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Sample records for opsariichthys bidens actinopterygii

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping

    2007-01-01

    , and a noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial...... genome of O. bidens reveals an alternative pattern of vertebrate mitochondrial evolution. For the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, the most frequently used codon generally ends with either A or C, with C preferred over A for most fourfold degenerate codon families; the relative synonymous codon...

  2. Habitat-specific locomotor variation among Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens along a river.

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    Shi-Jian Fu

    Full Text Available The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens, varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR, maximum metabolic rate (MMR, cost of transport (COT and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not U(crit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens.

  3. 马口鱼消化道的形态及组织学结构特征%Morphological and Histological Structural Feature of Digestive Tract in Opsariichthys bidens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母丹利; 袁思平; 薛聪顺; 吴仲宁; 王建平; 竺俊全

    2016-01-01

    为了解马口鱼消化道的形态结构特点,采用解剖学、石蜡切片-显微技术及扫描电镜技术观察研究了马口鱼消化道的形态及组织学结构特征.结果显示:马口鱼消化道由口咽腔、食道、肠道组成,无胃;口咽腔无颌齿,具咽齿;舌短小,被覆复层扁平上皮,具少量味蕾及较多圆形粘液细胞.食道及肠道均由粘膜层、粘膜下层、肌层及外膜构成.食道粘膜层主要由复层扁平上皮构成,杯状细胞较多,肌层发达,内层环肌、外层纵肌.肠道分前、中、后三段,呈“S”形盘曲,肠长指数0.86~1.50;肠内面皱褶发达,粘膜上皮为单层柱状上皮,其游离面有微绒毛密集排列形成的纹状缘,后肠微绒毛密集程度略小于前中肠;上皮细胞间分布有杯状细胞,杯状细胞的数量前、中肠较多,后肠后段较少,肠管直径、肠绒毛数量及其高度由前到后渐减.马口鱼消化道的结构特征与其肉食性相适应.%In order to study the morphological and histological features of the digestive tract inOpsariichthys bidens,we observed the structure of the digestive tract using methods of anatomy, paraffin secyion- photomicrography and scanning electron microscope. The results show that the digestive tract is composed of orol-pharyngeal cavity, esophagus and intestines, but without stomach. There is no jaw teeth found, but instead pharyngeal teeth in orol-pharyngeal cavity. A small number of taste buds and a large number of mucous cells are identified in stratified squamous epithelium on short tongue. The esophagus and intestine consist of mucous membrane layer, submucosa, muscular and the outer membrane. The mucous membrane of the esophagus with numerous mucous cells is composed of the stratified squamous epithelium cells. The thick muscle layer is composed of ring muscle and longitudinal muscle. The bent ‘S’-shaped intestine can be divided into foregut, midgut and

  4. Cancer chemopreventive property of Bidens pilosa methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Cancer chemopreventive property of Bidens pilosa methanolic extract on two stage in vivo skin carcinogenesis ... In the forestomach, kidney and lung, glutathione S-transferase and ..... weight gain profile or terminal in mice treated with the two ...

  5. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

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    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por esp

  6. Bidens pilosa chemoprotective effect on induced breast cancer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Dinámicas, Sección de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Bonilla, Pablo; Instituto de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Ráez, Ernesto; Instituto de Patología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Barreda, Alejandro; Departamento Académico de Ginecología y Obstetricia, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Huamán, Oscar; Centro de Investigación en Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Bidens pilosa species belonging to the Asteraceae family, known in Peru as love dry bur, is credited with anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hepatoprotective effects. Objectives: To determine the protective effect of phenolic compounds and flavonoids extracted from Bidens pilosa L whole plant on breast cancer induced in rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz (A) anthracene (DMBA). Design: Experimental. Setting: Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marc...

  7. Compilation of secondary metabolites from Bidens pilosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fabiana Lima; Fischer, Dominique Corinne Hermine; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petronio Filgueiras; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria

    2011-01-26

    Bidens pilosa L. is a cosmopolitan annual herb, known for its traditional use in treating various diseases and thus much studied for the biological activity of its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds. Polyacetylenes and flavonoids, typical metabolite classes in the Bidens genus, predominate in the phytochemistry of B. pilosa. These classes of compounds have great taxonomic significance. In the Asteraceae family, the acetylene moiety is widely distributed in the Heliantheae tribe and some representatives, such as 1-phenylhepta-1,3,5-triyne, are noted for their biological activity and strong long-wave UV radiation absorbance. The flavonoids, specifically aurones and chalcones, have been reported as good sub-tribal level markers. Natural products from several other classes have also been isolated from different parts of B. pilosa. This review summarizes the available information on the 198 natural products isolated to date from B. pilosa.

  8. Compilation of Secondary Metabolites from Bidens pilosa L.

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    Petronio Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. is a cosmopolitan annual herb, known for its traditional use in treating various diseases and thus much studied for the biological activity of its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds. Polyacetylenes and flavonoids, typical metabolite classes in the Bidens genus, predominate in the phytochemistry of B. pilosa. These classes of compounds have great taxonomic significance. In the Asteraceae family, the acetylene moiety is widely distributed in the Heliantheae tribe and some representatives, such as 1-phenylhepta-1,3,5-triyne, are noted for their biological activity and strong long-wave UV radiation absorbance. The flavonoids, specifically aurones and chalcones, have been reported as good sub-tribal level markers. Natural products from several other classes have also been isolated from different parts of B. pilosa. This review summarizes the available information on the 198 natural products isolated to date from B. pilosa.

  9. Flavonol and chalcone ester glycosides from Bidens andicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, N; Piacente, S; Pizza, C

    1998-08-01

    Five new flavonol 7-O-glycosides (1-5), having quercetin or quercetin 3-methyl ether as their aglycons, and sugar chains made up of three or four sugars, including beta-D-glucopyranose, alpha-L-rhamnopyranose, and beta-D-xylopyranose, have been isolated from the aerial parts of Bidens andicola, along with a new chalcone ester glycoside (6) and five known chalcone ester glycosides. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques.

  10. Identification of hydroxylcinnamoyl tartaric acid esters in Bidens pilosa by UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khoza, BS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available of Botany, vol. 103: 95-100 Identification of hydroxylcinnamoyl tartaric acid esters in Bidens pilosa by UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry Khoza BS Gbashi S Steenkamp PA Njobe PB Madala NE ABSTRACT: Bidens pilosa is a medicinal plant used...

  11. Aspectos biológicos de Sceloenopla bidens, praga de filodendros Biological aspects of Sceloenopla bidens, pest of philodendron spp.

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Há cerca de dez anos vem sendo observada a presença de Sceloenopla bidens (F., 1792 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae em folhas de Philodendron spp., em Campinas e outras localidades paulistas. O adulto permanece na face inferior das folhas, onde se alimenta, causando injúrias características. As larvas criam-se nas folhas, minando-as e comprometendo o aspecto ornamental da planta. Em condições de laboratório, o desenvolvimento do inseto desde ovo até emergência do adulto durou aproximadamente 48 dias. Em Campinas, efetuaram-se observações de seus danos na Floricultura Campineira, em cinco espécies de filodendros presentes - P. melinoni, P. bipinnatifidum, P. erubescens, P. selhom e P. wilsoni e no parque do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, onde a maioria das espécies não se encontra identificada. Em ambos os locais, verificou-se comportamento diferenciado de algumas espécies de filodendros em relação a S. bidens. Não se observou sua alimentação ou presença em outras epífitas dessa família (Araceae, situadas próximo a filodendros infestados, sugerindo possível especificidade da espécie com o gênero Philodendron.The occurrence of Sceloenopla bidens (F., 1792 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae on Philodendron spp. has been observed in Campinas and other cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The adults stay in the lower surface of the leaves, where they feed, causing typical leaf injury. The larvae are leaf miners and, therefore, impair the ornamental effect of the plant. Under laboratory conditions, the insect development from egg to adult emergence lasted 48 days. In the philodendron germplasm of the Instituto Agronômico, a variation of performance among the species in relation to injury caused by this insect was verified. Two species showed leaves without damage, adults or larvae while others, as P. renauxii, exhibited highly damaged leaves and many adults. The presence or feeding of S. bidens in other epiphytes

  12. [Characteristics of the reparative regeneration of fins in the polypterid fish (Polypteridae, Actinopterygii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, A I; Golichenkov, V A

    2012-01-01

    Epimorphic regeneration of fins was studied in different ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), but species representing the phylogenetically basal lineages of the taxon have remained outside the attention of researchers. Information on the regenerative abilities of these groups is important both for understanding the evolutionary origins of the epimorphic regeneration phenomenon and for assessing the universality of regenerative potencies in Actinopterygii. Addressing this problem, we studied for the first time fin regeneration in two members of the archaic family Polypteridae: the ropefish (Erpetoichthys calabaricus) and the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus). Along with the ability to regenerate the bony rays of fins, widespread among Actinopterygii, polypterids show the ability to effectively regenerate the endoskeleton and musculature of their fins. This unusual feature allows us to suggest polypterids as new model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of vertebrate limb regeneration.

  13. Effets pharmacologiques d'un extrait aqueux de Bidens pilosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko

    smooth muscle and on the other hand, from the cardiodepressant effects of the active principles ... Keywords : Bidens pilosa, acetylcholine, atropine cholinomimetic, cardiodepressant ... Elle aurait une action cicatrisante et calmerait les enfants.

  14. Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae: a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands

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    Vicki Funk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia. This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidens saint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidens meyeri may be distinguished from B. saint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm, apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent, smaller leaves (2.0–2.3 cm vs. 5–6 cm, and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidens meyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française,

  15. Composition and Antidiarrheal Activity of Bidens odorata Cav.

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    Daniel Zavala-Mendoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal effects of chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Bidens odorata Cav. were investigated at doses of 200 mg/kg on castor-oil-induced diarrhea. The chloroform extract of B. odorata (CBO reduced diarrhea by 72.72%. The effect of CBO was evaluated on mice with diarrhea induced by castor oil, MgSO4, arachidonic acid, or prostaglandin E2. CBO inhibited the contraction induced by carbachol chloride on ileum (100 µg/mL and intestinal transit (200 mg/kg in Wistar rats. The active fraction of CBO (F4 at doses of 100 mg/kg inhibited the diarrhea induced by castor oil (90.1% or arachidonic acid (72.9% but did not inhibit the diarrhea induced by PGE2. The active fraction of F4 (FR5 only was tested on diarrhea induced with castor oil and inhibited this diarrhea by 92.1%. The compositions of F4 and FR5 were determined by GC-MS, and oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were found. F4 and a mixture of the four fatty acids inhibited diarrhea at doses of 100 mg/kg (90.1% and 70.6%, resp.. The results of this study show that B. odorata has antidiarrheal effects, as is claimed by folk medicine, and could possibly be used for the production of a phytomedicine.

  16. Composition and Antidiarrheal Activity of Bidens odorata Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Pérez-Gutierrez, Salud; Escobar-Villanueva, M. Carmen; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The antidiarrheal effects of chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Bidens odorata Cav. were investigated at doses of 200 mg/kg on castor-oil-induced diarrhea. The chloroform extract of B. odorata (CBO) reduced diarrhea by 72.72%. The effect of CBO was evaluated on mice with diarrhea induced by castor oil, MgSO4, arachidonic acid, or prostaglandin E2. CBO inhibited the contraction induced by carbachol chloride on ileum (100 µg/mL) and intestinal transit (200 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The active fraction of CBO (F4) at doses of 100 mg/kg inhibited the diarrhea induced by castor oil (90.1%) or arachidonic acid (72.9%) but did not inhibit the diarrhea induced by PGE2. The active fraction of F4 (FR5) only was tested on diarrhea induced with castor oil and inhibited this diarrhea by 92.1%. The compositions of F4 and FR5 were determined by GC-MS, and oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were found. F4 and a mixture of the four fatty acids inhibited diarrhea at doses of 100 mg/kg (90.1% and 70.6%, resp.). The results of this study show that B. odorata has antidiarrheal effects, as is claimed by folk medicine, and could possibly be used for the production of a phytomedicine. PMID:24282432

  17. Emergência de Bidens pilosa em diferentes profundidades de semeadura Seed emergence of Bidens pilosa at different sowing depths

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    M.C. Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa é uma das mais importantes plantas daninhas que ocorrem em lavouras anuais e perenes da região Centro-Sul do Brasil. A grande capacidade de produção de aquênios é uma das suas principais estratégias de sobrevivência, e o conhecimento das condições fundamentais para germinação e emergência das plântulas é essencial para predição do crescimento populacional e para a elaboração de plano de manejo de suas infestações e de seus biótipos resistentes aos herbicidas. Foram conduzidos ensaios em condições de casa de vegetação, onde foi avaliada a emergência de aquênios de B. pilosa em diferentes profundidades (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 cm. Os experimentos foram conduzidos nos meses de maio, agosto e novembro de 2006 e em março de 2007. Os resultados mostraram que a emergência de plântulas de picão-preto foi bastante afetada pela localização do aquênio no perfil do solo, ocorrendo expressiva redução a partir de 2 cm de profundidade. Essa característica da biologia reprodutiva do picão-preto é importante para a formação de densos bancos de sementes em solos submetidos ao preparo convencional, onde grande parte da chuva de sementes é nele incorporada.Bidens pilosa is one of the major weeds in annual and perennial crops in midsouthern Brazil. High seed production is one of its most important survival strategies and the knowledge of the fundamental conditions for seedling germination and emergence is essential to establish prediction models of its population growth and to elaborate management models for control and prevention of herbicide resistant populations. This research aimed to understand the importance of B. pilosa seed depth in the soil profile to enhance its germination and seedling emergence potential. Thus, four assays were carried out under greenhouse conditions and the seeds were sown at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm from the soil surface. The emergence of B. pilosa seedlings was reduced as sowing depth

  18. Cytogenetics and DNA barcoding of the Round-eared bats, Tonatia (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: a new karyotype for Tonatia bidens

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    Jaqueline R. Tavares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two species of Neotropical Round-eared bats, Tonatia bidens Spix, 1823 and Tonatia saurophila Koopman & Williams, 1951, which present highly similar morphological characteristics that can lead to errors of identification. Specimens originally identified as T. bidens have recently been reclassified as T. saurophila, and the only karyotype documented previously for these species was 2n = 16, FN = 20. In the present study, specimens of Tonatia collected in the municipality of Barra do Garças, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were analyzed morphologically, using conventional cytogenetic techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR, and CMA3, and through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. In the specimens morphologically identified as T. bidens, the diploid number (2n was 26, and the fundamental number (FN, 38, while in T. saurophila, 2n = 16 and FN = 20, which is the karyotype also described previously for T. bidens. The dendograms obtained with sequences of the COI marker resulted in the formation of two distinct groups between T. bidens and T. saurophila, consistent with the two species, with a high sequence divergence value (14.22%. Distinct clades were also observed between T. bidens and the other phyllostomines analyzed in this study, with T. bidens also close to Phyllostomus hastatus (14.18% of sequence divergence.

  19. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Longo, Frida; Djomeni, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet; Kouam, Siméon Fogue; Spiteller, Michael; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Savineau, J P

    2014-04-01

    Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to assess the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of leaves of Bidens pilosa at the gradual doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic properties of Bidens pilosa were investigated using the acetic acid writhing, hot plate, capsaicin and formalin-induced pain models. This was followed by a study of the antiinflammatory properties using carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin to induce acute inflammation in rat hind paw. The extract provided a significant (p antiinflammatory activity in all four models of acute inflammation. These results show that the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) of Bidens pilosa has both analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. The qualitative analysis of the fraction by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint revealed the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin and iso-okanin, known to have antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties, which could be responsible for the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects observed.

  20. In vivo biocompatibility evaluation of some Bidens tripartita extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, R B; Tarţău, L; Miron, A; Zagnat, M; Ghiciuc, C M; Lupuşoru, C E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptogens represent a class of herbs frequently used as a unique and natural alternative medicine and herbal remedy for treating the many forms of stress and different other pathological conditions. Bidens tripartite, a flowering plant from the genus Bidens, family Compositae, subfamily Asteroideae was widely used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge, narcotic and sedative effects. Phytochemical analysis of this plant has revealed the presence of flavonoids, xanthophylls, volatile oil, acetylene and polyacetylene, sterols, aurones, chalcones, caffeine and tannins. The in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of two extracts from Bidens tripartita plant in rats. The vegetable product used for the study was obtained after maceration and extraction in alcohol. Flower powder was dissolved in absolute chloroform, re-extracted and filtered. After a complete dryness the product was extracted by the addition of ethanol then evaporated. The chemical composition of the extracts was determined. The administered dose of Bidens tripartita retained was 1/20 of lethal dose 50 (LD50). The experiment was carried out on white male Wistar rats (200-250g) divided into 3 groups of 7 animals each treated intraperitoneally as follows: Group I (Control): distilled water 0.1ml/10g weight; Group II (coded BT-alcoholic): 200mg/kbw alcoholic Bidens tripartita extract; Group III (coded BT-aqueous): 250mg/kbw aqueous Bidens tripartita extract. The biocompatibility properties of alcoholic and aqueous extracts from Bidens tritartita were studied by assessing their effects on blood count and serum biochemical tests. The following immune parameters: phagocytic capacity of peripheral neutrophils (NBT test) and serum complement activity were also evaluated. The data were presented as +/- SD and significance was tested by SPSS for Windows version 13.0 and ANOVA method. Experimental protocol was implemented according to the

  1. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-12-12

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa.

  2. Micronutrients evaluation in Bidens pilosa L., a plant applied in diabetes treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: rdmrg89@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has increasingly affected individuals over the last years. World Health Organization estimates that the worldwide number of diabetes cases will rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Besides the therapy with pharmaceutical drugs, many diabetic patients use medicinal plants to control the glycemic levels. This herb has anti-diabetic action due to the presence of organic compounds and micronutrients. Among the plants applied in diabetes treatment, Bidens pilosa L., popularly known in Brazil as picao preto, belongs to the family of Asteraceaes, grows fast and is globally distributed. The aim of this study was evaluate the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in aerial parts of Bidens pilosa samples, as well as its growth substrate by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were separated into two groups named control and treatment. During the plant development, micronutrient solution, containing Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn, was added to the treatment group. It was observed that micronutrient solution added to the Biden pilosa samples may had contributed to the preferentially absorption of Fe, Mg and V, as well as to decrease Zn absorption. (author)

  3. Caracterização de um isolado de Bidens mosaic virus proveniente de alface Characterization of an isolate of Bidens mosaic virus (BiMV from lettuce

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    Gerson Shinia Suzuki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, plantas de alface com sintomas de mosaico coletadas em São Manuel - SP foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica, constatando-se presença de partículas típicas de potyvirus com 730 nm de comprimento. Após purificação biológica por monolesionais em Chenopodium quinoa, o extrato vegetal foi inoculado em uma série de plantas diferenciadoras, verificando-se que o isolado testado foi capaz de infectar C. quinoa e C. amaranticolor induzindo lesões locais seguidas de mosaico sistêmico. Ervilha (Pisum sativum mostrou-se assintomática, e em diferentes cultivares de alface como Trocadero, White Boston, Regina, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Rafaela, Tainá, Vera e Laurel foi observado o mosaico. A cultivar Gizele foi tolerante ao vírus. O sequenciamento da região codificadora da proteína capsidial revelou maior identidade de aminoácidos (97% deste isolado com o Bidens mosaic virus - BiMV (nº de acesso AY960151. Diferentemente dos isolados de BiMV já descritos, este proveniente de alface não foi capaz de infectar Bidens pilosa, Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum TNN e N. glutinosa. A ocorrência natural do BiMV em alface, causando sintomas semelhantes aos do LMV e a suscetibilidade de várias das cultivares hoje plantadas, servem como um alerta para a correta diagnose do vírus a campo.In 2004 lettuce plants showing mosaic symptoms collected in São Manuel, SP were analyzed by electron microscopy, and particles with 730 nm typically from potyvirus were observed. After biological purification by monolesionals on Chenopodium quinoa, this isolate was sap inoculated on a host range assay. The virus infected C. quinoa and C. amaranticolor, causing local lesions and systemic mosaic. The virus did not induce symptoms on pea (Pisum sativum, but induced mosaic on the leaves of some lettuce cultivars such as Trocadero, White Boston, Regina, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Rafaela, Tainá, Vera and Laurel. The lettuce cultivar Gizele was tolerant to

  4. Alguns efeitos do fluometuron sobre o crescimento inicial de Bidens pilosa L. Some effects of fluometuron on early growth of Bidens pilosa L.

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    G. de Marinis

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. foram germinadas em placas de petri sobre papel de filtro molhado com diferentes concentrações de fluometuron (0, 5, 25, 125 e 625 ppm. O ensaio foi conduzido em condições de laboratório, com variação de temperatura entre 24°C e 28°C e intensidade luminosa máxima de 600 lux e foi encerrado após sete dias (168 horas. O fluometuron diminuiu a germinabilidade e o comprimento da radídula e do hipocótilo, afetou o formato dos cotilédones e, nas concentrações mais elevadas, impediu a rejeição do pericarpo. Os efeitos observados não são atribuíveis a lesões bioquímicas do processo fotossintético.Seeds of Bidens pilosa L. (Compositae were germinated in Petri dishes on filter paper wetted with aqueous suspensions of fluometuron at different concentrations (0, 5, 25, 125 and 625 ppm. The experiment was conducted during 7 days, under room conditions; the temperature range was 24°C - 28°C and the maximum light intensity was 600 lux. Fluometuron reduced germination percentage, radicle and hypocotyl lenght, affected cotyledon shape and, at the higher concentrations, prevented the pericarp rejection. The observed effects can not be attributed to biochemical lesions of the photosynthetic process.

  5. Efecto quimioprotector de Bidens pilosa en el cáncer de mama inducido en ratas

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    Jorge Arroyo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Bidens pilosa L es una planta perteneciente a la familia Asteraceae, conocida en Perú como amor seco y cadillo. Se le atribuye efectos antiinflamatorio, diurético y hepatoprotector. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto quimioprotector de los compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides extraídos de la planta entera de Bidens pilosa sobre el cáncer de mama inducido en ratas con 7,12-dimetilbenz antraceno (DMBA. Protección medida en base a detención del desarrollo de adenocarcinoma y disminución de marcadores de estrés oxidativo. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Laboratorio de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: Planta entera de Bidens pilosa L recolectada en La Libertad, Perú, y ratas hembras Holtzmann. Intervenciones: Se obtuvo los compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides por cromatografía en columna rápida, con solventes de polaridad creciente. Mediante cromatografía en capa fina y reactivos de desplazamiento, se aisló cuatro compuestos fenólicos. Los tumores de mama fueron inducidos con DMBA administrado oralmente. Se formó cuatro grupos de seis ratas cada uno: grupo control, grupo con tóxico inductor (TI DMBA del cáncer, grupos con TI más tratamiento de extracto etanólico 300 mg/kg, y grupo con TI más tratamiento de extracto metanólica 300 mg/kg. Principales medidas de resultados: Disminución del desarrollo de adenocarcinoma mamario. Resultados: Se logró disminución significativa del desarrollo de adenocarcinoma mamario con los tratamientos de extracto metanólico y etanólico, siendo mejor con la fracción metanólica; el marcador de estrés oxidativo disminuyó en los grupos que recibieron tratamiento con la planta, siendo significativo con la fracción metanólica; hubo menor número de micronúcleos (genotoxicidad en los animales que recibieron tratamiento. Conclusiones: En condiciones experimentales, el extracto y fracción metanólica de Bidens

  6. 鬼针草的研究进展%Research advances of Bidens L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷妮; 余长柱; 李荣; 李俊

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews the main chemical compositions and pharmacological action of anti -inflammation ,antihypertension ,antihy-perlipidemia,hepatoprotection,anti-tumor and anti-calculus.,which provides reference for development and utilization of Bidens L..%该文综述了鬼针草的主要化学成分和抗炎、抗高血压、抗高血脂、保肝护肝、抗肿瘤、抗结石方面的药理作用,为鬼针草的综合开发利用提供参考。

  7. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil by Bidens maximowicziana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cleanup technology for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Bidens maximowicziana is a new Pb hyperaccumulator, which not only has remarkable tolerance to Pb but also extraordinary accumulation capacity for Pb. The maximum Pb concentration was 1509.3 mg/kg in roots and 2164.7 mg/kg in above ground tissues. The Pb distribution order in the Bidens maximowicziana was: leaf > stem > root. The effect of amendments on phytoremediation was also studied. The mobility of soil Pb and the Pb concentrations in plants were both increased by EDTA application. And compared with CK (control check), EDTA application promoted translocation of Pb to above ground parts of the plant. The Pb concentrations in aboveground parts of plants was increased from 24.23-680.56 mg/kg to 29.07-1905.57 mg/kg. This research demonstrated that B. maximowicziana appeared to be suitable for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil, especially, combination with EDTA.

  8. Sensitivity of Bidens laevis L. to mutagenic compounds. Use of chromosomal aberrations as biomarkers of genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.J. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce (INTA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lukaszewicz, G. [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Menone, M.L., E-mail: lujanm@mdp.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camadro, E.L. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce (INTA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis possesses suitable cytological characteristics for genotoxicity testing. To test its sensitivity as compared to terrestrial plants species currently in use in standardized assays, Methyl Methanesulfonate (MMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and Maleic Hydrazide (HM) were used. On the other hand, the insecticide Endosulfan (ES) - an environmentally relevant contaminant - was assayed in seeds and two-month old plants. Mitotic Index (MI), frequency of Chromosome Aberrations in Anaphase-Telophase (CAAT) and frequency of Abnormal Metaphases (AM) were analyzed. MH, MMS and ENU caused a significant decrease of the MI. MMS was aneugenic whereas MH and ENU were both aneugenic and clastogenic. ES caused a significant concentration-dependent increase of total- and aneugenic-CAAT in roots and a significant high frequency of AM at high concentrations. Because of its sensitivity to mutagenic substances, B. laevis can be regarded as a reliable and convenient species for genotoxicity assays especially if aquatic contaminants are evaluated. - The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis is sensitive to genotoxic compounds similarly to terrestrial standardized species.

  9. Anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Bidens tripartita and quantitative analysis on its active principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; İçöz, Ülkü Gökçen; Altun, Levent; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Bidens species are used for their antidiabetic properties traditionally in many countries. Aim of this study is to evaluate hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activity of Bidens tripartita extract and to identify its active compounds through bioactivity guided isolation technique. Materials and Methods: Hypoglycaemic effects of B. tripartita extract and its sub-extracts were investigated in normal and glucose-hyperglycaemic rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were used to examine antidiabetic activity of the extract and its sub-extracts after acute and sub-acute administration. Additionally, in vitro enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities were evaluated. HPLC analyses were carried out to determine the active constituents of the extract and its sub-extracts. Results: Through in vivo bioactivity-guided fractionation process, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol sub-extracts were found to have potent antidiabetic activity. In vitro enzyme inhibitory activities of the same sub-extracts were found to be potent. The highest total phenol, flavonoid contents and radical scavenging activity was determined in ethyl acetate sub-extract. According to LC-MS analyses, chlorogenic acid, luteolin and 7-O-glucoside of luteolin (cynaroside) were determined as the main components of the active sub-extracts. Conclusion: According to our results, B. tripartita has potent antidiabetic activity and its active constituents might be beneficial for diabetes and its complications. PMID:27872708

  10. Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae: Botanical Properties, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

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    Arlene P. Bartolome

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 230 to 240 known Bidens species. Among them, Bidens pilosa is a representative perennial herb, globally distributed across temperate and tropical regions. B. pilosa has been traditionally used in foods and medicines without obvious adverse effects. Despite significant progress in phytochemical and biological analyses of B. pilosa over the past few years, comprehensive and critical reviews of this plant are anachronistic or relatively limited in scope. The present review aims to summarize up-to-date information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of B. pilosa from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of B. pilosa in over 40 diseases, scientific studies investigating the potential medicinal uses of this species and its constituent phytochemicals for a variety of disorders are presented and discussed. The structure, bioactivity, and likely mechanisms of action of B. pilosa and its phytochemicals are emphasized. Although some progress has been made, further rigorous efforts are required to investigate the individual compounds isolated from B. pilosa to understand and validate its traditional uses and develop clinical applications. The present review provides preliminary information and gives guidance for further basic and clinical research into this plant.

  11. Similaridade genética entre acessos de Bidens pilosa resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Genetic similarity among Bidens pilosa accesses resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

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    R.A. Vidal

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS têm sido amplamente utilizados no controle da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa. A pressão de seleção causada pelo uso intensivo desses herbicidas tem selecionado biótipos de picão-preto resistentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de similaridade genética entre acessos de picão-preto resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, bem como a relação entre coeficiente de similaridade genética e distância geográfica desses acessos. Para isso, sementes de dois grupos de acessos de picão-preto, originárias de uma propriedade em Pato Branco, Paraná, resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS foram colhidas, e plântulas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre-RS, em outubro de 2004. Por meio do marcador molecular RAPD (polimorfismo de DNA amplificado ao acaso foi possível avaliar a similaridade genética entre os acessos de picão-preto. Na análise conjunta dos acessos, dos 20 primers utilizados, 17 apresentaram-se polimórficos, amplificando um total de 94 bandas. Houve baixa similaridade genética (38% entre acessos de picão-preto resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS originários de uma mesma propriedade. Não foi observada relação entre distância genética e distância geográfica entre os acessos avaliados.Acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides have been widely used to control the weed hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa. The selection pressure caused by intensive herbicide use has selected hairy beggarticks resistant biotypes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the degree of genetic similarity among hairy beggarticks accesses (Bidens pilosa resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and to evaluate the relation between genetic similarity and geographic distance. Seeds of two groups of hairy beggarticks accesses resistant to ALS-inhibitors were sampled from a

  12. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil by Bidens maximowicziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-qi; Lu, Si-jin; Li, Hua; Yao, Zhi-hua

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cleanup technology for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Bidens maximowicziana is a new Pb hyperaccumulator, which not only has remarkable tolerance to Pb but also extraordinary accumulation capacity for Pb. The maximum Pb concentration was 1509.3 mg/kg in roots and 2164.7 mg/kg in overground tissues. The Pb distribution order in the B. maximowicziana was: leaf > stem > root. The effect of amendments on phytoremediation was also studied. The mobility of soil Pb and the Pb concentrations in plants were both increased by EDTA application. Compared with CK (control check), EDTA application promoted translocation of Pb to overground parts of the plant. The Pb concentrations in overground parts of plants was increased from 24.23-680.56 mg/kg to 29.07-1905.57 mg/kg. This research demonstrated that B. maximowicziana appeared to be suitable for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil, especially, combination with EDTA.

  13. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.

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    Michał Tomczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts, which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  14. Feeding Choice and the Fate of Organic Materials Consumed by Sesarma Crabs Perisesarma bidens (De Haan When Offered Different Diets

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    Islam S. S. Mchenga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding preference of the sesarmid crab Perisesarma bidens was investigated when offered different diets: Enteromorpha intestinalis (algae, Kandelia obovata leaves, and propagules. Nutritional value of food, its assimilation, and fates were evaluated using a combination approach of the fatty acids (FAs and C/N ratios. When offered a mixed diet, male crabs preferred algae than leaves and/or propagules, while a female preference was equally for leaves and algae but less than propagules. The nutritional value of algae was higher as indicated by low C : N ratios and high ω3/ω6 ratios than leaves and propagules. FAs comparison of tissues and faeces indicated that crabs efficiently assimilate essential fatty acids (EFAs from a given diet in the order of algae greater than leaves and propagules. Despite of sesarmid crabs being a mangrove leaf-eater, E. intestinalis can potentially be important source of nitrogen supplement for P. bidens under mangrove forests.

  15. Full-length sequence analysis of a distinct isolate of Bidens mottle virus infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J Y; Hu, Chung-Chi; Chen, C C; Chang, C H; Deng, T C

    2009-01-01

    The full-length genome of a potyvirus, previously known as sunflower chlorotic spot virus isolate SF-1 (SCSV-SF-1) which causes novel symptoms on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus), was sequenced and analyzed. The genome of SCSV-SF-1 is 9,741 nucleotides long, encoding a polyprotein of 3,071 amino acids containing the consensus motifs of potyviruses. Sequence comparison revealed that the 3'-terminus of SCSV-SF-1 shared over 96% similarities with isolates of Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV). However, SCSV-SF-1 has a very narrow host range, excluding the diagnostic host species for BiMoV, Bidens pilosa and Zinnia elegans. Therefore, SCSV-SF-1 is a distinct isolate of BiMoV. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of BiMoV infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

  16. Anatomy and early development of the pectoral girdle, fin, and fin spine of sturgeons (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Casey B; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan clades. To this end, we examined comparative developmental series from the pectoral girdle in Acipenser fulvescens, A. medirostris, A. transmontanus, and Scaphirhynchus albus to document, describe, and compare ontogenetic and allometric differences in the pectoral girdle. We find, not surprisingly, broad congruence between taxa in the basic pattern of development of the dermal and chondral elements of the pectoral girdle. However, we also find clear differences in the details of structure and development among the species examined in the dermal elements, including the clavicle, cleithrum, supracleithrum, posttemporal, and pectoral-fin spine. We also find differences in the internal fin elements such as the distal radials as well as in the number of fin rays and their association with the propterygium. Further, there are clear ontogenetic differences during development of the dermal and chondral elements in these species and allometric variation in the pectoral-fin spine. The characters highlighted provide a suite of elements for further examination in studies of the phylogeny of sturgeons. Determining the distribution of these characters in other sturgeons may aid in further resolution of phylogenetic relationships, and these data highlight the role that ontogenetic and comparative developmental studies provide in systematics.

  17. Contribución al conocimiento de la Papunga, Bidens pilosa L.

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    Bastidas P. Pedro Iván

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio preliminar del hábitat natural de Bidens pilosa L. y de la asociación con micorrizas e insectos. Se evaluó el efecto de la luz, la longitud de los aquenios y el tiempo de almacenamiento sobre la germinación. Se estudió el crecimiento y desarrollo de la especie, se hizo análisis bromatológico de las hojas y se halló un método no destructivo para estimar el área foliar. La planta se encontró entre los 1000 y los 1800 msnm, en todos los sitios se encontró la raíz asociada con hongos micorrizogenos; la planta es frecuentemente visitada por insectos benéficos especialmente en floración. Los aquenios largos en la luz germinaron en 98% y 96 % en oscuridad los cortos alcanzaron 77 y 69 %. A los 4 meses de almacenamiento los aquenios largos tuvieron germinaciones de 89 % y de 78% los cortos. El área foliar se incrementó hasta la novena semana, en este período las hojas aportaron un alto porcentaje de la biomasa total, después el aporte principal se debió a los tallos. Las hojas contenían 16.8% de proteínas. El modelo para estimar el área foliar fue AF = 23.3 + 0.349 (LA-54.3 con un R2 de 93.5%.The natural habitat for Papunga Bidens pilosa and the associated mycorriza were the subject of this study. The effects of dayligh, achenia lenghts and seed storage time were evaluated. Growth curve and plant development data were recorded. A proximal analysis is given and a nont–destructive method to estimate foliar area is described. Papunga grows al 1000-1800 meter altitudes and every where is associated with mycorrhiza. Pollination insects are frequently found. Long achenia germinate up to 96% in the dark and 98% in the light. Foliar area incremented up to the 9 the week; then decreases while culm weight increases, leaves showed 16.8010 protein. Foliar area model used was FA = 23.3 + 0.349 (LA - 54.3 with 93.5 % R2.

  18. Allelopathic effect of essential oils of medicinal plants in Bidens pilosa L.

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    M.C.S. Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the inhibitory allelopathic effects of the volatile extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Cymbopogum nardus L. on seed germination and root growth of seedlings of Bidens pilosa. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. For this end, we used oils at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% (v/v. Five treatments were used for each of the oils arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in Petri dishes lined with filter paper moistened with distilled water and, aiming at the indirect contact with each oil, two sheets of filter paper were placed on top of the lid, in which three (3 mL of each oil solution were added. Then, the dishes were incubated in a germination chamber at 25°C. The pH did not contribute to alter the results; the volatile extracts of essential oils of C. zeylanicum, L. sidoides and C. nardus inhibited seed germination and root growth of seedlings of B. pilosa, which shows allelopathic potential; and the concentration of 0.08% of oils caused the overall deterioration of the roots and death of seedlings of B. pilosa.

  19. Description of sounds associated with Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) in the western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewiak, Danielle; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2013-11-01

    Several groups of Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) were encountered on July 4, 2011, during a shipboard cetacean survey conducted off the eastern seaboard of the United States. Acoustic recordings were collected using a three-element towed hydrophone array. Many echolocation clicks were recorded during the encounter, but no tonal sounds were detected. A total of 2969 echolocation clicks were included in analyses of frequency and temporal characteristics. A Gaussian mixture model with four mixtures was fitted to the histogram of peak frequencies; four subsets of clicks were designated. The majority of clicks (n = 2048) contained a median peak frequency of 33 kHz, while the others contained a median peak frequency of 25 kHz (n = 324), 51 kHz (n = 304), or 67 kHz (n = 293). Most clicks did not contain a clear frequency-modulated upsweep, though some clicks exhibited a slight sweep from 30-36 kHz. Seven burst pulses were detected in the encounter, two of which were of high enough quality for detailed analysis. The acoustic characteristics of Sowerby's beaked whales have not previously been described; the current study will facilitate incorporation of these data into passive acoustic monitoring programs in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Botanical, Pharmacological, Phytochemical, and Toxicological Aspects of the Antidiabetic Plant Bidens pilosa L.

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    Wen-Chin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. is an easy-to-grow, widespread, and palatable perennial on earth. Hence, it has traditionally been used as foods and medicines without noticeable adverse effects. Despite significant advancement in chemical and biological studies of B. pilosa over the past few years, comprehensive and critical reviews on its anti-diabetic properties are missing. The present review is to summarize up-to-date information on the pharmacology, phytochemistry, and toxicology of B. pilosa, in regard to type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of B. pilosa in diabetes, scientific studies investigating antidiabetic action of this species and its active phytochemicals are presented and discussed. The structure and biosynthesis of B. pilosa and its polyynes in relation to their anti-diabetic action and mechanism are emphasized. Although some progress has been made, rigorous efforts are further required to unlock the molecular basis and structure-activity relationship of the polyynes isolated from B. pilosa before their clinical applications. The present review provides preliminary information and gives guidance for further anti-diabetic research and development of this plant.

  1. Bioactive compounds in Bidens pilosa L. populations: a key step in the standardization of phytopharmaceutical preparations

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    Diego F. Cortés-Rojas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid content (TFC, total polyphenols content (TPC, and in vitro antioxidant activity (AA of six Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae, populations harvested from different localities were evaluated in this work. The plants were separated in roots, stems, and leaves/flowers, and the influence of extraction methods was investigated.Areversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC was developed and employed to obtain characteristic HPLC fingerprints of the bioactive compounds present in the extractive solutions, which were correlated with the TFC, TPC, and AA. Extractive solutions of leaves/flowers presented a higher AA when compared with those obtained from other parts of the plant (IC50 of 35.35±0.10 µg/mL. The stem extracts presented the lowest AA (IC50 117.2±1.96 µg/mL. A direct correlation of AA with TFC and TPC was evidenced. The highest AA was obtained by dynamic maceration and was statistically different from the AA presented by the extractive solutions obtained by other extraction methods. The results of this work evidenced differences that can be found at different stages of development of phytopharmaceutical preparations from B. pilosa and highlighted the importance of using the concentration of marker compounds as well as HPLC fingerprints as quality control parameters.

  2. Bioactive compounds in Bidens pilosa L. populations: a key step in the standardization of phytopharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cortés-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid content (TFC, total polyphenols content (TPC, and in vitro antioxidant activity (AA of six Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae, populations harvested from different localities were evaluated in this work. The plants were separated in roots, stems, and leaves/flowers, and the influence of extraction methods was investigated.Areversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC was developed and employed to obtain characteristic HPLC fingerprints of the bioactive compounds present in the extractive solutions, which were correlated with the TFC, TPC, and AA. Extractive solutions of leaves/flowers presented a higher AA when compared with those obtained from other parts of the plant (IC50 of 35.35±0.10 µg/mL. The stem extracts presented the lowest AA (IC50 117.2±1.96 µg/mL. A direct correlation of AA with TFC and TPC was evidenced. The highest AA was obtained by dynamic maceration and was statistically different from the AA presented by the extractive solutions obtained by other extraction methods. The results of this work evidenced differences that can be found at different stages of development of phytopharmaceutical preparations from B. pilosa and highlighted the importance of using the concentration of marker compounds as well as HPLC fingerprints as quality control parameters.

  3. Resposta à qualidade de luz como estratégia para estabelecimento de Bidens gardneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimara Nolasco Rondon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o envolvimento do fitocromo na germinação de aquênios do Bidens gardneri Baker., conhecido como picão preto. Os aquênios foram separados em curtos, médios e longos. Dois experimentos utilizaram apenas aquênios médios devido às diferenças quanto à resposta de germinação na ausência de luz, quando foram armazenados artificialmente no solo de cerrado, em um estudo anterior. A resposta dos aquênios curtos, médios e longos ao aumento da fluência de luz branca foi verificada sob um gradiente de luz branca entre 0 e 46,44 mmol m-2 s-1 de fluência. A reversão do fitocromo vermelho extremo (Fve em fitocromo vermelho (Fv no escuro em aquênios médios recém coletados e os armazenados por 14 meses a 4 ºC, que foram embebidos em água por 24 horas e incubados a 35 °C durante 24, 48 e 72 horas no escuro e a germinação foi a 25 ºC no escuro e observada após 15 e 30 dias. Por ultimo, foi construído um gradiente de fotoequilíbrio para cada tamanho e idade de aquênio em placas de petri umedecidos com água destilada, na qual a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias. Em irradiâncias de 0 a 46,44 mmol m-2 s-1, a germinabilidade dos aquênios longos e médios aumentou com a irradiância, porém os aquênios curtos sempre tiveram baixa germinabilidade. Aquênios médios armazenados, pré-embebidos por 24h e incubados no escuro por 24 h, 48 h e 72 h a 35 ºC mantiveram resposta fotoblástica quando a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias e após 15 e 30 dias, portanto não apresentaram reversão de Fve para Fv no escuro. No entanto, aquênios médios recém coletados e submetidos aos mesmos tratamentos tiveram o Fve removido quando incubados por 48 e 72 horas. Estes aquênios mostraram a resposta de fluência muito baixa de luz, quando a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias, sob luz verde. Os resultados indicam que heteroblastismo pode conferir à espécie estratégias diferentes

  4. Isolation of Brucella ceti from a Long-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala melas) and a Sowerby's Beaked Whale (Mesoploden bidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Geoffrey; Whatmore, Adrian M; Dagleish, Mark P; Baily, Johanna L; Deaville, Rob; Davison, Nicholas J; Koylass, Mark S; Perrett, Lorraine L; Stubberfield, Emma J; Reid, Robert J; Brownlow, Andrew C

    2015-10-01

    Brucella ceti is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been recovered from several species of cetaceans in the world's oceans over the past 20 yr. We report the recovery of B. ceti from a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoploden bidens) and a long-finned pilot whale (Globicehala melas). Recovery from the testis of a long-finned pilot whale provides further evidence of potential for B. ceti infection to impact the reproductive success of cetaceans, many of which are threatened species. The addition of another two cetacean species to the growing number from which B. ceti has been recovered also further emphasizes the concern for human infections with this organism.

  5. Phytochrome controls achene germination in Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae by very low fluence response

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    Adriana Amaral-Baroli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Achene without ornament of the tegument were light insensitive with germination under all tested light conditions. Achene with verrucose ornament of the tegument presented low germination under darkness and high germination under light conditions. By pre-incubation at 36° C for remotion of pre-existing Pfr and by comparison of results of counting of dark germinating achenes at the end of experiment and daily under dim green safe light (0.001mumol m-2 s-1 nm-1 we concluded that germination was controlled by phytochrome through very low fluence response.Aquênios sem ornamento do tegumento são insensíveis à luz com ocorrência de germinação sob todas as condições de luz testadas. Aquênios com ornamento verrucoso do tegumento apresentou baixa germinação sob escuro e alta germinação sob luz. A pré-incubação a 36° C para a remoção de Fve pré-existente e pela comparação dos resultados de contagem no final do experimento de aquênios que germinam no escuro e diárias sob luz verde de segurança (0.001mimol m-2s-1nm-1 concluimos que a germinação de Bidens pilosa é controlada pelo fitocromo através da resposta de fluência baixa.

  6. Study of the antitumor potential of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) used in Brazilian folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Schoenfelder, Tatiana; de Lemos Wiese, Luiz Paulo; Rossi, Maria Helena; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Felicio, Joana D'arc; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2008-04-17

    Bidens pilosa (L.) (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil for treating conditions that can be related to cancer. Therefore the present study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor activity of extracts obtained from the aerial parts of this plant species. The crude hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) (water:alcohol, 6:4) and solvent fractions (chloroform=CHCl3,ethyl acetate=EtOAc, methanol=MeOH) were assessed for cytotoxicity assay by the brine shrimp and hemolytic, MTT and NRU assays. The antiproliferative potential of the crude extract and fractions was investigated in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in isogenic Balb/c mice that were administered intraperitoneally 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight per day for nine days beginning 24 h after tumor inoculation. In in vitro cytotoxicity using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line assay CHCl3 extract proved to be more toxic than the crude HAE with an IC(50) of 97+/-7.2 and 83+/-5.2 microg/mL to NRU and MTT, respectively. Histomorphological evaluations indicated that the treatment with CHCl3 and HAE extracts significantly reduced (P<0.05) body weight, abdominal circumference, tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count, when compared to EAC control group. Furthermore, nonviable tumor cell count increased significantly (P<0.01) only under treatment with CHCl3 or HAE, and this was accompanied by a marked percentage increase in life span (54.2 and 41.7%, respectively). Biochemical assays revealed that CHCl3 and HAE extracts were also able to decrease serum LDH activity (39.5 and 30.6%) and GSH concentration (94.6 and 50.7%) in ascitic fluid, respectively. The chloroform fraction showed the best and methanolic the worst antitumor activity.

  7. Multiple resistance to atrazine and imazethapyr in hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa

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    Hudson Kagueyama Takano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Resistance to herbicides is a serious threat to crop production worldwide, especially in agronomic crops and cereals. This research evaluated the possible occurrence of Bidens pilosa resistant to imazethapyr and atrazine in Brazil. The resistant biotype was collected from an area with a history of repeated application of photosystem II (PSII and ALS inhibitor herbicides. The susceptible biotype was collected from an area with no history of herbicide application. Resistance verification experiments were carried out in the greenhouse. The treatments were arranged in a 3 x 8 factorial scheme, where the first factor was populations [susceptible (S, parent resistant (PR, and resistant F1 (RF1]; and the second factor was herbicide dose (0, 375, 750, 1500, 3000, 6000, 12000 and 24000 g ha-1 for atrazine; or 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 g ha-1 for imazethapyr. The resistance factor to atrazine was 2.83 for PR and 5.55 for RF1. This population was more resistant to imazethapyr (>21-fold than it was to atrazine. The recommended maximum dose of the herbicides did not control this B. pilosa population adequately. The data support the claim that B. pilosa population from this field in Quarto Centenário, Parana is resistant to two herbicide modes of action - PSII inhibitor (i.e. atrazine and ALS inhibitor (i.e. imazethapyr. This is the first report of such case for this species, globally. Cross-resistance to other ALS inhibitors and other PS II inhibitors as well as the respective mechanisms of resistance to each herbicide are being investigated.

  8. Integrating multi-origin expression data improves the resolution of deep phylogeny of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Tao, Wenjing; Arratia, Gloria; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The actinopterygians comprise nearly one-half of all extant vertebrate species and are very important for human well-being. However, the phylogenetic relationships among certain groups within the actinopterygians are still uncertain, and debates about these relationships have continued for a long time. Along with the progress achieved in sequencing technologies, phylogenetic analyses based on multi-gene sequences, termed phylogenomic approaches, are becoming increasingly common and often result in well-resolved and highly supported phylogenetic hypotheses. Based on the transcriptome sequences generated in this study and the extensive expression data currently available from public databases, we obtained alignments of 274 orthologue groups for 26 scientifically and commercially important actinopterygians, representing 17 out of 44 orders within the class Actinopterygii. Using these alignments and probabilistic methods, we recovered relationships between basal actinopterygians and teleosts, among teleosts within protacanthopterygians and related lineages, and also within acanthomorphs. These relationships were recovered with high confidence.

  9. The effect of temperature and methanol–water mixture on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anti-HIV analogoues from Bidens pilosa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gbashi, S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available , Chang JS, Chen CC, Ng LT, Lin CC (2013) Anti-Herpes simplex virus activity of Bidens pilosa and Houttuynia cordata. Am J Chin Med 31:355–362 9. Lee J, Scagel CF (2013) Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and produc- tion. Front Chem 1:40–41 10...

  10. In vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiviral effects of Pterocaulon alopecuroides and Bidens segetum extracts Efeitos citotóxico, antioxidante e antiviral in vitro de extratos de Pterocaulon alopecuroides e Bidens segetum

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    Cristiane Silva Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lamark De Candolle and Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla are two species belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts from those two species were evaluated to their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiviral activities. All the extracts assayed have shown a very high cytotoxity against RBL-2H3 cell line. The antioxidant assay pointed out a really high activity of the ethyl acetate extracts for B. segetum and P. alopecuroides. This can be partially explained due to the high content of coumarins, at least for P. alopecuroides. None of the total ethanol extracts from B. segetum showed significant activity against the two strains of Herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2 resistant to acyclovir. P. alopecuroides ethanol extract was also inactive against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 resistant to acyclovir. However, this extract presented inhibitory activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 resistant to acyclovir. From the ethanol crude extract of P. alopecuroides, it was possible to isolate 7-(2',3'-dihidroxy-3'-methylbutyloxy-6-methoxycoumarin, which was tested in the same conditions, showing a viral inhibitory rate almost twice bigger than the P. alopecuroides sample for HSV-2-ACVr. The coumarin was also active against HSV-1-ACVr. Those results provide further evidence of the importance of Pterocaulon alopecuroides and Bidens segetum as medicinal plants.Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lamark De Candolle e Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla são duas espécies pertencentes à família Asteraceae. Os extratos dessas duas espécies foram avaliados quanto às suas atividades citotóxica, antioxidante e antiviral. Todos os extratos analisados apresentaram citotoxidade muito alta contra linhagens de células RBL-2H3. O ensaio de atividade antioxidante demonstrou uma alta atividade das frações em acetato de etila de B. segetum e P. alopecuroides. Isso pode ser parcialmente explicado pelo alto conteúdo de cumarinas, ao menos para P

  11. Management of Bidens pilosa and Commelina benghalensis in organic corn cultivation under no-tillage Manejo de Bidens pilosa e Commelina benghalensis no cultivo de milho orgânico em sistema de plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Lemos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mowing is one of the most important methods used to control weeds in organic farming, under the no-tillage system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three weed management techniques on weed development, using the weeds Bidens pilosa and Commelina benghalensis, in competition with organic corn {mowing at the three-leaf stage (14 days after corn emergence - DACE, mowing at the three- and six-leaf stage (14 and 25 DACE, and no mowing. Single cultivation with no mowing was also evaluated for these weeds. Mowings performed at 14 and 25 DACE prevented the production of B. pilosa seeds, ensuring efficient control of this species. However, the use of this technique was shown to be inefficient in the control of C. benghalensis.A roçada é um dos métodos de maior importância no controle de plantas daninhas, em cultivos orgânicos, no sistema de plantio direto. Neste trabalho foram avaliados os efeitos de três manejos de plantas de Bidens pilosa e Commelina benghalensis, em competição com o milho {roçadas no estádio de três folhas do milho (14 dias após emergência do milho - DAEM, roçadas no estádio de três e seis folhas do milho (14 e 25 DAEM e não roçadas}, sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas. Foi avaliado também o cultivo solteiro dessas plantas daninhas sem o uso de roçadas. Roçadas realizadas aos 14 e 25 DAEM impediram a produção de sementes de B. pilosa, garantindo eficiente controle dessa espécie. Todavia, o uso dessa técnica mostrou-se ineficiente para o controle de C. benghalensis.

  12. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos; Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila; Edvande Xavier dos Santos Filho; Renato Ivan de Ávila; Aline Carvalho Batista; Simone Gonçalves Fonseca; Eliana Martins Lima; Ricardo Neves Marreto; Elismauro Francisco de Mendonça; Marize Campos Valadares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) (BP...

  13. Potencial alelopático de plantas de cobertura no controle de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. Cover plants allelopathic potential in Bidens pilosa L. control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Monti Teixeira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Extratos aquosos da parte aérea de mucuna-preta (Stilozobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy, mucuna rajada (Stilozobium sp., Crotalaria juncea L., Crotalaria spectabilis Roth, guandu e guandu anão (Cajanus cajan (L. Druce foram preparados com o objetivo de se determinar a potencialidade alelopática dessas espécies, largamente utilizadas como plantas de cobertura, sobre sementes de alface (planta-teste e aquênios de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Universidade Federal de Lavras, durante o mês de abril de 2003. Foram avaliados o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a germinação final. No experimento com alface, houve redução significativa da germinação apenas para o extrato aquoso de crotalária juncea. Para as outras espécies, houve uma tendência de redução na germinação, porém, não diferindo da testemunha com água destilada. O IVG apresentou redução significativa nos tratamentos com extratos aquosos de crotalária juncea, guandu comum, mucuna-rajada e mucuna-preta. As outras espécies tiveram uma tendência em reduzir o IVG, porém, não diferindo da testemunha. No experimento com picão-preto, a germinação apresentou comportamento semelhante ao experimento com alface, com redução significativa apenas para o tratamento com crotalária juncea, porém, para o IVG, houve redução significativa apenas para a mucuna-preta, com uma tendência de redução para os tratamentos com as outras espécies, mas não diferindo da testemunha.Aqueous extracts from aerial part of black mucuna (Stilozobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy, striped mucuna (Stilozobium sp, Crotalaria juncea L., Crotalaria spectabilis Roth., guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Druce and dwarf guandu (Cajanus cajan were prepared with the objective of studying the allelopathic potential of these species, broadly used as cover plants, on lettuce seeds (test plant and aquenes of Bidens pilosa L.. The

  14. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos de genótipos de canola sobre Bidens pilosa Allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of canola genotypes on Bidens Pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rizzardi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas de genótipos de canola na germinação e comprimento da radícula de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa. Os tratamentos estudados foram constituídos dos genótipos de canola Hyola 420, Hyola 401, Hyola 43, Hyola 60, Hyola 61, Y 3000, H 1432, Dln 03-02, Dln 03-04, Sdh 03-01, Sdh 03-07, Sw-2797 e Sw-Eclipse, nas concentrações de extrato aquoso a 100, 75, 50, 25 e 0%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial com dois fatores 12 x 4 (genótipos e concentração do extrato, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em caixas gerbox com papel de germinação embebido nos extratos das plantas de canola, sobre os quais foram dispostos aquênios de picão-preto. Sete dias após a semeadura, avaliou-se o número de aquênios germinados e o comprimento das radículas. Os resultados revelaram que os extratos de canola influenciam negativamente a germinação de aquênios e o comprimento da radícula de Bidens pilosa. Para alguns genótipos, as baixas concentrações de extratos estimularam tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto a porcentagem de germinação dos aquênios; em altas concentrações, os genótipos não diferiram na germinação dos aquênios e no comprimento da radícula.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of plants of canola genotypes on the germination and radicle length of hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa. The treatments consisted of genotypes of canola Hyola 420, Hyola 401, Hyola 43, Hyola 60, Hyola 61, Y 3000, H 1432, Dln 03-02, Dln 03-04, Sdh 03-01, Sdh 03-07, sw-2797, and Sw-Eclipse. The concentrations of aqueous extract of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0 % were tested. A completely randomized experimental design was used in a factorial 12 x 4 (genotypes and extract concentrations with four replications. The experiment was carried out in plastic boxes containing ot the bottom blotter

  15. Isolation of Proteins which Interact with Phospholipase A2 (IIA from Human Serum after Myocardial Infarction. Flavonoids from Bidens tripartita Extract as Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Król

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to isolate proteins which interact with phospholipase A2 (PLA2 from human serum after myocardial infarction. During this study, the effect of flavonoid inhibitors from the extract of Bidens Tripartita was examined. First, the paper describes phytochemical characterisation of compounds found in the plant Bidens tripartita.  Plant material was harvested at different vegetation stages, and extracts of each were studied for presence of flavonoids by methods such as spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Six different flavonoids were identified in extracts. The largest amount of phenolic compounds (mainly rutin and quercetin was found in the intensive growth vegetation stage, and antioxidant activity corresponds with this result. The conducted analysis shows the dependence of phytochemical composition on the vegetation stage when the plant was collected. These results support the use of bur marigold extracts in pharmaceutical or food industry as a potential source of natural inhibitors of PLA2. Biochemistry analysis using the pull-down method shows that 7 proteins which bind sPLA2 were found in healthy blood serum and after myocardial infarction. The biggest fraction was albumins. According to the variant of the sample, different proteins are bound to PLA2. The data of the pull-down analysis correspond with phytochemical analysis, i.e., they support the presence of natural inhibitors of PLA2 in Bidens tripartita extract.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.72.4.16494

  16. Fungitoxicty of Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba and Rosmarinus officinalis in the in vitro development of phytophatogens fungi / Fungitoxidade de Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba e Rosmarinus officinalis no desenvolvimento in vitro de fungos fitopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Stangarlin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The fungitoxicity of aqueous crude extracts (ACE of Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba and Rosmarinus officinalis was evaluated in vitro on development of Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. The active ACE were incorporated to Potato- Dextrose-Agar (PDA alone or in mixture, at 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% concentrations. Measurement in fungal colonies was taken daily until the control treatment covered 2/3 of the culture media. The mixtures of T. vulgaris with B. pilosa did not have positive effect because the ACE of B. pilosa did not reduce the fungal growth of R. solani and in mixture inhibited the effect ACE of T. vulgaris. However, the mixture of ACEs of R. officinalis and L. alba produced better results than isolated ACEs, with 60% of growth inhibition of A. alternata. The ACE of T. vulgaris inhibited the growth of C. graminicola at 97%. The results show that ACEs have significative fungitoxicity in the evaluated phythopathogens.Avaliou-se in vitro, a atividade fungitóxica dos extratos brutos aquosos (EBA em diferentes concentrações isolados e em misturas de Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba e Rosmarinus officinalis no desenvolvimento dos fungos Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii. A avaliação foi realizada incorporando os extratos brutos aquosos (EBAs ao meio BDA isolados e em mistura, nas concentrações 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% e 50%. Foram feitas medições diárias das colônias fúngicas até o momento em o tratamento controle cobriu 2/3 da superfície do meio de cultura. Verificou-se que a mistura de T. vulgaris com B. pilosa não teve efeito positivo, pois o EBA isolado de B. pilosa não reduziu o crescimento do fungo R. solani e em mistura reduziu o efeito do EBA de T. vulgaris. Porém, o EBAs de R. officinalis e L. alba em mistura levaram a melhores resultados, reduzindo em até 60% o

  17. Estratégias de manejo de inverno e verão visando ao controle de Conyza bonariensis e Bidens pilosa Winter and summer management strategies for Conyza bonariensis and Bidens pilosa control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Oliveira Neto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conyza bonariensis é uma das principais plantas daninhas da região Sul do País; com a seleção de biótipos tolerantes e resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, demandas são crescentes por alternativas de manejo para essa espécie. Com esse intuito, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes estratégias de manejo de inverno e de verão sobre o controle de Conyza bonariensis, utilizando a mistura em tanque de glyphosate+2,4-D associada ou não com herbicidas residuais. As combinações de manejo foram realizadas após a colheita do milho safrinha (manejo de inverno, associadas a manejos antecedendo a semeadura da soja (manejo de verão, totalizando 15 tratamentos. Os manejos de inverno avaliados foram eficientes na dessecação das plantas daninhas e mantiveram excelentes níveis de controle residual até a pré-semeadura da cultura da soja. A semeadura da aveia após o manejo de inverno com posterior manejo de verão com glyphosate+2,4-D+diclosulam mostrou-se eficiente no controle de Bidens pilosa. Em todos os manejos em que o herbicida 2,4-D foi associado ao glyphosate houve controle total de Conyza bonariensis.Conyza bonariensis is one of the most important weeds in southern Brazil. The selection of biotypes tolerant and resistant to the herbicide glyphosate has led to increasing demand for alternatives of management strategy to control this species. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different winter and summer management strategy for the control of Conyza bonariensis, by using glyphosate + 2,4-D tank mixtures combined or not with residual herbicides. The different burndown alternatives were applied after corn harvest (winter burndown, associated to applications before soybean sowing (summer burndown with a total of 15 treatments. Winter burndown options evaluated in this research were efficient in weed desiccation and provided excellent levels of residual weed control up to the next summer soybean

  18. Resposta à qualidade de luz como estratégia para estabelecimento de Bidens gardneri Response to the quality of light as a strategy for establishment of Bidens gardneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimara Nolasco Rondon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o envolvimento do fitocromo na germinação de aquênios do Bidens gardneri Baker., conhecido como picão preto. Os aquênios foram separados em curtos, médios e longos. Dois experimentos utilizaram apenas aquênios médios devido às diferenças quanto à resposta de germinação na ausência de luz, quando foram armazenados artificialmente no solo de cerrado, em um estudo anterior. A resposta dos aquênios curtos, médios e longos ao aumento da fluência de luz branca foi verificada sob um gradiente de luz branca entre 0 e 46,44 mmol m-2 s-1 de fluência. A reversão do fitocromo vermelho extremo (Fve em fitocromo vermelho (Fv no escuro em aquênios médios recém coletados e os armazenados por 14 meses a 4 ºC, que foram embebidos em água por 24 horas e incubados a 35 °C durante 24, 48 e 72 horas no escuro e a germinação foi a 25 ºC no escuro e observada após 15 e 30 dias. Por ultimo, foi construído um gradiente de fotoequilíbrio para cada tamanho e idade de aquênio em placas de petri umedecidos com água destilada, na qual a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias. Em irradiâncias de 0 a 46,44 mmol m-2 s-1, a germinabilidade dos aquênios longos e médios aumentou com a irradiância, porém os aquênios curtos sempre tiveram baixa germinabilidade. Aquênios médios armazenados, pré-embebidos por 24h e incubados no escuro por 24 h, 48 h e 72 h a 35 ºC mantiveram resposta fotoblástica quando a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias e após 15 e 30 dias, portanto não apresentaram reversão de Fve para Fv no escuro. No entanto, aquênios médios recém coletados e submetidos aos mesmos tratamentos tiveram o Fve removido quando incubados por 48 e 72 horas. Estes aquênios mostraram a resposta de fluência muito baixa de luz, quando a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias, sob luz verde. Os resultados indicam que heteroblastismo pode conferir à espécie estratégias diferentes

  19. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations.

  20. Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Bidens pilosa Flowers and Their Uptake by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

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    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata (BPR, Asteraceae is a commonly used folk medicine for treating various disorders such as diabetes, inflammation and hypertension. Recent studies to determine its chemical composition have revealed three di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (DiCQAs and three polyacetylene glucosides (PGAs to be among the major bioactive markers. To obtain the major compounds of these two chemical classes, the ethyl acetate fraction (EM obtained using liquid-liquid partition from the methanol extract resulted in a fraction with the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities in radical scavenging and ferric reducing power assays. To assess the bioavailability of EM, we examined the in vitro uptake using the Caco-2 human colonic cell line. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for each of the compounds within PGAs measured in both apical (AP to basolateral (BL and BL to AP was found to preferentially appear BL to AP direction, indicated that a basolateral to apical efflux system was detected in the study. DiCQAs had a lower efflux ratio than those from PGAs (2.32–3.67 vs. 6.03–78.36. Thus, it strongly implies that most of the DiCQAs are better absorbed than the PGAs.

  1. Germination and morphology of diaspores and seedlings of Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla=Germinação e morfologia de diásporos e plântulas de Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla

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    Grasiela Bruzamarello Tognon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of new ornamental plants from native species such as Bidens segetum has great potential for the floriculture market, however, this depends on studies that enable its propagation for commercial purposes. This research aimed to define conditions from germination and to describe and illustrate the morphology of diaspores and seedlings of B. segetum. The germination study was performed with freshly harvested diaspores using a paper substrate at three temperatures (15, 20, and 25°C and diaspores stored with two substrates (paper and sand at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C. The variables analyzed were: number of diaspores per gram, moisture content, germination percentage, and germination speed index. For morphology, measurements were made to characterize the seedlings and their structures. Based on the results, it is concluded that the germination test of diaspores of B. segetum can be performed at temperatures of 20 to 25°C, using paper as substrate, in the presence of constant light. The first count should be performed the fourth day after sowing, and end fifteen days after the start of the test. The dispersion unit of B. segetum is the fruit of cypsela type, monospermic, containing a straight, axial, and hyaline embryo. Germination is epigeous=A prospecção de novas plantas ornamentais a partir de espécies nativas como Bidens segetum apresenta grande potencial para o mercado da floricultura, entretanto dependem de estudos que viabilizem sua propagação com fins comerciais. Assim, objetivou-se determinar condições para germinação, descrever e ilustrar a morfologia de diásporos e plântulas de B. segetum. Os testes da germinação foram realizados com diásporos recém colhidos, usando papel mata-borrão como substrato, em três temperaturas (15, 20 e 25°C e com diásporos armazenados, em dois substratos (papel mata-borrão e areia e três temperaturas (20, 25 e 30°C. As variáveis analisadas foram: número de di

  2. Resistência de Bidens subalternans aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase utilizados na cultura da soja Resistance of Bidens subalternans to the acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

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    G.A. Gelmini

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso contínuo e prolongado de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a manifestação de biótipos resistentes. Para verificar possíveis novos casos de resistência, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, foram coletadas sementes de Bidens subalternans na região de São Gabriel D' Oeste-MS, em plantas que sobreviveram a tratamentos em que inibidores da ALS foram sistematicamente utilizados. Em experimento conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, o biótipo com histórico de resistente foi comparado ao suscetível quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas com diferentes mecanismos de ação usados em pós-emergência, os quais foram aplicados nas doses de zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Decorridos 20 dias, foram avaliadas a porcentagem de controle e a produção da fitomassa verde, visando estabelecimento de curvas de dose-resposta e obtenção dos fatores de resistência. O biótipo oriundo de área com histórico de aplicações repetidas de inibidores da ALS apresentou elevado nível de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando ser portador de resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. Entretanto, esse biótipo foi eficientemente controlado pelos herbicidas fomesafen, lactofen, bentazon, glufosinato de amônio e glyphosate.The continuous and prolonged use of products with the same mechanism of action can provoke the manifestation of resistant biotypes. In horder to verify possible new cases, as well as alternatives for prevention and control, seeds of Bidens subalternans were collected at São Gabriel D' Oeste (MS region at plants that survived continuous treatments which sistematically ALS inhibitors. Through an experiment performed in pots inside a greenhouse, a resistant biotype was compared to a susceptible one when submitted to herbicides with different mechanisms of action and applied at post emergence

  3. Embebição e germinação de sementes de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa Imbibition and germination of hairy beggartick seeds (Bidens pilosa

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    F.S. Adegas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido no laboratório da Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR, com o objetivo de avaliar as correlações entre períodos de embebição, níveis de absorção de água e germinação das sementes da planta daninha Bidens pilosa (picão-preto. As sementes de picão-preto, colhidas em março de 1997, foram colocadas para embeber em água por períodos de 6, 12, 18, 24 e 48 horas. Em seguida, foi determinado o teor de água nas sementes e a condutividade elétrica dos seus exsudatos. A germinação foi avaliada em germinador com ciclo de 14/10 horas de luz fluorescente difusa e escura, respectivamente, com temperaturas respectivas de 30º/20 ºC e umidade relativa constante de 90±5%. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, de 100 sementes. A porcentagem de germinação média foi de 87,5%. A absorção de água teve aumento significativo com maiores períodos de embebição. Não houve correlação entre a germinação, os períodos de embebição de água e a condutividade elétrica. A capacidade de absorção de água e a condutividade elétrica apresentaram médio grau de correlação entre si. A germinação iniciou-se no terceiro dia, após início da embebição, e o pico foi alcançado no quinto dia. Os maiores índices de velocidade de germinação foram obtidos pelos maiores períodos de embebição das sementes.An experiment was carried out at Embrapa Soja, in Londrina-PR, Brazil to determine the relationships between imbibition periods, water absorption levels and seed germination of the weed hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa. Seeds were harvested from field plants in March 1997, and were set to imbibe for periods of 06, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hours. The water content of the seeds and the electric conductivity of their exudates were determined. Germination was also determined using a germinator set for cycles of 14/10 hours of diffuse fluorescent light and dark, respectively, at 30º/20 º

  4. 三叶鬼针草中的黄酮类成分%Flavonoids from the herb of Bidens pilosa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田昕; 周思祥; 魏荷琳; 胡南; 代志; 刘志刚; 韩正洲; 屠鹏飞

    2011-01-01

    Chemical constituents of the whole herb of Bidens pilosa L.were investigated.By using various column chromatography (CC) and spectroscopic methods,13 flavonoids were isolated and identified as follows:2′-hydroxy-4,4′-dimethoxy-chalcone (1),isoliquiritigenin (2),3,2′,4′-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-chalcone (3),licochalcone A (4),4′-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2′,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-chalcone (5),butein (6),apigenin (7),luteolin (8),diosmetin (9),chrysoeriol (10),3,5,6,7,3′,4′,5′-heptamethoxyflavone (11),7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,4′-trimethoxyflavone (12),and sulfuretin (13).Compounds 1-5,9,11 were obtained from the genus Bidens for the first time.%研究了三叶鬼针草Bidens pilosa L.全草的化学成分.利用各种色谱和波谱方法分离并鉴定了13个黄酮类化合物,分别:2′-hydroxy-4,4′-dimethoxy-chalcone (1),isoliquiritigenin (2),3,2′,4′-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-chalcone (3),licochalcone A (4),4 ′-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2′,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-chalcone (5),butein (6),apigenin (7),luteolin (8),diosmetin (9),chrysoeriol (10),3,5,6,7,3′,4′,5′-heptamethoxyflavone (11),7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,4′-trimethoxyflavone (12),sulfuretin (13).化合物1-5,9,11均为首次从鬼针草属植物中分离得到.

  5. In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Bidens Pilosa L. (Asteraceae) Leaf Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts on Primed-Oestrogenized Rat Uterine Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Frida, Longo; Rakotonirina, Silvíre; Rakotonirina, Alice; Savineau, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Bidens pilosa L. is an Asteraceae growing in tropical zones, and traditionally utilized worldwide in herbal medicine. The present work is based on its traditional use during child birth as a labour facilitator. In vivo tests of acute toxicity showed a weak toxic effect for both extracts but the toxicity of the ethanol extract (LD50=6.15g/kg) was upper than that of the aqueous extract (LD50=12.30g/kg). The three-days uterotrophic assay on immature mice showed body weight gain followed by a con...

  6. Changes in gametophyte physiology of Pteris multifida induced by the leaf leachate treatment of the invasive Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the response of fern gametophytes to environment has raised much attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion to fern gametophytes are scarce. Allelopathy plays an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathic effects of invasive plants on fern gametophytes and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on spermatophyte growth. Field investigation shows that many ferns are threatened by the invasion of B. pilosa. The distribution of Pteris multifida overlaps with that of B. pilosa in China. To examine the potential involvement of allelopathic mechanisms of B. pilosa leaves, changes in the physiology in P. multifida gametophytes are analyzed. We found that cell membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as photosynthesis pigment contents of the gametophytes were affected by B. pilosa leachates. Gametophytes of P. multifida exposed to B. pilosa had increased damages to cell membranes, expressed in thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (membrane permeability), and degree of injury. Enzyme activities, assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) enhanced with the increase in leachate concentration after 2-day exposure. Meanwhile, lower chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoid (Car), and the total chlorophyll were measured as leachate concentrations increased. At day 10, leaf leachates of B. pilosa exhibited the greatest inhibition. These results suggest that the observed inhibitory or stimulatory effects on the physiology studied can have an adverse effect on P. multifida and that allelopathic interference seems to have involved in this process.

  7. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

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    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  8. Target and Non-Target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. Populations from Mexico

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    Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2 and one susceptible (S were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and EPSPS gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser, and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world.

  9. Target and Non-target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) Populations from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Ozuna, Carmen V.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo E.; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José A.; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser), and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser) mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world. PMID:27752259

  10. Efectos de Purines de Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. y de Microorganismos en la Incidencia y Severidad de Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary en Papa Criolla (Solanum phureja Cultivada en Tenjo (Cundinamarca, Colombia / Effects of Chipaca (Bidens pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Enrique León Sicard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En una finca ecológica del municipio de Tenjo(Cundinamarca-Colombia se estudió el efecto de variosmateriales preparados a partir de chipaca (Bidens pilosa y deaislamientos microbianos, sobre la incidencia y severidad deP. infestans en un cultivo de papa criolla (Solanum phureja,utilizando un diseño completamente al azar (DCA consubmuestreo y ocho tratamientos: purín de flores; purín mezcla; actinomiceto AC 12 (Streptomyces sp.; mezcla de actinomicetos; aislamiento bacteriano (Bacillus subtilis; mezcla bacterias (Bacillus subtilis y Burkholderia cepacia; Hongo (Geotrichum sp. y un control (agua destilada estéril. Los resultados mostraron rápida incidencia de la enfermedad, que fue evidente a los 36 días después de la siembra (dds y alcanzó 100% de afectacióna los 52 dds sin diferencias entre tratamientos. La severidadfue estadísticamente diferente únicamente en el tratamientode “purín de flores”, que se diferenció significativamente deltratamiento control entre los 56 y 70 dds (27,8% menos lo que fortalece resultados de ensayos anteriores sobre su potencial como posible producto biocontrolador de la Gota. Resultados menores de severidad frente al control (no significativos también se obtuvieron con los tratamientos “purín mezcla” y “mezcla de actinomicetos”, entre los 60 y 87 dds / In an organic farm of Tenjo (Cundinamarca, Colombiathe effect of various materials prepared from chipaca (Bidenspilosa and microbial isolates, on the incidence and severity ofP. infestans in potato (Solanum phureja were studied usinga completely randomized design (CRD with subsampling andeight treatments: flowers slurry, mixed slurry; actinomyceteAC 12 (Streptomyces sp., mix actinomycetes; isolationbacterial (Bacillus subtilis ; mixed bacteria (Bacillus subtilisand Burkholderia cepacia; fungus (Geotrichum sp. and acontrol (sterile distilled water. The results showed rapid disease incidence, which was evident at 36 days after planting (dap

  11. The Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Bidens Pilosa L. on Androgen Deficiency Dry Eye in Rats

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    Chuanwei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bidens pilosa L. (Bp is widely distributed in China and has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the extract of Bp on androgen deficiency dry eye and determine its possible mechanisms. Methods: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group Con (control, Group Sal (physiological saline, Group Fin (oral finasteride, and Group Bp (oral finasteride and Bp. The dry eye model was established in group Fin and group Bp. Aqueous tear quantity was measured with phenol red-impregnated cotton threads with anesthesia. Tear film breakup time (BUT and corneal epithelial damage were evaluated by fluorescein staining. Animals were sacrificed at 28 days, and ocular tissues (lacrimal gland and cornea were evaluated with light microscopy; gene microarray analysis for inflammatory cytokines and Western blot were also performed. Results: Finasteride administration effectively induced dry eye in rats by 14 days after administration. Group Fin rats had significantly higher fluorescein staining scores and lower aqueous tear quantity and BUT than the group Con rats, and notable inflammatory cell infiltrates were observed in the lacrimal gland of group Fin rats. The fluorescein staining score, aqueous tear quantity and BUT significantly improved with Bp treatment in the group Bp rats, and the structures of the lacrimal gland were well maintained without significant lymphocyte infiltration. Cytokine antibody array data identified the cytokines B7-2/Cd86, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, MMP-8, FasL, TNF-α and TIMP-1 as candidates for validation by Western blot. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, in group Fin were upregulated compared with group Con. Levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10, in group Fin were also upregulated compared with those in group Con. Compared with group Fin, IL-1β, FasL, and TNF

  12. Antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in various localities or plants cultivated in humus soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Neto, Valter F; Brandão, Maria G L; Oliveira, Francielda Q; Casali, Vicente W D; Njaine, Brian; Zalis, Mariano G; Oliveira, Luciana A; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2004-08-01

    Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant used worldwide, has antimalarial activity as shown in previous work. This study tested ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in three different regions of Brazil and from plants cultivated in various soil conditions. The extracts were active in mice infected with P. berghei: doses of humus enriched soil, were active; but the wild plants were the most active. Analysis using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of flavonoids (compounds considered responsible for the antimalarial activity) in all plants tested, even though at different profiles. Because B. pilosa is proven to be active against P. falciparum drug-resistant parasites in vitro, and in rodent malaria in vivo, it is a good candidate for pre-clinical tests as a phytotherapeutic agent or for chemical isolation of the active compounds with the aim of finding new antimalarial drugs.

  13. HPLC method development and validation of cytotoxic agent phenyl-heptatriyne in Bidens pilosa with ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction and preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Priyanka; Kumar, Jonnala Kotesh; Negi, Arvind Singh; Shanker, Karuna

    2011-06-01

    Extraction and pre-concentration of a bioactive marker compound, phenyl-1,3,5-heptatriyne from Bidens pilosa, prior to HPLC has been demonstrated using both organic and ecofriendly solvents. Non-ionic surfactants, viz. Triton X-100, Triton X-114 and Genapol X-80, were used for extraction. No back-extraction or liquid chromatographic steps were required to remove the target phytochemical from the surfactant-rich extractant phase. The optimized cloud point extraction procedure has been shown to be a potentially useful methodology for the preconcentration of the target analyte, with a preconcentration factor of 4-99. Moreover, the method is simple, sensitive, rapid and consumes lesser solvent than traditional methods. An isocratic chromatographic separation and quantitation was accomplished on a C(18) column with acetonitrile-acidified aqueous as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection at 254 nm and specificity with photo diode-array detector (PDA) and MS. Under the optimum experimental conditions recovery was satisfactory (99.18-100.33%) without interference from the surfactant. The method seems to be reliable with intraday precision and interday precision below 2.0%. Good linearity was obtained in the working range from 7.5 to 30 µg/mL with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of detection and quantitation were 1.84 and 6.13 µg/mL, respectively. The method was validated following international guidelines and successfully applied for quantitative assays of cytotoxic compound phenyl-1,3,5-heptatriyne in Bidens pilosa.

  14. Caracterização isozimática e atividade de peroxidase em folhas de plantas hiperídrica, intermediária e normal de Bidens pilosa L. mantidas in vitro Isoezymatic characterization and peroxidase activity in leaves of hyperhydric, intermediary and normal plants of Bidens pilosa L. grown in vitro

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    José Emílio Zanzirolani de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizadas as plantas: hiperídrica, intermediária e normal de um clone de Bidens pilosa mantido em cultivo in vitro por meio de isozimas e da atividade de peroxidase. Empregando-se a eletroforese em géis de amido a 12%, testou-se seis isozimas, sendo detectado polimorfismo em peroxidase e fosfatase ácida, permitindo caracterizar cada tipo de planta. Não houve polimorfismo em fosfogluco isomerase, fosfoglucomutase, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase e malato desidrogenase. A atividade da peroxidase foi maior nas plantas hiperídricas e intermediárias. Conclui-se que a variabilidade enzimática tem potencial como marcador de hiperidricidade em plantas mantidas in vitro.Activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 and isozymes analysis of a Bidens pilosa clone maintained in vitro culture were characterized in hyperhydric, intermediary and normal plants. Electrophorese in starch gels (12% of six isozymes systems was tested, polymorphisms in peroxidase and acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2 were detected. There was absence of polymorphism in phosphoglucoisomerase (EC 5.3.1.9, phosphoglucomutase (EC 5.4.2.2, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1 and malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37. Comparing the activity of peroxidase enzyme, it was higher in hyperhydric and intermediary plants in relation to normal ones. Enzymatic variability is a potential tool as hyperhydricity marker in plants grown in vitro.

  15. Estudio morfohistológico y efecto quimioprotector de las hojas de Bidens pilosa L. sobre el cáncer de colon inducido en ratas

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    Jorge Arroyo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la histología vegetal y la influencia del extracto etanólico de la planta entera de Bidens pilosa L. sobre el cáncer de colón inducido en ratas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Facultades de Medicina, de Farmacia y Bioquímica y de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratas Holzmann. Intervenciones: Se agrupó 48 ratas Holtzmann, de 2 meses de edad, con pesos 100 g a 130 g, en seis grupos de ocho cada uno, y se indujo cáncer de colon con 1,2-dimetilhidrazina. Los grupos estuvieron constituidos por control normal, grupo con patología y grupos con patología y tratamientos. Principales medidas de resultados: Nivel de óxido nítrico, estrés oxidativo y cambios en el patrón celular del colon. Resultados: Se encontró incremento de los niveles de óxido nítrico y lipoperoxidación en los animales con 1,2-dimetilhidracina (DMH y disminución en los que recibieron el tóxico más extracto de la planta. Al estudio histopatológico, con la DMH se evidenció desorganización celular, adenocarcinoma indiferenciado e invasivo; en tanto que, con los tratamientos se observó citoprotección, no dependiente de la dosis, siendo mayor a 50 mg/kg. Los hallazgos probablemente se expliquen porque los flavonoides y los compuestos fenólicos presentes en el extracto cumplen un rol importante en la inhibición del estrés oxidativo y también como anticancerígenos, inhibiendo el crecimiento de tumores. Se encontró detalles histológicos que servirían como caracteres diagnósticos, ayudando a verificar la identidad de la especie vegetal en polvo. Conclusiones: En condiciones experimentales, el extracto etanólico de la planta entera de Bidens pilosa L. presentó efecto quimioprotector sobre el cáncer de colon.

  16. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

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    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments.

  17. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L. in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments

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    Gustavo Dieamant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-β1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis. Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-β1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent.

  18. Brazilian Bidens pilosa Linné yields fraction containing quercetin-derived flavonoid with free radical scavenger activity and hepatoprotective effects

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    Maicon Roberto Kviecinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa is a plant used by Amazonian and Asian folks for some hepatopathies. The hydroethanol crude extract and three fractions were assessed for antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. Higher levels of scavenger activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation and lipid peroxidation in vitro were detected for the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50∼4.3–32.3 µg/ml followed by the crude extract (IC50∼14.2–98.0 µg/ml. The ethyl acetate fraction, again followed by the crude extract, showed high contents of total soluble polyphenols (3.6±0.2 and 2.1±0.2 GAE/mg, respectively and presence of a quercetin-derived flavonoid identified as quercetin 3,3′-dimethyl ether 7-O-β-d-glycopyranoside. Both products were assayed for hepatoprotector effects against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. Markers of oxidative stress and hepatic injury were evaluated. The results showed that the 10-day pretreatments (15 mg/kg, p.o. protected the livers against injury by blocking CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and the DNA fragmentation was decreased (∼60%. The pretreatments avoided the loss of the plasma ferric reducing/antioxidant power and the elevation of serum transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase activities. The results suggest that the main constituents responsible for the hepatoprotective effects with free radical scavenger power associated are well extracted by performing fractionation with ethyl acetate. The findings support the Brazilian traditional use of this plant and justify further evaluations for the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction to treat some liver diseases.

  19. A new species of Auriculostoma (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from Central Veracruz, Mexico, described with the use of morphological and molecular data.

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    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. is described from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) collected in a tributary creek of the Bobos River in Filipinas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is set apart from all congeners by the combination of some morphological characters such as the testes position (oblique in most specimens), the ventral to oral sucker ratio (1:1.2 × 1:1.1), the cirrus sac originating at the ovarian region, and by having vitelline follicles not confluent in the posttesticular region. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. closely resembles Auriculostoma platense (Szidat, 1954) Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 and Auriculostoma diagonale Curran, Tkach and Overstreet, 2011 by possessing oblique testes; however, it differs from both species by possessing a genital pore located at level of the cecal bifurcation and by having vitelline follicles extending anteriorly up to the cecal bifurcation level, instead of a genital pore located between the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and cecal bifurcation, and vitelline follicles extending anteriorly to the mid level of the esophagus as in A. platense or to the pharynx level as in A. diagonale. Additionally, the new species differs from A. diagonale by having vitelline follicles not confluent or scarcely confluent in the posttesticular region rather than extensively confluent. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the new species demonstrated the presence of a single pair of muscular lobes on either side of the oral sucker, with a broad base, stretching from the ventrolateral to the dorsolateral side. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of the 28S rRNA gene sequences placed A. totonacapanensis as sister species of Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 . Nucleotide variation between A. totonacapanensis and A. astyanace was 2.0% and 3.6% for the 28S rRNA gene and ITS2 sequences, respectively. Sequence variation

  20. Análise comparativa do crescimento de biótipos de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa resistente e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of Bidens pilosa biotypes resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides

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    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de biótipos de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS é causada pela insensibilidade desta enzima aos herbicidas que inibem sua atividade catalítica. A insensibilidade da enzima é decorrente de uma alteração estrutural, resultado da substituição de certos aminoácidos no sítio de ação do herbicida. Esta alteração na enzima pode eventualmente resultar, além da resistência ao herbicida, em modificações na taxa de crescimento da planta, fato este comprovado para os biótipos resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II, os quais apresentam taxa de crescimento prejudicada pela alteração no sítio de ação sofrida pelo herbicida. Esta possível diminuição na taxa de crescimento da planta resistente tem conseqüências diretas na competitividade do biótipo e, portanto, na sua dinâmica dentro da população, afetando diretamente as estratégias de manejo da resistência. A presente pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de comparar a taxa de crescimento de dois biótipos da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa, sendo um resistente e um suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Um experimento foi montado em casa de vegetação, em vasos com capacidade de 5 L, sendo uma planta de cada biótipo por vaso, coletando-se a biomassa seca destas plantas e a área foliar semanalmente, iniciando-se 14 dias após o plantio. Os resultados de crescimento da biomassa e área foliar foram ajustados utilizando-se a função de Richards (log-logística. Desta análise, foram derivadas a taxa de crescimento absoluto (TCA, a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e a taxa de assimilação fotossintética líquida (TAL. O biótipo suscetível apresentou peso de biomassa seca superior ao resistente nas primeiras fases do crescimento, porém no final do ciclo o biótipo resistente igualou-se em tamanho de área foliar, pois apresentou, principalmente no início do ciclo de crescimento

  1. Photosynthetic electron-transfer reactions in the gametophyte of Pteris multifida reveal the presence of allelopathic interference from the invasive plant species Bidens pilosa.

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    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    To date, the response of the fern gametophyte to its environment has received considerable attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion on the fern gametophyte are fewer. Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathy of invasive plant species to the fern gametophyte and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on the gametophytic growth of Pteris multifida. The root exudate plays an important role among various allelochemical delivery mechanisms in B. pilosa. The effect invasive plant species has on photosynthesis in native species is poorly understood. To elucidate this effect, the changes in photosynthesis in the gametophytes of P. multifida are analyzed to examine the mechanisms of the root exudates of B. pilosa. Meanwhile, a non-invasive plant, Coreopsis basalis, was also applied to investigate the effects on fluorescence and pigments in P. multifida gametophytes. We found that gametophytes exposed to both B. pilosa and C. basalis had decreased fluorescence parameters in comparison with the control, except for non-photochemical quenching. Furthermore, it was found that these parameters were markedly affected from day 2 to day 10 in the presence of both exudates at a concentration of 25% or above. B. pilosa exudate had a negative dose-dependent effect on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and the total chlorophyll in the gametophyte. The inhibitory effects increased with increasing exudate concentrations of both species, exhibiting the greatest inhibition at day 10. In conclusion, B. pilosa irreversibly affected the photosynthesis of P. multifida on both PS I and PS II. Root exudates caused the primary damage with respect to the decrease of the acceptors and donors of photon and electron in photosynthetic units and the production and

  2. Antioxidant activities of essential oil of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used for the preservation of food qualities in North Cameroon.

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    Goudoum, Augustin; Abdou, Armand B; Ngamo, Léonard Simon T; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used as protectant of stored grains in Northern Cameroon. EO was characterized by GC-FID, antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by combining: evaluation of radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (RP) and co-oxidation of β-carotene methods. Tests were carried out on crude and stored EO kept for two weeks at 31.48 ± 2.88°C and 58.56 ± 6.78% relative humidity. These conditions are the same as those of grain storage. GC analyses enabled the identification of 27 compounds, representing around 97.57% of the total oil contents. The major constituents of the EO were α-pinene (14.7%), ε-caryophyllene (13.5), and β-ocimene (12.8%). The AA of the crude and stored EO are proportional to the concentrations and time of exposition. Exposed at the day light, this EO inhibit 77.4-18.69% for the DPPH system, 59.55-19.14% for RP method and 91.88-21.8% for β-carotene-linoleate model system, respectively, from crude and 15 days storage EO at 20 mg L(-1). For the EC50 values, β-carotene method is excellent and in the decreasing order of DPPH method, PR with 2.52 mg L(-1), 2.77 mg L(-1) and 4.13 mg L(-1), respectively, for the crude oil. The ET50 were 1.59 days for the RP method and 2.88 days DPPH system and β-carotene-linoleate model system at 20 mg L(-1). These results showed that the EO of B. pilosa leaves exhibits AA that might be an added value for this EO preventing stored products from pest attacks.

  3. Efecto Antagónico in vitro de Actinomicetos Aislados de Purines de Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. Frente a Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary In vitro Antagonistic Effect of Actinomycetes Isolated from Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. Purins Against Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary

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    Yudy Astrid Fonseca Ardila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto inhibidor de los actinomicetos presentes en purines o extractos fermentados de plantas de chipaca (Bidens pilosa L., sobre el crecimiento de Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, causante del tizón tardío de la papa. Se elaboraron cuatro purines de flores, raíces, hojas-tallos y su mezcla. De estos purines se obtuvieron 25 aislamientos de actinomicetos, cada uno de los cuales se enfrentó con P. infestans en placas de medio de cultivo, utilizando la técnica de anillos de Gauze y estableciendo las concentraciones iniciales de esporas mediante conteos microscópicos en cámara de Neubauer. Los actinomicetos no crecieron en el purin de flores debido, posiblemente, a que en él no se utiliza suelo rizosférico o porque su pH (9 es mayor que el rango normal de crecimiento de estos microorganismos ( pH 6 -; 8. Se evidenció inhibición del crecimiento del oomycete por parte de 8 aislamientos de actinomicetos con porcentajes de inhibición entre 33,3 - 77,8%, provenientes de los purines de raíces, tallos-hojas y mezcla de partes de la planta. La mayor inhibición se obtuvo en los aislamientos AC001, AC010, AC011 y AC025 con conteos de 0,4, 6,0, 3,0, y 3,6 x10(5 esporas mL-1.Purins or liquid fermented extracts of chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. were prepared to establish the inhibitory effect of the actinomycetes found in such biopharmaceutical preparations on the growth of Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, the causative of potato late blight disease. Four purins made from flowers, roots, leaf-steams and a mixture of them were prepared; 25 actinomycete isolates were obtained from these purins and their ability to resist challenge by P. infestans was ascertained in medium plates using the ring Gauze technique and establishing initial concentrations of spores by microscopic counting in Neubauer chamber. Actinomycetes did not grow in flower purin as rhizosphere soil was not used in its preparation or because this particular pH (9

  4. Curvas de dose-resposta de biótipos resistente e suscetível de Bidens pilosa L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Rate-response curves of resistant and susceptible Bidens pilosa L. biotypes to ALS-inhibitor herbicides

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    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas é um fenômeno de ocorrência mundial, sendo caracterizada como uma redução na resposta de uma população a produtos químicos, em sua dose recomendada, como resultado de sua aplicação sucessiva. O número de casos de resistência registrados no Brasil tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos, porém poucos estudos científicos têm sido feitos para elucidar este fenômeno. Sendo assim, foram conduzidos experimentos com o objetivo de elaboração de curvas de dose-resposta comparativa entre dois biótipos da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., sendo um resistente (R e outro suscetível (S aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Para isso, foram utilizados três herbicidas do grupo químico das sulfoniluréias e um do grupo químico das imidazolinonas. No estádio de três a quatro pares de folhas, as plantas R e S de B. pilosa foram pulverizadas com os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron e imazethapyr, em doses correspondentes a múltiplos de 0,0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0; 10; 100 e 1000 vezes a dose recomendada para aplicação de campo. A partir dos resultados da porcentagem de fitotoxicidade foi feito o ajuste das curvas de dose-resposta. As relações entre o C50 do biótipo resistente e o C50 do biótipo suscetível (R/S foram de 40,92; 173,84; 57,47 e 57,16 para os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, nicosulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, e imazethapyr, respectivamente. O biótipo R de B. pilosa apresenta elevado nível de resistência cruzada aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, do grupo químico das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas.Weed herbicide resistance is a phenomenon defined as a response reduction of a population to a chemical product sprayed at a recommended rate, as a result of its continuous application. The incidence of herbicide-resistant weeds in Brazil has increased lately, but few scientific studies have been conducted to elucidate the

  5. An acqueous extract of Bidens pilosa L. protects liver from cholestatic disease: experimental study in young rats Um extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. protege o fígado da doença colestática: estudo experimental em ratos jovens

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    Marta Izabel Suzigan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test the hepatoprotective effect of water extract from Bidens Pilosa L. (BPE in cholestatic liver disease induced by ligature and resection of the common bile ducts (LRBD in young rats. METHODS: We studied four groups of ten 21 days old (P21 Wistar rats, Group SW: sham operation and water; Group SD: sham operation and BPE (160 mg of fresh leaves/100 g of body weight/day; Group LW: LRBD and water and Group LD: LRBD and BPE daily. Pentobarbital sleeping time (PST and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined after the sacrifice (P70. A Ruwart's score for hepatic fibrosis (RS was given to each animal. Were employed two way ANOVA and the test of Tukey or a non-parametric test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between LW and LD in the measurements of the PST ((means LW=390; LD=173, AST (means LW=8, LD=5, ALT (medians LW=2; LD=1 e RS (medians LW=2; LD=1. CONCLUSION: BPE could be used in the phytotherapy of the hepatic damage induced by chronic obstructive cholestasis, because protects liver function, decreases the rate of necrosis and liver fibrosis in cholestatic liver disease.OBJETIVO: Testar o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. (EBP na doença hepática induzida pela ligadura e ressecção do ducto biliar comum (LRDBC em ratos jovens. MÉTODOS: Estudamos ratos Wistar com 21º. dia de vida (P21 divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais, Grupo SA: operação simulada e água; Grupo SD: operação simulada e EBP (160mg de folhas frescas/100g de peso corporal/dia; Grupo LA: LRDBC e água e Grupo LD: LRDBC e EBP diariamente. O tempo de sono por pentobarbital (TSP, aspartato (AST e alanina (ALT aminotransferase foram determinadas após o sacrifício (P70. O Score de Ruwart (SR para fibrose hepática foi atribuído para cada animal. Foi realizada análise de variância com dois fatores e pelo teste de Tukey

  6. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas: II - Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Sonchus asper Leaf anatomical studies in weed species: II - Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides and Sonchus asper

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    E.A. Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estudar a anatomia das folhas das espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Sonchus asper, visando aprofundar o conhecimento sobre as barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e, assim, fornecer subsídios para a busca de estratégias para superar esses obstáculos. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região central mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm². Foram realizados estudos de estrutura e clarificação e observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras potenciais foliares à penetração de herbicidas constatadas na planta daninha B. pilosa foram a alta densidade tricomática, a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e o alto teor de cera epicuticular, principalmente na face adaxial. Alto teor de cera epicuticular, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e baixa densidade estomática nas duas faces foram os obstáculos constatados nas folhas de E. sonchifolia. Já em relação a A. conizoides, a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial foi o principal obstáculo detectado. S. asper apresentou como principais barreiras foliares à penetração de herbicidas a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e a grande espessura da epiderme da face adaxial.This research aimed to study leaf anatomy in the widely common Brazilian weed species Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides and Sonchus asper, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes upon herbicide penetration, and provide information on how to overcome these obstacles. The completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from plants

  7. Avaliação de pontas de jato plano na deposição da calda de pulverização com diferentes combinações de plantas de feijão, Brachiaria plantaginea e Bidens pilosa Evaluation of flat fan nozzles in spray deposition on different combinations of bean blants, Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa

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    A.C.P. Rodrigues-Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a ponta XR na deposição da calda de pulverização com diferentes combinações de plantas de feijão, Brachiaria plantaginea e Bidens pilosa, em dois volumes de aplicação, com e sem a adição de surfatante Silwet. Foi utilizado como traçador o corante Azul Brilhante FDC -1 na concentração de 500 ppm para quantificar a deposição. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de sete combinações de plantas: (feijão, (B. plantaginea, (B. pilosa, (feijão + B. plantaginea, (feijão + B. pilosa, (B. plantaginea + B. pilosa e (feijão + B. plantaginea + B. pilosa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliadas as pontas de jato plano XR 110015 VS e XR 11002 VS com volumes de aplicação de 150 e 200 L ha-1, respectivamente, com e sem a presença do Silwet a 0,05% v v-1. Após a aplicação, as plantas foram imediatamente coletadas e, em seguida, lavadas em 100 mL de água destilada, para posterior quantificação do traçador em espectrofotômetro. As pontas XR apresentaram comportamento distinto na deposição das gotas de pulverização nas espécies estudadas; a adição de um surfatante à calda de pulverização aumentou a uniformidade da deposição nos alvos e contribuiu para a redução do volume de aplicação.The objective of this study was to evaluate flat fan nozzle spray deposition on different combinations of the common bean plants, Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa, in two volumes of application, with and without the addition of surfactant. Brilliant blue FDC -1 was used as tracer solution at the concentration of 500 ppm to evaluate the deposition. The treatments consisted of 7 combinations of plants: (common bean; (B. plantaginea; (B. pilosa; (common bean + B. plantaginea; (common bean + B. pilosa; (B. plantaginea + B. pilosa and (common bean + B. plantaginea + B. pilosa. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The flat fan nozzles XR 110015 VS

  8. Isolation,Identification and Purification of Allergens in Bidens Alba Pollen%白花鬼针草花粉过敏原的分离鉴定与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 肖小军; 柴文戍; 何韶衡; 杨平常; 刘志刚

    2014-01-01

    目的:提取和分离纯化白花鬼针草花粉主要过敏原,并鉴定主要过敏原的致敏性。方法提取白花鬼针草花粉蛋白粗提液,十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分离粗提液蛋白组分并测定其分子质量,经离子交换层析法分离纯化几类主要的蛋白,Western blotting分别检测其与花粉过敏患者血清 IgE结合情况及10位正常人阴性混合血清结合情况,对比鉴定每种主要蛋白质致敏原的致敏性。结果 SDS-PAGE 结果示:在12.5~120 ku之间广泛分布了20余条蛋白条带,其中主带7条,分子质量在35~70 ku和10~15 ku的区带蛋白含量最为丰富,余下的范围内还有约10余条次带。Westen-blotting检测示:白花鬼针草花粉变应原的致敏性强,与花粉过敏患者血清特异性 IgE结合大。离子交换层析出6类主要变应原蛋白,其分子质量分别为70、65、54、49、39及33 ku;阴性对照组 Westen-blotting在70 ku处有弱显色。结论白花鬼针草花粉的主要过敏原为70、65、54、49、39及33 ku;70 ku变应原致敏性最强。%Objective To isolate and purify the allergens from Bidens alba pollen,and to identi-fy the allergenicity of maj or allergens.Methods Pollen extracts from Bidens alba were prepared and analyzed by SDS-PAGE.The antigens were purified by ion-exchange chromatography.The binding of allergens to serum IgE was detected and the allergenicity of maj or allergens was identi-fied in patients with pollen allergy and 1 0 normal controls.Results SDS-PAGE analysis showed more than 20 protein bands at 12.5-120 ku,including 7 major bands.The 35-70 ku and 10-15 ku proteins were the most abundant proteins.Western blotting showed a strong allergenicity of Bi-dens alba pollen allergens with a extraordinary binding to serum IgE in patients with pollen aller-gy.Ion-exchange chromatography indicated that the 70,65,54,49,39 and 33 kDu proteins were the major

  9. The effects of phosphate supply on growth of plants from the Brasilian Cerrado: experiments with seedlings of the annual weed, Bidens gardneri Baker (Compositeae) and the tree, Qualea grandiflora (Mart.) (Vochysiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe, G M; Dale, J E

    1990-01-01

    Plants of the cerrado tree species Qualea grandiflora and the annual herb Bidens gardneri were grown from seed in controlled environment rooms at 30/20° C and 12 hour photoperiod. Seedlings were grown in pots or small tubes containing sand and provided with various amounts of mineral solutions based on the formulation of Hoagland and Arnon but with the phosphate content modified in some cases. In a long-term experiment lasting 213 days, plants supplied with full strength Hoagland's solution all died but plants of Qualea given 1/10 strength solution survived, although they grew very slowly. Low relative growth rates (0.008-0.036 d(-1)) were also a feature of other experiments with Qualea and calculated rates of net assimilation rate gave values of 3-7 mg CO2 dm(-2) h(-1). Expansion of the photosynthetic surface proceeded slowly and the cotyledons were the main site of photosynthesis for more than 40 days. The low rates of growth occurred despite significant uptake of phosphorus by young plants and in shortterm experiments growth was independent of the amount of phosphate supplied and accumulated. In contrast, the values of R found for plants of Bidens reached 0.24 d(-1). Growth of young plants was dependent on the external supply of phosphorus, being reduced when this was low and also when it was very high. Growth of the photosynthetic surface was also much more rapid than for Qualea and also varied with supply of phosphorus. The results are discussed in the context of the occurrence of these species in the Cerrado.

  10. Bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. sobre picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. on germination and early growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Lousada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar a bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de capim-limão sobre germinação e crescimento inicial da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e da planta teste alface (Lactuca sativa L.. A partir de maceração hidroalcoólica de folhas secas e rasuradas (127,46 g de capim-limão em 1L de álcool de cereais (70%, foram preparados os tratamentos como extratos hidroalcoólicos (HA pela diluição (v/v do macerado filtrado em água deionizada na proporção 1:1 (HA1:1 e 1:2 (HA1:2; dos quais foram obtidos os respectivos extratos secos (ES, a partir da evaporação da fase líquida de duas alíquotas de 50 mL de cada extrato HA, que após re-suspendidas em igual volume de água, sendo uma autoclavada (1 atm por 15 minutos, resultando nos extratos secos de HA1:1 e HA1:2 autoclavados (ES1:1A e ES1:2A e nos extratos secos não autoclavados (ES1:1 e ES1:2; e água (AG como controle. No primeiro dia dos bioensaios, foram aplicados 2 mL dos tratamentos, em DIC, com cinco repetições. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação (G%, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, altura da parte aérea (AA e comprimento de radícula (CR de aquênios (25 de picão-preto e de alface distribuídos em placas de Petri e mantidos em câmara de germinação (B.O.D. por duas semanas. Os extratos HA1:1 e HA1:2 inibiram a G%, AA e CR das duas espécies. Todos os extratos secos reduziram a G%, IVG e o CR da alface. Para o picão preto, apenas o extrato ES1:1 reduziu a G% e o IVG foi reduzido por todos os extratos, a exceção do ES1:1A, mas nenhum extrato influenciou o crescimento inicial desta espécie.This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extract of lemongrass on the germination and early growth of the weed plant beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and the test plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. From the hydroalcoholic maceration of dried and cut leaves of lemon grass (127.46 g in 1 L grain alcohol (70%, the following

  11. Effects of Light and Temperature on Germination of Heteromorphic Achenes of Bidens frondosa L%光照和温度对入侵植物大狼耙草异型瘦果萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超群; 唐赛春; 潘玉梅; 韦春强

    2015-01-01

    为了解大狼耙草(Bidens frondosa)的入侵机理,对其中央瘦果和外围瘦果的形态特征和萌发特性进行了研究。结果表明,大狼耙草果序中的中央瘦果和外围瘦果在颜色、长度、宽度和芒刺长度等方面均存在明显差异。在周期性光照下,两种瘦果在15℃/10℃下不萌发;在20℃/15℃和25℃/20℃下中央瘦果的萌发率显著高于外围瘦果;而在30℃/25℃、35℃/30℃和40℃/35℃下两种瘦果的萌发率无显著差异。在全黑暗条件下,中央瘦果在低于35℃/30℃时萌发受到抑制,外围瘦果在低于40℃时萌发受到抑制。光照和瘦果类型除对大狼耙草的萌发率有显著影响外,对萌发指数和萌发速率也有明显影响。大狼耙草通过异形瘦果间的萌发差异减少同胞后代间的相互竞争,增强其对不同环境的适应性,使后代获得更多的生存机会,有利于瘦果在适宜的环境条件下萌发及入侵种群的存留与扩张。%Bidens frondosa L. (Asteraceae), native to North America, is an annual invasive species with heteromorphic achenes. In order to understand its invasive mechanism, the achene morphology was observed, and the effects of light and temperature on germination of achene were studied. The results showed that central and peripheral achenes had signiifcant difference in color, length, width and prick length. Under 12 h d–1 photoperiod, the achenes did not germinate at 15℃/10℃, and the germination rate of central achene was signiifcantly higher than that of peripheral achene at 20℃/15℃and 25℃/20℃, while that of the two achenes had no difference at 30℃/25℃, 35℃/30℃and 40℃/35℃. Under full dark, the germination of central and peripheral achenes were all inhibited below 35℃/30℃and 40℃. Both of light and achenes type had signiifcant inlfuences on the germination rate, germination index and germination speed. Therefore, Bidens frondosa could reduce

  12. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives from Bidens parviflora and their antihistamine release activites%小花鬼针草中咖啡酰奎宁酸类成分及其抑制组胺释放活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 王乃利; 姚新生; 北中進

    2006-01-01

    目的研究小花鬼针草Bidens parviflora全株的化学成分,并通过抑制组胺释放活性方法寻找生物活性化合物.方法采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20和ODS柱色谱分离化合物,运用1D NMR,2D NMR等波谱法鉴定了化学结构,通过组胺抑制实验探讨抗炎活性.结果分离鉴定6种咖啡酰奎宁酸类化合物及其甲酯,分别是3,5-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅰ)、3,4-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅱ)、4,5-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅲ)、4-氧-咖啡酰奎宁酸(4-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅳ)、5-氧-咖啡酰奎宁酸(5-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅴ)、4-[3-(3,4-二羟基苯基)-丙烯酰氧基]-2,3-二羟基-2-甲基-丁酸{4-[3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acryloyloxy]-2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butyric acid,Ⅵ}.结论所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分得,化合物Ⅵ为新化合物.这些化合物显示一定的抑制组织胺释放活性.%Objective Based on the activities of antihistamine release to study the compounds from Bidens parvi-flora and find biological active compounds. Methods The chemical constituents from B.parviflora were isolated by silica gel and Sphadex LH-20 column chromatographies and purified by preparative HPLC. The chemical structures had been identified by physiochemical properties and spectroscopic methods. Results Six caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were identified as 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅰ ),3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅱ ), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅲ ), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅳ ), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅴ ), 4-[3-(3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acryloyloxy]-2, 3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butyric acid ( Ⅵ ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅰ - Ⅵ are first obtained from B. parviflora and Ⅵ is new one. Some of the compounds exhibit the activities in antiallergic assays. Moreover, the structure-activity relationships of these compounds have been also discussed in this paper.

  13. Efeito alelopático de sabugueiro e capim-limão na germinação de picão-preto e soja = Allelophatic effect of Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. in the germination of Bidens pilosa L. and soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas invasoras são constantes e diminuem a produtividade das culturas por competirem por espaço, nutrientes e água. Dessa forma, os agricultores adotam, em grande escala, produtos químicos eficientes no controle da lavoura e com alta toxicidade ao meioambiente. Existem, no entanto, formas alternativas para o controle de invasoras, por meio de aleloquímicos presentes em algumas plantas, dentre elas, as medicinais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as propriedades alelopáticas dos extratos das plantas medicinais Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. e Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. em inibir a germinação de Bidens pilosa L., sem interferir na germinação de Glycine max L. Merrill. Os extratos foram obtidos triturandose 200 g de folhas com 1 L de água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em B.O.D. à temperatura de 25°C, com fotoperíodo de 12h de luz. Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, constatou-se que o extrato de capim-limão inibiu a germinação de picão-preto sem que este inibisse a germinação da soja, enquanto o extrato de sabugueiro inibiu a germinação de picão-preto e a germinação da soja. Assim, indica-se a utilização do capim-limão, como um herbicida natural para o picão-preto.Agriculture has been suffering adaptations throughout time, from hard hand labor to the most advanced sowing and harvesting techniques. Invasive plants are a constant, diminishing productivity by competing for space, nutrients, and water. Therefore, farmers have adopted, on alarge scale, the use of efficient synthetic chemicals, which are highly toxic to the environment, in order to control plant production. However, there are other alternative means to control those competitors: using allelochemicals present in some plants, such as medicinal ones. The objective of this paper is to analyze allelophatic properties of the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. and Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl

  14. 大孔吸附树脂纯化鬼针草总黄酮的工艺优选%Optimization of Purification Technology for Total Flavonoids in Bidens bipinnata by Macroporous Adsorption Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿慧; 曹园; 方祝元; 刘志辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize purification technology of total flavonoids in Bidens bipinnata by macroporous resin. Method With adsorption rate and desorption rate of total flavonoids as indexes, adsorption property of six different kinds of macroporous resins for total flavonoids in B. bipinnata was compared by static adsorption and desorption experiments, in order to select optimum macroporous resin. Single factor test was used to investigate adsorption and elution conditions of macroporous resin. Result HPD400 macroporous resin presented the best effect of purification. Its optimum purification parameters were as followings:the sample concentration 0.5 g/L,pH 4,sample flow rate 2 BV/h,eluted with 9 BV 60%ethanol at 3 BV/h. After purification by macroporous resin, purity of total flavonoids in ethanol extract of B. bipinnata would be increased from 24.47%to 62.33%. Conclusion HPD400 macroporous resin was among the most suitable one for purification of total flavonoids in B. bipinnata. Optimized purification technology was stable and feasible.%目的:优选大孔树脂纯化鬼针草总黄酮的工艺条件。方法以鬼针草总黄酮的吸附率和洗脱率为指标,通过静态吸附试验比较不同种大孔树脂对鬼针草总黄酮的吸附能力,筛选出合适的大孔树脂型号;通过单因素试验优选鬼针草总黄酮的纯化工艺参数。结果 HPD400型大孔树脂纯化效果最好,其最佳工艺参数为药液中质量浓度0.5 mg/mL,pH=4.0,吸附速率2 BV/h,用9 BV 60%乙醇洗脱,洗脱速率3 BV/h,经大孔树脂纯化后鬼针草提取液中总黄酮纯度由原来的24.47%提高至58.41%。结论 HPD400型大孔树脂适用于鬼针草总黄酮的纯化,优选的纯化工艺稳定可行。

  15. 小花鬼针草中的苯丙苷类成分及抑制组胺释放活性%Phenolic glucosides from Bidens parviflora and their anti-histamine activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 王乃利; 姚新生; 北中進

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究小花鬼针草Bidens parviflora全株的化学成分,并通过组胺抑制实验寻找活性成分.方法 采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20和ODS柱色谱分离化合物,运用1D NMR、2D NMR波谱学方法鉴定了化合物的结构,通过组胺抑制实验测定化合物抗过敏活性.结果 分离鉴定了4个苯丙苷类及1个苯甲醇苷成分:4-羟基-3-甲氧基苯丙三醇8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(guaiacyl glycerol 8-O-β-D-glucoside Ⅰ)、丁香酚苷(syringin,Ⅱ)、4-烯丙基-2-甲氧基苯酚-O-(6-O-β-D-芹糖基)-β-D-葡萄糖苷[4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol-O-(6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl)-β-D-glucoside,Ⅲ]、5,7-二羟基色原酮-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(5,7-dihydroxy chromone 7-O-β-D-glucoside,Ⅳ)、苄醇-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(benzyl alcohol-O-β-D-glucoside,Ⅴ).化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ抑制组胺释放,IC50分别为70、61、>100、52、>100 μg/mL.结论 化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ首次从本植物中分得,Ⅲ为未见文献报道的新化合物,命名为鬼针草酚葡萄糖苷(bidenphenol glucoside).化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ具有抑制组胺释放的活性.

  16. Response of Growth Characteristics of Bidens piolsa L.to Soil Nitrogen Level%三叶鬼针草生长特征对土壤氮素水平的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉梅; 唐赛春; 韦春强; 刘明超

    2012-01-01

    利用温室盆栽试验法,研究入侵植物三叶鬼针草生长特征对不同土壤氮素水平的响应.结果表明,氮素的增加能够促进三叶鬼针草叶片数、总叶面积、分枝数及生物量的增加,提高其相对生长速率.在物质分配方面,氮肥的施用能促进该植物向地上部分分配较多的物质,显著增加生殖器官(花)生物量的投入,降低向地下部分(根)的物质投入.同时,可塑性指数表明,三叶鬼针草在形态、生物量分配及生殖器官等方面对土壤氮素响应的表型可塑性较大.以上结果充分体现了三叶鬼针草具有较强的入侵性和对土壤氮素环境较高的适应性,预警人们对其预防和管理工作应加以重视.%Soil nitrogen effects on the growth characteristics of alien invasive plant Bidens pilosa L. were studied by greenhouse pot experiment. The result indicated that added definite soil nitrogen were favorable to increase the number of leaf and branch, total leaf area (TLA), total biomass and relative growth rate ( RGR) of B. pilosa. In the meantime, increased soil nitrogen could facilitate the weed assign more material to the organs on the ground, especially enhance the flower biomass rate significantly,and decrease the material assigned to the roots under ground. Phenotypic plasticity index indicated that in the case of morphological parameters, biomass allocation parameters and reproduction organ more phenotypic plasticity the weed presented on response to the soil nitrogen. All results above demonstrated that the weed B. pilosa had more grater invasion and adaptability to the soil nitrogen,which suggested that definite attention should be paid to the work of the weed prevention and management.

  17. 假臭草等12种植物对白花鬼针草幼苗的化感作用%Allelopathy of 12 Species Including Eupatorium catarium on Bidens alba Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志云; 梁水凤; 李东文; 冯卓森; 李伟华; 彭长连; 田兴山; 周先叶

    2011-01-01

    用具有化感作用或潜在抑草活性的12种植物的叶片水浸液对白化鬼针草(Bidens alba)幼苗进行处理,对其幼苗的生长进行研究,以期筛选出对白花鬼针草生长有较强抑制作用的植物种类.结果表明,12种供体植物叶片水浸液(0.05 g DW mL-1)均能显著抑制白花鬼针草幼苗的生长(P<0.05),综合化感效应(SE)均为负值(≤-0.2),抑制强度依次为假臭草(Eup atorium catarium)>胜红蓟(Ageratum conyzoides>海芋(Alocasia macrorrhiza)>水茄(Solanum torvum)>马缨丹(Lantana camara)>薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)>构树(Broussonetia papyrifera)>南美蟛蜞菊(Wedelia trilobata)>三裂叶薯(Ipomoea triloba)>葛藤(Pueraria lobata)>鸡矢藤(Paederia scandens)>五爪金龙(lpomoea cairica),其中假臭草叶水浸液浓度仅为0.04 g DW mL-1时就可以使白花鬼针草死亡.假臭草和胜红蓟的茎水浸液也可以显著抑制白花鬼针草的生长(P<0.05),抑制效果略低于叶水浸液.回归分析表明,假臭草叶水浸液浓度与白花鬼针草的生物量等指标之间有线性回归关系(R2> 0.85,P<0.001),随着水浸液浓度的增加,白花鬼针草的生物量等指标下降.防除白花鬼针草时使用假臭草和胜红蓟的茎、叶水浸液,其有效浓度低且资源丰富,可作为白花鬼针草天然除草剂的主要资源植物.

  18. Atividades alelopáticas de nim sobre o crescimento de sorgo, alface e picão-preto Allelopathic activities of nim on the growth of sorghum, lettuce and Bidens pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cabral França

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A busca de alternativas para os herbicidas sintéticos, como os produtos naturais provenientes de plantas, pode acrescentar mais um elemento no manejo das plantas daninhas das culturas. Neste trabalho objetivou-se verificar o potencial alelopático do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. sobre o crescimento de plântulas de sorgo, alface e picão-preto. Extratos metanólico, aquoso e hexanólico, nas concentrações de 10, 5 e 2,5% (p/v de folhas de nim, foram usados para irrigar sementes das plantas teste, em caixas gerbox, permanecendo em incubadora, tipo BOD. O percentual de germinação de sementes de alface e picão-preto irrigadas com extrato aquoso e metanólico, respectivamente, foram os mais prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento das plântulas; para o sorgo independente do extrator utilizado, o aumento da concentração causou redução do percentual de germinação. O extrato aquoso causou maior efeito detrimental sobre o índice de velocidade de germinação para as três espécies estudadas. Para o sorgo, independente da concentração avaliada, o extrato aquoso foi o mais prejudicial, diferenciando dos demais extratores, com médias de 8,00; 12,986 e 14,68, para os extratores água destilada, hexanol e metanol, respectivamente. Quando se analisou o acúmulo de biomassa para plantas de picão-preto e sorgo, em todos os extratos utilizados, pôde-se verificar que o acúmulo de biomassa foi inversamente proporcional à concentração de nim aplicada.The search for alternatives for the synthetic herbicides, as the natural products from plants, may increase one more element to the handling of the harmful plants of the cultures. The aim of this work was to verify the allelopathic effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. upon sorghum, lettuce, and Bidens pilosa L. (beggustick seeds germination and seedlings growth. Aqueous, methanolic, and hexanolic extracts, in the concentrations of 10, 5 and 2,5% (w/v of nim leaves, were used to irrigate seeds

  19. 外源NO对铅胁迫下三叶鬼针草幼苗活性氧代谢的影响%Effects of exogenous NO on reactive oxygen metabolism of Bidens pilosa seedlings under lead stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志娟; 陈银萍; 苏向楠; 郑怡; 蘧苗苗; 子轩

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb)is an important pollution source of heavy metals.Exogenous nitric oxide (NO)is a common sig-nal molecule in biology regulating plant growth and it has been shown that it participate in all kinds of plant responses to Pb stress,Bidens pilosa is an ideal germplasm resource repairing soils contaminated by Pb.The effects of NO on the membrane lipid peroxidation,osmotic regulation substances,antioxidant enzyme activities and active oxygen me-tabolism in leaves,stems and roots of B.pilosa seedlings under Pb (600μmol/L lead nitrate)stress for 3 d were studied by determining relative electrical conductivity (REC ),contents of malondialdehyde (MDA ),hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ),superoxide anion (O-2•)generating rate,contents of proline (Pro),soluble protein (SP), carotenoid (Car),activities of ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX),glutathione reductase (GR),peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT ),superoxide dismutase (SOD)in the leaves,stems and roots of sixty-day-old seedlings of B.pilosa pretreated with different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)as an exogenous NO donor to explore the role and mechanism of NO in plant under Pb stress,to enhance B.pilosa resistance to Pb and its better application in phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.The results indicated:50-400μmol/L SNP remarkably reduced REC, contents of MDA,H2 O2 and O-2•generating rate,while 500-1 000 μmol/L SNP remarkably increased REC, contents of MDA,H2 O2 and O-2•generating rate,of which protection of the membrane system stability 300μmol/L SNP treatment on B.pilosa seedlings under Pb stress was the most remarkable.Moreover 300μmol/L SNP signifi-cantly promoted the synthesis of Pro,SP and Car.The effects of SNP on activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves, stems and roots of B.pilosa seedlings was complex.And 200μmol/L SNP significantly enhanced activities of APX in leaves and stems and GR in stems,300μmol/L SNP significantly enhanced activities of POD in leaves,and 1 000μmol/L SNP

  20. 鬼针草总黄酮对大鼠内毒素性急性肺损伤的影响%Effect of Total Flavones of Bidens bipinnata on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵喜兰; 刘秋鹤

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant function of total flavones of Bidens bipinnata L (TFB) on lipoplysaccharide (LPS) -induced acute lung injury ( ALI) and the mechanism. Method: One hundred and twenty SD rats were randomly divided into six groups; control group ( physiological saline, ip) , model group, dexamethasone group (5 mg -kg-1, ip) , TFB treatment group (100, 150, 200 mg -kg'-1 , ip) , twenty rats in each group. The rat ALI model was induced by LPS, 5 mg -kg-1 , ip. Six hours after modeling, all rats were sacrificed, protein content, white blood cell in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) , expression of NF-kB p65 , and level of tumor necrosis factor ( TNF-a) , interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) , interleukin-10 (IL-10) superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung were measured. Result: Compared with control group, content of WBC and the protein in BALF was higher (P < 0.05-P < 0. 01) , compared with model group, NF-kB p65 expression level was (38.46 ±4.56)%, (31. 39 ±4. 18)% (in TFB high and medium dose group, respectively) , the content of MDA was (1.73 ± 0.19), (1.46 ±0. 15) nmol-ing-1, and the content of TNF-a was (259. 33 ±37.48), (211.46 ±32. 69) μg-L-1,and the content of IL-6 was (287.46 ± 100. 18) , (223. 55 ±93. 49) ng-L-1, and the activitiy of MPO was (2. 69 ±0. 57) , (2. 43 ±0. 38) U -g-1, respectevly. NF-kB p65 expression level and the content of MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and the activities of MPO in lung were significantly lower ( P < 0. 05-P < 0. 01) . On the other hand, the level of IL-10 was ( 16. 73 ± 3. 87) , (17.28+3.58) μg-L-1, the content of SOD was (69. 46 ± 9. 84) , (73. 24 ±8. 39) U -mg-1, the content of IL-10 and SOD was increased significantly (P < 0. 05-P < 0. 01). Conclusion; TFB can reduce pulmonary vascular permeability of LPS induced acute lung injury, reduce the inflammatory exudation and oxidative stress damage.%目的:观察鬼针草总黄酮对大

  1. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosaEfeito alelopático de extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. em alface, soja, milho, feijão e picão-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Maria Pilatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The family Meliaceae has been identified as one of the most promising for biological control, as most species have biologically active compounds. Among the species, the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is that stands out most for its efficiency and low toxicity, and it is utilized to control insects, fungi and nematodes. The aim of this work was to verify the allelopathic potential of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Neem on germination of lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosa, as a way to control this weed. The extract was obtained by grinding 200g/L of fresh leaves of the Neem (considered extract 100% and diluting in distilled water at concentrations of 80, 60, 40, and 20%, and a control with only water. The seeds were kept in the germination chamber at a temperature of 25°C, with photoperiod of 12 hours of light. The aqueous extract affected the germination percentage and average length root of lettuce, with values of 1% and 0.1, cm respectively. For the soybeans, the extract influenced negatively the average time of germination and average speed of germination. There was a drastic reduction of the average root length at higher concentration for soybean, corn and beans. For Bidens pilosa all the parameters analyzed were negatively affected, which means sensitivity to the extract. The bioassay performed in the laboratory showed that the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica has allelopathic effect on all species.A família Meliaceae foi identificada como um dos grupos mais promissores para o controle biológico, pois a maioria das espécies possui compostos biologicamente ativos. Dentre as espécies, o Nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. é a que mais se destaca pela sua alta eficiência e baixa toxidade, empregada no controle de insetos, fungos e nematóides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de Nim sobre a germinação de alface, soja, milho, feij

  2. Inverse PCR-based method for isolating novel SINEs from genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yawei; Chen, Liping; Guan, Lihong; He, Shunping

    2014-04-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are moderately repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Although eukaryotic genomes contain numerous SINEs copy, it is very difficult and laborious to isolate and identify them by the reported methods. In this study, the inverse PCR was successfully applied to isolate SINEs from Opsariichthys bidens genome in Eastern Asian Cyprinid. A group of SINEs derived from tRNA(Ala) molecular had been identified, which were named Opsar according to Opsariichthys. SINEs characteristics were exhibited in Opsar, which contained a tRNA(Ala)-derived region at the 5' end, a tRNA-unrelated region, and AT-rich region at the 3' end. The tRNA-derived region of Opsar shared 76 % sequence similarity with tRNA(Ala) gene. This result indicated that Opsar could derive from the inactive or pseudogene of tRNA(Ala). The reliability of method was tested by obtaining C-SINE, Ct-SINE, and M-SINEs from Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Megalobrama amblycephala, and Cyprinus carpio genomes. This method is simpler than the previously reported, which successfully omitted many steps, such as preparation of probes, construction of genomic libraries, and hybridization.

  3. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Effect on Bidens pilosa Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Application of Sewage Sludge Compost%污泥堆肥利用中AM对三叶鬼针草生长及Cu富集作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏翔莺; 张春英; 潘东明; 孙秋玲; 王洪

    2012-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to study the influence of Arbuscular mycorrhizal on the growth and Cu accumulation of Bidens pilosa. Six levels of sewage sludge compost(0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%), two AM fungal inoculation and one nonmycorrhizal inoculum(CK)were applied to coastal saline soils. The results showed that the biomass of B. pilosa seedlings was increased significantly with the sludge content increasing, and at level 40%-80% sewage sludge compost the biomass of inoculated seedlings was significantly higher than that of non-inoculated seedlings. Mycorrhizal infection rate at level of 20%-80% sewage sludge was increased significantly by inoculated with 2 AM fungi. Cu concentration of inoculated plant roots was significantly increased at level of 0%~60% sewage sludge, there was no significant difference in high proportion of sewage sludge between inoculated and non -inoculated plants. Cu accumulation of plant root was significantly increased when B. pilosa seedlings were inoculated with AM fungi, and Cu accumulation of inoculated plant roots was 3-4 times of plant shoots. These results indicated that AM fungi could promote the Bidens pilosa's growth and enhance to uptake heavy metal ions Cu.%采用盆栽试验,研究在不同污泥堆肥含量的滨海盐渍土中,AM对三叶鬼针草生长及植株内Cu富集量的影响.试验设计0%、20%、40%、60%、80%、100%污泥堆肥含量共6个土壤处理水平,2个AM真菌菌株和1个对照.结果显示:随着盐渍土中污泥堆肥含量增加三叶鬼针草生物量显著上升,在40%、80%污泥含量处理中,接种苗地上及地下生物量均显著高于非接种苗;接种苗侵染率在20% ~80%污泥堆肥处理中显著高于纯盐渍土处理;在较低污泥含量处理中(0%~60%),三叶鬼针草接种苗地下部Cu浓度显著高于非接种苗,而在高污泥含量处理中,接种苗与非接种苗差异不显著;接种AM真菌提高三叶鬼针草

  4. 北京7种鬼针草属植物果实微形态特征及其系统学意义%Fruit Micromorphological Features of Seven Species of Bidens L.in Beijing and Its Systematical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓飞; 胡丹丹; 赵良成; 林秦文

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the micromorphological features of the fruits of seven species of Bidens L. In Beijing were examined and compared under scanning electronic microscope (SEM) for the first time. The results showed that:(l)the shape of achenes.the number of pericarp surface edge .the number of pappi,and the number and position of retrorsely barbed awns on pappwcan be used as important morphological characters for identifying the seven species of Bidens;(2)The seven species can be divided into two groups based on the sculpture patterns and cell shape of pericarp. One group is characterized by typical reticulate sculpture and irregularly polugonal cells with obvious boundary,and the other is characterized by lathlike reticulate or striped sculptures and long round or stripe cells with unobvious boundary. The relationship analysis between some species based on pericarp sculptures is almost consistent with the result from leaf characters, geographical distribution and molecular data,indicating that this micromorphological feature probably has certain systematical significance.%采用扫描电镜方法对北京地区鬼针草属植物7个种的果实微形态特征进行了观察、比较.结果表明:(1)7种鬼针草属植物瘦果的果体形状、表面棱的数目、芒刺(冠毛)数目及其上倒刺数目和生长位置等特征可以作为鉴定各种的重要形态学依据.(2)根据果皮在扫描电镜下表面纹饰类型及表皮细胞形状等特征,可将7种鬼针草分为两类:一类果皮表面为典型的网纹纹饰,表皮细胞呈不规则多边形,细胞界限明显;另一类果皮表面为条状网纹或纵条纹纹饰,表皮细胞呈长圆形或长条形,细胞界限不明显.由于7个种的果皮表面纹饰有着明显的差异和各自的特点,并与根据叶形、地理分布及分子等证据得出的系统亲缘关系结果基本相符,表明这一特征可能具有一定的系统学意义.

  5. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Cristiani Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de cada extrato (0,25; 0,50; 1,0 e 2,0 % além do controle (0,0 % água destilada com Tween 20 a 0,08 %. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições em condições de laboratório. O extrato de P. elliottii não causou efeito alelopático sobre o picão-preto e o alface. O extrato de E. citriodora reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG do picão-preto em todas as concentrações testadas quando comparadas com o controle (0,0%, porém para a alface o IVG foi significativo apenas na concentração de 2,0 %. Para o comprimento da raiz não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para os dois extratos testados tanto para o alface como para o picão preto.Bidens pilosa L. is an aggressive weed found all over Brazil. The main control method for this species is chemical treatment however, causes strong environmental impact, and it has great human contamination risks, and may cause phytotoxity to crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Pinus elliottii L. on seed germination and initial growth of B. pilosa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Five concentrations of each extract (0.0; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0% were tested in laboratory conditions using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. P. elliottii extract had no effect on B

  6. Comparison of gas exchange characteristics between invasive Parthenium hysterophorus and Bidens pilosa and co-occurring native Cirsium setosum (Asteraceae)%入侵种银胶菊和三叶鬼针草与本地种气体交换特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新微; 李慧燕; 刘红梅; 杨殿林; 皇甫超河

    2016-01-01

    以菊科入侵植物银胶菊(Parthenium hysterophorus)和三叶鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)以及与其共生的菊科本地植物小蓟(Cirsium setosum)为对象,比较了3种植物气体交换参数和叶片特性的差异.结果表明,银胶菊和三叶鬼针草的净光合速率(net photosynthetic rate,Pn)、叶绿素含量、比叶面积(specific leaf area,SLA)、叶片单位质量P含量(leafP content per unit mass,Pmass)、光合能量利用效率(photosynthetic energy use efficiency,PEUE)和光合氮利用效率(photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency,PNUE)均显著高于小蓟.植物叶片Pn与水分利用效率(water use efficiency,WUE)、叶片Pmass、SLA呈极显著正相关,植物叶片单位质量N含量(leaf P content per unit mass,Nmass)与叶片SLA、单位质量建成成本(leaf construction cost per unit mass,CCmass)、叶绿素含量呈极显著正相关.与本地植物相比,较高的气体交换参数和叶片生化指标有可能是银胶菊和三叶鬼针草成功入侵的原因之一.

  7. 3个树种凋落叶水浸提液对三叶鬼针草生长及抗性生理的影响%Effect of Leaf Litter Water Extract of Three Species on Growth and Resistance Physiology of Bidens pilosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖梦雨; 胡庭兴; 邓承敏; 王茜; 龙华; 柏艺

    2014-01-01

    As an invasive plant, Bidens pilosa imposes great potential harm to agricultural production, biodiversity and safety of ecosystems. Making use of allelopathy to develop new herbicides, is a meaningful way to control and reduce nega⁃tive impact of chemical herbicides to the environment. It has been reported that leaf litters of common species, such as Eu⁃calyptus grandis, Cinnamomum camphora and Juglans regia, could generate secondary metabolites during their growing process, which show comparatively strong allelopathy to plants and microorganism, and might play an important role in the prevention of colonial invasion herbs. Selected leaf litters of E. grandis, C. camphora and J. regia, were made into differ⁃ent concentrations of water extracts. By combining the methods of indoor germination test and potted biological test, indexes such as germination rate, germination speed, aerial parts fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmotic regulation substance of B. pilosa were determined. Finally, comprehensive evaluation and comparison of allelopathy effects of the three species were completed. The water extracts of E. grandis leaf litter significantly inhibited the germination rate and germination speed of B. pilosa, while C. camphora and J. regia showed weaker inhibition. The leaf litter water extracts of the three tree species promoted the activity of peroxidase ( POD) , superoxide dismutase ( SOD) and inhibited the activ⁃ity of catalase ( CAT) in B. pilosa. The antioxidant enzyme system of B. pilosa treated with E. grandis leaf litter extract showed passivation response, and thus lead to obvious increase of malondialdehyde ( MDA) . When treated with leaf litter extracts of E. grandis and C. camphora, the soluble protein and soluble sugar in B. pilosa increased with increasing extract concentration. However, when treated by leaf litter extracts of J. regia, the soluble protein and soluble sugar in B. pilosa showed a trend of promotion at low

  8. 基于MaxEnt模型的入侵植物白花鬼针草的分布预测及适生性分析%Prediction of the potential distribution and suitability analysis of the invasive weed, Bidens alba (L.) DC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳茂峰; 冯莉; 崔烨; 张纯; 田兴山

    2016-01-01

    【背景】白花鬼针草为农区恶性杂草,原产于美洲,现已广泛分布于世界热带及亚热带地区,但其在全球和中国的适生区域及适生等级还不明确。【方法】利用MaxEnt生态位模型对白花鬼针草在全球以及中国的潜在适生区进行预测。【结果】白花鬼针草在全球的分布更多受到温度因素的影响。白花鬼针草的适生区主要集中在北半球和南半球15°~30°之间的热带和亚热带地区。其中,北美南部、南美中南部、非洲南部、东南亚北部以及大洋洲中南部沿海地区为白花鬼针草中、高度适生区。白花鬼针草在中国的适生区主要位于广东、广西、海南、云南、福建、台湾。到2070年,白花鬼针草在全球的适生区面积与当前相似,但在中国的适生区有所增大。【结论】白花鬼针草在我国有进一步扩张的风险。%Background] Bidens alba (L.) DC, a worst weed native to America, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, but its potential distribution area in the world and China is still unclear. [Method] In this study, the MaxEnt niche model was used to predict the potential distribution of B. alba in China and the world.[Result] B. alba was mainly distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions, between 15° and 30° in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Its medium and highly suitable areas are mainly concentrated in southern North America, south-central South America, southern Africa, northern Southeast Asia, and southeastern Australia. The main suitable area of B. alba in China was mainly in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan, Fujian and Taiwan. It is predicted that the suitable area of B. alba would not change significantly in the world, but could increase in China by 2070. [Conclusion] B. alba has the risk of further expansion in China.

  9. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity and Community Structure of the Fishes in the Headstream Region of the Dongjiang River%东江源头区域鱼类物种多样性及群落组成的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓凤云; 张春光; 赵亚辉; 周岐海; 张洁

    2013-01-01

    生物多样性和鱼类群落结构的变化是反映人类作用及环境变化对鱼类群落影响的重要指标.2010年我们的调查结果显示,覆盖整个东江源头区的12个采样点收集和鉴定的鱼类标本共计7目18科56属74种.除陈氏新银鱼(Neosalanx tangkahkeii)、齐氏罗非鱼(Tilapia zillii)和食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)3种为外来物种外,其余71种均为土著鱼类.主要以鲤形目(77.5%)、鲇形目(9.9%)和鲈形目(8.4%)为主.优势种为宽鳍(鲼)(Zacco platypus),占14.87%,其次为马口鱼(Opsariichthys bidens)(9.93%)和侧条光唇鱼(Acrossocheilus parallens)(9.36%).本研究还以G-F指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou's均匀性指数、Margalef丰富度指数和Simpson指数评估了东江源头区域的鱼类多样性;东江源头区域鱼类群落以杂食性、定居性、中下层和底栖种类为主,源头这种鱼类群落组成结构与东江下游鱼类具有相同趋势,但相似性指数仅为0.39.拦河建坝是导致洄游性、半洄游性鱼类减少的主要原因,其次,水体污染、河道取沙、过度捕捞及有害渔具渔法的使用仍是源头区域生物多样性的主要胁迫因素.%The biodiversity and structure of fish communities is an important indicator of anthropogenic and environmental impacts. Here, we reported the results of a survey carried out in 2010, in which we sampled the fish at twelve stations throughout the headstream region of the Dongjiang River. A total of 74 species in 7 orders, 18 families and 56 genera were collected and identified. Of these 74 species, 71 species were native while only Neosalanx tangkahkeii, Tilapia zillii and Gambusia affinis were exotic species. Among all the species, order Cypriniformes was the most dominant component (77.5%), followed by order Siluriformes (9. 9% ) , order Perciformes (8. 4% ). As the results of relative abundance, the dominant species were Zacco platypus, accounted for 14. 87% , followed by

  11. Identification of novel SINEs from Cyprinidae and their evolutionary significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yawei; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2007-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are widespread among eukaryotic genomes. They are repetitive DNA sequences that have been amplified by retrotransposition. In this study, a class of SINEs were isolated from the Opsariichthys bidens genome, and named Opsar. Sequence analysis confirmed that Opsar is a new class of typical SINEs derived from tRNA molecules. With the tRNA-derived region of Opsar and through BLASTN search, we further identified Zb-SINEs from the zebrafish genome, which includes two groups: Zb-SINE-A and Zb-SINE-B. The Zb-SINE-A group comprises subfamilies of -A1-A5, and the Zb-SINE-B group is a dimer of the tRNAAla-derived region and shares a similar dimeric composition to Alu. Zb-SINEs are composed of three distinct regions:a 5' end tRNA-derived region, a tRNA-unrelated region and a 3' end AT-rich region. The flanking regions are AT rich. The average length of Zb-SINEs elements is about 340 bp. Zb-SINEs account for as much as 0.1% of the whole zebrafish genome. About 70 % of the Zb-SINEs are on chromosomes 11, 18, and 19. These Zb-SINEs were characterized by PCR and dot hybridization. The distribution pattern of Zb-SINEs in genome strongly supports the master genes model. The tRNA-derived regions of Opsar and Zb-SINEs were compared with the tRNAAla gene, and they showed 76 % similarity, indicating that Opsar and Zb-SINEs originated from an inactive tRNAAlasequence or a tRNAAla-like sequence. In view of the evolutionary status of zebrafish in the Cyprinidae, we deduced that Zb-SINEs were a very old class of interspersed sequences.

  12. A NEW SAURICHTHYS (ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE SPATHIAN (EARLY TRIASSIC OF CHAOHU (ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA

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    ANDREA TINTORI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Saurichthys, S. majiashanensis , is described. It comes from a series of marine vertebrate-bearing beds of the upper member of the Nanlinghu Formation outcropping in the large quarry at the top of Majiashan (Majia Hill near Chaohu (Hefei City, Anhui Province, China. Its age is Middle Spathian (Olenekian, Early Triassic. This new species deeply differs from the several pre-Spathian species of Saurichthys mainly for having only two longitudinal scale rows together with a reduced grid-like structure for the neural elements in the vertebral column. Further derived characters are in the endoskeleton of the dorsal and anal fin, where radials articulate only to anterior lepidotrichia, the posterior ones being supported by the first scale from the caudal pedicle mid-dorsal and mid-ventral rows, deeply imbedded in the body. In addition, the haemal spines of the caudal region are much enlarged and reversed, with their distal parts pointing forwards. Though the skull is lacking, postcranial characters are enough to justify the erection of a new species. This new Saurichthys species, together with other few actinopterygians, can be considered as the oldest assemblage of the Triassic Middle Fish Fauna, which bloomed probably in the early Anisian and widespread especially all over the Tethys for the Middle Triassic and at least the Carnian in the Late Triassic. This new fish assemblage, together with some of the oldest marine reptiles, is considered as the beginning of the actual Triassic recovery among marine vertebrates.

  13. Ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes are a diverse, but understudied, component of the Maastrichtian marine fauna of the southeast Netherlands (Limburg) and northeast Belgium (Liège-Limburg). The most extensive reviews of fishes from these uppermost Cretaceous deposits were made in the early and mid-Twentieth Century,

  14. Cryptic Caribbean species of Scorpaena (Actinopterygii: Scorpaeniformes) suggested by cytogenetic and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirchio, M; Oliveira, C; Siccha-Ramirez, Z R; Sene, V F; Sánchez-Romero, O R; Ehemann, N R; Milana, V; Rossi, A R; Sola, L

    2016-10-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular analyses enabled identification of two cytotypes among individuals of the spotted scorpion fish Scorpaena plumieri from Margarita Island, Venezuela. Cytotype 1 was characterized by 48 subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes and fundamental number (number of chromosome arms; FN) equalled 48, while cytotype 2 was characterized by two metacentric and 46 subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes and FN was 50. These cytotypes also differed in the location of the ribosomal gene clusters and in the distribution of the constitutive heterochromatin. Moreover, fish from the cytotypes 1 and 2 were found to belong to distinct mitochondrial lineages. The presence of two S. plumieri cytotypes from two lineages separated by high genetic distance suggests that they correspond to sympatric cryptic species.

  15. Isolation Driven Divergence in Osmoregulation in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848 (Actinopterygii: Osmeriformes.

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    Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo

    Full Text Available Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations.Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π and the haplotype diversity index (H indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, and H+-ATPase (HA was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes.These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G. maculatus osmoregulatory system, especially at hyposmotic environments, associated to a drastic shift in habitat and life cycle at a scale of a few thousand years.

  16. Morphofunctional Adaption of the Renal Tissue of Acipenser Ruthenus (Actinopterygii, Acipenseriformes under Transformed Habitation Conditions

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    Koziy M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Светооптическим мето- дом изучено морфофункциональное состояние мезонефроса стерляди (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 из низовьев р. Днепр. Отмечены адаптивные изменения в структурно-функциональных элементах нефронов туловищной почки. К наиболее ощутимым сдвигам можно отнести очаговые кровоизлияния в ретикуломиелоидной ткани, отёчность эпителия и воспалительные процессы. Отмеченные нарушения являются ответной реакцией на негативные воздействия компонентов сточных вод.

  17. A new species of anguilliform catfish (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Bangladesh and northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Heok Hee; Ferraris, Carl J Jr

    2016-02-12

    We describe Olyra praestigiosa, a new anguilliform bagrid catfish, from the Brahmaputra River drainage in Bangladesh and northeastern India. The new species differs from congeners in having the following unique combination of characters: interorbital distance 30-37% HL; body depth at anus 6-9% SL; length of adipose-fin base 99-16% SL; adipose fin separate from upper principal caudal-fin rays; post-adipose distance 15-18% SL; 17-22 anal-fin rays; caudal peduncle length 14-19% SL; and caudal peduncle depth 6-8% SL.

  18. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  19. Using mariculture as a breeding site: reproduction of Hypleurochilus fissicornis (Actinopterygii: Blenniidae

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    Bianca Possamai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture in estuaries provides substrate for colonization by fouling organisms, thus attracting small cryptic fish species hitherto unknown in this environment. The blenny Hypleurochilus fissicornis is one of the species that is associated with this new system and is found in high abundance in bivalve farming. To understand the reproductive strategy that this species uses in this new environment, we collected specimens monthly in a mariculture on the southern coast of Paraná State (Brazil. After obtaining morphometric data, we removed gonads to determine sex and maturity stage. Gonads were weighed and analysed histologically. Oogenesis showed the same pattern as in other teleosts, but spermatogenesis showed a very complex dynamics. The spawning is multiple and synchronous between sexes, lasting eight months (May to December and peaking in winter. Hypleurochilus fissicornis was reproductively successful using the mariculture as a breeding site. The species has a variety of tactics to protect its offspring (e.g. batch spawning, long reproductive period, reduced L50, parental care and a reproductive peak in winter.

  20. A new saurichthyiform (Actinopterygii with a crushing feeding mechanism from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou (China.

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    Feixiang Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Equipped with an effective predatory feeding mechanism enhanced by large and sharp teeth, pointed snout and elongate body, saurichthyiform fishes are considered common fish-eaters in the early Mesozoic aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, because of the similar body plan across species, saurichthyiforms are also regarded evolutionally conservative, with few morphological and ecological changes during their long history. However, their phylogenetic affinity remains unclear as to whether they are chondrostean, neopterygian or stem-actinopteran, and likewise the intrarelationships of the group have rarely been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a new saurichthyiform from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou, China, based on the well-preserved specimens including a 3-D braincase. The new taxon, Yelangichthys macrocephalus gen. et sp. nov., is unique among saurichthyiforms in having a peculiar neurocranium with a broad orbital tectum, paired posterior myodomes, a deep, transverse fossa in the posterodorsal part of the orbit, and a feeding mechanism structured for durophagy. Phylogenetic analysis places Yelangichthys gen. nov. at the most basal position in the Saurichthyiformes as the sister to Saurichthyidae, and a new family Yelangichthyidae is erected to include only Y. macrocephalus gen. et sp. nov. The monophyly of the Chondrostei comprising [Saurichthyiformes + Acipenseriformes] Birgeriiformes is supported, but not the monophyly of Saurichthys, the type genus of Saurichthyidae. With its outstanding osteological details, Yelangichthys gen. nov. greatly increases the neurocranial variations in saurichthyiforms, and its novel feeding structure suggests the consumption of hard-preys instead of fishes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings highlight the detailed osteology of a saurichthyiform braincase and its feeding design. We suggest that saurichthyiforms are closely allied to the Acipenseriformes. Saurichthyiforms were very diverse in the cranial osteology and they might have undergone a rapid evolutionary radiation via, for the new material here, transforming the feeding mechanism and thus exploiting the food resources unsuitable for other saurichthyiforms.

  1. Identity of Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Istra Peninsula in Croatia (Adriatic Sea basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Primoz; Mrakovcic, Milorad; Marcic, Zoran; Naseka, Alexander M; Bogutskaya, Nina G

    2010-08-27

    A chub of previously ambiguous identity from the Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers (south-eastern Istra Peninsula) was studied and compared with geographically close Squalius squalus, Squalius zrmanja, and Squalius janae recently described from the Dragonja River drainage in the Adriatic Sea basin in Slovenia. It was shown that the chub from the south-eastern Istra Peninsula differs from all know species of Squalius but one: Squalius janae. Three samples examined from Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers and Squalius janae from its type locality, Dragonja River, show the following characters typical for the latter species: a long head (the head length 27-32% SL); a pointed conical snout with a clearly projecting upper jaw; a long straight mouth cleft, the lower jaw length (39-45% HL) exceeding the caudal peduncle depth; a large eye; commonly 9? branched anal-fin rays; commonly 44 total vertebrae (24+20 or 25+19); bright silvery colouration, scales easily lost; iris, pectoral, pelvic and anal fin pigmentation with yellow shades. The data on the distribution of Squalius chubs in the northern Adriatic basin support the assumption that the range of Squalius janae is determined by the geology of the Trieste Flysch Basin and the Pazin Flysch Basin forming the base of the Istra Peninsula. The distribution pattern of this species does not support a simple model of fish dispersal and a complete connectivity within the whole Palaeo-Po historical drainage. Indeed, it indicates a disrupted surface palaeohydrography that was heavily fragmented by karstification in the whole Dinaric area.

  2. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae) in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Fernando; Reina, Ruth G; Doadrio, Ignacio; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-03-01

    We inferred the phylogenetic relationships among members of the Poecilia sphenops species complex to resolve the colonization process and radiation of this group in Central America. We analyzed 2550 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including ATP synthase 6 and 8, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes, and 906bp of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein of 86 ingroup individuals from 61 localities spanning most of its distribution from Mexico to Panama. Our mitochondrial data rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the P. sphenops complex that differed with the nuclear data set topology, which did not recover the monophyly of the P. mexicana mitochondrial lineage. Coalescent-based simulations tests indicated that, although hybridization cannot be completely ruled out, this incongruence is most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting in this group, which also showed the widest geographic distribution. A single colonization event of Central America from South America was estimated to have occurred between the early Paleocene and Oligocene (53-22millionyears ago). Subsequently, two largely differentiated evolutionary lineages diverged around the Early Oligocene-Miocene (38-13million years ago), which are considered two separate species complexes: P. sphenops and P. mexicana, which can also be distinguished by their tricuspid and unicuspid inner jaw teeth, respectively. Ultimately, within lineage diversification occurred mainly during the Miocene (22-5million years ago). All major cladogenetic events predated the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. The allopatric distribution of lineages together with the long basal internodes suggest that vicariance and long term isolations could be the main evolutionary forces promoting radiation in this group, although dispersal through water barriers might also have occurred. Lastly, our results suggest the need to review the current species distribution and taxonomy of the P. sphenops complex sensu lato.

  3. Phenotypic variation in the Snowtrout Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray, 1832) (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from the Indian Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mir, F.A.; Mir, J.I.; Chandra, S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated intraspecific variation of the Snowtrout, Schizothorax richardsonii on the basis of morphometric characters. Altogether, 217 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Western and Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 14 landmarks to yield

  4. Fine structure and development of the collar enamel in gars ,Lepisosteus oculatus ,Actinopterygii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fine structure of collar enamel and the cells constituting the enamel organ during amelogenesis in Lepisosteus oculatus was observed by light,scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy.In the enamel,slender crystals were arranged perpendicular to the surface and the stripes that were parallel to the surface were observed,suggesting that the enamel in Lepisosteus shares common morphological features with that in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians.Ameloblasts containing developed Golgi apparatus,rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules were found in the secretory stage.In the maturation stage,a ruffled border was not seen at the distal end of the ameloblasts,while many mitochondria and lysosome-like granules were obvious in the distal cytoplasm.The enamel organ consisted of the outer dental epithelial cells,stratum reticulum cells and ameloblasts,but there was no stratum intermedium.It is likely that the ameloblasts have less absorptive function in comparison with the inner dental epithelial cells facing cap enameloid.

  5. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  6. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p Fish length also differed among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus was lower than previous studies acknowledged in the system (0.037 g.WWm- 2.year- 1), indicating that the production estimates of this species in estuaries can vary considerably depending on of several factors such as the sampling year and strategy, population and fish size.

  7. Parasites of sticklebacks (Actinopterygii: Gasterosteidae) from South-Eastern Baltic Sea (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulgostowska, Teresa; Vojtkova, Ludmila

    2005-01-01

    A total of 142 individuals of Gasterosteus aculeatus L. and 22 individuals of Pungitius pungitius (L.) from several areas of the coastal waters of the Gdańsk Bay both brackish- and freshwater were examined for parasites. The survey was carried out within 1988-1991. Six parasite species, namely: Gyrodactylus arcuatus, Apatemon gracilis, Sphaerostomum bramae, Phyllodistomumfolium, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, and Argulus foliaceus were recovered from sticklebacks caught in freshwater habitats; while the other 4 parasites: Apatemon annuligerum, Bothriocephalus sp., Schistocephalus solidus, Proteocephalus percae occurred only in fish from brackish-water areas. Additional 5 parasites: Trichodina domerguei, Diplostomum pungitii, Diplostomum spathaceum, Rhaphidascaris acus, and Thersitina gasterostei were recorded in fishes from both habitats.

  8. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farashi, Azita; Kaboli, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimian, Hassan; Coad, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944) is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is "Vulnerable" according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956) within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  9. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae

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    Azita Farashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is “Vulnerable” according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843 and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956 within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA reveals unexpected diversity of chubs (genus Squalius; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic basin

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    Ivana Buj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Squalius comprises more than 40 species inhabiting various freshwater habitats. They are distributed in Europe and Asia, with particularly high diversity recorded in the Mediterranean area. The taxonomic status of many populations is still matter of debate. With this investigation we aimed to help in resolving taxonomic uncertainties of the chubs distributed in the Adriatic basin in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b revealed high diversity of chubs in the investigated area. Two evolutionary independent lineages are revealed: the first one comprising species Sq. svallize, Sq. tenellus, Sq. illyricus and Sq. zrmanjae; whereas the second lineage corresponds with Sq. squalus. High intraspecific structuring of Sq. squalus was detected, implying necessity of taxonomic revision of that species. Based on the obtained results, most important aspects of the evolutionary history of the genus Squalius in the Adriatic basin will be discussed and evolutionary significant units identified.

  11. New species of Trimma (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae) from Indonesia, with comments on head papillae nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Richard; Erdmann, Mark V

    2015-06-17

    Three new species of the gobiid Trimma are described from Indonesian waters, and a partially reformulated nomenclature for the cephalic sensory papillae of members of this genus is provided. Trimma aturirii possesses two dark oblique stripes on either side of the pupil (blue, edged with red in life, dark brown in preservative), the lower of which continues posteriorly across the dorsal margin of the opercle, with the dorsal half of the body red and the ventral half abruptly white in life. The species has a narrow bony interorbital (≤50% pupil width), a moderate interorbital trench with a slight groove posterodorsal to the eye, no scales on the cheek, opercle or in the predorsal midline, no elongate spines in the first dorsal fin, 9-10 dorsal and 9 anal fin rays, 17-18 (7-11 branched) pectoral fin rays and an unbranched fifth pelvic fin ray. Trimma kardium has a pair of tapering oval red spots which join anteriorly over the anterior region of the hyoid arches, forming an approximate heart-shaped marking on the ventral surface of the head. It has a narrow bony interorbital (≤40% pupil width), a moderate interorbital trench with a slight groove posterodorsal to the eye, 17-18 unbranched pectoral fin rays, 1-5 cycloid scales in the predorsal midline confined to about the middle third of the nape, and a single row of 1-3 cycloid scales along the upper border of the opercle. Trimma trioculatum has a large (slightly greater than pupil diameter in width) round, black, ocellated spot in the first dorsal fin between spines 1 and 5, a second, much smaller black or dark red spot just posterior to the spine of the second dorsal fin and above the basal stripe, a yellow body with a dark purplish or gray head with two distinct red bars across the cheek, no round spots of any colour on the nape, opercle or cheek, a small dark (preserved) or white (alive) spot on the upper pectoral fin base, a narrow bony interorbital (<70% pupil diameter), no elongate spines in the first dorsal fin, 15-16 pectoral fin rays with the middle 4-8 rays branched, a fifth pelvic fin ray with a single dichotomous branch, and 16-17 total gill rakers on the first gill arch.

  12. Oreoglanis hponkanensis, a new sisorid catfish from north Myanmar (Actinopterygii, Sisoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Yong; Qin, Tao; Chen, Zhi-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During a survey of the Mali Hka River drainage in Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary in December 2015, a new species was collected and is described herein as Oreoglanis hponkanensis. It is a member of the Oreoglanis siamensis species group and can be distinguished from its congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: lower lip with median notch and posterior margin entire, caudal fin emarginate, nasal barbel reaching about half the distance to eye, tip of maxillary barbel rounded, posterior margin of maxillary barbel entire, absence of pale elliptical patches on sides of body below adipose fin, absence of patch on base of first dorsal fin ray, caudal fin brown with two round, bright orange patches in middle, branched dorsal fin rays 5, branched anal fin rays 2, vertebrae 40, pectoral fin surpassing pelvic fin origin, pelvic fin length 21–26% SL, caudal peduncle length 25–33% SL, caudal peduncle depth 3–5% SL, adipose fin base length 34–39% SL, and dorsal to adipose distance 12–16% SL. PMID:28228678

  13. From Late Miocene to Holocene: processes of differentiation within the Telestes genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae.

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    Vincent Dubut

    Full Text Available Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region.

  14. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes: comparing populations of distinct environments

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    Fábio T. Mise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream and a lentic (Jaboti Lake. Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus, the proposed hypotheses were that the populations that occur in distinct environments present morphological differences. The morphological variables were obtained using morphometric measurements and the ecomorphological indexes. The data were summarized in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova was made to verify significant differences in morphology between the populations. Males and females showed similar ecomorphological patterns according to the environment they occur. In general the population from Maringá Stream had fins with major areas, and the Jaboti Lake population eyes located more dorsally. Additionally, others morphological differences such as wider mouth of the males from Maringá Stream, wider heads on Jaboti Lake females and more protractible mouths on males from Jaboti Lake suggest a set of environmental variables that can possibly influence the ecomorphological patterns of the populations, as the water current, availability of food resources and predation. In summary, the initial hypotheses could be confirmed, evidencing the occurrence of distinct ecomorphotypes in the same species according to the environment type.

  15. Reproductive biology and age determination of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) in central Iran

    OpenAIRE

    ABEDI, Masoud; SHIVA, Amir Houshang; Mohammadi, Hamid; MALEKPOUR, Rokhsareh

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843, a native cyprinid fish species from the Armand stream in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari province, central Iran, were investigated by regular monthly collections throughout 1 year. A significant relationship between length and weight and the isometric growth pattern were observed in this fish. There were no significant differences in the total number of male and female specimens. The population of this cyprinid fish had a narrow age...

  16. A new species of the genus Salaria Forsskål, 1775 (Actinopterygii, Blennidae in Morocco

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    Yahyaoui, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North African freshwater fish fauna is scarce compared to other regions of the world, probably due to historical and climatic factors. The western part of North Africa is more diverse than central or eastern areas. Populations of freshwater blennids that have been traditionally ascribed to the species Salaria fluviatilis nowadays inhabit the Sebou basin in Morocco. In this study we demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that these Moroccan populations constitute a new species, for which we provide a formal description. The following diagnostic characters distinguish the newly described species from other freshwater blennids: head without diagonal rows of dark dots or blotches on cheeks; supra-ocular tentacle thick and simple (not branched; 13-15 teeth on the upper jaw and 14-16 on the lower jaw; 16-17 soft anal fin rays; short pre-orbital distance (cephalic index: 2.9-3.8; height of the anterior (spiny part of the dorsal fin short (dorsal fin index: 0.8-1.3 and 34 vertebrae. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic distances between the new Salaria species and either S. economidisi or S. fluviatilis are high, especially in the mitochondrial control region (18%, while these genetic distances range from 2 to 3% when the nuclear S7 marker is compared. These morphological and molecular characters differentiate the new species from the remaining freshwater species of the genus (Salaria economidisi and S. fluviatilis. The new species is confined to a small restricted area of the Sebou basin in Morocco and should be considered endangered (EN according to the IUCN Red List.La fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África es escasa comparada con otras regiones del mundo debido fundamentalmente a factores históricos y climáticos. El oeste del norte de África es más diverso que las regiones del centro y del este. En la cuenca del río Sebou habitan actualmente poblaciones de blenios de agua dulce que han sido tradicionalmente adscritas a la especie Salaria fluviatilis. En este estudio demostramos morfológica y molecularmente que estas poblaciones marroquíes constituyen una nueva especie, para la cual proveemos una descripción formal. Los siguientes caracteres diagnósticos distinguen a la nueva especie descrita del resto de especies de blenios de agua dulce: cabeza sin una fila diagonal de puntos oscuros o manchas en las mejillas; tentáculo supraocular grueso y simple (no ramificado; 13-15 dientes en la mandíbula superior y 14-16 en la inferior; 16-17 radios blandos en la aleta anal; distancia preorbital corta (índice cefálico: 2.9-3.8; altura de la region anterior de la aleta dorsal corta (índice dorsal: 0.8-1.3 y 34 vértebras. Las distancias genéticas mitocondriales y nuclear entre la nueva especie de Salaria y las otras dos especies son altas, especialmente en la región control (18%, mientras que estas distancias genéticas variaron entre 2-3% para el gen nuclear S7. Estos caracteres morfológicos y moleculares diferencian a la nueva especie del resto de blenios de agua dulce del género (Salaria fluviatilis y S. economidisi. La nueva especie está confinada a la cuenca del río Sebou en Marruecos y debería ser considerada como En Peligro (EN de acuerdo a las categorías de la lista roja.

  17. Competitiveness of ALS inhibitors resistant and susceptible biotypes of Greater Beggarticks (Bidens subalternans Competitividade de biótipos de Picão-Preto (Bidens subalternans Resistente e euscetível aos inibidores da ALS

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    F.P. Lamego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of ALS-inhibiting herbicides has led to the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Greater beggarticks is one of the most troublesome weeds found in the soybean production system in Brazil. Recently, a greater beggarticks biotype that is resistant (R to ALS inhibitors due to Trp574Leu mutation in the ALS gene was identified. Also, the adaptive traits between susceptible (S and R to ALS inhibitors biotypes of greater beggarticks were compared. Specifically, we aimed to: (1 evaluate and compare the relative growth rates (RGR between the biotypes; (2 analyze the seed germination characteristics of R and S biotypes under different temperature conditions; and (3 evaluate their competitive ability in a replacement series study. The experiments were conducted at the University of Arkansas, USA, in 2007 and at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2008. Plant proportions for replacement series studies were respectively 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 150 plants m-2. There was no difference in RGR between R and S biotypes. The R-biotype germination rate was lower than that of the S biotype. However, at low temperature conditions (15 ºC, the reverse was observed. In general, there is no difference in the competitive ability between R and S greater beggarticks biotypes.O uso contínuo de herbicidas inibidores da ALS tem levado à evolução de plantas daninhas resistentes mundialmente. Picão-preto é uma das mais importantes plantas daninhas no sistema de produção de soja no Brasil. Recentemente, foi identificado um biótipo de picao-preto resistente (R aos inibidores da ALS devido à mutação Trp574Leu no gene ALS. Também, foram comparadas características adaptativas entre biótipos de picao-preto suscetível (S e R aos inibidores da ALS. Especificamente, os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (1 avaliar e comparar o crescimento relativo (RGR entre os biótipos; (2 analisar características da germinação das sementes dos biótipos R e S sob diferentes condições de temperatura; e (3 avaliar suas habilidades competitivas em um estudo em série de substituição. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na University of Arkansas, EUA, em 2007 e na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 2008. Para os estudos de série de substituição as proporções de plantas dos biótipos foram, respectivamente: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100, com uma população total de 150 plantas m-2. Não se verificou diferença no RGR entre os biótipos R e S. A taxa de germinação do biótipo R foi menor que a do biótipo S. Porém, sob baixas condições de temperatura (15 ºC, foi observada a situação oposta. Em geral, não há diferença na habilidade competitiva entre os biótipos R e S de picão-preto.

  18. Morfologia do vírus do mosaico do picão Morphology of the bidens mosaic virus particle

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    Elliot W. Kitajima

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparações feitas com exsudato de plantas de fumo, girassol, picão, erva--de-Santa-Maria, cordão-de-frade, fedegoso. Chenopodium amaranticolor e Physalis floridana, sadias e infectadas pelo vínis do mosaico do picão, foram examinadas ao microscópio electrônico. Partículas com comprimento normal aproximado de 720 mm x 12-13 mm, foram encontradas nos exsudatos das oito espécies, quando afetadas, mas não nos das plantas sadias, testemunhas. Tais partículas são consideradas como sendo o vírus causador do mosaico do picão.Electron microscopical observations were made on exudates obtained from plants of Bidrus pilosa, Chenopodium amaranticolor Leonolis nepaetifolia, Helianthus annums. Nicotiana tabucum, Cassia occidentalis, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Physalis floridona infected with a virus that induces mosaic on the first named species. The presenes of a flexible thread with a normal length 720 mm. x 12-13 mm was recorded in the exudates from the: diseased plants, but not in those from the healthy ones, and is considered to represent the causal virus.

  19. Mental health status in pregnancy among native and non-native Swedish-speaking women: a Bidens study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Ostman, Margareta

    2012-12-01

    To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics in Southern Sweden. A non-selected group of women in mid-pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire covering background characteristics, social support, life events, mental health variables and the short Edinburgh Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms during the past week and PTS symptoms during the past year. Out of 1003 women, 21.4% reported another language than Swedish as their mother tongue and were defined as non-native. These women were more likely to be younger, have fewer years of education, potential financial problems, and lack of social support. More non-native speakers self-reported depressive, PTS, anxiety and, psychosomatic symptoms, and fewer had had consultations with a psychiatrist or psychologist. Of all women, 13.8% had depressive symptoms defined by Edinburgh Depression Scale 7 or above. Non-native status was associated with statistically increased risks of depressive symptoms and having ≥1 PTS symptom compared with native-speaking women. Multivariate modeling including all selected factors resulted in adjusted odds ratios for depressive symptoms of 1.75 (95% confidence interval: 1.11-2.76) and of 1.56 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.34) for PTS symptoms in non-native Swedish speakers. Non-native Swedish-speaking women had a more unfavorable mental health status than native speakers. In spite of this, non-native speaking women had sought less mental health care. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae) on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L.) and Glycine max (L.) Merr

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica da Silva; Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes; Fernanda Melo Gomes; Tassiane Terezinha Pinto; Thaliny Bonamigo; Nayara Parisoto Boiago

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations...

  1. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L. and Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations were held daily. The parameters under analysis were: germination percentage, time and average speed of germination, and average root lenght. The data obtained underwent the F-Test and the mean values were compared through Tukey’s test, at a 5% probability level. The results confi rm the presence of allelopathic potential in camelina. It was found that this species can be considered an option for cultivating with soybean, due to the positive allelophatic interference caused in the culture and because it can be used in the control of weeds such as beggartick, having in mind that that it has delayed the development of the seedlings tested.

  2. Beneficial Effect of Bidens pilosa on Body Weight Gain, Food Conversion Ratio, Gut Bacteria and Coccidiosis in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cicero L T; Chung, Chih-Yao; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Yang, Chu-Wen; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat gastrointestinal diseases in chickens. Here, we studied the impact of the edible medicinal plant, B. pilosa, on growth performance, gut bacteria and coccidiosis in chickens. First, we found that B. pilosa significantly elevated body weight gain and lowered feed conversion ratio in chickens. Next, we showed that B. pilosa reduced cecal damage as evidenced by increased hemorrhage, villus destruction and decreased villus-to-crypt ratio in chicken ceca. We also performed pyrosequencing of the PCR ampilcons based on the 16S rRNA genes of gut bacteria in chickens. Metagenomic analysis indicated that the chicken gut bacteria belonged to 6 phyla, 6 classes, 6 orders, 9 families, and 8 genera. More importantly, we found that B. pilosa affected the composition of bacteria. This change in bacteria composition was correlated with body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gut pathology in chickens. Collectively, this work suggests that B. pilosa has beneficial effects on growth performance and protozoan infection in chickens probably via modulation of gut bacteria.

  3. Relação preliminar das espécies de peixes (Pisces, Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii ameaçadas no Brasil Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii in Brazil

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    Ricardo S Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are presently listed as endangered by federal legislation. Based on a literature search and a survey directed to the Neotropical ichthyologists, we present an unofficial list including a total of 78 threatened fish species (12 elasmobranchs and 66 actinopterygians. Of these, sixteen actinopterygian species are listed as endangered, three elasmobranchs and nine actinopterygians as vulnerable, and seven actinopterygians as rare; 40 species either have indeterminate status or are data deficient to yield an adequate assessment, and three species are listed as extinct or possibly extinct.

  4. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

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    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del cuerpo, un punto negro presente en la base de la aleta caudal que se extiende hasta las membranas interradiales, y por presentar la línea lateral pigmentada. Esta nueva especie incrementa nuestro conocimiento de la diversidad de la ictiofauna endémica de la cuenca del río Ameca, y queda manifiesto su parentesco cercano con la especie A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago, lo cual refleja una conexión histórica entre ambos sistemas hidrológicos que posteriormente fue interrumpida por un evento vicariante que produjo el aislamiento de las poblaciones y con ello el evento de especiación. Debido a la limitada distribución del nuevo taxón y al deterioro ambiental del río Ameca, se recomienda designarla como una especie protegida dentro de la Norma Oficial Mexicana.

  5. A new species of Cottus from the Onega River drainage, White Sea basin (Actinopterygii: Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideleva, Valentina G; Naseka, Alexander M; Zhidkov, Zakhar V

    2015-04-29

    Cottus gratzianowi, a new cottid species, is described from material collected in the Ukhtomitsa River in the Onega River drainage, White Sea basin. It differs from its congeners in Europe east of the Meuse except C. koshewnikowi by having no transverse dark bands on the pelvic fin, a single chin canal pore, an incomplete lateral line not reaching behind the anal-fin insertion, and the position of the lateral line which is located considerably above the mid-line of the flank. From C. koshewnikowi distributed in the Volga (Caspian basin), Pechora, and Northern Dvina rivers (Arctic basin), C. gratzianowi sp. nov. can be distinguished by a combination of character states, the most differentiating are as follows: a larger eye (horizontal diameter 23-28% HL, equal to or exceeding snout length vs. 16-25% HL, less than snout length), a rounded caudal fin (vs. commonly truncated), frequent presence of one to three branched rays in median part of the pectoral fin (vs. usual absence), an interrupted supratemporal canal commissure with 4 pores (vs. non-interrupted, with 3 pores), abdominal vertebrae commonly 10 (vs. 11), and contrasting black blotches on all fins including pelvic and anal fins (vs. no blotches on pelvic and anal fins).

  6. New species of Saurichthys(Actinopterygii:Saurichthyidae)from Middle Triassic(Anisian)of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feixiang; SUN Yuanlin; HAO Weicheng; JIANG Dayong; XU Guanghui; SUN Zuoyu; Andrea TINTORI

    2009-01-01

    Saurichthys dawaziensis sp.nov.,from the third member of the Gejiu Formation (Anisian of Middle Triassic)in the vicinity of Luoping,Yunnan Province,is a small to medium-sized saurichthyid fish.It is characterized by the efferent pseudobranchial arteries penetrating on the parasphenoid and the mandible sensory canal with a branch in the angular.The new species is more derived than the Lower Triassic species in having a relatively narrow postorbitai region,short preopercular,single ossification of the sclerotic ring,small haemal arches between the pelvic fins and the anal fin without ossified spines,and in the absence of quadratujugal.It is more primitive than the Middle and Upper Triassic Saurichthys in having fringing fulcra and numerous segments in the unpaired fins,and the the vertebral column and unpaired fins of the genus are also discussed.

  7. Morphometric variation between two morphotypes within the Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Characidae) genus, from a Mexican tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-García, Claudia P; Bastir, Markus; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic variation is important for evolutionary processes because it can allow local adaptation, promote genetic segregation, and ultimately give rise to speciation. Lacustrine systems provide a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which sister species can co-occur by means of ecological segregation. The fish genus Astyanax is characterized by high levels of phenotypic variability, providing an excellent model for the study of local specialization. Here, we analyze the morphological specializations through geometric morphometrics of two sympatric species described as different genera: Bramocharax caballeroi endemic to Lake Catemaco, and the widely distributed Astyanax aeneus. Additionally, we assess the correlation between phenotypic and genetic structure, and the phylogenetic signal of morphological variation. We examined body size and shape variation in 196 individuals and analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences in 298 individuals. Our results confirm the striking morphological divergence among the sympatric characids. Differences between them were mainly found in the body depth and profile and orientation of the head, where B. caballeroi in contrast with the A. aeneus, presented a fusiform body and an upward mouth. Moreover, different growth trajectories were observed among morphotypes, suggesting that a heterochronic process could be involved in the diversification of our study system. Morphological differences did not correspond with the molecular differentiation, suggesting high levels of homoplasy among the lineages of B. caballeroi morphs.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Myxobolus orissae (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae

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    Thangapalam Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Myxosporeans are best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish species. Identification of myxosporeans at the species-level is mainly based on conventional methods. The 18S rRNA gene sequence of morphologically identified Myxobolus orissae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala was characterized in the present study. The plasmodia of M. orissae were small, elongated and white to pale in colour. Phylogenetically, the 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of M. orissae was clustered with other gill-infecting Myxobolus spp. of cyprinids. The species closely related to M. orissae was M. koi (FJ841887 infecting the gill lamellae of Cyprinus carpio with 96% similarity. The carp fin-infecting Thelohanellus caudatus (KC865607 from India exhibited only 78% DNA sequence similarity with M. orissae. Low level of M. orissae infection on gill caused thickening of epithelial cells surrounding the plasmodium. Under stressful conditions, it is likely that such infection can easily spread in confined fish and may cause serious disease outbreaks and economical losses.

  9. Different population structure in genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar

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    Miriam Casal-Lopez

    2015-12-01

    Here, through a phylogeographic study based on mitochondrial molecular markers, we found different structures on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, as well as faunistic connections probably established on both sides during Miocene. Our results show that populations may have followed different and complex histories and species have suffered diverse events of vicariance and dispersion. While north Moroccan population show a well-defined structure, showing not only unique haplotypes, but different species, the case of the southern populations of the Iberian endemism, Luciobarbus sclateri Günther, 1868, differs substantially.

  10. A practical approach to phylogenomics: the phylogeny of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii as a case study

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    Zhang Gong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular systematics occupies one of the central stages in biology in the genomic era, ushered in by unprecedented progress in DNA technology. The inference of organismal phylogeny is now based on many independent genetic loci, a widely accepted approach to assemble the tree of life. Surprisingly, this approach is hindered by lack of appropriate nuclear gene markers for many taxonomic groups especially at high taxonomic level, partially due to the lack of tools for efficiently developing new phylogenetic makers. We report here a genome-comparison strategy to identifying nuclear gene markers for phylogenetic inference and apply it to the ray-finned fishes – the largest vertebrate clade in need of phylogenetic resolution. Results A total of 154 candidate molecular markers – relatively well conserved, putatively single-copy gene fragments with long, uninterrupted exons – were obtained by comparing whole genome sequences of two model organisms, Danio rerio and Takifugu rubripes. Experimental tests of 15 of these (randomly picked markers on 36 taxa (representing two-thirds of the ray-finned fish orders demonstrate the feasibility of amplifying by PCR and directly sequencing most of these candidates from whole genomic DNA in a vast diversity of fish species. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of sequence data obtained for 14 taxa and 10 markers (total of 7,872 bp for each species are encouraging, suggesting that the markers obtained will make significant contributions to future fish phylogenetic studies. Conclusion We present a practical approach that systematically compares whole genome sequences to identify single-copy nuclear gene markers for inferring phylogeny. Our method is an improvement over traditional approaches (e.g., manually picking genes for testing because it uses genomic information and automates the process to identify large numbers of candidate makers. This approach is shown here to be successful for fishes, but also could be applied to other groups of organisms for which two or more complete genome sequences exist, which has important implications for assembling the tree of life.

  11. Taxonomy of rheophilic Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from Morocco with the description of two new species

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    Doadrio, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 is characterized by medium to large fish species occurring in large rivers and downstream zones with slow-moving waters. Remarkably also rheophilic Luciobarbus occur in Morocco, which are of small size and exhibit distinct morphological traits as well as different habitat requirements. These rheophilic species have traditionally been assigned to Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 and L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919, although some authors consider L. magniatlant as a junior synonym of L. nasus. This lack of consensus on the taxonomy of rheophilic barbs is constrained by limited population studies that do not encompass their entire distribution range. Using molecular, morphometric, and osteological data we studied populations of rheophilic barbs of three drainage basins in which they are currently present: Tensift, Moulouya and Oum er Rbia. Our results clearly identified the rheophilic barbs of each basin as different species. The species Luciobarbus magniatlantis is a well-recognized species endemic to Tensift Basin. In contrast, the investigated populations from the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins could not be assigned to any previously described species. Consequently, we describe two new Luciobarbus species in the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins.El género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 se caracteriza por presentar especies de medio y gran tamaño que viven en las zonas bajas de grandes ríos con aguas lentas. Singularmente, en Marruecos también existen especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus de pequeño tamaño y que presentan diferentes caracteres morfológicos y distintos requerimientos de hábitat. Estas especies reófilas han sido tradicionalmente asignadas a Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 y L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919 aunque algunos autores consideran a L. magniatlantis como un sinónimo de L. nasus. Esta falta de consenso en la taxonomía de los barbos reófilos está limitada por los escasos estudios poblacionales realizados que no abarcan la totalidad del área de distribución de estos barbos. Nosotros, usando datos moleculares, morfométricos y osteológicos, estudiamos las poblaciones de los barbos reófilos de tres cuencas hidrográficas, en las cuales están actualmente presentes: Tensift, Moulouya y Oum er Rbia. Nuestros resultados claramente identifican a los barbos reófilos de cada una de estas cuencas como diferentes especies. La especie L. magniatlantis es una especie bien definida y endémica de la cuenca del Tensift. En contraste, las poblaciones analizadas de las cuencas del Moulouya y Oum er Rbia no pudieron ser asignadas a ninguna especie previamente descrita. Consecuentemente, nosotros describimos dos nuevas especies de Luciobarbus en las cuencas del Moulouya y del Oum er Rbia.

  12. Taxonomy of rheophilic Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Morocco with the description of two new species

    OpenAIRE

    Doadrio, I; Casal-López, M.; Perea, S.; YAHYAOUI A.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 is characterized by medium to large fish species occurring in large rivers and downstream zones with slow-moving waters. Remarkably also rheophilic Luciobarbus occur in Morocco, which are of small size and exhibit distinct morphological traits as well as different habitat requirements. These rheophilic species have traditionally been assigned to Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874) and L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919), although some authors consider L. magnia...

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) as inferred from S7 nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of North American (NA) phoxinins, and family Leuciscidae (formerly Cyprinidae, in part) in general, have had a very dynamic history marked by uncertainty regarding the validity of many taxonomic designations. Recent molecular studies, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, of NA phoxinins have provided the first comprehensive hypotheses for the group and suggest that they are comprised of three major lineages: creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), western, and open posterior myodome clades. A number of phylogenetic evaluations, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, of the formerly recognized family Cyprinidae (=Cyprinoidea) have failed to support the traditional subfamily designations. This study, based on sequences from the first intron of the nuclear gene S7, supports many of the findings of the earlier molecular studies of NA phoxinins, but also suggests that European Leuciscidae evolved within the NA phoxinin lineage and are most likely descended from the common ancestor of the CC-P clade. As in some other recent phylogenetic studies of the Cyprinoidea, analyses of this study fail to support the broader subfamily designations within the formerly recognized family Cyprinidae.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) based on RAG1 and S7 nuclear DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    Most molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for North American (NA) phoxinins are based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and the resulting hypotheses are rather variable, though there is general support for three major lineages of NA phoxinins: western, creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), and open posterior myodome (OPM) clades. Support for a monophyletic NA phoxinin group has varied among studies. This study utilizes nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences from the RAG1 (exon 3) and S7 (intron 1) gene regions to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships and monophyly of NA phoxinins. Results from the nDNA analyses provide overall support for the western, CC-P, and OPM clades. The CC-P clade had the best overall resolution and support in the individual and combined analyses of the nDNA data. Resolution of the western clade was fairly good, with most analyses recovering a monophyletic Gila clade. The OPM clade demonstrated the highest degree of topological variability among the analyses. The RAG1 analyses failed to recover a monophyletic NA phoxinin group by resolving the European leuciscins, inclusive Notemigonus crysoleucas, within the NA phoxinin topology. Most analyses recovered a strongly supported shiner clade though, similar to several mtDNA studies; there was a high degree of topological variability among the results.

  15. New tools (DNA barcoding), old hypothesis: the case of the taxonomic identity of the Argentine hakes (Actinopterygii: Merluccius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli Antoni, M Y; González-Castro, M; Díaz de Astarloa, J M

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluated the possible occurrence of cryptic species among Merluccidae from Argentina by examining sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) mtDNA. This approach can discriminate Merluccius hubbsi and Merluccius australis; specimens with morphological diagnostic characters of Merluccius patagonicus formed a cohesive cluster with M. hubbsi specimens. BIN analysis confirmed the effectiveness of barcoding within a global context.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Torini Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Kai

    2017-02-22

    Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea. The Tigris-Euphrates system is an important crossroad for the colonisation of the Jordan River, the Orontes River and the watercourses of the Arabian Peninsula by freshwater fishes. The Jordan lost its connection to the Euphrates earlier than the Orontes. The Arabian Peninsula was colonised from the Tigris-Euphrates system in at least two independent events.

  17. A new grenadier of the genus Hymenocephalus from Tosa Bay, southern Japan (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Macrouridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Naohide; Endo, Hiromitsu; Schwarzhans, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Hymenocephalus yamasakiorum, a new species of grenadier fishes, is described from a single specimen collected from Tosa Bay off Aki, Kochi, Japan, at a depth of 320–400 m. The species is distinguished from its 26 known congeners in having the following combination of features: pelvic-fin rays nine...

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Myxobolus orissae (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Sarkar, Agniswar; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Dash, Gadadhar

    2015-01-01

    Myxosporeans are best known for the diseases they cause in commercially important fish species. Identification of myxosporeans at the species-level is mainly based on conventional methods. The 18S rRNA gene sequence of morphologically identified Myxobolus orissae infecting the gill lamellae of mrigal carp Cirrhinus mrigala was characterized in the present study. The plasmodia of M.orissae were small, elongated and white to pale in colour. Phylogenetically, the 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of M.orissae was clustered with other gill-infecting Myxobolus spp. of cyprinids. The species closely related to M. orissae was M. koi (FJ841887) infecting the gill lamellae of Cyprinus carpio with 96% similarity. The carp fin-infecting Thelohanelluscaudatus (KC865607) from India exhibited only 78% DNA sequence similarity with M. orissae. Low level of M. orissae infection on gill caused thickening of epithelial cells surrounding the plasmodium. Under stressful conditions, it is likely that such infection can easily spread in confined fish and may cause serious disease outbreaks and economical losses.

  19. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Villa, Mateo Andres; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Chaveerach, Arunrat

    2015-01-01

    Channid fishes, commonly referred to as “snakeheads”, are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes. PMID:26067030

  20. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes.

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    Marcelo de Bello Cioffi

    Full Text Available Channid fishes, commonly referred to as "snakeheads", are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes.

  1. Rocinela signata (Isopoda: Aegidae parasitizing the gills of the spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Mullidae in Northeastern Brazil

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    LUCAS CARDOSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parasitic isopods of fishes usually show wide distribution and low host specificity. This study investigated the occurrence of gill parasites in 120 specimens of spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus, marine fish of great economic importance for fishery community. The fish were captured monthly in the Coast of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, between October 2012 and September 2013. Eleven isopods were found and identified as Rocinela signata. We observed lower infections in the gills of P. maculatus (prevalence 8.3%, mean intensity 1.6±0.3 and mean abundance 0.1±0.3 when compared to other studies of different host fishes from geographically close locations. This parasite has been reported from a wide variety of fish species, not only in Brazil, but also in the eastern Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. This is the first report of R. signata in spotted goatfish.

  2. Taxonomic review of the genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from northwestern Morocco with the description of three new species

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    Casal-Lopez, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus in Morocco presents high diversification, in contrast to the generally impoverished freshwater fish fauna from North Africa. Within Morocco the northern area is one of the least studied territories, due to both its historical background and the limited accessibility of many regions. Previous phylogenetic studies identified Luciobarbus populations that are morphologically and genetically differentiated, to the same extent as others already recognized as separate species. The aim of this work is to describe these populations as distinct species, based on morphological, meristic, and genetic traits. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8FC4B423-104C-4097-A468-ED3D2664A15AEn Marruecos el género Luciobarbus está altamente diversificado, en comparación con la empobrecida fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África. Dentro de Marruecos la región norte es una de las áreas menos estudiadas, por motivos históricos y también por la poca accesibilidad en algunas de sus regiones. Los estudios filogenéticos previos para esta área han señalado la existencia de poblaciones pertenecientes al género Luciobarbus tan diferenciadas morfológica y genéticamente como otras que ya habían sido reconocidas como diferentes especies. En este trabajo describimos estas poblaciones como diferentes taxa, en base a caracteres morfológicos, merísticos y genéticos.

  3. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran

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    Azad Teimori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensis sp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10–12 anal fin rays, 28–32 lateral line scales, 10–13 caudal peduncle scales, 8–10 gill rakers, 12–19, commonly 15–16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to A. sophiae from the Kor River and that A. farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to A. arakensis plus A. sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection.

  4. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Cuban genus Girardinus Poey, 1854 and relationships within the tribe Girardinini (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doadrio, Ignacio; Perea, Silvia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Hernandez, Natividad

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among members of the freshwater fish tribe Girardinini were inferred to test existing colonization and diversification hypotheses for this group in the Caribbean. The genetic material examined was mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 1140 bp) and nuclear (RAG-1 and beta-actin, 2450 bp) DNA from 161 specimens representing 44 ingroup and three outgroup taxa. Our mtDNA and combined data matrix (mtDNA+nuclear DNA) results rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the tribe Girardinini and suggest the need to review the group's current taxonomy. From the data presented here, it may be inferred that the Girardinini diverged from other poeciliid fishes approximately 62 Mya ago in the Palaeocene period. This estimate, however, conflicts with the hypothesis that today's vertebrate fauna is the result of the more recent colonization of the Antillean islands during the Early Oligocene (35-33 Mya ago). The isolation of western, central and eastern Cuba during the Miocene and that of the Juventud Island and Guanahacabibes Peninsula during the Pliocene, are the main geologic events that could have promoted speciation in this group.

  5. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

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    Doadrio Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya, which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya.

  6. Nematodes of Astyanax fasciatus (Actinopterygii: Characidae and their parasitic indices in the São Francisco river, Brazil

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    Flavia Guerra Vieira-Menezes

    Full Text Available Abstract The endoparasite fauna of Astyanax fasciatus from the upper São Francisco river was investigated and ecological parameters and morphological and morphometric data on the parasites are presented. A total of 74 specimens of banded astyanax were collected downstream from the Três Marias dam, municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais (18°12’32”S, 45°15’41”W in January 2011 and January 2012. Eleven taxa of Nematoda were found: Contracaecum sp.; Hysterothylacium sp.; Goezia sp.; Brevimulticaecum sp.; Procamallanus sp.; Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus saofranciscencis; Cystidicoloides sp.; Spinitectus rodolphiheringi; Rhabdochona sp.; Spiroxys sp.; and Eustrongylides sp.. The fauna of A. fasciatus consisted of by larval specimens of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Cystidicoloides sp., and Spiroxys sp., and by adult specimens of P. saofranciscencis, whose prevalence was greater than 10%. Thus, this fish acts as an intermediate host of some species of larval nematodes especially, Anisakidae and Acanthocheilidae (Brevimulticaecum sp., new host record and new locality. It participates in transmitting species such Rhabdochona sp. to carnivorous fish and also acts as a definitive host for P. saofranciscencis and S. rodolphiheringi in the upper São Francisco river.

  7. Spot the difference: Two cryptic species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting Astyanax aeneus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; García-Vásquez, Adriana; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Over the course of one year, undescribed specimens of Gyrodactylus were recovered from banded tetra, Astyanax aeneus collected in the La Antigua and Nautla river basins in central Veracruz, Mexico. Parasites were processed for morphometric and molecular analyses. Morphometrically, Gyrodactylus samples collected in the La Antigua river had slightly smaller haptoral structures than those collected from the Nautla river. During the 12month-collection of samples, however, water temperature varied considerably (ca. 20°C to 30°C), and this abiotic factor is known to affect the size of gyrodactylid attachment structures. Moreover, no clear discrimination was possible between individual parasites collected from the two rivers based on the morphology of the marginal hook, which is recognised as a very informative character to discriminate between species. The morphology of the ventral bar, however, differed between specimens from both rivers: worms from Nautla all had long, rounded processes on the ventral bar, which formed a relatively closed angle with the dorsal edge of the bar proper, while most - but not all - specimens from La Antigua had comparatively slender processes forming a more open angle with respect to the ventral bar. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2 of gyrodactylids indicated the existence of two distinct, well-supported lineages whose sequences differ by >4%, one of which was only found in the Nautla basin, while the other was collected in both river systems. A posteriori, principal component analysis (PCA) of the morphometric data of sequenced specimens indicated that features of the dorsal bar, the hamuli and the ventral bar enable discrimination between the two phylogenetic lineages. Based on these independent sources of information (morphometric and molecular data), two new species of Gyrodactylus are described: Gyrodactyluspakan n. sp. and Gyrodactylusteken n. sp. The phylogenetic relationships of both new species to other gyrodactylids infecting characiformes (for which molecular data are available) are presented, which suggests that their closest relative is Gyrodactylus carolinae, a parasite of Characidium lanei in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854) (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI) and a single nuclear gene (RAG1) yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations), with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya) explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya), which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya). PMID:19102731

  9. Spatial structure of helminth communities in the golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae), from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Pardo-Carranza, Trinidad V; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Ecological investigations regarding the parasite fauna of grey mullets are scarce. The present study provides a detailed description of the helminth communities of Liza aurata in the Spanish western Mediterranean and analyzes the role of spatial, temporal, and host variables in shaping the infracommunities. In total, 204 fish were collected in 2 localities, situated ca. 290 km apart, in spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to visualize an ordination of the infracommunities according to their relative similarities in parasite abundances. The relationship between infracommunity composition and explanatory variables (host size, locality, year, and season of harvest) was examined by permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) applied to species abundances. Permutational tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersion were used to test the null hypothesis of no differences in dispersion among groups formed by the factors whose effects were significant in PERMANOVA. A total of 33,241 helminth parasites, belonging to 18 species, was collected, i.e., 12 species of adult digeneans (23% of the parasite specimens), 3 digeneans as metacercariae (68%), 1 acanthocephalan (2.1%), and 2 monogeneans (6.5%). An important part of this helminth fauna is specialized to grey mullets, with a sizable portion of the component community restricted to the Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic. The NMDS ordination indicated high heterogeneity among infrapopulations. However, most differences at both the component and infracommunity level were related to geographic locality. In fact, the PERMANOVA showed that, among the explanatory variables considered, sampling locality accounted for the largest share of variation. The geographical differences observed may be related to local environmental characteristics or to the limited spatial dispersal of the species forming the component community. The latter was supported by the significant portion of variation explained by a 3-way interaction term. Thus, the spatial structure of our helminth infracommunities seems to be determined by a combination of differences in local environmental conditions and the transmission ability of each species at small local and time scales.

  10. Buccal apparatus and gastrointestinal tract dimensions associated to the diet of early life stages of Centropomus undecimalis (Centropomidae, Actinopterygii

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    Isabela M. S Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare the buccal apparatus and gastrointestinal tract of early life stages of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792, and relate them to its diet. A total of 190 individuals collected with a channel net in the Catuama estuary (07º40'9.9''S, 34º50'36.7''W, northern coast of the state of Pernambuco, were examined. Morphometrical and meristic data were analyzed for the two initial developmental periods (larval and juvenile. Their digestive tube was morphologically characterized and its content identified. The longest transverse axis of food items was measured, and compared to the standard length (SL and mouth gape size (D of the individuals. Body measurement regressions differed significantly (p<0.001 between larvae and juveniles. The stomachs with food content (n=118 individuals presented a proportion of 62% full and 30% empty (being 8% damaged. They differed in relation to the fullness level and presented a coiled shape when empty. The number of food items in relation to SL and D did not present an evident correlation. Larvae (SL<10 mm feed on small copepods, while juveniles (SL=11.1 to 64.7 mm ingest larvae of various decapod species, showing a distinct diet between these initial developmental stages.

  11. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecologia Reprodutiva e do Recrutamento de Organismos Marinhos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, ES (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  12. Local ecological and taxonomic knowledge of snapper fish (Teleostei: Actinopterygii held by fishermen in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

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    Camilla Fahning Ferreira Caló

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Local Ecological and Taxonomic Knowledge (LEK of fish held by fishermen in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, known as the snapper ("vermelho" was examined from August 2005 to November 2006. Semi-structured interviews and tests were made with fishermen selected under the criteria of "specialists". The data analysis followed the union model of the different individual competences. Grouping analysis was performed on data referring to the localities of the occurrence of these fish, depth, coloration, and morphological characteristics of the species using the Pearson correlation coefficient (UPGMA. A total of 19 species were named within the snapper group, although three of them could not be scientifically identified. The Lutjanidae family presented the greatest numbers of species (n = 9. Other families mentioned were: the Serranidae (n = 3, Holocentridae (n = 2, Priacanthidae (n = 1, Mullidae (n = 1. The 1:1 correspondence between fishermen's local names and scientific species observed in this study indicates the richness of local fishermen knowledge. Analysis of the LEK related to the feeding habits of these fish and indicated that most were considered as being carnivorous, which agrees with the specialized literature consulted. In terms of their spatial distribution, two categories were detected: locality of occurrence (rivers/sea, coast, and offshore and depth (surface, mid-depth, mid-depth/deep, deep. The fish were considered locally to be "winter fish", based on harvested yields. Most of the interviewees knew little about the reproductive aspects of these fish. The main criteria used to identify, name, and classify the species were based on color and morphological aspects. Much of the information gathered in this study agreed with the published literature, which strengthens the importance of including LEK in planning and decision-making processes.

  13. First record of a self-sustaining population of Alpine charr Salvelinus umbla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii, Salmonidae in Spain

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    Aparicio, Enric

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports for the first time in Spain the presence of the non-native salmonid Alpine charr, usually included into Salvelinus alpinus, but recently revised to Salvelinus umbla. The species was found in a high mountain lake in the Pyrenees belonging to the Garonne catchment (Lake Obago, Val d’Aran, province of Lleida. This is probably not a recent introduction since the presence of one species of Salvelinus in some lakes of the Val d’Aran has been known among anglers for a long time, but the species identification was lacking. The distribution of S. umbla in the Val d’Aran appear to be restricted to a very few lakes and it has not spread downstream.En este trabajo se cita por primera vez en España la presencia del salvelino alpino, generalmente incluido en Salvelinus alpinus, pero recientemente revisado como Salvelinus umbla. La especie fue encontrada en un lago de alta montaña de los Pirineos perteneciente a la cuenca del Garona (Estany Obago, Val d’Aran, Lleida. Probablemente no se trata de una introducción reciente ya que la presencia de una especie de Salvelinus en algunos lagos del Valle de Arán ya era conocida entre los pescadores durante mucho tiempo, pero la identificación de la especie no se había realizado. La distribución de S. umbla en el Valle de Arán parece estar restringida a unos pocos lagos y no se ha extendido a los tramos de río aguas abajo.

  14. Molecular and phenotypic evidence of a new species of genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): the southern pike, Esox flaviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation.

  15. FUYUANPERLEIDUS DENGI GENG ET AL., 2012 (OSTEICHTHYES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN PROVINCE, SOUTH CHINA

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    ZUOYU SUN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two well preserved specimens of Fuyuanperleidus dengi Geng et al., 2012 are described from the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation (Pelsonian, Anisian, Middle Triassic in Luoping County, Yunnan Province, South China. The attribution  to Perleidiformes is confirmed according to a combination of features such as the general skull pattern, with the large preoperculum showing a prominent infraorbital process, the maxilla with deep posterior region and a dentition made of  long and stout peg-like teeth with an acuminate apex, the deep mid-lateral flank scales and the caudal fin with epaxial fin rays. However, this taxon shows an unique arrangement of the squamation (here considered as autapomorphy given by the insertion of several scales in each vertical row posterior to the pelvic fin, just below the scales carrying the lateral line, when their depth decreases abruptly. Owing to this unique character, and  in spite of the very recent description of this genus, the authors considered necessary the erection of a new family, Fuyuanperleididae offering also new insights on the evolutionary trends and morphological specializations of the “subholosteans”. A cladistic analysis of the well known perleidiformes, with this taxon included, supports a possible monophyly of the order, and matches well the paleobiogeographic relationships of the Gondwana fresh-water taxa. The specialized deep-bodied Gondwana and Tethyan perleidiformes are independently evolved, ascertained by the parsimony analysis. 

  16. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854) (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2008-12-22

    Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI) and a single nuclear gene (RAG1) yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations), with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya) explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (approximately 8 Mya), which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (approximately 3.3 Mya).

  17. Fine structure and Ca-ATPase activity of the stratum intermedium cells during odontogenesis in gars, Lepisosteus, Actinopterygii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Ichiro; Ishiyama, Mikio

    2002-01-01

    This is the first report on the stratum intermedium in vertebrates other than mammals. The aim of this study is to elucidate the fine structure and cytochemical features of the stratum intermedium during the stages of enameloid formation in Lepisosteus. Inner dental epithelium, stratum intermedium, stellate reticulum, and outer dental epithelium are consistently present in the tooth germs of Lepisosteus. The stratum intermedium cells are oval in shape, contain elliptical nuclei, and extend many small processes. It is implied that the structure of the enamel organ is different among actinopterygians, and that constitution of the enamel organ in Lepisosteus resembles that in higher vertebrates. Marked Ca-ATPase activity is observed at the cell membrane of the stratum intermedium cells, suggesting that the cells are involved in calcium transport during the stages of enameloid formation.

  18. Reproduction of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Gadidae), in the Gotland Basin: Causes of annual variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plikshs, Maris; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Elferts, D.

    2015-01-01

    ‰ isohaline is above the 2 mL· L–1 isooxygen. In such situation the water volume between the isolines is called the “suitable reproduction volume”. When the position of the isolines is reversed, the salinity and the oxygen level of the water layer demarcated by them are below the required thresholds...... and as such the water is unsuitable for the cod development. We refer to it as the “unsuitable reproduction volume”. The main aim of the presently reported study was to examine whether variations in suitable and unsuitable reproduction habitat estimates could explain the fl uctuations in cod recruitment. Material...... and methods. The suitable and unsuitable reproduction volumes in the Gotland Basin were estimated based on single point observations at three oceanographic monitoring stations using the contouring software Balthypsograph. To test the spatial hydrological heterogeneity in the Gotland Basin we used 15...

  19. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  20. The relation between polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentration in sewage sludge and its uptake by plants: Phragmites communis, Polygonum persicaria and Bidens tripartita.

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    Barbara Gworek

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define the relationship between the concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge at a particular location and their amount in various plant materials growing on it. The credibility of the results is enhanced by the fact that sewage sludge from two separate sewage-treatment plants were selected for their influence on the content of PAHs in three plant species growing on them. The investigations were carried out for a period of three years. The results demonstrated unequivocally that the uptake of PAHs by a plant depended on polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentration in the sewage sludge. The correlation between accumulation coefficient of PAH in a plant and the content of the same PAH in the sewage sludge had for three-, four- and five-ring hydrocarbons an exponential character and for six-ring hydrocarbons was of a linear character. The accumulation coefficients calculated for three-ring aromatics were several times higher than for four-ring PAHs; further the coefficient values calculated for five-ring PAHs were several times lower than for four-ring hydrocarbons. Finally, the accumulation coefficient values of six-ring PAHs were the lowest in the series of studied polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed an interesting potential of the mucoadhesive formulation of BP/CL for the treatment of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. Given the perspectives for the development of a new medicine, clinical studies are in progress to better understand the protective effects of this innovative formulation in treating mucositis.

  2. EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE OCCURRENCE AND THE ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATION OF GIANT MOTTLED EEL, ANGUILLA MARMORATA (ACTINOPTERYGII: ANGUILLIFORMES: ANGUILLIDAE), FROM SABAH, BORNEO ISLAND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Lian Wong; Siti Raudah Abdul Kadir; Rabi Atun Adawiah Abdullah; Charlie Albert Lasuin; Kok Onn Kwong; Takaomi Arai

    2017-01-01

    .... Two anguillid eels found in Sabah, Borneo Island, were firstly identified as Anguilla marmorata Quoy et Gaimard, 1824 using morphological analysis and further analysis of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA...

  3. Diet and feeding strategy of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

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    Mario V. Condini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper (Mycteroperca marginata is a marine species usually associated with rocky bottoms and reefs. The present work investigated the diet and feeding strategy of a dusky grouper population inhabiting a 4.5 km long pair of rocky jetties located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon estuary. No prior research has been conducted in such man-made habitat and the current study provides a basis for comparative studies on the diet of the dusky grouper populations inhabiting natural vs. man-made rocky habitats. Similarly with previous studies on natural substrates, crabs and fishes were the main food categories consumed (%IRI = 85.1 and %IRI = 12.6, respectively, whereas shrimps and mollusks had lower importance in the diet (%IRI = 1.9 and 0.4, respectively. As previously reported for dusky grouper populations inhabiting reefs and rocky bottoms, the present work revealed conspicuous size related dietary shifts. Blue crabs and fishes become increasingly important food items in the diet of larger individuals (> 500 mm, TL. Finally, it was found that the studied dusky population has a generalist feeding strategy with a high between-individual variation in prey consumption. Such strategy remained similar across the size increment of the species. Our findings suggest that man-made rocky substrates provide suitable feeding grounds for the dusky grouper in southern Brazil and could be used as an additional tool in the conservation efforts of this endangered species.A garoupa-verdadeira (Mycteroperca marginata é uma espécie marinha geralmente associada a fundos rochosos e recifes. O presente trabalho investiga a dieta e estratégia alimentar de uma população da garoupa-verdadeira que habita um longo (4,5 km par de molhes de pedra na desembocadura do estuário da laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil. Não há trabalhos anteriores realizados nesse tipo de habitat construído pelo homem e este trabalho fornece uma base de comparação com estudos de dieta de outras populações da garoupa-verdadeira ocorrendo em habitats naturais. De modo similar ao encontrado em estudos prévios realizados em substratos naturais, caranguejos e peixes foram as principais categorias de alimento consumidas (%IRI = 85,1 e %IRI = 12,6, respectivamente, enquanto camarões e moluscos tiveram menor importância na dieta (%IRI = 1,9 e %IRI = 0,4, respectivamente. Como reportado anteriormente para populações de garoupa-verdadeira que habitam recifes e fundos rochosos, o presente trabalho revelou marcadas mudanças na dieta em função do tamanho da espécie. Siri-azul e peixes tornam-se gradativamente mais importantes na dieta de indivíduos maiores (> 500 mm de comprimento total, CT. Finalmente, foi observado que a população de garoupa-verdadeira teve uma estratégia alimentar generalista com uma elevada variação entre indivíduos no consumo de presas. Essa estratégia permaneceu similar ao longo do aumento em tamanho da espécie. Os resultados do presente trabalho sugerem que substratos rochosos estabelecidos pelo homem propiciam locais de alimentação adequados para a garoupa-verdadeira no sul do Brasil e que poderiam ser usados como ferramentas adicionais nos esforços de conservação dessa espécie ameaçada.

  4. Ancient Mitochondrial Capture as Factor Promoting Mitonuclear Discordance in Freshwater Fishes: A Case Study in the Genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukić, Jasna; Šanda, Radek; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting are common confounding factors in phylogeny and speciation resulting in mitonuclear disparity. Mitochondrial introgression, a particular case of hybridization, may, in extreme cases, lead to replacement of the mitochondrial genome of one species with that of another (mitochondrial capture). We investigated mitochondrial introgression involving two species of the cyprinid genus Squalius in the western Peloponnese region of Greece using molecular and morphological data. We found evidence of complete mitochondrial introgression of Squalius keadicus into two populations recognized as Squalius peloponensis from the Miras and Pamissos River basins and a divergence of mitochondrial genomes of S. keadicus from the Evrotas basin from that of the introgressed populations dating from the Pleistocene. Secondary contact among basins is a possible factor in connection of the species and the introgression event. Morphological analyses support the hypothesis of mitochondrial introgression, as S. keadicus was different from the other three populations recognized as S. peloponensis, although significant differences were found among the four populations. Isolation by geographical barriers arose during Pleistocene in the western Peloponnese were the source of the evolution of the two reciprocally monophyletic subclades found in the S. keadicus mitochondrial clade, and the morphological differences found among the four populations. Along with the lack of structure in the nuclear genome in the three populations ascribed to S. peloponensis, this suggests an incipient speciation process occurring in these Squalius species in the western Peloponnese. PMID:27906993

  5. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae

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    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA de la materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, lípido crudo(LC y energía bruta (EB de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g. En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las dietas prueba fueron suministradas a C. macropomum, criada a 27 ºC, 7 mg/L de oxígeno disuelto y pH entre 7,5. Las muestras fecales fueron colectadas por sifoneo. Los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB de la HPP fueron de 88,06 ± 0,83%, 87,08 ± 1,34%, 85,87 ± 2,69 y 87,29 ± 1,57% respectivamente. Igualmente los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB del MAD fueron de 82,38 ± 1,02%, 75,46 ± 1,53%, 76,17 ± 2,43% y 75,04 ± 1,80% respectivamente. La energía digestible aparente calculada fue de 3950 Kcal/kg para la HPP y 2830 kcal/kg para el MAD. Se concluye que C. macropomum digiere mejor las fracciones proteicas y energéticas de la HPP. Al mismo tiempo muestra que digiere también la fracción energética del MAD, proveniente de los carbohidratos solubles.

  6. Gene trees, species trees, and morphology converge on a similar phylogeny of living gars (Actinopterygii: Holostei: Lepisosteidae), an ancient clade of ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy J; David, Solomon R; Near, Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Extant gars represent the remaining members of a formerly diverse assemblage of ancient ray-finned fishes and have been the subject of multiple phylogenetic analyses using morphological data. Here, we present the first hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among living gar species based on molecular data, through the examination of gene tree heterogeneity and coalescent species tree analyses of a portion of one mitochondrial (COI) and seven nuclear (ENC1, myh6, plagl2, S7 ribosomal protein intron 1, sreb2, tbr1, and zic1) genes. Individual gene trees displayed varying degrees of resolution with regards to species-level relationships, and the gene trees inferred from COI and the S7 intron were the only two that were completely resolved. Coalescent species tree analyses of nuclear genes resulted in a well-resolved and strongly supported phylogenetic tree of living gar species, for which Bayesian posterior node support was further improved by the inclusion of the mitochondrial gene. Species-level relationships among gars inferred from our molecular data set were highly congruent with previously published morphological phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of two species, Lepisosteus osseus and L. platostomus. Re-examination of the character coding used by previous authors provided partial resolution of this topological discordance, resulting in broad concordance in the phylogenies inferred from individual genes, the coalescent species tree analysis, and morphology. The completely resolved phylogeny inferred from the molecular data set with strong Bayesian posterior support at all nodes provided insights into the potential for introgressive hybridization and patterns of allopatric speciation in the evolutionary history of living gars, as well as a solid foundation for future examinations of functional diversification and evolutionary stasis in a "living fossil" lineage.

  7. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  8. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  9. The description and histopathology of Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from sturgeons, Acipenser spp. (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae) in the Caspian Sea, Iran, with emendation of the generic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; El-Naggar, Atif M; Tavakol, Sareh

    2013-11-01

    Of the three known species of Leptorhynchoides Kostylew 1924, two are reported from North American fishes: Leptorhynchoides aphredoderi Buckner and Buckner 1976 and Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Linton 1891) Kostylew 1924. The third species, Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Westrumb 1821) Kostylew 1924, is commonly found in the Caspian and Black Sea from at least four species of sturgeons including Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771 and the Acipenser nudiventris Lovetzsky 1828 from which Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. was found. No taxonomic work has been reported for L. plagicephalus for the last 90 years. L. polycristatus n. sp. can be readily confused with L. plagicephalus because of many superficial similarities. Such similarities include the general shape of the trunk, proboscis, and organ systems. However, L. polycristatus is clearly distinguished from the other three species primarily by having (1) 19-20 proboscis hooks per row; (2) the shortest hooks are anterior and the longest at the middle; the opposite is true in L. plagicephalus; (3) with a cuticular collar enveloping the base of the proboscis hooks; (4) the surface of its proboscis hooks is ribbed; (5) with a broad collar of multiple rectangular cuticular crests encircling the anterior end of the trunk; this is the only member of Leptorhynchoides with such a structure; (6) with many large ovoid uninucleated cells in the subcuticular layer of the trunk; (7) with paired glandular clusters near the male reproductive opening and of suction cup-like sensory structures on the bursa; (8) with dorsoventral ligament across the vagina; (9) cement glands are in a cluster of eight arranged in two horizontal tiers of four glands each; (10) with female gonopore near terminal; (11) with structures interpreted as possible microtriches on the surface of the trunk; (12) and with thinner eggs. L. polycristatus caused extensive histopathological damage to host intestinal layers. The armed proboscis invades and attaches to the host mucosa causing villi compression and necrosis of the epithelial lining with subsequent hemorrhaging and granulocyte migration. No encapsulation of the acanthocephalan is visible, and the worm can migrate deep into the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis extrema. The presence of L. polycristatus in the lumen of the host intestine obstructs and damages the absorbing surface of the host affecting the nutritional potential. Dead, necrotic host epithelial tissue and remnants of villi and crypts are visible.

  10. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  11. Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, Ross A.; Warnau, Michel; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Markich, Scott J. [Aquatic Solutions International, Level 1, 467 Miller St, Cammeray, NSW 2062 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides ({sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38%%, pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 {sup o}C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for {sup 51}Cr and 2.5 for {sup 65}Zn and {sup 134}Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for {sup 51}Cr and {sup 241}Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of {sup 134}Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for {sup 241}Am and {sup 65}Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, {sup 134}Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements. The distributions of these seven radioisotopes among six body components indicated that between the two species the skin of the dogfish displayed a greater bioaccumulation potential, particularly for {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co and {sup 65}Zn. However {sup 65}Zn was also distinctive from {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co in its pattern of bioaccumulation in dogfish, with its other body components attaining concentrations of {sup 65}Zn that were comparable to the levels found in its skin. The heightened uptake of {sup 134}Cs in turbot was characterised by a more even percentage distribution among its tissues compared to {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co, but every tissue of turbot had a higher concentration of {sup 134}Cs, compared to dogfish, particularly the muscle and liver. The elevated uptake rates and higher CFs for most radioisotopes indicate that S. canicula is more susceptible than P. maxima to exposure and contamination by these metals and radionuclides in seawater. These experimentally-determined differences between dogfish and turbot in their bioaccumulation characteristics were assessed against a set of criteria erected to evaluate the working hypothesis that they were taxonomically based. The outcomes of this initial assessment were supportive of this hypothesis that warrants further investigation. (author)

  12. Age, growth, and reproductive aspects of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Seyboth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper, Mycteroperca marginata, is an important commercial marine fish that is currently considered an endangered species worldwide and listed as overexploited in Brazil. Although its reproductive biology has been studied elsewhere, no information is available for populations in its southernmost distribution limit on the Brazilian coast. The present work investigates age structure, growth and reproduction of individuals inhabiting a pair of rocky jetties, about 4.5 km long each, located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon in the municipality of Rio Grande, in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 130 individuals obtained between February 2007 and May 2009 were analyzed, with total length ranging from 260 to 800 mm. The growth coefficient found in the present study (K: 0.069 was lower than values reported for dusky grouper populations from the Mediterranean Sea (0.087 and southeast Africa (0.09. This difference could be related to higher average water temperatures in these regions compared to the current study site or due to poorer habitat quality in terms of the shelters available for dusky grouper individuals to establish their territories. Microscopic ovarian analyses of individuals during three years of sampling revealed only the occurrence of immature and resting females. The absence of ripe or post-spawning individuals, associated with low GSI values (A garoupa-verdadeira, Mycteroperca marginata, é uma espécie de importância comercial que atualmente é considerada como ameaçada mundialmente e sobre-explotada no Brasil. Embora sua biologia reprodutiva tenha sido estudada em outras regiões, nenhuma informação está disponível sobre populações que habitam o extremo sul da sua distribuição na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho investiga a estrutura de idade, crescimento e reprodução de indivíduos que habitam dois molhes de pedra, com cerca de 4,5 km de extensão cada, localizados na desembocadura da laguna dos Patos no município de Rio Grande, no Atlântico Sudoeste. Foram analisados 130 indivíduos obtidos entre fevereiro de 2007 e maio de 2009, com comprimento total entre 260 e 800 mm. O coeficiente de crescimento no presente estudo (K: 0,069 foi inferior aos valores reportados para oMediterrâneo (0,087 e sudeste da África (0,09. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada a temperaturas médias maiores nessas regiões comparadas ao presente local de estudo ou devido a menor qualidade de habitat em termo de abrigos para os indivíduos de garoupa-verdadeira estabelecerem seus territórios. Análises microscópicas dos ovários dos indivíduos durante esses três anos de amostragens revelaram somente a ocorrência de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas em repouso. A ausência de indivíduos ovados ou em pós-desova, associada com baixos valores do IGS (<0,2, ao longo de todos os meses de coleta, indica que a garoupa-verdadeira não utiliza esse substrato rochoso construído pelo homem como um local de desova. A estimativa de um L50 de 451,3 mm indica que a maioria dos indivíduos capturados nessa região é imatura. Pressão de pesca sobre indivíduos imaturos, associada com a sua lenta taxa de crescimento e complexo modo reprodutivo, ameaça a sustentabilidade da atual pesca da garoupa-verdadeira na área de estudo.

  13. A new species of the genus Yuriria Jordan & Evermann, 1896 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from the Ameca basin of the Central Mexican Plateau

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    Pompa-Domínguez, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new cyprinid species is described based on morfometric, meristic and genetic characters. The new species identified, Yuriria amatlana sp. nov., inhabits the high Ameca Basin in the central plateau of Mexico. This Mexican minnow differs from Yuriria alta and Yuriria chapalae in terms of the following characters: (50-52 53-54 pored lateralline scales; 10 upper transverse-line scales, 5-6 lower transverse-line scales and 8-10 gill rakers. Body coloration is light yellowish-brown. Compared to Yuriria alta and Yuriria chapalae, the new species has a less conspicuous dark grey band running from the start of the dorsal fin to the head. Cytochrome b gene sequences differ from those of Yuriria alta and Yuriria chapalae in terms of 29 fixed nucleotide positions (molecular autopomorphies. Calculated genetic divergences for the cytochrome b gene were: `DHKY = 3.8 (3.2-4.4% between Yuriria amatlana sp. nov. and Y. alta; `DHKY = 5 (4.8-5.2% between Y. amatlana sp. nov and Y. chapalae; and `DHKY = 2.6 (2.1-3.3% between Y. chapalae and Y. alta.Se describe una nueva especie, Yuriria amatlana sp. nov., en base a caracteres morfométricos, merísticos y genéticos. La nueva especie proviene de la parte alta de la cuenca del río Ameca en la Meseta Central de México. Esta especie se diferencia de Yuriria alta y Yuriria chapalae por una combinación de los siguientes caracteres: (50-52 53-54 escamas en una serie longitudinal, 10 escamas en una serie transversal por encima de la línea lateral y 5-6 escamas por debajo de la línea lateral y 8-10 branquiespinas. El color del cuerpo es amarillo-marrón claro. La nueva especie tiene una banda gris oscura menos marcada en el cuerpo desde el comienzo de la aleta dorsal hacia la cabeza con respecto a Yuriria alta y Yuriria chapalae. La nueva especie se diferencia de Yuriria alta y Yuriria chapalae en 29 posiciones nucleotídicas fijadas (autopomorfias moleculares para el citocromo b. La divergencia genética entre Yuriria alta y Yuriria amatlana sp. nov. para el citocromo b fue de `DHKY = 3.8 (3.2-4.4%; entre Y. amatlana sp. nov. y Y. chapalae fue `DHKY = 5 (4.8-5.2% y entre Y. chapalae y Y. alta fue `DHKY = 2.6 (2.1-3.3%.

  14. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Milisenda

    Full Text Available In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily. A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops.

  15. Combining Morphology and Genetics in Resolving Taxonomy–A Systematic Revision of Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii) in the Adriatic Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Šanda, Radek; Marčić, Zoran; Ćaleta, Marko; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small. PMID:24918426

  16. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria.

  17. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii) in the Adriatic watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Sanda, Radek; Marčić, Zoran; Caleta, Marko; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  18. Jellyfish as Prey: Frequency of Predation and Selective Foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Veronica L.; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  19. Garra waensis, a new cyprinid fish (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Nan River Basin of the Chao Phraya River system, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothongkham, Amornchai; Arbsuwan, Sakda; Musikasinthorn, Prachya

    2014-04-23

    A new cyprinid fish, Garra waensis, is described from the Wa River, a tributary of the Nan River of the Chao Phraya River system in northern Thailand. The species is distinguishable from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: the absence of barbels; 7 branched dorsal fin rays; 31-37 lateral-line scales; 10-12 circumpeduncular scales; a small and broad head (head length [HL] 22.7-26.1% in standard length, head depth 56.1-64.9% HL, head width 74.0-85.0 % HL); a weakly developed proboscis in front of nostrils; the presence of reddish-orange spots (white or dull yellowish white in preserved specimens) on the side of the body; and a dark mid-lateral stripe running from the upper edge of the gill opening to the caudal peduncle and expanding into a large anteriorly-pointed triangular blotch at the end of the body (in preserved condition). A vomero-palatine organ of the species is also described in detail for the first time for Asian species of Garra. The genus Placocheilus is treated as a junior synonym of Garra. 

  20. A revision of the Australian species of Trimma (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae), with descriptions of six new species and redescriptions of twenty-three valid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Richard; Hoese, Douglass F

    2015-03-17

    The gobiid genus Trimma currently contains 75 valid species, with another 20-30 known but undescribed species. There are 29 species in Australian waters (six undescribed). This paper describes the six new species, and provides redescriptions of most of the 23 previously described species known from the region, as well as a key for all the species. The six new species are: T. insularum (endemic to Cocos (Keeling) Islands), T. kitrinum (Fiji to Great Barrier Reef), T. meristum (Cape York to the Bismark Archipelago and Fiji), T. pentherum (Great Barrier Reef to Fiji and the South-West Islands of Palau), T. readerae (Australia to Japan), and T. xanthum (Palau to Fiji, Great Barrier Reef to Christmas Island). The following 23 species have been recorded from Australian waters, and most are redescribed here: T. anaima (Comores to Fiji), T. annosum (Maldives to the Phoenix Islands, Taiwan to the southern Great Barrier Reef), T. benjamini (southern Vietnam to the Marshall Islands, Samoa and southern Barrier Reef), T. caesiura (Ryukyus through the Marshall Islands to Samoa and Elizabeth Reef on the Lord Howe Rise), T. capostriatum (New Caledonia to eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea), T. maiandros (Java to the Ryukyus, Marshalls to Great Barrier Reef), T. emeryi (Comores to Ryukyus and Samoa), T. fangi (western South China Sea through to the Solomons), T. flavatrum (Ryukyu Islands to Western Australia and Samoa), T. hoesei (Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean to Palau and Solomons), T. lantana (Australia, Solomons, northern New Guinea, South-West Islands of Palau), T. macrophthalmus (Ryukyu Islands to Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Samoa), T. milta (Taiwan to Western Australia, Society Islands and Hawaii), T. nasa (Sumbawa, Indonesia to Fiji), T. necopinum (northern tip of Cape York to Sydney), T. nomurai (Japan to northern Australia and New Caledonia), T. okinawae (western Thailand to Japan and the Phoenix Islands, north-west Australia to the Great Barrier Reef), T. preclarum (Palau to Fiji, Great Barrier Reef), T. stobbsi (Maldives to New Caledonia), T. striatum (Maldives to Palau, to northern Australia), T. taylori (Red Sea to Hawaii and Society Islands), T. tevegae (Red Sea to Ryukyu Islands, Marshall Islands to Samoa), and T. unisquame (Comores to Hawaii and Easter Island).

  1. Expansión del alburno Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae en la península Ibérica: el papel de los embalses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardà-Palomera, F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its first record in a tributary of the Ebro basin in 1992, the bleak Alburnus alburnus has spread to almost the whole Iberian Peninsula. In this paper (based on electrofishing surveys in 598 localities, we provide information on the expansion of the bleak. We detail current distribution in the Ebro basin and the rivers of the Eastern Pyrenees and we report its presence in three other major Iberian drainages. Currently, the bleak is sympatric with 15 Iberian endemic species (58% of total Iberian endemic fish. The possible threats to the rich Iberian ichthyofauna caused by the presence of the bleak are discussed. The factors that promoted the extremely rapid expansion of this exotic cyprinid are examined, focusing on the role of reservoirs, which seem to favour its dispersal.Desde su aparición en un afluente de la cuenca del Ebro en 1992, el alburno Alburnus alburnus se ha expandido en gran parte de la península Ibérica. El presente trabajo aporta nueva información sobre su expansión (basada en el muestreo de 598 localidades mediante pesca eléctrica. Se facilita información detallada sobre su actual distribución en la cuenca del Ebro y en cuencas al este de los Pirineos, así como nuevas citas de tres grandes cuencas hidrográficas. De acuerdo a su actual distribución en la península Ibérica, el alburno habita en simpatría con 15 especies endémicas (el 58% del total de endemismos ibéricos. Se analiza la posible amenaza que el alburno representa para la ictiofauna ibérica, examinando los factores causantes de su rápida expansión, en especial el papel de los embalses.

  2. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisenda, Giacomo; Rosa, Sara; Fuentes, Veronica L; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops.

  3. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was earlier and related to the rising of the Betic Mountains. Divergence of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations was associated with the creation of the freshwater systems of southern Iberia close to the Gibraltar Strait. The presence of S. pyrenaicus in southern Iberia may be the result of recent colonization associated with river capture, as demonstrated our biogeographic reconstruction.

  4. First record of the silver-cheeked toad fish Lagocephalus scleratus (Gmelin, 1789 (Actinopterygii: Tetraodontidae from Chennai coastal waters, Southeast India

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    Krishnan Silambarasan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The silver-cheeked toad fish, Lagocephalus scleratus, was recorded for the first time on 25 September 2014. Two specimens of this fish species were collected from the by-catch landed by a commercial deep-sea trawler at Kasimedu Fishing Harbour, Chennai coast, Southeast India. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimens are described and discussed. The specimen was compared with earlier reports.

  5. The phylogenetic intrarelationships of spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha, Teleostei, Actinopterygii: fossil taxa increase the congruence of morphology with molecular data

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    Donald Davesne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acanthomorpha (spiny-rayed fishes is a clade of teleosts that includes more than 15 000 extant species. Their deep phylogenetic intrarelationships, first reconstructed using morphological characters, have been extensively revised with molecular data. Moreover, the deep branches of the acanthomorph tree are still largely unresolved, with strong disagreement between studies. Here, we review the historical propositions for acanthomorph deep intrarelationships and attempt to resolve their earliest branching patterns using a new morphological data matrix compiling and revising characters from previous studies. The taxon sampling we use constitutes a first attempt to test all previous hypotheses (molecular and morphological alike with morphological data only. Our sampling also includes Late Cretaceous fossil taxa, which yield new character state combinations that are absent in extant taxa. Analysis of the complete morphological data matrix yields a new topology that shows remarkable congruence with the well-supported molecular results. Lampridiformes (oarfishes and allies are the sister to all other acanthomorphs. Gadiformes (cods and allies and Zeiformes (dories form a clade with Percopsiformes (trout-perches and the enigmatic Polymixia (beardfish and Stylephorus (tube-eye. Ophidiiformes (cusk-eels and allies and Batrachoidiformes (toadfishes are nested within Percomorpha, the clade that includes most of modern acanthomorph diversity. These results provide morphological synapomorphies and independent corroboration of clades previously only recovered from molecular data, thereby suggesting the emergence of a congruent picture of acanthomorph deep intrarelationships. Fossil taxa play a critical role in achieving this congruence, since a very different topology is found when they are excluded from the analysis.

  6. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p ANVISA).

  7. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, W.S., E-mail: fernandez@usp.br [Graduate Program in Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g{sup −1} for Fe to 7 μg g{sup −1} for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  8. EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE OCCURRENCE AND THE ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATION OF GIANT MOTTLED EEL, ANGUILLA MARMORATA (ACTINOPTERYGII: ANGUILLIFORMES: ANGUILLIDAE), FROM SABAH, BORNEO ISLAND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Lian Wong; Siti Raudah Abdul Kadir; Rabi Atun Adawiah Abdullah; Charlie Albert Lasuin; Kok Onn Kwong; Takaomi Arai

    2017-01-01

      Although tropical anguillid eels account for two-thirds of all species in the genus Anguilla, the information on the species diversity, geographic distribution, and life histories of the tropical eels is very limited...

  9. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

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    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Indonesian freshwater fish Rasbora lateristriata species complex (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae): Cryptic species and west-to-east divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Wahyu Endra; Ratmuangkhwang, Sahat; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2016-12-01

    Rasbora lateristriata is a primary freshwater fish described from Java Island of Indonesia but its taxonomy, phylogeny, and distributional boundary have not been fully studied. Rasbora baliensis was described as a species endemic to Balinese lakes but its taxonomic status has been controversial in relation to R. lateristriata. Here, we collected Rasbora fishes from various freshwater localities of Java Island, as well as five neighboring islands to conduct molecular and morphological analyses on their phylogenetic relationships. Both molecular analyses using two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences and morphological analyses featuring the body color pattern consistently support that the currently recognized R. lateristriata forms a species complex including at least four major lineages that possibly represent different species. In one of the major lineages, Balinese individuals cluster with those from East Javanese, Lombok and Sumbawa localities, calling for taxonomic revision on R. baliensis. The other three major lineages occur in distinct regions of central, west-central, and western Java and they can be clearly distinguished by the combination of pigmentation patterns in the basicaudal blotch and the supra anal pigment. Our molecular phylogeny suggests west-to-east divergences of the R. lateristriata species complex in Java Island from the late Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene before it finally crossed Wallace's Line, colonizing Lombok and Sumbawa Islands very recently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current Status and Historical Changes in Fish Assemblages of the Zengjiang River%增江鱼类群落特征及其历史变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾银涛; 陈毅峰; 陶捐; 何德奎

    2013-01-01

    基于2009年11-12月和2010年3-4月对增江流域13个样点进行的鱼类资源调查,并结合20世纪80年代的历史资料,分析了增江鱼类群落特征现状及历史变化.结果表明:本次调查共采集鱼类72种,隶属于7目18科60属.与20世纪80年代调查结果相比,物种数相差较小,但两次调查均采集到的鱼类只有43种,种类相似性指数仅为0.44.调查发现新记录种29种,其中多为小型鱼类.但历史记载的26种鱼类在此次调查中未发现.增江鱼类生态类型目前以习缓流或静水、中层栖息、杂食性、定居性鱼类为主.较历史相比,洄游性鱼类种类所占比例变化最大,从19.12%降至11.11%.亲流型种类物种组成相似性变化最大,物种相似性指数仅为0.25.目前增江支流渔获对象在多度和数量上均占优势的为宽鳍鱲(Zacco platypus)、南方波鱼(Rasbora cephalotaenia steineri)、马口鱼(Opsariichthys bidens),其中宽鳍鱲为绝对优势种.干流地区为尼罗非鲫(Oreochromis niloticus)、鲮(Cirrhinus molitorella)、三角鲂(Magalobrame Tarminalis)等,其中,尼罗非鲫是绝对优势种.曾在80年代占据增江渔业主体的黄尾鲴(Xenocypris david)、赤眼鳟(Squaliobarbus curriculus)等物种渔获量已大幅下降.调查发现入侵鱼类4种,其中露斯塔野鲮(Labeo rohita)、下口鲶(Hypostomus plecostomus)和尼罗非鲫在20世纪80年代调查中未发现,为新记录种.调查结果表明增江地区鱼类组成发生了较大变化,而这些变化可能是由该地区大规模挖沙、水坝建设、不合理捕捞、外来鱼类入侵、水域污染等因素导致.

  12. 汀江中上游鱼类多样性及其影响因子%Factors Affecting Diversity of Fish Species in Mid-and Upper-streams of Tingjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何美峰

    2016-01-01

    基于2012-2013年的2、5、7、10对汀江中上游河流水域的6个江段的调查数据,探讨鱼类多样性的时空差异以及鱼类组成与环境因子间的关联。共采集鱼类71种,隶属4目15科54属,其中福建省保护动物1种、福建省特有种4种;优势种有宽鳍鱲 Zacco platypus 、黄颡鱼 Pseudobagrus fulvidraco 、银 Gnathopogon argentatus 3种;常见种有马口鱼 Opsariichthys bidens 等12种。鱼类多样性指数(香农指数)在站位间和季节间差异均显著。根据典范对应分析(CCA)对鱼类群落与环境因子间关联进行了分析,结果显示:水温和人类活动是决定鱼类群落分布的主导因子,总氮、溶解氧、高锰酸盐指数、底质、堤岸稳定性、植被多样性和河道变化在决定鱼类群落分布上也有一定作用。人类活动的加剧不仅改变了汀江中上游物种组成(即洄游性、敏感性地方物种减少,而外来物种、广布耐受性鱼类增多),也降低了该河流鱼类的物种多样性。%Correlations among the habitat conditions,diversity of fish species,and human activities were studied using the data collected from 6 locations on the mid-and upper-streams of Tingjiang River in February,May,July, and October from 2012 to 2013. The results showed that the 71 fishes caught belonged to 4 orders,15 families,and 54 genera.They included the provincial protected species,such as Mastacembelus armatus ,the endemic species, Pseudogastromyzon fasciatus ,Pseudogastromyzon cheni ,Crossostoma stigmata and Crossostoma fascicauda ,and the dominant species,Zacco platypus ,Pseudobagrus fulvidraco ,and Gnathopogon argentatus ,along with 12 commonly found species.Based onthe one-way ANOVA,the Shannon-Wiener indices on samples collected from the 6 locations varied significantly.The indices for fish caught at Xinqiao were higher than other localities,with significant seasonal variations.The canonical correspondence

  13. Nuevo registro de Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae en la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, Coahuayana, Michoacán, México New record of Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae in the mouth of Coahuayana River, Coahuayana, Michoacán, Mexico

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    Edgar Raúl Sandoval-Huerta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, al noroeste del estado de Michoacán fue registrada la presencia del plecostoma rayado, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae. Se describe e ilustra un ejemplar adulto de sexo indeterminado, con longitud total de 386 mm, recolectado el 4 de julio de 2010.Vermiculated Salifin Catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae, is reported at the mouth of the river Coahuayana, northwest of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. On July 4, 2010, an adult specimen of this species was collected. The specimen measured 386 mm and sex was not determined. The specimen is described and illustrated.

  14. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico Dos nuevas especies del género Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae, de la cuenca del río Lerma, México central

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    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior findings suggest the existence of undescribed species among the cyprinids of central Mexico. Within the genus Notropis distributed across central Mexico and adjacent areas sometimes reaching southern basins, two groups have been recognized: a Southern Mexican clade and a central Mexican clade. Within this last clade, Notropis calientis has been defined as a species complex of four small minnows inhabiting upland areas. Here we describe two new species of this complex based on morphometric, meristic and genetic characters. Notropis marhabatiensis sp. nov. was diagnosed according to the following set of characters: 7, rarely 8, branched pelvic fin rays (vs. 8, rarely 7 or 9, in other species of the N. calientis complex and 9, rarely 8, scales in a transverse series (vs. 10, rarely 9 or 11 in N.grandis & N. calientis; a dark, narrow lateral stripe running from around the pectoral fin to the caudal peduncle origin; and twenty-six fixed nucleotide positions in the cytochrome b gene. The diagnosis of Notropis grandis sp. nov. was based on: 6, rarely 7, branched fin rays (vs. 7, rarely 6 or 8, in N. marhabatiensis, N. calientis and N. aulidion and 8, rarely 7 or 9, in N. calbazas and N. amecae, 42, rarely 40-41, or 43-45 scales in a lateral series (vs. 40, rarely 37-39, in N. calabazas; 35-36, rarely 37-39, or 33-34 in N. amecae; 35, rarely 31-34, or 36 in N. marhabatiensis and N. calientis and 34, rarely 30-33, or35 in N. aulidion and 11 rarely 10 or 12 gill rakers in the first arch; a dark lateral stripe widening from approximately the pectoral fin origin to the dorsal fin origin, forming a slightly convex segment; adult animals larger (n=30, or = 42.6, SD=4.69 relative to N. calientis (n=55, or = 33.3, SD= 3.28 and N. marhabatiensis sp. nov. (n=30, or = 30.5, SD=7.57 (F = 16.87; p or = 6.3% to 8.1% for N. grandis.Diversos estudios sugieren la existencia de especies no descritas de ciprínidos en el centro de México. Las especies del género Notropis se distribuyen a lo largo del centro de México y regiones adyacentes, algunas especies llegan a cuencas del sur del país. Se han reconocido dos grupos: un clado sureño y uno en la parte central del país. En este último, Notropis calientis fue descrito como un complejo de especies que habita las partes altas de las cuencas donde se distribuyen. Con base en características morfométricas, merísticas y genéticas, se describen dos nuevas especies que emanan del complejo Notropis calientis. Notropis marhabatiensis sp. nov. se diagnostica por presentar: 7, rara vez 8 radios ramificados en la aleta pélvica (vs. 8 rara vez 7 o 9 en las otras especies dentro del complejo N. calientis y 9 rara vez 8 escamas transversales (vs. 10 rara vez 11 o 9 en N. grandis y N. calientis. Una línea lateral oscura y delgada corre a partir del origen de la aleta pectoral hasta el pedúnculo caudal. Veintiséis posiciones nucleotídicas fijadas en el gen citocromo b. Notropis granáis sp. nov. presenta 6, rara vez 7 radios ramificados en la aleta anal (vs. 7, rara vez 8 o 6 en N. marhabatiensis, N. calientis y N. aulidion y 8, rara vez 7 o 9 en N. calbazas y N. amecae; 42, rara vez 40-41 y 43-45 escamas en una línea lateral (vs. 40 rara vez 37-39 en N. calabazas; 35-36, rara vez 37-39 y 33-34 en N. amecae; 35, rara vez 31-34 y 36 en N. marhabatiensis y N. calientis y 34 rara vez 30-33 y 35 in N. aulidion y 11, rara vez 10 o 12 branquiespinas en el primer arco branquial. La línea lateral se extiende a partir del origen de la aleta pectoral hasta el origen de la aleta dorsal, con un segmento ligeramente convexo. Los adultos de esta especies son de mayor tamaño (longitud estándar= o = 42.6, SD= 4.69 (vs. N. calientis (n=55, o = 33.3, SD=3.28 y N. marhabatiensis sp. nov. (n=30, o = 30.5, SD=7.57 (F = 16.87; p o = 6.1% a 7.4%. Para N. granáis fueron de o = 6.3% a 8.1%.

  15. História natural dos amborés e peixes-macaco (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei do Parque Nacional Marinho do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, sob um enfoque comportamental Natural history focus blennies and gobis behaviour (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago

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    Liana de F. Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os amborês e peixes-macaco, como são popularmente conhecidos gobiídeos e bleniídeos, são elementos dominantes da fauna de pequenos peixes bentônicos e litorâneos que habitam recifes tropicais, compondo grande parte da alta diversidade das espécies de pequeno porte encontrada no Atlântico ocidental. O estudo da distribuição e história natural dos gobióides e blenióides de Fernando de Noronha foi desenvolvido através de observações de campo. Além da descrição dos hábitats preferenciais foram abordados aspectos sociais tais como, habitat preferencial, interações intra- e interespecíficas, comportamento domiciliar e territorial, e comportamento reprodutivo. A maioria das espécies em foco apresenta distribuição principalmente litorânea, são gregárias, com áreas domiciliares relativamente pequenas em torno de 2 x 2 m², pouco agressivas, tendo sido ocasionalmente registradas curtas perseguições intra- e interespecíficas. A baixa agressividade registrada, em comparação com outros peixes é provavelmente associada à adaptação à ocupação de pequenas áreas, como é o caso das poças de marés, pois um grande número de interações agressivas representaria um gasto de energia desnecessário. No geral, as espécies possuem coloração críptica, associada à evitação de predadores. Apenas nestas épocas de reprodução foi observada a intensificação da agressividade, com comportamento territorial - defesa de território incluindo mordidas e perseguições.The gobis and blenis (Gobiidae and Bleniidae are the most important group of small benthic littoral fishes in tropical reefs, representing most of the high number of small fish species found in Western Atlantic. The natural history of gobiid and bleniid fish from Fernando de Noronha was assessed by means observation sessions using both snorkelling and scuba diving. Most of these observations were aimed at social behaviour, such as intra and interespecific interactions, territorial and reproductive behaviour. In general, these fish from Fernando de Noronha occurs in intertidal zone, are gregarious, with small home ranges of near 2 x 2 m², and show low agressivity towards other fish. Occasionally, some chasing was recorded between individuals of the same or distinct species. Low agressivity is probably associated to the occupation of small areas (e.g. tide pools, as a high degree of agressivity may represent an unnecessary [excessive] waste of energy. Most of the studied species presents cryptic coloration, associated to the avoidance of predators, but some males showed conspicuous coloration and intense aggressive behaviour, mainly during the reproductive season. It was only during this occasion that territorial behaviour, chasing and bites were recorded.

  16. Estratégia trófica dos linguados Citharichthys spilopterus Günther e Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Trophic strategy of the flatfishes Citharichthys spilopterus Günther and Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Paula Penha Guedes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as mudanças espaciais e ontogenéticas na dieta dos linguados Citharichthys spilopterus Günther, 1862 e Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 na Baía de Sepetiba. A área de estudos foi dividida em três zonas (interna, central e externa, onde foram realizados arrastos de fundo diurnos no período entre outubro/1998 a setembro/1999. C. spilopterus apresentou os maiores Índices de Importância Relativa (IIR para Mysidacea (0.3359 e Amphipoda (0.0805, enquanto S. tessellatus apresentou maiores IIR para Amphipoda (0.7515 e Polychaeta (0.2586. A elevada porcentagem (67,61% de estômagos vazios em S. tessellatus sugere atividade alimentar noturna. Os espécimes de menor tamanho (CT 115 mm de Polychaeta na zona interna, Gobiidae na central e Decapoda na externa. Os menores espécimes (CT 155 mm de Polychaeta na zona interna, e de Amphipoda e Polychaeta na zona externa. Citharichthys spilopterus apresentou maior tamanho de boca e olho, e se alimentou de organismos associados à coluna da água próxima, tendendo a uma dieta mais especialista quando comparado com S. tessellatus que se alimentou de organismos sobre fundo. Apesar das duas espécies terem se alimentado basicamente de Crustacea, apresentaram baixa sobreposição alimentar com 0,1972, provavelmente podendo ser esta a estratégia de separação trófica desenvolvida para permitir a coexistência destas duas espécies relacionadas na Baía.The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and ontogenetic changes in diet of the flatfishes Citharichthys spilopterus Günther, 1862 and Symphurus tessellatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 in the Sepetiba Bay. The studied area was divided in three zones (inner, central e outer, where bottom trawls were performed during the day, from October 1998 to September 1999. Citharichthys spilopterus showed higher Indices of Relative Importance (IRI for Mysidacea (0.3359 and Amphipoda (0.0805, while S. tessellatus showed the highest IRI for Amphipoda (0.7515 and Polychaeta (0.2586. The high percentage (67.61% of empty guts in S. tessellatus suggests nocturnal feeding activity. Smaller sized individuals (TL 115 mm fed on Polychaeta the inner zone, Gobiidae in the central and Decapoda in the outer. The smaller individuals (TL 155 mm fed on Polychaeta in the inner zone, and Amphipoda and Polychaeta in the outer zone. Citharichthys spilopterus, shows comparatively larger mouth and eye, and feed on organisms in the water column nearby, with a more specialized feeding habit, compared with S. tessellatus, which feed on organism on the substrate. Although the two species feed basically on Crustacea, they present low overlaping in the diet (0.197, and this is probably the trophic strategy developed to allow the coexistence of these two closely related species in the Bay.

  17. Territorial hypothesis predicts the trade-off between reproductive opportunities and parental care in three species of damselfishes (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii La hipótesis territorial predice la compensación entre las oportunidades reproductivas y el cuidado parental en tres especies de peces damisela (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paternal care is rare in most animals, but common in fishes, including Pomacentridae. One way of explaining it is through the territorial hypothesis, which predicts that paternal care may evolve when caring for a territory with eggs will not cost more than territories without eggs. Here we describe the reproductive behavior of three pomacentrids from São Paulo, Brazil, and evaluate if the territorial hypothesis explains their behavioral variation through five predictions. We checked if females have multiple spawns (prediction 1, if they forage more (prediction 2 and if territory defence demands more when eggs are present (prediction 3. We also described how visible eggs are (prediction 4 and how available nesting sites are (prediction 5. Chromis multilineata differed from Abudefduf saxatilis and Stegastes fuscus by not guarding the eggs, spending less time with territoriality and fanning eggs; and more time feeding and foraging. Females of the three species are iteroparous. Females' A. saxatilis and S. fuscus foraged more than males, which spent the same amount of time in territorial defence before and after eggs were delivered. These two species also have very conspicuous egg clutches on clean rock surfaces defended by them. On the other hand, males and females of C. multilineata spent the same time foraging, while territoriality took more effort after eggs were present and it spawns cryptic eggs amid Sargassum, a common and disperse micro-environment in São Paulo rocky shores. Territorial hypothesis explains why paternal care by A. saxatilis and S. fuscus lasts longer than by C. multilineata.El cuidado paterno es raro en la mayoría de los animales, pero común en los peces, incluyendo los Pomacentridae. Una forma de explicar este fenómeno es la hipótesis territorial, que predice que el cuidado paterno puede evolucionar cuando la protección de un territorio con huevos no cuesta más que la de territorios sin huevos. Aquí se describe el comportamiento reproductivo de tres pomacentrídios de São Paulo, Brasil, y se evalúa si la hipótesis territorial explica la variación de su comportamiento a través de cinco predicciones. Se analizó si las hembras tienen múltiples desoves (predicción 1, si forrajean más (predicción 2 y si la defensa del territorio es mayor cuando los huevos están presentes (predicción 3. También se evaluó si los huevos eran visibles (predicción 4 y cuán disponibles eran los sitios de anidación (predicción 5. Chromis multilineata difería de Abudefduf saxatilis y Stegastes fuscus por no proteger a sus huevos, dedicar menos tiempo a la territorialidad y ventilación de sus huevos, y más tiempo para la alimentación y forrajeo. Las hembras de las tres especies son iteróparas. Las hembras de A. saxatilis y S. fuscus forrajean más que los machos, que gastan la misma cantidad de tiempo en la defensa territorial antes y después de liberar los huevos. Estas dos especies también defienden a desoves muy conspicuos adheridos en superficies de roca limpia. Por otra parte, las hembras y machos de C. multilineata pasaron el mismo tiempo forrajeando, mientras la territorialidad tomó más esfuerzo después, con los huevos presentes, y los desoves estaban escondidos en medio de Sargassum, un ambiente común y disperso en micro-ambientes de las costas rocosas de São Paulo. La hipótesis territorial explica el motivo por el cual el cuidado paterno de A. saxatilis y S. fuscus es más prolongado que el de C. multilineata.

  18. Bioensayos en especies de bodens con actividad terapéutica

    OpenAIRE

    Gorriti Gutiérrez, Arilmi; Zárate Otarola, Rosa; Jurado Texeira, Bertha

    2014-01-01

    Bidens pilosa L. and Bidens pilosa variedad minor of Asteraceae family, are known by the common name of 'amor seco'. The biological assays were started with bioassay of Artemia salina Leach, the Biden species showed both, in aqueous and ethanolic extracts bioactivity. In these species it was carried out the pharmacognosy screening that featured the chemical principies of samples. It was identified carbohidrates, condensed tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, steroids and sesquiterpenic la...

  19. 78 FR 47109 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Physaria globosa (Short's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... (switch grass). Other common herbaceous associates include Bidens bipinnata (Spanish needles), Carex cherokeensis (Cherokee sedge), Hypericum sphaerocarpum (roundseed St. Johnswort), Helianthus...

  20. Revisão anatômica e posicionamento filogenético das espécies de Ionoscopiformes (Actinopterygii: Holostei) do Cretáceo do nordeste do Brasil e de Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Ribeiro de Paula Machado

    2011-01-01

    Os gêneros de peixes fósseis Oshunia e Placidichthys são holósteos pertencentes à Ordem Ionoscopiformes e provenientes do Cretáceo Inferior do Brasil, das bacias do Araripe e de Tucano. No clado Ionoscopiformes sensu Grande & Bemis (1998) estão incluídas as famílias Ionoscopidae e Ophiopsidae, todavia as relações internas deste grupo ainda são duvidosas. Oshunia e Placidichthys fazem parte das famílias Ionoscopidae e Ophiopsidae, respectivamente, sendo o gênero Oshunia considerado como mono-e...

  1. Taxonomía de las especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) de Marruecos con la descripción de dos nuevas especies

    OpenAIRE

    Doadrio, Ignacio; Casal-López, M.; Perea, Silvia; Yahyaoui, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 se caracteriza por presentar especies de medio y gran tamaño que viven en las zonas bajas de grandes ríos con aguas lentas. Singularmente, en Marruecos también existen especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus de pequeño tamaño y que presentan diferentes caracteres morfológicos y distintos requerimientos de hábitat. Estas especies reófilas han sido tradicionalmente asignadas a Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874) y L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919) aunque ...

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the family Cyprinidae (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) as evidenced by sequence variation in the first intron of S7 ribosomal protein-coding gene: further evidence from a nuclear gene of the systematic chaos in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L; Wang, Xuzheng; Wang, Wei; Tang, Kevin L; Chen, Wei-Jen; Chen, Yiyu

    2008-03-01

    The family Cyprinidae is the largest freshwater fish group in the world, including over 200 genera and 2100 species. The phylogenetic relationships of major clades within this family are simply poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group; however, several investigators have advanced different hypotheses of relationships that pre- and post-date the use of shared-derived characters as advocated through phylogenetic systematics. As expected, most previous investigations used morphological characters. Recently, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and combined morphological and mtDNA investigations have been used to explore and advance our understanding of species relationships and test monophyletic groupings. Limitations of these studies include limited taxon sampling and a strict reliance upon maternally inherited mtDNA variation. The present study is the first endeavor to recover the phylogenetic relationships of the 12 previously recognized monophyletic subfamilies within the Cyprinidae using newly sequenced nuclear DNA (nDNA) for over 50 species representing members of the different previously hypothesized subfamily and family groupings within the Cyprinidae and from other cypriniform families as outgroup taxa. Hypothesized phylogenetic relationships are constructed using maximum parsimony and Basyesian analyses of 1042 sites, of which 971 sites were variable and 790 were phylogenetically informative. Using other appropriate cypriniform taxa of the families Catostomidae (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), Gyrinocheilidae (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri), and Balitoridae (Nemacheilus sp. and Beaufortia kweichowensis) as outgroups, the Cyprinidae is resolved as a monophyletic group. Within the family the genera Raiamas, Barilius, Danio, and Rasbora, representing many of the tropical cyprinids, represent basal members of the family. All other species can be classified into variably supported and resolved monophyletic lineages, depending upon analysis, that are consistent with or correspond to Barbini and Leuciscini. The Barbini includes taxa traditionally aligned with the subfamily Cyprininae sensu previous morphological revisionary studies by Howes (Barbinae, Labeoninae, Cyprininae and Schizothoracinae). The Leuciscini includes six other subfamilies that are mainly divided into three separate lineages. The relationships among genera and subfamilies are discussed as well as the possible origins of major lineages.

  3. Environmental Impact Study of The Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Continued) IBidens beckii Water marigold Bidens connata Beggar’s ticks Bidens sp. Bur marigold P P P P Carduus nutans Musk thistle ICirsium arvense...112 Identification of Impacts .. .. ............. 112 Discussion of Impacts. .. ................ 120IImpoundmen6t E’ffcts. .. .............. 121...32 (Cont.) Identification of impacts .. .. ............. 132 Industrial Impacts. ................. 132 Recreational impacts .. .. ............. 133

  4. AcEST: DK951868 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -30 tr|Q43412|Q43412_BIDPI Calmodulin OS=Bidens pilosa PE=2 SV=1 133 5e-30 tr|A9NPT3|A9NPT3_PICSI Putative u...EKLTDEEVDEMIREADVDGDGQINYEEFV 143 Query: 217 SVMV 228 VM+ Sbjct: 144 KVMM 147 >tr|Q43412|Q43412_BIDPI Calmodulin OS=Bidens

  5. Notas taxonómicas en Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bartoli; Roberto D. Tortosa; Francisco Ratto; Darío J Schiavinato

    2012-01-01

    Se describe una nueva variedad para Grindelia anethifolia y se amplía el área de distribución de Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis y Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina.Taxonomic notes on Asteraceae. A new variety for Grindelia anethifolia is described, and the known area of Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis and Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina is extended.

  6. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ZACCO PLATYPUS (CYPRINIFORMES: CYPRINIDAE) DISTRIBUTED IN BEIJING%北京地区宽鳍(鱼巤)的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢迎春; 赵亚辉; 李高岩; 唐文乔; 张春光

    2011-01-01

    formed around 29h after fertilization. The embryonic development took lh to develop into effect of muscle after tail fin, embryo body could be seen tic regular intermittent, spherical yolk sac cylindrical front, rear section with the further growth of the caudal fin was elongate. Heart fully formed and slowly beat at 38h35min after fertilization, average heart beat was 84 times per min. The embryonic development took around 73h from fertilized egg to hatch, and then took 6.3 days to develop into flexion larvae. The development speed was slower in larvae than that in embryonic stage. Flexion larvae died in large scales may be because limited conditions of artificial cultivation and lack of energy supply when coexistence of mixed nutrition. Comparing to 21 other cyprinid species, development time of Zacco platypus was longer than that of seven species. Total development time of Zacco platypus was slightly longer than sympatric species Opsariichthys bidens, and obviously longer than Zacco temminckii. We also found the development speed before hatch of northern population was faster than southern one, but slower after hatch.%作者对分布于北京市怀柔区怀九河的宽鳍(鱼巤)(Zacco platypus)的胚胎发育及仔鱼前期发育进行了研究,过程中采用人工干法授精获取受精卵,观察并描述了宽鳍(鱼巤)早期发育过程及其特点.结果显示,宽鳍(鱼巤)成熟卵呈圆球状,平均卵径1.04 mm,为沉性卵.在平均23.0℃(17.1-28.0℃)水温条件下,从受精卵到孵化经历了73hlmin,积温为1682.3度·时;孵化后6.5d进入弯曲期仔鱼.仔鱼前期发育速度与出膜前相比明显减慢;弯曲期仔鱼出现大量死亡可能与有限的人工培育条件、混合营养期能量供给不足等原因有关.通过比较发现,宽鳍(鱼巤)与鲤科中其他21个种相比,早期发育时间比其中7个种均长.宽鳍(鱼巤)早期发育时间比同域分布、相同发育水温的马口鱼略长,明显长于同属的纵

  7. 延边地区稻田抗药性杂草的研究%Study on resistant weeds in rice fields in Yanbian Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明根; 曹凤秋; 杜小军; 崔锡花

    2005-01-01

    延边地区及其周围稻田大量发生外来杂草狼巴草(Bidens tripartita L.)、大狼巴草(Bidens frondosa L.)和柳叶鬼针草(Bidens cernua L.).长期连续使用农得时,稻田杂草雨久花(Monochoria korsakowii kegel et Maack.)、野慈姑(Sagittaria trifolia L.)对磺酰脲类除草剂表现出很强的抗性,初步认为这些杂草为抗磺酰脲类除草剂的生态型.

  8. Studies on the Displacement Reaction of Trialkylaluminum with Ethylene Catalyzed by Nitrogen Chelate Cobalt Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The catalytic properties of a series of cobalt complexes containing bidenated nitrogen ligand for displacement reaction of trialkylaluminum with ethylene is reported. Effect of different reaction time, temperature and cobalt complexes containing different ligand on catalyst performance has been investigated.

  9. Explosive Ordnance Disposal Proficiency Range and Multi-Purpose Contingency Training Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    umbellata), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria...wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Upgrade of the Andrews Air Force Base Airfield Security System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria...wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus umbellata

  11. Environmental Assessment for the National Capital Region Readiness Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    of-heaven 17 (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus 18 umbellata), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus ... angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue 19 (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), Korean lespedeza (Lespedeza

  12. Office of National Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to footer site map the White House President Barack Obama Contact Us Get Email Updates Main Menu Home ... Economic Mobility Veterans Women The Administration People President Barack Obama Vice President Joe Biden First Lady Michelle Obama ...

  13. [Diplectanidae (Monogenea) parasites of fish of the Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euzet, L

    1984-12-01

    Eleven Diplectanidae (Monogenea) gill parasites from various Sparidae and Serranidae of the Kerkennah Islands are noted. Three new species: Lamellodiscus hilii, L. bidens, L. impervius, parasites of Puntazzo puntazzo (Sparidae) are described.

  14. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  15. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  16. Aquatic Nuisance Sp[ecies Research Program. Ecological Impacts of Suckermouth Catfishes (Loricariidae) in North America: A Conceptual Model. Volume 14-1, March 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    de la Biodiversidad , Mexico 7: 2-5. Nico, L. 1999a. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi. Nonindigenous aquatic species fact sheet 766. United States...Actinopterygii: Loricariidae) in the mouth of the Coahuayana River, Coahuayana, Michoacán, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 83: 294

  17. The smaller your mouth, the longer your snout: predicting the snout length of Syngnathus acus, Centriscus scutatus and other pipette feeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lussanet, M.H.E.; Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Like most ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), pipefishes (Syngnathoidei) feed by suction. Most pipefishes reach their prey by a rapid dorso-rotation of the head. In the present study, we analysed the feeding kinematics of the razor fish, Centriscus scutatus, and of the greater pipefish, Syngnathus a

  18. Notas taxonómicas en Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bartoli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva variedad para Grindelia anethifolia y se amplía el área de distribución de Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis y Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina.Taxonomic notes on Asteraceae. A new variety for Grindelia anethifolia is described, and the known area of Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis and Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina is extended.

  19. Comparative value of wild and domestic plants in home gardens of a South African rural village

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    High, C

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available and used morogos in home gardens in Dingleydale B were nkus Corchorus tridens), thepe (Amaranthus hybridus), nkaka (Momordica balsamina), and lerote (Cleome gynandra), along with pumpkin leaves and mositsa (Bidens bipinnata and B. pilosa) (Table 3). Mositsa... (based on group meetings). The two species available most of the year, nkaka (Momordica balsamina) and mositsa (Bidens spp.), are not generally favoured. Some people don?t like their taste, and several people stated that mositsa caused bad body odour...

  20. Predação em capítulos de picão-preto e sua relação com o tamanho e o grau de agrupamento das plantas Bidens pilosa flower heads predation in relation to plant size and grouping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriko A. N. P. Yanagizawa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar possíveis correlações entre níveis de predação de capítulos de B. pilosa e o tamanho das plantas, bem como com o seu grau de agrupamento, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido em áreas ruderais nos arredores da cidade de Botucatu, SP. Em cada coleta, foram obtidos 15 indivíduos em fase reprodutiva, sendo dez deles provenientes de agrupamentos e cinco isolados, no período de março a setembro de 1993, totalizando seis coletas. Cada planta foi caracterizada quanto a parâmetros biométricos por meio de mensurações, contagens e determinação da biomassa das diferentes estruturas, avaliando-se também a ocorrência de predação nos capítulos. Nas duas condições de agrupamento, o tamanho das plantas foi altamente variável havendo, porém, maior freqüência nas menores classes de tamanho. De modo geral, não houve diferença significativa entre plantas agrupadas e isoladas no que se refere aos parâmetros biométricos analisados. Plantas maiores produziram maior número de capítulos e o nível de predação correlacionou-se positivamente com o tamanho das plantas, independentemente do grau de agrupamento das populações. A distribuição agrupada não condicionou, portanto, maiores níveis de predação, uma vez que plantas maiores dos dois grupos foram preferencialmente atacadas. Isto corrobora a Hipótese do Vigor proposta para explicar relações de preferência entre plantas e seus herbívoros.The correlation among B. pilosa flower heads predation and plant size and grouping degree was investigated in ruderal areas at Botucatu, SP, southeastern Brazil. Fifteen plants in reproductive stage were collected monthly, from March to September, 1993. At each collection, ten plants were harvested from grouped and five from isolated plants. The plants were evaluated in relation to biometrics characteristics, biomassa distribution and flower head predation. Plant size showed variation, and the higher frequencies were observed in the smaller size classes. Isolated and grouped plants had no difference in relation to mostly of the biometrics characteristics. A greater number of flower heads was found in bigger plants which exhibited also greater predation level in both isolated and grouped individuals. Therefore grouped and isolated plants showed similar predation levels. Bigger plants, in both types of spatial distribution, had greater number of predated flower heads. This result corroborates the Vigor Hypothesis concerning preference relation between plants and herbivores.

  1. 单因素分析-Tukey法比较鬼针草挥发油β-环糊精3种包合工艺%Analysis of 3 inclusion technologies for bidens bipinnata volatile oil β-cyclodextrin by single factor analysis-Tukey method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丹鸿; 洪清; 袁曦; 陈燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨饱和水溶液法、液-液包合法、气-液包合法包合鬼针草挥发油p环糊精包合物的工艺.方法:用饱和水溶液法、液-液包合法、气-液包合法3种方法制备鬼针草挥发油争环糊精包合物,以包含物收率、挥发油包合率为综合评分指标,选择最佳的包合方法.结果:饱和水溶液法、液-液包合法、气-液包合法的综合评分分别为38.46%、66.17%、53.60%.结论:液-液包合法的综合评分最高,且操作简便,是制备鬼针草挥发油p环糊精包合物较理想的方法,本实验为挥发油p环糊精包合技术提供科学依据.

  2. Application of InterPro for the functional classification of the proteins of fish origin in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Margaret Biswas; Alex Kanapin; Rolf Apweiler

    2001-06-01

    InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and sites, developed initially as a means of rationalizing the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. It is a useful resource that aids the functional classification of proteins. Almost 90% of the actinopterygii protein sequences from SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL can be classified using InterPro. Over 30% of the actinopterygii protein sequences currently in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL are of mitochondrial origin, the majority of which belong to the cytochrome b/b6 family. InterPro also gives insights into the domain composition of the classified proteins and has applications in the functional classification of newly determined sequences lacking biochemical characterization, and in comparative genome analysis. A comparison of the actinopterygii protein sequences against the sequences of other eukaryotes confirms the high representation of eukaryotic protein kinase in the organisms studied. The comparisons also show that, based on InterPro families, the trans-species evolution of MHC class I and II molecules in mammals and teleost fish can be recognized.

  3. Molecular identification of two Culex (Culex) species of the neotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirón, Walter R.; Gardenal, Cristina N.

    2017-01-01

    Culex bidens and C. interfor, implicated in arbovirus transmission in Argentina, are sister species, only distinguishable by feature of the male genitalia; however, intermediate specimens of the species in sympatry have been found. Fourth-instar larvae and females of both species share apomorphic features, and this lack of clear distinction creates problems for specific identification. Geometric morphometric traits of these life stages also do not distinguish the species. The aim of the present study was to assess the taxonomic status of C. bidens and C. interfor using two mitochondrial genes and to determine the degree of their reproductive isolation using microsatellite loci. Sequences of the ND4 and COI genes were concatenated in a matrix of 993 nucleotides and used for phylogenetic and distance analyses. Bayesian and maximum parsimony inferences showed a well resolved and supported topology, enclosing sequences of individuals of C. bidens (0.83 BPP, 73 BSV) and C. interfor (0.98 BPP, 97 BSV) in a strong sister relationship. The mean K2P distance within C. bidens and C. interfor was 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and the interspecific variation was 2.3%. Bayesian clustering also showed two distinct mitochondrial lineages. All sequenced mosquitoes were successfully identified in accordance with the best close match algorithm. The low genetic distance values obtained indicate that the species diverged quite recently. Most morphologically intermediate specimens of C. bidens from Córdoba were heterozygous for the microsatellite locus GT51; the significant heterozygote excess observed suggests incomplete reproductive isolation. However, C. bidens and C. interfor should be considered good species: the ventral arm of the phallosome of the male genitalia and the ND4 and COI sequences are diagnostic characters. PMID:28235083

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1866 ... Vol 11, No 3 (2012), A Systematic Study on Processing Problems and In vitro ... Absence of Mutagenicity in Three Nigerian Medicinal Plants - Bidens pilosa, ... Vol 13, No 1 (2014), Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp ...

  5. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Deggar’s ticks Bidens sp. Bur marigold P P P P Carduus nutans Musk thistle Cirsiwul cwvense Canada thistle P P P Crepis tectorum Hawk’s beard Em-igeron...129 NATURAL SYSTEMS. .. ....................... 130 Identification of Impacts. .. .................. 130 Discussion of Impacts...142 Effects of Impoundment. .. .................. 142 SOCIOECONOMIC SYSTEMS. .. .................... 147 Identification of Impacts

  6. Congress OKs $2 Billion Boost for the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    President Donald Trump last week signed a $1.1 trillion spending bill for fiscal year 2017, including a welcome $2 billion boost for the NIH that will support former Vice President Joe Biden's Cancer Moonshot initiative, among other priorities. However, researchers who rely heavily on NIH grant funding remain concerned about proposed cuts for 2018. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Un compromiso compartido para la Misión contra el Cáncer

    Science.gov (United States)

    En la reunión anual de la AACR, el vicepresidente Biden habló acerca de la Iniciativa Nacional de la Misión contra el Cáncer y del papel crítico que tendrá toda la comunidad investigadora en acelerar el progreso contra el cáncer.

  8. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    Poll: Most Israelis Support East Jerusalem Construction,” Ynetnews.com, March 22, 2010. 70 Edmund Sanders, “Vice President Biden on Goodwill Trip to...destruction and their delivery systems.” The Obama Administration has stated its support for the nuclear-weapon-free zone. Ambassador Susan Burk told a

  9. 3 CFR 8428 - Proclamation 8428 of October 1, 2009. National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to assist victims in finding the help and healing they need. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set... by her partner, a child witnesses the abuse of a loved one, or a senior is victimized by family... Biden, our Nation has strengthened its response to this crime and increased services for victims. Still...

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHA848 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7_1( DQ881447 |pid:none) Betula halophila calmodulin (CaM) ... 115 3e-24 S58311( S58311 ) calmodulin - Bid...ens pilosa &X89890_1(X89890|pid:... 115 4e-24 X98404_1( X98404 |pid:none) C.annuum

  11. Ühendriigid pelgavad Iraagi relvavarusid / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Relvaekspertide hinnangul on Iraagi president Saddam Hussein peitnud võimaliku USA sõjalise rünnaku eest hulgaliselt keemia- ja biorelvi. USA Senati väliskomisjoni esmees Joseph Biden vajadusest Iraaki ennetavalt rünnata. Iraagi asepeaminister Tariq Aziz Johannesburgis Maailma Säästliku Arengu tippkohtumisel

  12. An Analysis of Section 529 College Savings and Prepaid Tuition Plans. A Report Prepared by the Department of Treasury for the White House Task Force on Middle Class Working Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of the Treasury, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Making college education more affordable is a central goal of the Obama Administration and has been a focus of Vice-President Biden's Taskforce on the Middle Class. To that end, the Task Force asked U.S. Treasury Department to prepare this report on how to make Section 529 college savings plans a more effective and reliable tool for families to…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND ANALYSIS METHODS OF COSMETICS WITH WATER EXTRACTS FROM HERBAL DRUGS RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chakhirova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents studies on development of cosmetics with complex extracts from herb of Bidens, flowers of Calendula, and flowers of Matricaria. We cited the analysis methods of the received extract and a drug on its base

  14. Effet antihypertensif de BpF , une fraction d'extrait aqueux de feuilles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci-Nat

    Mots clés: Bidens pilosa L., acétylcholine, substance cholinomimétique de type muscarinique, substance non ... the effect induced by ACh, its action remained partial on that caused by BpF2. ..... of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine.

  15. Baltic States get security reaffirmation from their key ally, the US / Linas Jegelevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jegelevicius, Linas

    2016-01-01

    Riias toimunud Balti riikide presidentide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide asepresidendi Joe Bideni kohtumisel arutleti Balti riikide julgeoleku ja julgeolekualase koostöö teemadel. Joe Biden kinnitas Ameerika Ühendriikide valmisolekut tulla võimaliku rünnaku korral Balti riike kaitsma

  16. Baltic States get security reaffirmation from their key ally, the US / Linas Jegelevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jegelevicius, Linas

    2016-01-01

    Riias toimunud Balti riikide presidentide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide asepresidendi Joe Bideni kohtumisel arutleti Balti riikide julgeoleku ja julgeolekualase koostöö teemadel. Joe Biden kinnitas Ameerika Ühendriikide valmisolekut tulla võimaliku rünnaku korral Balti riike kaitsma

  17. Plagiarism in Speeches by College Presidents Called "Capital Offense" and "Ultimate Sin."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of giving proper attribution in speeches--a problem that cost Joseph Biden his presidential candidacy--flared up in academe this year. Richard J. Sauer withdrew his candidacy for the presidency of North Dakota State University amid allegations that he plagiarized part of a speech he had delivered. (MLW)

  18. Tarnished Armor Erosion of Military Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-23

    expectations is a reasonable goal - considering the skewed intellectual and performance population fro- which senior leaders are drawn. These...improperly championed for a special interest group. His counterpart in the House, Joe Biden, withdrew from the 1988 presidential race for plagiarism

  19. Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on the Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force in the Mid-Atlantic Region Which Would Coordinate Government Agencies, Including U.S. Attorneys, the FBI, DEA, Customs Service, BATF, and the IRS. Dover, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document presents testimony and proceedings from the Congressional hearings on organized crime and drug enforcement in the Mid-Atlantic region, and government efforts to solve these problems. Opening statements are presented from Senators Strom Thurmond and Joseph Biden. Testimony is also presented from the United States attorneys for the…

  20. Preferential accumulation of sex and Bs chromosomes in biarmed karyotypes by meiotic drive and rates of chromosomal changes in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Wagner F; Martinez, Pablo A; Bertollo, Luiz A C; Bidau, Claudio J

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms of accumulation based on typical centromeric drive or of chromosomes carrying pericentric inversions are adjusted to the general karyotype differentiation in the principal Actinopterygii orders. Here, we show that meiotic drive in fish is also supported by preferential establishment of sex chromosome systems and B chromosomes in orders with predominantly bi-brachial chromosomes. The mosaic of trends acting at an infra-familiar level in fish could be explained as the interaction of the directional process of meiotic drive as background, modulated on a smaller scale by adaptive factors or specific karyotypic properties of each group, as proposed for the orthoselection model.

  1. [Toxicity of nitrate-N to freshwater aquatic life and its water quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Song; Wang, Ye-Yao; Meng, Fan-Sheng; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Yu, Hai-Bin

    2013-08-01

    The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper. Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life. The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata, and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia > Amphibia > Actinopterygii. Moreover, the output of assessment factor method, species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different. Finally, criterias of 87.97 mg x L(-1) and 5.17 mg x L(-1) to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  2. NUEVAS ESPECIES PARA LA UREDOBIOTA NEOTROPICAL NEW SPECIES FOR THE NEOTROPICAL UREDOBIOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Salazar Yepes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen seis especies teliomórficas y dos anamórficas nuevas para la ciencia; una nueva combinación anamórfica es propuesta; los Uredinales fueron colectados sobre los hospedantes: Thumbergia sp., Baccharis nitida, Baccharis decussata, Bidens sp., Tabebuia rosea, Euphorbia laurifolia, Crotalaria nitens, Artocarpus communis y Polypodium adnatum. Esta investigación permite inferir una alta diversidad de Uredinales en la zona cafetera colombiana.Six teliomorphic and two anamorphic new rust species are described on: Thumbergia sp., Baccharis nitida, Baccharis decussata, Bidens sp., Tabebuia rosea, Euphorbia laurifolia, Crotalaria nitens, and Polypodium adnatum in the Colombian coffee area. A new anamorphic combination is proposed on: Artocarpus communis. This study allows to infer a high diversity of rust fungi in this area.

  3. Oncology Nurses and the Cancer Moonshot 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    When Vice President Joe Biden's son, Beau, died of a brain tumor in May 2015, the Vice President's grief was profound. Yet, his grief generated an idea, a big idea: Let's collaborate and focus the talent and resources in our country to eliminate cancer as we know it. When Vice President Biden shared his idea with President Barack Obama in the fall of 2015, not only did President Obama endorse the idea, he announced the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative during his January 2016 State of the Union Address. The goal is to double progress against cancer and break down silos that prevent science and industry from working together. The initiative centers around the development and implementation of new vaccine-based immunotherapies to target individual tumors based on their genomic signature.

  4. Newly recorded invasive plants in Guangxi%广西新记录入侵植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦春强; 赵志国; 丁莉; 潘玉梅

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of invasive plant, Mimosa diplotricha C. ,Veronica arvensis L. and Bidens fron-dosa L. were reported as new records of Guangxi. Description and illustrations were provided. The voucher specimens were kept in Plant Herbarium, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences (IBK).%报道了广西3种新记录入侵植物,它们分别是巴西含羞草(Mimosa diplotricha C.)、直立婆婆纳(Veronica arvensis L.)和大狼把草(Bidens frondosa L.),并提供了这3种植物的特征描述和形态图.凭证标本存放于广西壮族自治区中国科学院广西植物研究所标本馆(IBK).

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cherskii's sculpin (Cottus czerskii) (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomin; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Shuai; Xu, Chunzhu

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Cherskii's sculpin (Cottus czerskii) is determined using long PCR. The genome is 16,534 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (26.4%), C (30.1%), T (26.1%) and G (17.5%). The control region is 857 bp in length and the A + T content of the region is 61.5%. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Cherskii's sculpin. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of the 21 Actinopterygii species. It appears that no less than two major phyletic lineages were present in Actinopterygii. The main clades within the Perciformes and Scorpaeniformes supported are: a clade including the Scombridae, Kyphosidae and Percichthyidae; a clade (Cottidae) with the Trichodontidae as the sister taxon to Pholidae, Anarhichadidae and Zoarcidae, which was supported by bootstrap values of 92%. The five Cottus species formed a paraphyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) in all examinations.

  6. Suspension and optical properties of the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Ronald H H; Gustafsson, Ola S E; Tuminaite, Inga

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the apparatus suspending the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates. Data are presented for Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the actinopterygians Polypteriformes, Polyodontidae (Acipenseriformes), Lepisosteiformes, Amiiformes, and one teleost species, the banded archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix). We also studied the optical properties of the lens in Polypteriformes, Lepisosteiformes, and the archerfish. Together with previously published results, our findings show that there are three basic types of lens suspension in vertebrates. These are i) a rotationally symmetric suspension (Petromyzontida, lampreys; Ceratodontiformes, lungfishes; Tetrapoda), ii) a suspension with a dorso-ventral axis of symmetry and a ventral papilla (all Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes), and iii) an asymmetric suspension with a ventral muscle and a varying number of ligaments (all Actinopterygii except for Acipenseriformes). Large eyes with presumably high spatial resolution have evolved in all groups. Multifocal lenses creating well-focused color images are also present in all groups studied. Stable and exact positioning of the lens, in many cases in combination with accommodative changes in lens position or shape, is achieved by all three types of lens suspension. It is somewhat surprising that lens suspensions are strikingly similar in Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes (Actinopterygii), while the suspension apparatus in Polypteriformes, usually being regarded as an actinopterygian group more basal than Acipenseriformes, are considerably more teleostean-like. This study completes a series of investigations on lens suspensions in nontetrapod vertebrates, covering all major groups except for the rare and highly derived coelacanths.

  7. Efeito do déficit hídrico na eficiência de herbicidas e nas características bioquímicas de picão-preto

    OpenAIRE

    Vitorino, Hermeson dos Santos; Martins, Dagoberto [UNESP; Marques, Renata Pereira [UNESP; Garbiate,Marcos Vinicios

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate conditions the effectiveness of acetolactate synthase (ALS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX) inhibitors in the Bidens pilosa control under two water deficit conditions, as well as to determine the influence of water deficit under the contents of soluble carbohydrates and protein of weed. The experimental design was randomized completely design with the treatments, with four replications, setup in a factorial scheme 4x2, with four herbicides (f...

  8. General Classification Handbook for Floodplain Vegetation in Large River Systems. Chapter 1 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    tuberculatus WM Amorpha A. fruiticosa WMS Betula B. nigra FF, LF Bidens B. cernua, B. frondosa SMA Carex C. spp.1 SM Carya C. cordiformis, C. illinoensis LF...include pecan ( Carya ), hickory ( Carya ), river birch (Betula), sycamore (Platanus), and red/black oak (Quercus). This general class is most com- mon...near the edge of the floodplain, or out of the floodplain. This general class typi- cally consists of red or white oak (Quercus), hickory ( Carya

  9. 河南外来入侵植物新报%New materials to the alien invasive plants in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云霞; 刘兆云; 陈付合; 朱长山

    2010-01-01

    报道新确认的河南外来入侵植物9种:细叶满江红(Azolla filiculioides)、野老鹳草(Geranium carolinianum)、假酸浆(Nicandra physaloides)、毛酸浆(Physalis pubescens)、牛茄子(Solanum surattense)、北美车前(Plantago virginica)、霍香蓟(Ageratum conyzoides)、鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)和两耳草(Paspalum conjugatum).

  10. Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) was promoted by Senator Richard G. Lugar and then Senator (now Vice President) Joe...Congress to adopt the legislation proposed by Senator Richard G. Lugar and then Senator, now Vice President Joe Biden establishing the State Department...provided under the FREEDOM Support Act (Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992, P.L. 102-511

  11. cis-Bis[2-(1,3-benzothia-zol-2-yl)-1-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)ethen-yl](pentane-2,4-dionato-κO,O')iridium(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guo-Yong; Lei, Peng; Chi, Hai-Jun; Hu, Zhi-Zhi; Li, Xiao

    2009-03-25

    In the title compound, [Ir(C(15)H(9)FNS)(2)(C(5)H(7)O(2))], the Ir atom is hexa-coordinated by three chelating ligands, with two cyclo-metalated 2-(1,3-benzothia-zol-2-yl)-1-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)ethenyl ligands showing N,C-bidentate coordination and an O,O'-bidenate pentane-2,4-dionate anion, thereby forming a distorted octa-hedral enviroment.

  12. Asymmetric Interdependence: Do America and Europe Need Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    in the world.”33 Notes 1. Joseph R . Biden, “America needs the world just as the world needs America” (speech, 45th Munich Security Conference, 7...International Herald Tribune, 22 January 2008. 5. Stephan Bierling , Die Huckepack-Strategie: Europa muss die USA einspannen [The Huckepack Strategy...601–22. 32. Bierling : Die Huckepack-Strategie. 33. European Council, A Secure Europe in a better World, 13. [ 124 ] Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Winter 2009

  13. Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mycorrhizal association on the interference of Bidens pilosa, Urochloa decumbens and Eleusine indica on soybean culture in two conditions: a plants competing without contact with roots of another species; b with contact between roots. At 60 days after planting, growth, nutrient accumulation and mycorrhizal colonization of soybean and weeds were evaluated. The contact between roots of soybean plant and weed species increased the negative interference effects for both species, with less growth and nutrient accumulation. With the individualization of roots, higher competition occurred for soil resources up to 60 days of coexistence between species. In competition with soybean, Bidens pilosa and Urochloa decumbens stood out in accumulation of most nutrients without differing from when cultivated in monocultivation. The increase of the soybean mycorrhizal colonization was 53, 40 and 33% when in competition with Urochloa decumbens, Eleusine indica and Bidens pilosa species, respectively. A positive interaction occurred for soybean mycorrhizal colonization and competing plants irrespective of weed species or root contact.

  14. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  15. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  16. Resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja (Glycine max Weed resistance to ALS - inhibiting herbicides in soybean (Glycine max crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monqueiro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans (picão-preto e Amaranthus quitensis (caruru são controladas na cultura da soja por diversos herbicidas, sendo os inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS os mais utilizados pelos sojicultores. O uso intensivo e repetitivo destes herbicidas em áreas cultivadas com soja no município de São Gabriel do Oeste (MS - Brasil e nas províncias de Córdoba e Tucumã (Argentina proporcionou grande pressão de seleção nas populações destas plantas daninhas, resultando em populações resistentes. Com o objetivo de determinar a resistência cruzada aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, pertencentes aos grupos químicos sulfoniluréia e imidazolinona, foi conduzido um experimento, em condições de casa de vegetação, na Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ, Piracicaba, São Paulo. As plantas daninhas picão-preto e caruru, provenientes de áreas com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, foram tratadas com os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron em diversas doses e comparadas com as plantas provenientes de populações suscetíveis. Os tratamentos foram estabelecidos considerando-se doses que proporcionariam no mínimo 50% do controle das plantas daninhas (GR50, utilizando-se para isso doses abaixo e acima das doses recomendadas de cada herbicida. O herbicida chlorimuron-ethyl foi aplicado nas doses de 1.500, 750, 150, 75, 15, 7,5 e 1,5 g i.a. ha-1; o imazethapyr, nas doses de 8.000, 4.000, 800, 400, 80, 40 e 8 g i.a. ha-1; e o nicosulfuron, nas doses de 1.200, 600, 120, 60, 12, 6 e 1,2 g i.a. ha-1. Os biotipos resistentes apresentaram diferentes níveis de resistência cruzada aos herbicidas utilizados. O biotipo resistente de picão-preto apresentou GR50 para chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron de 1,49; 1,27; e 20,08 g i.a. ha-1, respectivamente. Da mesma forma, o GR50 do biotipo resistente de caruru foi de 6,8; 2,45; e 23,54 g i

  17. Application of AI on exploring the relationship between fish community and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Fi-John

    2016-04-01

    Subject to the geographic environment and climatic conditions of Taiwan, rivers in Taiwan are of steep slopes and flow into oceans very quickly. Due to the severe intensity and short duration of typhoons and storms, sudden rainfall would easily cause huge variations and significant impacts on riverine eco-hydrological environments. To make an effective and comprehensive assessment for sustainable water resources management, this study aims to investigate the relationship between river flow and water quality on fish communities in order to comprehend the situations of the eco-hydrological system in this river basin. We collect a complete set of observational heterogeneity data, which include water quality parameters, stream flow and fish species in the Danshui River of northern Taiwan. This study attempts to improve the understanding of the relationship between water quality parameters, flow regime and fish species by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The Self-organizing feature map (SOM) is an unsupervised learning algorithm used to cluster, analyze and visualize a large number of data. The results of map size selection for the SOM show that nine clusters (3x3) form the optimum map size based on the local minimum values of both quantization error (QE) and topographic error (TE). The clustering results demonstrate that the SOM is capable of clustering the datasets suitably and can be considered as a powerful tool for further exploration of the relationship between water quality parameters and fish species. It is noted that according to the results of the structure index, the representative indicators of water quality parameters and fish species in the Dahan River, the main tributary of the Danshui River, consist of dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), water temperature, Onychostoma barbatulum, Rhinogobius candidianus, Unidentified Opsariichthys/Zacco spp., Formosania lacustre, Candidia barbata and Hemimyzon formosanus, respectively. The results of

  18. Observations on the radiation of lobe-finned fishes, ray-finned fishes, and cartilaginous fishes: phylogeny of the opioid/orphanin gene family and the 2R hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Robert M; Majeed, Qais; Komorowski, Leanne

    2011-01-15

    At the close of the Devonian Period the rapid decline in the diversity of the lobe-finned fishes was countered by the emergence and diversification of the ray-finned fishes and the cartilaginous fishes that now dominate marine and freshwater ecosystems. All of these jawed vertebrates were derived from the ancestral gnathostomes; a chordate lineage that had experienced two genome duplication events during the evolution of the phylum. This review analyzes trends in the phylogeny of the opioid/orphanin gene family (four prohormone/neuropeptide precursor-coding genes) in the major classes of gnathostomes that survived the extinction events at the close of the Devonian Period and focuses on some features of this gene family that appear to set the cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes) apart from class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods) and class Actinopterygii (the ray-finned fishes).

  19. Composição ictiofaunística da área de manguezal da Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Fish faunal composition of the mangrove area of the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guaratuba Bay (25o52'S, 48o39'W is the second largest estuarine system of the State of Parana, Brazil. It extended inside of the continent for about 15 km and is surrounded by mangroves. Water depth can reach up to six meters. The fish faunal composition of this area was evaluated with a bottom trawl and, occasionally, casting and gill nets. One species of Chondrichthyes and 59 of the Actinopterygii (50 genera and 28 families were reported from the Bay. The results were not significantly different from those of the Paranagua Bay, except by the lower number of species. These differences appear related to distinct collection efforts and the extension of surveyed areas. No species can be considered endemic to the region. Tipically freshwater species were not collected.

  20. The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran, a check list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Sareh; Amin, Omar M; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Halajian, Ali

    2015-10-22

    The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran is reported for the first time since the report of Pomphorhynchus perforator (von Linstow, 1908) Meyer, 1932 in 1964. The knowledge of the acanthocephalan biodiversity of Iran, with parasite-host and host-parasite checklists, is presented. The species of Acanthocephala are presented in alphabetical order, followed by the species of hosts, localities and references. A total of 30 known species of Acanthocephala from 21 genera, 12 families and 7 orders are reported from 80 species of different vertebrates of Iran. One species, Moniliformis moniliformis (Bremser, 1811) Travassos, 1915 was recorded from humans. The group of hosts with the largest number of reported species of acanthocephalan is Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes).

  1. Evolution and differential expression of a vertebrate vitellogenin gene cluster

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    Kongshaug Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multiplicity or loss of the vitellogenin (vtg gene family in vertebrates has been argued to have broad implications for the mode of reproduction (placental or non-placental, cleavage pattern (meroblastic or holoblastic and character of the egg (pelagic or benthic. Earlier proposals for the existence of three forms of vertebrate vtgs present conflicting models for their origin and subsequent duplication. Results By integrating phylogenetics of novel vtg transcripts from old and modern teleosts with syntenic analyses of all available genomic variants of non-metatherian vertebrates we identify the gene orthologies between the Sarcopterygii (tetrapod branch and Actinopterygii (fish branch. We argue that the vertebrate vtg gene cluster originated in proto-chromosome m, but that vtg genes have subsequently duplicated and rearranged following whole genome duplications. Sequencing of a novel fourth vtg transcript in labrid species, and the presence of duplicated paralogs in certain model organisms supports the notion that lineage-specific gene duplications frequently occur in teleosts. The data show that the vtg gene cluster is more conserved between acanthomorph teleosts and tetrapods, than in ostariophysan teleosts such as the zebrafish. The differential expression of the labrid vtg genes are further consistent with the notion that neofunctionalized Aa-type vtgs are important determinants of the pelagic or benthic character of the eggs in acanthomorph teleosts. Conclusion The vertebrate vtg gene cluster existed prior to the separation of Sarcopterygii from Actinopterygii >450 million years ago, a period associated with the second round of whole genome duplication. The presence of higher copy numbers in a more highly expressed subcluster is particularly prevalent in teleosts. The differential expression and latent neofunctionalization of vtg genes in acanthomorph teleosts is an adaptive feature associated with oocyte hydration

  2. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

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    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  3. Curvas dose-resposta em espécies de plantas daninhas com o uso do herbicida glyphosate(1 Dose-response curves in weed species with the use of herbicide glyphosate

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    André Luiz de Souza Lacerda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a resposta de diferentes espécies de plantas daninhas ao herbicida glyphosate, foi desenvolvido em câmara de crescimento um experimento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ/USP. Para isso, foram estudadas seis espécies de plantas daninhas: Bidens pilosa L., Tridax procumbens L., Digitaria insularis (L. Fedde, Spermacoce latifolia Aubl., Ipomoea grandifolia L. e Commelina benghalensis L. Utilizou-se o herbicida glyphosate, inibidor da enzima EPSPs, com doses em escalas de 0,0; 11,3; 22,5; 45; 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1.440 g.ha-1 i.a. A elaboração das curvas dose-resposta foi feita pelo ajuste da equação dos dados coletados de biomassa verde utilizando o modelo log-logístico: Y = C+D-C / 1 + Exp{b[log(x-log(RC50]}, calculado por modelo estatístico não linear dos dados pelo programa estatístico SAS. Após a determinação das curvas dose-resposta nas espécies acima citadas concluiu-se que Bidens pilosa foi considerada a planta daninha mais suscetível ao herbicida glyphosate, pois apresentou menor RC50 (31,86 g.ha-1 i.a.. As espécies Tridax procumbens, Digitaria insularis, Spermacoce latifolia, Ipomoea grandifolia, Commelina benghalensis obtiveram RC50 de 58,40; 128,50; 250,44; 615,49 e >1.440 g.ha-1 i.a. respectivamente. Portanto, a quantidade necessária de herbicida para reduzir em 50% a biomassa verde foi de 1,83; 4,03; 7,86; 32 e >359,56 vezes maior em relação à Bidens pilosa respectivamente.With the objective of veryfing the response of different doses in species of weeds by herbicide glyphosate, an experiment was conducted in growth chamber in a completetly randomized design with three repetitions, in the Department of Vegetable Production at ESALQ/USP. For that, were chosen six species of weeds: Bidens pilosa L., Tridax procumbens L., Digitaria insularis (L. Feed, Spermacoce latifolia Aubl., Ipomoea grandifolia L. and Commelina benghalensis L

  4. Germinação de sementes de alface e de duas ervas invasoras com a aplicação de um novo análogo do estrigol, sintetizado a partir do safrol

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel André José A.; Lima Marco Edilson F. de; Souza Marco André A. de; Souza Sonia R.

    2002-01-01

    O estrigol é um sesquiterpeno natural que possui elevada atividade como estimulante da germinação, principalmente de sementes de espécies invasoras, pertencentes aos gêneros Striga e Orobanche. Soluções contendo 0,01; 0,1; 10 e 1000 mg/L de um novo análogo de estrigol, sintetizado a partir de um alilbenzeno natural, o safrol (isolado do óleo de sassafraz), foram aplicadas em sementes de alface e de Ipomoea grandifolia e Bidens pilosa. Observou-se que houve efeito estimulador na germinação das...

  5. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    weapons of mass destruction and other trafficking in the Caspian Sea.80 In November 2004, Gen. Charles Wald, then-deputy head of EUCOM, suggested that...Relations on December 6, 2007. Agreed to by the Senate on December 13, 2007. CRS-43 S.Res. 439 (Lugar)/H.Res. 997 ( Wexler ) Expresses the strong...Senate on April 28, 2008. H.Res. 1166 ( Wexler )/S.Res. 550 (Biden) Expresses the sense of the House/Senate regarding provocative and dangerous

  6. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF TREE-CLIMBING MANGROVE SESARMID CRABS FROM LUZON, PHILIPPINES

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    JIMMY TEVAR MASAGCA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large ecological study of tree-climbing mangrove sesarmid crabs in other countries, the Philippine representatives appear to have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents the feeding ecology as to dependence on mangrove trees of sesarmids in different mangrove areas of southern Luzon. This is biased on the nature of the crab habitats, arboreal climbing skills and burrowing behavior of the sesarmids: Selatium elongatum and Episesarma versicolor − exclusive mangrove tree climbers (EMTC; Sarmatium germaini − occasional mangrove tree climber (OMTC; and the non-mangrove tree-climbing (NMTC sesarmids- Neosarmatium smithii, Perisesarma bidens and Perisesarma eumolpe

  7. Cancer Moonshot: What It Means for Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Deborah K; Fuld Nasso, Shelley

    2017-04-01

    You may have heard of the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative led by former Vice President Joe Biden. It has brought together many people through a task force, blue ribbon panel, and many public forums to discuss how best "to dramatically accelerate efforts to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer - to achieve a decade's worth of progress in 5 years." This initiative was launched after the 2016 State of the Union address, and the task force delivered recommendations to President Barack Obama on October 17, 2016, providing an opportunity to accelerate progress against cancer. 
.

  8. Caracterización de la artropofauna terrestre del humedal jaboque (bogotá, colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Amat García Germán; Sánchez Núñez David Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    En el humedal Jaboque, se estudió la diversidad y la estructura trófica de la artropofauna asociada a las comunidades de vegetación Juncus effusus, Juncus effusus-Polygonum punctatum, Schoenoplectus californicus y Typha latifolia. La composición y riqueza asociada a la comunidad Bidens laevis y la composición de los insectos antófilos relacionados a algunas plantas. Se identificaron en total 212 morfoespecies, distribuidas en 48 familias y siete órdenes. A lo largo del estudio se colectaron 8...

  9. Diversidad de la fauna de artropodos terrestres en el humedal jaboque, bogotá-colombia

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ-N., DAVID; AMAT-GARCÍA, GERMÁN D.

    2012-01-01

    En el Humedal Jaboque, ubicado dentro del perímetro urbano de la ciudad de Bogotá, se estudió la composición taxonómica y trófica, la riqueza y la diversidad de la fauna de artrópodos terrestres asociada a cinco comunidades de vegetación cuyas especies dominantes eran: Juncus effusus, Juncus effusus y Polygonum punctatum; Schoenoplectus californicus, Typha latifolia y Bidens laevis. Se colectaron 8944 individuos que representan una biomasa seca de 9757.8 mg., correspondientes a 212 morfoespec...

  10. A checklist of the Kateretidae and Nitidulidae of Iran (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasoń, Andrzej; Ghahari, Hassan

    2013-12-10

    The current knowledge of the geographic distribution of short-winged flower beetles and sap beetles (Kateretidae and Nitidulidae, respectively) from Iran is summarized. In total, 84 species of Nitidulidae (in 22 genera and 5 subfamilies: Epuraeinae, Carpophilinae, Cryptarchinae, Nitidulinae, Meligethinae) and 6 species of Kateretidae (in 4 genera: Brachyleptus Motschulsky, Brachypterolus Grouvelle, Brachypterus Kugelann, Kateretes Herbst) are listed. Brachyleptus discolor Reitter, Brachypterus glaber (Newman) (both Kateretidae), Epuraea distincta (Grimmer), Soronia oblonga (Brisout), Lamiogethes bidens (Brisout), Lamiogethes medvedevi (Kirejtshuk), Sagittogethes devillei (Grouvelle) and Xerogethes rotundicollis (Brisout) (Nitidulidae) are new records for Iran. 

  11. Antarctic sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the South Shetland Islands and vicinity: part I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida and Haplosclerida Esponjas Antárticas (Porifera, Demospongiae das Ilhas Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas: parte I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida e Haplosclerida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to redescribe 11 species of sponges collected through the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR, at the South Shetland Islands and vicinity. New information is provided on the Antarctic sponge fauna, in regard to species richness and the geographical and bathymetric distributions of identified species. The following species were identified and are here illustrated and fully described: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880, Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915, Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905, Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 and Calyx arcuarius (Topsent, 1913. Two new records are given for the Antarctic continent: Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915 and Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905. Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880 and Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 represent the first records for this sector of the continent. Bathymetric data are extended for T. longispinum and H. attenuata.O objetivo deste trabalho é redescrever 11 espécies de esponjas coletadas através do Programa Antártico Brasileiro (PROANTAR, nas Is. Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas. Nnovas informações são fornecidas acerca do conhecimento da fauna de poríferos da Antártica, tanto para a riqueza específica como para os dados referentes às distribuições geográfica e batimétrica das espécies identificadas. As seguintes espécies foram identificadas e são aqui ilustradas e amplamente descritas: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886

  12. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  13. Flora of vascular plants of selected Poznań cemeteries

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    Aneta Czarna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 395 species of vascular flora at four rarely used cemeteries within the Poznań city was confirmed in 2010. Apart from naturally occurring species, cultivated species were noted equally. Among species appearing spontaneously between the graves, species new for the flora of Poland: Chionodoxa forbesii, Ch. luciliae, Puschkinia scilloides, new for the flora of Wielkopolska: Bidens ferulifolius, Hyacinthoides hispanica and new for the flora of Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, Veronica hederifolia s.s., were recorded. Names of taxa originating from cultivation are underlined.

  14. Activities of the Pharmaceutical Technology Institute of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation with medicinal, insecticidal and insect repellent plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B; Teixeira, D F; Carvalho, E S; De Paula, A E; Pereira, J F; Ferreira, J L; Almeida, M B; Machado, R da S; Cascon, V

    1999-01-01

    In addition to original research, Far-Manguinhos, the Pharmaceutical Division of the Brazilian Ministry of Health's Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), devotes major attention to the finalising of products for use in public health campaigns or, under contract, for private industrial development. Emphasis is on standardisation, adequate supply, safety in use and efficacy. Among the products discussed in this summary of some of its activities in the chemical and pharmaceutical fields are medicinal plants Bidens pilosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Copaifera species, Mentha crispa, Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. and other Phyllanthus species, insecticidal plants, Lonchocarpus urucu and Quassia amara, and the insect antifeedant plants Carapa guianensis and Pterodon emarginatus.

  15. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  16. Teores de macro e micronutrientes e a relação c/n de várias espécies de plantas daninhas

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Luciano S. de; Edivaldo D. Velini; Maimoni-Rodella,Rita C.S.; Martins, Dagoberto [UNESP

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar os teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn) e a relação C/N, presentes na matéria seca da parte aérea das seguintes espécies de plantas daninhas: Ageratum conyzoides L., Amaranthus lividus L., Bidens pilosa L., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc., Senna occidentalis (L.) Link., Commelina benghalensis L., Cyperus rotundus L., Digitaria horizontalis Willd., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Indigofera truxi...

  17. Contents of macronutrients and micronutrients and CN relation of several weed species

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Luciano S. de; Edivaldo D. Velini; Maimoni-Rodella,Rita C.S.; Dagoberto Martins

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar os teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn) e a relação C/N, presentes na matéria seca da parte aérea das seguintes espécies de plantas daninhas: Ageratum conyzoides L., Amaranthus lividus L., Bidens pilosa L., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc., Senna occidentalis (L.) Link., Commelina benghalensis L., Cyperus rotundus L., Digitaria horizontalis Willd., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Indigofera truxi...

  18. Environmental Assessment. Construction and Maintenance of Wastewater Pipelines and Lift Stations and Installation of Fiber Optic Conduit at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Aristida stricta  Wiregrass  Open Longleaf Pine Woods  X  Asclepias humistrata  Pinelands  Milkweed   Maintained ROW  X  Asclepias verticillata  Whorled... Milkweed   Maintained ROW  X  Bidens mitis  Cut Leaf Beggars Ticks  Wetlands Along Spring Runs  X  Bignonia capreolata  Cross Vine  Mesic Mixed Forest

  19. Asteraceae de interés en la Melisopalinogía: Bosque montano de las yungas (Jujuy - Argentina Asteraceae of melissopalynological interest: Yungas montane forest (Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Sánchez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción polínica de 17 especies de la familia Asteraceae, con una clave para su identificación. Estos materiales corresponden a la flora melífera del Bosque Montano en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas en Jujuy. El estudio constituye el primer aporte para lograr la determinación polínica de las especies de esta familia en las mieles del área. Las especies descriptas son: Ageratum conyzoides, Baccharis salicifolia, Bidens pilosa, Elephantopus mollis, Eupatorium arnottianum Eupatorium bupleurifolium, Eupatorium leavigatum, Mikania micrantha, Parthenium hysteriophorus, Senecio cremeiflorus, Senecio rudbeckiifolius, Stevia potreriensis, Tagetes terniflora, Verbesina lilloi, Vernonia squamulosa, Viguiera mollis, Viguiera pazensis, todas ellas nativas.The descriptions of 17 pollen types of the Asteraceae family with a key for its identification are presented. These materials correspond to the mellipherus flora of the Bosque Montano in the Phytogeographycal Province of the Yungas in Jujuy. This study constitutes the first contribution to obtain the determination of the pollen types of this family in the honeys of the area. The species are described: Ageratum conyzoides, Baccharis salicifolia, Bidens pilosa, Elephantopus mollis, Eupatorium arnottianum Eupatorium bupleurifolium, Eupatorium leavigatum, Mikania micrantha, Parthenium hysteriophorus, Senecio cremeiflorus, Senecio rudbeckiifolius, Stevia potreriensis, Tagetes terniflora, Verbesina lilloi, Vernonia squamulosa, Viguiera mollis, Viguiera pazensis, all native.

  20. Exsudação de ácidos orgânicos em rizosfera de plantas daninhas Organic acid exudation in the rizosphere of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Silva

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os ácidos orgânicos na rizosfera de plantas daninhas encontradas em lavouras cafeeiras, foram coletadas amostras de rizosfera de Bidens pilosa (picão-preto, Alternanthera ficoidea (apaga-fogo, Taraxacum officinale (dente-de-leão Amaranthus deflexus (caruru, na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, em Lavras-MG, as quais foram submetidas à extração e analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Foram identificados, na rizosfera das plantas estudadas, os ácidos oxálico, cítrico, acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo os dois primeiros encontrados em maiores concentrações, em relação aos demais. As maiores concentrações dos ácidos identificados ocorreram em B. pilosa.In order to identify and quantify organic acids in the rizosphere of weeds infesting coffee plantations, the rizosphere samples of the weeds Bidens pilosa, Alternanthera ficoidea, Taraxacum officinale, Amaranthus deflexus were collected at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG - Lavras-MG, Brazil. The samples were submitted to extraction and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic, citric, acetic, butyric and propionic acids were identified in the rizosphere of the studied plants. The first two were found in larger concentrations and the largest concentrations occurred in B. pilosa.

  1. Botanical ecology and conservation of the Laguna de la Herrera (Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia Botanical ecology and conservation of the Laguna de la Herrera (Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijninga V. M.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The acuatic, helophytic and pleustophytic vegetation of the Laguna de La Herrera, on the southwestern border of the high plain of Bogotá at 2550 m was studied following the Zurich- Montpellier approach. The communities recognized were: terrestrial community of Phytolacca bogotensis; helophytic communities of scirpus californicus and Typha angustifolia ; scirpus californicus ; Polygonum punctatum ; Rumex obtusifolius with Polygonum punctatum; Bidens laevis ; Hydrocotyle ranunculoides. Pleustophytic communities of Limnobium laevigatum; Azolla filiculoides with Lemna cf. gibba and Eichornia crassipes. The structure, floristic composition and ecological aspects were also considered. Several recommendations about conservation of the Laguna are given. Se estudió la vegetación alrededor de la Laguna de La Herrera, una laguna andina a 2550 m. Se diferenciaron una comunidad de Phytolacca bogotensis (1: comunidades helofíticas dominadas por: Scirpus californicus y Typha angustifolia (2; Scirpus californicus (3; Polygonum punctatum (4; Rumex obtusifolius y Polygonum punctatum (5; Bidens laevis (6; Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (7; comunidades pleustofíticas con: Limnobium laevigatum; (8; Azolla filiculoides y Lemna cf. gibba (9 y Eichhornia crassipes (10. Se registraron la estructura, composición florística, los rasgos ecológicos y la distribución de las comunidades y se comparó con la conductividad eléctrica y la calidad del agua. Finalmente, se hacen recomendaciones para la conservación de la laguna y la vegetación acuática.

  2. Investigation of Types and Hazard of Weeds in Coffea arabica Orchads in Nujiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Through the investigation of weeds in Coffea arabica orchads in NuJiang River basin, this study aimed to provide scientific guidance for the weed control and improving the ecological and economic benefits of the plantation of Cof- fea arabica. [Method] The types of weeds and the characteristics of weed occur- rence in Coffea arabica orchads in Nujiang River basin were investigated from July to August in 2012. [Result] The results showed that there were 69 types of weeds belonging to 21 families in Coffea arabica orchads. The predominant harmful types were shown as follows: Commelina nudiflora L. + Leptochloa chinensis, Cyperus ro- tundus L. + Bidens pilosa L. + Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrical + Ageratum conyzoides L. + Eupatorium odoratum L., Ageratum conyzoides L. + Digitaria san- guinalis (L.) Scop. The preponderant weeds consisted mainly of 10 species, namely, Cyperus rotundus L., Commelina nudiflora L., Leptochloa chinensis, Digitaria san- guinalis (L.) Scop, Imperata cylindrical, Bidens pilosa L., Ageratum conyzoides L, E- upatorium odoratum L., Eleusine indica and Chenopodium serotinum L. [Conclusion] The result from this study is of great significance for the plantation of Coffea arabica in Nujiang River basin, as well as the control of weeds.

  3. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  4. Fish genomes provide novel insights into the evolution of vertebrate secretin receptors and their ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Trindade, Marlene; Power, Deborah M

    2014-12-01

    The secretin receptor (SCTR) is a member of Class 2 subfamily B1 GPCRs and part of the PAC1/VPAC receptor subfamily. This receptor has long been known in mammals but has only recently been identified in other vertebrates including teleosts, from which it was previously considered to be absent. The ligand for SCTR in mammals is secretin (SCT), an important gastrointestinal peptide, which in teleosts has not yet been isolated, or the gene identified. This study revises the evolutionary model previously proposed for the secretin-GPCRs in metazoan by analysing in detail the fishes, the most successful of the extant vertebrates. All the Actinopterygii genomes analysed and the Chondrichthyes and Sarcopterygii fish possess a SCTR gene that shares conserved sequence, structure and synteny with the tetrapod homologue. Phylogenetic clustering and gene environment comparisons revealed that fish and tetrapod SCTR shared a common origin and diverged early from the PAC1/VPAC subfamily group. In teleosts SCTR duplicated as a result of the fish specific whole genome duplication but in all the teleost genomes analysed, with the exception of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the duplicates was lost. The function of SCTR in teleosts is unknown but quantitative PCR revealed that in both sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) transcript abundance is high in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting it may intervene in similar processes to those in mammals. In contrast, no gene encoding the ligand SCT was identified in the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) although it was present in the coelacanth (lobe finned fish, Sarcopterygii) and in the elephant shark (holocephalian). The genes in linkage with SCT in tetrapods and coelacanth were also identified in ray-finned fishes supporting the idea that it was lost from their genome. At present SCTR remains an orphan receptor in ray-finned fishes and it will be of interest in the future to establish why SCT was

  5. Base composition, selection, and phylogenetic significance of indels in the recombination activating gene-1 in vertebrates

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    Vences Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recombination Activating Proteins, RAG1 and RAG2, play a crucial role in the immune response in vertebrates. Among the nuclear markers currently used for phylogenetic purposes, Rag1 has especially enjoyed enormous popularity, since it successfully contributed to elucidating the relationships among and within a large variety of vertebrate lineages. We here report on a comparative investigation of the genetic variation, base composition, presence of indels, and selection in Rag1 in different vertebrate lineages (Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Aves, Chondrichthyes, Crocodylia, Lepidosauria, Mammalia, and Testudines through the analysis of 582 sequences obtained from Genbank. We also analyze possible differences between distinct parts of the gene with different type of protein functions. Results In the vertebrate lineages studied, Rag1 is over 3 kb long. We observed a high level of heterogeneity in base composition at the 3rd codon position in some of the studied vertebrate lineages and in some specific taxa. This result is also paralleled by taxonomic differences in the GC content at the same codon position. Moreover, positive selection occurs at some sites in Aves, Lepidosauria and Testudines. Indels, which are often used as phylogenetic characters, are more informative across vertebrates in the 5' than in the 3'-end of the gene. When the entire gene is considered, the use of indels as phylogenetic character only recovers one major vertebrate clade, the Actinopterygii. However, in numerous cases insertions or deletions are specific to a monophyletic group. Conclusions Rag1 is a phylogenetic marker of undoubted quality. Our study points to the need of carrying out a preliminary investigation on the base composition and the possible existence of sites under selection of this gene within the groups studied to avoid misleading resolution. The gene shows highly heterogeneous base composition, which affects some taxa in particular and

  6. Variabilidade espacial de plantas daninhas em dois sistemas de manejo de solo Spatial variability of weeds in two soil management systems

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    Valter R. Schaffrath

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre a distribuição espacial das plantas daninhas são importantes no contexto agronômico e ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a distribuição espacial de plantas daninhas em dois sistemas de manejo de solo. O estudo foi realizado em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em Campo Mourão, PR, utilizado em sistema de plantio direto (PD e preparo convencional do solo (PC. Estabeleceu-se uma malha referenciada em coordenadas x e y, totalizando 128 pontos amostrais. Avaliou-se a biomassa da parte aérea das plantas, a densidade de plantas, a densidade de Commelina benghalensis e a densidade de Bidens pilosa. Os dados foram submetidos à análise exploratória e à análise variográfica. A variabilidade espacial foi estudada através da geoestatística, mediante a análise de semivariogramas, interpolação por krigagem e construção de mapas de isolinhas. O alcance das variáveis biomassa e densidade de B. pilosa é maior no PD que no PC; para a variável densidade de plantas, o alcance é maior no PC. A distribuição espacial descrita por técnicas geoestatísticas, mostra seu potencial no mapeamento de plantas daninhas o que permite estratégias de manejo localizado e o estabelecimento de critérios para experimentos futuros.Studies of spatial distribution of weeds are important in the agronomic and environmental context. The objective of this research was to describe the spatial distribution of weeds in two soil management systems. This study was accomplished in a Distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol, located in Campo Mourão, Parana State, Brazil, in no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage of soil (CT. A grid was established in coordinated x and y, with 128 sampling points. The studied variables were biomass of shoot weeds, density of weeds, Commelina benghalensis density and Bidens pilosa density. Exploratory data analysis was used to evaluate distribution of variables as well as to adapt them for the spatial

  7. The Synthesis of π,n-Complexes of 1-Thio-1,3-dienes with Chromium Group Metals. The Inner-Sphere Hydrophosphorylation of α-Enethiones

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    Kuramshin A.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available New 1-thio-1,3-diene complexes of chromium(0, molybdenum(0, and tungsten(0 with the biden-tate bonding of unsaturated ligand to the metal’s core via the π-system of the C=C bond and sulfur lone electron pair of heterodiene are obtained. Quantum-chemical calculations reveal geometry, electron structure, and formation free energies of these complexes, as well as factors governing the coordination mode. Hydrophosphorylation of the complexes begins from the attack of H-dialkylphosphonate towards the thiocarbonyl group; the generated organometallic α-mercaptophosphonates subsequently undergo the mercaptophosphonate-thiolphospate and thiolphosphate-thionphosphate rearrangements with organ-ophosphorus compounds remaining bound to the metal’s core.

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of fear of childbirth in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schei, Berit; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study set out to compare the prevalence, content and associated factors of fear of childbirth in six European countries. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 6870 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway and Sweden (Bidens). MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Severe fear of childbirth, defined as a Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire score of ≥85. RESULTS: Eleven percent of all women reported severe fear of childbirth, 11.4% among primiparous and 11.0% among multiparous women. There were significant differences between the countries...... for prevalence of severe fear of childbirth, varying from 4.5% in Belgium to 15.6% in Estonia for primiparous women and from 7.6% in Iceland to 15.2% in Sweden for multiparous women. After adjusting for age, education and gestational age, only primiparous women from Belgium had significantly less fear...

  9. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (pmajor active constituents of the tested plants.

  10. Three New Exotic Plant Species of Asteraceae in Xinjiang%新疆菊科3种新的外来植物种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜珍珠; 阎平; 任姗姗; 曹婷; 黄刚

    2014-01-01

    近几年,通过对新疆北部地区杂草的野外调查研究,在准确鉴定的基础上,发现菊科(Asteraceae)新的外来植物3种及新记录属1属,分别为一年蓬Erigeron annuus(L.)Pers.、大狼把草Bidens frondosa L.和粗毛牛膝菊Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz et Pav..其中,牛膝菊属Galinsoga Ruiz et Pav.为新疆菊科新记录属.在此基础上,详细描述了它们的形态特征,并初步分析了它们在我国的地理分布.

  11. A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult....... DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden) recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records....... The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS), or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary...

  12. The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Obón, C

    1995-05-01

    The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic.

  13. Efeito residual de herbicidas em pré-plantio do feijoeiro, em dois sistemas de aplicação em plantio direto e sua viabilidade econômica Economic viability of residual herbicides in dry bean pre-planting under two aplication methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cobucci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a viabilidade econômica de controle de plantas daninhas com alguns herbicidas residuais (registrados ou não, aplicados em pré-plantio na cultura do feijoeiro. O experimento foi realizado em Santo Antônio de Goiás, no ano agrícola de 1999/2000. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em cobertura das plantas daninhas Commelina benghalensis e Bidens pilosa, com 3 t ha-1 de biomassa seca. Os tratamentos foram constituídos do fatorial 2x10x3, arranjados em parcelas subsubdivididas no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições; o primeiro fator consistiu de sistemas de dessecação da área [Sistema Integrado de Controle (SIC e Aplique e Plante]. No SIC foi usado o sulfosate (720 g ha-1 aos 20 dias antes do plantio e paraquat (200 g ha¹ adicionado aos herbicidas com efeitos residuais, aplicados imediatamente após o plantio do feijoeiro. No sistema Aplique e Plante foi aplicado o sulfosate (720 g ha¹ adicionado aos residuais, cinco dias antes do plantio do feijoeiro. O segundo fator representa a aplicação dos herbicidas com efeitos residuais, em g ha-1: sulfentrazone (200 e 300, dimethenamid (900 e 1.125, clomazone (360, pendimethalin (2.500, smetolachlor (768 e 1.152, diclosulan (12,45 e testemunha; e o terceiro, as doses dos herbicidas de pós-emergência: imazamox (15 + bentazon (240, imazamox (30 + bentazon (480 e testemunha. Os herbicidas residuais aplicados nos sistemas SIC e Aplique e Plante reduziram o crescimento inicial de Bidens pilosa. Para Euphorbia heterophylla somente os herbicidas diclosulan e sulfentrazone proporcionaram efeito semelhante. A aplicação de herbicidas residuais em pré-plantio mostrou ser viável economicamente, em virtude da redução dos de pós-emergência, exceto para os herbicidas dimethenamid e s-metolachlor.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and economic viability of controlling weeds with residual herbicides, applied in

  14. Seletividade do oxyfluorfen para a cultura do pinhão-manso Selectivity of oxyfluorfen for physic nut culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S Gonçalves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento para avaliar a seletividade do oxyfluorfen para a cultura do pinhão-manso. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 + 1, sendo duas doses do herbicida (600 e 1.200 g ha-1 do ingrediente ativo, dois modos de aplicação (sobre a planta e sobre o solo e uma testemunha sem aplicação do herbicida. Após o transplante das mudas para vasos plásticos com 10 litros de solo, os tratamentos foram aplicados com o auxílio de um balde. O oxyfluorfen, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, mostrou-se tóxico nas duas doses testadas, sendo observados sintomas mais intensos nos primeiros dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Após esse período, as mudas recuperaram o vigor e surgiram novas brotações que não apresentavam sintomas de toxicidade. Esses sintomas consistiram de manchas esbranquiçadas nas folhas, que evoluíram para necrose. Nas mudas em que o herbicida foi aplicado no solo, não foram observados sintomas visuais de toxicidade. Observou-se redução na massa fresca e seca das folhas quando 600 g ha-1 do herbicida foram aplicados sobre a planta ou 1.200 g ha-1 sobre o solo. Contudo, a área foliar e o número de folhas não diferiram significativamente entre as doses utilizadas e os modos de aplicação. Das quatro espécies daninhas semeadas (Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Sida rhombifolia e Bidens pilosa, apenas Bidens pilosa não foi controlada pelo oxyfluorfen aplicado em pré-emergência.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the selectivity of oxyfluorfen for physic nut culture. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 2 x 2 + 1, two herbicide doses (600 and 1,200 g ha-1 of active ingredient, two modes of application (on the plant and soil and a control without herbicide application.. After transplanting the seedlings into plastic pots with 10 liters of soil

  15. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae in the Marquesas Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..

  16. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF COMPOSITAE PLANTS. I. CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS AND «HAIRY» ROOTS WITH NEW PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.Matvieieva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The review explores some of the recent advances and the author's own researchs concerning biotechnological approaches for Agrobacterium tumefaciens- and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Compositae family plants. This paper reviews the results of genetic transformation of Compositae plants, including edible (Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa, oil (Helianthus annuus, decorative (Gerbera hybrida, medical (Bidens pilosa, Artemisia annua, Artemisia vulgaris, Calendula officinalis, Withania somnifera etc. plant species. Some Compositae genetic engineering areas are considered including creation of plants, resistant to pests, diseases and herbicides, to the effect of abiotic stress factors as well as plants with altered phenotype. The article also presents the data on the development of biotechnology for Compositae plants Cynara cardunculus, Arnica montana, Cichorium intybus, Artemisia annua "hairy" roots construction.

  17. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.

  18. The fish tail as a derivation from axial musculoskeletal anatomy: an integrative analysis of functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, B E

    2014-02-01

    The adult morphology of the tail varies greatly among extant fishes despite sharing both ontogenetic similarities and the functional need to propel the body through a fluid medium. Both sharks (Chondrichthyes) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) control caudal fin musculature independently of axial body myomere activity to modify the stiffness and shape of their tails. For example, sharks and bony fishes possess different structural elements and muscles and move their tails in different ways, resulting in different locomotory hydrodynamic effects and a range of performance variables including speed and maneuverability. The stiffness of the heterocercal, lobate tail of the shark can be modulated during the tail beat resulting in nearly continuous thrust production. In contrast, the highly flexible tail of ray-finned fishes can be manipulated into many different shape conformations enabling increased maneuverability for these fishes. Consequently, the developmental, morphological, and functional derivation of the tail from the axial trunk has resulted in a diversity of form, the attributes of which may be of ecological and evolutionary significance.

  19. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

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    Lucian D. Gorgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  20. Close tetrapod relationships of the coelacanth Latimeria indicated by haemoglobin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorr, T; Kleinschmidt, T; Fricke, H

    1991-05-30

    The origin of tetrapods has been debated for many years. In traditional systematics, the extinct lobe-finned bony fish (Rhipidistia) are regarded as the closest relatives of tetrapods. Among living fish, the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), which is the only recent representative of the Crossopterygii (Actinistia and Rhipidistia), the lungfish (Dipnoi) and ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii), have each been considered as sister-groups of the tetrapods. We have now determined the sequence of the alpha- and beta-globin chains of coelacanth haemoglobin and compared them with all known haemoglobins of bony and cartilaginous fish as well as those of tadpoles and adult amphibians. Haemoglobins of bony fish match more closely those of larval than adult amphibians. The beta chains of Latimeria match those of tadpoles more closely (54%) than do those of any other fish, whereas the alpha chains of Latimeria (45.4%), and especially of teleosts (49.2%), are closer to those of larval amphibians than are those of lungfish (39.8%). If only synapomorphous sequence matches (those at derived positions shared by one bony fish and tadpoles but not by any other bony fish) are considered, both Latimeria globin chains have distinctly more identities with phase of tadpoles than do those of any bony fish. Thus the primary structure of Latimeria haemoglobin indicates that the coelacanth is the closest living relative of tetrapods.

  1. Hoxc8 early enhancer of the Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis.

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    Shashikant, Cooduvalli; Bolanowski, Stacey A; Danke, Joshua; Amemiya, Chris T

    2004-11-15

    Hoxc8 early enhancer controls the initiation and establishment phase of Hoxc8 expression in the mouse. Comparative studies indicate the presence of Hoxc8 early enhancer sequences in different vertebrate clades including mammals, birds and fish. Previous studies have shown differences between teleost and mammalian Hoxc8 early enhancers with respect to sequence and organization of protein binding elements. This raises the question of when the Hoxc8 early enhancer arose and how it has become modified in different vertebrate lineages. Here, we describe Hoxc8 early enhancer from the Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis. Coelacanths are the only extant lobefinned fish whose genome is tractable to genome analysis. The Latimeria Hoxc8 early enhancer sequence more closely resembles that of the mouse than that of Fugu or zebrafish. When assayed for enhancer activity by reporter gene analysis in transgenic mouse embryos, Latimeria Hoxc8 early enhancer directs expression to the posterior neural tube and mesoderm similar to that of the mouse enhancer. These observations support a close relationship between coelacanths and tetrapods and place the origin of a common Hoxc8 early enhancer sequence within the sarcopterygian lineage. The divergence of teleost (actinopterygii) Hoxc8 early enhancer may reflect a case of relaxed selection or other forms of instability induced by genome duplication events.

  2. Coelacanths as 'almost living fossils’

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    Lionel eCavin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its usage by Darwin in 1859, the concept of ‘living fossil’ has undergone multiple definitions and has been much discussed and criticized. Soon after its discovery in 1938, the coelacanth Latimeria was regarded as the iconic example of a ‘living fossil’. Several morphological studies have shown that the coelacanth lineage (Actinistia has not displayed critical morphological transformation during its evolutionary history and molecular studies have revealed a low substitution rate for Latimeria, indicating a slow genetic evolution. This statement, however, has been recently questioned by arguing that the low substitution rate was not real, and that the slow morphological evolution of actinistians was not supported by paleontological evidence. The assessment of morphological transformation among three vertebrate lineages during a time interval of circa 400 million years shows that the morphological disparity of coelacanths is much more reduced than the morphological disparity of Actinopterygii and Tetrapoda. These results support the idea that living coelacanths are singular organisms among the living world.

  3. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution.

  4. The smaller your mouth, the longer your snout: predicting the snout length of Syngnathus acus, Centriscus scutatus and other pipette feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lussanet, Marc H E; Muller, M

    2007-06-22

    Like most ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), pipefishes (Syngnathoidei) feed by suction. Most pipefishes reach their prey by a rapid dorso-rotation of the head. In the present study, we analysed the feeding kinematics of the razor fish, Centriscus scutatus, and of the greater pipefish, Syngnathus acus in detail. We found capture times of as little as 4-6ms for C. scutatus and 6-8ms for S. acus. We then hypothesized that the long snout of pipefishes is optimal for such fast feeding. To test this, we implemented in a mathematical model the following considerations. To reach the prey as fast as possible, a low moment of inertia increases the head's angular speed, whereas a long snout decreases the angle over which the head must be turned. The model accurately predicted the snout lengths of a number of pipefishes. We found that the optimal snout length, with which a prey will be reached fastest, is inversely related to its cross-section. In spite of the small cross-section, the development of a long snout can be an evolutionary advantage because this reduces the time to approach the prey.

  5. Chromosome evolution in fishes: a new challenging proposal from Neotropical species

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a database containing cytogenetic data of Neotropical actinopterygian fishes from Venezuela obtained in a single laboratory for the first time. The results of this study include 103 species belonging to 74 genera assigned to 45 families and 17 out of the 40 teleost orders. In the group of marine fishes, the modal diploid number was 2n=48 represented in 60% of the studied species, while in the freshwater fish group the modal diploid complement was 2n=54, represented in 21.21 % of the studied species. The average number of chromosomes and the mean FN were statistically higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish. The degree of diversification and karyotype variation was also higher in freshwater fish in contrast to a more conserved cytogenetic pattern in marine fish. In contrast to the assumption according to which 48 acrocentric chromosomes was basal chromosome number in fish, data here presented show that there is an obvious trend towards the reduction of the diploid number of chromosomes from values near 2n=60 with high number of biarmed chromosomes in more basal species to 2n=48 acrocentric elements in more derived Actinopterygii.

  6. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous−Paleogene mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Elizabeth C.; Norris, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous−Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern “age of fishes.” PMID:26124114

  7. Evolution of melanocortin receptors in cartilaginous fish: melanocortin receptors and the stress axis in elasmobranches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Reinick, Christina; Angleson, Joseph K; Dores, Robert M

    2013-01-15

    There is general agreement that the presence of five melanocortin receptor genes in tetrapods is the result of two genome duplications that occurred prior to the emergence of the gnathostomes, and at least one local gene duplication that occurred early in the radiation of the ancestral gnathostomes. Hence, it is assumed that representatives from the extant classes of gnathostomes (i.e., Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii, Sarcopterygii) should also have five paralogous melanocortin genes. Current studies on cartilaginous fishes indicate that while there is evidence for five paralogous melanocortin receptor genes in this class, to date all five paralogs have not been detected in the genome of a single species. This mini-review will discuss the ligand selectivity properties of the melanocortin-3 receptor of the elephant shark (subclass Holocephali) and the ligand selectivity properties of the melanocortin-3 receptor, melanocortin-4 receptor, and the melanocortin-5 receptor of the dogfish (subclass Elasmobranchii). The potential relationship of these melanocortin receptors to the hypothalamus/pituitary/interrenal axis will be discussed.

  8. [Species selection methods in deriving water quality criteria for aquatic life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Song; Wang, Ye-Yao; Meng, Fan-Sheng; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Yu, Hai-Bin

    2014-10-01

    The Mann-Whitney U test method was used to analyze the species sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. And based on the analysis, the relationship between species selection method and WQC deriving method was studied by using toxicology, biological taxonomy and sampling-inference theory. Results showed that vertebrate species, especially the Actinopterygii, accounted for the vast majority in the toxicity test species. And the species composition of toxicity test species was inconsistent with the species composition of the ecosystem. Sensitivity to ammonia toxicity among different taxa varied significantly for most species except some species in individual taxa, especially the less sensitive species. The variable coefficient of interspecies decreased with the reduction of biological classification level. To a certain extent, it showed that the species sensitivities in the same taxa to toxicant were more similar than those in different taxa. According to sampling-inference theory, the WQC for aquatic life deriving method belonged to the design-based inference. And taxonomic groups could be used as auxiliary variables to conduct a stratifactory sampling for species selection in WQC deriving which could improve the sampling efficiency and precision.

  9. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus): cDNA cloning, sites of expression and transcript abundance in corticosteroidogenic tissue after an acute stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Makoto; Zuccarelli, Micah D; Nakamura, Ikumi; Young, Graham

    2009-06-01

    The white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, is a primitive bony fish that is recognized as an important emerging species for aquaculture. However, many aspects of its stress and reproductive physiology remain unclear. These processes are controlled by various steroid hormones. In order to investigate the regulation of steroidogenesis associated with acute stress in sturgeon, a cDNA-encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) was isolated from white sturgeon. The putative amino acid sequence of sturgeon StAR shares high homology (over 60%) with other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis grouped sturgeon StAR within Actinopterygii, but it was clearly segregated from teleost StARs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcripts were most abundant in yellow corpuscles found throughout the kidney and weaker signals were detected in gonad and kidney. Very weak signals were also detected in brain and spleen by quantitative real-time PCR. In situ hybridization revealed that StAR is expressed in the cells of yellow corpuscles. No significant changes in StAR gene expression were detected in response to an acute handling stress. These results suggest that StAR is highly conserved throughout vertebrates, but the expression of the functional protein during the stress response may be partially regulated post-transcriptionally.

  10. Cloning a Chymotrypsin-Like 1 (CTRL-1 Protease cDNA from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai

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    Yunwi Heo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme in a nematocyst extract of the Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, caught off the coast of the Republic of Korea, catalyzed the cleavage of chymotrypsin substrate in an amidolytic kinetic assay, and this activity was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. We isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of this enzyme, which contains 850 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 801 encoding 266 amino acids. A blast analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed 41% identity with human chymotrypsin-like (CTRL and the CTRL-1 precursor. Therefore, we designated this enzyme N. nomurai CTRL-1. The primary structure of N. nomurai CTRL-1 includes a leader peptide and a highly conserved catalytic triad of His69, Asp117, and Ser216. The disulfide bonds of chymotrypsin and the substrate-binding sites are highly conserved compared with the CTRLs of other species, including mammalian species. Nemopilema nomurai CTRL-1 is evolutionarily more closely related to Actinopterygii than to Scyphozoan (Aurelia aurita or Hydrozoan (Hydra vulgaris. The N. nomurai CTRL1 was amplified from the genomic DNA with PCR using specific primers designed based on the full-length cDNA, and then sequenced. The N. nomurai CTRL1 gene contains 2434 nucleotides and four distinct exons. The 5′ donor splice (GT and 3′ acceptor splice sequences (AG are wholly conserved. This is the first report of the CTRL1 gene and cDNA structures in the jellyfish N. nomurai.

  11. The Oldest Actinopterygian Highlights the Cryptic Early History of the Hyperdiverse Ray-Finned Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Giles, Sam; Friedman, Matt; den Blaauwen, Jan L; Zhu, Min

    2016-06-20

    Osteichthyans comprise two divisions, each containing over 32,000 living species [1]: Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods) and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). Recent discoveries from China highlight the morphological disparity of early sarcopterygians and extend their origin into the late Silurian [2-4]. By contrast, the oldest unambiguous actinopterygians are roughly 30 million years younger, leaving a long temporal gap populated by fragments and rare body fossils of controversial phylogenetic placement [5-10]. Here we reinvestigate the enigmatic osteichthyan Meemannia from the Early Devonian (∼415 million years ago) of China, previously identified as an exceptionally primitive lobe-finned fish [3, 7, 11, 12]. Meemannia combines "cosmine"-like tissues taken as evidence of sarcopterygian affinity with actinopterygian-like skull roof and braincase geometry, including endoskeletal enclosure of the spiracle and a lateral cranial canal. We report comparable histological structures in undoubted ray-finned fishes and conclude that they are general osteichthyan features. Phylogenetic analysis places Meemannia as an early-diverging ray-finned fish, resolving it as the sister lineage of Cheirolepis [13] plus all younger actinopterygians. This brings the first appearance of ray-fins more in line with that of lobe-fins and fills a conspicuous faunal gap in the otherwise diverse late Silurian-earliest Devonian vertebrate faunas of the South China Block [4]. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Elizabeth C; Norris, Richard D

    2015-07-14

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance is poorly constrained. Here we use microfossil teeth and shark dermal scales (ichthyoliths) preserved in deep-sea sediments to study the changes in the pelagic fish community in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene. We find that the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) extinction event marked a profound change in the structure of ichthyolith communities around the globe: Whereas shark denticles outnumber ray-finned fish teeth in Cretaceous deep-sea sediments around the world, there is a dramatic increase in the proportion of ray-finned fish teeth to shark denticles in the Paleocene. There is also an increase in size and numerical abundance of ray-finned fish teeth at the boundary. These changes are sustained through at least the first 24 million years of the Cenozoic. This new fish community structure began at the K/Pg mass extinction, suggesting the extinction event played an important role in initiating the modern "age of fishes."

  13. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  14. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

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    Qingda Hu

    Full Text Available Resistin (encoded by Retn was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  15. Produção e características qualitativas de sementes de plantas daninhas Production and qualitative characteristics of weed seeds

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    J.B. Santos

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção (número e peso e a composição (teores de lipídeo total, proteína total, carboidrato e cinzas de sementes de Euphorbia heterophylla (biótipos suscetível e resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum em condições de campo. Os biótipos de E. heterophylla apresentaram maiores valores para peso de 100 sementes. D. tortuosum produziu maior número de sementes por planta (714,2. Para todas as espécies avaliadas, a maior parte da reserva da biomassa seca das sementes foi constituída por carboidrato, e B. pilosa apresentou o maior acúmulo (61,7%. Biótipos de E. heterophylla acumularam maiores quantidades de lipídeos e de cinzas, enquanto D. tortuosum acumulou maior teor de proteínas (34,8%. Biótipos de E. heterophylla não diferiram quanto a produção e composição de suas sementes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the production (number and weight and composition (contents of lipid, protein, carbohydrate and ashes of Euphorbia heterophylla seeds (susceptible and resistant biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum under field conditions. Biotypes of E. heterophylla presented the highest weight of 100 seeds. D. tortuosum produced the largest number of seeds per plant (714.25. For all the evaluated species, most of the seed dry biomass reserve was constituted of carbohydrate with B. pilosa presenting the largest accumulation (61.7%. Biotypes of E. heterophylla accumulated higher amounts of lipids and ashes, while D. tortuosum accumulated higher protein content (34.8%. Biotypes of E. heterophylla did not differ in their seed production and composition.

  16. LA VEGETACIÓN DEL HUMEDAL DE JABOQUE (BOGOTÁ, D.C.

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    Hernández Juliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con base en los lineamientos metodológicos de la escuela sigmatista-Zurich-Montpellier, se diferenciaron 14 comunidades vegetales que se distribuyen en losdiferentes ambientes que incluye una serie ecológica hídrica en el humedal deJaboque, Bogotá, Colombia. En la vegetación de ribera predominan los juncalesde Schoenoplectus californicus, de Juncus effusus y el totoral de Typha latifolia.En ambientes pantanosos ya sea en las orillas o en zonas que se han terrizado alinterior de la cubeta, arraigan los herbazales de Polypogon elongatum, de Rumexconglomeratus y el cortaderal de Carex luridiformis. En las zonas de transiciónentre los ambientes acuáticos y continentales, se ubican los camalotales, vegetaciónsemiarraigada dominada por Bidens laevis, que se asocia con Ludwigia peploides,Hydrocotyle ranunculoides y Polygonum punctatum. En los reducidos espejos deagua, se establecen las comunidades fl otantes de Eichhornia crassipes, Limnobiumlaevigatum y Lemna gibba. En general la diversidad fl orística de especies y decomunidades es mayor en la parte más amplia y en mejor estado de conservación delhumedal, en cercanías al Parque de La Florida, donde se encuentran representadascasi todas las comunidades vegetales reseñadas en esta contribución. En la zonade mayor transformación (área canalizada, se establecen pocas comunidades,predominan el camalotal de Bidens laevis, el herbazal de Polygonum punctatum(barbasco y los pastizales con Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyo y Polypogonelongatus. La mayoría de las comunidades vegetales registradas en Jaboque tienendistribución amplia en lagos, lagunas y pantanos andinos, con especial signifi canciaen la sabana de Bogotá y en el altiplano cundi-boyacense.

  17. Influence of several plant extracts on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory Influência de diversos extratos vegetais sobre o comportamento de oviposição de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Whole, ethanolic, hexanic, lyophilized extracts of several plants and anacardic acid tested in respect of their influence on the oviposition behavior of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations. Extracts of Allium stivum, Jatropha curcas, Mikania schenkii, Poinciana regia and Spatodea campanulata had a repulsive effect (α=0.05 on females at 100 ppm, those of Anacardium occidentale, Bidens segetum and Caesalpinia peltophoroides were also repelent at 10 ppm. Extracts of Coriandrum sativum (100, 10 and 1 ppm, Chara Zeylanica (10 ppm, Cupressus sempervirens (10 ppm, Foeniculum vulgare (10 ppm and Spatodea campanulata (1 ppm were attractive to the females; 13 (52.0% of the extracts tested, did not influence the oviposition behavior.Extratos brutos, etanólicos, hexânicos, liofilizados de diversos vegetais e ácido anacárdico foram testados quanto a sua influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. Os estratos de Allium sativum, jatropha curcas. MiKania schenkii, Poinciana regia s Spatodea campanulata mostraram-se repelentes (α = 0,05 para as fêmeas na concentração de 100 ppm e os de Anacardium occidentale, Bidens segetum e Caesalpinia peltophoroides também na de 10 ppm. Os extratos Coriandrum stivum (100, 10 e 1 ppm, chara zeylanica (10 ppm, Cupressus sempervirens (10 ppm, Foeniculum vulgare (10 ppm e Spatodea campanulata (1 ppm atrairam a oviposição das fêmeas; 13 (52,0% dos extratos testados foram indiferentes as fêmeas nas concentrações utilizadas.

  18. Determinação de espécie indicadora e comparação de genótipos de girassol quanto ao potencial alelopático Determination of indicative species and comparison of sunflower genotypes as to their allelopathic potential

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    H.L. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na agricultura atual, o método mais utilizado para o controle de plantas daninhas é o químico, em razão da facilidade de uso, elevada eficiência e baixa necessidade de mão de obra. No entanto, a utilização inadequada desses produtos provoca problemas ao ambiente e à saúde humana. Cresce, portanto, a busca por métodos alternativos de controle de plantas daninhas, menos demandadores de energia e menos tóxicos e agressivos ao ambiente. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito alelopático da cultura do girassol (Helianthus annuus sobre diferentes espécies de plantas daninhas e cultivadas, em dois experimentos realizados em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, utilizando o método da semeadura em substituição. O primeiro experimento foi realizado com quatro repetições, em esquema bifatorial. O primeiro fator foi constituído por seis espécies indicadoras: picão-preto (Bidens pilosa, corda-de-viola (Ipomoea grandifolia, caruru (Amaranthus hybridus, alface (Lactuca sativa, cultivar Aurélia, tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, cultivar Santa Cruz, trigo (Triticum aestivum, cultivar BRS 208; e o segundo, pela presença ou não de plântulas de girassol. O segundo experimento foi composto por 24 tratamentos, representados por 23 genótipos de girassol e por uma testemunha sem girassol, utilizando-se quatro repetições. A espécie indicadora foi apenas o picão-preto. Em ambos os experimentos, no final do período de sete dias de convívio, foram avaliados o número de sementes germinadas e o comprimento radicular e da parte aérea das espécies indicadoras. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as porcentagens de germinação de quaisquer das espécies indicadoras avaliadas, em função da presença ou não das plântulas de girassol. A presença de plântulas de girassol estimulou o crescimento radicular das plântulas de tomate e trigo e inibiu o crescimento da parte aérea de picão-preto, trigo e corda

  19. 南美蟛蜞菊毛状根乙醇提取液对种子萌发的影响%The Influence of Ethanol Extracts from Wedelia trilobata (L.) A.S.Hitche Hairy Roots on Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧少云

    2013-01-01

    In this test, in order to lay the experimental and technological foundation for the production and application of making bio-chemicals with in vitro cultured hairy roots derived from Wedelia trilobata, seeds of several plants (Bidens pilosa L.) were soaked with ethanol extracts from Wedelia trilobata (L.) A.S.Hitche hairy roots with different concentrations, and study the allelopathic effect. The seeds (Bidens pilosa L. etc.) were immersed individually in ethanol extracts from Wedelia trilobata hairy roots of two concentrations, 0.5 g/mL and 1.0 g/mL, for 3 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours to do germination experiments. And as a contrast, another set of seeds were soaked with water. The higher the concentration of the ethanol extract was, or the longer the seeds were soaked, the lower the seeds germination rate would be. And it’s found that having been immersed in the 0.5 g/mL (fresh weight) low concentration extract for over 12 hours, the seeds of Bidens pilosa L., Digitaria ischaemum, D.sanguinalis and Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. could not germinate properly; while the inhibition effect on the seeds was more obvious when the seeds were soaked in the extract of 1.0 g/mL (fresh weight) high concentration for over 12 hours-seed of Bidens pilosa L., Digitaria ischaemum, D.sanguinalis, Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. and Herba taraxaci could not germinate under this condition. What’s more, the test showed that when the soaking time was over 24 hours, no matter the concentration was 0.5 g/mL or 1.0 g/mL, the inhibition effect of the ethanol extracts would be much stronger. Wedelia trilobata hairy roots have strong allelopathic effect.%拟通过用不同浓度的蟛蜞菊毛状根的乙醇提取液浸泡三叶鬼针草(Bidens pilosa L.)等种子研究其化感作用,为今后开展通过南美蟛蜞菊离体培养毛状根来生产高效低毒的“生物农药”及其应用奠定实验和技术基础。用0.5 g/mL、1.0 g/mL 的蟛蜞

  20. Updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. EVANS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands is presented on account of new records and amendments to a previous review in 2007. Species were classified according to their establishment status (‘Questionable’, ‘Casual’, ‘Established’, ‘Invasive’ and origin (‘Alien’, ‘Range expansion’, ‘Cryptogenic’. A total of 31 species were added to the inventory, while 6 species have been removed, bringing the total number of species to 73. Of these, 66 are considered to be aliens (or putative aliens but with uncertain origin with the remaining 7 resulting from range expansion. Six records are considered to be questionable and hence unverified. For verified records, the dominant taxonomic groups are Mollusca (represented by 21 species and Actinopterygii (15 species, followed by Crustacea (8 species and Rhodophyta (7 species. Eight of these species (aliens: Caulerpa cylindracea, Lophocladia lallemandi, Womersleyella setacea, Brachidontes pharaonis, Percnon gibbesi, Fistularia commersonii, Siganus luridus; range extender: Sphoeroides pachygaster are considered to be invasive. The introduction pathway for 30 species is unknown. Amongst the alien species, ‘Shipping’ is the most common introduction pathway, followed by ‘Secondary dispersal’ from elsewhere in the Mediterranean Sea. An increasing trend in the number of alien marine species reported from the Maltese Islands is evident, with a peak of 22 species recorded during the last decade (2001–2010. A discussion on the rationale for including range-expanding species in national inventories of recent arrivals, and in the analysis of trends in records from the Maltese Islands, is included. In particular, the general warming trend of Mediterranean surface waters appears to be facilitating the westward spread of thermophilic alien species from the Eastern to the Central Mediterranean, and the eastward range expansion of

  1. Comparative data on the differentiation and growth of bone ornamentation in gnathostomes (Chordata: Vertebrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Buffrénil, Vivian; Clarac, François; Canoville, Aurore; Laurin, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Bone ornamentation, in the form of rounded pits framed by a network of ridges, is a frequent feature among a great diversity of gnathostome taxa. However, the basic osteogenic processes controlling the differentiation and development of these reliefs remain controversial. The present study is a broad comparative survey of this question with the classical methods used in hard tissue histology and paleohistology. Distinct processes, unevenly distributed among taxa, are involved in the creation and growth of pits and ridges. The simplest one is mere differential growth between pit bottom (slow growth) and ridge top (faster growth). The involvement of several complex remodeling processes, with the local succession of resorption and reconstruction cycles, is frequent and occurs in all major gnathostome clades. Some broad, inclusive clades (e.g., Temnospondyli) display consistency in the mechanisms controlling ornamentation, whereas other clades (e.g., Actinopterygii) are characterized by the diversity of the mechanisms involved. If osteogenic mechanisms are taken into account, bone ornamentation should be considered as a character extremely prone to homoplasy. Maximum likelihood (ML) optimizations reveal that the plesiomorphic mechanism creating ornamentation is differential apposition rate over pits (slow growth) and ridges (faster growth). In some taxas e.g., temnospondyls vs lissamphibians or pseudosuchians, bone ornamentation is likely to be a homoplastic feature due to a convergence process driven by similar selective pressures. ML models of character evolution suggest that the presence of resorption in the development of ornamentation may be selectively advantageous, although support for this conclusion is only moderate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hox gene clusters in the Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Esther G L; Lam, Kevin; Christoffels, Alan; Erdmann, Mark V; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2003-02-01

    The Hox genes encode transcription factors that play a key role in specifying body plans of metazoans. They are organized into clusters that contain up to 13 paralogue group members. The complex morphology of vertebrates has been attributed to the duplication of Hox clusters during vertebrate evolution. In contrast to the single Hox cluster in the amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae), an invertebrate-chordate, mammals have four clusters containing 39 Hox genes. Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) such as zebrafish and fugu possess more than four Hox clusters. The coelacanth occupies a basal phylogenetic position among lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii), which gave rise to the tetrapod lineage. The lobe fins of sarcopterygians are considered to be the evolutionary precursors of tetrapod limbs. Thus, the characterization of Hox genes in the coelacanth should provide insights into the origin of tetrapod limbs. We have cloned the complete second exon of 33 Hox genes from the Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis, by extensive PCR survey and genome walking. Phylogenetic analysis shows that 32 of these genes have orthologs in the four mammalian HOX clusters, including three genes (HoxA6, D1, and D8) that are absent in ray-finned fishes. The remaining coelacanth gene is an ortholog of hoxc1 found in zebrafish but absent in mammals. Our results suggest that coelacanths have four Hox clusters bearing a gene complement more similar to mammals than to ray-finned fishes, but with an additional gene, HoxC1, which has been lost during the evolution of mammals from lobe-finned fishes.

  3. New cyt b gene universal primer set for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Oceja, A; Gamarra, D; Borragan, S; Jiménez-Moreno, S; de Pancorbo, M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, and in particular the cytochrome b gene (cyt b), has become an essential tool for species identification in routine forensic practice. In cases of degraded samples, where the DNA is fractionated, universal primers that are highly efficient for the amplification of the target region are necessary. Therefore, in the present study a new universal cyt b primer set with high species identification capabilities, even in samples with highly degraded DNA, has been developed. In order to achieve this objective, the primers were designed following the alignment of complete sequences of the cyt b from 751 species from the Class of Mammalia listed in GenBank. A highly variable region of 148bp flanked by highly conserved sequences was chosen for placing the primers. The effectiveness of the new pair of primers was examined in 63 animal species belonging to 38 Families from 14 Orders and 5 Classes (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Actinopterygii, and Malacostraca). Species determination was possible in all cases, which shows that the fragment analyzed provided a high capability for species identification. Furthermore, to ensure the efficiency of the 148bp fragment, the intraspecific variability was analyzed by calculating the concordance between individuals with the BLAST tool from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnological Information). The intraspecific concordance levels were superior to 97% in all species. Likewise, the phylogenetic information from the selected fragment was confirmed by obtaining the phylogenetic tree from the sequences of the species analyzed. Evidence of the high power of phylogenetic discrimination of the analyzed fragment of the cyt b was obtained, as 93.75% of the species were grouped within their corresponding Orders. Finally, the analysis of 40 degraded samples with small-size DNA fragments showed that the new pair of primers permits identifying the species, even when the DNA is highly degraded as it is very common in

  4. An update on MyoD evolution in teleosts and a proposed consensus nomenclature to accommodate the tetraploidization of different vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Macqueen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MyoD is a muscle specific transcription factor that is essential for vertebrate myogenesis. In several teleost species, including representatives of the Salmonidae and Acanthopterygii, but not zebrafish, two or more MyoD paralogues are conserved that are thought to have arisen from distinct, possibly lineage-specific duplication events. Additionally, two MyoD paralogues have been characterised in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. This has lead to a confusing nomenclature since MyoD paralogues have been named outside of an appropriate phylogenetic framework. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we initially show that directly depicting the evolutionary relationships of teleost MyoD orthologues and paralogues is hindered by the asymmetric evolutionary rate of Acanthopterygian MyoD2 relative to other MyoD proteins. Thus our aim was to confidently position the event from which teleost paralogues arose in different lineages by a comparative investigation of genes neighbouring myod across the vertebrates. To this end, we show that genes on the single myod-containing chromosome of mammals and birds are retained in both zebrafish and Acanthopterygian teleosts in a striking pattern of double conserved synteny. Further, phylogenetic reconstruction of these neighbouring genes using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods supported a common origin for teleost paralogues following the split of the Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that myod was duplicated during the basal teleost whole genome duplication event, but was subsequently lost in the Ostariophysi (zebrafish and Protacanthopterygii lineages. We propose a sensible consensus nomenclature for vertebrate myod genes that accommodates polyploidization events in teleost and tetrapod lineages and is justified from a phylogenetic perspective.

  5. On the haptic nature of the active electric sense of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Angel A; Aguilera, Pedro A; Carolina Pereira, Ana; Rodríguez-Cattáneo, Alejo

    2013-11-06

    Electroreception is a sensory modality present in chondrichthyes, actinopterygii, amphibians, and mammalian monotremes. The study of this non-intuitive sensory modality has provided insights for better understanding of sensory systems in general and inspired the development of innovative artificial devices. Here we review evidence obtained from the analysis of electrosensory images, neurophysiological data from the recording of unitary activity in the electrosensory lobe, and psychophysical data from analysis of novelty responses provoked in well-defined stimulus conditions, which all confirm that active electroreception has a short range, and that the influence of exploratory movements on object identification is strong. In active electric images two components can be identified: a "global" image profile depending on the volume, shape and global impedance of an object and a "texture" component depending on its surface attributes. There is a short range of the active electric sense and the progressive "blurring" of object image with distance. Consequently, the lack of precision regarding object location, considered together, challenge the current view of this sense as serving long range electrolocation and the commonly used metaphor of "electric vision". In fact, the active electric sense shares more commonalities with human active touch than with teleceptive senses as vision or audition. Taking into account that other skin exteroceptors and proprioception may be congruently stimulated during fish exploratory movements we propose that electric, mechanoceptive and proprioceptive sensory modalities found in electric fish could be considered together as a single haptic sensory system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neural Coding 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining the diet of larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus using high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O'Rorke

    Full Text Available The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The present study uses a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach on DNA obtained from the hepatopancreas of larvae to discover significant prey items. Two short regions of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified under the presence of lobster specific PNA to prevent lobster amplification and to improve prey amplification. In the resulting sequences either little prey was recovered, indicating that the larval gut was empty, or there was a high number of reads originating from multiple zooplankton taxa. The most abundant reads included colonial Radiolaria, Thaliacea, Actinopterygii, Hydrozoa and Sagittoidea, which supports the hypothesis that the larvae feed on multiple groups of mostly transparent gelatinous zooplankton. This hypothesis has prevailed as it has been tentatively inferred from the physiology of larvae, captive feeding trials and co-occurrence in situ. However, these prey have not been observed in the larval gut as traditional microscopic techniques cannot discern between transparent and gelatinous prey items in the gut. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of gut DNA has enabled us to classify these otherwise undetectable prey. The dominance of the colonial radiolarians among the gut contents is intriguing in that this group has been historically difficult to quantify in the water column, which may explain why they have not been connected to larval diet previously. Our results indicate that a PCR based technique is a very successful approach to identify the most abundant taxa in the natural diet of lobster larvae.

  7. Coagulation profile, gene expression and bioinformatics characterization of coagulation factor X of striped murrel Channa striatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, Abirami; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Sathyamoorthi, Akila; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2016-08-01

    A transcriptome wide analysis of the constructed cDNA library of snakehead murrel Channa striatus revealed a full length cDNA sequence of coagulation factor X. Sequence analysis of C. striatus coagulation factor X (CsFX) showed that the cDNA contained 1232 base pairs (bp) comprising 1209 bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF region encodes 424 amino acids with a molecular mass of 59 kDa. The polypeptide contains γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) rich domain and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) like domains including EGF-CA domain and serine proteases trypsin signature profile. CsFX exhibited the maximum similarity with fish species such as Stegastes partitus (78%), Poecilia formosa (76%) and Cynoglossus semilaevis (74%). Phylogenetically, CsFX is clustered together with the fish group belonging to Actinopterygii. Secondary structure of factor X includes alpha helix 28.54%, extended strand 20.75%, beta turn 7.78% and random coil 42.92%. A predicted 3D model of CsFX revealed a short α-helix and a Ca(2+) (Gla domain) binding site in the coil. Four disulfide bridges were found in serine protease trypsin profile. Obviously, the highest gene expression (P < 0.05) was noticed in blood. Further, the changes in expression of CsFX was observed after inducing with bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) and fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) infections and other synthetic immune stimulants. Variation in blood clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated prothromboplastin time (APTT) was analyzed and compared between healthy and bacterial infected fishes. During infection, PT and APTT showed a declined clotting time due to the raised level of thrombocytes.

  8. Evolution of estrogen receptors in ray-finned fish and their comparative responses to estrogenic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Saki; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Lange, Anke; Ogino, Yukiko; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ihara, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kobayashi, Tohru; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, estrogens play fundamental roles in regulating reproductive activities through estrogen receptors (ESRs), and disruption of estrogen signaling is now of global concern for both wildlife and human health. To date, ESRs of only a limited number of species have been characterized. We investigated the functional diversity and molecular basis or ligand sensitivity of ESRs among ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii), the most variable group within vertebrates. We cloned and characterized ESRs from several key species in the evolution of ray-finned fish including bichir (Polypteriformes, ESR1 and ESR2) at the basal lineage of ray-finned fish, and arowana (Osteoglossiformes, ESR1 and ESR2b) and eel (Anguilliformes, ESR1, ESR2a and ESR2b) both belonging to ancient early-branching lineages of teleosts, and suggest that ESR2a and ESR2b emerged through teleost-specific whole genome duplication, but an ESR1 paralogue has been lost in the early lineage of euteleost fish species. All cloned ESR isoforms showed similar responses to endogenous and synthetic steroidal estrogens, but they responded differently to non-steroidal estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (e.g., ESR2a exhibits a weaker reporter activity compared with ESR2b). We show that variation in ligand sensitivity of ESRs can be attributed to phylogeny among species of different taxonomic groups in ray-finned fish. The molecular information provided contributes both to understanding of the comparative role of ESRs in the reproductive biology of fish and their comparative responses to EDCs.

  9. Evolution of the branchiostegal membrane and restricted gill openings in Actinopterygian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Stacy C; Near, Thomas J; Bemis, William E

    2015-06-01

    A phylogenetic survey is a powerful approach for investigating the evolutionary history of a morphological characteristic that has evolved numerous times without obvious functional implications. Restricted gill openings, an extreme modification of the branchiostegal membrane, are an example of such a characteristic. We examine the evolution of branchiostegal membrane morphology and highlight convergent evolution of restricted gill openings. We surveyed specimens from 433 families of actinopterygians for branchiostegal membrane morphology and measured head and body dimensions. We inferred a relaxed molecular clock phylogeny with branch length estimates based on nine nuclear genes sampled from 285 species that include all major lineages of Actinopterygii. We calculated marginal state reconstructions of four branchiostegal membrane conditions and found that restricted gill openings have evolved independently in at least 11 major actinopterygian clades, and the total number of independent origins of the trait is likely much higher. A principal component analysis revealed that fishes with restricted gill openings occupy a larger morphospace, as defined by our linear measurements, than do fishes with nonrestricted openings. We used a decision tree analysis of ecological data to determine if restricted gill openings are linked to certain environments. We found that fishes with restricted gill openings repeatedly occur under a variety of ecological conditions, although they are rare in open-ocean pelagic environments. We also tested seven ratios for their utility in distinguishing between fishes with and without restricted gill openings, and we propose a simple metric for quantifying restricted gill openings (RGO), defined as a ratio of the distance from the ventral midline to the gill opening relative to half the circumference of the head. Functional explanations for this specialized morphology likely differ within each clade, but its repeated evolution indicates a need

  10. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Cazaméa-Catalan

    Full Text Available All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish. We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish. We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish. Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence.

  11. Determining the diet of larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus) using high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, Richard; Lavery, Shane; Chow, Seinen; Takeyama, Haruko; Tsai, Peter; Beckley, Lynnath E; Thompson, Peter A; Waite, Anya M; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The present study uses a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach on DNA obtained from the hepatopancreas of larvae to discover significant prey items. Two short regions of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified under the presence of lobster specific PNA to prevent lobster amplification and to improve prey amplification. In the resulting sequences either little prey was recovered, indicating that the larval gut was empty, or there was a high number of reads originating from multiple zooplankton taxa. The most abundant reads included colonial Radiolaria, Thaliacea, Actinopterygii, Hydrozoa and Sagittoidea, which supports the hypothesis that the larvae feed on multiple groups of mostly transparent gelatinous zooplankton. This hypothesis has prevailed as it has been tentatively inferred from the physiology of larvae, captive feeding trials and co-occurrence in situ. However, these prey have not been observed in the larval gut as traditional microscopic techniques cannot discern between transparent and gelatinous prey items in the gut. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of gut DNA has enabled us to classify these otherwise undetectable prey. The dominance of the colonial radiolarians among the gut contents is intriguing in that this group has been historically difficult to quantify in the water column, which may explain why they have not been connected to larval diet previously. Our results indicate that a PCR based technique is a very successful approach to identify the most abundant taxa in the natural diet of lobster larvae.

  12. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence.

  13. The lineage-specific evolution of aquaporin gene clusters facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Nigel Finn

    Full Text Available A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of >2,000 transcripts amongst 131 deuterostome genomes and developed a model based upon Bayesian inference that traces their convergent roots to stem subfamilies in basal Metazoa and Prokaryota. This approach uncovered an unexpected diversity of aquaporins in every lineage investigated, and revealed that the vertebrate superfamily consists of 17 classes of aquaporins (Aqp0 - Aqp16. The oldest orthologs associated with water conservation in modern Tetrapoda are traced to a cluster of three aqp2-like genes in Actinistia that likely arose >500 Ma through duplication of an aqp0-like gene present in a jawless ancestor. In sea lamprey, we show that aqp0 first arose in a protocluster comprised of a novel aqp14 paralog and a fused aqp01 gene. To corroborate these findings, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of five syntenic nuclear receptor subfamilies, which, together with observations of extensive genome rearrangements, support the coincident loss of ancestral aqp2-like orthologs in Actinopterygii. We thus conclude that the divergence of sarcopterygian-specific aquaporin gene clusters was permissive for the evolution of water conservation mechanisms that facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.

  14. The impact of mining upon the features of the Blue Lagoon Lake in the Aghireşu area

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    Gavril Pandi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The substrate of Aghireşu area contains several resources, which in time it was exploited and processed in locality. Among them is the brown coal, the gypsum, the kaolin. The exploitations began in galleries, and then passed to phase of surface quarries. After mining was formed several lakes trough the collapse of the galleries; to them was added the artificial lakes too. The Blue Lagoon Lake is a hydrological unit, the most representative of mixed origin. The water characteristics of the lake are under the influence of mineral composition of the substrate, the activity of mining, the erosion processes, the characteristics of lakes depressions, the climate elements, etc. The water physical and chemical properties are analyzed in space and time scale variation. Sampling and analysis made afford to compare the values in horizontally and vertically plain. The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  15. The genomic environment around the Aromatase gene: evolutionary insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis-Henriques Maria A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19, catalyses the aromatisation of androgens to estrogens, a key mechanism in vertebrate reproductive physiology. A current evolutionary hypothesis suggests that CYP19 gene arose at the origin of vertebrates, given that it has not been found outside this clade. The human CYP19 gene is located in one of the proposed MHC-paralogon regions (HSA15q. At present it is unclear whether this genomic location is ancestral (which would suggest an invertebrate origin for CYP19 or derived (genomic location with no evolutionary meaning. The distinction between these possibilities should help to clarify the timing of the CYP19 emergence and which taxa should be investigated. Results Here we determine the "genomic environment" around CYP19 in three vertebrate species Homo sapiens, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Xenopus tropicalis. Paralogy studies and phylogenetic analysis of six gene families suggests that the CYP19 gene region was structured through "en bloc" genomic duplication (as part of the MHC-paralogon formation. Four gene families have specifically duplicated in the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, the mapping location of the different paralogues is consistent with a model of "en bloc" duplication. Furthermore, we also determine that this region has retained the same gene content since the divergence of Actinopterygii and Tetrapods. A single inversion in gene order has taken place, probably in the mammalian lineage. Finally, we describe the first invertebrate CYP19 sequence, from Branchiostoma floridae. Conclusion Contrary to previous suggestions, our data indicates an invertebrate origin for the aromatase gene, given the striking conservation pattern in both gene order and gene content, and the presence of aromatase in amphioxus. We propose that CYP19 duplicated in the vertebrate lineage to yield four paralogues, followed by the subsequent loss of all but one gene in vertebrate evolution. Finally, we

  16. Molecular evolution of GPCRs: Secretin/secretin receptors.

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    Tam, Janice K V; Lee, Leo T O; Jin, Jun; Chow, Billy K C

    2014-06-01

    In mammals, secretin is a 27-amino acid peptide that was first studied in 1902 by Bayliss and Starling from the extracts of the jejunal mucosa for its ability to stimulate pancreatic secretion. To date, secretin has only been identified in tetrapods, with the earliest diverged secretin found in frogs. Despite being the first hormone discovered, secretin's evolutionary origin remains enigmatic, it shows moderate sequence identity in nonmammalian tetrapods but is highly conserved in mammals. Current hypotheses suggest that although secretin has already emerged before the divergence of osteichthyans, it was lost in fish and retained only in land vertebrates. Nevertheless, the cognate receptor of secretin has been identified in both actinopterygian fish (zebrafish) and sarcopterygian fish (lungfish). However, the zebrafish secretin receptor was shown to be nonbioactive. Based on the present information that the earliest diverged bioactive secretin receptor was found in lungfish, and its ability to interact with both vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide potently suggested that secretin receptor was descended from a VPAC-like receptor gene before the Actinopterygii-Sarcopterygii split in the vertebrate lineage. Hence, secretin and secretin receptor have gone through independent evolutionary trajectories despite their concurrent emergence post-2R. A functional secretin-secretin receptor axis has probably emerged in the amphibians. Although the pleiotropic actions of secretin are well documented in the literature, only limited information of its physiological functions in nonmammalian tetrapods have been reported. To decipher the structural and functional divergence of secretin and secretin receptor, functional characterization of the ligand-receptor pair in nonmammals would be the next perspective for investigation.

  17. Updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean

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    J. EVANS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands is presented on account of new records and amendments to a previous review in 2007. Species were classified according to their establishment status (‘Questionable’, ‘Casual’, ‘Established’, ‘Invasive’ and origin (‘Alien’, ‘Range expansion’, ‘Cryptogenic’. A total of 31 species were added to the inventory, while 6 species have been removed, bringing the total number of species to 73. Of these, 66 are considered to be aliens (or putative aliens but with uncertain origin with the remaining 7 resulting from range expansion. Six records are considered to be questionable and hence unverified. For verified records, the dominant taxonomic groups are Mollusca (represented by 21 species and Actinopterygii (15 species, followed by Crustacea (8 species and Rhodophyta (7 species. Eight of these species (aliens: Caulerpa cylindracea, Lophocladia lallemandi, Womersleyella setacea, Brachidontes pharaonis, Percnon gibbesi, Fistularia commersonii, Siganus luridus; range extender: Sphoeroides pachygaster are considered to be invasive. The introduction pathway for 30 species is unknown. Amongst the alien species, ‘Shipping’ is the most common introduction pathway, followed by ‘Secondary dispersal’ from elsewhere in the Mediterranean Sea. An increasing trend in the number of alien marine species reported from the Maltese Islands is evident, with a peak of 22 species recorded during the last decade (2001–2010. A discussion on the rationale for including range-expanding species in national inventories of recent arrivals, and in the analysis of trends in records from the Maltese Islands, is included. In particular, the general warming trend of Mediterranean surface waters appears to be facilitating the westward spread of thermophilic alien species from the Eastern to the Central Mediterranean, and the eastward range expansion of

  18. The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates

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    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2′paralogs, the 2′ isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  19. Early members of 'living fossil' lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes.

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    Giles, Sam; Xu, Guang-Hui; Near, Thomas J; Friedman, Matt

    2017-08-30

    Modern ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise half of extant vertebrate species and are widely thought to have originated before or near the end of the Middle Devonian epoch (around 385 million years ago). Polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) represent the earliest-diverging lineage of living actinopterygians, with almost all Palaeozoic taxa interpreted as more closely related to other extant actinopterygians than to polypterids. By contrast, the earliest material assigned to the polypterid lineage is mid-Cretaceous in age (around 100 million years old), implying a quarter-of-a-billion-year palaeontological gap. Here we show that scanilepiforms, a widely distributed radiation from the Triassic period (around 252-201 million years ago), are stem polypterids. Importantly, these fossils break the long polypterid branch and expose many supposedly primitive features of extant polypterids as reversals. This shifts numerous Palaeozoic ray-fins to the actinopterygian stem, reducing the minimum age for the crown lineage by roughly 45 million years. Recalibration of molecular clocks to exclude phylogenetically reassigned Palaeozoic taxa results in estimates that the actinopterygian crown lineage is about 20-40 million years younger than was indicated by previous molecular analyses. These new dates are broadly consistent with our revised palaeontological timescale and coincident with an interval of conspicuous morphological and taxonomic diversification among ray-fins centred on the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. A shifting timescale, combined with ambiguity in the relationships of late Palaeozoic actinopterygians, highlights this part of the fossil record as a major frontier in understanding the evolutionary assembly of modern vertebrate diversity.

  20. The GC-heterogeneity of teleost fishes

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    Gautier Christian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most striking features of mammalian and birds chromosomes is the variation in the guanine-cytosine (GC content that occurs over scales of hundreds of kilobases to megabases; this is known as the "isochore" structure. Among other vertebrates the presence of isochores depends upon the taxon; isochore are clearly present in Crocodiles and turtles but fish genome seems very homogeneous on GC content. This has suggested a unique isochore origin after the divergence between Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, but before that between Sauropsida and mammals. However during more than 30 years of analysis, isochore characteristics have been studied and many important biological properties have been associated with the isochore structure of human genomes. For instance, the genes are more compact and their density is highest in GC rich isochores. Results This paper shows in teleost fish genomes the existence of "GC segmentation" sharing some of the characteristics of isochores although teleost fish genomes presenting a particular homogeneity in CG content. The entire genomes of T nigroviridis and D rerio are now available, and this has made it possible to check whether a mosaic structure associated with isochore properties can be found in these fishes. In this study, hidden Markov models were trained on fish genes (T nigroviridis and D rerio which were classified by using the isochore class of their human orthologous. A clear segmentation of these genomes was detected. Conclusion The GC content is an excellent indicator of isochores in heterogeneous genomes as mammals. The segmentation we obtained were well correlated with GC content and other properties associated to GC content such as gene density, the number of exons per gene and the length of introns. Therefore, the GC content is the main property that allows the detection of isochore but more biological properties have to be taken into account. This method allows detecting

  1. The Bernades herbarium in the Botanic Institute of Barcelona (BC

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    Ibáñez, N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The BC-Bernades herbarium is one of the oldest collections conserved in the Botanical Institute of Barcelona. It contains part of the field collections of Miquel Bernades i Mainader and Miquel Bernades i Clarís, doctors of medicine and botanists of Catalonian origin living in Madrid in the 18th century. The collection consists of 817 sheets, the complete list provided in the annexe. We also present information concerning the localities of certain specific recollections, the taxonomic groups and families, as well as a list of sheets of special interest. This list contains witness of cornfield weed now very rare or extinct in Iberian lands, such as Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi or Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , and also some of the first witness known from Spain of introduced plants, such as Aster cordifolius L. or Bidens bipinnata L.

    [es] El herbario BC-Bernades es una de las colecciones más antiguas conservadas en el Instituto Botánico de Barcelona. Contiene parte de las recolecciones de Miquel Bernades y Mainader y Miquel Bernades y Clarís, médicos y botánicos catalanes del siglo XVIII establecidos en Madrid. Consta de 817 pliegos, la relación de los cuales presentamos en un anexo. También mostramos datos sobre las localidades de recolección, grupos taxonómicos y familias presentes, y una relación de pliegos de interés. Entre estos aparecen testimonios de plantas arvenses extinguidas o muy raras en tierras ibéricas como Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi o Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , y también algunos de los primeros testimonios conocidos en España de plantas introducidas como Aster cordifolius L. o Bidens bipinnata L. [ct] L’herbari BC-Bernades és una de les col·leccions més antigues de les conservades a l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona. Conté part de les recol·leccions de Miquel Bernades i Mainader i Miquel Bernades

  2. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina Host preference of Culicidae (Diptera collected in central Argentina

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    Walter R. Almirón

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.Com o propósito de estudar a preferência de mosquitos fêmeas por hospedeiros vertebrados, realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais nas cidades de Córdoba e Cosquín (Argentina, durante o período de outubro a abril (primavera-verão, por dois anos consecutivos. Utilizaram-se armadilhas com iscas animais: anfíbios, aves, mamíferos e répteis. Dos espécimes coletados, 92,9% pertenciam ao gênero Culex, 7,0% a Aedes e 0,02% a Psorophora ciliata, única espécie coletada desse gênero. A maior proporçãoo de fêmeas (68,7% foi capturada em armadilhas iscadas com galinhas, seguindo-se em ordem as armadilhas com coelhos (29,9%, com tartarugas (0,8% e com anfíbios (0,05%. Assim, a maioria dos mosquitos foi coletada em armadilhas com hospedeiros homeotermos. Culex

  3. Bioensaio rápido de determinação da sensibilidade da acetolactato sintase (ALS a herbicidas inibidores Rapid bioassay to determine the sensitivity of acetolactate synthase (ALS to inhibitor herbicides

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    Patrícia Andrea Monqueiro

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade da acetolactato sintase (ALS, em plantas resistentes e suscetíveis de B. pilosa e A. quitensis após a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da ALS. O método baseia-se na utilização do ácido ciclopropanodicarboxílico (CPCA para inibir a cetoácido reductoisomerase (KARI, enzima que catalisa a reação seguinte do acetolactato na cadeia de biossíntese dos aminoácidos valina, leucina e isoleucina, provocando assim, o acúmulo de acetolactato, que na presença de um ácido forte forma acetoína. A base para a distinção entre os biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis é a quantidade de acetoína formada, que será maior nos biotipos em que a enzima ALS não sofreu inibição, ou seja, nos biotipos resistentes. A quantificação da acetoína acumulada ocorreu através da formação de um complexo colorido vermelho, devido a reação entre acetoína, creatina e naftol, cuja densidade ótica a 530 nm é proporcional à concentração do acetolactato formado na reação. Sendo assim, foi desenvolvido um ensaio utilizando este método após a aplicação dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr nos biotipos R e S de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus quitensis no estádio de dois pares de folhas. O bioensaio demonstrou que a enzima ALS dos biotipos resistentes é insensível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS e que este tipo de bioensaio é uma forma rápida e eficaz de diferenciação entre biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis.In order to compare the acetolactate synthase (ALS activity of resistant and susceptible biotypes of Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus quitensis to ALS inhibitor herbicides, a method based on ciclopronocarboxilic acid (CPCA to inhibit the enzyme ketoacidredutoisomerase (KARI is used. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction after acetolactate in the biosynthesis reaction chain of the aminoacids valine, leucine and isoleucine. In the presence of a KARI inhibitor, carbon from pyruvate flows through the branched chain

  4. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

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    Wilson da Silva

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazapyr (250 g ha-1 e testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sete dias após o transplante, usando-se pulverizador costal, pressurizado com CO2, calibrado para 200 L ha- 1 de calda. As principais plantas daninhas com maior infestação foram: Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea grandifolia e com menor infestação: Galinsoga parviflora e Bidens pilosa. O oxadiazil apresentou excelente controle de B. plantaginea, I. grandifolia e G. parviflora, não sendo eficiente para controle de B. pilosa, embora proporcionasse controle superior ao observado pelo oxadiazon. O oxadiazon foi eficiente até 45 dias após o tratamento para B. plantaginea, G. parviflora e até 90 dias para I. grandifolia. Tanto o oxyfluorfen quanto o imazapyr apresentaram excelente controle das plantas daninhas. De todos os herbicidas avaliados, apenas o imazapyr não deve ser recomendado para aplicação sobre o dossel de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis, em face da toxicidade provocada.The selectivity of some herbicides were evaluated on Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis seedlings as well as these herbicide efficiencies in the weed control. When the tubule-produced seedlings were 20 cm height they were transplanted at 2,0 m x 2,0 m spacings in fourrows plots with 10,0 m length. The treatments with oxadiazil (600; 800 and 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 and 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazpyr (250 g ha-1 and controls (weeded and without weeding were disposed

  5. Atividade alelopática de extrato acetato-etílico de folhas de Solanum cernuum Vell Allelopathic action of ethyl-acetate extract of the leaves of Solanum cernuum Vell

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    Luiz Gustavo André Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade alelopática do extrato com acetato-etílico das folhas de Solanum cernuum Vell (Solanaceae em relação ao efeito inibitório da germinação de sementes e vigor de plântulas de Sorghum bicolor L. (sorgo, Lactuca sativa L. (alface e Bidens pilosa L. (picão preto. Foi avaliada a atividade fitotóxica do extrato com acetato-etílico nas concentrações de 0,00; 31,25; 62,50; 125,00; 250,00; 500,00; 750,00 e 1.000,00 mg L-1. As variáveis analisadas foram porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento de parte aérea e de raízes, e, massa seca de plântulas. Os resultados mostraram efeito fitotóxico do extrato com acetato-etílico de S. cernuum sobre sorgo, alface e picão preto em pelo menos uma das variáveis analisadas. Para picão preto, todas as variáveis, exceto a massa seca, sofreram reduções significativas (pThe aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic action of an ethyl-acetate extract of the leaves of Solanum cernuum Vell (Solanaceae relative to the inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling vigour in Sorghum bicolor L. (sorghum, Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Bidens pilosa L. (Spanish needle. The phytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate extract was evaluated at concentrations of 0.00; 31.25; 62.50; 125.00; 250.00; 500.00; 750.00 and 1000.00 mg L-1. The variables analyzed were: percentage of germination; germination speed index; length of shoot and root; and seedling dry weight. The results showed a phytotoxic effect for the ethyl acetate extract of S. cernuum on sorghum, lettuce and Spanish needle for at least one of the variables analysed. For Spanish needle, all the variables except dry mass suffered significant reductions (p<0.05. There are phytotoxic effects for the ethyl acetate extract of Solanum cernuum Vell on seed germination and seedling vigour in sorghum, lettuce and Spanish needle. From the species studied, Spanish

  6. Evaluación preliminar del efecto que sobre algunas enzimas del suelo tienen diferentes mecanismos de control del hongo (Phytophthora infestans en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum bajo dos tipos de manejo agrícola (orgánico y convencional

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    Guardiola Marta Lucía

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó comparativamente el posible efecto diferencial que, sobre la actividad de las enzimas proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina y celulasa, además del pH y la materia orgánica del suelo, tuvieron los métodos de control de Phytophthora infestans tanto en la agricultura orgánica (purín de Chipaca Bidens pilosum como en la convencional (diversos fungicidas comerciales en plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum. Igualmente, en los parámetros antes mencionados, se evaluó el efecto de un promotor fúngico utilizado como control del mismo hongo en ambas agriculturas. La investigación se dividió en una fase de campo y una de laboratorio. En la fase de campo, realizada durante siete meses de 1999, se acompañó la siembra, el desarrollo del cultivo y evolución de la enfermedad a través de la determinación de la incidencia y su severidad. En el laboratorio se determinó la actividad enzimática proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina, celulasa, así como también el pH y porcentaje de materia orgánica. Se encontró que en el manejo agrícola orgánico la actividad de la fosfatasa ácida, la fosfatasa alcalina y la proteasa así como también el pH fueron más influenciados por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas que por efecto del los tratamientos utilizados en el control del hongo. En el manejo agrícola convencional la actividad enzimática de las celulasas fue inhibida significativamente por los fungicidas. La actividad de las proteasas y fosfatasas ácidas fueron estimuladas por efecto de los fungicidas comerciales y por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas. Las actividades enzimáticas fosfatasa ácida, proteasa y celulasa presentaron comportamientos significativamente diferentes entre los cultivos convencional y orgánico. Para el control de la enfermedad, el uso de los fungicidas fue el tratamiento que mejores resultados presentó con una mayor producción de papa pero con mayores gastos de producción, mientras

  7. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

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    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus

  8. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

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    Ocampo Saul A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, and one yeast (Candida albicans. These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml, clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml. Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml. Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml. Conclusion This in vitro study

  9. Cadastramento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura de girassol Phytosociological census of weeds in the sunflower crop

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    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento das plantas daninhas infestantes na précolheita da cultura de girassol em lavouras dos municípios do sudoeste goiano (Chapadão do Céu, Jataí e Montividiu e em Chapadão do Sul, MS. Foram amostradas, no período de maio a junho de 2002, 51 propriedades dos quatro municípios, totalizando uma área de 583 m². As espécies daninhas foram identificadas e contadas mediante a aplicação de um quadrado de 1,0x1,0 m, colocado ao acaso dentro da área ocupada pelas lavouras. Foram obtidos os valores de freqüência, densidade, abundância e índice de importância relativa. Plantas voluntárias de soja e de milho fazem parte da flora daninha infestante de lavouras de girassol dessa região. As famílias Poaceae, Asteraceae e Euphorbiaceae são as que apresentam maior número de espécies. As principais plantas daninhas infestantes na região são, em ordem decrescente, Ageratum conyzoides, Chamaesyce hirta, Cenchrus echinatus, Bidens sp., Euphorbia heterophylla e Commelina benghalensis.The objective of this work was to survey the weeds in the preharvest of the sunflower crop in growers field of the southwest regions of Goiás State (Chapadão do Céu, Jataí and Montividiu and Chapadão do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Fifty one farms were evaluated, during the period of May to June, 2002, in a total of 583 m² of area. The weeds were identified and counted inside a square (1.0x1.0 m, applied in each area, in order to determine the frequency, density, abundance and relative importance. Volunteer soybean (Glycine max and corn (Zea mays are part of the weed species in sunflower crop in the area. The botanical families Poaceae, Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae present larger number of species. The main weeds found in the area are, in decreasing order, Ageratum conyzoides, Chamaesyce hirta, Cenchrus echinatus, Bidens sp., Euphorbia heterophylla and Commelina benghalensis.

  10. Diversification of the yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its

  11. Studies on the Allelopathy and GAP Management of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees%穿心莲化感作用与GAP栽培规范的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令杰; 刘意; 褚晨亮; 何洋

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究穿心莲的化感作用,为GAP栽培管理提供依据.方法 以表面皿培养法试验穿心莲根际土壤浸提液及穿心莲内酯对照品溶液对穿心莲种子及三叶鬼针草种子萌发的抑制作用:以HPLC法对穿心莲根际土壤浸提液进行了分析鉴定.结果 穿心莲根际土壤浸提液及穿心莲内酯对照品溶液均能显著抑制三叶鬼针草和穿心莲种子的萌发,其抑制作用随着浓度的增大而增强;结果表明,穿心莲内酯是其根际土壤浸提液中的一主要成分.结论 穿心莲在其生长过程中释放了化感物质进入了其根际土壤,对穿心莲和其他植物产生化感作用,穿心莲内酯为其中的主要化感物质之一.%Objective To investigate allelopathy of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees for its GAP management.Methods With watch glass culture, the inhibitory effects of andrographlide and the rhizosphere extract of Andrographis paniculata on seed germination of the herb itself and Bidens pilosa were conducted, and with HPLC method, the main constituents of the rhizosphere extract were analysed.Results The results showed that both of andrographlide and the rhizosphere extract had significant inhibitory effects on the germinations of Bidens pilosa seeds and itself; the effects strengthened with increasing of their concentrations.Andrographlide is one kind of main constituents in the rhizosphere extract indicated by HPLC analysis.Conclusion In the growth period, Andrographis paniculata release some alleochemicals into the soil, and andrographlide is one of the main allelochemical.

  12. Influência do tipo e da quantidade de resíduos vegetais na emergência de plantas daninhas Influence of type and amount of crop residues on weed emergence

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    N.M. Correia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da semeadura no outono/inverno de diferentes espécies: sorgo de cobertura (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense 'híbrido Cober Exp', milheto forrageiro (Pennisetum americanum 'var. BN2', capim-pé-de-galinha (Eleusine coracana e braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha para formação de palha (nas quantidades de 3,0 e 5,5 t ha¹, na emergência de plantas daninhas, foi conduzido experimento no ano agrícola 2003/04, na fazenda Três Marcos, em Uberlândia, MG. Foi mantida uma testemunha como tratamento adicional, sem cobertura com restos vegetais. A composição específica e as densidades populacionais das comunidades infestantes foram influenciadas pelos sistemas de produção de cobertura morta. A emergência das plantas daninhas foi menor nas coberturas de sorgo e braquiária e nos maiores níveis de palha. O número de plântulas emergidas de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus spp., Commelina benghalensis, Leucas martinicensis e gramíneas foi inibido pelas coberturas, enquanto para Chamaesyce spp. os resíduos contribuíram para incremento na sua emergência.To evaluate the effects on weed emergence of autumn/winter sowing of different species [sorghum (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense 'Cober Exp hybrid', forage millet (Pennisetum americanum 'var. BN2', finger millet (Eleusine coracana and St Lucia grass (Brachiaria brizantha, for mulch formation (at rates of 3.0 and 5.5 t ha-1, an experiment was carried out in the agricultural year 2003/2004, in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specific composition and population densities of the infesting community were influenced by the mulch production systems. Weed emergence was minor under sorghum and Sta Lucia grass cover and in greater amounts of straw. Straw cover inhibited the emergence of seedlings of Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus spp., Commelina benghalensis, Leucas martinicensis and grasses and stimulated the emergence of Chamaesyce spp.

  13. Teores de macro e micronutrientes e a relação c/n de várias espécies de plantas daninhas Contents of macronutrients and micronutrients and CN relation of several weed species

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    Luciano S. Souza

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar os teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn e a relação C/N, presentes na matéria seca da parte aérea das seguintes espécies de plantas daninhas: Ageratum conyzoides L., Amaranthus lividus L., Bidens pilosa L., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitchc., Senna occidentalis (L. Link., Commelina benghalensis L., Cyperus rotundus L., Digitaria horizontalis Willd., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Indigofera truxillensis H.B.K., Ipomoea acuminata Roem. et Schult, Panicum maximum Jacq., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd. C.E. Hubb., Richardia brasiliensis Gomez e Sida cordifolia L. Os teores de macronutrientes obtidos da matéria seca das plantas daninhas, foram maiores em geral nas dicotiledôneas. Em relação às monocotiledôneas não houve um padrão de comportamento para os micronutrientes. Entretanto, o teores de carbono foram, em média, superiores para todas as monocotiledôneas, sendo que as dicotiledôneas apresentaram relações C/N menores do que as monocotiledôneas.The aim of this work was to determine nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn as well as the CN relation found in the dry matter of the aerial parts of the following weeds: Ageratum conyzoides L., Amaranthus lividus L., Bidens pilosa L., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitchc., Senna occidentalis (L. Link., Commelina benghalensis L., Cyperus rotundus L., Digitaria horizontalis Willd., Euphorbia heterophylla L., Indigofera truxillensis H.B.K., Ipomoea acuminata Roem. et Schult, Panicum maximum Jacq., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd. C.E. Hubb., Richardia brasiliensis Gomez e Sida cordifolia L. Macronutrient contents got from weeds dry matter were higher in the dycotiledons.Concerning monocotyledons there were no standard of behaviour for micronutrients. However, carbon contents were superior to all

  14. Morfofisiologia de plantas de milho em competição com picão-preto e trapoeraba submetidas a roçada Morphophysiology of corn plants in competition with picão-preto and trapoeraba submitted to clearings

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    J.P. Lemos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência do uso de roçadas no controle de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa e trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis por meio de características morfológicas e fisiológicas do milho. O experimento foi realizado em condições controladas no ano agrícola 2009/2010. As características fisiológicas foram obtidas em parcela subdividida, sendo realizadas quatro avaliações no decorrer do ciclo do milho: 1ª - antes da primeira roçada (V3; 2ª - após a primeira roçada (V6; 3ª - após a segunda roçada (V9; e 4ª - plantas de milho no estádio de florescimento, por meio de um analisador de gases no infravermelho. Duas roçadas reduziram a interferência das plantas daninhas B. pilosa e C. benghalensisnas características morfológicas do milho. A roçada não influenciou os aspectos fisiológicos nas plantas de milho em competição com as plantas daninhas. C. benghalensis causou maior interferência nas características fisiológicas do milho, reduzindo a fotossíntese e a transpiração. A espécie B. pilosa, quando não roçada, apresentou maior capacidade de interferência na morfologia do milho.The efficiency of using clearings to control Picão-preto (Bidens pilosa and Trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis was evaluated based on the morphological and physiological characteristics of corn. An experiment under greenhouse conditions was conducted in 2009/2010. The physiological characteristics were obtained in a subdivided parcel, with four evaluations being performed throughout the corn cycle (1- before the first clearing (V3; 2- after the first clearing (V6;3- after the second clearing (V9; and 4- corn plants at the fluorescence stage, by means of Infra Red Gas Analyzer. Two clearings reduced the influence of B. pilosa and C. benghalensis weeds on the morphological characteristics of corn. The clearing did not influence the physiological aspects of the corn plants in competition with weeds. C. benghalensis caused a greater

  15. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  16. Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops

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    P.C. Timossi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil

  17. Germinação de sementes de alface e de duas ervas invasoras com a aplicação de um novo análogo do estrigol, sintetizado a partir do safrol

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    Gabriel André José A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estrigol é um sesquiterpeno natural que possui elevada atividade como estimulante da germinação, principalmente de sementes de espécies invasoras, pertencentes aos gêneros Striga e Orobanche. Soluções contendo 0,01; 0,1; 10 e 1000 mg/L de um novo análogo de estrigol, sintetizado a partir de um alilbenzeno natural, o safrol (isolado do óleo de sassafraz, foram aplicadas em sementes de alface e de Ipomoea grandifolia e Bidens pilosa. Observou-se que houve efeito estimulador na germinação das sementes das ervas invasoras, sem afetar a germinação da alface. Os resultados indicam que essa substância apresenta potencial de uso para estimular a germinação de sementes de ervas invasoras, que poderiam ser eliminadas do solo, antes do plantio de hortaliças como a alface.

  18. Agrobacterium rhizogenes: Transformed root cultures for the study of polyacetylene metabolism and biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchant, Y.Y.

    1988-02-01

    Biologically active polyacetylenes are produced at low levels by the roots of members of the Coreopsidinae subtribe in the Asteraceae. Ten taxa of Coreopsis and Bidens were tranformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strain A/sub 4/ and hairy root cultures established. These cultures grew rapidly and produced the same arrays of polyacetylenes as intact roots. The use of transformed roots for the study of polyacetylene biosynthesis is described in this paper. The engineering of plants with resistance to herbicides is now a practical reality because there are economic, intellectual and environmental incentives for using recombinant DNA technology in crop improvement programs, and because the biochemical and genetic basis for herbicide resistance is a simple trait conferred by a single gene. The transformation of plants with genes conferring resistance to insects or disease is more daunting, however, as biologically active secondary metabolites such as some alkaloids are typically products of multienzyme reactions. Photoactive polyacetylenes are probably plant defense chemicals and they are derived by a sequence of desaturation steps from oleic acid, which occurs ubiquitously in higher plants. Although the acetylene pathway may encompass as many genetic messages as those for morphine biosynthesis, it is likley that the genes controlling the biosynthesis of polyacetylenes may be isolated, identified in the near future and transferred via Agrobacterium to economically important plants susceptible to pathogen attack. 58 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

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    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  20. Screening Green Manure Cover Crops for their Allelopathic Effects on Some Important Weeds Found in Zimbabwe

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    Runzika, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is a serious problem in smallholder conservation agriculture farming areas in Zimbabwe. Green Manure Cover Crops (GMCCs, which improve soil fertility and reduce weeds through allelopathy, are likely to reduce the cost of weed control in these areas. A laboratory study was conducted at the University of Zimbabwe to investigate the effect of extracts of eleven GMCCs on the germination percentage, radicle and plumule length of Bidens pilosa, Eleusine indica and Pennisatum glaucum (pearl millet. A green house experiment was also done to determine the allelopathic potential of these GMCC extracts applied as soil incorporated residues on the emergence and dry matter production of E. indica, B. pilosa and Acanthospermum hispidum. GMCC extracts significantly reduced germination, radicle and plumule length of Pennisatum glaucum (P < 0.05 except for Crotalaria grahamiana and Raphanus sativas which had no effect on germination of Pearl millet. The emergence and dry matter of B. pilosa, E. indica and A. hispidum were significantly reduced by these legumes (P < 0.05 with the exception of common vetch (Vicia sativa which stimulated the emergence of A. hispidum. Most of the legumes that were used in this study have allelopathic effects on B. pilosa, E. indica and A. hispidum.

  1. AUTECOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES Cyperus rotundus L. IN FOREST EDGE OF POHEN MOUNTAIN, BATUKAHU NATURE RESERVE, BALI, INDONESIA

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    Sutomo Sutomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The  research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in a road edge and forest exterior where sunlight is abundant and decrease in a more shady sites and absent under thick forest canopies CCA ordination analysis showed that C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest tends to co-occur together with Imperata cylindrica and Bidens biternata. To be able to control potentially troublesome exotic invasive species, firstly we have to understand what factors limit their growth and development. Therefore this study is has important value because the data which from  result in studying invasive species autecology will act as baseline data that will be useful to generate management program including rehabilitation and restoration program. Key words: species dynamics, autecology, Cyperus rotundus, Pohen mountain forest, Bali

  2. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  3. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

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    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts from southern Minas Gerais cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Jéferson Junior da; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development.

  5. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Moscardini Chavasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05. The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development.

  6. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol Phytosociological survey of weeds in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S Adegas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento fitossociológico da comunidade de plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol foi realizado em duas épocas distintas: no desenvolvimento inicial da cultura (entre 20 e 40 dias após a semeadura e na pré-colheita do girassol. As espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas e quantificadas pelo método do quadrado inventário (1,0 x 1,0 m, com amostragem de 12 m² por área. Os levantamentos foram realizados em 54 propriedades de seis municípios da região do cerrado e em 38 propriedades de oito municípios da região dos pampas, que são as duas principais regiões produtoras brasileiras. Foram registrados a frequência, a frequência relativa, a densidade, a densidade relativa, a abundância, a abundância relativa, o índice de importância relativa e o índice de similaridade. No total, foram identificadas 60 espécies de plantas daninhas, sendo 17 presentes em ambas as regiões. Asteraceae e Poaceae foram as duas principais famílias, entre as 16 encontradas. As principais espécies presentes no cerrado foram Euphorbia heterophylla, Chamaesyce hirta, Ageratum conyzoides, Commelina benghalensis, Zea mays e Bidens sp. As principais espécies presentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram Bidens sp., Raphanus raphanistrum, Lolium multiflorum, Gnaphalium spicatum, Sonchus oleraceus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Sida rhombifolia, Digitaria sp. e Ipomea sp. A densidade das plantas daninhas foi maior na fase de pré-colheita do que no desenvolvimento inicial da cultura, em ambas as regiões, sendo de 30,84 plantas m-2 e 23,58 plantas m-2, respectivamente, para o cerrado, e de 23,19 plantas m-2e 21,41 plantas m-2, para o Rio Grande do Sul. O índice de similaridade dentro das regiões foi de 0,91 para os levantamentos do cerrado e de 0,79 para os do Rio Grande do Sul. Entretanto, entre as regiões, os índices ficaram abaixo de 0,5, mostrando similaridade mediana entre a flora daninha do cerrado e a do Rio Grande do Sul, na cultura do girassol

  7. Differential growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant density in two wild plants belonging to contrasting functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Marisela; Urcelay, Carlos

    2009-10-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant growth was examined in two wild plant species belonging to contrasting functional types: an annual forb (Bidens pilosa, Asteraceae) and a deciduous shrub (Acacia caven, Fabaceae) at three contrasting plant densities (one, two, and three individuals per pot). AMF had a slightly negative effect on B. pilosa when the species grew in isolation while they positively affected A. caven. Positive effects of AMF on shoot mass of A. caven decreased at higher plant densities, while shoot mass of individuals of B. pilosa showed less marked differences between plant densities. When considering total biomass per pot, AMF positively affected A. caven growth while negatively affecting B. pilosa, at all three plant densities. Root/shoot ratio per pot was negatively affected by AMF but not plant density in both species. These findings highlight the importance of including plants belonging to different life forms and/or traits in research regarding the interaction between AMF and intraspecific plant competition.

  8. Team LunaCY Outreach Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Iowa State University's Lunabotics Club, Team LunaCY, has worked hard to generate enthusiasm for robotics, engineering, and lunar activities. Team LunaCY participated in a variety of different outreach events making a strong impression on Iowa youth. These events led the chair of the mechanical engineering department, Dr. Ted Heindel, to refer to the club's outreach program as "the model that all other engineering clubs should follow." Team LunaCY's outreach activities totaled over 200 hours and captivated over 3000 students and adults throughout the course of this acaden1ic year, reaching out to people all over Iowa and to several special guests. These guests included Vice-President Joe Biden, during a visit to Iowa State University in March 2012, and astronaut Clayton Anderson, during a visit to Iowa State's campus in the fall 2011. Team LunaCY's outreach events created hands on learning opportunities for local youth ranging in age from elementary school children to high school students. The team strove to make a positive impression on Iowa youth and to encourage interest and involvement in scientific fields. The full list of events is shown in Table 1. Three of the major outreach events the team participated in were the FIRST LEGO League, Science Bound, and iExplore STEM Festival.

  9. Prey preferences among the community of deep-diving odontocetes from the Bay of Biscay, Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Jérôme; Cherel, Yves; Bertin, Stéphane; Kiszka, Jeremy; Dewez, Alexandre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Long-finned pilot whales ( Globicephala melas), Risso's dolphins ( Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales ( Peponocephala electra), Cuvier's beaked whales ( Ziphius cavirostris), Sowerby's beaked whales ( Mesoplodon bidens), northern bottlenose whales ( Hyperoodon ampullatus), sperm whales ( Physeter macrocephalus), dwarf sperm whales ( Kogia sima) and pygmy sperm whales ( Kogia breviceps) make up the large community of deep-diving odontocetes occurring off the Bay of Biscay, northeast Atlantic. The ecology of these toothed cetaceans is poorly documented worldwide. The present study described their prey preferences from stomach content analysis and showed resource partitioning within the assemblage. The majority of the species appeared to be mostly teutophageous. Fish was an important food source only for the Sowerby's beaked whale and, to a lesser extent, for the long-finned pilot whale. In terms of foraging habitats inferred from prey composition, either pelagic oceanic or demersal neritic habitats were exploited by toothed whales in the Bay of Biscay, with only the long-finned pilot whale foraging in the two habitats. Finally, with more than 14,000 identified cephalopods from 39 species, the present study highlighted also the poorly known deep-sea cephalopod community off the Bay of Biscay using top predators as biological samplers.

  10. Weed Survey of Buckwheat Field in Liangshan%凉山州荞麦田杂草调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓玲; 熊仿秋; 钟林; 林松; 刘纲

    2015-01-01

    通过对凉山州荞麦田杂草的种类、分布及危害进行调查,结果表明凉山州荞麦田荞麦地杂草据不完全统计有22科59种.双子叶杂草的辣子草、酸模叶蓼、尼泊尔蓼、凹头苋、三叶鬼针草、荠菜、繁缕、藜和单子叶杂草的马唐、光头稗、鸭跖草是凉山州荞麦田的优势种群.%The species ,distribution and harm of weeds of buckwheat fields in Liangshan, were investigated, the results show that according to incomplete statistics, buckwheat weeds in wheat field in Liangshan, , there are 22 families 59 species. Dicotyledonous weeds Galinsoga parviflora, Polygonum lapathifolium , Amaranthus blitum, Nepal, Bidens pilosa, Shepherd's purse, Chickweed, Chenopodium album and Monocotyledonous weeds Barnyardgrass, Commelina communis are the dominant population of buckwheat field in Liangshan.

  11. The search for new antimalarial drugs from plants used to treat fever and malaria or plants ramdomly selected: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krettli Antoniana U

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the ongoing situation of human malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, where it is endemic causing over 610,000 new acute cases yearly, a number which is on the increase. This is partly a result of drug resistant parasites and new antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The approaches we have used in the search of new drugs during decades are now reviewed and include ethnopharmocology, plants randomly selected, extracts or isolated substances from plants shown to be active against the blood stage parasites in our previous studies. Emphasis is given on the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa, proven to be active against the parasite blood stages in tests using freshly prepared plant extracts. The anti-sporozoite activity of one plant used in the Brazilian endemic area to prevent malaria is also described, the so called "Indian beer" (Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Rhamnaceae. Freshly prepared extracts from the roots of this plant were totally inactive against blood stage parasites, but active against sporozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum or the primary exoerythrocytic stages reducing tissue parasitism in inoculated chickens. This result will be of practical importance if confirmed in mammalian malaria. Problems and perspectives in the search for antimalarial drugs are discussed as well as the toxicological and clinical trials to validate some of the active plants for public health use in Brazil.

  12. Macrophomina phaseolina: density and longevity of microsclerotia in soybean root tissues and free on the soil, and competitive saprophytic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In field experiments, the density of Macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia in root tissues of naturally colonized soybean cultivars was quantified. The density of free sclerotia on the soil was determined for plots of crop rotation (soybean-corn and soybean monoculture soon after soybean harvest. M. phaseolina natural infection was also determined for the roots of weeds grown in the experimental area. To verify the ability of M. phaseolina to colonize dead substrates, senesced stem segments from the main plant species representing the agricultural system of southern Brazil were exposed on naturally infested soil for 30 and 60 days. To quantify the sclerotia, the methodology of Cloud and Rupe (1991 and Mengistu et al. (2007 was employed. Sclerotium density, assessed based on colony forming units (CFU, ranged from 156 to 1,108/g root tissue. Sclerotium longevity, also assessed according to CFU, was 157 days for the rotation and 163 days for the monoculture system. M. phaseolina did not colonize saprophytically any dead stem segment of Avena strigosa,Avena sativa,Hordeum vulgare,Brassica napus,Gossypium hirsutum,Secale cereale,Helianthus annus,Triticosecalerimpaui, and Triticum aestivum. Mp was isolated from infected root tissues of Amaranthus viridis,Bidens pilosa,Cardiospermum halicacabum,Euphorbia heterophylla,Ipomoea sp., and Richardia brasiliensis. The survival mechanisms of M. phaseolina studied in this paper met the microsclerotium longevity in soybean root tissues, free on the soil, as well as asymptomatic colonization of weeds.

  13. Identificação de potenciais plantas hospedeiras alternativas de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

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    Morgana Mateus Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar possíveis hospedeiras alternativas de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv, visando a fornecer subsídios para o manejo do cancro bacteriano da videira. Vinte e seis espécies vegetais foram inoculadas artificialmente com o isolado Xcv3 e mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação, sendo avaliada a evolução sintomatológica da doença, como manchas necróticas angulares e lesões nas nervuras. O Xcv3 foi reisolado a partir de cada hospedeiro alternativo com sintomas, sendo identificado por PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction, com iniciadores específicos. As espécies inoculadas que apresentaram os sintomas típicos da doença foram Glycine sp., Senna obtusifolia, Desmodium discolor, Amaranthus deflexus, Azadirachta indica, Solanum lycopersicum e Vigna unguiculata. As espécies da família Poaceae, Bidens pilosa, Emilia fosbergii, Praxelis pauciflora, Macroptilium lathyroides e Portulaca oleracea não apresentaram sintomas durante o período da avaliação.

  14. Occurrence of symbiotic fungi and rhizospheric phosphate solubilization in weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Aparecido dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the ecology of the organisms involved in the production process are necessary for the development of sustainable agriculture, and sustainability is currently closely linked to the profitability of production. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in weeds infesting Brazilian crops and to evaluate the inorganic phosphate solubilization potential of the associated microbiota. A total of 36 weed species were evaluated for the occurrence of mycorrhizae; of these, 11 were selected to evaluate their potential for total and relative phosphate solubilization. All of the species demonstrated mycorrhizal colonization, including a member of the Brassicaceae family, which is usually assumed to be non-mycorrhizal. In most of the species, morphological types of arbuscular and coiled hyphae were observed, with the coiled hyphae being the most common in the grasses. Dark septate endophytic fungi were observed in most of the plants. The weeds presented different potentials for P solubilization in the rhizosphere; Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa and Leonotis nepetaefolia showed high values of relative phosphate solubilization. This is the first report on the mycorrhizae and phosphate solubilization activity in weeds in Brazil.

  15. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Obua, Celestino

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum) on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators' secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL) were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis. PMID:27807462

  16. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  17. Invasion of alien plants in fire-damaged forests at southern boundary of the taiga zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khapugin, A.A.; Vargot, E.V.; Chugunov, G.G.; Shugaev, N.I.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Biological invasions are one of the most important areas of forest research. In this study, we revealed invasibility of fire-damaged forests at the southern boundary of the taiga zone. Area of study: The Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Central Russia). Material and Methods: Altogether, 11 square plots of each 100 ×100 m were established in different types of fire-damaged forests. To test plant invasion outside the established plots, field researches were carried out by route method in fire-damaged area of the Mordovia Reserve. Main Results: Six alien species (Erigeron canadensis, E. annuus, Oenothera biennis, Lactuca serriola, Sambucus racemosa, Viola arvensis) were registered within the established plots in 2011–2014. In addition, two alien invasive plants (Solidago canadensis and Bidens frondosa) were found outside these plots. No differences were detected in invasibility of the tested forest ecosystems. Research highlights: Among the revealed alien species, Erigeron canadensis, Lactuca serriola and Solidago canadensis are the most invasive plants in forest ecosystems. The first one was observed with a high occurrence frequency and abundance in all forest types tested. The second one has not been differed by abundance, but it characterized by a high competition as well as a large biomass and a large number of seeds. Solidago canadensis penetrated to natural forest ecosystem in a short time period due to closest location of its dispersal centers near the boundary of the Mordovia Reserve. These species are the most probable invaders of the forest ecosystems. (Author)

  18. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almirón Walter R.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.

  19. [Drug or plant substances which antagonize venoms or potentiate antivenins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Dzikouk, G

    1997-01-01

    Dendroaspis jamesoni (Elapidae) and Echis oceliatus (Viperidae) are responsible for most of severe evenomation in Cameroon. Toxicity of venoms of these two species has been measured using mice according to the method of Spearman & Kàrber. The effect on experimental envenomation of various drugs (atropine, promethazine, neostigmine, hydrocortisone, pentosane sulfuric polyester, heparin, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) and plant extracts (Schumanniophyton magnificum, Bidens pilosa, Securidaca longepedunculata and Garcinia lucida) has been observed associated or not with the antivenom lpser Afrique (SAV). The venom of D. jamesoni contains neurotoxins agonizing and antagonising acetylcholine. The toxicity of the venom did not depend on the route of injection. Atropine, promethazine, neostigmine and hydrocortisone protected animals against a venom dose up to 2 LD50. Moreover, atropine and promethazine potentiated the SAV. Similar results have been obtained with extracts from S. magnificum and B. pilosa. The venom of E. ocellatus induces haemorrhage and necrosis. The toxicity increased by 3-fold when the venom was injected through intravenous or intraperitoneal route, compared to intramuscular route. Pentosane sulfuric polyester and tranexamic acid protected mice against doses up to 3 LD50. Pentosane sulfuric polyester, hydrocortisone, heparin and aminocaproic acid increased the SAV protective titre by 50%. However, tried plant extracts weakly antagonised the venom and did not potentiate the SAV.

  20. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.

  1. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no

  2. Democratic candidates call for change in the health care system: wider use of home and community-based care, chronic disease management, universal coverage, and greater use of telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Aaron G

    2008-10-01

    Senator Barack Obama, the Democratic candidate for president, and Senator Joe Biden, the party's candidate for vice president, have made health care reform a central pillar of their campaign. The Democrats want to target the 12 percent of Americans who are responsible for 69 percent of health care costs. Such individuals generally have multiple and complex health care problems, which if left untreated, require them to seek care in hospital emergency rooms which are vastly overcrowded. In order to solve the problem, they believe first that universal coverage along the lines of the Federal Government Employees' health plan is necessary, followed by a shift away from institutionally-based care, making home and community-based care, which integrates telehealth and other technologies, the norm. The party's platform includes this committment to help solve the problem of long-term care, which affects not only the nation's 35 million elderly, but increasingly will affect the 78 million baby boomers who are entering their retirement years.

  3. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  4. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts

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    Francis Ocheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators’ secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis.

  5. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Almer Boström, Elisabeth; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum) on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators' secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL) were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis.

  6. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  7. Crescimento da mandioca e plantas daninhas em resposta à adubação fosfatada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antônio Mendes Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes podem ser usados para alterar as relações de competitividade, de modo a favorecer as espécies cultivadas, desde que as espécies competidoras apresentem respostas diferenciadas à aplicação de nutrientes. Por essas razões, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento do picão preto (Bidens pilosa L., da braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf e da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, cultivados sob diferentes quantidades de fósforo fornecidas no plantio. Para isso, foi conduzido experimento em casa de vegetação, em arranjo fatorial 3x4, sendo o primeiro fator constituído pelas espécies estudadas, combinadas com quatro níveis de adubação fosfatadas (0, 80,800 e 4.000 kg ha-1 de P2O5, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. A aplicação do fertilizante fosfatado promoveu maior crescimento das espécies avaliadas, sendo que a mandioca apresentou maior crescimento da parte área com o aumento da disponibilidade de fósforo. De maneira geral, as plantas daninhas apresentaram maiores respostas às menores doses de fósforo.

  8. Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Cortés-Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has been successfully employed for the encapsulation of herbal bioactive compounds resulting in stable phytopharmaceutical preparations. Bidens pilosa L. is a South American medicinal plant with proved antimalaric, hepatoprotector and antioxidant activities, generally linked to their secondary metabolites, flavonoids and polyacetylenes. In this work the physicochemical stability of an optimized spray dried composition from a B. pilosa extract was evaluated at three different stress storage conditions in open containers and in sealed sachets. High performance liquid chromatography was employed to monitor the concentration of three marker compounds over 12 months. Color variation of the stored samples was evaluated by using a color spectrophotometer. It was observed that the concentration of the monitored compounds of the plant decreases more drastically in samples stored in open containers. The two flavonoids monitored, rutin and hyperoside, showed lower degradation than the polyacetylene. The concentration of the markers did not change significantly at the lowest temperature. With regard to color, darker hues were observed at higher temperatures and storage times. This study showed that the storage conditions cause significant impact on stability of standardized spray dried B. pilosa extract.

  9. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

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    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  10. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy.

  11. Highly luminescent lanthanide complexes with novel bis-β-diketone ligand: synthesis, characterization and photoluminescent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Feng; Li, Guang-Ming; Chen, Peng; Sun, Wen-Bin; Yan, Peng-Fei

    2012-11-01

    A biphenyl-linked bis-β-diketone ligand, 3,3'-bis(3-phenyl-3-oxopropanol)biphenyl (BPB) has been prepared for the syntheses of a series of dinuclear lanthanide complexes. The ligand bears two benzoyl β-diketonate sites linked by a 3,3'-biphenyl spacer. Reaction of the doubly negatively charged bis-bidenate ligand with lanthanide ions forms triple-stranded dinuclear complexes Ln(2)(BPB)(3) (Ln=Nd (1), Sm (2), Eu (3), Yb (4) and Gd (5)). Electrospray mass spectrometry is used to identify the formation of the triple-stranded dinuclear complexes 1-5, which have been further characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The complexes display strong visible and NIR luminescence upon excitation at ligands bands around 360 nm, depending on the choice of the lanthanides, and the emission quantum yields and luminescence lifetimes of 2-3 have been determined. It shows that the biphenyl-linked ligand BPB is a more efficient sensitizer than the monodiketone ligand DBM (dibenzoylmethane), through the comparisons of Ln(2)(BPB)(3) and Ln(DBM)(3) on their photoluminescent properties.

  12. Highly luminescent lanthanide complexes with novel bis-β-diketone ligand: Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Feng; Li, Guang-Ming; Chen, Peng; Sun, Wen-Bin; Yan, Peng-Fei

    2012-11-01

    A biphenyl-linked bis-β-diketone ligand, 3,3'-bis(3-phenyl-3-oxopropanol)biphenyl (BPB) has been prepared for the syntheses of a series of dinuclear lanthanide complexes. The ligand bears two benzoyl β-diketonate sites linked by a 3,3'-biphenyl spacer. Reaction of the doubly negatively charged bis-bidenate ligand with lanthanide ions forms triple-stranded dinuclear complexes Ln2(BPB)3 (Ln = Nd (1), Sm (2), Eu (3), Yb (4) and Gd (5)). Electrospray mass spectrometry is used to identify the formation of the triple-stranded dinuclear complexes 1-5, which have been further characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The complexes display strong visible and NIR luminescence upon excitation at ligands bands around 360 nm, depending on the choice of the lanthanides, and the emission quantum yields and luminescence lifetimes of 2-3 have been determined. It shows that the biphenyl-linked ligand BPB is a more efficient sensitizer than the monodiketone ligand DBM (dibenzoylmethane), through the comparisons of Ln2(BPB)3 and Ln(DBM)3 on their photoluminescent properties.

  13. The Invasive American Weed Parthenium hysterophorus Can Negatively Impact Malaria Control in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent O Nyasembe

    Full Text Available The direct negative effects of invasive plant species on agriculture and biodiversity are well known, but their indirect effects on human health, and particularly their interactions with disease-transmitting vectors, remains poorly explored. This study sought to investigate the impact of the invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus and its toxins on the survival and energy reserves of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. In this study, we compared the fitness of An. gambiae fed on three differentially attractive mosquito host plants and their major toxins; the highly aggressive invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae in East Africa and two other adapted weeds, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae. Our results showed that female An. gambiae fitness varied with host plants as females survived better and accumulated substantial energy reserves when fed on P. hysterophorus and R. communis compared to B. pilosa. Females tolerated parthenin and 1-phenylhepta-1, 3, 5-triyne, the toxins produced by P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, respectively, but not ricinine produced by R. communis. Given that invasive plants like P. hysterophorus can suppress or even replace less competitive species that might be less suitable host-plants for arthropod disease vectors, the spread of invasive plants could lead to higher disease transmission. Parthenium hysterophorus represents a possible indirect effect of invasive plants on human health, which underpins the need to include an additional health dimension in risk-analysis modelling for invasive plants.

  14. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds; Captacao e aproveitamento da radiacao solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijao e por plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). FItotecnia; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571-000, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2003-07-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  15. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) 4. Two new genera, Austrocyphon and Tasmanocyphon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The related new genera Austrocyphon and Tasmanocyphon are erected for 42 small Australian marsh beetles resembling members of the genus Cyphon Paykull in habitus. They are distinguished from Cyphon. Only males are known of most species but for two of them larvae and pupae are also available. Austrocyphon species occur in all Australian Federal States, and one species is Australasian and shared with Papua New Guinea. The following species are included: Austrocyphon acaciae sp. n., A. aculeatus sp. n., A. acustropicus sp. n., A. adelaidae (Blackburn), A. asper sp. n., A. bidens sp. n., A. bifidus sp. n., A. charon sp. n., A. crinitus (Klausnitzer), A. curvispina, sp. n., A. deserticola sp. n., A. doctus (Lea), A. enigmaticus sp. n., A. excisus sp. n., A. fenestratus (Blackburn), A. flagellifer sp. n., A. furcatus sp. n., A. hamatus sp. n., A. harpago sp. n., A. leptophallus sp. n., A. linguatus sp. n., A. lobatus sp. n., A. neptunus sp. n., A. noctua sp. n., A. ovensensis (Blackburn), A. papilio sp. n., A. perdoctus sp. n., A. pictus (Blackburn), A. quadridens sp. n., A. quinquespinosus sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. setifer sp. n., A. spiculifer sp. n., A. stylatus sp. n., A. stylifer sp. n., A. submersus sp. n., A. tinea sp. n., A. tomweiri sp. n., A. tribulator sp. n., A. tropicus sp. n., A. unguiculatus sp. n., A. wattsi sp. n.Tasmanocyphon is endemic to Tasmania, and only the adult male is known. The genus is monotypic, including only T. heideae, sp. n.

  16. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. SPATIAL CORRELATION BETWEEN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND WEEDS IN TWO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Roberto Schaffrath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial correlation between soil properties and weeds is relevant in agronomic and environmental terms. The analysis of this correlation is crucial for the interpretation of its meaning, for influencing factors such as dispersal mechanisms, seed production and survival, and the range of influence of soil management techniques. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial correlation between the physical properties of soil and weeds in no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems. The following physical properties of soil and weeds were analyzed: soil bulk density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, aeration capacity of soil matrix, soil water content at field capacity, weed shoot biomass, weed density, Commelina benghalensis density, and Bidens pilosa density. Generally, the ranges of the spatial correlations were higher in NT than in CT. The cross-variograms showed that many variables have a structure of combined spatial variation and can therefore be mapped from one another by co-kriging. This combined variation also allows inferences about the physical and biological meanings of the study variables. Results also showed that soil management systems influence the spatial dependence structure significantly.

  18. Screening of traditional South African leafy vegetables for specific anti-nutritional factors before and after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira ESSACK

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of processing on anti-nutritional factors of thirteen traditional leafy vegetables collected in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim was to determine whether processing reduced anti-nutrient levels of leafy vegetables. The vegetables were boiled in a plant-to-distilled water ratio of 1:4 (w/v at 97 °C for a time period of 5 and 15 min. The vegetables studied were: Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus hybridus, Asystasia gangetica, Bidens pilosa, Ceratotheca triloba, Chenopodium album, Emex australis, Galinsoga parviflora, Guilleminea densa, Momordica balsamina, Oxygonum sinuatum, Physalis viscosa and Solanum nigrum. From this study, it was determined that non processed samples contained anti-nutrients such as tannins, phytic acid, alkaloids, oxalic acid, and cyanogenic glycoside. Both boiling parameters were effective in reducing the tannin, phytic acid, alkaloid, oxalic acid and cyanogenic glycoside contents of all 13 traditional leafy vegetables. The results of this study provide evidence that the local traditional leafy vegetables which the population is so reliant upon, are important contributors to micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries and can be minimized through common boiling methods for a minimum of 5 and maximum of 15 minutes.

  19. Accumulation of macronutrients by weed and corn in coexistence in soil with different fertility managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Augusta Diniz Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of weed interference on crops is very important in agricultural systems. However, there is little known about the influence of soil fertility management in competitive relations between plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mutual interference between weeds and corn on the content of macronutrients under different soil fertility managements. The experimental test was conducted in a greenhouse, considering four soil fertility managements (with calcium and magnesium silicate and fertilization; with limestone and fertilization; without correction of acidity, but with fertilization; without correction of acidity and without fertilization and eleven crops (five arrangements of competition between Zea mays and the weeds Urochloa brizantha, Ipomoea grandifolia, Conyza canadensis, Hyptis suaveolens and Bidens pilosa, plus the six species in monoculture. Corn had reductions exceeding 50% in the content of all macronutrients under interference of U. brizantha. Additionally, U. brizantha and B. pilosa in competition with corn has high ability to extract macronutrients in the four soil conditions. Calcium and magnesium silicate and limestone influenced variable on nutrient accumulation by weeds in monoculture or under interference. Corn grown in soil amended with silicate suffered greater competition with weeds compared to grown in soil amended with lime. U. brizantha was the specie most damaging to the crop. B. pilosa showed high potential for nutrient cycling in the four soil fertility management.

  20. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-12-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  1. Estructura, dimensiones y producción de semilla de malezas del trópico húmedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Calder\\u00F3n

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estructura, dimensiones y producción de propágulos sexuales de malezas del trópico húmedo. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar las dimensiones promedio, describir la estructura externa de las semillas, frutos o espiguillas y estimar el número producido por planta y por gramo, de doce especies de malezas. Se elaboraron esquemas de los propágulos. En las dicotiledóneas estudiadas, el número promedio de semillas por planta varió de 1290 en Asclepias curassavica hasta 195008 en Ludwigia sp. La segunda especie con más elevado número promedio de semillas por planta fue Sida rhombifolia (7962 seguida por Ipomoea sp.(2876. Hyptis capitata mostró mayor número promedio de cabezuelas por planta (341 que Bidens pilosa (106 y que Emilia sonchifolia (61. Mimosa pudica produjo un promedio de 3.3 semillas por fruto. En las Poaceae, Paspalum conjugatum y P. Virgatum produjeron mayor número de espiguillas por rama floral (381 y 1185 respectivamente que Ischaemum indicum (81 y que Rottboellia cochinchinensis (14. Se menciona la anemocoria, la hidrocoria y la zoocoria como mecanismos que contribuyen en la dispersión de estas especies

  2. Manejo de populações de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase Management of weed populations resistant to ALS-Inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas produtoras de soja da região central do Brasil é comum a infestação da planta daninha picão-preto (constituída de uma mistura das espécies Bidens pilosa e Bidens subalternans. Da mesma forma, o caruru (Amaranthus quitensis é infestante da cultura da soja na Argentina. Estas plantas daninhas são controladas normalmente por diversos herbicidas; dentre os mais utilizados encontram-se os inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS. O uso intensivo e repetitivo destes herbicidas em áreas cultivadas com soja no município de São Gabriel do Oeste (MS-Brasil e nas províncias de Córdoba e Tucumã (Argentina selecionou populações resistentes destas plantas daninhas. Assim, com o objetivo de estudar alternativas de manejo dessas populações resistentes, foram desenvolvidos ensaios em condições de campo e casa de vegetação, por meio da aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da ALS (chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr e com mecanismos de ação alternativos; como inibidores da protoporfirinogênio oxidase (PROTOX, que participa da biossíntese de porfirina e tetrapirroles (lactofen e fomesafen e inibidores do fotossistema II (bentazon. O ensaio de campo foi instalado no município de São Gabriel do Oeste-MS, Brasil, onde se suspeitava que a população de picão-preto da área fosse resistente, pois os herbicidas inibidores da ALS aplicados nos últimos anos na área não apresentavam eficiência esperada e a área tinha um histórico de pelo menos oito anos de aplicação sucessiva destes herbicidas. Concluiu-se, deste ensaio, que os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, nas doses recomendadas, foram ineficientes no controle da população resistente, porém os herbicidas alternativos lactofen, fomesafen e bentazon, aplicados isoladamente ou em mistura com os inibidores da ALS, foram eficazes. No ensaio conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde foram utilizados picão-preto e caruru, provenientes das áreas com suspeita de resist

  3. Microbial activity of soil cultivated with corn in association with weeds under different fertility management systems

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    Christiane Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between weeds and soil microorganisms can give them a competitive advantage over crops. This study assessed the biomass and microbial activity of soil cultivated with weeds and corn (Zea mays L. in monoculture and in competition under different fertility management systems. The experiment considered four soil fertility management systems (calcium and magnesium silicate + fertilization; limestone + fertilization; no correction source + fertilization; no correction source + no fertilization and 12 crops (five competition arrangements between corn and weeds Urochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. R.D. Webster, lpomoea grandifolia (Dammer O'Donell, Conyza canadensis (L. Cronquist, Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit., and Bidens pilosa L. plus the six species in monoculture and bare soil. After 60 d coexisting in a greenhouse, soil samples were collected to determine microbial biomass, respiration rate, and metabolic quotient. Soils cultivated with B. pilosa and Z. mays+U. brizantha showed higher microbial biomass. Cultivation of B. pilosa and Z. mays+H. suaveolens provided greater energy efficiency to maintain microbial cells. Biomass and microbial activity were altered by plant species, coexistence, and soil fertility management. Calcium and magnesium silicate, as well as limestone similarly influenced biomass and respiration rate of soil cultivated with most species. For some crops, the Si source was better than limestone to promote lower specific activity of the edaphic microbiota. The change in the microbial activity of soil can be a strategy used by the species to minimize the effects of competition.

  4. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

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    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  5. The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae) with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology in Osteichthyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The family Polypteridae, commonly known as "bichirs", is a lineage that diverged early in the evolutionary history of Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish), but has been the subject of far less evolutionary study than other members of that clade. Uncovering patterns of morphological change within Polypteridae provides an important opportunity to evaluate if the mechanisms underlying morphological evolution are shared among actinoptyerygians, and in fact, perhaps the entire osteichthyan (bony fish and tetrapods) tree of life. However, the greatest impediment to elucidating these patterns is the lack of a well-resolved, highly-supported phylogenetic tree of Polypteridae. In fact, the interrelationships of polypterid species have never been subject to molecular phylogenetic analysis. Here, we infer the first molecular phylogeny of bichirs, including all 12 recognized species and multiple subspecies using Bayesian analyses of 16S and cyt-b mtDNA. We use this mitochondrial phylogeny, ancestral state reconstruction, and geometric morphometrics to test whether patterns of morphological evolution, including the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin reduction, and craniofacial morphology, are shared throughout the osteichthyan tree of life. Results Our molecular phylogeny reveals 1) a basal divergence between Erpetoichthys and Polypterus, 2) polyphyly of P. endlicheri and P. palmas, and thus 3) the current taxonomy of Polypteridae masks its underlying genetic diversity. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that pelvic fins were lost independently in Erpetoichthys, and unambiguously estimate multiple independent derivations of body elongation and shortening. Our mitochondrial phylogeny suggested species that have lower jaw protrusion and up-righted orbit are closely related to each other, indicating a single transformation of craniofacial morphology. Conclusion The mitochondrial phylogeny of polypterid fish provides a strongly-supported phylogenetic framework for

  6. Telomeres shorten more slowly in slow-aging wild animals than in fast-aging ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Ben; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2015-11-01

    Research on the physiological causes of senescence aim to identify common physiological mechanisms that explain age-related declines in fitness across taxonomic groups. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences found on the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Past research indicates that telomere attrition is strongly correlated with inter-specific rates of aging, though these studies cannot distinguish whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of the aging process. We extend previous research on this topic by incorporating recent studies to test the hypothesis that telomeres shorten more slowly with age in slow-aging animals than in fast-aging ones. We assembled all studies that have quantified cross-sectional (i.e. between-individual) telomere rates of change (TROC) over the lifespans of wild animals. This included 22 estimates reflecting absolute TROC (TROCabs, bp/yr, primarily measured using the terminal restriction fragment length method), and 10 estimates reflecting relative TROC (TROCrel, relative telomere length/yr, measured using qPCR), from five classes (Aves, Mammalia, Bivalvia, Reptilia, and Actinopterygii). In 14 bird species, we correlated between-individual (i.e. cross-sectional) TROCabs estimates with both maximum lifespan and a phylogenetically-corrected principle component axis (pcPC1) that reflected the slow-fast axis of life-history variation. Bird species characterized by faster life-histories and shorter maximum lifespans had faster TROCabs. In nine studies, both between-individual and within-individual TROC estimates were available (n=8 for TROCabs, n=1 for TROCrel). Within-individual TROC estimates were generally greater than between-individual TROC estimates, which is indicative of selective disappearance of individuals with shorter telomeres. However, the difference between within- and between-individual TROC estimates was only significant in two out of nine studies. The relationship between within-individual TROCabs and maximum

  7. Conservation of globin genes in the "living fossil" Latimeria chalumnae and reconstruction of the evolution of the vertebrate globin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Kim; Burmester, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    The (hemo-)globins are among the best-investigated proteins in biomedical sciences. These small heme-proteins play an important role in oxygen supply, but may also have other functions. In addition to well known hemoglobin and myoglobin, six other vertebrate globin types have been identified in recent years: neuroglobin, cytoglobin, globin E, globin X, globin Y, and androglobin. Analyses of the genome of the "living fossil" Latimeria chalumnae show that the coelacanth is the only known vertebrate that includes all eight globin types. Thus, Latimeria can also be considered as a "globin fossil". Analyses of gene synteny and phylogenetic reconstructions allow us to trace the evolution and the functional changes of the vertebrate globin family. Neuroglobin and globin X diverged from the other globin types before the separation of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. The cytoglobins, which are unlikely to be involved in O2 supply, form the earliest globin branch within the jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata), but do not group with the agnathan hemoglobins, as it has been proposed before. There is strong evidence from phylogenetic reconstructions and gene synteny that the eye-specific globin E and muscle-specific myoglobin constitute a common clade, suggesting a similar role in intracellular O2 supply. Latimeria possesses two α- and two β-hemoglobin chains, of which one α-chain emerged prior to the divergence of Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii, but has been retained only in the coelacanth. Notably, the embryonic hemoglobin α-chains of Gnathostomata derive from a common ancestor, while the embryonic β-chains - with the exception of a more complex pattern in the coelacanth and amphibians - display a clade-specific evolution. Globin Y is associated with the hemoglobin gene cluster, but its phylogenetic position is not resolved. Our data show an early divergence of distinct globin types in the vertebrate evolution before the emergence of tetrapods. The subsequent loss of

  8. Novel SINE families from salmons validate Parahucho (Salmonidae) as a distinct genus and give evidence that SINEs can incorporate LINE-related 3'-tails of other SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Vitaliy; Nishihara, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-08-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) constitute a group of retroposons propagating in the genome via a mechanism of reverse transcription, in which they depend on the enzymatic machinery of long retroposons (LINEs). Over 70 SINE families have been described to date from the genomes of various eukaryotes. Here, we characterize two novel SINEs from salmons (Actinopterygii: Salmonoidei). The first family, termed SlmI, was shown to be widespread among all genera of the suborder. These SINEs have a tRNA(Leu)-related promoter region at their 5'-end, a unique central conserved domain with a subfamily-specific region, and an end with RSg-1-LINE-derived 3'-terminus preceding the A/T-rich tail. The same LINE-related segment is also shared by two other salmonid SINEs: HpaI and OS-SINE1. The structural peculiarities and overall sequence identity of the SlmI 3'-terminus suggest that it has been acquired from HpaI SINEs but not directly from the partner LINE. This region plays a crucial role in the process of retrotransposition of short interspersed elements, and the case of its SINE-to-SINE transmission is the first recorded to date. Possible scenarios and potential evolutionary implications of the observed interaction between short retroposons are discussed. Apart from the above, we found a copy of the SlmI SINE in the GenBank entry for the blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Strigeiformes) -- a trematode causing one of the most important human helminth infections, with its genome known to host other groups of salmonoid retroposons. In the present article, we suggest our views with regard to possible ways in which such an intensive horizontal transfer of salmonoid retroposons to the schistosomal genome occurs. The second novel SINE family, termed SlmII, originates from one of the SlmI subfamilies, with which it shares the same tRNA-related region, central domain, and a part of RSg-1-derived segment, but has a different 3'-tail of unidentified origin. Its distribution

  9. The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology in Osteichthyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandley Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Polypteridae, commonly known as "bichirs", is a lineage that diverged early in the evolutionary history of Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish, but has been the subject of far less evolutionary study than other members of that clade. Uncovering patterns of morphological change within Polypteridae provides an important opportunity to evaluate if the mechanisms underlying morphological evolution are shared among actinoptyerygians, and in fact, perhaps the entire osteichthyan (bony fish and tetrapods tree of life. However, the greatest impediment to elucidating these patterns is the lack of a well-resolved, highly-supported phylogenetic tree of Polypteridae. In fact, the interrelationships of polypterid species have never been subject to molecular phylogenetic analysis. Here, we infer the first molecular phylogeny of bichirs, including all 12 recognized species and multiple subspecies using Bayesian analyses of 16S and cyt-b mtDNA. We use this mitochondrial phylogeny, ancestral state reconstruction, and geometric morphometrics to test whether patterns of morphological evolution, including the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin reduction, and craniofacial morphology, are shared throughout the osteichthyan tree of life. Results Our molecular phylogeny reveals 1 a basal divergence between Erpetoichthys and Polypterus, 2 polyphyly of P. endlicheri and P. palmas, and thus 3 the current taxonomy of Polypteridae masks its underlying genetic diversity. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that pelvic fins were lost independently in Erpetoichthys, and unambiguously estimate multiple independent derivations of body elongation and shortening. Our mitochondrial phylogeny suggested species that have lower jaw protrusion and up-righted orbit are closely related to each other, indicating a single transformation of craniofacial morphology. Conclusion The mitochondrial phylogeny of polypterid fish provides a strongly

  10. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    significant reduction in osteichthyan body size. Neopterygii, the clade that encompasses the vast majority of extant fishes, underwent another diversification phase in the Late Triassic. The Triassic radiation of Osteichthyes, predominantly of Actinopterygii, which only occurred after severe extinctions among Chondrichthyes during the Middle-Late Permian, resulted in a profound change within global fish communities, from chondrichthyan-rich faunas of the Permo-Carboniferous to typical Mesozoic and Cenozoic associations dominated by actinopterygians. This turnover was not sudden but followed a stepwise pattern, with leaps during extinction events.

  11. A standard system to study vertebrate embryos.

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    Ingmar Werneburg

    also for other vertebrate groups not examined here, such as Chondrichthyes or Actinopterygii. An online database to type in developmental events for different stages and species could be a basis for further studies in comparative embryology. By documenting developmental events with the standard code, sequence heterochrony studies (i.e. Parsimov and studies on variability can use this broad comparative data set.

  12. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

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    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  13. Toxicity of Nitrate-N to Freshwater Aquatic Life and Its Water Quality Criteria%硝酸盐对淡水水生生物毒性及水质基准推导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铃松; 王业耀; 孟凡生; 周岳溪; 于海斌

    2013-01-01

    为推导保护淡水水生生物的NO3-水质基准,收集了NO3-的水生生物毒性数据,然后分析了不同水生生物类群的毒性敏感性,并分别采用评价因子法、毒性百分数排序法和物种敏感度分布法进行基准值推导.结果表明,不同生物类群的水生生物对NO3-毒性的敏感性存在明显差异,其敏感性排序为节肢动物门>软体动物门>脊索动物门;甲壳纲>昆虫纲>腹足纲>双壳>两栖纲>辐鳍纲.3种基准计算方法得到的基准值存在一定差异,最终推荐采用毒性百分数排序法得出的87.97mg·L-1和5.17 mg·L-1为现阶段NO3-(以N计)的水质急性毒性和慢性毒性基准值.%The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper.Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life.The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata,and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia >Amphibia > Actinopterygii.Moreover,the output of assessment factor method,species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different.Finally,criterias of 87.97 mg·L-1 and 5.17 mg· L-1 to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of a basal teleost, the Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus, Osteoglossidae

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    Yue Gen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA-derived sequences have become popular markers for evolutionary studies, as their comparison may yield significant insights into the evolution of both the organisms and their genomes. From the more than 24,000 teleost species, only 254 complete mtDNA sequences are available (GenBank status on 06 Sep 2006. In this paper, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Asian arowana, a basal bonytongue fish species, which belongs to the order of Osteoglossiformes. Results The complete mitochondrial genomic sequence (mtDNA of Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus was determined by using shotgun sequencing method. The length of Asian arowana mtDNA is ca. 16,650 bp (its variation is due to polymorphic repeats in the control region, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes. Twelve of the thirteen protein coding genes were found to be encoded by the heavy strand in the order typically observed for vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, whereas only nad6 was located on the light strand. An interesting feature of Asian arowana mitogenome is that two different repeat arrays were identified in the control region: a 37 bp tandem repeat at the 5' end and an AT-type dinucleotide microsatellite at the 3' end. Both repeats show polymorphism among the six individuals tested; moreover the former one is present in the mitochondrial genomes of several other teleost groups. The TACAT motif described earlier only from mammals and lungfish was found in the tandem repeat of several osteoglossid and eel species. Phylogenetic analysis of fish species representing Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii taxa has shown that the Asian arowana is located near the baseline of the teleost tree, confirming its status among the ancestral teleost lineages. Conclusion The mitogenome of Asian arowana is very similar to the typical vertebrate mitochondrial genome in terms of gene arrangements, codon usage and base composition

  15. Duplication of the dystroglycan gene in most branches of teleost fish

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    Giardina Bruno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dystroglycan (DG complex is a major non-integrin cell adhesion system whose multiple biological roles involve, among others, skeletal muscle stability, embryonic development and synapse maturation. DG is composed of two subunits: α-DG, extracellular and highly glycosylated, and the transmembrane β-DG, linking the cytoskeleton to the surrounding basement membrane in a wide variety of tissues. A single copy of the DG gene (DAG1 has been identified so far in humans and other mammals, encoding for a precursor protein which is post-translationally cleaved to liberate the two DG subunits. Similarly, D. rerio (zebrafish seems to have a single copy of DAG1, whose removal was shown to cause a severe dystrophic phenotype in adult animals, although it is known that during evolution, due to a whole genome duplication (WGD event, many teleost fish acquired multiple copies of several genes (paralogues. Results Data mining of pufferfish (T. nigroviridis and T. rubripes and other teleost fish (O. latipes and G. aculeatus available nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of two functional paralogous DG sequences. RT-PCR analysis proved that both the DG sequences are transcribed in T. nigroviridis. One of the two DG sequences harbours an additional mini-intronic sequence, 137 bp long, interrupting the uncomplicated exon-intron-exon pattern displayed by DAG1 in mammals and D. rerio. A similar scenario emerged also in D. labrax (sea bass, from whose genome we have cloned and sequenced a new DG sequence that also harbours a shorter additional intronic sequence of 116 bp. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of DG protein products in all the species analysed including two teleost Antarctic species (T. bernacchii and C. hamatus. Conclusion Our evolutionary analysis has shown that the whole-genome duplication event in the Class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish involved also DAG1. We unravelled new important molecular genetic details

  16. Avaliação de substratos de oviposição para Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae Evaluation of oviposition substrates for Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae

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    Lívia M. Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliação de substratos de oviposição para Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae. Fêmeas do predador O. insidiosus usam tecidos de plantas para colocação de seus ovos, o que caracteriza a oviposição endofítica. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar diferentes substratos de oviposição para este predador. O estudo foi conduzido em sala climatizada a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Os substratos de oviposição utilizados foram brotos de feijão (Phaselus vulgaris L., brotos de soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], brotos de batata (Solanum tuberosum L., vagem de feijão (Phaselus vulgaris L. e inflorescências de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Foram avaliados os números médio diário e total de ovos por um período de 15 dias, o número de adultos vivos em cada recipiente e a viabilidade na produção dos adultos. Todos os substratos testados foram aceitos pelas fêmeas. Entretanto, foi observado um número significativamente maior de ovos de O. insidiosus em brotos de feijão (4,3 ovos por dia e brotos de soja (3,9 ovos por dia, comparado aos demais substratos avaliados. As menores (pFemales of O. insidiosus deposit their eggs in the plant tissue. This study aimed to evaluate oviposition substrates for this predator. The study was conducted in an air-conditioned room at 25 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12 h photophase. The oviposition substrates used consisted of bean sprouts (Phaseolus vulgaris L., soybean sprouts [Glycine max (L. Merr.], potato sprouts (Solanum tuberosum L., bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris L., and farmer's friend inflorescences (Bidens pilosa L.. Evaluations included the daily mean and total numbers of eggs per female during a 15-day period, the number of live adults in each container, and adult production viability. All substrates tested were accepted by the females. However, a significantly higher number of O. insidiosus eggs was found on bean sprouts (4.3 eggs per day and soybean sprouts (3

  17. 缙云山自然保护区常见菊科植物花粉形态特征分析%Study on Pollen Morphology of Compositae in Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德怀; 韩晓丽; 孙爱芝; 代然然; 郭洪亮

    2013-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 17 compositae plants from Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve in Chongqing Municipality are observed and analyzed under light microscope (LM). The results show that the pollen grains are radially symmetrical, spherical or subsphaeroidal in shape, and the polar view is 3-labed-rounded. They all have 3 colporates. By their pollen morphological features, the 17 species are divided into 4 types. (1) The pollen has big reticulation veins. The representative plants are in three genera: Yoμngia japonica ( L. ) DC, Ixeris polycephala Cass, Paraprenanthes heptantha Shih et D. J. Liou and P. sororia (Miq. ) Shih. (2) The pollen is characterized by sharp, dense and long spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Bidens Pilosa L. , Galinsoga parviflora Cav. , Siegesbeckia orientaiis L. and Bidens tripartite L. (3) Its main characteristics are that the base of spine is swelling and the spine is blunt. The representative plants are in four genera: Sinosenecio oldhamiaus (Maxim.) B. Nord, Senecio scandens Buch. -Ham, Blumea megacephala (Randeria)Chang et Tseng and Kalimeris indica (L. ) Sch. -Bip. (4)This type is characterized by sparse, short, and uniform spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Vernonia cumingiana Diels, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth. ) S. Moore (Gynura crepidioides Benth) , Eclip-ta prostrate L. and Gnaphaliμm of fine D. Don. Pollen morphology is different between different plants, but plants with similar pollen morphology can come from different tribes-genera.%应用光学显微镜对缙云山自然保护区17种常见菊科植物的花粉形态进行了观察和分析,结果显示花粉粒均为辐射对称,大多为近球形-长球形,萌发孔均为三孔沟,极面观为三裂圆形.根据花粉形态特征分析,17种菊科植物花粉类型可分为4大类:①花粉形态以粗大网状纹饰为主要特征,以黄鹤菜、苦荬菜、雷山假福王草、假福王草植物为代表;②花粉形态以刺

  18. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

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    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas, Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (frutos, Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos, Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas, Piper nigrum L. (folhas, Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos, Pothomorphe umbellata L. (folhas, Sapindus saponaria L. (folhas, S. saponaria (frutos, Solanum cernuum Vell. (folhas, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville (casca, Symphytum officinale L. (folhas, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (folhas, T. catigua (ramos, Trichilia pallida Sw. (folhas e T. pallida (ramos, em relação à preferência para oviposição de Plutella xylostella. Discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cultivar Georgia foram imersos em cada extrato à concentração de 10% (massa/volume por um minuto. Em seguida, foram divididos em quatro partes iguais e duas partes foram colocadas alternadamente com outras duas partes tratadas com água destilada, em uma gaiola. A contagem dos ovos foi feita após 24 horas. Os extratos apresentaram efeito deterrente na oviposição da praga, com exceção do extrato de S. adstringens, que não diferiu da testemunha, tratada apenas com água destilada. Os extratos de E. contortisilliquum, S. saponaria (frutos e T. pallida (folhas foram os mais eficientes, apresentando 100% de deterrência.The effect of aqueous extracts from Achillea millefolium L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves, Bidens pilosa L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (leaves, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (leaves, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (fruits, Mentha crispa L. (leaves e branches, Nicotiana tabacum L. (leaves, Piper nigrum

  19. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas pelos moradores do povoado de Manejo, Lima Duarte - MG Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by dwellers of Manejo Village, Lima Duarte-Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    E.R Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi o levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população do povoado de Manejo, Lima Duarte (MG. O estudo foi realizado mediante visitas às casas dos moradores que responderam a questionário relacionado às espécies de plantas que são cultivadas, respectivas partes utilizadas, bem como as formas de preparo e quais doenças são tratadas com as plantas. Foram realizadas 41 visitas resultando em citações de 100 diferentes espécies medicinais, sendo a maioria cultivada nos quintais e outras nativas da região, as quais também são utilizadas pelos moradores. Exemplares foram coletados e depositados no herbário CESJ, da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. As espécies mais citadas foram Mentha sp., Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Bidens pilosa L., Mentha pulegium L., Mikania glomerata Spreng., Rosa sp. e Plantago major L. As doenças mais tratadas com as plantas medicinais em Manejo são gripes e resfriados, problemas estomacais, cólicas menstruais e infecções no útero, verminose, problemas renais, ansiedade e estresse. As partes mais utilizadas são as folhas, e a forma de preparo mais comum das plantas são os chás por infusão. A construção de horta comunitária no povoado pode valorizar o emprego das plantas medicinais, sobretudo pelos mais jovens, mantendo a tradição do uso pelas futuras gerações.The aim of this study was the ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the population of Manejo Village, Lima Duarte (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study was performed by means of visitations to the houses of dwellers who answered a questionnaire related to the plant species that are cultivated, respective parts that are used, as well as preparation forms and which diseases are treated with the plants. A total of 41 visitations were done, resulting in citation of 100 different medicinal species, most of which

  20. Efeitos de quantidades de fitomassa de adubos verdes na supressão de plantas daninhas Effects of cover crop biomass quantities on weed suppression

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    F.J. Severino

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as correlações entre a utilização de diferentes quantidades de fitomassa, incorporada ou na superfície do solo, dos adubos verdes amendoim-forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan na redução da emergência e produção de fitomassa seca das plantas daninhas capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-colonião (Panicum maximum e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ/USP-Piracicaba. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 6 x 3 x 2, sendo três adubos verdes (A. pintoi, C. juncea e C. cajan, seis quantidades de fitomassa (0; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; e 8 vezes a quantidade de adubo verde produzido pela média de campo, três plantas daninhas (B. decumbens, P. maximum e B. pilosa e duas formas de distribuição da fitomassa dos adubos verdes (na superfície do solo e de 0 a 5 cm de profundidade. As características avaliadas durante a condução do experimento foram as seguintes: densidade de plantas daninhas/vaso e produção de fitomassa seca das plantas daninhas (g/vaso, determinadas aos 15 e aos 30 dias após a instalação do experimento. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a fitomassa dos adubos verdes, nas duas formas utilizadas, reduz significativamente as populações das plantas daninhas testadas. As correlações ocorrem de maneira distinta pelos diferentes adubos verdes, sendo o feijão-guandu-anão, de forma geral, o mais efetivo na supressão das plantas daninhas.Different biomass quantities of the cover crops Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory, Crotalaria juncea and Cajanus cajan were either incorporated or spread on the surface of the soil to study their effect on the emergence and dry mass production of the weeds Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum and Bidens

  1. Efeitos de doses e épocas de aplicação do bentazon na produção de duas cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L. Effects of doses and time of application of bentazon on the yield of two onion cultivars

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    M.H.T. Mascarenhas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Em um solo aluvião eutrófico de classificação textural argilo siltoso, com 2,75% de M.O. foram estudados os efeitos de doses do herbicida bentazon (3 - isopropi l - 2,1,3 - benzotio-diazinona - (4 - 2,2 - dióxido aplicado em pós-emergência. no controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura da cebola. O delineamento experimental adotado foi um fatorial 2 x 5 x 2 + 4. constituído por duas cultivares: 'Baia Pe ri forme' e 'Texas Grano': cinco épocas de aplicação do produto: aos 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência das plantas daninhas: duas doses de bentazon: 0,46kg. i.a./ha e 0,96 kg. i.a./ha e quatro tratamentos adicionais: 'Baia Periforme' capinada e sem capina e 'Texas Grano'. capinada e sem capina. . As plantas daninhas predominantes no experimento foram: botão -de-ouro (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia prunifoiia Jacq.(, mostarda (Brassica campestris L., joá (Physalis angulata L. fedegoso (Cassia tora L.(, serralha falsa (Emilia sonchifolia (L . DC e mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L. Nas condições em que foi realizado o ensaio, o herbicida bentazon nas duas doses aplicadas mostrou-se eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas até 60 dias após o transplante. Nas doses empregadas o bentazon não apresentou efeito fitotóxico sobre a produção das cultivares 'Baia Periforme' e 'Texas Grano'.The effects of doses of the herbicide bentazon applied at post-emergence in the control of dycotiledonous weeds in onion crops were studied on a alluvial eutrophic soil with a clay silt texture. and 2.75%% of organic matter. The experiment was set according to a complete randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 5 x 2- 4 (two onion varieties: 'Bala Periforme' and 'Texas Grano': five herbicide application dates: 10. 20. 30, 40 and 50 days after emergence of the weeds: bentazon doses were 0,46g a.i./ha and 0.96 g a.i./ha: and four more tre atments: 'Baia Periforme

  2. Uso do novo sistema Clearfield® na cultura do girassol para o controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas Use of the new Clearfield® system in sunflower culture to control dicotyledonous weeds

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    G. Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas tem limitado o aumento da área de cultivo de girassol no Brasil, devido ao seu impacto sobre a produtividade. Isso se deve à escassez de produtos registrados para a cultura com amplo espectro de ação. Em razão disso, desenvolveram-se dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas aplicados em pós-emergência de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura do girassol Clearfield®. Os experimentos foram instalados no campo, em Iguatemi, distrito de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas testemunhas sem aplicação de herbicida, sendo uma sem capina e outra capinada, sulfentrazone (200,00 g ha-1 aplicado em pré-emergência e imazapic+imazapyr aplicados em pós-emergência nas doses de [36,75+12,25], [52,5+17,5], [12,25+36,75] e [17,5+52,5] g ha-1. Foram feitas avaliações de controle para Euphorbia heterophylla, Conyza bonariensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa, Ipomoea grandifolia e Portulaca oleracea. Também foram realizadas avaliações de intoxicação do girassol Clearfield®, estande e produtividade em kg ha-1. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se que o uso do sistema Clearfield® mostrou-se uma ótima opção para áreas com infestação de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas, pois possibilita a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS; os controles obtidos variaram de medianos a excelentes, além de ele não provocar injúrias à cultura e manter o estande inicial e a produtividade.The occurrence of dicotyledonous weeds has limited the increase of the area of sunflower cultivation in Brazil, due to their impact on crop yield. This is a result of a shortage of products registered for the crop with broad-spectrum control. Thus, two experiments were installed to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the imidazolinone herbicides applied on post

  3. Competição entre soja resistente ao glyphosate e plantas daninhas em solo compactado Competition between glyphosate resistant soybean and weeds in compacted soil

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    J.B. Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a competição entre a soja (var. BRS 243 RR e as plantas daninhas Bidens pilosa e Brachiaria brizantha, em diferentes níveis de compactação do solo. Para isso, foram confeccionadas colunas de PVC (10 cm de diâmetro com três anéis: superior (com 5 cm de altura e densidade de 1,2 kg dm-3, intermediário (com 10 cm de altura e densidade variando entre 1,0 e 1,6 kg dm-3, conforme tratamento e inferior (com 10 cm de altura e densidade de 1,2 kg dm-3. Sobre as colunas foram realizados cinco cultivos: soja, B. pilosa, B. brizantha, soja e B. pilosa e soja e B. brizantha, em esquema fatorial com as densidades, perfazendo um total de 20 tratamentos. Aos 30 dias após emergência da soja, foram avaliadas a altura, a massa seca de folhas, de caule e de raízes (em cada anel, separadamente, a área foliar e a área foliar específica. Observou-se que B. brizantha foi mais competitiva que B. pilosa; contudo, esta última possui maior capacidade de exploração radicular em solos com maior nível de compactação, indicando maior adaptabilidade a condições como déficit hídrico e escassez de nutrientes. Considerando a capacidade competitiva da soja sobre as plantas daninhas, maiores níveis de compactação favorecem a cultura, em relação a B. pilosa.This work aimed to evaluate competition between soybean (BRS 243 RR and the weeds Bidens pilosa and Brachiaria brizantha, in soil with simulated compactation. Thus columns of PVC tubes (10 cm of diameter were made with three rings (superior (5 cm high and 1.2 kg dm-3 density; intermediate (10 cm high and around 1.0 and 1.6 kg dm-3 density and inferior (10 cm high and 1.2 kg dm-3 density. Five crops, soybean, B. pilosa, B. brizantha, soybean and B. pilosa, and soybean and B. brizantha, were cultivated on the columns in a factorial scheme with the densities, totaling 20 treatments. At 30 days after soybean emergence, height leaf, stem and root dry matter, leaf area

  4. Características fisiológicas das culturas de soja e feijão e de três espécies de plantas daninhas Physiological caracteristics of soybean and common bean crops and three weed species

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    S.O. Procópio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os características fisiológicas taxa de fotossíntese líquida (A, taxa de transpiração (E, condutância estomática (gs e eficiência do uso da água (WUE e os índices de crescimento biomassa seca total (Wt e índice de área foliar (L para as culturas de soja (Glycine max e feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e para as das plantas daninhas Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum e dois biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (um suscetível e outro resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, em duas épocas de avaliação: 39 e 67 dias após a semeadura (DAS. O experimento foi conduzido a campo em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, fase terraço, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, sendo o fator da parcela principal as espécies vegetais e o da subparcela as épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Foi observado maior Wt da soja em relação às plantas daninhas. As culturas de soja e feijão apresentaram maior L do que as plantas daninhas. Os biótipos de E. heterophylla apresentaram a maior A, bem como a maior gs. Com exceção de D. tortuosum, as plantas daninhas apresentaram maior WUE em relação às culturas nos estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Não foram observadas diferenças em relação a qualquer parâmetro fisiológico avaliado entre os biótipos de E. heterophylla.This work aimed to evaluate the physiological caracteristics net photosynthesis (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs and water use efficiency (WUE and growth indexes of total dry matter (Wt and leaf area index (L for soybean (Glycine max, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and weeds Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum and two biotypes of Euphorbia heterophylla (one susceptible and other resistant to ALS inhibitor herbicides during two periods of evaluation, 39 and 67 days after sowing (DAS. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in a Red

  5. Biology, management and biochemical/genetic characterization of weed biotypes resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides Biologia, manejo e caracterização bioquímica e genética de biótipos resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase

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    Patrícia Andrea Monquero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus quitensis are major weeds infesting soybean [Glycine max L (Merrill] fields in Brazil and Argentina. The repetitive use of acetolactate synthase (ALS EC 4.1.3.18 inhibiting herbicides in São Gabriel do Oeste, MS, Brazil and in the provinces of Córdoba and Tucumã, Argentina, has selected for resistant (R biotypes of these weeds. Research work was developed to study the management, growth, biochemistry, and genetics of these R weed biotypes. In a field experiment it was found that chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr at recommended rates (both ALS inhibitor herbicides, did not control R B. pilosa, but the alternative lactofen, fomesafen and bentazon were effective, either sprayed alone or mixed with the ALS inhibitor herbicides. Greenhouse studies confirmed the cross-resistance of both R biotypes to the imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides, and these alternative herbicides, when sprayed alone or mixed with the ALS inhibitor, efficiently controlled both R and S populations. A growth analysis of the R and S biotypes of these weeds, under non-competitive conditions, indicated that there is no adaptive cost to the R biotypes (pleiotropic effect. A quick bioassay using ALS and ketoacid reductoisomerase (KARI inhibitors showed that the resistance of the R biotypes to herbicides is related to a lack of sensitivity of the ALS enzyme to the herbicides. On the other hand, the sequencing of the gene that codifies the ALS resistance in R A. quitensis did not present any mutation in the A Domain region, suggesting that other positions of the gene that confer insensitivity of the ALS to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides could have mutated.Bidens pilosa e Amaranthus quitensis são as principais plantas daninhas infestantes na cultura de soja [Glycine max L (Merrill] no Brasil e Argentina, respectivamente. O uso repetitivo de herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS EC 4.1.3.18 em São Gabriel do Oeste (MS

  6. Efeitos de misturas de napropamide e simazine no controle de mono e dicotiledoneas em cafeeiros novos Effects of napropamide and simazine mixtures on the control of mono and dicotyledon on new coffee trees

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    L.S.P. Cruz

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de se conhecer a ação de misturas de napropamide e simazine no controle de plantas daninhas mono e dicotiledôneas em cafee iros com dois anos de idade, foi conduzido um experimento de campo em Araras, SP, em 1979/80. 0 delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: napropamide a 2,00 kg e 3,00 kg/ha; simazine a 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha; e, misturas de 2,00 kg/ha de napropamide com 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha de simazine, e de 3,00 kg/ha de napropamide também com 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha de simaz ine . Constou do experimento ainda, uma testemunha sem herbicida. Aos 45 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas foi feita uma contagem das plantas daninhas, e a cada 15 dias, até aos 90 dias da aplicação, foram realizadas observações visuais de porcentagem de infestação do mato. Nestas mesmas épocas também foram realizadas observações sobre sintomas de fi totoxicidade causados pelos herbicidas aos cafeeiros. As plantas daninhas presentes em maior número no ensaio foram as monocotiledôneas capim - de-colchão - Digitaria horizontalis Willd e capimpé -de-galinha Eleusine indica (L.1 Gaertn, e as dicotiledôneas carurú-de-mancha - Amaranthus viridis L. e picão-preto - Bidens pilosa L. Como era esperado, as misturas foram superiores aos tratamentos com herbicidas isolados. sendo bastante eficientes no controle das mono e dicotiledõneas que incidiram no experimento. Todos os tratamentos com 0.75 k ' ha de simazine apresentaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade, limitados a algumas folhas dos cafeeiros. até a última observação realizada.A field experiment was conducted in Araras in 1979/80 with the purpose to study the effects of mixture of napropamide and simazine on the control of mono and dicotyledons weeds in two years old coffee trees. The experiment was in randomised blocks with nine treatments and four repplications. The treatments were the following

  7. Eficácia de herbicidas aplicados em diferentes épocas sobre B. pilosa e I. quamoclit em área de cana-de-açúcar colhida mecanicamente Effectiveness of herbicides applied at different times on B. pilosa and I. quamoclit in mechanically harvested sugarcane area

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    P.A. Monquero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a eficácia agronômica de herbicidas utilizados em áreas no sistema da colheita da cana crua, visando o controle de Ipomoea quamoclit e Bidens pilosa em lavoura comercial de cana-soca, com solo de textura argilosa, no município de Araras-SP. Os herbicidas (em g ha-1 utilizados foram trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn (27,77 + 1.097 e 37 + 1.463, mesotrione (120 e 192, mesotrione + ametryn (120 + 1.500, mesotrione + trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn [120 + (27,77 + 1.097], trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn + diuron + hexazinone [(27,77 + 1.097 + (702 + 198] e metribuzin (1.920. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em pré-emergência das plantas daninhas sobre a palha de cana-de-açúcar; em pré-emergência das plantas daninhas sobre o solo e, em seguida, coberto com palha; e em pós-emergência das plantas daninhas, em jato dirigido nas entrelinhas da cana-de-açúcar. Eles sempre foram aplicados em pós-emergência da cultura, a qual apresentava aproximadamente 30 cm de altura. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a aplicação dos herbicidas sobre a palha de cana-de-açúcar e em pré-emergência das plantas daninhas alterou a eficácia do mesotrione a 120 g, do trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn (27,77 + 1.097 e das misturas de mesotrine + ametryn e mesotrione + (trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn. Os herbicidas metribuzin e (trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn + (diuron + hexazinone foram eficazes no controle das espécies daninhas, independentemente da forma de aplicação. A espécie B. pilosa foi a mais suscetível aos herbicidas e ao sistema de colheita cana-crua, ou seja, a palha sobre o solo inibiu o seu estabelecimento. Os herbicidas aplicados em jato dirigido na entrelinha da cana-de-açúcar, em pós-emergência, foram seletivos para a cultura.This work aimed to study the agronomic efficacy of herbicides applied in raw sugarcane harvest areas, to control Ipomea quamoclit and Bidens pilosa, on a

  8. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

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    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  9. Período crítico de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do milho baseado na fenologia da cultura Critical period of weed interference in corn crop based on crop phenology

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    L.A. Kozlowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 2000/2001 foi conduzido, na Fazenda Experimental Gralha Azul/PUCPR, um experimento de campo com o objetivo de determinar o período crítico para prevenção da interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a cultura do milho, determinado com base na fenologia da cultura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2x7, com quatro repetições. Os 14 tratamentos testados foram resultados da combinação de duas séries de tratamentos: com a cultura em períodos iniciais de crescimento em competição com as plantas daninhas, e com a cultura em períodos iniciais de crescimento sem competição; estes períodos iniciais foram caracterizados por estádios fenológicos da cultura do milho - V2, V4, V6, V8 e V10 - e duas testemunhas. O experimento foi instalado em uma área sob plantio direto, com semeadura realizada de acordo com a tecnologia recomendada para a cultura, com adubações no sulco e em cobertura e tratamentos fitossanitários, para que as plantas de milho se desenvolvessem normalmente. O período crítico de prevenção da interferência ocorreu entre os estádios fenológicos V2 e V7, e a interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu em média 87% o rendimento de grãos da testemunha em competição durante todo o ciclo da cultura em relação à testemunha sem competição com as plantas daninhas, por todo o ciclo. Com relação à comunidade infestante, as dicotiledôneas representaram 22,3% das plantas daninhas, destacando-se as espécies Taraxacum officinale, Senecio brasiliensis, Rumex obtusifolius e Bidens pilosa, e as monocotiledôneas, 77,7% da comunidade infestante, com destaque para Brachiaria plantaginea. O acúmulo de biomassa seca das plantas de milho, a população final e o número de espigas por planta não foram afetados pela interferência das plantas daninhas.A field experiment was carried out to determine the critical period of weed interference in corn, under a no

  10. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero Effect of the incorporation of antagonistic plants on the parasitic activity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in a greenhouse carrot crop

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    Alvarez César G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca, se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de zanahoria (Daucus carota varo Mokum y sobre la densidad poblacional del nemátodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla y la intensidad de la nodulación asociada con su establecimiento sobre plantas de zanahoria. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al rendimiento biológico de la zanahoria, pero los tratamientos con R. graveolens y T. officinale mostraron la mayor producción de zanahoria comercial (3070 g.m·2 y 2270 g.m·2 con diferencias significativas respecto al testigo (1090 g.m-2. Las densidades poblacionales finales de juveniles infectivos [J2] de M. hapla fueron significativamente más bajas en los tratamientos con R. communis, T. officinale, B. campestris y T. erecta (65-130 J2/100 g de suelo que en el testigo (435 J2/100g de suelo. En la nodulación se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el testigo (5.0 nudos/ápice de zanahoria y los demás tratamientos (1,9-2,6 nudos/ápice de zanahoria.A trial was conducted at the Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA of the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca under greenhouse conditions to assess the effect of incorporating fresh above-ground material of seven plant species (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris. Bidens pilosa, Rufa graveolens, Taraxacum officinale and Ricínus communis on the yield and commercial quality of a carrot (Daucus carota crop var. Mokum, on the population density of Meloidogyne hapla and on the

  11. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

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    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  12. Mistura em tanque de boro e herbicidas em semeadura convencional de girassol Tank-mix of boron and herbicides on conventional sunflower sowing

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    C. Castro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste experimento foi avaliar a resposta do girassol às aplicações de boro (B, isoladas ou em mistura com herbicidas, e o controle de plantas daninhas por meio de experimento conduzido na Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR. Os tratamentos foram acetochlor (1,92 kg i.a. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0,36 kg i.a. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0,35 kg i.a.ha-1, trifluralin (1,80 kg i.a. ha-1 e as testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados, isoladamente ou em mistura, com 2 kg ha-1 de B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - bórax e H3BO3 - ácido bórico. O tratamento mais eficiente foi acetochlor mais ácido bórico; essa combinação resultou em solução mais homogênea da calda de pulverização, quando comparada com os herbicidas mais bórax. O herbicida acetochlor aplicado isoladamente ou em mistura com as duas fontes de B foi eficiente no controle da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, do picão-preto (Bidens pilosa e da corda-de-viola (Ipomoea grandifolia. Os herbicidas oxyfluorfen e sulfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas com as duas fontes de B, foram eficientes no controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla e da corda-de-viola, respectivamente. É viável a aplicação de boro juntamente com os herbicidas testados nesta pesquisa em mistura em tanque, evitando a deficiência desse micronutriente e controlando as plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol.The objectives of this study were to determine the response of sunflower to application of boron (B fertilizer and herbicides, alone or in combination, and to determine its weed control. A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Soja, Londrina, Parana, Brazil. The treatments were acetochlor (1.92 kg a.i. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0.36 kg a.i. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0.35 kg a.i. ha-1, trifluralin (1.80 kg a.i. ha-1 and two controls (with and without hoeing. All treatments were applied alone or in combination with 2 kg ha-1 of B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - borax and H3BO3 - boric acid

  13. Allelopathic effect of sunflower water extract on the germination of soybean and hairy beggartick / Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de girassol sobre a germinação de soja e picão-preto

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    Raquel Leszczynski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of water extract from sunflower fresh leaves on the germination and initial development of conventional and transgenic soybean cultivars, and of the invasive hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.. Experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, in 2007. Fresh leaves from sunflower were ground in a blender at the proportion 200g/1L distilled water, resulting in crude extract (100%, in which pH was measured. Dilutions of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% were done from the crude extract, and only distilled water was used as control. Statistical analysis (Tukey 5% probability indicated that only the highest extract concentrations (60%, 80% and 100% influenced the analyzed parameters for conventional and transgenic soybean. Beggartick seeds, however, had germination percentage completely inhibited when 40% water extract was applied, which indicates that sunflower straw could be used as a natural herbicide. Nevertheless, field studies must be carried out to prove such effect.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de girassol sobre a germinação das sementes e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas das cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill convencional (CD232, transgênica (CD213RR e uma de suas invasoras, o picão preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná no ano de 2007. As folhas de girassol colhidas na época da floração foram trituradas com o auxílio de um liquidificador na proporção de 200g/1L de água destilada resultando no extrato bruto (100%. A partir do extrato bruto foram feitas as diluições de 80%, 60%, 40% e 20%, sendo utilizado como testemunha apenas água destilada. Após análise estatística (Tukey 5% de probabilidade, pode-se verificar que o extrato aquoso das

  14. Picão-preto: uma planta daninha especial em solos tropicais Black jack: a special weed in tropical soils

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    J.B Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa está presente em praticamente todo o território brasileiro, além de vários outros habitats tropicais. Entre as características presentes na planta, a abundante e longa produção de propágulos, o fotoblastismo preferencial, o uso eficiente da água, a elevada extração e utilização de nutrientes, bem como características morfofisiológicas específicas, conferem vantagem na competição com as principais culturas anuais e perenes. Devido à plasticidade e flexibilidade adaptativa de B. pilosa e às interações de suas características na determinação da competitividade desse vegetal, torna-se difícil identificar aquelas que realmente se associam com elevada capacidade competitiva e que possuam maior expressividade. Dentro da espécie ocorrem biótipos resistentes a determinados herbicidas, o que dificulta seu controle nas áreas agrícolas. O uso de outros métodos de manejo também possui entraves, devido à ampla variação do fluxo de disseminação, germinação e emergência de propágulos e, ainda, às associações benéficas dessa espécie com microrganismos presentes no solo. Embora seja dotada de características que a tornam infestante agressiva nas áreas agrícolas, este trabalho reporta alguns mecanismos que podem ser usados para o manejo integrado da espécie. Além disso, B. pilosa apresenta propriedades medicinais, sendo necessário o aprofundamento científico para usufruto de seus benefícios.Bidens pilosa occurs in practically all the Brazilian territory, besides several other tropical habitats. This plant's most advantageous aspects in the competition with major annual and perennial cultivars are its abundant and long propagule production, preferential photo-blastism, water use efficiency, high nutrient extraction and use, and morphophysiological characteristics. Due to B. pilosas plasticity and adaptative flexibility, as well as interaction of the characteristics determining its competitiveness

  15. Water use efficiency of cassava plants under competition conditions Eficiência do uso da água de plantas de mandioca em condições de competição

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    I Aspiazú

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate characteristics associated with the photosynthetic activity of cassava plants in competition with weeds or not. The trial was performed on open environment conditions, with experimental units consisting of fiber glass vases with 150 dm³ filled with Red Yellow Latosol, previously fertilized. Treatments consisted in the cultivation of cassava plants isolated and associated to three weed species (Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis and Brachiaria plantaginea. After cassava shooting, 15 days after planting, a removal of the weeds excess was performed, sown at the time of cassava planting, leaving six plants m-2 of B. pilosa and four plants m-2 of C. benghalensis and B. plantaginea. At 60 days after emergence (DAE, stomatal conductance (Gs, vapor pressure in the substomatal cavity (Ean, temperature gradient between leaf and air (ΔT, transpiration rate (E and water use efficiency (WUE were evaluated. B. pilosa showed greater capacity to affect growth of cassava plants. B. plantaginea is very efficient in using water, especially by presenting C4 metabolism, and remains competitive with cassava even under temporarily low water status. C. benghalensis, in turn, is not a good competitor for light and apparently is not the primary cause of water depletion in the soil. The effects of weeds, in this case, were more associated with the competition. However, they were found between moderate to low. This implies that the competition established at experimental level was low.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características associadas à eficiência de uso da água de plantas de mandioca sob competição ou não com plantas daninhas. O experimento foi realizado em condições de ambiente aberto, sendo as unidades experimentais compostas por vasos de fibra de vidro de 150 dm³preenchidos com Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, previamente adubado. Os tratamentos consistiram no cultivo de plantas de mandioca isoladas e

  16. Eficiência do herbicida oxyfluorfen, quando veiculado ao papel, no controle de algumas espécies daninhas Effect of the herbicide oxyfluorfen using paper as a vehicle on the weed control

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    Alexandre J. Bezutte

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de encontrar um método alternativo de aplicação de herbicidas, estudou-se a eficiência do oxyfluorfen aplicado em três doses (0, 480 e 960g/ha sob duas formas (pulverizado e veiculado em folha de papel no controle em pré-emergência de Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum, Eleusine indica, Sida rhombifolia Amaranthus retroflexus, Acanthospermum hispidum e Digitaria horizontalis. A pulverização do oxyfluorfen foi realizada com o auxílio de um pulverizador, e sua veiculação foi feita através da determinação prévia da capacidade de embebição do papel. Obteve-se a concentração necessária da calda quando o papel atingiu completa embebição e então, escorrido o excesso, foi posto a secar na sombra. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Foram realizadas avaliações aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após a aplicação (DAA, e os resultados indicaram que os métodos de aplicação utilizados, assim como as doses, apresentaram excelente controle de B. pilosa, D. tortuosum, E. indica S. rhombifolia, D. horizontalis e A. retroflexus até 60 DAA, reduzindo tanto a densidade como o acúmulo de matéria seca. Quanto ao A. hispidum, ambos os métodos e doses não proporcionaram bom controle. Foi observado também que o papel utilizado como veículo do oxyfluorfen proporcionou redução na densidade de B. pilosa, E. indica, D. horizontalis e A. retroflexus e promoveu a germinação de S. rhombifolia e A. hispidum quando da avaliação aos DAA. Estes resultados demonstram a viabilidade de utilização de papel como veículo de aplicação do oxyfluorfen.A greenhouse assay was conducted to evaluate na alternative method for applying oxyfluorfen to control annual weeds. The experiment was in 3 x 2 factorial, in a completely randomized design, with three replications. The factors were: three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 480 and 960g/ha and two methods to apply the herbicide to the soil surface

  17. Período crítico de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijoeiro-comum em sistema de semeadura direta Critical period of weed interference in the common bean crop under direct seeding system

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    L.A. Kozlowski

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 1996/97 foi conduzido, na Fazenda-Escola da Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, em Ponta Grossa-PR, um experimento a campo com o objetivo de determinar o período crítico de prevenção da interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a cultura do feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris, em sistema de semeadura direta, associando esse período com a fenologia da planta. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2 x 8, com quatro repetições. Os 16 tratamentos testados foram resultados da combinação de dois conjuntos de tratamentos de interferência das plantas daninhas: (1 inicialmente em convivência com as plantas daninhas (2 inicialmente sem convivência com as plantas daninhas, em sete estádios fenológicos do feijoeiro - V2, V3, V4, R5, R6, R7 e R8 - e uma testemunha em convivência durante todo o ciclo da cultura. O experimento foi instalado em uma área há oito anos sob plantio direto, com semeadura realizada de acordo com a tecnologia recomendada para a cultura, com adubações no sulco e em cobertura e tratamentos fitossanitários, para que os feijoeiros se desenvolvessem normalmente. O período crítico de prevenção da interferência ocorreu entre os estádios fenológicos V4 e R6, e a interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo reduziu em média 71% o rendimento de grãos dos feijoeiros. Com relação à comunidade infestante, as dicotiledôneas representaram 61,3% das plantas daninhas, destacando-se as espécies Bidens pilosa e Richardia brasiliensis, com 30,6 e 16,6%, respectivamente; já as monocotiledôneas representaram 38,7% da comunidade infestante, com destaque para as espécies Digitaria horizontalis e Brachiaria plantaginea, com 23,6 e 14,3%, respectivamente.A field experiment was carried out at the Training Farm of Ponta Grossa State University, in Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil, during the 1996/1997 growing season to determine the critical period of weed

  18. Interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do tomate para processamento Weed interference in processing tomato crops

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    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Para se alcançar eficiência no manejo cultural, é muito importante determinar o período crítico de interferência (PCI das plantas daninhas no cultivo das hortaliças. Avaliou-se neste trabalho a interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do tomate para processamento, pelo transplantio de mudas, na Embrapa Hortaliças, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições. Os tratamentos foram divididos em dois grupos, com períodos iniciais crescentes, denominados sem a interferência (no limpo e com interferência (no mato das plantas daninhas. No primeiro, a cultura de tomate permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas desde o transplantio das mudas até os seguintes períodos (dias do ciclo de desenvolvimento do tomate: 1-28, 1-35, 1-49, 1-63, 1-77, 1-91 (todo ciclo, colheita. Após estes períodos, as plantas daninhas cresceram livremente até o final do ciclo da cultura. No segundo grupo a cultura permaneceu com a interferência das plantas daninhas desde o preparo final do solo e transplantio das mudas até os mesmos períodos descritos para o primeiro grupo. Após estes períodos as plantas daninhas foram removidas manualmente até a colheita. De um total de 24, as espécies mais freqüentes e/ou de maior acúmulo de matéria seca foram: Bidens pilosa, Brachiaria plantaginea, Nicandra physaloides e Oxalis latifolia. As plantas daninhas causaram reduções na produção de tomate de até 75,5%, sendo que o PCI ocorreu no período do 33º ao 76º dia após a implantação da cultura.Weed control efficiency depends on the information about its interference on the crops. The interference of weed on tomato plants of a processing variety, transplanted directly into the field was evaluated. The field experiment was carried out, in a randomized block design with three replications, at Embrapa Hortaliças in Brasília, Brazil. Plots were laid out with increasing periods of time in the presence or absence of weeds. In the

  19. Influência das épocas de controle das plantas daninhas na produção de laranja pera Influence of weed control timing on the production of orange

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    José Eduardo B. de Carvalho

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante 4 anos agrícolas, conduziu-se um experimento no município d Rio Real, BA, com o objetivo de determinar o período em que as plantas daninhas apresentam maior interferência na produção da cultura durante o ano, levando-se em consideração a disponibilidade de água no solo, em função do balanço hídrico climatológico que estimou sua capacidade de armazenamento em 125 mm de água. Os tratamentos constituíram um arranjo do controle do mato nas quatro épocas pré-estabelecidas. As principais plantas daninhas presentes foram a falsa-serralha (Emilia sonchifolia, capim-colchão (Digitara horizontalis, capim-favorito (Rynchelitrum roseum e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa. Na época 1 (dezembro, janeiro e fevereiro ocorrem pouquíssima água armazenada no solo e alta deficiência hídrica. A época 2 (março, abril e maio caracteriza-se por aumento considerável dos índices de armazenamento de água pelo solo, porém sem excedente hídrico e com deficiência em março. A época 3 (junho, julho e agosto é a única em que ocorre excedente de água armazenada no solo. Setembro, outubro e novembro formam a época 4, quando a disponibilidade de água no solo diminui, aumentando gradativamente a deficiência hídrica. Concluiu-se que para aquele ecossistema o pomar deve ser mantido livre da interferência da comunidade infestante a partir de setembro/outubro até abril/maio.Over a period of 4 years a trial was carried