspberry Pi Model B computer is discussed. For evaluation of the algorithm the computer was mounted on a Hercules mobile skied-steered robot equipped with a monocular camera. The evaluation was performed using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and experiments with Hercules mobile robot. Also the algorithm was evaluated using KITTY Optical Flow 2015 dataset. The resulting endpoint error of the optical flow calculated with the developed algorithm was low enough for navigation of the robot along the desired trajectory.

  15. Single- and Two-Phase Flow Characterization Using Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia H.V. Baroncini


    Full Text Available Single- and two-phase flow characterization using optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs is presented. The sensor unit consists of the optical fiber Bragg grating positioned transversely to the flow and fixed in the pipe walls. The hydrodynamic pressure applied by the liquid or air/liquid flow to the optical fiber induces deformation that can be detected by the FBG. Given that the applied pressure is directly related to the mass flow, it is possible to establish a relationship using the grating resonance wavelength shift to determine the mass flow when the flow velocity is well known. For two phase flows of air and liquid, there is a significant change in the force applied to the fiber that accounts for the very distinct densities of these substances. As a consequence, the optical fiber deformation and the correspondent grating wavelength shift as a function of the flow will be very different for an air bubble or a liquid slug, allowing their detection as they flow through the pipe. A quasi-distributed sensing tool with 18 sensors evenly spread along the pipe is developed and characterized, making possible the characterization of the flow, as well as the tracking of the bubbles over a large section of the test bed. Results show good agreement with standard measurement methods and open up plenty of opportunities to both laboratory measurement tools and field applications.

  16. Validation of TITAN2D flow model code for pyroclastic flows and debris avalanches at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, BWI (United States)

    Widiwijayanti, C.; Voight, B.; Hidayat, D.; Patra, A.; Pitman, E.


    Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, has experienced numerous episodes of dome collapses since 1996. They range from relatively small rockfalls to major dome collapses, several >10x106 m3, and one >100x106 m3 (Calder, Luckett, Sparks and Voight 2002; Voight et al. 2002). The hazard implications for such events are significant at both local and regional scales, and include pyroclastic surges, explosions, and tsunami. Problems arise in forecasting and hazards mitigation, particularly in zoning for populated areas. Determining the likely extent of flow deposits is important for hazard zonation. For this, detailed mapping (topography of source areas and paths, material properties, structure, track roughness and erosion) has an important role, giving clues on locations of future collapse and runout paths. Here we present an application of a numerical computation model of geophysical mass flow using the TITAN2D code (Patra et al. 2004; Pitman et al. 2004), to simulate dome collapses at SHV. The majority of collapse-type pyroclastic flows at SHV are consistent with an initiation by gravitational collapse of oversteepened flanks of the dome. If the gravity controls the energy for such processes, then the flow tracks can be predicted on the basis of topography, and friction influences runout. TITAN2D is written to simulate this type of volcanic flow, and the SHV database is used to validate the code and provide calibrated data on friction properties. The topographic DEM was successively updated by adding flow deposit thicknesses for previous collapses. Simulation results were compared to observed flow parameters, including flow path, deposit volume, duration, velocity, and runout distance of individual flows, providing calibration data on internal and bed friction, and demonstrating the validity and limitations of such modeling for practical volcanic hazard assessment.

  17. Application of low-coherence optical fiber Doppler anemometry to fluid-flow measurement: optical system considerations (United States)

    Boyle, William J. O.; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.; Palmer, Andrew W.; Meggitt, B. T.


    A fiber optic Doppler anemometric (FODA) sensor using an optical delay cavity technique and having the advantage of detecting velocity rather than simple speed is outlined. In this sensor the delay in a sensor cavity formed from light back-reflected from a fiber tip (Fresnel reflection) and light back-reflected from particles flowing in a fluid is balanced by the optical delay when light from this sensor cavity passes through a reference cavity formed by a combination of the zero and first diffraction orders produced by a Bragg cell inserted into the optical arrangement. The performance of an experimental sensor based on this scheme is investigated, and velocity measurements using the Doppler shift data from moving objects are presented. The sensitivity of the scheme is discussed, with reference to the other techniques of fluid flow measurement.

  18. Fabrication of rigid and flexible refractive-index-matched flow phantoms for flow visualisation and optical flow measurements (United States)

    Geoghegan, P. H.; Buchmann, N. A.; Spence, C. J. T.; Moore, S.; Jermy, M.


    A method for the construction of both rigid and compliant (flexible) transparent flow phantoms of biological flow structures, suitable for PIV and other optical flow methods with refractive-index-matched working fluid is described in detail. Methods for matching the in vivo compliance and elastic wave propagation wavelength are presented. The manipulation of MRI and CT scan data through an investment casting mould is described. A method for the casting of bubble-free phantoms in silicone elastomer is given. The method is applied to fabricate flexible phantoms of the carotid artery (with and without stenosis), the carotid artery bifurcation (idealised and patient-specific) and the human upper airway (nasal cavity). The fidelity of the phantoms to the original scan data is measured, and it is shown that the cross-sectional error is less than 5% for phantoms of simple shape but up to 16% for complex cross-sectional shapes such as the nasal cavity. This error is mainly due to the application of a PVA coating to the inner mould and can be reduced by shrinking the digital model. Sixteen per cent variation in area is less than the natural patient to patient variation of the physiological geometries. The compliance of the phantom walls is controlled within physiologically realistic ranges, by choice of the wall thickness, transmural pressure and Young's modulus of the elastomer. Data for the dependence of Young's modulus on curing temperature are given for Sylgard 184. Data for the temperature dependence of density, viscosity and refractive index of the refractive-index-matched working liquid (i.e. water-glycerol mixtures) are also presented.

  19. Mapping the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signaling in cellular neural networks using optical flow

    CERN Document Server

    Buibas, Marius; Nizar, Krystal; Silva, Gabriel A


    An optical flow gradient algorithm was applied to spontaneously forming networks of neurons and glia in culture imaged by fluorescence optical microscopy in order to map functional calcium signaling with single pixel resolution. Optical flow estimates the direction and speed of motion of objects in an image between subsequent frames in a recorded digital sequence of images (i.e. a movie). Computed vector field outputs by the algorithm were able to track the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signaling patterns. We begin by briefly reviewing the mathematics of the optical flow algorithm, describe how to solve for the displacement vectors, and how to measure their reliability. We then compare computed flow vectors with manually estimated vectors for the progression of a calcium signal recorded from representative astrocyte cultures. Finally, we applied the algorithm to preparations of primary astrocytes and hippocampal neurons and to the rMC-1 Muller glial cell line in order to illustrate the capability of the ...

  20. Fiber Optic Mass Flow Gauge for Liquid Cryogenic Fuel Facilities Monitoring and Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a fiber optic mass flow gauge that will aid in managing liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuel storage and transport. The increasing...

  1. Myocardial Motion Estimation: An Evaluation of Optical Flow Computation Techniques on Echocardiographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Riyadi


    Full Text Available The use of image processing technique for cardiac motion analysis has been an active research in the past decade. The estimation of myocardial motion eases the cardiologist in diagnosing cardiac abnormalities. In term of movement analysis, optical flow is the most popular technique that has been used by researchers. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of three optical flow computation techniques to estimate the myocardial motion using echocardiographic images. The three techniquesare the global smoothness method (GSM, the local smoothness method (LSM and warping technique (WT. Optical flow field is computed based on healthy cardiac video on parasternal short axes view. These techniques look promising since the optical flow fields can be utilized to estimate the myocardial movement and comply with its true movement. The performances of each technique in terms of the direction, homogeneity and computing time, are also discussed.

  2. A Pulsed Coding Technique Based on Optical UWB Modulation for High Data Rate Low Power Wireless Implantable Biotelemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Marcellis


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a pulsed coding technique based on optical Ultra-wideband (UWB modulation for wireless implantable biotelemetry systems allowing for high data rate link whilst enabling significant power reduction compared to the state-of-the-art. This optical data coding approach is suitable for emerging biomedical applications like transcutaneous neural wireless communication systems. The overall architecture implementing this optical modulation technique employs sub-nanosecond pulsed laser as the data transmitter and small sensitive area photodiode as the data receiver. Moreover, it includes coding and decoding digital systems, biasing and driving analogue circuits for laser pulse generation and photodiode signal conditioning. The complete system has been implemented on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and prototype Printed Circuit Board (PCB with discrete off-the-shelf components. By inserting a diffuser between the transmitter and the receiver to emulate skin/tissue, the system is capable to achieve a 128 Mbps data rate with a bit error rate less than 10−9 and an estimated total power consumption of about 5 mW corresponding to a power efficiency of 35.9 pJ/bit. These results could allow, for example, the transmission of an 800-channel neural recording interface sampled at 16 kHz with 10-bit resolution.

  3. Benchmark Data for Evaluation of Aeroacoustic Propagation Codes With Grazing Flow (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Parrott, Tony L.


    Increased understanding of the effects of acoustic treatment on the propagation of sound through commercial aircraft engine nacelles is a requirement for more efficient liner design. To this end, one of NASA s goals is to further the development of duct propagation and impedance reduction codes. A number of these codes have been developed over the last three decades. These codes are typically divided into two categories: (1) codes that use the measured complex acoustic pressure field to reduce the acoustic impedance of treatment that is positioned along the wall of the duct, and (2) codes that use the acoustic impedance of the treatment as input and compute the sound field throughout the duct. Clearly, the value of these codes is dependent upon the quality of the data used for their validation. Over the past two decades, data acquired in the NASA Langley Research Center Grazing Incidence Tube have been used by a number of researchers for comparison with their propagation codes. Many of these comparisons have been based upon Grazing Incidence Tube tests that were conducted to study specific liner technology components, and were incomplete for general propagation code validation. Thus, the objective of the current investigation is to provide a quality data set that can be used as a benchmark for evaluation of duct propagation and impedance reduction codes. In order to achieve this objective, two parallel efforts have been undertaken. The first of these is the development of an enhanced impedance eduction code that uses data acquired in the Grazing Incidence Tube. This enhancement is intended to place the benchmark data on as firm a foundation as possible. The second key effort is the acquisition of a comprehensive set of data selected to allow propagation code evaluations over a range of test conditions.

  4. Estimation of Centers and Stagnation points in optical flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus


    In a topological sense fluid flows are characterised by their stagnation points. Given a temporal sequence of images of fluids we will consider the application of local polynomials to the estimation of smooth fluid flow fields. The normal flow at intensity contours is estimated from the local...... distribution of spatio-temporal energy, which is sampled using a set of spatio-temporal quadrature filters. These observations of normal flows are then integrated into smooth flow fields by locally approximating first order polynomials in the spatial coordinates to the flow vectors. This technique furthermore...... allows us to give a qualitative local description of the flow field and to estimate the position of stagnation points (e.g. nodes, saddles, and centers). We will apply the algorithm to two data sets. The first sequence consists of infrared images from the meteorological satellite Meteosat. Here...

  5. A Theory for Optical Flow-based Transport on Image Manifolds (United States)


    I2(x, y) = I1(x+ vx(x, y), y + vy(x, y)). (2) A common assumption in computing the optical flow between images is bright- ness constancy [16], where...not be the transport operator of choice, since such manifolds do not in general obey the brightness constancy requirement needed in optical flow...on Comp. Vision, 2010. [15] M. I. Miller , L. Younes, Group actions, homeomorphisms, and matching: a general framework, Intl. J. of Comp. Vision 41 (1

  6. Cerebral aneurysm treatment using flow-diverting stents: in-vivo visualization of flow alterations by parametric colour coding to predict aneurysmal occlusion: preliminary results. (United States)

    Gölitz, Philipp; Struffert, Tobias; Rösch, Julie; Ganslandt, Oliver; Knossalla, Frauke; Doerfler, Arnd


    After deployment of flow-diverting stents (FDS), complete aneurysm occlusion is not predictable. This study investigated whether parametric colour coding (PCC) could allow in vivo visualization of flow alterations induced by FDS and identify favourable or adverse flow modulations. Thirty-six patients treated by FDS were analyzed. Preinterventional and postinterventional DSA-series were postprocessed by PCC and time-density curves (TDCs) were calculated. The parameters aneurysmal inflow, outflow, and relative time-to-peak (rTTP) were calculated. Preinterventional and postinterventional values were compared and related to occlusion rate. Postinterventional inflow showed a mean reduction of 37%, outflow of 51%, and rTTP a prolongation of 82%. Saccular aneurysm occlusion occurred if a reduction of at least 15% was achieved for inflow and 35% for outflow (sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 82%). Unchanged outflow and a slightly prolonged rTTP were associated with growth in one fusiform aneurysm. PCC allows visualization of flow alterations after FDS treatment, illustrating "flow diverting effects" by the TDC shape and indicating mainly aneurysmal outflow and lesser inflow changes. Quantifiable parameters (inflow, outflow, rTTP) can be obtained, thresholds for predicting aneurysm occlusion determined, and adverse flow modulations assumed. As a rapid intraprocedural tool, PCC might support the decision to implant more than one FDS. • After deployment of a flow-diverting stent, complete aneurysm occlusion is unpredictable. • Parametric colour coding offers new options for visualizing in vivo flow alterations non-invasively. • Quantifiable parameters, i.e., aneurysmal inflow/outflow can be obtained allowing prognostic stratification. • Rapid, intraprocedural application allows treatment monitoring, potentially contributing to patient safety.

  7. Optical contouring of an acrylic surface for non-intrusive diagnostics in pipe-flow investigations (United States)

    de Witt, Benjamin J.; Coronado-Diaz, Haydee; Hugo, Ronald J.


    In this work, an acrylic surface was optically contoured to correct for the optical distortion caused by a transparent pipe wall. This method can be applied to non-invasive viewing/imaging techniques for fluid flow experiments. Software tools were developed to aid in the design of an optically contoured acrylic test section for pipe-flow experiments. Numerical models were computed for a standard acrylic pipe, inner diameter 57.15 mm, with water enclosed. An optical contour prototype was machined on a 5-axis CNC machine, and polished with 1-15 μm diamond paste, alleviating any surface imperfections without significantly altering the contoured surface. Experiments were then performed to measure the emerging optical wavefront and was found to emerge planar when utilizing the optical contour. It was determined that the wavefront was corrected to within ten wavelengths of a Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser beam.

  8. Development and assessment of Multi-dimensional flow models in the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Bae, S. W.; Jeong, J. J.; Lee, S. M


    A new multi-dimensional component has been developed to allow for more flexible 3D capabilities in the system code, MARS. This component can be applied in the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. For the development of this model, the 3D convection and diffusion terms are implemented in the momentum and energy equation. And a simple Prandtl's mixing length model is applied for the turbulent viscosity. The developed multi-dimensional component was assessed against five conceptual problems with analytic solution. And some SETs are calculated and compared with experimental data. With this newly developed multi-dimensional flow module, the MARS code can realistic calculate the flow fields in pools such as those occurring in the core, steam generators and IRWST.

  9. Development of fiber optic sensor for fluid flow of astronauts’ life-support system (United States)

    Shachneva, E. A.; Murashkina, T. I.


    This paper proposes a fiber optic sensor consumption (volume, speed) of liquids in life-support systems of astronauts, as well as offers a simple method and apparatus for reproducing the parameters of fluid flow needed in research, yustiovke and adjusting the optical sensor system.

  10. Application of Optical Flow Sensors for Dead Reckoning, Heading Reference, Obstacle Detection, and Obstacle Avoidance (United States)


    OPTICAL FLOW SENSORS FOR DEAD RECKONING, HEADING REFERENCE, OBSTACLE DETECTION, AND OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE by Tarek M. Nejah September 2015... SENSORS FOR DEAD RECKONING, HEADING REFERENCE, OBSTACLE DETECTION, AND OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nejah, Tarek M. 7...avoidance using only one optical mouse sensor was presented in this thesis. Odometry, position tracking, and obstacle avoidance are important issues in

  11. Optical noise-free image encryption based on quick response code and high dimension chaotic system in gyrator transform domain (United States)

    Sui, Liansheng; Xu, Minjie; Tian, Ailing


    A novel optical image encryption scheme is proposed based on quick response code and high dimension chaotic system, where only the intensity distribution of encoded information is recorded as ciphertext. Initially, the quick response code is engendered from the plain image and placed in the input plane of the double random phase encoding architecture. Then, the code is encrypted to the ciphertext with noise-like distribution by using two cascaded gyrator transforms. In the process of encryption, the parameters such as rotation angles and random phase masks are generated as interim variables and functions based on Chen system. A new phase retrieval algorithm is designed to reconstruct the initial quick response code in the process of decryption, in which a priori information such as three position detection patterns is used as the support constraint. The original image can be obtained without any energy loss by scanning the decrypted code with mobile devices. The ciphertext image is the real-valued function which is more convenient for storing and transmitting. Meanwhile, the security of the proposed scheme is enhanced greatly due to high sensitivity of initial values of Chen system. Extensive cryptanalysis and simulation have performed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  12. Turbulence modeling needs of commercial CFD codes: Complex flows in the aerospace and automotive industries (United States)

    Befrui, Bizhan A.


    This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.

  13. Dynamics of Zonal Flows: Failure of Wave-Kinetic Theory, and New Geometrical Optics Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Jeffrey B


    The self-organization of turbulence into regular zonal flows can be fruitfully investigated with quasilinear methods and statistical descriptions. A wave kinetic equation that assumes asymptotically large-scale zonal flows is pathological. From an exact description of quasilinear dynamics emerges two better geometrical optics approximations. These involve not only the mean flow shear but also the second and third derivative of the mean flow. One approximation takes the form of a new wave kinetic equation, but is only valid when the zonal flow is quasi-static and wave action is conserved.

  14. Two Phase Flow Models and Numerical Methods of the Commercial CFD Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sung Won; Jeong, Jae Jun; Chang, Seok Kyu; Cho, Hyung Kyu


    The use of commercial CFD codes extend to various field of engineering. The thermal hydraulic analysis is one of the promising engineering field of application of the CFD codes. Up to now, the main application of the commercial CFD code is focused within the single phase, single composition fluid dynamics. Nuclear thermal hydraulics, however, deals with abrupt pressure changes, high heat fluxes, and phase change heat transfer. In order to overcome the CFD limitation and to extend the capability of the nuclear thermal hydraulics analysis, the research efforts are made to collaborate the CFD and nuclear thermal hydraulics. To achieve the final goal, the current useful model and correlations used in commercial CFD codes should be reviewed and investigated. This report gives the summary information about the constitutive relationships that are used in the FLUENT, STAR-CD, and CFX. The brief information of the solution technologies are also enveloped.

  15. Structuring waveguide-grating-based wavelength-division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access network codecs over topology of concentric circles (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Nieh, Ta-Chun; Chen, Kai-Sheng


    The cyclic period and free spectral range of arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWG) in a wavelength-division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access optical code division multiple access network are exploited. The total optical network unit (ONU) of network capacity is partitioned into groups of different wavelength in accordance with the geographical location of subscribers based on the radial distance of the ONU to the optical line terminal. Combining concentric circles round by round for ONU groups enables a fixed round-trip time in the data transmission and a significant increase in system performance. Using AWG router, the proposed topology of concentric circles retains signature orthogonality and minimizes wavelength collisions on the photo-detector. Furthermore, the adoption of extended M-sequence codes corresponding to the AWG codec provides a simpler, more efficient coding procedure and accommodates more users in a single group.

  16. Computer code simulations of explosions in flow networks and comparison with experiments (United States)

    Gregory, W. S.; Nichols, B. D.; Moore, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Steinke, R. G.; Idzorek, R. D.


    A program of experimental testing and computer code development for predicting the effects of explosions in air-cleaning systems is being carried out for the Department of Energy. This work is a combined effort by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and New Mexico State University (NMSU). Los Alamos has the lead responsibility in the project and develops the computer codes; NMSU performs the experimental testing. The emphasis in the program is on obtaining experimental data to verify the analytical work. The primary benefit of this work will be the development of a verified computer code that safety analysts can use to analyze the effects of hypothetical explosions in nuclear plant air cleaning systems. The experimental data show the combined effects of explosions in air-cleaning systems that contain all of the important air-cleaning elements (blowers, dampers, filters, ductwork, and cells). A small experimental set-up consisting of multiple rooms, ductwork, a damper, a filter, and a blower was constructed. Explosions were simulated with a shock tube, hydrogen/air-filled gas balloons, and blasting caps. Analytical predictions were made using the EVENT84 and NF85 computer codes. The EVENT84 code predictions were in good agreement with the effects of the hydrogen/air explosions, but they did not model the blasting cap explosions adequately. NF85 predicted shock entrance to and within the experimental set-up very well. The NF85 code was not used to model the hydrogen/air or blasting cap explosions.

  17. Development of a locally mass flux conservative computer code for calculating 3-D viscous flow in turbomachines (United States)

    Walitt, L.


    The VANS successive approximation numerical method was extended to the computation of three dimensional, viscous, transonic flows in turbomachines. A cross-sectional computer code, which conserves mass flux at each point of the cross-sectional surface of computation was developed. In the VANS numerical method, the cross-sectional computation follows a blade-to-blade calculation. Numerical calculations were made for an axial annular turbine cascade and a transonic, centrifugal impeller with splitter vanes. The subsonic turbine cascade computation was generated in blade-to-blade surface to evaluate the accuracy of the blade-to-blade mode of marching. Calculated blade pressures at the hub, mid, and tip radii of the cascade agreed with corresponding measurements. The transonic impeller computation was conducted to test the newly developed locally mass flux conservative cross-sectional computer code. Both blade-to-blade and cross sectional modes of calculation were implemented for this problem. A triplet point shock structure was computed in the inducer region of the impeller. In addition, time-averaged shroud static pressures generally agreed with measured shroud pressures. It is concluded that the blade-to-blade computation produces a useful engineering flow field in regions of subsonic relative flow; and cross-sectional computation, with a locally mass flux conservative continuity equation, is required to compute the shock waves in regions of supersonic relative flow.

  18. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick O Gilmore

    Full Text Available Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s. Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood.

  19. Optic flow-based collision-free strategies: From insects to robots. (United States)

    Serres, Julien R; Ruffier, Franck


    Flying insects are able to fly smartly in an unpredictable environment. It has been found that flying insects have smart neurons inside their tiny brains that are sensitive to visual motion also called optic flow. Consequently, flying insects rely mainly on visual motion during their flight maneuvers such as: takeoff or landing, terrain following, tunnel crossing, lateral and frontal obstacle avoidance, and adjusting flight speed in a cluttered environment. Optic flow can be defined as the vector field of the apparent motion of objects, surfaces, and edges in a visual scene generated by the relative motion between an observer (an eye or a camera) and the scene. Translational optic flow is particularly interesting for short-range navigation because it depends on the ratio between (i) the relative linear speed of the visual scene with respect to the observer and (ii) the distance of the observer from obstacles in the surrounding environment without any direct measurement of either speed or distance. In flying insects, roll stabilization reflex and yaw saccades attenuate any rotation at the eye level in roll and yaw respectively (i.e. to cancel any rotational optic flow) in order to ensure pure translational optic flow between two successive saccades. Our survey focuses on feedback-loops which use the translational optic flow that insects employ for collision-free navigation. Optic flow is likely, over the next decade to be one of the most important visual cues that can explain flying insects' behaviors for short-range navigation maneuvers in complex tunnels. Conversely, the biorobotic approach can therefore help to develop innovative flight control systems for flying robots with the aim of mimicking flying insects' abilities and better understanding their flight. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of an Accurate DNS Particulate Flow Method to Supply and Validate Boundary Conditions for the MFIX Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Gang Feng


    The simulation of particulate flows for industrial applications often requires the use of two-fluid models, where the solid particles are considered as a separate continuous phase. One of the underlining uncertainties in the use of the two-fluid models in multiphase computations comes from the boundary condition of the solid phase. Typically, the gas or liquid fluid boundary condition at a solid wall is the so called no-slip condition, which has been widely accepted to be valid for single-phase fluid dynamics provided that the Knudsen number is low. However, the boundary condition for the solid phase is not well understood. The no-slip condition at a solid boundary is not a valid assumption for the solid phase. Instead, several researchers advocate a slip condition as a more appropriate boundary condition. However, the question on the selection of an exact slip length or a slip velocity coefficient is still unanswered. Experimental or numerical simulation data are needed in order to determinate the slip boundary condition that is applicable to a two-fluid model. The goal of this project is to improve the performance and accuracy of the boundary conditions used in two-fluid models such as the MFIX code, which is frequently used in multiphase flow simulations. The specific objectives of the project are to use first principles embedded in a validated Direct Numerical Simulation particulate flow numerical program, which uses the Immersed Boundary method (DNS-IB) and the Direct Forcing scheme in order to establish, modify and validate needed energy and momentum boundary conditions for the MFIX code. To achieve these objectives, we have developed a highly efficient DNS code and conducted numerical simulations to investigate the particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in particulate flows. Most of our research findings have been reported in major conferences and archived journals, which are listed in Section 7 of this report. In this report, we will present a

  1. HADES. A computer code for fast neutron cross section from the Optical Model; HADES. Un programa numerico para el calculo de seccciones eficaces neutronicas mediante el modelo optico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.; Navarro, C.


    A FORTRAN V computer code for UNIVAC 1108/6 using a local Optical Model with spin-orbit interaction is described. The code calculates fast neutron cross sections, angular distribution, and Legendre moments for heavy and intermediate spherical nuclei. It allows for the possibility of automatic variation of potential parameters for experimental data fitting. (Author) 55 refs.

  2. Fast optical measurements and imaging of flow mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    in combustion enhancement can be also obtained. The infrared camera was also used together with special endoscope optics for fast thermal imaging of a coal-straw flame in an industrial boiler. Obtained time-resolved infrared images provided useful information for the diagnostics of the flame and fuel...

  3. Optic flow estimation on trajectories generated by bio-inspired closed-loop flight. (United States)

    Shoemaker, Patrick A; Hyslop, Andrew M; Humbert, J Sean


    We generated panoramic imagery by simulating a fly-like robot carrying an imaging sensor, moving in free flight through a virtual arena bounded by walls, and containing obstructions. Flight was conducted under closed-loop control by a bio-inspired algorithm for visual guidance with feedback signals corresponding to the true optic flow that would be induced on an imager (computed by known kinematics and position of the robot relative to the environment). The robot had dynamics representative of a housefly-sized organism, although simplified to two-degree-of-freedom flight to generate uniaxial (azimuthal) optic flow on the retina in the plane of travel. Surfaces in the environment contained images of natural and man-made scenes that were captured by the moving sensor. Two bio-inspired motion detection algorithms and two computational optic flow estimation algorithms were applied to sequences of image data, and their performance as optic flow estimators was evaluated by estimating the mutual information between outputs and true optic flow in an equatorial section of the visual field. Mutual information for individual estimators at particular locations within the visual field was surprisingly low (less than 1 bit in all cases) and considerably poorer for the bio-inspired algorithms that the man-made computational algorithms. However, mutual information between weighted sums of these signals and comparable sums of the true optic flow showed significant increases for the bio-inspired algorithms, whereas such improvement did not occur for the computational algorithms. Such summation is representative of the spatial integration performed by wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in the third optic ganglia of flies.

  4. BIGFLOW: A numerical code for simulating flow in variably saturated, heterogeneous geologic media. Theory and user`s manaual, Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ababou, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bagtzoglou, A.C. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses


    This report documents BIGFLOW 1.1, a numerical code for simulating flow in variably saturated heterogeneous geologic media. It contains the underlying mathematical and numerical models, test problems, benchmarks, and applications of the BIGFLOW code. The BIGFLOW software package is composed of a simulation and an interactive data processing code (DATAFLOW). The simulation code solves linear and nonlinear porous media flow equations based on Darcy`s law, appropriately generalized to account for 3D, deterministic, or random heterogeneity. A modified Picard Scheme is used for linearizing unsaturated flow equations, and preconditioned iterative methods are used for solving the resulting matrix systems. The data processor (DATAFLOW) allows interactive data entry, manipulation, and analysis of 3D datasets. The report contains analyses of computational performance carried out using Cray-2 and Cray-Y/MP8 supercomputers. Benchmark tests include comparisons with other independently developed codes, such as PORFLOW and CMVSFS, and with analytical or semi-analytical solutions.

  5. Modeling Plasma Flow in Solid Propellant Charges Using the NGEN Multiphase CFD Code (United States)


    using these equations derived by a formal averaging technique applied to the microscopic flow. These equations require a number of constitutive laws...disk (dimensions shown are from Chang and Howard [32]). acrylic, that allows cinematography of plasma flows and ignition events along the propellant

  6. Flow measurements in micro holes with electrochemical and optical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zosel, J.; Guth, U.; Thies, A.; Reents, B


    The decreasing feature size of electronic compounds down to the micrometer range is paralleled by an increase in the aspect ratio, worsening all mass transport related processes. In this paper the conditions of liquid flow into micro holes and blind micro vias (BMV) with diameter of 100-300 {mu}m and depth between 100 {mu}m and 1.5 mm are investigated. The flow was induced by surface directed jet flows, visualised by microscopy aided particle image velocimetry ({mu}-PIV) and correlated with electrochemical mass transfer measurements using the ferro/ferri-hexacyanide redox couple. It was found that the mean flow velocity in the holes and the penetration depth in the blind holes are influenced especially by the roughness of the inner walls and, at a lower scale, by the velocity and the impinging angle of the jet. The results enable the estimation of the mean flow rate in through holes and the penetration depth in BMV at defined hydrodynamic conditions in the bath. This is one of the preconditions for the appropriate engineering of plating lines designed for micro structures.

  7. An optical fiber Fabry-Perot flow measurement technology based on partial bend structure (United States)

    Yang, Huijia; Jiang, Junfeng; Zhang, Xuezhi; Pan, Yuheng; Zhu, Wanshan; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Tiegen


    An optical fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) flow measurement technology is presented, which is based on partial bend structure. A 90° partial bend structure is designed to achieve the non-probe flow measurement with a pressure difference. The fluid simulation results of partial bend structure show that the error of the pressure difference is below 0.05 kPa during steady flow. The optical fiber F-P sensor mounted on the elbow with pressure test accuracy of 1% full scale is used to measure the fluid flow. Flow test results show that when the flow varies from 1 m3/h to 6.5 m3/h at ambient temperature of 25 °C, the response time is 1 s and the flow test accuracy is 4.5% of the F-P flow test system, proving that the F-P flow test method based on partial bend structure can be used in fluid flow measurement.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Coherent detection for spectrally encoded optical labels is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for three label tones spectrally spaced at 1 GHz. The proposed method utilizes a frequency swept local oscillator in a coherent receiver supported by digital signal processing for improved flexibi...... flexibility and upgradeability while reducing label detection subsystem complexity as compared with the conventional optical autocorrelation based approaches.......Coherent detection for spectrally encoded optical labels is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for three label tones spectrally spaced at 1 GHz. The proposed method utilizes a frequency swept local oscillator in a coherent receiver supported by digital signal processing for improved...

  9. Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow (United States)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Goode, Wesley; Hellman, Samuel


    Boundary layers around moving underwater vehicles or other platforms can be a limiting factor for optical communication. Turbulence in the boundary layer of a body moving through a stratified medium can lead to small variations in the index of refraction, which impede optical signals. As a first step towards investigating this boundary layer effect on underwater optics, we study the flow near the boundary in the Rayleigh-Bénard laboratory tank at the Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center. The tank is set up to generate temperature-driven, i.e., convective turbulence, and allows control of the turbulence intensity. This controlled turbulence environment is complemented by computational fluid dynamics simulations to visualize and quantify multi-scale flow patterns. The boundary layer dynamics in the laboratory tank are quantified using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system to examine the boundary layer velocities and turbulence parameters. The velocity fields and flow dynamics from the PIV are compared to the numerical model and show the model to accurately reproduce the velocity range and flow dynamics. The temperature variations and thus optical turbulence effects can then be inferred from the model temperature data. Optical turbulence is also visible in the raw data from the PIV system. The newly collected data are consistent with previously reported measurements from high-resolution Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter profilers (Nortek Vectrino), as well as fast thermistor probes and novel next-generation fiber-optics temperature sensors. This multi-level approach to studying optical turbulence near a boundary, combining in-situ measurements, optical techniques, and numerical simulations, can provide new insight and aid in mitigating turbulence impacts on underwater optical signal transmission.

  10. Obstacle detection and terrain characterization using optical flow without 3-D reconstruction (United States)

    Young, Gin-Shu; Hong, Tsai Hong; Herman, Martin; Yang, Jackson C. S.


    For many applications in computer vision, it is important to recover range, 3-D motion, and/or scene geometry from a sequence of images. However, there are many robot behaviors which can be achieved by extracting relevant 2-D information from the imagery and using this information directly, without recovery of such information. In this paper, we focus on two behaviors, obstacle avoidance and terrain navigation. A novel method of these two behaviors has been developed without 3-D reconstruction. This approach is often called purposive active vision. A linear relationship, plotted as a line and called a reference flow line, has been found. The difference between a plotted line and the reference flow line can be used to detect discrete obstacles above or below the reference terrain. For terrain characterization, slopes of surface regions can be calculated directly from optical flow. Some error analysis is also done. The main features of this approach are that (1) discrete obstacles are detected directly from 2-D optical flow, no 3-D reconstruction is performed; (2) terrain slopes are also calculated from 2- D optical flow; (3) knowledge about the terrain model, camera-to-ground coordinate transformation, or vehicle (or camera) motion is not required; (4) the error sources involved are reduced to a minimum, since the only information required is a component of optical flow. An initial experiment using noisy synthetic data is also included to demonstrate the applicability and robustness of the method.

  11. MOCCA code for star cluster simulation: comparison with optical observations using COCOA (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Olech, Arkadiusz; Hypki, Arkadiusz


    We introduce and present preliminary results from COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code for a star cluster after 12 Gyr of evolution simulated using the MOCCA code. The COCOA code is being developed to quickly compare results of numerical simulations of star clusters with observational data. We use COCOA to obtain parameters of the projected cluster model. For comparison, a FITS file of the projected cluster was provided to observers so that they could use their observational methods and techniques to obtain cluster parameters. The results show that the similarity of cluster parameters obtained through numerical simulations and observations depends significantly on the quality of observational data and photometric accuracy.

  12. MOCCA Code for Star Cluster Simulation: Comparison with Optical Observations using COCOA

    CERN Document Server

    Askar, Abbas; Pych, Wojciech; Olech, Arkadiusz; Hypki, Arkadiusz


    We introduce and present preliminary results from COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code for a star cluster after 12 Gyrs of evolution simulated using the MOCCA code. The COCOA code is being developed to quickly compare results of numerical simulations of star clusters with observational data. We use COCOA to obtain parameters of the projected cluster model. For comparison, a FITS file of the projected cluster was provided to observers so that they could use their observational methods and techniques to obtain cluster parameters. The results show that the similarity of cluster parameters obtained through numerical simulations and observations depends significantly on the quality of observational data and photometric accuracy.

  13. Optimized Reactive Power Flow of DFIG Power Converters for Better Reliability Performance Considering Grid Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens


    . In order to fulfill the modern grid codes, over-excited reactive power injection will further reduce the lifetime of the rotor-side converter. In this paper, the additional stress of the power semiconductor due to the reactive power injection is firstly evaluated in terms of modulation index...

  14. High speed optical holography of retinal blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Pellizzari, Mathilde; Degardin, Julie; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Fink, Mathias; Paques, Michel; Atlan, Michael


    We performed non-invasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (30 microns diameter) over 400 by 400 pixels with a spatial resolution of 8 microns and a temporal resolution of 6.5 ms.

  15. TV-L1 optical flow for vector valued images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Roholm, Lars; Nielsen, Mads


    a generalized algorithm that works on vector valued images, by means of a generalized projection step. We give examples of calculations of flows for a number of multi- dimensional constancy assumptions, e.g. gradient and RGB, and show how the developed methodology expands to any kind of vector valued images....... The resulting algorithms have the same degree of parallelism as the case of one-dimensional images, and we have produced an efficient GPU implementation, that can take vector valued images with vectors of any dimension. Finally we demonstrate how these algorithms generally produce better flows than the original...

  16. Statistical physics inspired energy-efficient coded-modulation for optical communications. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting


    Because Shannon's entropy can be obtained by Stirling's approximation of thermodynamics entropy, the statistical physics energy minimization methods are directly applicable to the signal constellation design. We demonstrate that statistical physics inspired energy-efficient (EE) signal constellation designs, in combination with large-girth low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, significantly outperform conventional LDPC-coded polarization-division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation schemes. We also describe an EE signal constellation design algorithm. Finally, we propose the discrete-time implementation of D-dimensional transceiver and corresponding EE polarization-division multiplexed system.

  17. A computer code for beam optics calculation--third order approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jianqin; LI Jinhai


    To calculate the beam transport in the ion optical systems accurately, a beam dynamics computer program of third order approximation is developed. Many conventional optical elements are incorporated in the program. Particle distributions of uniform type or Gaussian type in the ( x, y, z ) 3D ellipses can be selected by the users. The optimization procedures are provided to make the calculations reasonable and fast. The calculated results can be graphically displayed on the computer monitor.

  18. Quantifying the Energy Efficiency of Object Recognition and Optical Flow (United States)


    code runs in our Hindemith framework. The Hindemith framework analyzes the algorithm description in Python and composes hand-written OpenCL functions to...of different linear solvers. We run our experiment on Intel Core i7-4770 CPU 3.4 GHz (Haswell) processor. We use the AMD APP OpenCL SDK compiler and...the framework breaks the inner loop into two OpenCL kernels. We are currently acheiving 3.21 GFLOPS, which is 8% of the 40.4 GFLOPS limit imposed by

  19. Numerical simulation of nonsteady-state multiphase flows. The 2D TURBO-FLOW computer code used to perform express analysis of designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergey I Shcherbakov [SSC RF IPPE named after A.I. Leypunsky, Bondarenko sq. 1, Obninsk, 249033, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)


    Full text of publication follows: The paper presents the key features of the TURBO-FLOW 2D computer code designed for on-line numerical solving of multiphase flow problems (at present, three phases) in the units of NPP equipment. The code implements a direct non-stationary calculation of velocity distribution and phase concentrations. The fields of application of the TURBO-FLOW code are the following: multi-version calculations for optimizing a construction design or regime; dynamic processes with a sampling up to 10{sup 5} of time steps (impacts, explosions, vibrations, and so on); express calculations. The code is characterized by the simplicity of giving the calculation object and very little time required for producing results (dozens of time steps per second). The system requirements are as follows: Win98/ME, Pentium3-600 (256 k L2 Cache), 32 Mb. The peculiarities of mathematical statement consist in dividing velocity variations into components (by reasons of their occurrence), calculating them independently, and using the medium-volume velocity of mixture and velocities of phase slip. To evaluate the medium-volume velocity, the current function and velocity potential calculated by the circulation and mass conservation equations are used. Preliminarily, the current functions and potentials are calculated for time-varying volumetric sources and boundary conditions. A concept of permissible velocity variations is used. The friction models for empty domain and porous solid are involved. The slip velocity is given by a continuous function of phase concentration and local pressure gradient. The equations of phase transfer are solved with individual velocities of phases and phase transfers (the rate and localization of phase breakdown into each other to be specified). In addition, the equations for the functions of phase particle age are solved. The two-dimensional computational model being given by the user on a rectangular nonuniform mesh is used. The procedure of

  20. Optical measurement of a micro coriolis mass flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristiansen, L.; Mehendale, A.; Brouwer, D.M.; Zwikker, J.M.; Klein, M.E.


    Haneveld [1,2] demonstrated a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor, operating in the measurement range of 0 to 1 g/hr achieving a resolution in the order of 10 mg/hr using a laser vibrometer. Equipped with an integrated capacitive [3] readout the measurement uncertainty amounted to 2% of the full scale r

  1. Optic flow based station-keeping and wind rejection for small flying vehicles (United States)

    Patrick, Bryan

    Optic flow and Wide Field Integration (WFI) have shown potential for application to autonomous navigation of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). In this study the application of these same methods to other tasks, namely station-keeping and wind rejection, is examined. Theory surrounding optic flow, WFI and wind gust modeling is examined to provide a theoretical background. A controller based on a Hinfinity bounded formulation of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator in designed to both mitigate wind disturbances and station-keep. The performance of this controller is assessed via simulation to determine both performance and trade-offs in implementation such as the method for optic flow calculation. Furthermore, flight tests are performed to examine the real world effectiveness of the controller. Finally, conclusions about potential improvement to implementation are drawn

  2. The electronic image stabilization technology research based on improved optical-flow motion vector estimation (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Wentao; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jiaoying; Yang, Heng


    The electronic image stabilization technology based on improved optical-flow motion vector estimation technique can effectively improve the non normal shift, such as jitter, rotation and so on. Firstly, the ORB features are extracted from the image, a set of regions are built on these features; Secondly, the optical-flow vector is computed in the feature regions, in order to reduce the computational complexity, the multi resolution strategy of Pyramid is used to calculate the motion vector of the frame; Finally, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effect of the algorithm is carried out. The results show that the proposed algorithm has better stability compared with image stabilization based on the traditional optical-flow motion vector estimation method.

  3. On the stability of multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical network for IPTV delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Luo; Yaohui Jin; Qingji Zeng; Weiqiang Sun; Wei Guo; Weisheng Hu


    The stable multicast flow aggregation (MFA) problem in internet protocol (IP) over optical network under the dynamical scenario is studied. Given an optical network topology, there is a set of head ends and access routers attached to the optical network, in which each head end can provide a set of programs (IP multicasting flows) and each access router requests a set of programs, we find a set of stable light-trees to accommodate the optimally aggregated multicast IP flows if the requests of access routers changed dynamically. We introduce a program correlation matrix to describe the preference of end users' requests. As the original MFA problem is NP-complete, a heuristic approach, named most correlated program first (MCPF), is presented and compared with the extended least tree first (ELTF) algorithm which is topologyaware. Simulation results show that MCPF can achieve better performance than ELTF in terms of stability with negligible increment of network resource usage.

  4. Measuring In-Plane Micro-Motion of Micro-Structure Using Optical Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Cuiyun; JIN Shijiu; LI Dachao; WANG Jianlin


    Optical flow method is one of the most important methods of analyzing motion images.Optical flow field is used to analyze characteristics of motion objects.According to motion features of micro-electronic mechanical system(MEMS)micro-structure,the optical algorithm based on label field and neighborhood optimization is presented to analyze the in-plane micro-motion of micro-structure.Firstly,high speed motion states for each frequency segment of micro-structure in cyclic motion are frozen based on stroboscopic principle.Thus a series of image sequences,and can obtain reliable and precise optical field and reduce computing time.As micro-resonator of urement precision of the presented algorithm is high,and measurement repeatability reaches 40 am under the same experiment condition.

  5. Study of counter current flow limitation model of MARS-KS and SPACE codes under Dukler's air/water flooding test conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woong; Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young Seok [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In particular, CCFL(the counter current flow limitation) occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have flows in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate from two code to the famous Dukler's CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. In the nuclear reactor system, CCFL is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to flow in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate to the famous Dukler

  6. Encoding of naturalistic optic flow by motion sensitive neurons of nucleus rotundus in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eEckmeier


    Full Text Available The retinal image changes that occur during locomotion, the optic flow, carry information about self-motion and the three-dimensional structure of the environment. Especially fast moving animals with only little binocular vision depend on these depth cues for manoeuvring. They actively control their gaze to facilitate perception of depth based on cues in the optic flow. In the visual system of birds, nucleus rotundus neurons were originally found to respond to object motion but not to background motion. However, when background and object were both moving, responses increase the more the direction and velocity of object and background motion on the retina differed. These properties may play a role in representing depth cues in the optic flow. We therefore investigated how neurons in nucleus rotundus respond to optic flow that contains depth cues. We presented simplified and naturalistic optic flow on a panoramic LED display while recording from single neurons in nucleus rotundus of anaesthetized zebra finches. Unlike most studies on motion vision in birds, our stimuli included depth information.We found extensive responses of motion selective neurons in nucleus rotundus to optic flow stimuli. Simplified stimuli revealed preferences for optic flow reflecting translational or rotational self-motion. Naturalistic optic flow stimuli elicited complex response modulations, but the presence of objects was signalled by only few neurons. The neurons that did respond to objects in the optic flow, however, show interesting properties.

  7. Optical flows method for lightweight agile remote sensor design and instrumentation (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Xing, Fei; Wang, Hongjian; You, Zheng


    Lightweight agile remote sensors have become one type of the most important payloads and were widely utilized in space reconnaissance and resource survey. These imaging sensors are designed to obtain the high spatial, temporary and spectral resolution imageries. Key techniques in instrumentation include flexible maneuvering, advanced imaging control algorithms and integrative measuring techniques, which are closely correlative or even acting as the bottle-necks for each other. Therefore, mutual restrictive problems must be solved and optimized. Optical flow is the critical model which to be fully represented in the information transferring as well as radiation energy flowing in dynamic imaging. For agile sensors, especially with wide-field-of view, imaging optical flows may distort and deviate seriously when they perform large angle attitude maneuvering imaging. The phenomena are mainly attributed to the geometrical characteristics of the three-dimensional earth surface as well as the coupled effects due to the complicated relative motion between the sensor and scene. Under this circumstance, velocity fields distribute nonlinearly, the imageries may badly be smeared or probably the geometrical structures are changed since the image velocity matching errors are not having been eliminated perfectly. In this paper, precise imaging optical flow model is established for agile remote sensors, for which optical flows evolving is factorized by two forms, which respectively due to translational movement and image shape changing. Moreover, base on that, agile remote sensors instrumentation was investigated. The main techniques which concern optical flow modeling include integrative design with lightweight star sensors along with micro inertial measurement units and corresponding data fusion, the assemblies of focal plane layout and control, imageries post processing for agile remote sensors etc. Some experiments show that the optical analyzing method is effective to

  8. On the Optimality of Repetition Coding among Rate-1 DC-offset STBCs for MIMO Optical Wireless Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Sapenov, Yerzhan


    In this paper, an optical wireless multiple-input multiple-output communication system employing intensity-modulation direct-detection is considered. The performance of direct current offset space-time block codes (DC-STBC) is studied in terms of pairwise error probability (PEP). It is shown that among the class of DC-STBCs, the worst case PEP corresponding to the minimum distance between two codewords is minimized by repetition coding (RC), under both electrical and optical individual power constraints. It follows that among all DC-STBCs, RC is optimal in terms of worst-case PEP for static channels and also for varying channels under any turbulence statistics. This result agrees with previously published numerical results showing the superiority of RC in such systems. It also agrees with previously published analytic results on this topic under log-normal turbulence and further extends it to arbitrary turbulence statistics. This shows the redundancy of the time-dimension of the DC-STBC in this system. This result is further extended to sum power constraints with static and turbulent channels, where it is also shown that the time dimension is redundant, and the optimal DC-STBC has a spatial beamforming structure. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the difference in performance for systems with different numbers of receiving apertures and different throughput.

  9. Motion Detection for PC based on Security System by using Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hawari Ghazali


    Full Text Available This system is designed aims to detect and analyze the motion of people that have been recorded on PC, which response rapidly to the abnormal motion based on  optical flow method. Horn-Schunck technique  is one of optical flow method which has ability to detect the motion in image sequences by examining the velocities of the motion objects. It will response to abnormal motion and triggered the alarm in order to alert the people beware to their surroundings.

  10. High speed optical holography of retinal blood flow. (United States)

    Pellizzari, M; Simonutti, M; Degardin, J; Sahel, J-A; Fink, M; Paques, M; Atlan, M


    We performed noninvasive video imaging of retinal blood flow in a pigmented rat by holographic interferometry of near-infrared laser light backscattered by retinal tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam sampled at a frame rate of 39 kHz with a high throughput camera. Local Doppler contrasts emerged from the envelopes of short-time Fourier transforms and the phase of autocorrelation functions of holograms rendered by Fresnel transformation. This approach permitted imaging of blood flow in large retinal vessels (∼30 microns diameter) over 400×400  pixels with a spatial resolution of ∼8 microns and a temporal resolution of ∼6.5  ms.

  11. Optical Measurements in Non-Equilibrium Plasmas and Flows (United States)


    Communications, Vol. 35, p. 69 (1979). 12. D.A. McQuarrie and J.D Simon, “Physical Chemistry – A Molecular Approach,” University Science Books... chemistry , shock structure, and heat transfer in the complex flow field around hypervelocity vehicles. The acceleration of low temperature oxidation...equation (2), B12 is the Einstein B coefficient for stimulated absorption, N1 is the number density of absorbers in the lower quantum state (rotational

  12. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Monocular Optical Flow Field for Mobile Robot Ego-motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimized scheme of monocular ego-motion estimation to provide location and pose information for mobile robots with one fixed camera. First, a multi-scale hyper-complex wavelet phase-derived optical flow is applied to estimate micro motion of image blocks. Optical flow computation overcomes the difficulties of unreliable feature selection and feature matching of outdoor scenes; at the same time, the multi-scale strategy overcomes the problem of road surface self-similarity and local occlusions. Secondly, a support probability of flow vector is defined to evaluate the validity of the candidate image motions, and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE optical flow model is constructed based not only on image motion residuals but also their distribution of inliers and outliers, together with their support probabilities, to evaluate a given transform. This yields an optimized estimation of inlier parts of optical flow. Thirdly, a sampling and consensus strategy is designed to estimate the ego-motion parameters. Our model and algorithms are tested on real datasets collected from an intelligent vehicle. The experimental results demonstrate the estimated ego-motion parameters closely follow the GPS/INS ground truth in complex outdoor road scenarios.

  13. Steering behaviour can be modulated by different optic flows during walking. (United States)

    Sarre, Guillaume; Berard, Jessica; Fung, Joyce; Lamontagne, Anouk


    Optic flow is a typical pattern of visual motion that can be used to control locomotion. While the ability to discriminate translational or rotational optic flows have been extensively studied, how these flows control steering during locomotion is not known. The goal of this study was to compare the steering behaviour of subjects subjected to rotational, translational, or combined (rotational added to translational) optic flows with a focus of expansion (FOE) located to the right, left, or straight ahead. Ten healthy young subjects were instructed to walk straight in a virtual room viewed through a helmet mounted display while the location of the FOE was randomly offset. Horizontal trajectory of the body's centre of mass (CoM), as well as rotations of the head, trunk and foot were recorded in coordinates of both the physical and virtual worlds. Results show that subjects experienced a mediolateral shift in CoM opposite to the FOE location, with larger corrections being observed at more eccentric FOE locations. Head and body segment reorientations were only observed for optic flows containing a rotational component. CoM trajectory corrections in the physical world were also of small magnitude, leading to deviation errors in the virtual world. Altogether, these results suggest a profound influence of vision, especially due to the pattern of visual motion, on steering behaviours during locomotion.

  14. Forward Error Correcting Codes for 100 Gbit/s Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bomin

    and their associated experimental demonstration and hardware implementation. The demonstrated high CG, flexibility, robustness and scalability reveal the important role of FEC techniques in the next generation high-speed, high-capacity, high performance and energy-efficient fiber-optic data transmission networks.......This PhD thesis addresses the design and application of forward error correction (FEC) in high speed optical communications at the speed of 100 Gb/s and beyond. With the ever growing internet traffic, FEC has been considered as a strong and cost-effective way to improve the quality of transmission......-complexity low-power-consumption FEC hardware implementation plays an important role in the next generation energy efficient networks. Thirdly, a joint research is required for FEC integrated applications as the error distribution in channels relies on many factors such as non-linearity in long distance optical...

  15. Both channel coding and wavefront correction on the turbulence mitigation of optical communications using orbital angular momentum multiplexing (United States)

    Zhao, Shengmei; Wang, Le; Zou, Li; Gong, Longyan; Cheng, Weiwen; Zheng, Baoyu; Chen, Hanwu


    A free-space optical (FSO) communication link with multiplexed orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes has been demonstrated to largely enhance the system capacity without a corresponding increase in spectral bandwidth, but the performance of the link is unavoidably degraded by atmospheric turbulence (AT). In this paper, we propose a turbulence mitigation scheme to improve AT tolerance of the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link using both channel coding and wavefront correction. In the scheme, we utilize a wavefront correction method to mitigate the phase distortion first, and then we use a channel code to further correct the errors in each OAM mode. The improvement of AT tolerance is discussed over the performance of the link with or without channel coding/wavefront correction. The results show that the bit error rate performance has been improved greatly. The detrimental effect of AT on the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link could be removed by the proposed scheme even in the relatively strong turbulence regime, such as Cn2 = 3.6 ×10-14m - 2 / 3.

  16. A fast algorithm for non-Newtonian flow. An enhanced particle-tracking finite element code for solving boundary-valve problems in viscoelastic flow (United States)

    Malkus, David S.


    This project concerned the development of a new fast finite element algorithm to solve flow problems of non-Newtonian fluids such as solutions or melts of polymers. Many constitutive theories for such materials involve single integrals over the deformation history of the particle at the stress evaluation point; examples are the Doi-Edwards and Curtiss-Bird molecular theories and the BKZ family derived from continuum arguments. These theories are believed to be among the most accurate in describing non-Newtonian effects important to polymer process design, effects such as stress relaxation, shear thinning, and normal stress effects. This research developed an optimized version of the algorithm which would run a factor of two faster than the pilot algorithm on scalar machines and would be able to take full advantage of vectorization on machines. Significant progress was made in code vectorization; code enhancement and streamlining; adaptive memory quadrature; model problems for the High Weissenberg Number Problem; exactly incompressible projection; development of multimesh extrapolation procedures; and solution of problems of physical interest. A portable version of the code is in the final stages of benchmarking and testing. It interfaces with the widely used FIDAP fluid dynamics package.

  17. Non-reacting Flow Analysis from Combustor Inlet to Outlet using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ananda Reddy


    Full Text Available This paper describes non-reacting flow analysis of a gas turbine combustion system. The method is based on the solution of Navier-Strokes equations using generalised non-orthogonal coordinate system. The turbulence effects are modelled through the renormalisation group k-E model. The method has been applied to a practical gas turbine combustor. The combustionsystem includes swirler vane passages, fuel nozzles, rotor bleed, customer bleed, air-blast atomiser, swirl cone, and all holes in primary , dilution , dome, flare, and cooling ring. Thetotal geometry has been created using the pre-processors GAMBIT and CATIA, and the meshing has been done using GAMBIT, and the analysis carried out in a FLUENT solver. The interaction between the diffuser and the combustor external flows plays a key role in controlling the pressure loss, air flow distribution around the combustor liner, durability, and stability. The aero gas turbine combustor designs are generally guided by experimental methods and past experience; however, experimental methods are inherently slow, costly, especially at hightemperature engine-operating conditions. These drawbacks and the growing need to understand the complex flow-field phenomenon involved, have led to the development of a numericalmodel for predicting flow in the gas turbine combustor. These models are used to optimise the design of the combustor and its subcomponents, and reduce cost, time, and the number ofexperiments.

  18. Optical Feedback Interferometry for Velocity Measurement of Parallel Liquid-Liquid Flows in a Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio E. Ramírez-Miquet


    Full Text Available Optical feedback interferometry (OFI is a compact sensing technique with recent implementation for flow measurements in microchannels. We propose implementing OFI for the analysis at the microscale of multiphase flows starting with the case of parallel flows of two immiscible fluids. The velocity profiles in each phase were measured and the interface location estimated for several operating conditions. To the authors knowledge, this sensing technique is applied here for the first time to multiphase flows. Theoretical profiles issued from a model based on the Couette viscous flow approximation reproduce fairly well the experimental results. The sensing system and the analysis presented here provide a new tool for studying more complex interactions between immiscible fluids (such as liquid droplets flowing in a microchannel.

  19. Wavefront sensors for optical diagnostics in fluid mechanics: Application to heated flow, turbulence and droplet evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, D.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Torczynski, J.R.; Warren, M.E.; Shul, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McKechnie, T.S. [POD Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Optical measurement techniques are extremely useful in fluid mechanics because of their non-invasive nature. However, it is often difficult to separate measurement effects due to pressure, temperature and density in real flows. Using a variation of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, we have made density measurements that have extremely large dynamic range coupled with excellent sensitivity at high temporal and spatial resolution. We have examined several classes of flow including volumetrically heated gas, turbulence and droplet evaporation.

  20. NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor for 3-D viscous code assessment and fundamental flow physics research (United States)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Wood, J. R.; Wasserbauer, C. A.


    A low speed centrifugal compressor facility recently built by the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The purpose of this facility is to obtain detailed flow field measurements for computational fluid dynamic code assessment and flow physics modeling in support of Army and NASA efforts to advance small gas turbine engine technology. The facility is heavily instrumented with pressure and temperature probes, both in the stationary and rotating frames of reference, and has provisions for flow visualization and laser velocimetry. The facility will accommodate rotational speeds to 2400 rpm and is rated at pressures to 1.25 atm. The initial compressor stage being tested is geometrically and dynamically representative of modern high-performance centrifugal compressor stages with the exception of Mach number levels. Preliminary experimental investigations of inlet and exit flow uniformly and measurement repeatability are presented. These results demonstrate the high quality of the data which may be expected from this facility. The significance of synergism between computational fluid dynamic analysis and experimentation throughout the development of the low speed centrifugal compressor facility is demonstrated.

  1. An improved treatment of radiation energy flow in the radiation-hydrodynamics code CHARTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottler, J.S.


    An improved treatment of radiation transport has been added to the energy flow model in CHARTD. The new energy flow model was derived based on the assumption that the directional dependence of the radiation energy density can be represented by the first two terms of a spherical harmonic expansion, and that the photon energy spectrum can be partitioned into energy groups. This treatment of radiation transport is called the multigroup P-1 approximation, and is an effective description of radiation transport for a broad class of radiation-hydrodynamics problems. A synthetic acceleration scheme is used to solve the differenced multigroup P-1 equations. The coupling between the material field and the radiation field is fully explicit. This report describes the new energy flow model and the acceleration scheme used to solve the difference equations. 15 refs.

  2. Simulation approaches for the two-phase flow in saline repositories using the code TOUGH2-GRS. Report in the frame of the project ZIESEL. Two-phase flow in a saline repository using the example ERAM; Ansaetze zur Simulation der Zweiphasenstroemung in salinaren Endlagern mit dem Code TOUGH2-GRS. Bericht im Vorhaben ZIESEL. Zweiphasenfluss in einem salinaren Endlager am Beispiel des ERAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Martin; Fischer, Heidemarie; Seher, Holger; Weyand, Torben


    The simulation approaches for the two-phase flow in saline repositories using the code TOUGH2-GRS cover the following issues: simulation of gravitational flows in horizontal galleries without vertical discretization, homogenization approach for the simulation of the two-phase flow in converging partly backfilled galleries, qualification of the convergence approach implemented by GRS into the code TOUGH2-GRS, discretization effects during replacement of liquid by gas, consequences for the system analyses in the frame of the project ZIESEL.

  3. FPGA-based LDPC-coded APSK for optical communication systems. (United States)

    Zou, Ding; Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B


    In this paper, with the aid of mutual information and generalized mutual information (GMI) capacity analyses, it is shown that the geometrically shaped APSK that mimics an optimal Gaussian distribution with equiprobable signaling together with the corresponding gray-mapping rules can approach the Shannon limit closer than conventional quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) at certain range of FEC overhead for both 16-APSK and 64-APSK. The field programmable gate array (FPGA) based LDPC-coded APSK emulation is conducted on block interleaver-based and bit interleaver-based systems; the results verify a significant improvement in hardware efficient bit interleaver-based systems. In bit interleaver-based emulation, the LDPC-coded 64-APSK outperforms 64-QAM, in terms of symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), by 0.1 dB, 0.2 dB, and 0.3 dB at spectral efficiencies of 4.8, 4.5, and 4.2 b/s/Hz, respectively. It is found by emulation that LDPC-coded 64-APSK for spectral efficiencies of 4.8, 4.5, and 4.2 b/s/Hz is 1.6 dB, 1.7 dB, and 2.2 dB away from the GMI capacity.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A simple, fast and efficient algorithm to compute steady non-parallel flows and their linear stability in parameter space is described. The pseudo-arclength continuation method is used to trace branches of steady states as one of the parameters is varied. To determine the linear stability of each st

  5. Optimized QKD BB84 protocol using quantum dense coding and CNOT gates: feasibility based on probabilistic optical devices (United States)

    Gueddana, Amor; Attia, Moez; Chatta, Rihab


    In this work, we simulate a fiber-based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol (QKDP) BB84 working at the telecoms wavelength 1550 nm with taking into consideration an optimized attack strategy. We consider in our work a quantum channel composed by probabilistic Single Photon Source (SPS), single mode optical Fiber and quantum detector with high efficiency. We show the advantages of using the Quantum Dots (QD) embedded in micro-cavity compared to the Heralded Single Photon Sources (HSPS). Second, we show that Eve is always getting some information depending on the mean photon number per pulse of the used SPS and therefore, we propose an optimized version of the QKDP BB84 based on Quantum Dense Coding (QDC) that could be implemented by quantum CNOT gates. We evaluate the success probability of implementing the optimized QKDP BB84 when using nowadays probabilistic quantum optical devices for circuit realization. We use for our modeling an abstract probabilistic model of a CNOT gate based on linear optical components and having a success probability of sqrt (4/27), we take into consideration the best SPSs realizations, namely the QD and the HSPS, generating a single photon per pulse with a success probability of 0.73 and 0.37, respectively. We show that the protocol is totally secure against attacks but could be correctly implemented only with a success probability of few percent.

  6. Flow-induced birefringence: the hidden PSF killer in high performance injection-molded plastic optics (United States)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Kester, Robert; Descour, Michael R.


    A 7-mm OD, NA = 1 water immersion injection-molded plastic endoscope objective has been fabricated for a laser scanning fiber confocal reflectance microscope (FCRM) system specifically designed for in vivo detection of cervical and oral pre-cancers. Injection-molded optics was selected for the ability to incorporate aspheric surfaces into the optical design and its high volume capabilities. Our goal is high performance disposable endoscope probes. This objective has been built and tested as a stand-alone optical system, a Strehl ratio greater than 0.6 has been obtained. One of the limiting factors of optical performance is believed to be flow-induced birefringence. We have investigated different configurations for birefringence visualization and believe the circular polariscope is most useful for inspection of injection-molded plastic optics. In an effort to decrease birefringence effects, two experiments were conducted. They included: (1) annealing of the optics after fabrication and (2) modifying the injection molding prameters (packing pressures, injection rates, and hold time). While the second technique showed improvement, the annealing process could not improve quality without physically warping the lenses. Therefore, to effectively reduce flow-induced birefringence, molding conditions have to be carefully selected. These parameters are strongly connected to the physical part geometry. Both optical design and fabrication technology have to be considered together to deliver low birefringence while maintaining the required manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we present some of our current results that illustrate how flow-induced birefringence can degrade high performance injection-molded plastic optical systems.

  7. Robust models for optic flow coding in natural scenes inspired by insect biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell S A Brinkworth


    Full Text Available The extraction of accurate self-motion information from the visual world is a difficult problem that has been solved very efficiently by biological organisms utilizing non-linear processing. Previous bio-inspired models for motion detection based on a correlation mechanism have been dogged by issues that arise from their sensitivity to undesired properties of the image, such as contrast, which vary widely between images. Here we present a model with multiple levels of non-linear dynamic adaptive components based directly on the known or suspected responses of neurons within the visual motion pathway of the fly brain. By testing the model under realistic high-dynamic range conditions we show that the addition of these elements makes the motion detection model robust across a large variety of images, velocities and accelerations. Furthermore the performance of the entire system is more than the incremental improvements offered by the individual components, indicating beneficial non-linear interactions between processing stages. The algorithms underlying the model can be implemented in either digital or analog hardware, including neuromorphic analog VLSI, but defy an analytical solution due to their dynamic non-linear operation. The successful application of this algorithm has applications in the development of miniature autonomous systems in defense and civilian roles, including robotics, miniature unmanned aerial vehicles and collision avoidance sensors.

  8. Function and coding in the blowfly H1 neuron during naturalistic optic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Kern, R.; Schwerdtfeger, G.; Egelhaaf, M.


    Naturalistic stimuli, reconstructed from measured eye movements of flying blowflies, were replayed on a panoramic stimulus device. The directional movement-sensitive H1 neuron was recorded from blowflies watching these stimuli. The response of the H1 neuron is dominated by the response to fast

  9. Flow-dependent double-nanohole optical trapping of 20 nm polystyrene nanospheres (United States)

    Zehtabi-Oskuie, Ana; Bergeron, Jarrah Gerald; Gordon, Reuven


    We study the influence of fluid flow on the ability to trap optically a 20 nm polystyrene particle from a stationary microfluidic environment and then hold it against flow. Increased laser power is required to hold nanoparticles as the flow rate is increased, with an empirical linear dependence of 1 μl/(min×mW). This is promising for the delivery of additional nanoparticles to interact with a trapped nanoparticle; for example, to study protein-protein interactions, and for the ability to move the trapped particle in solution from one location to another. PMID:23236587

  10. Experimental verification of the frozen flow atmospheric turbulence assumption with use of astronomical adaptive optics telemetry. (United States)

    Poyneer, Lisa; van Dam, Marcos; Véran, Jean-Pierre


    We use closed-loop deformable mirror telemetry from Altair and Keck adaptive optics (AO) to determine whether atmospheric turbulence follows the frozen flow hypothesis. Using telemetry from AO systems, our algorithms (based on the predictive Fourier control framework) detect frozen flow >94% of the time. Usually one to three layers are detected. Between 20% and 40% of the total controllable phase power is due to frozen flow. Velocity vector RMS variability is less than 0.5 m/s (per axis) on 10-s intervals, indicating that the atmosphere is stable enough for predictive control to measure and adapt to prevailing atmospheric conditions before they change.

  11. Effective star tracking method based on optical flow analysis for star trackers. (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Jin; Wei, Minsong; You, Zheng


    Benefiting from rapid development of imaging sensor technology, modern optical technology, and a high-speed computing chip, the star tracker's accuracy, dynamic performance, and update rate have been greatly improved with low power consumption and miniature size. The star tracker is currently one of the most competitive attitude measurement sensors. However, due to restrictions of the optical imaging system, difficulties still exist in moving star spot detection and star tracking when in special motion conditions. An effective star tracking method based on optical flow analysis for star trackers is proposed in this paper. Spot-based optical flow, based on a gray gradient between two adjacent star images, is analyzed to distinguish the star spot region and obtain an accurate star spot position so that the star tracking can keep continuous under high dynamic conditions. The obtained star vectors and extended Kalman filter (EKF) are then combined to conduct an angular velocity estimation to ensure region prediction of the star spot; this can be combined with the optical flow analysis result. Experiment results show that the method proposed in this paper has advantages in conditions of large angular velocity and large angular acceleration, despite the presence of noise. Higher functional density and better performance can be achieved; thus, the star tracker can be more widely applied in small satellites, remote sensing, and other complex space missions.

  12. Time-of-Travel Methods for Measuring Optical Flow on Board a Micro Flying Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vanhoutte


    Full Text Available For use in autonomous micro air vehicles, visual sensors must not only be small, lightweight and insensitive to light variations; on-board autopilots also require fast and accurate optical flow measurements over a wide range of speeds. Using an auto-adaptive bio-inspired Michaelis–Menten Auto-adaptive Pixel (M 2 APix analog silicon retina, in this article, we present comparative tests of two optical flow calculation algorithms operating under lighting conditions from 6 × 10 − 7 to 1 . 6 × 10 − 2 W·cm − 2 (i.e., from 0.2 to 12,000 lux for human vision. Contrast “time of travel” between two adjacent light-sensitive pixels was determined by thresholding and by cross-correlating the two pixels’ signals, with measurement frequency up to 5 kHz for the 10 local motion sensors of the M 2 APix sensor. While both algorithms adequately measured optical flow between 25 ∘ /s and 1000 ∘ /s, thresholding gave rise to a lower precision, especially due to a larger number of outliers at higher speeds. Compared to thresholding, cross-correlation also allowed for a higher rate of optical flow output (99 Hz and 1195 Hz, respectively but required substantially more computational resources.

  13. Adaptive guided image filter for warping in variational optical flow computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Z.; Poppe, R.W.; Veltkamp, R.C.


    The variational optical flow method is considered to be the standard method to calculate an accurate dense motion field between successive frames. It assumes that the energy function has spatiotemporal continuities and appearance motions are small. However, for real image sequences, the temporal con

  14. Convergence of Object Focused Simultaneous Estimation of Optical Flow and State Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Bauer


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to prove the convergence of the simultaneous estimation of the optical flow and object state (SEOS method. The SEOS method utilizes dynamic object parameter information when calculating optical flow in tracking a moving object within a video stream. Optical flow estimation for the SEOS method requires the minimization of an error function containing the object's physical parameter data. When this function is discretized, the Euler-Lagrange equations form a system of linear equations. The system is arranged such that its property matrix is positive definite symmetric, proving the convergence of the Gauss-Seidel iterative methods. The system of linear equations produced by SEOS can alternatively be resolved by Jacobi iterative schemes. The positive definite symmetric property is not sufficient for Jacobi convergence. The convergence of SEOS for a block diagonal Jacobi is proved by analysing the Euclidean norm of the Jacobi matrix. In this paper, we also investigate the use of SEOS for tracking individual objects within a video sequence. The illustrations provided show the effectiveness of SEOS for localizing objects within a video sequence and generating optical flow results.

  15. Moving object localization using optical flow for pedestrian detection from a moving vehicle. (United States)

    Hariyono, Joko; Hoang, Van-Dung; Jo, Kang-Hyun


    This paper presents a pedestrian detection method from a moving vehicle using optical flows and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). A moving object is extracted from the relative motion by segmenting the region representing the same optical flows after compensating the egomotion of the camera. To obtain the optical flow, two consecutive images are divided into grid cells 14 × 14 pixels; then each cell is tracked in the current frame to find corresponding cell in the next frame. Using at least three corresponding cells, affine transformation is performed according to each corresponding cell in the consecutive images, so that conformed optical flows are extracted. The regions of moving object are detected as transformed objects, which are different from the previously registered background. Morphological process is applied to get the candidate human regions. In order to recognize the object, the HOG features are extracted on the candidate region and classified using linear support vector machine (SVM). The HOG feature vectors are used as input of linear SVM to classify the given input into pedestrian/nonpedestrian. The proposed method was tested in a moving vehicle and also confirmed through experiments using pedestrian dataset. It shows a significant improvement compared with original HOG using ETHZ pedestrian dataset.

  16. Incoherent optical correlators and phase encoding of identification codes for access control or authentication (United States)

    Brasher, James D.; Johnson, Eric G.


    We show how phase-only filters can be used in incoherent optical correlators for security applications such as access control, identification, or authentication. As a specific example, a biometric signature, a fingerprint, is encoded in a phase-only representation. The phase encoding is accomplished with the method of generalized projections onto constraint sets implemented by an iterated Fourier transform algorithm. The operation of an incoherent optical security system using both a phase-only filter generated with the generalized projections algorithm and a phase-only matched filter is simulated. The results demonstrate that the selected access pattern was accepted while a false pattern was rejected by the security system and that better recognition and discrimination performance was attained with the phase-only filter produced by the generalized projections algorithm.

  17. Stereoscopic advantages for vection induced by radial, circular, and spiral optic flows. (United States)

    Palmisano, Stephen; Summersby, Stephanie; Davies, Rodney G; Kim, Juno


    Although observer motions project different patterns of optic flow to our left and right eyes, there has been surprisingly little research into potential stereoscopic contributions to self-motion perception. This study investigated whether visually induced illusory self-motion (i.e., vection) is influenced by the addition of consistent stereoscopic information to radial, circular, and spiral (i.e., combined radial + circular) patterns of optic flow. Stereoscopic vection advantages were found for radial and spiral (but not circular) flows when monocular motion signals were strong. Under these conditions, stereoscopic benefits were greater for spiral flow than for radial flow. These effects can be explained by differences in the motion aftereffects generated by these displays, which suggest that the circular motion component in spiral flow selectively reduced adaptation to stereoscopic motion-in-depth. Stereoscopic vection advantages were not observed for circular flow when monocular motion signals were strong, but emerged when monocular motion signals were weakened. These findings show that stereoscopic information can contribute to visual self-motion perception in multiple ways.

  18. Two-Phase Flow Simulations for PTS Investigation by Means of Neptune_CFD Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moretti


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations of pressurized thermal shock (PTS phenomena through Neptune_CFD module are presented aiming at two-phase models validation against experimental data. Because of PTS complexity, only some thermal-hydraulic aspects were considered. Two different flow configurations were studied, occurring when emergency core cooling (ECC water is injected in an uncovered cold leg of a pressurized water reactor (PWR—a plunging water jet entering a free surface, and a stratified steam-water flow. Some standard and new implemented models were tested: modified turbulent k-ε models with turbulence production induced by interfacial friction, models for the drag coefficient, and interfacial heat transfer models. Quite good agreement with experimental data was achieved with best performing models for both test cases, even if a further improvement in phase change modelling would be suitable for nuclear technology applications.

  19. Spray and High-Pressure Flow Computations in the National Combustion Code (NCC) Improved (United States)

    Raju, Manthena S.


    Sprays occur in a wide variety of industrial and power applications and in materials processing. A liquid spray is a two-phase flow with a gas as the continuous phase and a liquid as the dispersed phase in the form of droplets or ligaments. The interactions between the two phases--which are coupled through exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy--can occur in different ways at disparate time and length scales involving various thermal, mass, and fluid dynamic factors. An understanding of the flow, combustion, and thermal properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray requires careful modeling of the ratecontrolling processes associated with turbulent transport, mixing, chemical kinetics, evaporation, and spreading rates of the spray, among many other factors. With the aim of developing an efficient solution procedure for use in multidimensional combustor modeling, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  20. Simplified Monolithic Flow Cytometer Chip With Three-Dimensional Hydrodyanmic Focusing And Integrated Fiber-Free Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motosuke, Masahiro; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Zhuang, Guisheng


    A miniaturized flow cytometry incorporating both fluidic and optical systems has a great possibility for portable biochemical sensing or point-of-care diagnostics. This paper presents a simple microfluidic flow cytometer combining reliable 3D hydrodynamic focusing and optical detection without op...... to be applied as a portable platform of cytometer chip....

  1. A semitransparency-based optical-flow method with a point trajectory model for particle-like video. (United States)

    Sakaino, Hidetomo


    This paper proposes a new semitransparency-based optical-flow model with a point trajectory (PT) model for particle-like video. Previous optical-flow models have used ranging from image brightness constancy to image brightness change models as constraints. However, two important issues remain unsolved. The first is how to track/match a semitransparent object with a very large displacement between frames. Such moving objects with different shapes and sizes in an outdoor scene move against a complicated background. Second, due to semitransparency, the image intensity between frames can also violate a previous image brightness-based optical-flow model. Thus, we propose a two-step optimization for the optical-flow estimation model for a moving semitransparent object, i.e., particle. In the first step, a rough optical flow between particles is estimated by a new alpha constancy constraint that is based on an image generation model of semitransparency. In the second step, the optical flow of a particle with a continuous trajectory in a definite temporal interval based on a PT model can be refined. Many experiments using various falling-snow and foggy scenes with multiple moving vehicles show the significant improvement of the optical flow compared with a previous optical-flow model.

  2. Simulating the lava flow formed during the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption (Bardarbunga volcanic system, Iceland) by using the new F-L probabilistic code (United States)

    Tarquini, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Jensen, Esther H.; Barsotti, Sara; Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Coppola, Diego


    The 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun started when a new code (named F-L) was being developed. The availability of several digital Elevation Models of the area inundated by the lava and the availability of continuously updated maps of the flow (collected in the field and through remote sensing imagery) provided an excellent opportunity for testing and calibrating the new code against an evolving flow field. Remote sensing data also provided a constrain on the effusion rate. Existing numerical codes for the simulation of lava flow emplacement are based either on the solution of some simplification of the physical governing equations of this phenomenon (the so-called "deterministic codes" - e.g. Hidaka et al. 2005; Crisci et al. 2010), or, instead, on the evidence that lava flows tend to follow the steepest descent path from the vent downhill (the so-called "probabilistic codes" - e.g. Favalli et al. 2005). F-L is a new code for the simulation of lava flows, which rests on an approach similar to the one introduced by Glaze and Baloga (2013), and can be ascribed to the "probabilistic family" of lava flow simulation codes. Nevertheless, in contrast with other probabilistic codes (e.g. Favalli et al. 2005), this code explicitly tackles not only the direction of expansion of the growing flow and the area covered, but also the volume of the emplaced lava over time, and hence the supply rate. As a result, this approach bridges the stochastic point of view of a plain probabilistic code with one of the most critical among the input parameters considered by deterministic codes, which is the effusion rate during the course of an eruption. As such, a similar code, in principle, can tackle several aspects which were previously not addressed within the probabilistic approach, which are: (i) the 3D morphology of the flow field (i.e. thickness), (ii) the implications of the effusion rate in the growth of the flow field, and (iii) the evolution of the lava coverage over time

  3. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook


    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of localized diffusion and flow using optical coherence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Nicolás; Kalkman, Jeroen


    We report on the simultaneous and localized measurements of the diffusion coefficient and flow velocity based on the normalized autocorrelation function using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results on a flowing solution of polystyrene spheres show that the flow velocity and the diffusion coefficient can be reliably estimated in a regime determined by the sample diffusivity, the local flow velocity, and the Gaussian beam waist. We experimentally show that a smaller beam waist results in an improvement of the velocity sensitivity at cost of the precision and accuracy of the estimation of the diffusion coefficient. Further, we show that the decay of the OCT autocorrelation due to flow depends only on the Gaussian beam waist irrespective of the sample position with respect to the focus position.

  5. Bayesian modeling of perceived surface slant from actively-generated and passively-observed optic flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Caudek

    Full Text Available We measured perceived depth from the optic flow (a when showing a stationary physical or virtual object to observers who moved their head at a normal or slower speed, and (b when simulating the same optic flow on a computer and presenting it to stationary observers. Our results show that perceived surface slant is systematically distorted, for both the active and the passive viewing of physical or virtual surfaces. These distortions are modulated by head translation speed, with perceived slant increasing directly with the local velocity gradient of the optic flow. This empirical result allows us to determine the relative merits of two alternative approaches aimed at explaining perceived surface slant in active vision: an "inverse optics" model that takes head motion information into account, and a probabilistic model that ignores extra-retinal signals. We compare these two approaches within the framework of the bayesian theory. The "inverse optics" bayesian model produces veridical slant estimates if the optic flow and the head translation velocity are measured with no error; because of the influence of a "prior" for flatness, the slant estimates become systematically biased as the measurement errors increase. The bayesian model, which ignores the observer's motion, always produces distorted estimates of surface slant. Interestingly, the predictions of this second model, not those of the first one, are consistent with our empirical findings. The present results suggest that (a in active vision perceived surface slant may be the product of probabilistic processes which do not guarantee the correct solution, and (b extra-retinal signals may be mainly used for a better measurement of retinal information.

  6. Evaluation of optical flow algorithms for tracking endocardial surfaces on three-dimensional ultrasound data (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Herz, Susan L.; Ingrassia, Christopher M.; Gerard, Olivier; Costa, Kevin D.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Laine, Andrew F.


    With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Such analyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the volumetric data sets, manual tracing of the endocardial border is tedious and impractical for clinical applications. Therefore the development of automatic methods for tracking three-dimensional endocardial motion is essential. In this study, we evaluate a four-dimensional optical flow motion tracking algorithm to determine its capability to follow the endocardial border in three dimensional ultrasound data through time. The four-dimensional optical flow method was implemented using three-dimensional correlation. We tested the algorithm on an experimental open-chest dog data set and a clinical data set acquired with a Philips' iE33 three-dimensional ultrasound machine. Initialized with left ventricular endocardial data points obtained from manual tracing at end-diastole, the algorithm automatically tracked these points frame by frame through the whole cardiac cycle. A finite element surface was fitted through the data points obtained by both optical flow tracking and manual tracing by an experienced observer for quantitative comparison of the results. Parameterization of the finite element surfaces was performed and maps displaying relative differences between the manual and semi-automatic methods were compared. The results showed good consistency between manual tracing and optical flow estimation on 73% of the entire surface with fewer than 10% difference. In addition, the optical flow motion tracking algorithm greatly reduced processing time (about 94% reduction compared to human involvement per cardiac cycle) for analyzing cardiac function in three

  7. Honeybees' speed depends on dorsal as well as lateral, ventral and frontal optic flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Portelli

    Full Text Available Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS ("AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System" model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.

  8. Effect of the modulation of optic flow speed on gait parameters in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Lim, Hyungwon


    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of modulation of the optic flow speed on gait parameters in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. [Methods] We examined 10 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. The children underwent gait analysis under 3 different conditions of optic flow speed: slow, normal, and fast optic flow speed. The children walked across the walkway of a GAITRite system, while watching a virtual reality screen, and walking velocity, cadence, stride length, step length, single support time, and double support time were recorded. [Results] Compared with the other applied flow speed conditions, the fast optic flow speed (2 times the normal speed) significantly increased walking velocity, cadence, normalized step length, base of support, and single support cycle of both the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. Moreover, compared with the other applied flow speed conditions, the slow optic flow speed (0.25 times the normal speed) yielded a significantly decreased walking velocity, cadence, normalized step length, base of support, and single support cycle for both the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. [Conclusion] The gait parameters of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy are altered by modulation of the optic flow speed. Thus, we believe that gait training involving modulation of the optic flow speed is feasible and suitable for resolving abnormal gait patterns in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

  9. Non-Linear Optical Flow Cytometry Using a Scanned, Bessel Beam Light-Sheet (United States)

    Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.


    Modern flow cytometry instruments have become vital tools for high-throughput analysis of single cells. However, as issues with the cellular labeling techniques often used in flow cytometry have become more of a concern, the development of label-free modalities for cellular analysis is increasingly desired. Non-linear optical phenomena (NLO) are of growing interest for label-free analysis because of the ability to measure the intrinsic optical response of biomolecules found in cells. We demonstrate that a light-sheet consisting of a scanned Bessel beam is an optimal excitation geometry for efficiently generating NLO signals in a microfluidic environment. The balance of photon density and cross-sectional area provided by the light-sheet allowed significantly larger two-photon fluorescence intensities to be measured in a model polystyrene microparticle system compared to measurements made using other excitation focal geometries, including a relaxed Gaussian excitation beam often used in conventional flow cytometers. PMID:26021750

  10. Flow rate estimation by optical coherence tomography using contrast dilution approach (United States)

    Štohanzlová, Petra; Kolář, Radim


    This paper describes experiments and methodology for flow rate estimation using optical coherence tomography and dilution method in single fiber setup. The single fiber is created from custom made glass capillary and polypropylene hollow fiber. As a data source, measurements on single fiber phantom with continuous flow of carrier medium and bolus of Intralipid solution as a contrast agent were used using Thorlabs OCT OCS1300SS. The measured data were processed by methods of image processing, in order to precisely align the individual images in the sequence and extract dilution curves from the area inside the fiber. An experiment proved that optical coherence tomography can be used for flow rate estimation by the dilution method with precision around 7%.

  11. Influence of prolonged optic flow stimuli on spontaneous activities of cat PMLS neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Changes in neuronal spontaneous activities after prolonged optic flow stimulation (using the three basic flow modes: translation, radiation and rotation) were investigated by extracellular single-unit recording in cortical area PMLS of the cat. The results showed that the evoked responses decreased with the prolongation of visual stimuli, and the spontaneous activities usually dropped to a lower level after the stimuli were withdrawn. Generally, the reduction in spontaneous activities was larger after adaptation in the preferred direction than in the non-preferred direction. This difference was much pronounced to translation stimuli, but relatively insignificant to radiation and rotation. These points suggest that non-specific fatigue may act as the key factor in adaptation to simple translation, while some kinds of more complicated, direction-specific mechanism may be involved in adaptation to the complex optic flow patterns. In addition, PMLS may play an important role in perception and adaptation to complex motion and the relevant motion after-effects.

  12. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates (United States)

    Halder, P.; Chakraborty, A.; Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.


    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with a plan to create a large database in future. This application also has an option where users can compile and run the scattering code directly for aggregates in GUI environment. The JaSTA aims to provide convenient and quicker data analysis of the optical properties which can be used in different fields like planetary science, atmospheric science, nano science, etc. The current version of this software is developed for the Linux and Windows platform to study the light scattering properties of small aggregates which will be extended for larger aggregates using parallel codes in future. Catalogue identifier: AETB_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571570 No. of bytes in distributed program

  13. Optical Measurement of Mass Flow of a Two-Phase Fluid (United States)

    Wiley, John; Pedersen, Kevin; Koman, Valentin; Gregory, Don


    An optoelectronic system utilizes wavelength-dependent scattering of light for measuring the density and mass flow of a two-phase fluid in a pipe. The apparatus was invented for original use in measuring the mass flow of a two-phase cryogenic fluid (e.g., liquid hydrogen containing bubbles of hydrogen gas), but underlying principles of operation can readily be adapted to non-cryogenic two-phase fluids. The system (see figure) includes a laser module, which contains two or more laser diodes, each operating at a different wavelength. The laser module also contains beam splitters that combine the beams at the various wavelengths so as to produce two output beams, each containing all of the wavelengths. One of the multiwavelength output beams is sent, via a multimode fiberoptic cable, to a transmitting optical coupler. The other multiwavelength output beam is sent, via another multimode fiber-optic cable, to a reference detector module, wherein fiber-optic splitters split the light into several multiwavelength beams, each going to a photodiode having a spectral response that is known and that differs from the spectral responses of the other photodiodes. The outputs of these photodiodes are digitized and fed to a processor, which executes an algorithm that utilizes the known spectral responses to convert the photodiode outputs to obtain reference laser-power levels for the various wavelengths. The transmitting optical coupler is mounted in (and sealed to) a hole in the pipe and is oriented at a slant with respect to the axis of the pipe. The transmitting optical coupler contains a collimating lens and a cylindrical lens that form the light emerging from the end of the fiber-optic cable into a fan-shaped beam in a meridional plane of the pipe. Receiving optical couplers similar to the transmitting optical couplers are mounted in the same meridional plane at various longitudinal positions on the opposite side of the pipe, approximately facing the transmitting optical

  14. Turbulence Mitigation Scheme for Optical Communications using Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing Based on Channel Coding and Wavefront Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shengmei; Zhou, Li; Gong, Longyan; Cheng, Wenwen; Sheng, Yubo; Zheng, Baoyu


    The free-space optical (FSO) communication links with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing have been demonstrated that they can largely enhance the systems' capacity without a corresponding increase in spectral bandwidth, but the performance of the system is unavoidably disturbed by atmospheric turbulence (AT). Different from the existed AT disturbance, the OAM-multiplexed systems will cause both the burst and random errors for a single OAM state carrier and the `crosstalk' interference between the different OAM states carriers. In this paper, we propose a turbulence mitigation method to improve AT tolerance of OAM-multiplexed FSO communication links. In the proposed scheme, we use channel codes to correct the burst and random errors caused by AT for a single OAM state carrier; And we use wavefront correction method to correct the `crosstalk' interference between the different OAM states carriers. The improvements of AT tolerance are discussed by comparing the performance of OAM-multiplexed FSO communi...

  15. Color-Coded Batteries - Electro-Photonic Inverse Opal Materials for Enhanced Electrochemical Energy Storage and Optically Encoded Diagnostics. (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Colm


    For consumer electronic devices, long-life, stable, and reasonably fast charging Li-ion batteries with good stable capacities are a necessity. For exciting and important advances in the materials that drive innovations in electrochemical energy storage (EES), modular thin-film solar cells, and wearable, flexible technology of the future, real-time analysis and indication of battery performance and health is crucial. Here, developments in color-coded assessment of battery material performance and diagnostics are described, and a vision for using electro-photonic inverse opal materials and all-optical probes to assess, characterize, and monitor the processes non-destructively in real time are outlined. By structuring any cathode or anode material in the form of a photonic crystal or as a 3D macroporous inverse opal, color-coded "chameleon" battery-strip electrodes may provide an amenable way to distinguish the type of process, the voltage, material and chemical phase changes, remaining capacity, cycle health, and state of charge or discharge of either existing or new materials in Li-ion or emerging alternative battery types, simply by monitoring its color change.

  16. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, P; Roy, P Deb; Das, H S


    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with...

  17. Fully automated macular pathology detection in retina optical coherence tomography images using sparse coding and dictionary learning (United States)

    Sun, Yankui; Li, Shan; Sun, Zhongyang


    We propose a framework for automated detection of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME) from retina optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, based on sparse coding and dictionary learning. The study aims to improve the classification performance of state-of-the-art methods. First, our method presents a general approach to automatically align and crop retina regions; then it obtains global representations of images by using sparse coding and a spatial pyramid; finally, a multiclass linear support vector machine classifier is employed for classification. We apply two datasets for validating our algorithm: Duke spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) dataset, consisting of volumetric scans acquired from 45 subjects-15 normal subjects, 15 AMD patients, and 15 DME patients; and clinical SD-OCT dataset, consisting of 678 OCT retina scans acquired from clinics in Beijing-168, 297, and 213 OCT images for AMD, DME, and normal retinas, respectively. For the former dataset, our classifier correctly identifies 100%, 100%, and 93.33% of the volumes with DME, AMD, and normal subjects, respectively, and thus performs much better than the conventional method; for the latter dataset, our classifier leads to a correct classification rate of 99.67%, 99.67%, and 100.00% for DME, AMD, and normal images, respectively.

  18. Optical Study of Flow and Combustion in an HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap (United States)

    Wilson, Trevor S.; Xu, Hongming; Richardson, Steve; Wyszynski, Miroslaw L.; Megaritis, Thanos


    One of the most widely used methods to enable Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is using negative valve overlapping to trap a sufficient quantity of hot residual gas. The characteristics of air motion with specially designed valve events having reduced valve lift and durations associated with HCCI engines and their effect on subsequent combustion are not yet fully understood. In addition, the ignition process and combustion development in such engines are very different from those in conventional spark-ignition or diesel compression ignition engines. Very little data has been reported concerning optical diagnostics of the flow and combustion in the engine using negative valve overlapping. This paper presents an experimental investigation into the in-cylinder flow characteristics and combustion development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. PIV measurements have been taken under motored engine conditions to provide a quantitative flow characterisation of negative valve overlap in-cylinder flows. The ignition and combustion process was imaged using a high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) camera and the combustion imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data which assisted the analysis of the images. It is found that the flow characteristics with negative valve overlapping are less stable and more valve event driven than typical spark ignition in-cylinder flows, while the combustion initiation locations are not uniformly distributed.

  19. Processing of Egomotion-Consistent Optic Flow in the Rhesus Macaque Cortex. (United States)

    Cottereau, Benoit R; Smith, Andrew T; Rima, Samy; Fize, Denis; Héjja-Brichard, Yseult; Renaud, Luc; Lejards, Camille; Vayssière, Nathalie; Trotter, Yves; Durand, Jean-Baptiste


    The cortical network that processes visual cues to self-motion was characterized with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 3 awake behaving macaques. The experimental protocol was similar to previous human studies in which the responses to a single large optic flow patch were contrasted with responses to an array of 9 similar flow patches. This distinguishes cortical regions where neurons respond to flow in their receptive fields regardless of surrounding motion from those that are sensitive to whether the overall image arises from self-motion. In all 3 animals, significant selectivity for egomotion-consistent flow was found in several areas previously associated with optic flow processing, and notably dorsal middle superior temporal area, ventral intra-parietal area, and VPS. It was also seen in areas 7a (Opt), STPm, FEFsem, FEFsac and in a region of the cingulate sulcus that may be homologous with human area CSv. Selectivity for egomotion-compatible flow was never total but was particularly strong in VPS and putative macaque CSv. Direct comparison of results with the equivalent human studies reveals several commonalities but also some differences.

  20. On the Analysis and Evaluation of Direct Containement Heating with the Multidimensional Multiphase Flow Code MC3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Janin


    Full Text Available In the course of a postulated severe accident in an NPP, Direct Containment Heating (DCH may occur after an eventual failure of the vessel. DCH is related to dynamical, thermal, and chemical phenomena involved by the eventual fine fragmentation and dispersal of the corium melt out of the vessel pit. It may threaten the integrity of the containment by pressurization of its atmosphere. Several simplified modellings have been proposed in the past but they require a very strong fitting which renders any extrapolation regarding geometry, material, and scales rather doubtful. With the development of multidimensional multiphase flow computer codes, it is now possible to investigate the phenomenon numerically with more details. We present an analysis of the potential of the MC3D code to support the analysis of this phenomenon, restricting our discussion to the dynamical processes. The analysis is applied to the case of French 1300 MWe PWR reactors for which we derive a correlation for the corium dispersal rate for application in a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA level 2 study.

  1. Electro-optical time gating based on Mach-Zehnder modulator for multiple access interference elimination in optical code-division multiple access networks (United States)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao


    An electro-optical time gating technique, which is based on an electrical return-to-zero (RZ) pulse driven Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) for eliminating multiple access interference (MAI) in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. This technique is successfully simulated in an eight-user two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading system, as well as in a three-user temporal phase encoding system. Results show that in both systems the MAI noise is efficiently removed and the average received power penalty improved. Both achieve error-free transmissions at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s. In addition, we also individually discuss effects of parameters in two systems, such as the extinction ratio of the MZM, the duty cycle of the driven RZ pulse, and the time misalignment between the driven pulse and the decoded autocorrelation peak, on the output bit error rate performance. Our work shows that employing a common MZM as a thresholder provides another probability and an interesting cost-effective choice for a smart size, low energy, and less complex thresholding technique for integrated detection in OCDMA networks.

  2. Functional design and implementation with on-line programmable technology in optical fiber communication pulse code modulation test system (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Ding, Huan; Gao, Youtang


    In order to complete the functional design in the fiber optical communication pulse code modulation test system, taking advantage of CPLD / FPGA and SOPC technology, software solutions used to design system hardware features and control functions, thereby the whole system could attain optimisation in the logic control as well as encoding and decoding functional designs on the motherboard, enabling this system fulfill the capacities varying from simple digital simulation transmission modulate to the high speed fiber optical communication network information encoding and decoding functions. Simultaneously the application of logarithmic pressure companding technique, PCM encoding and decoding system to improve the small signal quantizing SNR(Signal-to-Noise Ratio), TP3067 adopting A rate thirteen broken lines to carry on signal pressure companding. When the signal at a certain stage, the quantizing SNR is invariable(as signal receives uniform quantization in this phase, therefore the quantizing SNR drops along with signal amplititude decreasing). Test results are as follows: ideal various signal encoding and decoding system waveforms, high performance parameters , achieve the desired designing aim, a entirely new approach to realize different kinds of information encoding and decoding model building and implementation, saving development costs, improving design efficiency, satisfactory actual results, stable operation.

  3. Validation of Turbulence Models for the Beggar Code in Unsteady Flows (United States)


    numerically or via matching empirical data, as shown below. Cb1 = 0.1355 Cb2 = 0.622 σ = 2 3 Cv1 = 7.1 Cw1 = Cb1 κ2 + (1 + Cb2 ) σ Cw2 = 0.3 Cw3 = 2.0 κ = 0.41...bounded flows in mind(7). The specific equation solved in the Spalart-Allmaras model is: ∂ν̃ ∂t + Ui ∂ν̃ ∂xi = 1 σ [ ∇ · ((ν + ν̃∇ν̃) + Cb2 (∇ν̃)2...viscous damping function, fv1, is given by: fv1 = χ3 χ3 + C3v1 , (44) P (ν̃) in Equation 42 is the production term, given by: P (ν̃) = Cb1 ( S + ν̃

  4. Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive non-binary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC-coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks. (United States)

    Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Saunders, Ross; Marcoccia, Roberto M


    In order to achieve high-speed transmission over optical transport networks (OTNs) and maximize its throughput, we propose using a rate-adaptive polarization-multiplexed coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection based on component non-binary quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes. Compared to prior-art bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (BI-LDPC-CM) scheme, the proposed non-binary LDPC-coded modulation (NB-LDPC-CM) scheme not only reduces latency due to symbol- instead of bit-level processing but also provides either impressive reduction in computational complexity or striking improvements in coding gain depending on the constellation size. As the paper presents, compared to its prior-art binary counterpart, the proposed NB-LDPC-CM scheme addresses the needs of future OTNs, which are achieving the target BER performance and providing maximum possible throughput both over the entire lifetime of the OTN, better.

  5. Calibration and deployment of a fiber-optic sensing system for monitoring debris flows. (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Jer; Chu, Chung-Ray; Tien, Tsung-Mo; Yin, Hsiao-Yuen; Chen, Ping-Sen


    This work presents a novel fiber-optic sensing system, capable of monitoring debris flows or other natural hazards that produce ground vibrations. The proposed sensing system comprises a demodulator (BraggSCOPE, FS5500), which includes a broadband light source and a data logger, a four-port coupler and four Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) accelerometers. Based on field tests, the performance of the proposed fiber-optic sensing system is compared with that of a conventional sensing system that includes a geophone or a microphone. Following confirmation of the reliability of the proposed sensing system, the fiber-optic sensing systems are deployed along the Ai-Yu-Zi and Chu-Shui Creeks in Nautou County of central Taiwan for monitoring debris flows. Sensitivity test of the deployed fiber-optic sensing system along the creek banks is also performed. Analysis results of the seismic data recorded by the systems reveal in detail the frequency characteristics of the artificially generated ground vibrations. Results of this study demonstrate that the proposed fiber-optic sensing system is highly promising for use in monitoring natural disasters that generate ground vibrations.

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Wide Range Optical Fiber Turbine Flow Sensor. (United States)

    Du, Yuhuan; Guo, Yingqing


    In this paper, a novel fiber turbine flow sensor was proposed and demonstrated for liquid measurement with optical fiber, using light intensity modulation to measure the turbine rotational speed for converting to flow rate. The double-circle-coaxial (DCC) fiber probe was introduced in frequency measurement for the first time. Through the divided ratio of two rings light intensity, the interference in light signals acquisition can be eliminated. To predict the characteristics between the output frequency and flow in the nonlinear range, the turbine flow sensor model was built. Via analyzing the characteristics of turbine flow sensor, piecewise linear equations were achieved in expanding the flow measurement range. Furthermore, the experimental verification was tested. The results showed that the flow range ratio of DN20 turbine flow sensor was improved 2.9 times after using piecewise linear in the nonlinear range. Therefore, combining the DCC fiber sensor and piecewise linear method, it can be developed into a strong anti-electromagnetic interference(anti-EMI) and wide range fiber turbine flowmeter.

  7. One-pot synthesis of multicolor MnSe:ZnSe nanocrystals for optical coding. (United States)

    Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Shao, Haibao; Jiang, Yuan; Bo, Fan; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping


    Though the investigation on controlling the fluorescence properties of nanocrystals (NCs) with single emission has been widely reported, few efforts were spent on adjusting the fluorescence properties of NCs with multiple emission peaks. In this work, we successfully synthesized multicolor MnSe:ZnSe NCs with multiple emission peaks and developed a simple and accurate method to realize photoluminescence (PL) spectra (or color) adjustment. The PL of MnSe:ZnSe NCs has two distinct emission peaks, the trap emission of ZnSe at 475nm and Mn(2+)-induced emission at 585nm. By adjusting the nucleation temperature, the emission color of the NCs can be encoded according to the ratio of the emission intensities at 475 and 585nm. With the nucleation temperature rising from 0 to 70°C, the PL ratio between trap emission and Mn(2+)-induced emission can be consecutively changed from (1, 3) to (1, 0.5). In addition, the trap state is deeply inside the NCs rather than on NCs surface so that the trap emission is stable during environment change. Thus, these MnSe:ZnSe NCs hold great promise as novel single-particle coding labels for biomedical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical Sensor of Thermal Gas Flow Based on Fiber Bragg Grating (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Wang, Keda; Li, Junqing; Zhan, Hui; Song, Zhenan; Che, Guohang; Lyu, Guohui


    This paper aims at solving the problem of explosion proof in measurement of thermal gas flow using electronic sensor by presenting a new type of flow sensor by optical fiber heating. A measuring unit based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for fluid temperature and a unit for heat dissipation are designed to replace the traditional electronic sensors. The light in C band from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source is split, with one part used to heat the absorbing coating and the other part used in the signal processing unit. In the heating unit, an absorbing coating is introduced to replace the traditional resistance heating module to minimize the risk of explosion. The measurement results demonstrate a fine consistency between the flow and temperature difference in simulation. The method to enhance the measurement resolution of flow is also discussed. PMID:28212268

  9. Optical Sensor of Thermal Gas Flow Based on Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang


    Full Text Available This paper aims at solving the problem of explosion proof in measurement of thermal gas flow using electronic sensor by presenting a new type of flow sensor by optical fiber heating. A measuring unit based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG for fluid temperature and a unit for heat dissipation are designed to replace the traditional electronic sensors. The light in C band from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE light source is split, with one part used to heat the absorbing coating and the other part used in the signal processing unit. In the heating unit, an absorbing coating is introduced to replace the traditional resistance heating module to minimize the risk of explosion. The measurement results demonstrate a fine consistency between the flow and temperature difference in simulation. The method to enhance the measurement resolution of flow is also discussed.

  10. Density and Cavitating Flow Results from a Full-Scale Optical Multiphase Cryogenic Flowmeter (United States)

    Korman, Valentin


    Liquid propulsion systems are hampered by poor flow measurements. The measurement of flow directly impacts safe motor operations, performance parameters as well as providing feedback from ground testing and developmental work. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in an effort to improve propulsion sensor technology, has developed an all optical flow meter that directly measures the density of the fluid. The full-scale sensor was tested in a transient, multiphase liquid nitrogen fluid environment. Comparison with traditional density models shows excellent agreement with fluid density with an error of approximately 0.8%. Further evaluation shows the sensor is able to detect cavitation or bubbles in the flow stream and separate out their resulting effects in fluid density.

  11. Validation and comparison of two-phase flow modeling capabilities of CFD, sub channel and system codes by means of post-test calculations of BFBT transient tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Manes, Jorge Perez; Imke, Uwe; Escalante, Javier Jimenez; Espinoza, Victor Sanchez, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Simulation of BFBT turbine and pump transients at multiple scales. • CFD, sub-channel and system codes are used for the comparative study. • Heat transfer models are compared to identify difference between the code predictions. • All three scales predict results in good agreement to experiment. • Sub cooled boiling models are identified as field for future research. -- Abstract: The Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is involved in the validation and qualification of modern thermo hydraulic simulations tools at various scales. In the present paper, the prediction capabilities of four codes from three different scales – NEPTUNE{sub C}FD as fine mesh computational fluid dynamics code, SUBCHANFLOW and COBRA-TF as sub channels codes and TRACE as system code – are assessed with respect to their two-phase flow modeling capabilities. The subject of the investigations is the well-known and widely used data base provided within the NUPEC BFBT benchmark related to BWRs. Void fraction measurements simulating a turbine and a re-circulation pump trip are provided at several axial levels of the bundle. The prediction capabilities of the codes for transient conditions with various combinations of boundary conditions are validated by comparing the code predictions with the experimental data. In addition, the physical models of the different codes are described and compared to each other in order to explain the different results and to identify areas for further improvements.

  12. Optical coherence tomography angiography offers comprehensive evaluation of skin optical clearing in vivo by quantifying optical properties and blood flow imaging simultaneously (United States)

    Guo, Li; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Dan; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng


    Tissue optical clearing (TOC) is helpful for reducing scattering and enhancing the penetration depth of light, and shows promising potential in optimizing optical imaging performances. A mixture of fructose with PEG-400 and thiazone (FPT) is used as an optical clearing agent in mouse dorsal skin and evaluated with OCT angiography (Angio-OCT) by quantifying optical properties and blood flow imaging simultaneously. It is observed that FPT leads to an improved imaging performance for the deeper tissues. The imaging performance improvement is most likely caused by the FPT-induced dehydration of skin, and the reduction of scattering coefficient (more than ˜40.5%) and refractive-index mismatching (more than ˜25.3%) in the superficial (epidermal, dermal, and hypodermal) layers. A high correlation (up to ˜90%) between the relative changes in refractive-index mismatching and Angio-OCT signal strength is measured. The optical clearing rate is ˜5.83×10-5 cm/s. In addition, Angio-OCT demonstrates enhanced performance in imaging cutaneous hemodynamics with satisfactory spatiotemporal resolution and contrast when combined with TOC, which exhibits a powerful practical application in studying microcirculation.

  13. A conservative orbital advection scheme for simulations of magnetized shear flows with the PLUTO code (United States)

    Mignone, A.; Flock, M.; Stute, M.; Kolb, S. M.; Muscianisi, G.


    Context. Explicit numerical computations of hypersonic or super-fast differentially rotating disks are subject to the time-step constraint imposed by the Courant condition, according to which waves cannot travel more than a fraction of a cell during a single time-step update. When the bulk orbital velocity largely exceeds any other wave speed (e.g., sound or Alfvén), as computed in the rest frame, the time step is considerably reduced and an unusually large number of steps may be necessary to complete the computation. Aims: We present a robust numerical scheme to overcome the Courant limitation by improving and extending the algorithm previously known as FARGO (fast advection in rotating gaseous objects) to the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) using a more general formalism. The proposed scheme conserves total angular momentum and energy to machine precision and works in cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. The algorithm has been implemented in the next release of the PLUTO code for astrophysical gasdynamics and is suitable for local or global simulations of accretion or proto-planetary disk models. Methods: By decomposing the total velocity into an average azimuthal contribution and a residual term, the algorithm approaches the solution of the MHD equations through two separate steps corresponding to a linear transport operator in the direction of orbital motion and a standard nonlinear solver applied to the MHD equations written in terms of the residual velocity. Since the former step is not subject to any stability restriction, the Courant condition is computed only in terms of the residual velocity, leading to substantially larger time steps. The magnetic field is advanced in time using the constrained transport method in order to fulfill the divergence-free condition. Furthermore, conservation of total energy and angular momentum is enforced at the discrete level by properly expressing the source terms in terms of upwind Godunov fluxes

  14. Microfluidic Imaging Flow Cytometry by Asymmetric-detection Time-stretch Optical Microscopy (ATOM). (United States)

    Tang, Anson H L; Lai, Queenie T K; Chung, Bob M F; Lee, Kelvin C M; Mok, Aaron T Y; Yip, G K; Shum, Anderson H C; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K


    Scaling the number of measurable parameters, which allows for multidimensional data analysis and thus higher-confidence statistical results, has been the main trend in the advanced development of flow cytometry. Notably, adding high-resolution imaging capabilities allows for the complex morphological analysis of cellular/sub-cellular structures. This is not possible with standard flow cytometers. However, it is valuable for advancing our knowledge of cellular functions and can benefit life science research, clinical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Incorporating imaging capabilities into flow cytometry compromises the assay throughput, primarily due to the limitations on speed and sensitivity in the camera technologies. To overcome this speed or throughput challenge facing imaging flow cytometry while preserving the image quality, asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) has been demonstrated to enable high-contrast, single-cell imaging with sub-cellular resolution, at an imaging throughput as high as 100,000 cells/s. Based on the imaging concept of conventional time-stretch imaging, which relies on all-optical image encoding and retrieval through the use of ultrafast broadband laser pulses, ATOM further advances imaging performance by enhancing the image contrast of unlabeled/unstained cells. This is achieved by accessing the phase-gradient information of the cells, which is spectrally encoded into single-shot broadband pulses. Hence, ATOM is particularly advantageous in high-throughput measurements of single-cell morphology and texture - information indicative of cell types, states, and even functions. Ultimately, this could become a powerful imaging flow cytometry platform for the biophysical phenotyping of cells, complementing the current state-of-the-art biochemical-marker-based cellular assay. This work describes a protocol to establish the key modules of an ATOM system (from optical frontend to data processing and visualization

  15. Total retinal blood flow and reproducibility evaluation by three beam optical Doppler tomography (United States)

    Haindl, Richard; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Wartak, Andreas; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.


    We present a three beam optical Doppler tomography (ODT) technique suitable for 3-D velocity and flow measurements to evaluate total retinal blood circulation from and to the optic nerve head (ONH). The system consists of three independent ODT channels. Superluminescent diodes with a central wavelength of 840 nm and a spectral bandwidth of 50 nm were used. The sources are coupled to collimators resting in a specially designed mount to ensure a well-defined beam geometry, necessary for the full reconstruction of the three dimensional velocity vector. The reconstruction works without prior knowledge on the vessel geometry, which is normally required for ODT systems with less than three beams. The beams share a common bulk optics Michelson interferometer, while the detection comprises three identical spectrometers with a line scan rate of 50 kHz. 20 eyes of healthy volunteers were imaged with the 3 beam ODT, employing a circular scan pattern around the ONH. The mean total blood flow was calculated for arteries (47.1 +/- 2.4 μl/min (mean +/- SD)) and veins (47.1 +/- 2.7 μl/min μl/min) independently. The two results showed no significant difference (paired t-test, p < 0.96), rendering both equally reliable for total flow measurements. Furthermore the reproducibility of the method was evaluated for the total flow and flow, velocities within each individual vessel of 6 eyes. The average variation for total flow measurements is sufficiently low to detect deviations of ~ 6% indicating high precision of the proposed method.

  16. A 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes-Euler code for blunt-body flow computations (United States)

    Li, C. P.


    The shock-layer flowfield is obtained with or without viscous and heat-conducting dissipations from the conservative laws of fluid dynamics equations using a shock-fitting implicity finite-difference technique. The governing equations are cast in curvilinear-orthogonal coordinates and transformed to the domain between the shock and the body. Another set of equations is used for the singular coordinate axis, which, together with a cone generator away from the stagnation point, encloses the computation domain. A time-dependent alternating direction implicit factorization technique is applied to integrate the equations with local-time increment until a steady solution is reached. The shock location is updated after the flowfield computation, but the wall conditions are implemented into the implicit procedure. Innovative procedures are introduced to define the initial flowfield, to treat both perfect and equilibrium gases, to advance the solution on a coarse-to-fine grid sequence, and to start viscous flow computations from their corresponding inviscid solutions. The results are obtained from a grid no greater than 28 by 18 by 7 and converged within 300 integration steps. They are of sufficient accuracy to start parabolized Navier-Stokes or Euler calculations beyond the nose region, to compare with flight and wind-tunnel data, and to evaluate conceptual designs of reentry spacecraft.

  17. Development of improved thermal hydraulics and fuel performance technology; development of turbulence model and simulation code for flow analysis in nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, H. K.; Yang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Song, J. H.; Oh, J. Z. [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)


    The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes is very complex and so required a suitable turbulence model for its accurate prediction. Subchannel flow in a nuclear bundle having vanes to mix flow appears complex turbulent flow. Objective of this study is to investigate performance of prediction about turbulence model contained in STAR-CD code and to develop suitable turbulence model which can predict complex flow in nuclear assembly. For several nonlinear {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence models, their performance were investigated in the prediction of the flow in nuclear fuel assembly, and also their problems were discussed in detail. The results obtained from the present research would give a help for the development of turbulence model which can accurately predict the flow through the rod bundles with mixing vanes. 19 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  18. Fiber optic flow velocity sensor based on an in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer (United States)

    Yuan, Libo; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhihai


    A novel fiber optic flow velocity sensor based on a twin-core fiber Michelson interferometer has been proposed and demonstrated. The sensor only is a segment of twin-core fiber acting as cylinder cantilever beam. The force exerted on the cylinder by the flow of a fluid with unknown velocity bends the fiber, which corresponding to the shift of the phase of the twin-core in-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer. This twin-core fiber sensing technique could automatically compensate the variation of environmental temperature and pressure due to both arms of the interferometer would be affected equally by such changes.

  19. Analysis of spectrum characteristics of optical scintillation in stack gas flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wen-Qing; Liu He-Lai; Zeng Zong-Yong; Jiang Yu


    Based on the analysis of spectrum characteristics of intensity fluctuations while light beams pass through stack gas flow in an industrial setting, this paper puts emphasis upon discussing the spectrum of optical intensity fluctuations by the variety of particle concentration in stack gas flow. This paper also gives the primary theoretical explanation of the measurement results in the stack of coal-fired utility boilers. Meanwhile, the cross-correlation formula is given as the theoretical basis of velocity measurement by using particle concentration scintillation.

  20. Microchip Flow Cytometer with Integrated Polymer Optical Elements for Measurement of Scattered Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan Ryberg


    channels to form a complete microchip flow cytometer. All the optical elements, the microfluidic system, and the fiber-to-waveguide couplers were defined in one layer of polymer (SU-8, negative photoresist) by standard photolithography. With only one single mask procedure, all the fabrication and packaging...... processes can be finished in one day. Polystyrene beads were measured in the microchip flow cytometer, and three signals (forward scattering, large angle scattering and extinction) were measured simultaneously for each bead. The average intensities of the forward Scattered light and the incident light...

  1. A spectral optical flow method for determining velocities from digital imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Hurlburt, Neal


    We present a method for determining surface flows from solar images based upon optical flow techniques. We apply the method to sets of images obtained by a variety of solar imagers to assess its performance. The {\\tt opflow3d} procedure is shown to extract accurate velocity estimates when provided perfect test data and quickly generates results consistent with completely distinct methods when applied on global scales. We also validate it in detail by comparing it to an established method when applied to high-resolution datasets and find that it provides comparable results without the need to tune, filter or otherwise preprocess the images before its application.

  2. Minimum cost maximum flow algorithm for upstream bandwidth allocation in OFDMA passive optical networks (United States)

    Wu, Yating; Kuang, Bin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qianwu; Wang, Min


    This paper presents a minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) based upstream bandwidth allocation algorithm, which supports differentiated QoS for orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). We define a utility function as the metric to characterize the satisfaction degree of an ONU on the obtained bandwidth. The bandwidth allocation problem is then formulated as maximizing the sum of the weighted total utility functions of all ONUs. By constructing a flow network graph, we obtain the optimized bandwidth allocation using the MCMF algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the performance in terms of mean packet delay, packet loss ratio and throughput.

  3. An optical flow-based state-space model of the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas


    . A linear and Gaussian nonstationary state-space model is proposed and thoroughly discussed. The evolution model is based on a self-sustained three-dimensional finite element model of the vocal folds, and the observation model involves a dense optical flow algorithm. The results show that the method is able......High-speed movies of the vocal fold vibration are valuable data to reveal vocal fold features for voice pathology diagnosis. This work presents a suitable Bayesian model and a purely theoretical discussion for further development of a framework for continuum biomechanical features estimation...... to capture different deformation patterns between the computed optical flow and the finite element deformation, controlled by the choice of the model tissue parameters....

  4. Tissue motion tracking at the edges of a radiation treatment field using local optical flow analysis (United States)

    Teo, P. T.; Pistorius, S.


    This paper investigates the feasibility and accuracy of tracking the motion of an intruding organ-at-risk (OAR) at the edges of a treatment field using a local optical flow analysis of electronic portal images. An intruding OAR was simulated by modifying the portal images obtained by irradiating a programmable phantom's lung tumour. A rectangular treatment aperture was assumed and the edges of the beam's eye view (BEV) were partitioned into clusters/grids according to the width of the multi-leaf collimators (MLC). The optical flow velocities were calculated and the motion accuracy in these clusters was analysed. A velocity error of 0.4 ± 1.4 mm/s with a linearity of 1.04 for tracking an object intruding at 10mm/s (max) was obtained.

  5. Quantification of smoothing requirement for 3D optic flow calculation of volumetric images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Tennakoon, Ruwan B.; de Bruijne, Marleen


    that a (surprisingly) small amount of local smoothing is required to satisfy both the necessary and sufficient conditions for accurate optic flow estimation. This notion is called 'just enough' smoothing, and its proper implementation has a profound effect on the preservation of local information in processing 3D...... dynamic scans. To demonstrate the effect of 'just enough' smoothing, a robust 3D optic flow method with quantized local smoothing is presented, and the effect of local smoothing on the accuracy of motion estimation in dynamic lung CT images is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences......Complexities of dynamic volumetric imaging challenge the available computer vision techniques on a number of different fronts. This paper examines the relationship between the estimation accuracy and required amount of smoothness for a general solution from a robust statistics perspective. We show...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sathish Kumar


    Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the intensive areas of research in computer vision and pattern recognition but many of which are focused on recognition of faces under varying facial expressions and pose variation. A constrained optical flow algorithm discussed in this paper, recognizes facial images involving various expressions based on motion vector computation. In this paper, an optical flow computation algorithm which computes the frames of varying facial gestures, and integrating with synthesized image in a probabilistic environment has been proposed. Also Histogram Equalization technique has been used to overcome the effect of illuminations while capturing the input data using camera devices. It also enhances the contrast of the image for better processing. The experimental results confirm that the proposed face recognition system is more robust and recognizes the facial images under varying expressions and pose variations more accurately.

  7. Evaluation of advanced Lukas-Kanade optical flow on thoracic 4D-CT. (United States)

    Hoog Antink, Christoph Bernhard; Singh, Tarunraj; Singla, Puneet; Podgorsak, Matthew


    Extensive use of high frequency imaging in medical applications permit the estimation of velocity fields which corresponds to motion of landmarks in the imaging field. The focus of this work is on the development of a robust local optical flow algorithm for velocity field estimation in medical applications. Local polynomial fits to the medical image intensity-maps are used to generate convolution operators to estimate the spatial gradients. A novel polynomial window function with a compact support is used to differentially weight the optical flow gradient constraints in the region of interest. Tikhonov regularization is exploited to synthesize a well posed optimization problem and to penalize large displacements. The proposed algorithm is tested and validated on benchmark datasets for deformable image registration. The ten datasets include large and small deformations, and illustrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms or is competitive with other algorithms tested on this dataset, when using mean and variance of the displacement error as performance metrics.

  8. On convergence of the Horn and Schunck optical-flow estimation method. (United States)

    Mitiche, Amar; Mansouri, Abdol-Reza


    The purpose of this study is to prove convergence results for the Horn and Schunck optical-flow estimation method. Horn and Schunck stated optical-flow estimation as the minimization of a functional. When discretized, the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations form a linear system of equations We write explicitly this system and order the equations in such a way that its matrix is symmetric positive definite. This property implies the convergence Gauss-Seidel iterative resolution method, but does not afford a conclusion on the convergence of the Jacobi method. However, we prove directly that this method also converges. We also show that the matrix of the linear system is block tridiagonal. The blockwise iterations corresponding to this block tridiagonal structure converge for both the Jacobi and the Gauss-Seidel methods, and the Gauss-Seidel method is faster than the (sequential) Jacobi method.

  9. Simultaneous PIV and pulsed shadow technique in slug flow: a solution for optical problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, S. [Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussee de Waterloo 72, B-1640, Rhode Saint Genese (Belgium); Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto (Portugal); Sousa, R.G.; Pinto, A.M.F.R.; Campos, J.B.L.M. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto (Portugal); Riethmuller, M.L. [Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussee de Waterloo 72, B-1640, Rhode Saint Genese (Belgium)


    A recent technique of simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and pulsed shadow technique (PST) measurements, using only one black and white CCD camera, is successfully applied to the study of slug flow. The experimental facility and the operating principle are described. The technique is applied to study the liquid flow pattern around individual Taylor bubbles rising in an aqueous solution of glycerol with a dynamic viscosity of 113 x 10{sup -3} Pa s. With this technique the optical perturbations found in PIV measurements at the bubble interface are completely solved in the nose and in annular liquid film regions as well as in the rear of the bubble for cases in which the bottom is flat. However, for Taylor bubbles with concave oblate bottoms, some optical distortions appear and are discussed. The measurements achieved a spatial resolution of 0.0022 tube diameters. The results reported show high precision and are in agreement with theoretical and experimental published data. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of cerebral blood flow rate and its relationship with brain function using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Dou, Shidan; Ma, Yushu; Ma, Zhenhe


    Activity of brain neurons will lead to changes in local blood flow rate (BFR). Thus, it is important to measure the local BFR of cerebral cortex on research of neuron activity in vivo, such as rehabilitation evaluation after stroke, etc. Currently, laser Doppler flowmetry is commonly used for blood flow measurement, however, relatively low resolution limits its application. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful noninvasive 3D imaging modality with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Furthermore, OCT can provide flow distribution image by calculating Doppler frequency shift which makes it possible for blood flow rate measurement. In this paper, we applied OCT to measure the blood flow rate of the primary motor cortex in rats. The animal was immobilized and anesthetized with isoflurane, an incision was made along the sagittal suture, and bone was exposed. A skull window was opened on the primary motor cortex. Then, blood flow rate changes in the primary motor cortex were monitored by our homemade spectral domain OCT with a stimulation of the passive movement of the front legs. Finally, we established the relationship between blood flow rate and the test design. The aim is to demonstrate the potential of OCT in the evaluation of cerebral cortex function.

  11. B-spline image model for energy minimization-based optical flow estimation. (United States)

    Le Besnerais, Guy; Champagnat, Frédéric


    Robust estimation of the optical flow is addressed through a multiresolution energy minimization. It involves repeated evaluation of spatial and temporal gradients of image intensity which rely usually on bilinear interpolation and image filtering. We propose to base both computations on a single pyramidal cubic B-spline model of image intensity. We show empirically improvements in convergence speed and estimation error and validate the resulting algorithm on real test sequences.

  12. Octopaminergic modulation of a fly visual motion-sensitive neuron during stimulation with naturalistic optic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eRien


    Full Text Available In a variety of species locomotor activity, like walking or flying, has been demonstrated to alter visual information processing. The neuromodulator octopamine was shown to change the response characteristics of optic-flow processing neurons in the fly’s visual system in a similar way as locomotor activity. This modulation resulted in enhanced neuronal responses, in particular during sustained stimulation with high temporal frequencies, and in shorter latencies of responses to abrupt onsets of pattern motion. These state-dependent changes were interpreted to adjust neuronal tuning to the range of high velocities encountered during locomotion. Here we assess the significance of these changes for the processing of optic flow as experienced during flight. Naturalistic image sequences were reconstructed based on measurements of the head position and gaze direction of Calliphora vicina flying in an arena. We recorded the responses of the V1 neuron during presentation of these image sequences on a panoramic stimulus device (FliMax. Consistent with previous accounts, we found that spontaneous as well as stimulus-induced spike rates were increased by an octopamine agonist and decreased by an antagonist. Moreover, a small but consistent decrease in response latency upon octopaminergic activation was present, which might support fast responses to optic flow cues and limit instabilities during closed-loop optomotor regulation. However, apart from these effects the similarities between the dynamic response properties in the different pharmacologically induced states were surprisingly high, indicating that the processing of naturalistic optic flow is not fundamentally altered by octopaminergic modulation.

  13. Toward optic flow regulation for wall-following and centring behaviours


    Franck Ruffier; Julien Serres; Nicolas Franceschini; Stephane Viollet


    In our ongoing project on the autonomous guidance of Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs) in confined indoor and outdoor environments, we have developed a bio-inspired optic flow based autopilot enabling a hovercraft to travel safely, and avoid the walls of a corridor. The hovercraft is an air vehicle endowed with natural roll and pitch stabilization characteristics, in which planar flight control can be developed conveniently. It travels at a constant ground height (~2mm) and senses the environment by ...

  14. Optical Flow in a Smart Sensor Based on Hybrid Analog-Digital Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guzmán


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip. Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane and digital (NIOS II processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system’s performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains.

  15. Optical flow in a smart sensor based on hybrid analog-digital architecture. (United States)

    Guzmán, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Agís, Rodrigo; Ros, Eduardo


    The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations) using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip). Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane) and digital (NIOS II) processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane) stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II) stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system's performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains.

  16. Monocular distance estimation with optical flow maneuvers and efference copies: a stability-based strategy. (United States)

    de Croon, Guido C H E


    The visual cue of optical flow plays an important role in the navigation of flying insects, and is increasingly studied for use by small flying robots as well. A major problem is that successful optical flow control seems to require distance estimates, while optical flow is known to provide only the ratio of velocity to distance. In this article, a novel, stability-based strategy is proposed for monocular distance estimation, relying on optical flow maneuvers and knowledge of the control inputs (efference copies). It is shown analytically that given a fixed control gain, the stability of a constant divergence control loop only depends on the distance to the approached surface. At close distances, the control loop starts to exhibit self-induced oscillations. The robot can detect these oscillations and hence be aware of the distance to the surface. The proposed stability-based strategy for estimating distances has two main attractive characteristics. First, self-induced oscillations can be detected robustly by the robot and are hardly influenced by wind. Second, the distance can be estimated during a zero divergence maneuver, i.e., around hover. The stability-based strategy is implemented and tested both in simulation and on board a Parrot AR drone 2.0. It is shown that the strategy can be used to: (1) trigger a final approach response during a constant divergence landing with fixed gain, (2) estimate the distance in hover, and (3) estimate distances during an entire landing if the robot uses adaptive gain control to continuously stay on the 'edge of oscillation.'

  17. Remo Dance Motion Estimation with Markerless Motion Capture Using The Optical Flow Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neny Kurniati


    Full Text Available Motion capture has been developed and applied in various fields, one of them is dancing. Remo dance is a dance from East Java that tells the struggle of a prince who fought on the battlefield. Remo dancer does not use body-tight costume. He wears a few costume pieces and accessories, so required a motion detection method that can detect limb motion which does not damage the beauty of the costumes and does not interfere motion of the dancer. The method is Markerless Motion Capture. Limbs motions are partial behavior. This means that all limbs do not move simultaneously, but alternately. It required motion tracking to detect parts of the body moving and where the direction of motion. Optical flow is a method that is suitable for the above conditions. Moving body parts will be detected by the bounding box. A bounding box differential value between frames can determine the direction of the motion and how far the object is moving. The optical flow method is simple and does not require a monochrome background. This method does not use complex feature extraction process so it can be applied to real-time motion capture. Performance of motion detection with optical flow method is determined by the value of the ratio between the area of the blob and the area of the bounding box. Estimate coordinates are not necessarily like original coordinates, but if the chart of estimate motion similar to the chart of the original motion, it means motion estimation it can be said to have the same motion with the original. Keywords: Motion Capture, Markerless, Remo Dance, Optical Flow

  18. Validation of spectral domain optical coherence tomographic Doppler shifts using an in vitro flow model. (United States)

    Kagemann, Larry; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Townsend, Kelly A; Schuman, Joel S


    To validate velocity measurements produced by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in an in vitro laminar flow model. A 30-mL syringe filled with skim milk was inserted into a syringe pump. Intravenous (i.v.) tubing connected the syringe within the pump to a glass capillary tube (internal diameter, 0.579 mm) shallowly embedded in agarose gel, then to a collection reservoir. SD-OCT imaging was performed with an anterior segment eye scanner and optics engine coupled with a 100-nm bandwidth broadband superluminescent diode. Scan density of 128 x 128 A-scans was spread over a 4 x 4 mm area, and each A-scan was 2 mm in length. Fifteen sequential stationary A-scans were obtained at each 128 x 128 position, and Doppler shifts were calculated from temporal changes in phase. The beam-to-flow vector Doppler angle was determined from three-dimensional scans. In all reflectance and Doppler images, a clear laminar flow pattern was observed, with v(max) appearing in the center of the flow column. Phase wrapping was observed at all measured flow velocities, and fringe washout progressively shattered reflectance and phase signals beyond the Nyquist limit. The observed percentages of the velocity profile at or below Nyquist frequency was highly correlated with the predicted percentages (R(2)=0.934; P=0.007). SD-OCT provides objective Doppler measurements of laminar fluid flow in an in vitro flow system in a range up to the Nyquist limit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yuan


    Full Text Available Dense matching plays an important role in many fields, such as DEM (digital evaluation model producing, robot navigation and 3D environment reconstruction. Traditional approaches may meet the demand of accuracy. But the calculation time and out puts density is hardly be accepted. Focus on the matching efficiency and complex terrain surface matching feasibility an aerial image dense matching method based on optical flow field is proposed in this paper. First, some high accurate and uniformed control points are extracted by using the feature based matching method. Then the optical flow is calculated by using these control points, so as to determine the similar region between two images. Second, the optical flow field is interpolated by using the multi-level B-spline interpolation in the similar region and accomplished the pixel by pixel coarse matching. Final, the results related to the coarse matching refinement based on the combined constraint, which recognizes the same points between images. The experimental results have shown that our method can achieve per-pixel dense matching points, the matching accuracy achieves sub-pixel level, and fully meet the three-dimensional reconstruction and automatic generation of DSM-intensive matching’s requirements. The comparison experiments demonstrated that our approach’s matching efficiency is higher than semi-global matching (SGM and Patch-based multi-view stereo matching (PMVS which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  20. Translational Optic Flow Induces Shifts in Direction of Active Forward and Backward Self-Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Sakurai


    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that when observers passively experience real linear oscillatory somatic motion while viewing orthogonal visual optic flow patterns, their perceived motion direction is intermediate to those specified by visual and vestibular information individually (Sakurai et al., 2002, ACV; 2003, ECVP; 2010, VSS; Kubodera et al., 2010, APCV. Here, we extend those studies to active somatic motion, measuring the angular shift in body direction after active body motion while viewing synchronized orthogonal optic flow. Experimental visual stimuli consisted of 1 second of translating leftward (rightward random-dots and 1 second of random noise. Control stimuli consisted of two 1-second intervals of random noise separated by a static interval. Observers viewed the stimulus for 30 seconds through a face-mounted display while actively stepping forward and backward such that their forward body movement was synchronized with the random-dot translational motion. Observers' body direction was measured before and after each trial. Translational optic flow induced shifts in body direction that were opposite to shifts in perceived direction with passive viewing in our previous reports. Observers may have compensated their body motion in response to perceived direction shifts similar to those we reported for passive viewing.

  1. Noninvasive optical measurement of cerebral blood flow in mice using molecular dynamics analysis of indocyanine green.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyun Ku

    Full Text Available In preclinical studies of ischemic brain disorders, it is crucial to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF; however, this requires radiological techniques with heavy instrumentation or invasive procedures. Here, we propose a noninvasive and easy-to-use optical imaging technique for measuring CBF in experimental small animals. Mice were injected with indocyanine green (ICG via tail-vein catheterization. Time-series near-infrared fluorescence signals excited by 760 nm light-emitting diodes were imaged overhead by a charge-coupled device coupled with an 830 nm bandpass-filter. We calculated four CBF parameters including arrival time, rising time and mean transit time of a bolus and blood flow index based on time and intensity information of ICG fluorescence dynamics. CBF maps were generated using the parameters to estimate the status of CBF, and they dominantly represented intracerebral blood flows in mice even in the presence of an intact skull and scalp. We demonstrated that this noninvasive optical imaging technique successfully detected reduced local CBF during middle cerebral artery occlusion. We further showed that the proposed method is sufficiently sensitive to detect the differences between CBF status in mice anesthetized with either isoflurane or ketamine-xylazine, and monitor the dynamic changes in CBF after reperfusion during transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The near-infrared optical imaging of ICG fluorescence combined with a time-series analysis of the molecular dynamics can be a useful noninvasive tool for preclinical studies of brain ischemia.

  2. Accurate optical flow field estimation using mechanical properties of soft tissues (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Karimi, Hirad; Samani, Abbas


    A novel optical flow based technique is presented in this paper to measure the nodal displacements of soft tissue undergoing large deformations. In hyperelasticity imaging, soft tissues maybe compressed extensively [1] and the deformation may exceed the number of pixels ordinary optical flow approaches can detect. Furthermore in most biomedical applications there is a large amount of image information that represent the geometry of the tissue and the number of tissue types present in the organ of interest. Such information is often ignored in applications such as image registration. In this work we incorporate the information pertaining to soft tissue mechanical behavior (Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model is used here) in addition to the tissue geometry before compression into a hierarchical Horn-Schunck optical flow method to overcome this large deformation detection weakness. Applying the proposed method to a phantom using several compression levels proved that it yields reasonably accurate displacement fields. Estimated displacement results of this phantom study obtained for displacement fields of 85 pixels/frame and 127 pixels/frame are reported and discussed in this paper.

  3. Modeling Human Control of Self-Motion Direction With Optic Flow and Vestibular Motion. (United States)

    Zaal, Peter M T; Nieuwenhuizen, Frank M; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Max


    In this paper, we investigate the effects of visual and motion stimuli on the manual control of one's direction of self-motion. In a flight simulator, subjects conducted an active target-following disturbance-rejection task, using a compensatory display. Simulating a vehicular control task, the direction of vehicular motion was shown on the outside visual display in two ways: an explicit presentation using a symbol and an implicit presentation, namely, through the focus of radial outflow that emerges from optic flow. In addition, the effects of the relative strength of congruent vestibular motion cues were investigated. The dynamic properties of human visual and vestibular motion perception paths were modeled using a control-theoretical approach. As expected, improved tracking performance was found for the configurations that explicitly showed the direction of self-motion. The human visual time delay increased with approximately 150 ms for the optic flow conditions, relative to explicit presentations. Vestibular motion, providing higher order information on the direction of self-motion, allowed subjects to partially compensate for this visual perception delay, improving performance. Parameter estimates of the operator control model show that, with vestibular motion, the visual feedback becomes stronger, indicating that operators are more confident to act on optic flow information when congruent vestibular motion cues are present.

  4. A Stochastic Approach for Blurred Image Restoration and Optical Flow Computation on Field Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文; 陈熙霖


    The blur in target images caused by camera vibration due to robot motion or hand shaking and by object(s) moving in the background scene is different to deal with in the computer vision system.In this paper,the authors study the relation model between motion and blur in the case of object motion existing in video image sequence,and work on a practical computation algorithm for both motion analysis and blut image restoration.Combining the general optical flow and stochastic process,the paper presents and approach by which the motion velocity can be calculated from blurred images.On the other hand,the blurred image can also be restored using the obtained motion information.For solving a problem with small motion limitation on the general optical flow computation,a multiresolution optical flow algoritm based on MAP estimation is proposed. For restoring the blurred image ,an iteration algorithm and the obtained motion velocity are used.The experiment shows that the proposed approach for both motion velocity computation and blurred image restoration works well.

  5. An Aerial-Image Dense Matching Approach Based on Optical Flow Field (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Chen, Shiyu; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Jianya; Shibasaki, Ryosuke


    Dense matching plays an important role in many fields, such as DEM (digital evaluation model) producing, robot navigation and 3D environment reconstruction. Traditional approaches may meet the demand of accuracy. But the calculation time and out puts density is hardly be accepted. Focus on the matching efficiency and complex terrain surface matching feasibility an aerial image dense matching method based on optical flow field is proposed in this paper. First, some high accurate and uniformed control points are extracted by using the feature based matching method. Then the optical flow is calculated by using these control points, so as to determine the similar region between two images. Second, the optical flow field is interpolated by using the multi-level B-spline interpolation in the similar region and accomplished the pixel by pixel coarse matching. Final, the results related to the coarse matching refinement based on the combined constraint, which recognizes the same points between images. The experimental results have shown that our method can achieve per-pixel dense matching points, the matching accuracy achieves sub-pixel level, and fully meet the three-dimensional reconstruction and automatic generation of DSM-intensive matching's requirements. The comparison experiments demonstrated that our approach's matching efficiency is higher than semi-global matching (SGM) and Patch-based multi-view stereo matching (PMVS) which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  6. Influence of Optic-Flow Information Beyond the Velocity Field on the Active Control of Heading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li


    Full Text Available We examined both the sufficiency of the optic-flow velocity field and the influence of optic-flow information beyond the velocity field on the active control of heading. The display simulated a vehicle traveling on a circular path through a random-dot 3D cloud under a static or a dynamic scene in which dots were periodically redrawn to remove information beyond a velocity field. Participants used a joystick, under either velocity and acceleration control dynamics, to steer and align the vehicle orientation with their perceived heading while experiencing random perturbations to the vehicle orientation. Frequency response (Bode plots show reasonably good performance under both display conditions with a decrease in gain and an increase in phase lag for the dynamic scene for both control dynamics. The performance data were then fit by a Crossover Model to identify reaction time and lead time constant to determine how much participants anticipated future heading to generate lead control. Reaction time was longer and lead time constant was smaller for the dynamic than the static scene for both control dynamics. We conclude that the velocity field alone is sufficient to support closed-loop heading control, but optic-flow information beyond the velocity field improves visuomotor performance in self-motion control.

  7. Toward Optic Flow Regulation for Wall-Following and Centring Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Serres


    Full Text Available In our ongoing project on the autonomous guidance of Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs in confined indoor and outdoor environments, we have developed a bio-inspired optic flow based autopilot enabling a hovercraft to travel safely, and avoid the walls of a corridor. The hovercraft is an air vehicle endowed with natural roll and pitch stabilization characteristics, in which planar flight control can be developed conveniently. It travels at a constant ground height (∼2mm and senses the environment by means of two lateral eyes that measure the right and left optic flows (OFs. The visuomotor feedback loop, which is called LORA(1 (Lateral Optic flow Regulation Autopilot, Mark 1, consists of a lateral OF regulator that adjusts the hovercraft's yaw velocity and keeps the lateral OF constant on one wall equal to an OF set-point. Simulations have shown that the hovercraft manages to navigate in a corridor at a “preset” groundspeed (1m/s without requiring a supervisor to make it switch abruptly between the control-laws corresponding to behaviours such as automatic wall-following, automatic centring, and automatically reacting to an opening encountered on a wall. The passive visual sensors and the simple control system used here are suitable for use on MAVs with an avionic payload of only a few grams.

  8. Toward optic flow regulation for wall-following and centring behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Ruffier


    Full Text Available In our ongoing project on the autonomous guidance of Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs in confined indoor and outdoor environments, we have developed a bio-inspired optic flow based autopilot enabling a hovercraft to travel safely, and avoid the walls of a corridor. The hovercraft is an air vehicle endowed with natural roll and pitch stabilization characteristics, in which planar flight control can be developed conveniently. It travels at a constant ground height (~2mm and senses the environment by means of two lateral eyes that measure the right and left optic flows (OFs. The visuomotor feedback loop, which is called LORA(1 (Lateral Optic flow Regulation Autopilot, Mark 1, consists of a lateral OF regulator that adjusts the hovercraft's yaw velocity and keeps the lateral OF constant on one wall equal to an OF set-point. Simulations have shown that the hovercraft manages to navigate in a corridor at a "pre-set" groundspeed (1m/s without requiring a supervisor to make it switch abruptly between the control-laws corresponding to behaviours such as automatic wall-following, automatic centring, and automatically reacting to an opening encountered on a wall. The passive visual sensors and the simple control system used here are suitable for use on MAVs with an avionic payload of only a few grams.

  9. Multiplexed fibre optic sensors for monitoring resin infusion, flow, and cure in composite material processing (United States)

    Chehura, Edmon; Jarzebinska, Renata; Da Costa, Elisabete F. R.; Skordos, Alexandros A.; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.


    The infusion, flow and cure of RTM6 resin in a carbon fibre reinforced composite preform have been monitored using a variety of multiplexed fibre optic sensors. Optical fibre Fresnel sensors and tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors were configured to monitor resin infusion/flow in-plane of the component. The results obtained from the different sensors were in good agreement with visual observations. The degree of cure was monitored by Fresnel sensors via a measurement of the refractive index of the resin which was converted to degree of cure using a calibration determined from Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Fibre Bragg grating sensors fabricated in highly linearly birefringent fibre were used to monitor the development of transverse strain during the cure process, revealing through-thickness material shrinkage of about 712 μɛ and residual strain of 223 μɛ. An alternative approach to infusion monitoring, based on an array of multiplexed tapered optical fibre sensors interrogated using optical frequency domain reflectometry, was also investigated in a separate carbon fibre preform that was infused with RTM6 resin.

  10. A rapid and reversible skull optical clearing method for monitoring cortical blood flow (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjie; Shi, Rui; Zhu, Dan


    In vivo cortex optical imaging is of great important for revealing both structural and functional architecture of brain with high temporal-spatial resolution. To reduce the limitation of turbid skull, researchers had to establish various skull windows or directly expose cortex through craniotomy. Here we developed a skull optical clearing method to make skull transparent. Laser speckle contrast imaging technique was used to monitor the cortical blood flow after topical treatment with the optical clearing agents. The results indicated that the image contrast increased gradually, and then maintained at a high level after 15 min for adult mice, which made the image quality and resolution of micro-vessels nearly approximate to those of exposed cortex. Both the cortical blood flow velocity almost kept constant after skull became transparent. Besides, the treatment of physiological saline on the skull could make skull return to the initial state again and the skull could become transparent again when SOCS retreated it. Thus, we could conclude that the skull optical clearing method was rapid, valid, reversible and safe, which provided us available approach for performing the cortical structural and functional imaging at high temporal-spatial resolution.

  11. Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation. (United States)

    Payette, Jeri R; Kohlenberg, Elicia; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Pabbies, Arone; Kerr, Paul; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Sowa, Michael G


    The objective of this study was to compare two noninvasive techniques, laser Doppler and optical spectroscopy, for monitoring hemodynamic changes in skin flaps. Animal models for assessing these changes in microvascular free flaps and pedicle flaps were investigated. A 2 x 3-cm free flap model based on the epigastric vein-artery pair and a reversed MacFarlane 3 x 10-cm pedicle flap model were used in this study. Animals were divided into four groups, with groups 1 (n = 6) and 2 (n = 4) undergoing epigastric free flap surgery and groups 3 (n = 3) and 4 (n = 10) undergoing pedicle flap surgery. Groups 1 and 4 served as controls for each of the flap models. Groups 2 and 3 served as ischemia-reperfusion models. Optical spectroscopy provides a measure of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and blood volume, and the laser Doppler method measures blood flow. Optical spectroscopy proved to be consistently more reliable in detecting problems with arterial in flow compared with laser Doppler assessments. When spectroscopy was used in an imaging configuration, oxygen saturation images of the entire flap were generated, thus creating a visual picture of global flap health. In both single-point and imaging modes the technique was sensitive to vessel manipulation, with the immediate post operative images providing an accurate prediction of eventual outcome. This series of skin flap studies suggests a potential role for optical spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging in the clinical assessment of skin flaps.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmono Sudarmono


    Full Text Available The failure of heat removal system of water-cooled reactor such as PWR in Three Mile Islands and Fukushima Daiichi BWR makes nuclear society starting to consider the use of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR. Reactor Physics and Technology Division – Center for Nuclear Reactor Safety and Technology  (PTRKN has tasks to perform research and development on the conceptual design of cogeneration gas cooled reactor with medium power level of 200 MWt. HTGR is one of nuclear energy generation system, which has high energy efficiency, and has high and clean inherent safety level. The geometry and structure of the HTGR200 core are designed to produce the output of helium gas coolant temperature as high as 950 °C to be used for hydrogen production and other industrial processes in co-generative way. The output of very high temperature helium gas will cause thermal stress on the fuel pebble that threats the integrity of fission product confinement. Therefore, it is necessary to perform thermal-flow evaluation to determine the temperature distribution in the graphite and fuel pebble in the HTGR core. The evaluation was carried out by Thermix-Konvek module code that has been already integrated into VSOP'94 code. The HTGR core geometry was done using BIRGIT module code for 2-D model (RZ model with 5 channels of pebble flow in active core in the radial direction. The evaluation results showed that the highest and lowest temperatures in the reactor core are 999.3 °C and 886.5 °C, while the highest temperature of TRISO UO2 is 1510.20 °C in the position (z= 335.51 cm; r=0 cm. The analysis done based on reactor condition of 120 kg/s of coolant mass flow rate, 7 MPa of pressure and 200 MWth of power. Compared to the temperature distribution resulted between VSOP’94 code and fuel temperature limitation as high as 1600 oC, there is enough safety margin from melting or disintegrating. Keywords: Thermal-Flow, VSOP’94, Thermix-Konvek, HTGR, temperature

  13. A Monte Carlo Code for Relativistic Radiation Transport Around Kerr Black Holes (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy David; Krolik, Julian H.


    We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.

  14. [Peculiarities of ocular blood flow in ischemic optic neuropathy and normal tension glaucoma]. (United States)

    Mamikonian, V R; Galoian, N S; Sheremet, N L; Kazarian, E E; Kharlap, S I; Shmeleva-Demir, O A; Andzhelova, D V; Tatevosian, A A


    Characteristics of ocular hemodynamics in ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) outcome and normal tension glaucoma (NTG), the conditions that are difficult to be differentially diagnosed, have been investigated. The study enrolled 32 patients (40 eyes) with ION outcome, 26 patients (46 eyes) with NTG, and 20 patients (32 eyes) with no ocular pathology. Besides the standard ophthalmological examination, color Doppler imaging of ocular vessels, evaluation of ocular blood flow volume and individual normal range of intraocular pressure (flowmetry) were performed in all cases. The results showed that an excess of the actual intraocular pressure (IOP) over the individual normal range was much higher in patients with NTG than in patients with ION (39% and 14.5% correspondingly). It was also found that NTG is associated with a more significant decrease of ocular blood flow volume (30.1% in average) in comparison to ION outcome (11%). In both conditions a decrease in velocity parameters of the blood flow in main ocular vessels was registered, however, ocular hemodynamics changes appeared to be more severe in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. A statistically reliable correlation between volumetric and velocity parameters of ocular blood flow has been discovered.

  15. Blood flow changes after unilateral carotid artery ligation monitored by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Ma, Yushu; Liang, Chengbo; Suo, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe


    Unilateral carotid artery ligation which could induce adaptive improvement is a classic model that has been widely used to study pathology of ischemic disease. In those studies, blood flow is an important parameter to characterize the ischemia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality which can provide depth resolved images in biological tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. SPF rats was anesthetized with isoflurane and divided into two groups. In first group, bilateral carotid artery was surgically exposed, and then left carotid artery was ligated. Blood flow changes of the contralateral carotid artery was monitored using high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography, including the absolute flow velocity and the flow volume. In the other group, skull window was opened at the ipsilateral cerebral cortex of ligation and blood supply of small artery was measured before and after the ligation. The measured results demonstrate the blood supply compensation process after unilateral carotid artery ligation. With the superiority of high resolution, OCT is an effective technology in monitoring results of carotid artery after ligation.

  16. New insight into rheology and flow properties of complex fluids with Doppler optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Haavisto, Sanna; Koponen, Antti I.; Salmela, Juha


    Flow properties of complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, fiber suspensions and blood have a vital function in many technological applications and biological systems. Yet, the basic knowledge on their properties is inadequate for many practical purposes. One important reason for this has been the lack of effective experimental methods that would allow detailed study of the flow behavior of especially opaque multi-phase fluids. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique capable of simultaneous measurement of the internal structure and motion of most opaque materials, with resolution in the micrometer scale and measurement frequency up to 100 kHz. This mini-review will examine the recent results on the use of Doppler-OCT in the context of flows and rheological properties of complex fluids outside biomedical field. PMID:24904920

  17. New Insight into Rheology and Flow Properties of Complex Fluids with Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha eSalmela


    Full Text Available Flow properties of complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, fiber suspensions and blood have a vital function in many technological applications and biological systems. Yet, the basic knowledge on their properties is inadequate for many practical purposes. One important reason for this has been the lack of effective experimental methods that would allow detailed study of the flow behavior of especially opaque multi-phase fluids. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT is an emerging technique capable of simultaneous measurement of the internal structure and motion of most opaque materials, with resolution in the micrometer scale and measurement frequency up to 100 kHz. This mini-review will examine the recent results on the use of Doppler-OCT in the context of flows and rheological properties of complex fluids outside biomedical field.

  18. Single-step stereolithography of complex anatomical models for optical flow measurements. (United States)

    de Zélicourt, Diane; Pekkan, Kerem; Kitajima, Hiroumi; Frakes, David; Yoganathan, Ajit P


    Transparent stereolithographic rapid prototyping (RP) technology has already demonstrated in literature to be a practical model construction tool for optical flow measurements such as digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), laser doppler velocimetry (LDV), and flow visualization. Here, we employ recently available transparent RP resins and eliminate time-consuming casting and chemical curing steps from the traditional approach. This note details our methodology with relevant material properties and highlights its advantages. Stereolithographic model printing with our procedure is now a direct single-step process, enabling faster geometric replication of complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for exact experimental validation studies. This methodology is specifically applied to the in vitro flow modeling of patient-specific total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) morphologies. The effect of RP machining grooves, surface quality, and hydrodynamic performance measurements as compared with the smooth glass models are also quantified.

  19. Reciprocal inhibitory connections within a neural network for rotational optic-flow processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Haag


    Full Text Available Neurons in the visual system of the blowfly have large receptive fields that are selective for specific optic flow fields. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms underlying flow-field selectivity in proximal Vertical System (VS-cells, a particular subset of tangential cells in the fly. These cells have local preferred directions that are distributed such as to match the flow field occurring during a rotation of the fly. However, the neural circuitry leading to this selectivity is not fully understood. Through dual intracellular recordings from proximal VS cells and other tangential cells, we characterized the specific wiring between VS cells themselves and between proximal VS cells and horizontal sensitive tangential cells. We discovered a spiking neuron (Vi involved in this circuitry that has not been described before. This neuron turned out to be connected to proximal VS cells via gap junctions and, in addition, it was found to be inhibitory onto VS1.

  20. New Insight into Rheology and Flow Properties of Complex Fluids with Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (United States)

    Salmela, Juha; Haavisto, Sanna; Koponen, Antti


    Flow properties of complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, fiber suspensions and blood have a vital function in many technological applications and biological systems. Yet, the basic knowledge on their properties is inadequate for many practical purposes. One important reason for this has been the lack of effective experimental methods that would allow detailed study of the flow behavior of especially opaque multi-phase fluids. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an emerging technique capable of simultaneous measurement of the internal structure and motion of most opaque materials, with resolution in the micrometer scale and measurement frequency up to 100 kHz. This mini-review will examine the recent results on the use of Doppler-OCT in the context of flows and rheological properties of complex fluids outside biomedical field.