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Sample records for opium poppy papaver

  1. In Silico Retrieving of Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum L. Microsatellites

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    Masárová Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive tandem sequences were retrieved within nucleotide sequences of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. genomic DNA available in the GenBank® database. Altogether 538 different microsatellites with the desired length characteristics of tandem repeats have been identified within 450 sequences of opium poppy DNA available in the database. The most frequented were mononucleotide repeats (246; nevertheless, 44 dinucleotide, 148 trinucleotide, 62 tetranucleotide, 28 pentanucleotide and 5 hexanucleotide tandem repeats have also been found. The most abundant were trinucleotide motifs (27.50%, and the most abundant motifs within each group of tandem repeats were TA/AT, TTC/GAA, GGTT/AACC and TTTTA/ TAAAA. Five hexanucleotide repeats contained four different motifs.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum Germplasm

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    Hari Shanker Acharya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The medicinal value of opium poppy (2n = 22, Papaver somniferum L. is due to presence of more than two dozen alkaloids. The genetic origin and diversity of cultivars used in the breeding collection is not fully known. To evaluate the genetic diversity of the 24 germplasm currently cultivated in the state to provide genetic information about heterogeneity, using RAPD and ISSR markers. Approach: Isolated genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification using either random or ISSR markers. The amplified fragments were scored and matrix was prepared. Jaccard similarity coefficients were calculated and dendogram was generated. Results: RAPD with 12 primers gave 46 scorable fragments out of which 32 bands were polymorphic (69.52% with 2.6 polymorphic band per primer, while in ISSR analysis 9 primer gave good amplification with DNA of 24 opium poppy germplasm. They gave 27 scorable polymorphic with 3.0 bends per primer. Dendrogram constructed revealed that the based on RAPD the germplasm cultivated comprised of one major group A and one minor group B, while two clusters of two germplasm each stands apart, on the basis of ISSR they fall into one major group A and one minor groups B, while one germplasm clusters of UOP-60 stands apart. Based on combined RAPD and ISSR analysis these germplasm were divided into 1 major group A and 3 minor group B, C, D whereas one genotype UOP-6 stood apart. Conclusion: These results showed that the majority of cultivated germplasm fall in one cluster and have low genetic diversity.

  3. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum and related species.

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    Hermann Voglmayr

    Full Text Available Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

  4. Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)

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    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

    2011-11-18

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  5. Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the inheritance pattern over three generations in opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BRIJ K. MISHRA; R. MISHRA; S.N. JENA; SUDHIR SHUKLA

    2016-09-01

    The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 ×NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5×NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1× NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2× NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits exceptthebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine. The seed and opium yield, and its contributing traits inherited quantitatively. The fixable gene effects (d) and (i) were lower in magnitude than nonfixable (h) and (l) gene effects. The estimates of heterosis werealso higher in comparison to the respective parents which suggested preponderance of dominance gene action for controlling most of the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was marginally higher than those of genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The traits thebaine, narcotine, morphine and opium yield had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The leaf number, branches per plant and stem diameter showed positive correlation with opium and seed yields. The selection of plants having large number of leaves, branches and capsules with bigger size would be advantageous to enhancethe yield potential.

  6. Trace and major element levels in rats after oral administration of diesel and biodiesel derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

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    Aksoy, Laçine; Sözbilir, Nalan Bayşu

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the toxic effects of diesel and biodiesel derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) oil seeds on the trace and major elements in kidney, lung, liver, and serum of rats. By the end of 21 days, trace and major element concentrations in kidney, lung, and liver tissues and the serum were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We observed that trace and major element levels in kidney, lung, and liver tissues and the serum changed. Especially, important differences were detected in trace and major element concentrations in kidney and lung tissues. In kidney tissue, the concentration differences of calcium, sodium, and zinc (Zn) were found between diesel and biodiesel groups. In lung tissue, the concentration differences of cadmium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, and Zn were found between diesel and biodiesel groups. Among the significant findings, Zn concentration in serum and liver tissue of diesel and biodiesel were different from control (p biodiesel group were similar to control group. Due to lesser toxicity of biodiesel, it could be considered as an alternate fuel.

  7. Evolution of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

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    Ziegler, Jörg; Facchini, Peter J; Geissler, René; Schmidt, Jürgen; Ammer, Christian; Kramell, Robert; Voigtländer, Susan; Gesell, Andreas; Pienkny, Silke; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of nitrogen-containing plant secondary metabolites comprised of an estimated 2500 identified structures. In BIA metabolism, (S)-reticuline is a key branch-point intermediate that can be directed into several alkaloid subtypes with different structural skeleton configurations. The morphinan alkaloids are one subclass of BIAs produced in only a few plant species, most notably and abundantly in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Comparative transcriptome analysis of opium poppy and several other Papaver species that do not accumulate morphinan alkaloids showed that known genes encoding BIA biosynthetic enzymes are expressed at higher levels in P. somniferum. Three unknown cDNAs that are co-ordinately expressed with several BIA biosynthetic genes were identified as enzymes in the pathway. One of these enzymes, salutaridine reductase (SalR), which is specific for the production of morphinan alkaloids, was isolated and heterologously overexpressed in its active form not only from P. somniferum, but also from Papaver species that do not produce morphinan alkaloids. SalR is a member of a class of short chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs) that are active as monomers and possess an extended amino acid sequence compared with classical SDRs. Homology modelling and substrate docking revealed the substrate binding site for SalR. The amino acids residues conferring salutaridine binding were compared to several members of the SDR family from different plant species, which non-specifically reduce (-)-menthone to (+)-neomenthol. Previously, it was shown that some of these proteins are involved in plant defence. The recruitment of specific monomeric SDRs from monomeric SDRs involved in plant defence is discussed.

  8. Detection of a true breeding homeotic gene mutant Pps-1 with partially petaloid sepals in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and its genetic behavior.

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    Dhawan, Om Prakash; Dubey, Mukesh Kumar; Khanuja, Suman Preet Singh

    2007-01-01

    A spontaneous true breeding homeotic gene mutant Pps-1 with distinct partial petaloid sepals was detected in the population of downy mildew (DM)-resistant elite accession I-14 during our studies for the identification of disease resistance sources in opium poppy. The trait was found to be stable and inherited truly in the subsequent generations. Genetic studies were carried out through systematic reciprocal crosses with the parental wild-type genotype I-14, and segregation pattern of phenotypic characteristics in F(1) and F(2) populations clearly indicated single recessive nuclear gene control of the mutant character. The studies have demonstrated that the mutant phenotype is due to mutations at the Pps-1 locus that possibly corresponds to B-class function (according to ABC model) with negative control function. The mutant Pps-1 being single-whorl homeotic mutant might greatly help in providing insight into mechanisms of flower development in opium poppy.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Antitumor Alkaloid from Poppy Capsules (Papaver somniferum

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    Ibrahim Bulduk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noscapine, a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been used in the treatment of various cancer types. Its low-toxicity profile has increased attention to this alkaloid. With regard to increasing demand for this compound, we developed a new method for isolation of noscapine from dried capsules of Papaver somniferum. Noscapine was successfully isolated from poppy capsules for the first time and the purity of the isolated compound was determined to be over 99.59% by HPLC analysis. The structure of noscapine was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis, and HR-ESI-MS methods.

  10. Characterization of three O-methyltransferases involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

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    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid produced in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Papaveraceae. It has been used as a cough suppressant and more recently was shown to possess anticancer activity. However, the biosynthesis of noscapine in opium poppy has not been established. A proposed pathway leading from (S)-reticuline to noscapine includes (S)-scoulerine, (S)-canadine, and (S)-N-methylcanadine as intermediates. Stem cDNA libraries and latex extracts of eight opium poppy cultivars displaying different alkaloid profiles were subjected to massively parallel pyrosequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Comparative transcript and metabolite profiling revealed the occurrence of three cDNAs encoding O-methyltransferases designated as SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 that correlated with the accumulation of noscapine in the eight cultivars. SOMT transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs but were most abundant in aerial organs, where noscapine primarily accumulates. SOMT2 and SOMT3 showed strict substrate specificity and regiospecificity as 9-O-methyltransferases targeting (S)-scoulerine. In contrast, SOMT1 was able to sequentially 9- and 2-O-methylate (S)-scoulerine, yielding (S)-tetrahydropalmatine. SOMT1 also sequentially 3'- and 7-O-methylated both (S)-norreticuline and (S)-reticuline with relatively high substrate affinity, yielding (S)-tetrahydropapaverine and (S)-laudanosine, respectively. The metabolic functions of SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 were investigated in planta using virus-induced gene silencing. Reduction of SOMT1 or SOMT2 transcript levels resulted in a significant decrease in noscapine accumulation. Reduced SOMT1 transcript levels also caused a decrease in papaverine accumulation, confirming the selective roles for these enzymes in the biosynthesis of both alkaloids in opium poppy.

  11. Poppies or Peace: The Relationship between Opium Production and Conflict

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    2012-06-08

    absent actual force, most 39 poppy farmers become stuck in a debt cycle – a cycle Lu Saw advocates against in his Plea. Lu Saw, The Bondage of Opium...The Agony of the Wa People, A Proposal and A Plea (Raleigh: Center for the Public Domain), http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/ BONDAGE . htm (accessed...

  12. Utilization of opium poppy wastes as a fuel source

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    Demirbas, A.; Cengiz, M.; Yayli, N. (KT University, Akcaabat-Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty)

    1994-01-01

    Air dried and ground opium poppy stalks suspended in water containing sodium carbonate catalysts have been completely converted into liquid fuels and water soluble- chemicals at 573[degree]K in a 0.1 liter autoclave. Extractives and oil properties obtained from stalks and poppy seed were studied. Major components of the oil were linoleic acid (60.2%) and oleic acid (22.3%). Alcohol-benzene extractives of the stalks were 28.8% while ether solubility was 7.5%. 15 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Multivariate analysis in relation to breeding system in opium popy, Papaver somniferum L.

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    Singh S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. is an important medicinal plant of great pharmacopoel uses. 101 germplasm lines of different eco-geographical origin maintained at National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow were evaluated to study the genetic divergence for seed yield/plant, opium yield/plant and its 8 component traits following multivariate and canonical analysis. The genotypes were grouped in 13 clusters and confirmed by canonical analysis. Sixty eight percent genotypes (69/101 were genetically close to each other and grouped in 6 clusters (II, III, IV, V, VIII, XII while apparent diversity was noticed for 32 percent (32/101 of the genotypes who diversed into rest 7 clusters (I, VI, VII, IX, X, XI, XIII. Inter cluster distance ranged from 47.28 to 234.55. The maximum was between IX and X followed by VII and IX (208.30 and IX and XI (205.53. The genotypes in cluster IX, X. XI, and XII had greater potential as breeding stock by virtue of high mean values of one or more component characters and high statistical distance among them. Based on findings of high cluster mean of component trait and inter-cluster distance among clusters, a breeding plan has been discussed.

  14. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

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    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost.

  15. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy: Five Case Reports

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    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we aimed to present five Papaver rhoeas intoxication cases, which is very rare in the literature. Case 1. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with the complaints of nausea, restlessness, and dyspnea developing 3 hours after eating Papaver rhoeas. On physical examination, her general condition was moderate; she was conscious and the vital findings were normal. The pupils were myotic. She was transferred to the toxicology intensive care unit as she experienced a generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting for three minutes. Case 2. A 41-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance as she had contractions in her arms and legs, unconsciousness, and foam coming from her mouth two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On physical examination, she was confused, the pupils were myotic, and she was tachycardic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Case 3. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of nausea and vomiting two hours after ingestion of Papaver rhoeas. Her physical examination and tests were normal. Case 4. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of numbness and loss of power in his arms and legs one hour after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. He was hospitalized at the toxicology intensive care unit for follow-up and treatment. Dyspnea and bradycardia developed on the follow-up. The oxygen saturation without oxygen support was 90%. ECG revealed sinus bradycardia. The cardiac enzymes did not increase. Case 5. A 42-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance with contractions in her arms and legs and unconsciousness two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On her physical examination, she was confused and the pupils were myotic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Conclusion. All patients were followed up for a few days and

  16. Isolation and identification of unique marker compounds from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Implications for the identification of illicit heroin of Tasmanian origin.

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    Odell, Luke R; Skopec, Jana; McCluskey, Adam

    2008-03-05

    Tasmanian opium accounts for 25% of the world's legal supply of opium straw, and in 1998-99 sufficient numbers of flower pods (66,013) to manufacture ca 500 kg of heroin were stolen. Whilst the heroin signature program has been developed to determine the origin of heroin from other key producers, no such signature currently exists for Tasmanian derived heroin. Tasmanian poppies contain a unique alkaloid, oripavine, which is the source of 'marker' impurities in illicit heroin produced from Tasmanian poppy straw. Treatment of oripavine (500mg) under Thiboumery and Mohr heroin processing conditions, followed by simple evaporative workup afforded 613 mg of a dark orange residue, which upon extensive chromatographic purification yielded oripavine 3-acetate (2) 22 mg; 3-acetyl-N-acetyldesthebaine (3) 35 mg; 3-acetyl-6-methoxy-4,5-epoxyphenanthrene (4) 5.8 mg; 3,4-diacetyl-6-methoxyphenanthrene (5) 27 mg; and 3,4,6-methoxy-5-[2(N-methylacetamido)]ethylphenanthrene (6) 52 mg. Compounds (2-6) are derived from oripavine and are unique to heroin derived from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Analysis of illicit heroin samples seized from Turkey, Pakistan, Columbia and Myanmar did not reveal any of the aforementioned marker compounds. We have, however, identified four of these marker compounds (3-6) in seized heroin samples from Australia suggesting that they are of Tasmanian origin. Complete details of the isolation and identification of these compounds are provided.

  17. Production of Pharmaceuticals from Papaver Cultivars In Vitro

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    A methodology to clonally proliferate Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl.) and opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) shoots is presented employing an in vitro hydroponics system (i.e., automated plant culture system (APCS)). Temperature had a profound effect on growth and alkaloid production after 8-...

  18. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

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    Schriemer David C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a

  19. CYP719B1 is salutaridine synthase, the C-C phenol-coupling enzyme of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

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    Gesell, Andreas; Rolf, Megan; Ziegler, Jörg; Díaz Chávez, María Luisa; Huang, Fong-Chin; Kutchan, Toni M

    2009-09-01

    Morphine is a powerful analgesic natural product produced by the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Although formal syntheses of this alkaloid have been reported, the morphine molecule contains five stereocenters and a C-C phenol linkage that to date render a total synthesis of morphine commercially unfeasible. The C-C phenol-coupling reaction along the biosynthetic pathway to morphine in opium poppy is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450-dependent oxygenase salutaridine synthase. We report herein on the identification of salutaridine synthase as a member of the CYP719 family of cytochromes P450 during a screen of recombinant cytochromes P450 of opium poppy functionally expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. Recombinant CYP719B1 is a highly stereo- and regioselective enzyme; of forty-one compounds tested as potential substrates, only (R)-reticuline and (R)-norreticuline resulted in formation of a product (salutaridine and norsalutaridine, respectively). To date, CYP719s have been characterized catalyzing only the formation of a methylenedioxy bridge in berberine biosynthesis (canadine synthase, CYP719A1) and in benzo[c]phenanthridine biosynthesis (stylopine synthase, CYP719A14). Previously identified phenol-coupling enzymes of plant alkaloid biosynthesis belong only to the CYP80 family of cytochromes. CYP719B1 therefore is the prototype for a new family of plant cytochromes P450 that catalyze formation of a phenol-couple.

  20. Cloning and characterization of canadine synthase involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

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    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-03

    Noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy is thought to occur via N-methylcanadine, which would be produced through 9-O-methylation of (S)-scoulerine, methylenedioxy bridge formation on (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine, and N-methylation of (S)-canadine. Only scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase has been functionally characterized. We report the isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P450 (CYP719A21) from opium poppy that converts (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine to (S)-canadine. Recombinant CYP719A21 displayed strict substrate specificity and high affinity (Km=4.63±0.71 μM) for (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine. Virus-induced gene silencing of CYP719A21 caused a significant increase in (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine accumulation and a corresponding decrease in the levels of putative downstream intermediates and noscapine in opium poppy plants.

  1. 2C DNA Value of Persian Poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl. Medicinal Plant As Revealed By Flow Cytometry Analysis; A Quick Effective Criteria for Distinguishing Unidentified Papaver Species

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    Saeed Tarkesh Esfahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Papaver bracteatum Lindl. (2n = 2x = 14 commonly known as Persian poppy is an Iranian endemic medicinal plant mainly known for containing valuable amounts of the pharmaceutically important alkaloid of thebaine. The C-value index is a species-specific characteristic highly useful in systematics, genome size estimation and many other biological fields related to eukaryotic organisms. It is also considered as a reliable criterion for clear identification of ambiguously classified species. In this study, calculation of 2C DNA value of the Persian poppy, using original plants derived from the most evidently known natural habitat of the species in Northern Iran is being reported. The 2C DNA value of P. bracteatum was determined by flow cytometry technique using Pisum sativum (2C DNA = 9.09 as the internal standard. The 2C DNA value for the P. bracteatum was determined to be 6.15 ± 0.05 pg. The calculated 2C DNA value for Persian poppy differs from two previously reported values most likely because of their lack of access to reliable accurate estimation methods as well as possible misidentification of locally available Papaver sp. seed lots for P. bracteatum. These results clearly indicated the effectiveness of flow cytometry analysis as a rapid and reliable strategy for discriminating P. bracteatum from other identified or unidentified Papaver species with similar morphological traits.

  2. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P.K.H.; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Spanjer, Martien; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Mol, Hans G.J.; Nijs, de Monique

    2018-01-01

    A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with

  3. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

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    Vogel Hans J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor. Results Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. Using Chenomx NMR Suite v. 4.6, a software package capable of identifying and quantifying individual compounds based on their respective signature spectra, the levels of 42 diverse metabolites were monitored over a 100-hour time course in control and elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. Overall, detectable and dynamic changes in the metabolome of elicitor-treated cells, especially in cellular pools of carbohydrates, organic acids and non-protein amino acids were detected within 5 hours after elicitor treatment. The metabolome of control cultures also showed substantial modulations 80 hours after the start of the time course, particularly in the levels of amino acids and phospholipid pathway intermediates. Specific flux modulations were detected throughout primary metabolism, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen assimilation, phospholipid/fatty acid synthesis and the shikimate pathway, all of which

  4. The opium poppy as a symbol of sleep in Bertel Thorvaldsen's relief of 1815.

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    Tekiner, Halil; Kosar, Muberra

    2016-03-01

    Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844) is one of the most remarkable representatives of Neoclassicist sculptural art in Europe, which was largely inspired by the classical art and culture of Greek and Roman antiquity. A pair of marble reliefs, Night and Day, exhibited in the Thorvaldsen Museum (Copenhagen), marks the culmination of Thorvaldsen's relief art and is of particular interest to the history of sleep medicine. In the first relief, Night, an angel with her neck bent and eyes closed has two babies in her embrace and seems to be floating down in grief, with an owl hovering behind her. Her hair is also twined with opium poppies, the symbol of sleep and death in antiquity. Our findings suggest that this relief not only indicates a mythological association between the opium poppy and sleep but also has a strong connotation with the poppy's medicinal use for inducing sleep throughout the centuries.

  5. Acetylation serves as a protective group in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    We have characterized four sequential enzymes that transform 1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine to narcotoline hemiacetal, completing our elucidation of noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy. Two cytochromes P450 catalyze hydroxylations at C13 and C8 on the protoberberine scaffold, the latter step inducing ring opening and the formation of an aldehyde moiety. Acetylation at C13 before C8 hydroxylation introduces a protective group subsequently hydrolyzed by a carboxylesterase, which triggers rearrangement to a cyclic hemiacetal.

  6. Plant science. Morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy requires a P450-oxidoreductase fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Thilo; Kern, Marcelo; King, Andrew J; Larson, Tony R; Teodor, Roxana I; Donninger, Samantha L; Li, Yi; Dowle, Adam A; Cartwright, Jared; Bates, Rachel; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2015-07-17

    Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.

  7. Genetic transformation via somatic embryogenesis to establish herbicide-resistant opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Peter J; Loukanina, Natalia; Blanche, Vincent

    2008-04-01

    A reliable genetic transformation protocol via somatic embryogenesis has been developed for the production of fertile, herbicide-resistant opium poppy plants. Transformation was mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens using the pCAMBIA3301 vector, which harbors the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (pat) gene driven by a tandem repeat of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the beta-glucuronidase (gus) structural gene driven by a single copy of the CaMV 35S promoter between left- and right-border sequences. Co-cultivation of explants and A. tumefaciens was performed in the presence of 50 microM ATP and 50 microM MgCl(2). Root explants pre-cultured on callus induction medium were used for transformation. Herbicide-resistant, proliferating callus was obtained from explants on a medium containing both 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). Globular embryogenic callus, induced by removal of the BA from the medium, was placed on a hormone-free medium to form somatic embryos, which were converted to plantlets under specific culture conditions. Plantlets with roots were transferred to soil, allowed to mature and set seed. Both pat and gus gene transcripts, and PAT and GUS enzyme activities were detected in the transgenic lines tested. Histochemical localization of GUS activity in T(1) opium poppy plants revealed transgene expression in most tissues of all plant organs. The protocol required 8-12 months to establish transgenic T(1) seed stocks and was developed using a commercial opium poppy cultivar that produces high levels of pharmaceutical alkaloids.

  8. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase catalyzing the final step of noscapine biosynthesis is localized to laticifers in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The final step in the biosynthesis of the phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid noscapine involves a purported dehydrogenation of the narcotinehemiacetal keto moiety. A short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR), designated noscapine synthase (NOS), that catalyzes dehydrogenation of narcotinehemiacetal to noscapine was identified in opium poppy and functionally characterized. The NOS gene was isolated using an integrated transcript and metabolite profiling strategy and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Noscapine synthase is highly divergent from other characterized members of the NADPH-dependent SDR superfamily involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism, and it exhibits exclusive substrate specificity for narcotinehemiacetal. Kinetic analyses showed that NOS exhibits higher catalytic efficiency with NAD+ as the cofactor compared with NADP+. Suppression of NOS transcript levels in opium poppy plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a corresponding reduction in the accumulation of noscapine and an increase in narcotinehemiacetal levels in the latex. Noscapine and NOS transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs, but both were most abundant in stems. Unlike other putative biosynthetic genes clustered in the opium poppy genome, and their corresponding proteins, NOS transcripts and the cognate enzyme were abundant in latex, indicating that noscapine metabolism is completed in a distinct cell type compared with the rest of the pathway.

  9. Manipulating the Biosynthesis of Bioactive Compound Alkaloids for Next-Generation Metabolic Engineering in Opium Poppy Using CRISPR-Cas 9 Genome Editing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Yagiz; Gurkok, Tugba; Zhang, Baohong; Unver, Turgay

    2016-08-03

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) endonuclease system is a powerful RNA-guided genome editing tool. CRISPR/Cas9 has been well studied in model plant species for targeted genome editing. However, few studies have been reported on plant species without whole genome sequence information. Currently, no study has been performed to manipulate metabolic pathways using CRISPR/Cas9. In this study, the type II CRISPR/SpCas9 system was used to knock out, via nonhomologous end-joining genome repair, the 4'OMT2 in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), a gene which regulates the biosythesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). For sgRNA transcription, viral-based TRV and synthetic binary plasmids were designed and delivered into plant cells with a Cas9 encoding-synthetic vector by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. InDels formed by CRISPR/Cas9 were detected by sequence analysis. Our results showed that the biosynthesis of BIAs (e.g. morphine, thebaine) was significantly reduced in the transgenic plants suggesting that 4'OMT2 was efficiently knocked-out by our CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing approach. In addition, a novel uncharacterized alkaloid was observed only in CRISPR/Cas9 edited plants. Thus, the applicabilitiy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system was demonstrated for the first time for medicinal aromatic plants by sgRNAs transcribed from both synthetic and viral vectors to regulate BIA metabolism and biosynthesis.

  10. Establishment and optimization of cell growth in suspension culture of Papaver bracteatum: a biotechnology approach for thebaine production

    OpenAIRE

    FARJAMINEZHAD, Reza; Nasser ZARE; ASGHARI-ZAKARIA, Rasool; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2013-01-01

    Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum) is an important medicinal plant that is the main source of the opium alkaloids codeine, morphine, and thebaine. To establish an efficient protocol for cell suspension culture and growth, the effects of different plant growth regulators (2,4-D, NAA, BAP, and kinetin) on callus induction and cell suspension culture of Iranian poppy were evaluated. The maximum percentage of callus induction (86.67%) and fresh weight of callus were obtained in MS medium suppleme...

  11. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  12. CYP82Y1 is N-methylcanadine 1-hydroxylase, a key noscapine biosynthetic enzyme in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-24

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid investigated for its potent pharmacological properties. Although structurally elucidated more than a century ago, the biosynthesis of noscapine has not been established. Radiotracer studies have shown that noscapine is derived from the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine and has been proposed to proceed through (S)-N-methylcanadine. However, pathway intermediates involved in the conversion of N-methylcanadine to noscapine have not been identified. We report the isolation and characterization of the cytochrome P-450 CYP82Y1, which catalyzes the 1-hydroxylation of N-methylcanadine to 1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine. Comparison of transcript and metabolite profiles of eight opium poppy chemotypes revealed four cytochrome P-450s, three from the CYP82 and one from the CYP719 families, that were tightly correlated with noscapine accumulation. Recombinant CYP82Y1 was the only enzyme that accepted (R,S)-N-methylcanadine as a substrate with strict specificity and high affinity. As expected, CYP82Y1 was abundantly expressed in opium poppy stems where noscapine accumulation is highest among plant organs. Suppression of CYP82Y1 using virus-induced gene silencing caused a significant reduction in the levels of noscapine, narcotoline, and a putative downstream secoberbine intermediate and also resulted in increased accumulation of the upstream pathway intermediates scoulerine, tetrahydrocolum-bamine, canadine, and N-methylcanadine. The combined biochemical and physiological data support the 1-hydroxylation of (S)-N-methylcanadine catalyzed by CYP82Y1 as the first committed step in the formation of noscapine in opium poppy.

  13. The Environmental footprint of morphine: a life cycle assessment from opium poppy farming to the packaged drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Scott; Ou, Yanjun; Neff, Elise; Hapgood, Karen; Story, David; Mealey, Philip; McGain, Forbes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the environmental life cycle from poppy farming through to production of 100 mg in 100 mL of intravenous morphine (standard infusion bag). Design ‘Cradle-to-grave’ process-based life cycle assessment (observational). Settings Australian opium poppy farms, and facilities for pelletising, manufacturing morphine, and sterilising and packaging bags of morphine. Main outcome measures The environmental effects (eg, CO2 equivalent (‘CO2 e’) emissions and water use) of producing 100 mg of morphine. All aspects of morphine production from poppy farming, pelletising, bulk morphine manufacture through to final formulation. Industry-sourced and inventory-sourced databases were used for most inputs. Results Morphine sulfate (100 mg in 100 mL) had a climate change effect of 204 g CO2 e (95% CI 189 to 280 g CO2 e), approximating the CO2 e emissions of driving an average car 1 km. Water use was 7.8 L (95% CI 6.7– to 9.0 L), primarily stemming from farming (6.7 L). All other environmental effects were minor and several orders of magnitude less than CO2 e emissions and water use. Almost 90% of CO2 e emissions occurred during the final stages of 100 mg of morphine manufacture. Morphine's packaging contributed 95 g CO2 e, which accounted for 46% of the total CO2 e (95% CI 82 to 155 g CO2 e). Mixing, filling and sterilisation of 100 mg morphine bags added a further 86 g CO2 e, which accounted for 42% (95% CI 80 to 92 g CO2 e). Poppy farming (6 g CO2 e, 3%), pelletising and manufacturing (18 g CO2 e, 9%) made smaller contributions to CO2 emissions. Conclusions The environmental effects of growing opium poppies and manufacturing bulk morphine were small. The final stages of morphine production, particularly sterilisation and packaging, contributed to almost 90% of morphine's carbon footprint. Focused measures to improve the energy efficiency and sources for drug sterilisation and packaging could be explored as these are

  14. Somatic Embryogenesis, Rhizogenesis, and Morphinan Alkaloids Production in Two Species of Opium Poppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdelmajid Kassem

    2001-01-01

    Morphine was only detected in aerial parts of Papaver somniferum album. Codeine and thebaine were detected in the rhizogenous but no embryonic callus. These results suggest that root organogenesis is causally related to alkaloid biosynthesis.

  15. Combining ability of opium poppy genotypes over F1 and F2 generations of 8x8 diallel cross

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    Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining abilities for yield, its component traits and morphine content were examined in opium poppy tounderstand the inheritance pattern of these traits, and to identify genotypes suitable for genetic improvement of yield andmorphine content. The experiment comprising a total of 64 treatments (28 F1+28 F2 and 8 parents was evaluated in RBD. Theresults showed that most of the traits are governed by non additive gene action however additive gene action is also important.The parents BR-232, BR-245, BR-234 were found to be good general combiners for yield and its related traits and can beutilized in multiple breeding programs. SCA effects in relation to GCA effects of parents showed that most of the crosscombinations with high SCA effects involved high x high, high x low and low x low GCA combiners.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel freezing-inducible DREB1/CBF transcription factor gene in boreal plant Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule

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    Zhuo Huang

    Full Text Available Abstract DREB1 of the AP2/ERF superfamily plays a key role in the regulation of plant response to low temperatures. In this study, a novel DREB1/CBF transcription factor, PnDREB1, was isolated from Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule, a plant adaptive to low temperature environments. It is homologous to the known DREB1s of Arabidopsis and other plant species. It also shares similar 3D structure, and conserved and functionally important motifs with DREB1s of Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the AP2 domain of PnDREB1 is similar to those of Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, and M. sativa. PnDREB1 is constitutively expressed in diverse tissues and is increased in roots. qPCR analyses indicated that PnDREB1 is significantly induced by freezing treatment as well as by abscissic acid. The expression levels induced by freezing treatment were higher in the variety with higher degree of freezing tolerance. These results suggested that PnDREB1 is a novel and functional DREB1 transcription factor involved in freezing response and possibly in other abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the freezing-induction could be suppressed by exogenous gibberellins acid, indicating that PnDREB1 might play some role in the GA signaling transduction pathway. This study provides a basis for better understanding the roles of DREB1 in adaption of Iceland poppy to low temperatures.

  17. POPPY SEED (PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L.: EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND YEAR OF CULTIVATION ON VARIABILITY IN ITS LIPID COMPOSITION

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    Michaela Havrlentová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Poppy seeds have a high nutritive value and are used as a food and a source of edible oil. This oil is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is known that polyunsaturated fatty acids present not only basic nutriments for human body, but its taking to the organism is very important in term of protection against cardiovascular diseases, heart attacks and many inflammatory diseases. The goal of the study was to determine lipid content and fatty acids composition in eight selected poppy genotypes grown in experimental fields of the Plant Production Research Centre Piešťany – Research and Breeding Station at Malý Šariš (Slovak Republic in two years. Seed oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID from prepared methylesters of fatty acids. The highest lipid content in 2007 was detected for genotype Opál (49.9%. In 2009, genotype ZB-6 contained the highest lipid content (50.1%. Linoleic acid was dominant fatty acid in all analyzed poppy oils. Its highest level contained the genotype ZB-5 (68.1% in 2007 and ZB-1 (66.5% in 2009. Other major fatty acids were palmitic and oleic acids. As minority fatty acids were presented stearic, alpha-linolenic and palmitoleic acids. Myristic, arachidic and gadoleic acids were observed in trace amounts. Furthermore, the effect of year of cultivation on the fatty acids content in poppy seed oils was examined by Student t-test and appropriate non-parametric Mann-Whitney test.

  18. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phyto sterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enric, H.; Tekin, A.; Musa Ozcan, M.

    2009-07-01

    The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg{sup -}1), oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg{sup -}1) and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg{sup -}1). The oils contained an appreciable amount of {gamma}-tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg{sup -}1), with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and {alpha}-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg{sup -}1), with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg{sup -}1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg{sup -}1 (K.pembe) to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sinif beyaz), with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg{sup -}1. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg{sup -}1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg{sup -}1; and {delta}{sup 5}-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg{sup -}1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil. (Author) 31 refs.

  19. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol contents of the oils of various poppy (Papaver somniferum L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The main fatty acids in poppy seed oils were linoleic (687.6-739.2 g kg-1, oleic (141.3-192.8 g kg-1 and palmitic (76.8-92.8 g kg-1. The oils contained an appreciable amount of -tocopherol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 261.31 mg kg-1 and α-tocopherol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 33.03 mg kg-1. The concentrations of total sterol ranged from 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe to 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz, with a mean value of 2916.20 mg kg-1. The major sterols were -sitosterol, ranging from 663.91 to 3244.39 mg kg-1; campesterol, ranging from 228.59 to 736.50 mg kg-1; and Δ5-avenasterol, ranging from 103.90 to 425.02 mg kg-1. The studied varieties of poppy seeds from Turkey were found to be a potential source of valuable oil.El contenido en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y esteroles de aceites de varias semillas de adormidera fueron investigadas. Los principales ácidos grasos en el aceite de semilla de adormidera fueron el ácido linoleico (687.6-739.2 g kg-1, ácido oleico (141.3-192.8 g kg-1 y ácidos palmítico (76.8- 92.8 g kg-1. Los aceites contienen una cantidad apreciable de -tocoferol (195.37-280.85 mg kg-1, con un valor medio de 261.31 mg kg-1 y α-tocoferol (21.99-45.83 mg kg-1, con un valor medio de 33.03 mg kg-1. La concentración total de esteroles varió desde 1099.84 mg kg-1 (K.pembe a 4816.10 mg kg-1 (2. sınıf beyaz, con un valor medio de 2916.20 mg kg-1. El principal esterol fue el -sitosterol, que varió desde 663.91 a 3244.39 mg kg-1; el campesterol, que varió desde 228.59 a 736.50 mg kg-1; y el Δ5-avenasterol, que varió desde 103.90 a 425.02 mg kg-1. Las semillas estudiadas de las diferentes variedades de adormidera de Turquía pueden ser una fuente potencial de aceites con valor añadido.

  20. The Chemical Investigation of Papaver Seeds

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    Hannis Fadzillah Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Papaver species (common name: poppy; plant family: Papaveraceae has been involved in a wide array of research, particularly in the interest of botany, food biotechnology and clinical chemistry. Its bright and colourful flowers receive international recognition in floriculture industry, while the seeds’ function was recently reviewed as a source of linoleic acid and other functional food. However, abuse cases were also reported, due to the presence of natural opiates, such as heroine, morphine and codeine, thus contributing to the opium dependence. Here, the results from a preliminary test concerning two samples are presented. The experiment consisted of Papaver seeds from a local bakery and the herbalist. Following a series of organic extraction, three reagents including Mayer, Draggendorf and Bouchardat solutions were utilized in order to screen the phytochemical constituents. The detection method respectively gave positive results of white, orange and brown reddish precipitates, indicating the occurrence  of alkaloids. The most significant precipitations were revealed from the chloroform extract of the herbal example. Earlier separation procedure utilizing hexane was withdrawn; due to the deficiency of the extractive. Chromatographic technique could be applied in order to separate the major compounds. Hopefully, this scientific investigation could provide educational information covering the topics of recreational drugs and essential pharmaceutical materials.

  1. Medicinal aspects of opium as described in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, opium has been used as a base for the opioid class of drugs used to suppress the central nervous system. Opium is a substance extracted from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Its consumption and medicinal application date back to antiquity. In the medieval period, Avicenna, a famous Persian scholar (980-1037 AD) described poppy under the entry Afion of his medical encyclopedia Canon of Medicine. Various effects of opium consumption, both wanted and unwanted are discussed in the encyclopedia. The text mentions the effects of opioids such as analgesic, hypnotic, antitussive, gastrointestinal, cognitive, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbance, and sexual dysfunction. It also refers to its potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. Most of opioid effects described by Avicenna have subsequently been confirmed by modern research, and other references to opium use in medieval texts call for further investigation. This article highlights an important aspect of the medieval history of medicine.

  2. Literary investigation on the origin of poppy and other narcotics Research Articles

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    Lim Chung San

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics like opioids. Methods : Literary investigation on the origin of poppy (Papaver somniferum L and other narcotics was conducted to examine the potential of developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics. Opium is a gum-like mass derived from air-dried white fluid of immature fruit of the poppy. Opium contains approximately 20 types of alkaloids including morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine and others. Natural opioids and synthetic alkaloid derivatives are the constituents of opioid analgesics and their effects and side-effects depend on the peculiarities of receptors. An extreme caution is required in the selection of proper dosage, proper analgesic types, and indications for successful pain management. Results and Discussion : With the enactment of "Narcotic control protocol", herbs such as cannibis and poppy are no longer available for use by Korean medicine doctors, and these doctors are faced with difficulty in managing severe pain in the clinical environment. A systematic consideration is inevitable for overcoming the limitation on these analgesics.

  3. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  4. Determination of relative response factors of the opium alkaloids with HPLC-DAD

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    Jelena Acevska

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a convenient method for determination of relative UV response factors (RRFs of morphine, codeine, thebaine, oripavine, noscapine and papaverine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with a diode array detector (DAD was presented. Pholcodine was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors of the alkaloids. The separation of all seven compounds was obtained with optimized gradient elution with high pH value of the mobile phase on a reversed phase column with bidentate C18-C18 bonding technology. The RRFs of the alkaloids were determinate by three different approaches: ‘regression analysis/mass concentration’, ‘regression analysis/molar concentration’and ‘detector sensitivity’ approaches. The ‘regression analysis/molar concentration’ approach gave the accurate approximation of the exact amount of the substance that enters in the detector and the statistically relevant calculation includes several points of different concentrations (at least five, which makes this approach most advantageous one. This method is suitable for quality assessment of the standardised opium dry extract, raw opium and standardised opium tincture by quantitative analysis of not only morphine and codeine as indicated in the respective European Pharmacopoeia monographs, but as well as the major impurities that originate from opium poppy Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae.

  5. Genetic and Phenotypic Analyses of a Papaver somniferum T-DNA Insertional Mutant with Altered Alkaloid Composition

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    Kayo Yoshimatsu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro shoot culture of a T-DNA insertional mutant of Papaver somniferum L. established by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF03-01724 accumulated thebaine instead of morphine as a major opium alkaloid. To develop a non-narcotic opium poppy and to gain insight into its genetic background, we have transplanted this mutant to soil, and analyzed its alkaloid content along with the manner of inheritance of T-DNA insertion loci among its selfed progenies. In the transplanted T0 primary mutant, the opium (latex was found to be rich in thebaine (16.3% of dried opium by HPLC analysis. The analyses on T-DNA insertion loci by inverse PCR, adaptor-ligation PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that as many as 18 copies of T-DNAs were integrated into a poppy genome in a highly complicated manner. The number of copies of T-DNAs was decreased to seven in the selected T3 progenies, in which the average thebaine content was 2.4-fold that of the wild type plant. This may indicate that the high thebaine phenotype was increasingly stabilized as the number of T-DNA copies was decreased. In addition, by reverse transcription PCR analysis on selected morphine biosynthetic genes, the expression of codeine 6-O-demethylase was clearly shown to be diminished in the T0 in vitro shoot culture, which can be considered as one of the key factors of altered alkaloid composition.

  6. FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY OF PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L. AND DETERMINATION OF PHARMACOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ALKALOIDS USING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

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    Marián Valko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The free radical generation is related to the oxidation process in biological systems as well as in foods. It was found that oxidation is affected by antioxidants that can act as radical scavengers. Objective of the present work was to study the free radical scavenging capacity of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. extract by using the DPPH test and to verify the suitability of the micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC technique for analytical assessment and determination of three major poppy alkaloids (thebaine, morphine and papaverine. Because of its generally high separation efficiency, the MEKC is successfully used for analytical evaluation of biologically active substances usually without special claims for sample preparation. The results of DPPH test have shown that poppy contains components capable of terminating free radicals. We have confirmed that nature of the solvent used for the electrophoretic medium in MEKC has a strong influence on the separation efficiency. In our experiments, the most effective solvent was mixture of water to acetonitrile (ratio 4:6.

  7. Poppy APETALA1/FRUITFULL orthologs control flowering time, branching, perianth identity, and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Ambrose, Barbara A; Litt, Amy

    2012-04-01

    Several MADS box gene lineages involved in flower development have undergone duplications that correlate with the diversification of large groups of flowering plants. In the APETALA1 gene lineage, a major duplication coincides with the origin of the core eudicots, resulting in the euFUL and the euAP1 clades. Arabidopsis FRUITFULL (FUL) and APETALA1 (AP1) function redundantly in specifying floral meristem identity but function independently in sepal and petal identity (AP1) and in proper fruit development and determinacy (FUL). Many of these functions are largely conserved in other core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, but notably, the role of APETALA1 as an "A-function" (sepal and petal identity) gene is thought to be Brassicaceae specific. Understanding how functional divergence of the core eudicot duplicates occurred requires a careful examination of the function of preduplication (FUL-like) genes. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we show that FUL-like genes in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) function in axillary meristem growth and in floral meristem and sepal identity and that they also play a key role in fruit development. Interestingly, in opium poppy, these genes also control flowering time and petal identity, suggesting that AP1/FUL homologs might have been independently recruited in petal identity. Because the FUL-like gene functional repertoire encompasses all roles previously described for the core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, we postulate subfunctionalization as the functional outcome after the major AP1/FUL gene lineage duplication event.

  8. Ageratum enation virus Infection Induces Programmed Cell Death and Alters Metabolite Biosynthesis in Papaver somniferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Srivastava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB, respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch’s postulates. Comprehensive microscopic analysis of infiltrated plants reveals severe structural anomalies in leaf and stem tissues represented by unorganized cell architecture and vascular bundles. Moreover, the characteristic blebs and membranous vesicles formed due to the virus-induced disintegration of the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles were also present. An accelerated nuclear DNA fragmentation was observed by Comet assay and confirmed by TUNEL and Hoechst dye staining assays suggesting virus-induced programmed cell death. Virus-infection altered the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. The biosynthesis potential of morphine, thebaine, codeine, and papaverine alkaloids reduced significantly in infected plants except for noscapine whose biosynthesis was comparatively enhanced. The expression analysis of corresponding alkaloid pathway genes by real time-PCR corroborated well with the results of HPLC analysis for alkaloid perturbations. The changes in the metabolite and alkaloid contents affect the commercial value of the poppy plants.

  9. Czech Republic as an Important Producer of Poppy Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Smutka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum l. is an important oilseed, whose cultivation has a long tradition in the Czech Republic. Poppy seed grown in the Czech Republic has good quality and, therefore, is preferred to poppy seeds in other parts of the world. The objective of this paper is to characterize the current position of the Czech poppy seed production and foreign trade in the world. Czech Republic is the main world producer of poppy seed and price maker of the European and world prices. With regards to trade, the Czech Republic is also the main producer and seller both in Europe and in the world. The poppy seed crop grown in the Czech Republic is mainly produced for exports, because the domestic consumption consists of only between four and five thousand tons. Major export markets of Czech poppy seed are European countries with a population of Slavic origin or those influenced by Slavic cuisine. Another important markets are overseas countries, that were settled by Slavic immigrants. The paper stresses out the position of the Czech Republic as a major player in the world market with poppy seed. The paper provides analysis of the market position of the Czech production and Czech foreign trade participation. Development of production and trade, as well as some other factors affecting the poppy seed economy, are analyzed such as prices, hectarage, yields, volume of production and volume of trade. This paper is part of a research project carried out by the authors within the grant no. 6046070906, funded by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis using high papaverine mutant of Papaver somniferum reveals pathway and uncharacterized steps of papaverine biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumya Pathak

    Full Text Available The benzylisoquinoline alkaloid papaverine, synthesized in low amount in most of the opium poppy varieties of Papaver somniferum, is used as a vasodilator muscle relaxant and antispasmodic. Papaverine biosynthesis remains controversial as two different routes utilizing either (S-coclaurine or (S-reticuline have been proposed with uncharacterized intermediate steps. In an attempt to elucidate papaverine biosynthesis and identify putative genes involved in uncharacterized steps, we carried out comparative transcriptome analysis of high papaverine mutant (pap1 and normal cultivar (BR086 of P. somniferum. This natural mutant synthesizes more than 12-fold papaverine in comparison to BR086. We established more than 238 Mb transcriptome data separately for pap1 and BR086. Assembly of reads generated 127,342 and 106,128 unigenes in pap1 and BR086, respectively. Digital gene expression analysis of transcriptomes revealed 3,336 differentially expressing unigenes. Enhanced expression of (S-norcoclaurine-6-O-methyltransferase (6OMT, (S-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase (4'OMT, norreticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (N7OMT and down-regulation of reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (7OMT in pap1 in comparison to BR086 suggest (S-coclaurine as the route for papaverine biosynthesis. We also identified several methyltransferases and dehydrogenases with enhanced expression in pap1 in comparison to BR086. Our analysis using natural mutant, pap1, concludes that (S-coclaurine is the branch-point intermediate and preferred route for papaverine biosynthesis. Differentially expressing methyltransferases and dehydrogenases identified in this study will help in elucidating complete biosynthetic pathway of papaverine. The information generated will be helpful in developing strategies for enhanced biosynthesis of papaverine through biotechnological approaches.

  11. Wound induced tanscriptional regulation of benzylisoquinoline pathway and characterization of wound inducible PsWRKY transcription factor from Papaver somniferum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Mishra

    Full Text Available Wounding is required to be made in the walls of the green seed pod of Opium poppy prior exudation of latex. To withstand this kind of trauma plants regulate expression of some metabolites through an induced transcript level. 167 unique wound-inducible ESTs were identified by a repetitive round of cDNA subtraction after 5 hours of wounding in Papaver somniferum seedlings. Further repetitive reverse northern analysis of these ESTs revealed 80 transcripts showing more than two fold induction, validated through semi-quantitative RT-PCR & real time expression analysis. One of the major classified categories among identified ESTs belonged to benzylisoquinoline transcripts. Tissue specific metabolite analysis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs in response to wounding revealed increased accumulation of narcotine and papaverine. Promoter analysis of seven transcripts of BIAs pathway showed the presence of W-box cis-element with the consensus sequence of TGAC, which is the proposed binding site for WRKY type transcription factors. One of the Wound inducible 'WRKY' EST isolated from our subtracted library was made full-length and named as 'PsWRKY'. Bacterially expressed PsWRKY interacted with the W-box element having consensus sequence TTGACT/C present in the promoter region of BIAs biosynthetic pathway genes. PsWRKY further activated the TYDC promoter in yeast and transiently in tobacco BY2 cells. Preferential expression of PsWRKY in straw and capsule and its interaction with consensus W-box element present in BIAs pathway gene transcripts suggest its possible involvement in the wound induced regulation of BIAs pathway.

  12. From holy war to opium war? A case study of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhand, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper examines the recent growth of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan. A detailed analysis of one village in Badakshan Province reveals profound changes in the local economy and social institutions. The paper describes two major shifts in the local economy: first, the switch from wheat to poppy cultivation; and second, the shift from the livestock trade to the opium trade. It then examines the underlying causes and impacts of the opium economy on social relations in the village. Although a case study of a community living on the margins of the global economy, it is argued that these changes have important implications for international policymakers. The emergence of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan is symptomatic of new and expanding forms of trans-border trade associated with the restructuring of the global political economy.

  13. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants.

  14. The Opium Wars, Opium Legalization and Opium Consumption in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feige, Chris; Jeffrey A. Miron

    2005-01-01

    The effect of drug prohibition on drug consumption is a critical issue in debates over drug policy. One episode that provides information on the consumption-reducing effect of drug prohibition is the Chinese legalization of opium in 1858. In this paper we examine the impact of China's opium legalization on the quantity and price of British opium exports from India to China during the 19th century. We find little evidence that legalization increased exports or decreased price. Thus, the eviden...

  15. Thermooxidative stability of poppy seeds studied by non-isothermal DSC measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulková, Zuzana; Čertík, Milan; Dubaj, Tibor

    2014-05-01

    Papaver somniferum L. is an important crop cultivated mostly for seed production. Poppy seeds have a high nutritive value and are used as a food and as a source of edible oil. This oil is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is well known that the unsaturated fatty acids easily undergo oxidation reactions, which lead to the reduction of shelf life, nutritional quality, development of unpleasant tastes and odors. The goal of this study was to develop the methodology for testing the stability of poppy seeds using non-isothermal DSC. For the treatment of the experimental data a method based on non-Arrhenian temperature function has been applied and the values the kinetic parameters have been obtained. In order to assess the durability of the commercial poppy seeds, the lengths of induction periods have been calculated.

  16. The agronomic traits of foreign cultivars and domestic populations of oilseed poppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Brčić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years, a rising interest for the production of oil poppy (Papaver somniferum L. on bigger areas in the Republic of Croatia has been noticed. The aim of this study was to determine seed yield and other agronomic traits of foreign cultivars and domestic populations of oilseed poppy in the environmental conditions of northwestern Croatia and select the best varieties for this area, considering the obtained results. The research was conducted in 2013 and 2015 at the experimental field of University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture. The research involved four foreign cultivars (Opal, Lazur, Major, and Matis and two domestic populations of oilseed poppy named after locations where they had been collected: Gornji Bogićevci (IND00042 and Beli Manastir (IND00043. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that the examined cultivars and domestic populations of oilseed poppy differed significantly in seed yield, capsule number per plant, seed weight per capsule, seed weight per plant, and thousand seed weight only in the year of 2013. On average, cultivars/populations with the highest yield were Opal (847 kg/ha, Beli Manastir (834 kg/ha, and Major (816 kg/ha. Oil content in poppy seed ranged from 42.5% (Lazur to 46.3% (Opal. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids prevailed in examined cultivars and populations.

  17. Influence of meteorological factors on and their harmfulness to poppy stands in the Czech Republic in 1961-2000 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Muška

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Poppy (Papaver somniferum is the traditional crop in the Czech Republic. The surveys of the appearance of some agents harmful to plants within the territory of the Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic in 1961 – 2000 were used for elaboration of the set as given above. The particular agents are divided into four groups 1. The influence of drought (precipitation insufficiency, drought and influence of high temperature are involved in this group. 2. The influence of extraordinary heavy precipitation (there is hailstrom and other damage. 3. Damage caused by low temperature and frost 4.The influence of the harmful impact of wind weather (there are wind, erosion caused by wind and wind storm. The data, as above, testify the high sensitivity of the poppy to the course of climatic conditions. It has been confirmed that poppy is problematic crop.

  18. Opium Field Detection in South Oxfordshire Using SAR Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nick; Marino, Armando

    2011-03-01

    To-date the use of satellite imagery to monitor the growth of illicit crops such as marijuana, opium and coca has mostly been conducted using optical frequencies. However, it is well known that while optical imagery can be hampered by localised aerosols such as thin clouds, cirrus, haze and smoke, these do not present a problem for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In recent years a new generation of satellite borne sensors have also been equipped with enhanced polarimetric capabilities, which can potentially help with detecting and classifying different terrain types. For these reasons we believe it is useful to consider whether high resolution polarimetric SAR data can be applied to illicit crop detection.In this paper we present the results of an experiment whereby opium poppy fields were successfully detected in the south Oxfordshire region in the UK using RadarSat-2 quad-polarisation imagery. It should be noted that these crops are not being grown illicitly but instead are being cultivated for medicinal reasons in parts of the UK. It is interesting to note that the poppies cultivated for opium in the UK have white flowers rather than the more familiar red as can be seen from the photograph in Figure 1, which was taken 11 days earlier in the season compared to Figure 4 and Figure 5.

  19. [The use of opium in Roman society and the dependence of Princeps Marcus Aurelius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancas, Bruno; Borja Santos, Nuno; Patrício, Luís D

    2008-01-01

    Opium was known and frequently used in Roman society. Medical practice recognized its usefulness as an analgesic, soporific, anti-tussic or anti-diarrheic agent, as well as other currently unsupported uses with quasi-magical properties. It was additionally used as an ingredient in antidotes, panaceas and poisons. The authors present a non-exhaustive compilation of opium use according to medical doctors, writers and encyclopaedists of the time. Mythological and literary representations of the opium poppy reflected its diverse roles, being associated with prosperity and fertility, sleep, death and the underworld and with the art of medicine. Despite its free and routine use, there is no solid evidence of addiction, except the putative case of emperor Marcus Aurelius, consistently reported as one of the most likely cases of addiction to opium.

  20. A Papaver somniferum 10-gene cluster for synthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Thilo; Gazda, Valeria; He, Zhesi; Kaminski, Filip; Kern, Marcelo; Larson, Tony R; Li, Yi; Meade, Fergus; Teodor, Roxana; Vaistij, Fabián E; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2012-06-29

    Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F(2) mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.

  1. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  2. Rapid identification of a narcotic plant Papaver bracteatum using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragane, Masako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Yoshida, Masao; Yoshizawa, Masao; Abe, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Rei; Suzuki, Jin; Moriyasu, Takako; Nakae, Dai; Sudo, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hishida, Atuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Makabe, So; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers of these species. The results showed that the nuclear DNA content differed between these 3 species, and that most of the commercially distributed plants examined in this study could be identified as P. bracteatum. The remaining plants were P. pseudo-orientale, a non-narcotic plant. In addition, the FCM results for the identification of P. bracteatum completely agreed with the results obtained by the morphological analysis, the inter-genic spacer sequence of rpl16-rpl14 (PS-ID sequence) of chloroplast DNA, and the presence of thebaine. These results clearly indicate the usefulness of FCM analysis for the identification of P. bracteatum plants, including when they are in their vegetative stage.

  3. Účinek aplikace vybraných forem selenu na výnos a kvalitu máku (Papaver somniferum L)

    OpenAIRE

    Hajátková, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Selenium belongs to important mineral nutrients in terms of animal and human diet. Insufficient amount of this element in diet has been a worldwide problem. The study objective was to determine the effect of its foliar application on the poppy yield (Papaver somniferum L) and its content within the seed. The test was based on a pot experiment. Selenium was applied as a foliar feeding in minerals form of selenate and selenite in dosages of 20 and 40 g Se/ha. Foliar applications with selenium h...

  4. Environ: E00017 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00017 Opium (USP) Crude drug Morphine [CPD:C01516], Codeine [CPD:C06174], Papaveri...ne [CPD:C06533], Noscapine [CPD:C09592] Papaver somniferum [TAX:3469] Same as: D03444 Papaveraceae (poppy family) opium extract Major component: Morphine [CPD:C01516] CAS: 8008-60-4 ...

  5. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan.

  6. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  7. Callus production and regeneration of the medicinal plant Papaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Papaver species produce a wide range of iso- quinolines ... thebaine in a green callus with relatively high levels of kinetin. .... software. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In this study, two different media for plant tissue culture.

  8. The rules of drug taking: wine and poppy derivatives in the ancient world. VII. A ritual use of poppy derivatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencini, P

    1997-08-01

    Besides fertility, poppies have been used to symbolize sleep, night, and death. Consistent with the agrarian origin of their ritual use, poppies also became a symbol of reincarnation. Several literary and iconographic sources, in particular of the early Roman imperial age, are here interpreted as evidence that poppy derivatives were ingested during mystery rites. The reversible narcotic effects of poppy derivatives should have allowed a "realistic" representation of death and reincarnation, as intended by the Orphic belief of the transmigration of souls.

  9. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  10. [Milk of paradise? Opium and opiates in nineteenth and twentieth century literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, D

    2007-08-01

    One cannot have an idea of this multifaceted theme without its medical and cultural-historical background. After a history of several thousand years as a remedy and consumer good, around 1800 this poppy drug was in the focus of public attention due to Brownianism, at first as an often self-prescribed unspecific remedy against physical and mental pain. Many representatives of the early Romanticism knew it from personal experience. However, it was the publication of Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821/1822) which made it a subject of international debate in accordance with the programmatic statements of writers of that epoque and corresponding to the antibourgeois attitude of these men. It became a motif of a counter-world experience and a subject and cause of lyric-subjective reflection as well as a possible premise of poetic creativity.

  11. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...... of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for...

  12. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...... of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for...

  13. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for......Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...

  14. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  15. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption.

  16. The Opium Must Go Thru The Opium Must Go Thru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In The Opium Must Go Thru, Charles Potts' "potty" poetic prose puns away in an irreverential anti-civilization protest against everything that is new-old to sublime the old-new - but the dark and light of Yin and Yang are the same that bothered Shakespeare in his day. This book, as the drawings by Robert McNealy illustrate, is a mad socio-economic philosophic chess game. . . an intel lectual whooped up hippy riddle. You ask yourself if Potts is a brain or a bum. The words and the thought behind the words are an exasperating jumble, until you get the "beat" - the mood - maybe a couple of beers, a little "pot". . . No,that won't help because it's too haphardly logical "The water buffalo who bailed out the hot green house once turned to an underfucked cow and murmured "Nobody here understands what I say". And Potts can jump from this hurly-burly into crystal clear statements such as, "But the children can think circles around them. Children have always been the redeemers."

  17. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counternarcotics Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    worldwide from opium for medical purposes.12 Opium is also refined for use in legal prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin.13 However...the Opium Production Challenge in Afghanistan: A License to Meet the World Shortage of Opiate-Derived Painkillers ,” The Senlis Council Drug Policy...Derived Painkillers ,” n.p. 75. Senlis Council, “Report Gives Green Light for Licensed Opium in Afghanistan to Provide Essential Medicines

  18. Opium: The Evolution of Policies, the Tolerance of the Vice, and the Proliferation of Contraband Trade in the Philippines, 1843-1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma N. Bamero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research entitled “Opium: The Evolution of Policies, the Tolerance of the Vice, and the Proliferation of Contraband Trade in the Philippines, 1843-1908” presents a discussion of the opium trade in Asia, the commercial networks it created, the political ties it strengthened, and the social relations itfostered. It also aims to reconstruct an aspect of Philippine social history in the nineteenth century through the use of archival materials that bear witness to the distribution and exploitation of a substance which some people stillclassify as taboo. The poppy was not endemic to the Philippines but opium, its derivative substance, was known to numb pain and could induce a “natural high” that left one with feelings of ease and contentment. A more complete introduction to the drug necessitates a discussion of the way it was extractedand processed. It is a cash crop that does not require complex devices and is, therefore, within the reach of farmers and common folk. From the eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries opium became very popular among the Chinese who discovered that their markets were being flooded with it by the British sothat the latter could pay for the tea that they craved.The Spanish Bourbons, in an effort to boost Philippine economy, allowed the trading of this substance. Initially this was supervised by the officials of the Alcaiceria de San Fernando but in 1843 the meticulous examination of the country’s finances merited the creation of an opium revenuefarm through municipal franchising. Opium could only be used by the Chinese who were migrating in big groups. This paper presents the details of the monopoly contract, identifies some of the wealthier contratistas of the period, and discusses the consequences of such a commercial venture. Smuggling orcontraband trade proliferated and by way of illustration the events namely, the Scandal of 1843 and the Gunga Incident, have been narrated. The creation of an over

  19. Opium Syrup Distribution, Limitation and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dahmardehei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is one of dilemmas in the current society. Formal statistics report of 2 million addict people in the country. Among important activities for addiction prevention and therapy is implementation of protecting treatment. Protecting treatments are done through Methadone, Buprenorphine and tincture-opium. Tincture-opium is a solution of 10 g morphine in one litter liquid containing 20% alcohol. The first report about using this medicine has been in 1994, in French in connection with successful therapy of 18 patients. A study in Australia, in 2004, proposed detoxification with tincture-opium in 15 migrated Vietnamese, in high dosage for therapy. In Iran, since 1384 many researches were done, which 34% responded the therapy appropriately; and in 1387, 130 people reached final treatment.

  20. OPIUM : optimal package install/ uninstall manager

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Christopher James

    2008-01-01

    Linux distributions often include package management tools such as apt-get in Debian or yum in RedHat. Using information about package dependencies and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies on a system of already installed packages. Using off-the-shelf SAT solvers, pseudo-boolean solvers, and Integer Linear Programming solvers, we have developed a new package-management tool, called Opium, that improves on current tools in two ways: (1) Opium i...

  1. Occurrence, genetic control and evolution of non-target-site based resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in the dicot weed Papaver rhoeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabel, Laura; Pernin, Fanny; Délye, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Non-target-site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is a major issue for the chemical control of weeds. Whilst predominant in grass weeds, NTSR remains largely uninvestigated in dicot weeds. We investigated the occurrence, inheritance and genetic control of NTSR to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy) using progenies from plants with potential NTSR to the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox. NTSR to imazamox was inherited from parents over two successive generations. NTSR to tritosulfuron (a sulfonylurea) was observed in F1 generations and inherited in F2 generations. NTSR to florasulam (a triazolopyrimidine) emerged in F2 generations. Our findings suggest NTSR was polygenic and gradually built-up by accumulation over generations of loci with moderate individual effects in single plants. We also demonstrated that ALS alleles conferring herbicide resistance can co-exist with NTSR loci in P. rhoeas plants. Previous research focussed on TSR in P. rhoeas, which most likely caused underestimation of NTSR significance in this species. This may also apply to other dicot species. From our data, resistance to ALS inhibitors in P. rhoeas appears complex, and involves well-known mutant ALS alleles and a set of unknown NTSR loci that confer resistance to ALS inhibitors from different chemical families.

  2. Opium Withdrawal Delirium: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi C.; Kumar, Ramesh; Sharma, Dinesh Dutt; Kanwar, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Two patients with opium dependence developed delirium during abstinence. The delirium resolved completely within 48–58 hours of appropriate treatment. Caution needs to be exercised during opioid detoxification in timely detecting and treating potentially life-threatening condition like delirium. PMID:28138205

  3. Combating Opium in Afghanistan. Strategic Forum, Number 224, November 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    unconvincing, given the Taliban’s previous draconian crackdown on poppy production; however, desperation breeds strange bedfellows. Rampant drug...Depending on their location within Afghanistan, farmers may be able to plant two crops a year; many follow a poppy harvest with a cannabis crop. The

  4. Self-incompatibility-induced programmed cell death in field poppy pollen involves dramatic acidification of the incompatible pollen tube cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Katie A; Bosch, Maurice; Haque, Tamanna; Teng, Nianjun; Poulter, Natalie S; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2015-03-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important genetically controlled mechanism to prevent inbreeding in higher plants. SI involves highly specific interactions during pollination, resulting in the rejection of incompatible (self) pollen. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism for destroying cells in a precisely regulated manner. SI in field poppy (Papaver rhoeas) triggers PCD in incompatible pollen. During SI-induced PCD, we previously observed a major acidification of the pollen cytosol. Here, we present measurements of temporal alterations in cytosolic pH ([pH]cyt); they were surprisingly rapid, reaching pH 6.4 within 10 min of SI induction and stabilizing by 60 min at pH 5.5. By manipulating the [pH]cyt of the pollen tubes in vivo, we show that [pH]cyt acidification is an integral and essential event for SI-induced PCD. Here, we provide evidence showing the physiological relevance of the cytosolic acidification and identify key targets of this major physiological alteration. A small drop in [pH]cyt inhibits the activity of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase required for pollen tube growth. We also show that [pH]cyt acidification is necessary and sufficient for triggering several key hallmark features of the SI PCD signaling pathway, notably activation of a DEVDase/caspase-3-like activity and formation of SI-induced punctate actin foci. Importantly, the actin binding proteins Cyclase-Associated Protein and Actin-Depolymerizing Factor are identified as key downstream targets. Thus, we have shown the biological relevance of an extreme but physiologically relevant alteration in [pH]cyt and its effect on several components in the context of SI-induced events and PCD.

  5. Functional Characterization of 4?OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkok, Tugba; Ozhuner, Esma; Parmaksiz, Iskender; ÖZCAN, Sebahattin; Turktas, Mine; İPEK, Arif; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Okay, Sezer; Unver, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes...

  6. Functional Characterization of 4´OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tugba eGurkok; Esma eOzhuner; Iskender eParmaksiz; Sebahattin eÖzcan; Mine eTurktas; Arif eIpek; Sezer eOkay; Turgay eUNVER

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes...

  7. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  8. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides str...

  9. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  10. Functional Characterization of 4′OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkok, Tugba; Ozhuner, Esma; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Özcan, Sebahattin; Turktas, Mine; İPEK, Arif; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Okay, Sezer; Unver, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes...

  11. Functional Characterization of 4´OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tugba eGurkok; Esma eOzhuner; Iskender eParmaksiz; Sebahattin eÖzcan; Mine eTurktas; Arif eIpek; Sezer eOkay; Turgay eUNVER

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes...

  12. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

  13. Morphine and Codeine in Oral Fluid after Controlled Poppy Seed Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programs. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only 2 addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7mg morphine an...

  14. IS OPIUM ADDICTION A RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "S. M. Sadr Bafghi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a misconception among our people that opioids may prevent or have ameliorating effects in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. In this study we evaluated 556 consecutive male patients hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction (MI in city of Yazd, from May 2000 to October 2001 and compared the characteristics of opium addicts to non opium users. Prevalence of opium addiction in MI patients was 19% in comparison with 2-2.8% in general population. There were not any differences in prevalence of traditional risk factors between opium users and non-users. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 18.6 percent among opium users and 6.2 percent among non-opium users (unadjusted odd ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.7, P = 0.2. After adjustment for the differences in the baseline features (age and other risk factors, odds ratio increased to 2.2 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 5.1. It seems that opium addiction may work as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

  15. Perioperative status and complications in opium addicts in Western rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Ajay; Negi, Nitin; Mandora, Manish; Yadav, J K

    2011-10-01

    Opium addiction is rampant in Western Rajasthan and probably has the highest number of opium addicts in the world. The study envisages upon the presentation, diagnosis and various postoperative complications in surgically ill opium addicts vis-à-vis non addicts. The study is purported to benefit clinicians dealing with opium addict patients. The prospective cohort study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jodhpur between December 2004 and February 2006 and included cohorts of 71 opium addict and 50 non-addict patients admitted in various surgical wards. The study focused on presentation and the post-surgical complications encountered in these patients vis-à-vis others. The results thus obtained were evaluated statistically (mean±SD, SEM, two tailed t test, chi-square test), p value of <0.05 was considered as significant. A thorough comparative analysis revealed that opium addict patients had a significantly higher incidence of postoperative respiratory, cardiovascular, systemic and local complications. The requirement of analgesics and duration of hospital stay were also significantly higher as compared to control group. The work concludes that opium addicts suffer a much higher degree of postoperative morbidity as compared to non-addicts.

  16. Transient Expression of cor Gene in Papaver somniferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Hosseini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papaver somniferum is the commercial source of morphine and codeine. The isolation of effective genes involved in the morphine biosynthesis of P. somniferum is very important in the production of specific metabolites achieved using metabolic engineering techniques. In this pathway, the key enzyme COR is involved in the conversion of codeinone to codeine and morphinone to morphine. Methods: the gene encoding of this enzyme was isolated using primers designed on the base of gene sequence available on (NCBI for P. somniferum. This gene correct size around (960 bp was first subcloned into pTZ57RIT vector then cloned into expression vectors (pBI121 between BamHI and SacI sites to allow the expression of cor gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The result was confirmed through different molecular methods e.g. PCR and enzyme digestion by BamHI and SacI. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into the E. coli strain DH5α using a freeze-thaw method. Having selected positive colones on selection medium, plasmid was extracted by miniprep method and recombinant plasmids were selected based on PCR and digestion. The construct was then mobilized in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58/pGV3850 (KmR RifR. After gene transformation to P. somniferum plants, the agroinfiltration method was also used for transient expression of COR enzyme. Results: evaluation results showed that morphine and codeine were detectable in the leaves of transgenic plants containing cor transgene and there was significant difference in the final production. After completing this experiment for three times, results showed that in 11 sets from 15 sets of leaves experiment tested, main alkaloids (codeine, morphine, papaverin, noscapine and thebaine were detectable. Conclusion: Whereas no signal was detected in non-infiltrated control leaves or in leaves infiltrated with non-recombinant bacteria for morphine and codeine, others such as thebaine and papaverine

  17. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  18. Cytomechanical properties of papaver pollen tubes are altered after self-incompatibility challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitmann, A.; McConnaughey, W.; Lang-Pauluzzi, I.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in Papaver rhoeas triggers a ligand-mediated signal transduction cascade, resulting in the inhibition of incompatible pollen tube growth. Using a cytomechanical approach we have demonstrated that dramatic changes to the mechanical properties of incompatible pollen tubes are

  19. The self-incompatibility response in Papaver rhoeas pollen causes early and striking alterations to organelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitmann, A.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in Papaver rhoeas is accompanied by a cascade of signalling events that result in the rapid arrest and eventual death of the pollen tube. We have used rapid freeze fixation, freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy to provide the first description of changes

  20. The relationship of opium addiction with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masoomi

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: We confirmed that the opium was an independent risk factor for CAD. Health managers and policy makers should try to aware general population and prepare many preventive pro-grams against substance abuse.

  1. Lead Toxicity Resulting from Chronic Ingestion of Opium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili, Mohammad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:244-246.

  2. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nourbakhsh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate the role of opium as a risk factor of TCC. A case-control study was performed on 255 individuals diagnosed with TCC of the urinary bladder by pathologic light microscopic examination of the tumor biopsies. Control population was chosen from individuals who had no history or presenting signs or symptoms of urinary problems. Case and control groups were matched by sex and age and also by cigarette smoking habits. Forty-one (18.1% of the cases and 12 (5% of controls were recognized to be opium users. Mantel-Haenszel analysis showed an odds ratio of 3.88, with 95% confidence interval of 1.99-7.57 and P value of < 0.001. Results indicate that opium use is a risk factor for TCC. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, which is another important risk factor for TCC. Routine urine cytology and early evaluation in the patients presenting with any of the symptoms of urinary bladder malignancy by means of cystoscopy and urine cytology are highly recommended.

  3. A Comparison of Ice Cold Water Pretreatment and α-Bromonaphthalene Cytogenetic Method for Identification of Papaver Species

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Rezaei Osalou; Sheida Daneshvar Rouyandezagh; Behrouz Alizadeh; Celal Er; Cafer Sirri Sevimay

    2013-01-01

    The plants belonging to many species in genus Papaver are very similar and have very small chromosomes that make identification very difficult. The study aimed to compare the effects of α-bromonaphtalene and ice cold water pretreatment to identify chromosomes of Papaver species collected from different areas of Iranian West Azerbaijan and Turkish Van, Agri and, Hakkari provinces. The seeds were germinated in Jacobson trays at 24°C under continuous light. Thereafter, roots from 1.5 ...

  4. A comparative study of characteristics and risky behaviors among the Iranian opium and opium dross addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Sima; Azar, Mahyar; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Sedaghati, Mahsa; Panahi, Sepideh Akbari; Dehghan, Nasir; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amirpoya; Tahoori, Armin; Wilson, Denis

    2011-03-01

    Iran ranks first per capita in the use of opiates, but we have little information about possible differences regarding the 2 most commonly used illicit drugs, namely opium and its dross (residue). This is a cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study about drug abuse and drug dependence in Iran was conducted from April 2006 to August 2008 in the prisons of 28 Iranian provinces, in the treatment centers, and in the streets. To pursue the objectives of this research, participants included 2979 opiate addicts including opium users (n = 2636) and dross users (n = 343), who were not significantly different by gender (P = 0.269) or age (P = 0.452). An anonymous questionnaire was completed through an interview that gathered sociodemographic characteristics and information about some high-risk behaviors. : By the end of the study, we concluded that dross addicts, in comparison with opium addicts, were mostly immigrants from rural areas to urban areas (P = 0.031 χ test, 95% confidence interval [CI]), mostly uneducated, illiterate, or semiliterate (P = 0.04 χ test, 95% CI), had illegal occupations (P = 0.048 χ test, 95% CI), were cigarette smokers (P < 0.000 χ test, 95% CI), and had experienced drug injections (P = 0.032 χ test, 95% CI) and drug overdose (P = 0.007 χ test, 95% CI). They also had a history of hospital admission within the preceding year because of drug overdose (P < 0.000) and a record of being arrested and jailed in the past year (P = 0.028 χ test, 95% CI). These results indicated the need for more intensive and effective care for the opioid addicts in Iran.

  5. Acute Intoxication by Transdermal Opium Application in Infants: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opium intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning in children in Iran. Although most cases are accidental, traditional misuse of opium for symptomatic therapy of various childhood diseases also contributes to high rate of opium intoxication in Iran. Cases: Here, we report two cases of opium intoxication in infants resulted from transdermal application of opium on burned skin. To our knowledge this is the first case report of intoxication from transdermal misuse of opium. Conclusion: Health care providers should be aware about signs and symptoms of opium intoxication in children. Opium intoxication should be suspected in each child with history of a recent burn injury that presented with decreased level of consciousness.

  6. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Poppy Seed Oil on Quality of Turkish Sucuk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gök, Vel

    2015-01-01

    Sucuk is the most popular dry-fermented meat product. Sucuk has a relatively high fat. Poppy seed oil as animal fat replacer was used in Turkish sucuk and effects of its use on sucuk quality were investigated. There was a significant (poil level decreased (poil to the sucuks had a significant effect (poil addition. Using pre-emulsified poppy seed oil as partial fat replacer in Turkish sucuk decreased cholesterol and saturated fatty acid content, but increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poppy seed oil as partial animal fat replacer in Turkish sucuk may have significant health benefits.

  7. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  8. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  9. Differentiation and comparison of raw, prepared and dross opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H Y; Kwok, S F

    1981-01-01

    Comparative studies involving colour tests, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) were made on raw, prepared and dross opium with a view to establishing means for their differentiation. Analysis of a large number of samples found in south-east Asia showed the typical patterns and results to be quite distinctive in the qualitative and quantitative aspects. The relative proportions of the major alkaloids in the two chromatographic systems were used to advantage in the comparison. Prepared opium was found to have a characteristic yellow fluorescent spot on the TLC plate when viewed under long-wavelength ultraviolet light. No positive marker was found for dross opium, its unusual features being the relatively high morphine and codeine content and the absence of narcotine, meconic acid and especially thebaine. Most of the prepared opium samples were found to have been made from a mixture of raw and dross opium. The modified hallucinogen reagent of Maunder was found to be a suitable alternative chromogenic spray in the TLC analysis.

  10. Taxonomy of Plant Genetic Resources – Use of Morphological, Molecular and Phytochemical Data in Order to Verify Existing Classifications

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    Ulrike Lohwasser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and it is essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples of the interaction of morphological, molecular and phytochemical data, investigations of a parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collection of the German genebank are demonstrated. 220 parsley and 300 opium poppy accessions were cultivated and described morphologically. In addition, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  11. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

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    Enrique Quesada-Moraga

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae, endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing. The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  12. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  13. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

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    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  14. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

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    Mohamad Ali Hijazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  15. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:28280516

  16. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Mohamad Ali; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  17. Noscapine comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid, which represents a class of plant specialized metabolites within the large and structurally diverse group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Along with the narcotic analgesic morphine, noscapine is a major alkaloid in the latex of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) that has long been used as a cough suppressant and has undergone extensive investigation as a potential anticancer drug. Cultivated opium poppy plants remain the only commercial source of noscapine. Despite its isolation from opium more than two centuries ago, the almost complete biosynthesis of noscapine has only recently been established based on an impressive combination of molecular genetics, functional genomics, and metabolic biochemistry. In this review, we provide a historical account of noscapine from its discovery through to initial investigations of its formation in opium poppy. We also describe recent breakthroughs that have led to an elucidation of the noscapine biosynthetic pathway, and we discuss the pharmacological properties that have prompted intensive evaluation of the potential pharmaceutical applications of noscapine and several semi-synthetic derivatives. Finally, we speculate on the future potential for the production of noscapine using metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in plants and microbes.

  18. Opium consumption and coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic patients: a propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Kianoosh; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Alipour-Parsa, Saeed; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Eftekhar, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    There is a traditional belief among Eastern people that opium may have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes; thus, it is widely used among diabetic patients. We attempted to investigate the association of opium consumption with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in our center. Out of 1925 diabetic patients included in the study, 228 were opium users, and the remaining 1697 non-opium users were used as a pool of potential comparators. Propensity scores were used to match the 228 opium consumers with 228 matched comparators for age, sex, and smoking status. The Gensini score and extent score were respectively used to assess the angiographic severity and extent of CAD. The mean Gensini score (86.9 ± 62.7 vs. 59.6 ± 43.4, p opium user diabetic patients than in non-opium users. After adjustment for potential confounders, a dose-response relationship was observed between dose of opium and the Gensini score ( β = 0.27, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the routes of opium administration (inhalation vs. oral) regarding the severity and extent of CAD. In conclusion, exposure to opium in diabetic patients may be positively associated with the risk of CAD, and with the angiographically determined severity and extent of the disease. Furthermore, dosage of opium consumption may correlate with severity of CAD.

  19. Reciprocal Evolution of Opiate Science from Medical and Cultural Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, George B; Pilonis, Nastazja; Ptacek, Radek; Kream, Richard M

    2017-06-13

    Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium. Opium usage in ancient cultures is well documented, as is its major extract morphine. The presence of endogenous opiate alkaloids and opioid peptides in animals owe their discovery to their consistent actions at particular concentrations via stereo select receptors. In vitro expression of morphine within a microbiological industrial setting underscores the role it plays as a multi-purpose pharmacological agent, as well as reinforcing why it can also lead to long-term social dependence. Furthermore, it clearly establishes a reciprocal effect of human intelligence on modifying evolutionary processes in papaver somniferum and related plant species.

  20. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

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    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  1. Buprenorphine for cancer pain: is it ready for prime time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Buprenorphine (BUP) is a semisynthetic derivative of the opium alkaloid thebaine found in the poppy Papaver somniferum. Its chemical structure contains the morphine structure but differs by having a cyclopropylmethyl group. Buprenorphine is a potent µ opioid agonist. Buprenorphine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver and gut. The development of a transdermal BUP formulation in 2001 led to its evaluation in cancer pain. This article provides the practitioner with an update on the current role of BUP in cancer care. It highlights data suggesting effectiveness in various types of cancer pain. The article reviews pharmacology, routes of administration, adverse effects, drug interactions, and cost considerations.

  2. Noscapine targets EGFRp-Tyr1068 to suppress the proliferation and invasion of MG63 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Jiang, Linlin; Ren, Zhaozhou; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Jiashi

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, usually arises in the metaphysis of long bones. Amplification and mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represent signature genetic abnormalities encountered in osteosarcoma. Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Recently several studies have suggested its anti-cancer effect in melanoma, ovarian cancer, gliomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effect still remains unclear. In this paper, we found the mechanism of noscapine effectively suppressed proliferation and invasion of MG63 cell line by inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream pathway. PMID:27830833

  3. Unacceptable but Indispensable: Opium Law and Regulations in Guangdong, 1912–1936

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    Xavier Paulès

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During most of the period from 1912 to 1936, Guangdong Province was independent from the central government. The local authorities there were facing a dilemma regarding opium, as others were elsewhere in China. On the one hand, opium was considered the symbol of China’s weakness, and its suppression was a top priority; on the other hand, opium taxes represented an indispensable source of fiscal income. Some Guangdong power holders were truly committed to a suppression agenda, especially from 1913 to 1924. During this period, with the exception of a brief interlude from 1915 to 1916, opium laws were prohibition laws. Even if these laws were not always enforced with full vigor, the drug remained illegal in Guangdong. After 1924, opium was legalized, and the authorities openly ruled an opium monopoly. They came out with increasingly comprehensive regulations, which proved successful in increasing opium revenues. Yet, as this article makes clear, there was nothing like direct government control: traditional tax-farming arrangements with local opium merchants (though under stricter supervision remained the backbone of the monopoly. The article also pays attention to the influence of the Six-Year Plan (1935–1940 launched by the Nanking government. As a credible set of suppression laws, it appealed to the Guangdong progressive elites who were hostile to opium. They urged the local autocrat Chen Jitang to take similar action. Chen made attempts to launch his own plans for suppressing opium, but they were unconvincing and nothing concrete came out of them. This article suggests that, in order to obtain a better understanding of how easily Chen Jitang was driven out of power in the summer of 1936, it is necessary to take into account the significant contribution of the Six-Year Plan in undermining his legitimacy.

  4. Relationship between Opium Abuse and Severity of Depression in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Sepehrmanesh Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOpium use in diabetic populations is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between opium use and severity of depression in Iranian diabetic patients.MethodsIn this case-control study, 642 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from those presenting at two outpatient clinics at the Akhavan Hospital in Kashan, Iran; of them, 600 diabetic patients were included in the study and divided into two groups: opium-abusers (150 patients and non-opium-abusers (450 patients. Clinical and demographic information was obtained through a detailed questionnaire. Depression symptomalogy and severity were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and a corresponding diagnosis was made based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, Text Revision, 2000 (DSM-IV TR criteria.ResultsThe mean depression score was higher in the opium abuse group than in the non-abuser group (29.27±1.44 vs. 18.29±1.31, P<0.001. In general, a significant association was found between opium abuse and depression among patients (odds ratio [OR], 4.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87 to 7.44; P=0.001. No significant relationship was found between dysthymia and opium abuse (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.18 to 1.192; P=0.155, while MDD was significantly higher in the opium abuser group (OR, 7.32; 95% CI, 5.20 to 12.01; P<0.001.ConclusionDepression is more frequent in opium-dependent diabetic patients, and its severity is also greater. Given these findings, opium-dependent diabetic patients should be advised about the increased risks of depression and related comorbidities.

  5. Structural Basis of the Substrate Specificity and Enzyme Catalysis of a Papaver somniferum Tyrosine Decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai; Song, Shuaibao; Robinson, Howard; Liang, Jing; Ding, Haizhen; Li, Jianyong; Han, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC), a type II pyridoxal 5′-phosphate decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of tyrosine. Due to a generally high sequence identity to other aromatic amino acid decarboxylases (AAADs), primary sequence information is not enough to understand substrate specificities with structural information. In this study, we selected a typical TyDC from Papaver somniferum as a model to study the structural basis of AAAD substrate specificities. Analysis of the native P. somniferum TyDC crystal structure and subsequent molecular docking and dynamics simulation provide some structural bases that explain substrate specificity for tyrosine. The result confirmed the previous proposed mechanism for the enzyme selectivity of indolic and phenolic substrates. Additionally, this study yields the first crystal structure for a plant type II pyridoxal-5'-phosphate decarboxylase. PMID:28232911

  6. Drug: D03445 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03445 Drug Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides (JP16); Pan opin (TN) Papaver somniferum...kaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8114 Morphines D03445 Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides (JP16) PubChem: 17397585 ...

  7. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  8. Opium Consumption and Mid-Term Outcome of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Men

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    Ahmad Sharafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controversy persists over the potential benefits/harms of opium consumption in coronary heart disease. This study investigated the association between 12 months' major adverse cardiac events (MACE and pre-procedural opium consumption among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI.Methods: Retrospectively, 1545 consecutive men who underwent PCI between 21st  June 2009 and 20th June 2010 at Tehran Heart Center and were registered in the PCI Databank were entered into this cohort study. The occurrence of MACE, defined as cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and need for target vessel revascularization (TVR or target lesion revascularization (TLR, was compared between two groups of opium consumers and non-consumers in 350 (22.7% patients. Results: Sixty-four (0.86% patients expired within 12 months. After adjustment for potential confounders, analysis revealed that opium consumption had no significant relationship with 12 months' MACE [11(3.1% vs. 53(4.4%; p value= 0.286, among opium users vs. non users, respectively].Furthermore, the different components of MACE, including target vessel revascularization, target lesion revascularization, coronary artery bypass graft, and non-fatal myocardial infarction, were not significantly related to opium use.Conclusion: Pre-procedural opium usage in patients undergoing PCI was not associated with 12 months' MACE.

  9. Cholangiographic Features in Opium-Addicted Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Iran

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    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Destructive and metabolic changes in hepatobiliary system have been demonstrated following opium use; however, cholangiographic features of bile ducts in opium-addicted patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are not clearly determined. We described these differences and assessed the effects of opium use on postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography complications. Methodology. One hundred and nineteen patients with the diagnosis of sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction according to the Geenen-Hogan classification were studied. Eight patients were confirmed opium-addicted and others were nonaddicted. Change of serum amylase concentrations after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and clinical diagnosis of addicted and non-addicted patients were compared. Results. Serum concentrations of liver aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were similar between the two groups. Serum concentration of amylase before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was similar between them, whereas concentration of this enzyme was higher in nonaddicted ones after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Regarding pathologic changes in papilla, opium addiction group in comparison with control group statistically showed more tumoral features (25.0% versus 5.4% and ulcerated changes (12.5% versus 0.0%. Conclusions. Opium use can increase probability of papilla ulcerative and tumoral changes in patients with sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction. Postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography serum amylase level may be reduced following opium addiction.

  10. Uma breve história do ópio e dos opióides Una historia breve del opio y de los opioides Opium and opioids: a brief history

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    Danilo Freire Duarte

    2005-02-01

    alcaloides del opio y las facilidades para el empleo de esas substancias por vía parenteral, hubo aumento del interés por el uso criterioso de los opioides en la área médica y del análisis de las consecuencias sociales de su uso abusivo. Se justifica, por lo expuesto, una revisión histórica del opio y de sus derivados. CONTENIDO: La evolución de los conocimientos sobre el opio, producto natural extraído del Papaver somniferum, y sobre los opioides, substancias naturales, semi-sintéticas y sintéticas extraídas del opio, bien como las principales referencias a esas substancias desde la Antiguedad fueron evaluadas. Fue enfatizado el progreso logrado desde los trabajos de Setürner que resultaron en el aislamiento de la morfina. Las averiguaciones acarreadas por otros autores en la busca de substancias sintéticas que presentasen ventajas sobre los productos naturales fueron mencionadas. La importancia del hallazgo de los receptores opioides y de sus ligantes endógenos fue subrayada. CONCLUSIONES: En el amanecer del tercer milenio, a despecho de las pesquisas realizadas con drogas analgésicas de otros grupos farmacológicos, los opioides continúan siendo los analgésicos más potentes, aunque su eficacia sea contestada en ciertos tipos de dolor. Los actuales conocimientos de Farmacología Clínica permiten seleccionar el opioide a ser administrado, considerando la enfermedad y las condiciones del paciente, en la busca de la mejor relación costo-beneficio.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In addition to their major influence on human behavior, opium and opioids have been used for a long time as sedative and analgesic drugs. As from the 19th century, with the isolation of opium alkaloids and easy parenteral administration of these substances, there has been increased interest in the judicious medical use of opioids and in the analysis of social consequences of their abuse, which has justified a historical review of opium and opioids. CONTENTS: Further understanding of

  11. A Comparison of Ice Cold Water Pretreatment and α-Bromonaphthalene Cytogenetic Method for Identification of Papaver Species

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    Amir Rezaei Osalou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants belonging to many species in genus Papaver are very similar and have very small chromosomes that make identification very difficult. The study aimed to compare the effects of α-bromonaphtalene and ice cold water pretreatment to identify chromosomes of Papaver species collected from different areas of Iranian West Azerbaijan and Turkish Van, Agri and, Hakkari provinces. The seeds were germinated in Jacobson trays at 24°C under continuous light. Thereafter, roots from 1.5 cm long plantlets were pretreated with α bromonaphtalene for 15, 30, and 45 min or at 0°C in ice cold water for 24 h before fixing, hydrolyzation, and feulgen staining. The ice cold water pretreatment was more appropriate and easy to determine chromosomes. Seeds from seven samples did not germinate. Sixty samples out of the rest of 62 samples were identified as P. pseudo orientale, one sample was identified as P. bracteatum, and another as P. orientale. This is the first study that used ice cold water to determine the chromosomes in papaver species. It is hoped that it will also facilitate to determine chromosome number and identify other papver species.

  12. A COMPLEX IDENTITY: RED COLOR-CODING IN ALAI'S RED POPPIES

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    Alexandra Draggeim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alai's Red Poppies presents a complex depiction of Tibetan identity that is at odds with the romanticized portrayal of the Tibetan minority in Chinese government media as well as with the standard historical positioning of Old Tibet as feudal and primitive. The color red is an ongoing theme that recurs throughout the novel, from the original introduction of the red poppies, to their spread throughout the area surrounding the Maichi chiefdom and, finally, to the chiefdom's downfall, offering insight not only into the complexity of Sino-Tibetan relations, but also into tension between Tibetan self-perception and popular image. Using a color frequently associated with Red China to highlight diverse cultural themes, Alai's work provides us a valuable window into marginal Tibetan realms outside of Central Tibet.

  13. Visitor center at the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve, Lancaster, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colyer, R.D.; Freeman, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve contains the largest remaining stand of the California Poppy (Eschschozia Californica), the state flower of California. To welcome the thousands of people viewing the desert wildflowers each spring, the State of California decided to build a visitor/interpretive center. This building deals primarily with the question of fit; a building's fit aesthetically with its site and the fit of a building's design response to the climate of the site. In this case, both aspects of this question led the client and architects to seek an earth sheltered solution using materials at least metaphorically indigenous to the region. On both a technical and formal level, this building seeks to fit the unique climate and historical heritage of its site.

  14. Intraspecific taxonomy of plant genetic resources – Important for differentiation of medicinal and aromatic plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohwasser, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples, investigations of parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collections of the German genebank are demonstrated. In addition to morphological description, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  15. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling for evaluating poppy seed rancidity and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawień, Ewa; Ząbek, Adam; Deja, Stanisław; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Młynarz, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Poppy seeds are widely used in household and commercial confectionery. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the application of metabolic profiling for industrial monitoring of the molecular changes which occur during minced poppy seed rancidity and brewing processes performed on raw seeds. Both forms of poppy seeds were obtained from a confectionery company. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) was applied as the analytical method of choice together with multivariate statistical data analysis. Metabolic fingerprinting was applied as a bioprocess control tool to monitor rancidity with the trajectory of change and brewing progressions. Low molecular weight compounds were found to be statistically significant biomarkers of these bioprocesses. Changes in concentrations of chemical compounds were explained relative to the biochemical processes and external conditions. The obtained results provide valuable and comprehensive information to gain a better understanding of the biology of rancidity and brewing processes, while demonstrating the potential for applying NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis tools for quality control in food industries involved in the processing of oilseeds. This precious and versatile information gives a better understanding of the biology of these processes.

  16. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context.

  17. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  18. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Fatemeh; Vahdani, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh; Latifi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. Results: We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (Pabusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of addicted mothers (Pabuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care. PMID:27853327

  19. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counter-Narcotics Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Opium is also refined for use in legal prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin.14 However, Australia and France currently produce about...Shortage of Opiate-Derived Painkillers ,” The Senlis Council Drug Policy Advisory Forum, available from http://www.senliscouncil.net/documents...Counter-Narcotics, v. 75 “Rising to the Opium Production Challenge in Afghanistan: A License to Meet the World Shortage of Opiate-Derived Painkillers

  20. Is opium addiction a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Ghandehari, Kavian

    2012-10-01

    The main source of studies about effects of opium consumption on heart and brain attacks originates from Iran Therefore the aim of the present study was to assess opium addiction as a probable influencing factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two Cardiology and Neurology clinics in Eastern Iran in 2011. Diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Ischemic Stroke (IS) was made by Cardiologist and Stroke Neurologist respectively. The influence of gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, oral and inhaled opium consumption on distribution of IHD and IS were evaluated. Five hundred fifty eight patients (307 females, 251 males) with mean age 56.2 years enrolled the study. On adjusted odds ratios of our whole 558 patients, only hypertension and diabetes had a significant influence on occurrence of IHD; (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000) respectively. Oral and inhaled routes of opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IHD; [OR = 1.172, 95% CI = 0.624-2.203, P = 0.621] and [OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 0.811-4.085, P = 0.147] respectively. Hypertension and diabetes were significant risk factors of IS in our 558 patients at multivariate analysis; (P = 0.000, P = 0.020). Oral opium addiction was as significant protective factor of IS in our study group; OR = 0.211, 95% CI = 0.079-0.564, P = 0.002, while inhaled opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IS in our patients at; OR = 1.760, 95% CI = 0.760-4.076, P = 0.187. Oral opium consumption is a protective factor of IS but not IHD. Inhaled opium addiction does not have a significant influence on occurrence of IS and IHD.

  1. The Fight to Ban Opium in the Soviet Areas of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    IN recent years, I visited some old Soviet Areas (established during the Second Revolutionary Civil War, 1927-1937) in Sichuan Province. Recalling the war with local people and singing Red Army and revolutionary songs of those years, I remember the folk songs about giving UP the opium habit. In order to establish and develop the revolutionary base in Sichuan, the Party and Red Army carried out a mass movement to ban opium, saving tens of thousands families from ruin.

  2. Lessons in ambivalence: The Shanghai Municipal Council's opium policies, 1906-1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-An; Du, Yilun

    2016-11-01

    Shanghai was considered to be a "capital of opium" in modern China, hence the history of opium in the city has received significant attention. In the Shanghai International Settlement, where Chinese and foreigners lived as neighbours, drugs were considered by the administration as both "trouble maker", and important financial resource. This paper explores how the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC), the most senior governing body in the settlement, used its position to maximize political and economic profit from the trade and consumption of opium. The paper is based on documentary analysis of records of the SMC board meetings and other related material stored at Shanghai Municipal Archives. Interpretive approaches were used to analyze the shifting SMC strategies on opium consumption, the competing power relations and the way they were negotiated between actors with a stake in the region, including semi-colonialism and world systems analysis. With the dual purpose of preventing damage and enhancing municipal management, the SMC introduced a licensing system permitting the consumption and trade of drugs. However, the anti-opium policies of the late Qing government and the Anglo-Chinese 10 Year Agreement meant SMC had to shut down opium "houses" (opium dens) and "shops" (for the sale of opium to be consumed off the premises). Over almost a decade, the SMC shifted emphasis from political regulation of a social, recreational practice to maximizing financial benefit. In the process, SMC made full use of the opportunities it gained from a period of ambivalent Chinese and British power relations and local community rule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quadriplegia due to lead-contaminated opium: a case report

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    Baigmohammadi MT

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Lead poisoning could be associated with gastrointestinal renal, hematologic complications and neurologic deficit."n"n Case report: The patient was an opium addict, forty one years old male, to hospital admitted with gastrointestinal signs, constipation, abdominal pain, severe weakness of upper and lower limbs without any sensory impairment and with anemia, leukocytosis, and slightly increased liver function tests. Serum level of lead was more than 200µg/dl. After treatment with dimercaprol (BAL, CaNa2EDTA for two five days sessions that followed with oral succimer for three days, signs and symptoms relieved, all laboratory tests became normal and blood level of lead reduced but the patient was discharged with quadriplegia. There was no fecal or urinary incontinence."n"n Conclusions: Because of irreversibility and severity of lead related neuronal injury, we should suspect to lead poisoning in each patient with neuronal involvement and concurrent GI and hematologic signs."n"n Keywords: Lead poisoning, motor palsy, opium, neuropathy, quadriplegia.

  4. Morphine and Codeine Concentrations in Human Urine following Controlled Poppy Seeds Administration of Known Opiate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45g oral poppy seed doses 8h apart, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2,000 and 300μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA® Heroin Metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6AM) and Lin-Zhi 6AM immunoassays with 10μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2,000 and 300μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7,522μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5,239μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2,000μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2,000μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

  5. The Construction and Validation of Opium Attitude Questionnaire among Guidance and High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Rezaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was aimed to determine the validity and reliability of opium attitudes questionnaire. Method: 6108 of guidance school (3th grades and high school students filled the opium attitude questionnaire in all of the country. The validity of questionnaire assessed by group discrimination and confirmatory factor analysis method. Results: the results of group discrimination showed that the questions can be discriminated of past and current opium addicts and normal groups. On the basis of factor analysis results 5 factors extracted. These factors with consideration of literature review and loaded items content named: interest to consume, attitude to dangers, attitude to physiological effects, attitude to psychic effects, attitude to social effects to opium. Reliability of subscales examined by Cronbakh’s alpha. The minimum measure of reliability was 0.77 and maximum was 0.86. Altogether, the validity and reliability of questionnaire were satisfied. Conclusion: On the basis of present research results, opium attitude questionnaire is appropriate for assessing of students’ attitude to opium among guidance and high school students.

  6. Opium addiction and severity of coronary artery disease: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masoumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Determina-tion of the risk factors and high risk groups plays an important role in the prevention and controlling programs. The present study aims to determine the relationship between opium consumption and severity of CAD. Methods: In this hospital based case- control study, 299 patients who were candidates for coronary angiography from 2006 to 2007 were recruited. The patients′ history of opium addiction was taken. Based on their history, they were cate-gorized into three groups: non users, occasional users and current users. The relationship between opium addiction and severity of CAD was analyzed by a multiple logistic regression model, STATA v.10. Results: According to angiographic data, patients were divided into 3 groups: 84 patients (28.09% as non coronary artery disease, 81 patients (27.09% as mild CAD and the remaining 134 patients (44.82% as severe CAD. Univariate analysis showed that current opium users had higher odds of severe CAD compared with non users. Multivariate analy-sis showed a significant relationship between age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gender and severity of coronary artery stenosis. Conclusions: The findings indicated that current opium users - in comparison with non users - have a higher risk for severe CAD. But it is roughly confounded by other co- factors such as cigarette smoking, age and sex. A dose- response was noticed between the type of opium consumption and the severity of CAD.

  7. Opium addiction increases interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in the coronary artery disease patients.

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    Habibollah Saadat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. PURPOSE: To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. METHODS: The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. RESULTS: IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that, although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. CONCLUSION: Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels.

  8. Comparative analysis of Papaver somniferum genotypes having contrasting latex and alkaloid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Nidarshana; Singh, Mridula; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Shanker, Karuna; Lal, Raj K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2014-07-01

    Papaver somniferum produces therapeutically useful benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) like papaverine, thebaine, codeine, and morphine that accumulate in its capsular latex. Morphine is a potent analgesic but is also abused as a narcotic, which has increased the demand for non-narcotic thebaine that can be converted into various analgesics. To curtail the narcotic menace, many distinct genotypes of the plant have been developed that are deficient in morphine and/or latex. Sujata is one such latex-less low alkaloid-producing variety developed from the alkaloid-rich gum harvest variety Sampada. Its utility for gene prospecting and studying differential gene regulation responsible for its low alkaloid, nutritive seed oil, and latex-less phenotype has been exploited in this study. BIA profiling of Sujata and Sampada capsules at the early and late stages indicated that except for thebaine, Sujata had a depressed alkaloid phenotype as compared to Sampada. Comparative transcript-based analysis of the two genotypes was carried out in the early stage capsule (higher thebaine) using subtractive hybridization and microarray. Interrogation of a P. somniferum array yielded many differentially expressing transcripts. Their homology-based annotation classified them into categories--latex related, oil/lipid related, alkaloid related, cell wall related, and others. These leads will be useful to characterize the highly sought after Sujata phenotype.

  9. Inhibiting Self-Pollen: Self-Incompatibility in Papaver Involves Integration of Several Signaling Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cellular responses rely on signal perception and integration. A nice example of this is self incompatibility (SI), which is an important mechanism to prevent inbreeding. It prevents self-fertilization by using a highly discriminatory cellular recognition and rejection mechanism. Most S1 systems are genetically specified by the S-locus, which has a pollen and a pistil S-component. A receptor-ligand interaction is used by Papaver rhoeas to control SI. S proteins encoded by the pistil part of the S-locus interact with incompatible pollen to achieve rapid inhibition of tip growth. The incompatible SI interaction triggers a Ca2+ -dependent signaling cascade. A number of SI-specific events are triggered in incompatible pollen, including rapid depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton; phosphorylation of soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (SPPases), Prp26.1; activation of a mitogen activated protein kinase, p56; programmed cell death (PCD) involving a caspase-3-like activlty. These events contribute to prevent self-fertilization. We are attempting to establish the functional signiflcance of these events, and their possible involvement in integrating a coordinated signaling response. Here we describe the identification of these components shown to be involved in SI, together with recent progress in identifying links between some of them. These data constitute the first steps in elucidating how SI signaling is integrated.

  10. The self-incompatibility response in Papaver rhoeas pollen causes early and striking alterations to organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitmann, A; Franklin-Tong, V E; Emons, A C

    2004-08-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in Papaver rhoeas is accompanied by a cascade of signalling events that result in the rapid arrest and eventual death of the pollen tube. We have used rapid freeze fixation, freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy to provide the first description of changes to pollen at the ultrastructural level during SI in this species. Our studies reveal that dramatic alterations to the morphology of mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ER occur within 1 h of SI induction. Similar symptoms have also been observed during programmed cell death (PCD) in some cell types. These include: the conspicuous condensation of the vegetative and generative nuclei, the swelling and loss of cristae in mitochondria and the disappearance of Golgi bodies. Some of the early alterations to the mitochondria and Golgi bodies observed at 1 h, almost certainly occur when cells are still alive. Other events, such as nuclear condensation, occur later and coincide with DNA fragmentation and the loss of cell viability. Our observations suggest that the SI response in P. rhoeas pollen may potentially involve a type of PCD.

  11. The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Dudek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids play an important role in the pigmentation of flowers; in addition, they protect petals and other flower parts from UV irradiation and oxidative stress. Nudicaulins, flavonoid-derived indole alkaloids, along with pelargonidin, kaempferol, and gossypetin glycosides, are responsible for the color of white, red, orange, and yellow petals of different Papaver nudicaule cultivars. The color of the petals is essential to attract pollinators. We investigated the occurrence of flavonoids in basal and apical petal areas, stamens, and capsules of four differently colored P. nudicaule cultivars by means of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The results reveal the specific occurrence of gossypetin glycosides in the basal spot of all cultivars and demonstrate that kaempferol glycosides are the major secondary metabolites in the capsules. Unlike previous reports, the yellow-colored stamens of all four P. nudicaule cultivars are shown to contain not nudicaulins but carotenoids. In addition, the presence of nudicaulins, pelargonidin, and kaempferol glycosides in the apical petal area was confirmed. The flavonoids and related compounds in the investigated flower parts and cultivars of P. nudicaule are profiled, and their potential ecological role is discussed.

  12. Plausible Impact of Dietary Habits on Reduced Blood Sugar in Diabetic Opium Addicts with Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Najafi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of opium on glycemic control in diabetics is a controversial issue, as some studies have shown glucose lowering effect of opium in diabetes while the results of other studies do not support this idea. The possible role of opioid peptides in the regulation of food intake has been previously investigated. However, there is no data available about relationship between opium using and dietary pattern. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the daily i...

  13. Accumulation dynamics and some cytogenetical tests at Chelidonium majus and Papaver somniferum callus under the magnetic liquid effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, A.; Trifan, M.; Bara, I. I.; Creanga, D. E.; Cotae, C.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper we studied the capacity of magnetic liquids which are biocompatible (as previous literature reports showed) to influence germination, de-differentiation and re-differentiation processes in vitro, as well as to influence both the mitotic index and the chromosomal aberration frequency. In vitro cultures of two species of pharmaceutical interest, Chelidonium majus L. and Papaver somniferum L., on media supplemented with various concentrations of magnetic liquid, for various explant types, revealed a small but significant effect of the petroleum magnetic liquid on the callus accumulation and induced a considerable rate of chromosomal aberrations.

  14. Prickly poppies can get pricklier: ontogenetic patterns in the induction of physical defense traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoan, Ryan P; Ormond, Rhys A; Barton, Kasey E

    2014-01-01

    Plant ontogeny is a common source of variation in defense and herbivory. Yet, few studies have investigated how the induction of physical defense traits changes across plant ontogeny. Physical defense traits are costly to produce, and thus, it was predicted that induction as a cost-saving strategy would be particularly favorable for seedlings, leading to ontogenetic declines in the inducibility of these traits. We tested for induction of three different physical defense traits (prickles, latex and leaf toughness) in response to mechanical defoliation and jasmonic acid application using prickly poppies (Argemone glauca and A. mexicana, Papaveraceae) as a model system. Genetic variation in the induction of physical defenses was tested using maternal sib-ships sampled from multiple populations. Both species induced higher densities of laminar prickles, although the magnitude of induction was much higher in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, A. glauca, than in the cosmopolitan A. mexicana. The magnitude of prickle induction was also higher in young compared to older juvenile plant stages in A. glauca, demonstrating a strong role of ontogeny. Neither latex exudation nor leaf toughness was induced in either species. Although significant genetic variation was detected within and among populations for constitutive expression of physical defense traits in Argemone, there was no evidence for genetic variation in the induction of these traits. This study provides the first evidence for the induction of physical defenses in prickly poppies, emphasizing how an ontogenetically explicit framework can reveal new insights into plant defense. Moreover, this study illustrates how sister species comparisons between island vs. continental plants can provide new insights into plant functional and evolutionary ecology, highlighting a fruitful area for future research on more species pairs.

  15. Prickly poppies can get pricklier: ontogenetic patterns in the induction of physical defense traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Hoan

    Full Text Available Plant ontogeny is a common source of variation in defense and herbivory. Yet, few studies have investigated how the induction of physical defense traits changes across plant ontogeny. Physical defense traits are costly to produce, and thus, it was predicted that induction as a cost-saving strategy would be particularly favorable for seedlings, leading to ontogenetic declines in the inducibility of these traits. We tested for induction of three different physical defense traits (prickles, latex and leaf toughness in response to mechanical defoliation and jasmonic acid application using prickly poppies (Argemone glauca and A. mexicana, Papaveraceae as a model system. Genetic variation in the induction of physical defenses was tested using maternal sib-ships sampled from multiple populations. Both species induced higher densities of laminar prickles, although the magnitude of induction was much higher in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, A. glauca, than in the cosmopolitan A. mexicana. The magnitude of prickle induction was also higher in young compared to older juvenile plant stages in A. glauca, demonstrating a strong role of ontogeny. Neither latex exudation nor leaf toughness was induced in either species. Although significant genetic variation was detected within and among populations for constitutive expression of physical defense traits in Argemone, there was no evidence for genetic variation in the induction of these traits. This study provides the first evidence for the induction of physical defenses in prickly poppies, emphasizing how an ontogenetically explicit framework can reveal new insights into plant defense. Moreover, this study illustrates how sister species comparisons between island vs. continental plants can provide new insights into plant functional and evolutionary ecology, highlighting a fruitful area for future research on more species pairs.

  16. Morphine and codeine in oral fluid after controlled poppy seed administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-07-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programmes. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only two addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45 g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3.1 mg codeine, 8 h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze® device and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (1 µg/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n = 459) were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5 h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13 h at Draeger 20 µg/L morphine cut-off. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax ) were 177 and 32.6 µg/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax ) of 0.5-1 h and 0.5-2.5 h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24 h for morphine and to 18 h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1 h with 40 µg/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off, and 0.5 h with 95 µg/L cut-off, recently recommended by the Driving under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1 h after ingestion of 15.7 mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending on the cut-off employed.

  17. Comparative Study of CNS Effects of Opium in Homeopathic Potencies with Pentazocine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karandikar Y.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Opium is a drug being used in modern medicine as well as in homeopathy. Despite of the same source, both the pathies have different principles and indications. Opium is an alkaloid having main action on CNS. So in this study, we evaluated the effect of different dilutions of Opium in homeopathic potencies on CNS in mice and compared with that of Pentazocine. We divided forty mice of either sex into 7 groups (6c, 30c, 200c, 1 M, 0/1 LM, dispensing alcohol, Pentazocine. Test drugs were given orally. Different actions on CNS were evaluated by using Actophotometer for locomotor activity, Analgesiometer for analgesic activity and Straub test for opioid. Our result showed that pharmacological actions of Opium seen in modern medicine were not seen with different dilutions of Opium, in homeopathic potencies. 30c and 200c dilutions may be having secondary curative that is CNS stimulant action (reversal of CNS depression due to alcohol as per homeopathic principles.

  18. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis : A cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based co

  19. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis : A cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based

  20. The occurrence of Papaver rhoeas L. in agrocenoses of the buffer zone of the Roztocze national Park compared to other regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesława Trąba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to determine the environmental amplitude as well as the optimal conditions for the vegetation of Papaver rhoeas in the agrocoenoses of the Roztocze National Park's buffer zone, as compared to other Polish regions. The analysis is based on certain habitat and anthropogenic factors. Based on the author's own research and the data quoted in the literature, it has been found that Papaver rhoeas occurs in the associations and communities of the Caucalidion and Aperion alliances accompanying cereal and rape crops as well as in the Polygono-Chenopodion and Panico-Setarion alliances accompanying root crops. Papaver rhoeas demonstrates a large environmental scale, as its presence has been noted in low- and highlands, in foothills, in river valleys as well as on slopes. Moreover, it teams up with various types of soils (of a wide range of acidity, moisture as well as trophic and thermal conditions and complexes. Papaver rhoeas occurs most often and in the largest numbers in winter crops in the Lathyro-Melandrietum and Caucalidio-Scandicetum association which belongs to the Caucalidion alliance and in the Consolido-Brometum, Vicietum tetraspermae papaveretosum and V. t. consolidetosum association from the Aperion alliance. As far as root crops are considered, Papaver rhoeas shows up in the Lamio-Veronicetum politae association from the Polygono- Chenopodion alliance. It prefers chalky and Jurassic rendzinas containing CaCO3 and other fertile loam and loess soils which belong to wheat complexes, with their pH ranging from slightly acid to alkaline (Eutric Vertisols, chernozem, brown soil, alluvial soil and which are moderately moist, warm, medium-rich in nitrogen and with good soil biological activity. In the foothill areas, it dominates on alluvial soils in the river valleys; rarely has it been spotted on the slopes. Papaver rhoeas rarely occurs on the lightest sandy soils of the weak and very weak rye complexes and weak cereal

  1. A Case-Control Study of Effect of Opium Addiction on Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Azimzade-Sarwar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and Myocardial Infarction (MI are one of the most important disease which cause mortality and morbidity. Opioid peptides and exogenous opioid such as morphine are known to exert an important cardiovascular effect. To study effect of opium addiction to incidence of MI. A Case-Control study was designed in Kerman university. 150 patients with MI was admitted to CCU and 150 matched patients admitted in surgical wards evaluate from cardiovascular risk factor and opium addiction. Analysis of data suggested no difference between two groups (P>0.05. But smoking OR = 2.45, hypertension OR = 2.65, Diabetes mellitus OR = 1.82 and Hypercholesterolemia OR = 3.16 were a risk factor for MI. Effect of opium in IHD has controversial. But recent of study defined that opioid peptides have a cardioprotective effect. Many exact and longitudinal studies should design for this purpose.

  2. Oil content and fatty acids composition of poppy seeds cultivated in two localities of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lančaričová Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05 for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4% and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%. White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.

  3. The Effect of Opium Dependency of Parent (s on Offspring’s Spatial Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats

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    Arezoo Saberi Moghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:As far as we know,there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or dependency of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had dependency to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium dependency was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. Spatial memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. Results:Thedata revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring’s whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent’s opium exposed offspring.  Conclusion:Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in spatial learning, but the precise mechanism(s remain largely unknown.

  4. Opium addiction and severity of coronary artery disease; a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Massomi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. So, determination of the risk factors and high risk groups plays an important role in the prevention and controlling programs. The aim of present study was determine the relationship between the opium consumption and the severity of CAD. Methods: In this hospital based case-control study, we recruited 299 patients candidate for coronary angiography from 2006 to 2007.The history of opium addiction was asked in all subjects. According to the duration of opium consumption, we categorized the individuals into three groups, non-users, occasional users and currently-users .The relationship between opium addiction and severity of CAD was analyzed using logistic regression model. Results: we analyzed the data of 299 cases, which included 84 (28.09% as the control group, 81 (27.09% as non-significant and monovessel CAD and the remaining 134 (44.82% as multivessel CAD group. Univariat analysis showed that currently users had a higher odds of severity CAD in compare to control group with OR=2.06 (CI95% 1.22-3.49, P=0.007. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, male gender and severity of coronary artery stenosis. Currently users had a higher odds of severity CAD in compare to the control group with the adjusted OR 1.82 (CI95% 0.93 – 3.58, P=0.08, but anymore wasn’t significant Conclusion: The findings indicated that currently opium users – in compare to non-users - have a higher risk for severe CAD .But it is roughly confounded by other co-factors such as cigar smoking, age and sex. We have seen a dose-response between the type of opium consumption and the severity of CAD, but the relationship was not significant.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative belladonna and opium rectal suppositories in vaginal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kristina; Yi, John; Wasson, Megan; Klauschie, Jennifer; Ryan, Debra; Hentz, Joseph; Cornella, Jeffrey; Magtibay, Paul; Kho, Roseanne

    2017-05-01

    After vaginal surgery, oral and parenteral narcotics are used commonly for pain relief, and their use may exacerbate the incidence of sedation, nausea, and vomiting, which ultimately delays convalescence. Previous studies have demonstrated that rectal analgesia after surgery results in lower pain scores and less intravenous morphine consumption. Belladonna and opium rectal suppositories may be used to relieve pain and minimize side effects; however, their efficacy has not been confirmed. We aimed to evaluate the use of belladonna and opium suppositories for pain reduction in vaginal surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used belladonna and opium suppositories after inpatient or outpatient vaginal surgery was conducted. Vaginal surgery was defined as (1) vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension or (2) posthysterectomy prolapse repair that included uterosacral ligament suspension and/or colporrhaphy. Belladonna and opium 16A (16.2/60 mg) or placebo suppositories were administered rectally immediately after surgery and every 8 hours for a total of 3 doses. Patient-reported pain data were collected with the use of a visual analog scale (at 2, 4, 12, and 20 hours postoperatively. Opiate use was measured and converted into parenteral morphine equivalents. The primary outcome was pain, and secondary outcomes included pain medication, antiemetic medication, and a quality of recovery questionnaire. Adverse effects were surveyed at 24 hours and 7 days. Concomitant procedures for urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse did not preclude enrollment. Ninety women were randomly assigned consecutively at a single institution under the care of a fellowship-trained surgeon group. Demographics did not differ among the groups with mean age of 55 years, procedure time of 97 minutes, and prolapse at 51%. Postoperative pain scores were equivalent among both groups at each time interval. The belladonna and opium group used a

  6. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD = 6.06 in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61 and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83. Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.09 and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59 were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption.

  7. Rapid determination of Papaver somniferum alkaloids in process streams using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costin, Jason W. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Lewis, Simon W. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Purcell, Stuart D. [GlaxoSmithKline, Port Fairy, Victoria 3284 (Australia); Waddell, Lucy R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Port Fairy, Victoria 3284 (Australia); Francis, Paul S. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Barnett, Neil W. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia)]. E-mail: barnie@deakin.edu.au

    2007-07-30

    We have combined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations using a monolithic column with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection in a rapid and highly sensitive method to monitor the process of extracting opiate alkaloids from Papaver somniferum. Due to the high flow rates allowed with the monolithic column and the inherent selectivity of the chemiluminescence reactions, the four predominant alkaloids - morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine - were determined in less than 2 min. The results obtained with numerous process samples compared favourable with those of the standard HPLC methodology. Limits of detection were 1 x 10{sup -10} M, 5 x 10{sup -10} M, 5 x 10{sup -10} M and 1 x 10{sup -9} M, for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine, respectively.

  8. Tectonic Scents – Elocutions on the Opium of Maison de Verre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    2017-01-01

    , hold a sensuous elocution that should be positioned in future architectural research, we ask ourselves? In the essay we pursue this sensuous potential through a semiotic study of the house and the commercial by David Lynch for Yves Saint Laurent’s controversial Opium fragrance filmed in the illusory...

  9. The Provincial Magnate Prohibiting Opium---TAO Shu%严禁鸦片的疆臣领袖--陶澍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蒲清

    2015-01-01

    TAO Shu’s opium ban,his prohibiting opium acts,and the repeated consultation of LIN Zexu to him,prove that TAO Shu was the first provincial magnate conducting large -scale destruction of opium,and was the political leader advocating prohibiting opi-um.%陶澍的禁烟主张、禁烟行动,以及林则徐禁烟反复征询陶澍意见,证明陶澍是最早大规模销毁鸦片的封疆大吏,是主张严禁鸦片的政坛领袖人物。

  10. Cold pressed poppy seed oils: sensory properties, aromatic profiles and consumer preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir, D. D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensory descriptions, aromatic profiles and consumer preferences of poppy seed oils produced from three poppy varieties (ofis3, ofis4, and ofis8 by cold pressing were studied. Roasting and enzyme treatments were applied to the seeds prior to cold pressing. In addition, 75 different volatiles were quantified by GC-MS analysis. A flavor profile analysis was made with 9 panelists and 12 terms were identified for the description of the oil. The results shown that, only earthy term scores were different among the seed varieties, while treatments have caused differences in roasted, hazelnut, hay and sweet aromatic terms. Roasting and enzyme treatments decreased hay and increased sweet aromatic values. The enzyme treatment of the poppy seeds enhanced fermented and waxy scores in the cold press oils. 1-hexanol, 2-heptanone, 2-pentanone, 2-pentyl furan, 3-ethyl- 2-methyl 1,3-hexadiene, 2-(dimethylamino-3-phenylbenzo[b]thiophene, 3-octen-2-one, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, alpha-pinene, limonene, dimethyl sulfone, mercaptoacetic acid, hexanal and nonanal were quantified as the major volatiles in all treatment groups. Consumer test results indicated that roasted samples are more liked, and the yellow (ofis4 roasted sample was identified as the most preferred (53.55% oil by consumers. This study provides the first sensory descriptive definitions and consumer preferences for poppy seed oils.En este trabajo, se analizan las descripciones sensoriales, perfiles aromáticos y preferencias de los consumidores de aceites de semillas de amapola producidosmediante prensado en frío a partir de tres variedades (ofis3, ofis4, y ofis8.Previo al prensado en frío, a las semillas se aplicóuna fase de tostado y un tratamiento enzimático. Además del análisis GC-MS donde se cuantificaron 75 compuestos volátiles, el perfil del sabor,realizado con 9 panelistas,logra identificar 12 términos descriptores. Los resultados muestran que, solamente la puntuación del t

  11. Risks of herbalism: a case report of Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Meléndez González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of alternative medicines has lead to a greater awareness about the deleterious effects and interactions that these products can induce. Consequently, medical literature reports liver toxicity from Aloe, Camellia sinensis (green tea, Rhammus purshianus, Aesculus hippocastanum (buckeye and Valeriana officinalis (valerian, among others. This article reports a female patient who twice consumed Mexican poppy (Argemone mexicana L with a one-year interval between ingestions. Both times she developed diarrhea, jaundice and general malaise with impaired liver function tests. Other causes of liver disease were ruled out. Questionnaires were used to assess the possibility of drug-induced liver damage. Clinical information was collected from the patient’s medical record and the literature on the subject was reviewed. We conclude that, at least in this case, the most likely cause of liver toxicity was Argemone mexicana L consumption.

  12. Investigating the Effects of Adding Fentanyl to Bupivacaine in Spinal Anesthesia of Opium-addicted Patients

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    H Satari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinal anesthesia in opium-addicted patients can be associated with many complications. Hence, this study aimed to investigate sensory and motor block characteristics, duration of postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic and side effects by adding Fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal Anesthesia of opium-addicted patients. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 American society of Anesthesiology (ASA class I and II opium-addicted patients under spinal anesthesia in lower abdominal and lower limb operations were randomly classified into two groups of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl. Clinical symptoms, side effects, the duration of sensory and motor block, initiation of analgesia requirement and sensory block were assessed. Results: The study results indicated no significant difference between bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl groups in regard with demographic, side effects, blood pressure and heart rate, though a significant difference was observed in respiratory rate 5min, 10min, 45min, 75min and 90 min after block. Duration of sensory (100.33 to 138.83 and motor block (93.43 to 107.66 and , initiation of analgesia requirement (165.33 to 187.76 was significantly longer in bupivacaine-fentanyl, though initiation of sensory block (8.83 to 4.93 was significantly longer in bupivacaine. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia increases the duration of sensory and motor block and initiation of analgesia requirement in opium-addicted patients and also decreases initiation of sensory block in these patients.

  13. Analysis of Taliban Revenue and the Importance of the Opium Trade to the Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    off following the Soviet withdrawal and refugees returned to claim their land, opium production and export finally became systematic.91 What...a compelling argument that sums up much of the factors Afghanistan offers to a civil war scenario, A state where the rule of law is weak might be...building government.238 Colonel Veneri, while watching three Afghan Army cadet trainers attempt to pump up a basketball with a faulty pump, surmised

  14. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  15. Quality of Life, Social Desirability and Their Relationship in Opium Addicted Persons in Southeast of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic da...

  16. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  17. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Dermatoglyphic Characteristics of Opium Addicts with Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Barzegar, Afsoon; Husein, Afzal; Malic, Claudia; Sheikhazadi, Elham; Saberi-Anary, Seyed Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families andfriends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a personmore prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the firstand second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Theaim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage. The pattern of dermatoglyphics - finger and A-B prints - obtained from a group of opium users(121 patients) was compared to those obtained from a group of opium non-users (121 patients) from Birjand,Iran. The results were analyzed using chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that although A-B ridges of palms and fingers in our study group were highercompared to the control group, there was no significant difference between these groups. The only significantdifference was the fingerprint patterns of the left ring finger in the study group, which lacked the arch patternand had less loop patterns. The dominant type of fingerprint in the left ring finger was the whorl. In ouropium user group, the arch and loop fingerprint patterns were heterogeneous and significantly different incomparison with the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a genetic factor may increase the predisposition to recreational drugusage. Further research is required to confirm this possible impact of genetic factors on the addiction process.

  18. Opium trade and the spread of HIV in the Golden Crescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Syeda Ayesha; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Abidi, Syed Hani; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Ali, Syed

    2017-07-21

    The Golden Crescent region of South Asia-comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan-is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region's inhabitants. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent. The first step in addressing drug use is to recognize that it is not a character flaw but a form of mental illness, hence warranting humane treatment of drug users. It is also recommended that the governments of the Golden Crescent countries encourage substitution of opium with licit crops and raise awareness among the general public about the perils of opium use.

  19. Sprcial discussion: Future Roles for Tincture of Opium in Medical Intervention for Opioid Dependence Treads and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Opium tincture or tincture of opium (TOP, also known as Laudanum, is an alcoholic herbal preparation of opium. It is made by combining ethanol with opium latex or powder. After works of Paracelsus, the 16th century Swiss-German alchemist, who discovered that the alkaloids in opium are far more soluble in alcohol compared to water and named Opium tincture as Laudanum, this drug has been found a broad range of applications as the drug of choice for practically every ailment through 17th to 19th centuries. The early 20th century brought increased regulation of all manner of narcotics, including laudanum, as the addictive properties of opium became more widely understood. By the late 20th century, TOP's use was almost exclusively confined to treating severe diarrhea. During these thirty years, The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of opioid substitution therapy for the treatment of opioid addiction has been well documented by methadone and buprenorphine. Based on the idea of substitution therapy, TOP and slow releasing oral morphine (SROM have been proposed as the new alternatives. TOP could be used in three different ways in interventions for opioid dependency, first, as a supportive drug to reduce withdrawal syndrome during detoxification programs, second, as a substitution drug in long term maintenance, third, as a legal form of opioid drugs for harm reduction purposes. A little but growing evidences are supporting effectiveness of TOP for detoxification programs, in Iran, some preliminary open label studies showed effectiveness of TOP as a detoxifying drug in three to six month program, Now another open label study is evaluating TOP in a specific detoxification program with monthly evaluation and providing long term follow up after reaching to abstinence. There are a strong debate among the policy makers and clinicians on implementation of TOP in Iranian National Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities. In this article, We reviewed the proposed

  20. Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena

    2007-01-01

    The production of coca and poppy as well as the processing and production of cocaine and heroin involve significant environmental impacts. Both coca and poppy are grown intensively in a process that involves the clearing of land in remote areas, the planting of the crop, and protection against pests such as weeds, insects, and pathogens. The aerial spray program to control coca and poppy production in Colombia with the herbicide glyphosate is conducted with modern state-of-the-art aircraft and spray equipment. As a result of the use of best available spray and navigation technology, the likelihood of accidental off-target spraying is small and is estimated to be less than 1% of the total area sprayed. Estimated exposures in humans resulting from direct overspray, contact with treated foliage after reentry to fields, inhalation, diet, and drinking water were small and infrequent. Analyses of surface waters in five watersheds showed that, on most occasions, glyphosate was not present at measurable concentrations; only two samples had residues just above the method detection limit of 25 microg/L. Concentrations of glyphosate in air were predicted to be very small because of negligible volatility. Glyphosate in soils that are directly sprayed will be tightly bound and biologically unavailable and have no residual activity. Concentrations of glyphosate plus Cosmo-Flux will be relatively large in shallow surface waters that are directly oversprayed (maximum instantaneous concentration of 1,229microgAE/L in water 30cm deep); however, no information was available on the number of fields in close proximity to surface waters, and thus it was not possible to estimate the likelihood of such contamination. The formulation used in Colombia, a mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux, has low toxicity to mammals by all routes of exposure, although some temporary eye irritation may occur. Published epidemiological studies have not suggested a strong or consistent linkage between

  1. One step green synthesis of silver nano/microparticles using extracts of Trachyspermum ammi and Papaver somniferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Nalini, S P Kamala; Prakash, N Udaya; Madhankumar, D

    2012-06-01

    A novel biosynthesis route for silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was attempted in this present investigation using aqueous extracts of Trachyspermum ammi and Papaver somniferum. The main constituents in T. ammi are thymol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene, while P. somniferum consists of morphine and codeine. The essential oil in T. ammi was found to be a good reducing agent than the alkaloids present in P. somniferum for the formation of biocompatible Ag-NPs. The effectiveness of both the extracts was investigated by using same dosage of extract in the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. The results showed that for the same dosage of extracts the T. ammi synthesized various size triangular shaped nanoparticles measuring from 87 nm, to a fewer nanoparticles having a size of 998 nm diagonally. P. somniferum resulted in almost spherical shaped particle ranging in size between 3.2 and 7.6 μm diagonally. Future research based on synthesis of size specific nanoparticle based on the optimization of reaction condition would be an interesting area.

  2. No association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to opium sap dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Khalighinasab, Mohammad Rashid; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC: 2.5.1.18) are a ubiquitous family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes. Genes encoding GSTM1 (OMIM: 138350), and GSTT1 (OMIM: 600436) are members of class mu and theta, respectively. The most common polymorphism in the GSTM1 is a deletion of the whole GSTM1 gene with a lack of enzyme activity. A homozygous deletion in the GSTT1 has also been reported (null genotypes of GSTT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study was performed in Shiraz (southern Iran). In total, 71 males dependent to opium sap and 590 healthy males (as a control group) were included in this study. The genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by PCR. Our data indicate that neither GSTM1 (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.27, P=0.325) nor GSTT1 (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.70-2.21, P=0.442) null genotypes significantly associated with the risk of opium sap dependence. There is no additive effect of the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to the risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study indicated that the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 are not risk factor for opium sap dependence.

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10720-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) BGBV-aae37f05.b1 Snail_EST_pSMART Biomphalaria gl... 38 0.004 2 ( FG612470 ) stem_S086_C06.SEQ Opium poppy... stem cDNA library P... 32 0.004 3 ( FG605739 ) stem_S001_F08.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 32 0.00...4 3 ( FG606058 ) stem_S005_E09.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 32 0.004 3 ( FG613261 ) stem_S096_C09.SEQ Opium... poppy stem cDNA library P... 32 0.004 3 ( FG611387 ) stem_S072_B09.SEQ Opium... poppy stem cDNA library P... 32 0.004 3 ( FG613260 ) stem_S096_C08.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P

  4. 野罂粟总生物碱及提取物对人淋巴细胞的遗传毒理作用%Study on the influence of wild opium poppy alkaloid and its extract on lymphocyte toxicological effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖桂芝; 刘朝晖; 王栋; 宁志芬; 冯立新; 马晓明; 卜玲

    2002-01-01

    目的:探讨野罂粟总生物碱(TAPN)及提取物对人遗传物质的毒理效应.方法:采用细胞培养技术,检测TAPN及提取物对人外周血淋巴细胞姐妹染色单体互换(SCE)率.结果:TAPN0.003mg及0.005mg组与空白对照组无差异(P>0.05),TAPN其他浓度组及提取物各浓度组均能诱导人淋巴细胞SSCE频率升高.结论:TAPN及提取物各浓度组与SCE之间虽存在着明显的剂量效应关系,但TAPN在正常使用剂量内不会引起人遗传物质的毒性效应.

  5. 利用DNA ITS2条形码序列鉴定植物大麻和罂栗%Identification of cannabis, opium poppy using ITS2 barcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳轲; 杨雪莹; 裴黎; 张颖; 徐小玉; 涂政

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析毒品原植物大麻、罂粟及其混伪品植物rDNA的ITS2序列信息,探索鉴定大麻、罂粟及其混伪品的新方法.方法 采用PCR法扩增ITS2序列,双向测序后运用CodonCode Aligner、MEGA5.1软件进行数据处理,计算种内种间K2P距离,构建系统聚类树(NJ树).结果 大麻、罂粟的种内K2P遗传距离为0,大麻、罂粟及其混伪品之间的最小K2P距离为0.187.NJ树表现出明显的单系性.结论 利用DNA ITS2条形码序列有可能鉴定出毒品原植物大麻、罂粟.

  6. To test morphine component in urine from the opium poppy species of medicine%服用含罂粟壳药物尿液中阿片类物质的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 部分止咳中成药物含有罂粟壳成分,罂粟壳进入人体后代谢产物的主要成分有可待因、吗啡、蒂巴因和罂粟碱等.其中的吗啡成分与吸食毒品海洛因后的最终代谢产物相同.吗啡胶体金检测技术主要应用于针对海洛因吸毒者的尿液中吗啡的检测,但也对服用止咳药物正常人产生阳性结果.

  7. Vitamin, Trace Element, and Fatty Acid Levels of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. Plant Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of fat-soluble vitamin, trace element and fatty acid of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds in Turkey were determined by using HPLC, ICP-OES, and GC, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, linoleic acid (18 : 2 was determined with the highest level rates (%54.11, %28.03, and %72.14, resp.. In the Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 levels were determined as 9.70 μg/g, 18.20 μg/g, and 24.79 μg/g, respectively; In the Juniperus oxycedrus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 were determined as 18.50 μg/g, 0.84 μg/g, and 5.00 μg/g, respectively, and in the Papaver somniferum L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, K1, and D2 levels were determined as 43.25 μg/g, 122.05 μg/g, 12.01 μg/g, and 0.62 μg/g, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, nickel (Ni, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe were determined with the trace element level rates (4.42 mg/kg, 10.43 mg/kg, 3.71 mg/kg for Ni, 7.00 mg/kg, 7.70 mg/kg, and 24 mg/kg for Zn and 93.73 mg/kg, 187.95 mg/kg, and 149.64 mg/kg for Fe, resp.. These parameters in seeds are very important for human life.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12479-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 ( FE967608 ) PLATE_T3_040_B02_03DEC2004_014 Opium poppy elicit... 48 0.81 1 ( FE967348 ) PLATE_T3_037_C08_01DEC2004_060 Opium... poppy elicit... 48 0.81 1 ( FE965144 ) PLATE_T3_013_D03_23NOV2004_025 Opium poppy elicit

  9. Preparation and Application of an Immunoaffinity Column for Direct Extraction of Morphine and its Analogs from Opium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Hua QI; Jian Qiu MI; Xin Xiang ZHANG; Wen Bao CHANG

    2004-01-01

    A rapid, simple and accurate method using an immunoaffinity column (IAC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the analysis of the major alkaloids in opium is developed. The IAC was synthesized by coupling specific morphine polyclonal antibodies to CNBr-actived Sepharose 4B. The IAC showed high selectivity and obvious enrichment to morphine, codeine, dionin and thebaine. The extraction solution was analyzed by CE with β-cyclodextrin as an additive. Recoveries of the four alkaloids from PBS were between 93%-105% with RSD value less than 5.0%. The result showed that this method was practical for the determination of morphine analogs in opium.

  10. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4′-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer. We also reconstitute a 14-step biosynthetic pathway of noscapine from the simple alkaloid norlaudanosoline by engineering a yeast strain expressing 16 heterologous plant enzymes, achieving reconstitution of a complex plant pathway in a microbial host. Other engineered yeasts produce previously inaccessible pathway intermediates and a novel derivative, thereby advancing protoberberine and noscapine related drug discovery. PMID:27378283

  11. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D

    2016-07-05

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4'-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer. We also reconstitute a 14-step biosynthetic pathway of noscapine from the simple alkaloid norlaudanosoline by engineering a yeast strain expressing 16 heterologous plant enzymes, achieving reconstitution of a complex plant pathway in a microbial host. Other engineered yeasts produce previously inaccessible pathway intermediates and a novel derivative, thereby advancing protoberberine and noscapine related drug discovery.

  12. A microbial biomanufacturing platform for natural and semisynthetic opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodey, Kate; Galanie, Stephanie; Smolke, Christina D

    2014-10-01

    Opiates and related molecules are medically essential, but their production via field cultivation of opium poppy Papaver somniferum leads to supply inefficiencies and insecurity. As an alternative production strategy, we developed baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a microbial host for the transformation of opiates. Yeast strains engineered to express heterologous genes from P. somniferum and bacterium Pseudomonas putida M10 convert thebaine to codeine, morphine, hydromorphone, hydrocodone and oxycodone. We discovered a new biosynthetic branch to neopine and neomorphine, which diverted pathway flux from morphine and other target products. We optimized strain titer and specificity by titrating gene copy number, enhancing cosubstrate supply, applying a spatial engineering strategy and performing high-density fermentation, which resulted in total opioid titers up to 131 mg/l. This work is an important step toward total biosynthesis of valuable benzylisoquinoline alkaloid drug molecules and demonstrates the potential for developing a sustainable and secure yeast biomanufacturing platform for opioids.

  13. L'économie politique du pavot à opium dans le Triangle d'Or

    OpenAIRE

    Gutelman, Michel

    2003-01-01

    L'objet de cet article est de montrer comment l'expansion récente de la demande d'opium à des fins illicites favorise le développement de rapports de production capitalistes dans les régions montagneuses des « trois frontières » de Birmanie ; du Laos et de Thailande. La convergence de l'accroissement naturel des populations tribales et des luttes intestines en Birmanie raréfie les terres -- ce qui permettra de passer de l'agriculture itinérante à d'autres types culturaux. La manière do...

  14. Actin-binding proteins implicated in the formation of the punctate actin foci stimulated by the self-incompatibility response in Papaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Natalie S; Staiger, Christopher J; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2010-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a key target for signaling networks and plays a central role in translating signals into cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important mechanism responsible for preventing self-fertilization. The SI system of Papaver rhoeas pollen involves a Ca(2+)-dependent signaling network, including massive actin depolymerization as one of the earliest cellular responses, followed by the formation of large actin foci. However, no analysis of these structures, which appear to be aggregates of filamentous (F-)actin based on phalloidin staining, has been carried out to date. Here, we characterize and quantify the formation of F-actin foci in incompatible Papaver pollen tubes over time. The F-actin foci increase in size over time, and we provide evidence that their formation requires actin polymerization. Once formed, these SI-induced structures are unusually stable, being resistant to treatments with latrunculin B. Furthermore, their formation is associated with changes in the intracellular localization of two actin-binding proteins, cyclase-associated protein and actin-depolymerizing factor. Two other regulators of actin dynamics, profilin and fimbrin, do not associate with the F-actin foci. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first insights into the actin-binding proteins and mechanisms involved in the formation of these intriguing structures, which appear to be actively formed during the SI response.

  15. Relationships of dissociative disorders and personality traits in opium addicts on methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarinezhad, Alireza; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah; Shahriari, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major public health problem. Some believe that when dissociation fails to defend against emotional, physical, or sexual trauma, the person will find relief from unpleasant thoughts and emotions in opium use. On the other hand, personality disorders are considered as important predictors of treatment outcomes in drug abusers. Due to lack of adequate research in this regard, we evaluated dissociative disorders and personality traits of opium addicts on methadone treatment. This cross-sectional analytic study included 111 non-psychotic subjects on methadone treatment (case group) and 69 non-addicts (control group). After recording demographic characteristics, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Millon Multiaxial Inventory III were applied to assess dissociative symptoms and clinical personality patterns of all participants. Dissociative symptoms were significantly more common in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.044). While hysterionic personality disorder was more frequent in the control group (P = 0.008), sadistic, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders were significantly more common in the case group (P = 0.008, 0.002, and 0.023, respectively). We found relations between history of drug dependence, dissociative symptoms, and personality disorders. Therefore, the mentioned disorders need to be kept in mind while planning addiction treatment modalities and identifying high risk groups.

  16. Opium and Opioid Abuse in Orthopedic Inpatients: A Cross Sectional Study in Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mosa Aghdashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During a cross-sectional study, patients who were admitted to the orthopedic department of the Urmia University of Medical Sciences were asked about opium/opioid abuse. Demographic characteristics, the pattern of consumption, the substance, the duration of the use, the duration of hospital stay and the cause of their injuries were recorded. Among 2,867 patients, 74 (2.5% patients (71 men and 3 women with the mean age of 38 were opium/opioid users. Most of the patients used opium through inhalation. The mean duration of the substance use was 7.4 years. The mean duration of hospital stay between the regular orthopedic patients and the opium/opioid abuser orthopedic patients was statistically significant. (P=000. Among four Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infected patients, three subjects were injection users and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV also infected two of them. Road traffic accidents (37.8%, and work related injuries (17.5% were the two most common reasons for the patient's injuries.

  17. The post-opium scenario and rubber in northern Laos: Alternative Western and Chinese models of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    In the past few years rubber planting has spread rapidly throughout northern Laos, especially in Luang Namtha province that borders China. The impetus for this boom has come partly from the spiralling demand for rubber in China (now the world's largest rubber consumer), the high world prices for rubber, and China's promotion of overseas investment through its opium-replacement policy. These economic factors have converged with the desperate need of impoverished highlanders in northern Laos to replace opium as a cash crop as a consequence of a recent opium-eradication campaign and inadequate alternative development. This paper draws upon ethnographic and agro-economic research in northern Laos and neighbouring regions and reports of international development organisations operating in Laos. The rubber boom in northern Laos represents a fundamental clash between Western drug-oriented alternative development, on the one hand, and China's national economic strategies abroad and investment-led narcotics policy, on the other. China's opium-replacement policy has contributed to a type of unregulated frontier capitalism with socio-economic and environmental effects that threaten the principles and goals of alternative development and even to marginalise the role international development organisations in northern Laos.

  18. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi Gholam-Ali

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case against non opium-addicted men(control. Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years. Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. Results The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. Conclusion This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  19. Impact of cytomixis on meiosis, pollen viability and pollen size in wild populations of Himalayan poppy (Meconopsis aculeata Royle)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Singhal; Puneet Kumar

    2008-09-01

    We report the occurrence of cytomixis in wild populations of Himalayan poppy (Meconopsis aculeata Royle), which is considered to be an important and threatened medicinal plant growing in the high hills of the Himalayas. The impact of cytomixis on meiotic behaviour, reduced pollen viability and heterogeneous-sized pollen grains was also studied. Cytological studies in the seven wild populations from the high hills of Himachal Pradesh revealed that all the Himalayan populations exist uniformly at the tetraploid level (2n=56) on x=14. The phenomenon of chromatin transfer among the proximate pollen mother cells (PMCs) in six populations caused various meiotic abnormalities. Chromatin transfer also resulted in the formation of coenocytes, aneuploid, polyploid and anucleated PMCs. Among individuals that showed chromatin transfer, chromosome stickiness and interbivalent connections were frequently observed in some PMCs. The phenomenon of cytomixis in the species seems to be directly under genetic control; it affects the meiotic course considerably and results in reduced pollen viability.

  20. A survey of causes of the opium tendency and addiction in patients with the diagnosis of opium poisoning in Khorramabad educational hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghafar ali Mahmoudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Less phenomenon, such as addiction has threatened the human societies. Despite the risks and complications of addiction, victims of this deadly trap are added every day. So we decided to study the causes of tendency to opium substances in patients with the diagnosis of drug poisoning and addiction in educational hospitals of Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive epidemiologic study on 100 patients diagnosed with addiction and intoxication with informed consent conducted in 2014. The research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts, the first part of the information on individual characteristics and the second was to determine the factors associated with opioid use in patients, the questions in the field of employment, economic, educational, family and social factors. After data collecting, statistical analysis was performed. Results: 11 females and 89 males were studied, and the most frequent age group was 30-39 years. 81% were urban and 19% rural. Enjoyment and physical capacity for work, to get rid of the problems of life, relieve mental and neurological disorders, colored with bad friends, unemployment, low cost and availability of opiates, were the most common causes of fendency to substance use. Conclusion: Individual, familial, economic and social factors coordinated toward substance use. It is hoped that the results of this study to increase the awareness of officials and planners in the policy implementation and provide preventive and controlling measures to prevent addiction and its consequences.

  1. The opium wars revisited as US forces tobacco exports in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Winder, A E

    1990-06-01

    The tobacco industry has lobbied successfully to obtain the support of the United States government for opening Asian Markets to American tobacco products. This paper comments on two issues arising from these efforts: the development of an atmosphere of invasion and resistance to invasion in Asia; and the change in the image of the United States in Asian nations from that of a leader in health to that of an exporter of death. The threat of sanctions and the effects of the open market and United States tobacco company advertising in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea are noted. Parallels are drawn between the opium wars a century and a half ago in China and the current threat of trade sanctions. Reacting to American policy, an Asia-Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco has been formed and linked with the US Coalition Against Smoking.

  2. Poisoned Opium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality......In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality...

  3. Opium alkaloid noscapine is an antitumor agent that arrests metaphase and induces apoptosis in dividing cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Keqiang; Ke, Yong; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Shanks, John; Kapp, Judith A; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Petros, John; Joshi, Harish C.

    1998-01-01

    An alkaloid from opium, noscapine, is used as an antitussive drug and has low toxicity in humans and mice. We show that noscapine binds stoichiometrically to tubulin, alters its conformation, affects microtubule assembly, and arrests mammalian cells in mitosis. Furthermore, noscapine causes apoptosis in many cell types and has potent antitumor activity against solid murine lymphoid tumors (even when the drug was administered orally) and against human breast and bladder tumors implanted in nud...

  4. Comparing the Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attachment and Coping Styles in Opium and Stimulant Drugs Dependent Men in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi; Kaviani, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Today, the society's need to find the roots of a few thousand-year old substance abuse and the drugs addiction crisis has increased to the extent that it has become a problem within our country. The problem of substance dependence is not only about drug abuse, but it is actually the interrelationship of the person and the dependency on drugs. This study aimed to compare early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in men dependent on opiates and stimulants in Kerman, Iran. This was a comparative descriptive study. The study population consisted of men dependent on opiates and stimulants who referred to addiction treatment clinics in Kerman. Therefore, 150 patients (75 opium addicted men and 75 men dependent on drugs) were selected. The participants completed the Young schema questionnaire-short form (YSQ-SF), adult attachment scale (AAS), and Young coping styles questionnaire (YCSQ). The research data were analyzed using independent t-test and SPSS software. Mean age of patients using opium was 27.9 ± 3.35 years and mean age of patients using stimulant drugs was 25.6 ± 3.41 years (18-60 years old). The results showed that there was no difference between the early maladaptive schemas and coping styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. However, there was a significant difference between attachment styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. The mean score of avoidant and ambivalent styles in men dependent on stimulants was higher. Knowledge on the distinctions of early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in substance abuse patients helps the therapists to conduct more effective treatment strategies tailored to the type of substance used in order to provide behavior modification.

  5. National Destiny dimmed by the Wreathing Opium Smoke%鸦片烟缭绕下的家国命运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗万富

    2016-01-01

    鸦片烟引发的社会问题伴随着清王朝始终,究其原因是内祸多于外患。清朝统治者基于财政考虑而制定的鸦片烟政策,是造成鸦片吸食由地方习俗转而成为政治痼疾,直至最终难以禁绝的重要原因。在关涉百姓生存质量的事情面前,为政者切忌卷入其中牟利,否则小者家破,大者亡国。%The social problems caused by opium went through the whole Qing dynasty .There are more domestic rea-sons than foreign ones .The opium policy ,adopted by Qing dynasty for financial reasons ,makes opium smoking a po-litical chronic illness from a local custom and finally can ’ t be eliminated.For issues connected with the people ’ s existence,the officials must not be involved to earn money;or,the family,even the country,will break.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01439-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ll... 44 7.6 1 ( FG611521 ) stem_S073_H03.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... ...44 7.6 1 ( FG611323 ) stem_S071_D07.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 44 7.6 1 ( FG244298 ) CBYB2786.b1

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11349-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10891 ) stem_S066_A01.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 34 0.56 2 ( EK235622 ) 1095460198483 Global-Oce...an-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 42 0.56 2 ( FG613423 ) stem_S098_D06.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 34

  8. Dicty_cDB: SLH749 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A, clone SSM443. 448 e-122 1 ( FG607393 ) stem_S022_C12.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 50 0.069 1 ( ....27 1 ( FG611075 ) stem_S068_C04.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 48 0.27 1 ( CS374673 ) Sequence 776

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15982-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 13 3 ( AR549966 ) Sequence 5097 from patent US 6747137. 50 0.014 2 ( FG612396 ) stem_S085_C10.SEQ Opium... poppy stem cDNA library P... 38 0.014 2 ( FG608048 ) stem_S030_E05.SEQ Opium poppy st

  10. Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-24

    fungal herbicides, also has been discussed. Opium poppy-specific mycoherbicide has been developed with U.N., U.K., and U.S. support at the Institute...Accumulated Wealth and Shifting Markets: The Story of Opium Poppy Cultivation in Badakhshan 2000-2003,” Agha Khan Development Network, January 2004

  11. Archetypal Criticism to Red Poppy%《尘埃落定》的原型批评解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏勇

    2015-01-01

    Archetypal criticism is an important method of literary criticism which can understand "Red Poppy" and appear with new ideas. We can find the similarity which as Fool harbinger function and the"madness" as Tibetan Bon performance of the"witch"behavior by Text close reading. At the same time, there is a"hate father" and"Oedipus" detail which show a strong"Oedipus Com-plex" tendency.%原型批评作为一种重要的文学批评方法在对《尘埃落定》的解读上也显现着新意. 文本细读发现,傻子的预兆功能和"疯癫"表现与藏族苯教中的"巫"的行为有着惊人的相似. 同时,傻子还有"仇父""恋母"细节表现,呈现出一种强烈的"俄狄浦斯情结"倾向①.

  12. Opium as a Literary Stimulant: The Case of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In our era, the idea of a stimulant is synonymous with its biochemical properties. A stimulant, we think, is a substance that enhances the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. But in the eighteenth century, a new family of theories about the workings of stimulants took shape, based on exciting but erroneous assumptions. Proponents of these theories thought that many more diseases were "nervous" in origin than had previously been supposed. They hoped that the workings of the "nervous power" could be aided by the judicious use of stimulants and narcotics. Practitioners working within this broad "neuropathological" paradigm equated the workings of stimulation with those of gravity. Stimulation, they believed, was a kind of master principle in nature. Some hoped it would help refound medicine on Newtonian, mathematical lines. For patients, the most visible legacy of the neuropathological revolution was the abandonment of bloodletting or "cupping" and the increasingly widespread use of opium and alcohol in medical treatments. In this chapter, I explore the career of one of the most famous writers of the Romantic era, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) who had the misfortune to live through this therapeutic revolution. I describe the circumstances under which he came to take opiates and the development of his opinions about their effect on him.

  13. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Omer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06982, Kazan, Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B., E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD{sub 5}/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm{sup -3}. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm{sup -3}. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  14. A comparative study of emotional intelligence in addiction to opium and non-addicted men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Preface:The aim of this study was to comparison between Emotional intelligence and its chip scales in addicted and non-addicted men. Method:Method of study was Sausal-Comparative. Sample include the One hundred and twenty (60 addiction to opium and 60 non-addicted. The addicted group sample was selected from among clients of Eskandari addiction treatment clinic and the non-addicted group was selected from among scholars and staff of state university settling in Tehran . sample groups were selected by Available Sampling Method. In order to assess the emotional intelligence and its chip scales for each subject, the Bar-On Emotional intelligence Test(version 90 question was administered. For input analysis statistical soft-ware(SPSS was aplyed and “t” independent-statistical test was applied to compare two groups. Finding:The results illustrat that addicted men have a meaningful difference in Emotional intelligence and chip scales of Problem Solving, self-Actualization, Emotional self-Awarness, self-Regard, Responsibility, Stress Tolerance, Reality Testing, Impulse Control, Flexability, Assertivencess, Happiness and Optimism, comparing with non-addicted men, but there is no meaningful difference between two groups, average in chip scale of Interpersonal Relationship .

  15. Maintenance Treatment with Opium Tincture: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of the Factors Related to Treatment entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Daneshmand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current preliminary study aimed to explore the reasons that a group of opiate-dependent patients reported for entry into opium tincture treatment (OTT.Through examinations of 52 qualitative focus group interviews with patients from six OTT centers and 10 health providers (in key informant interviews in Tehran, this study highlights the factors that participants reported as the reasons associated with entry into OTT. Quantitative data including demographic data and details of drug use were analyzed by using SPSS.v.18.0. Qualitative data was analyzed by using Atlas-ti software.86.5% of patients were male and 13.5% were female. The median age of patients was 39 yr. The most frequently reasons associated with entry into OTT included methadone misconceptions including dissatisfaction with taking methadone as a chemical medication, methadone dependence, and long duration of MMT. The other reasons included the recommendation of other people in treatment and OT-related characteristics and expectations including the herbal compound of OT, treating opiate craving and withdrawal symptoms, and improving general health.The study findings preliminarily showed the reasons associated with entry into OTT in a sample of treatment seekers. Longitudinal studies with more representative samples and follow-up stages are required to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of OTT as a maintenance treatment in comparison with methadone and buprenorphine. Patient-centered program and policy implications are discussed.

  16. Li Tangjie and the Opium War%李棠阶与鸦片战争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占西

    2016-01-01

    In his life,Li Tangjie has devoted his life to the study of theory and is famous for his moral role model.After the O-pium War,he was appointed to the Guangdong admirals of political science through the investigation in the local court,which continues the indefinite and incompetent generals and the fear of death that led to the failure of the war.He believes that the court,reward and punishment unknown with the wrong people,which is the main cause of the defeat and it advocated the les-sons with straighten arms to guard against the enemy again.%李棠阶平生潜心研究理学,以道德楷模闻名于世,对于战争的发生、发展给予了极大的关注。鸦片战争结束后,被任命为广东提督学政,通过在当地的调查,认为朝廷的战抚不定、将帅无能及清军贪生怕死导致战争的失败。他认为朝廷赏罚不明、用人不当是导致战败的主要原因,并主张吸取教训整饬军备,以防备敌人的再次入侵。

  17. Quality of life, social desirability and their relationship in opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-02-22

    Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson's correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences.

  18. Comparing and the Relationship between Stress and Craving Usage in Addicted to Opium and Industrial Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Fatemeh Poor-seyed M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: According to the importance of stressful and impellent factors in severity of craving and after that treating successes, this study had done with purpose of examining the relationship between these factors with craving experience in addicted men in six groups (smoking of opium, inhalation of Heroin, smoking of Heroin, injection of Heroin, smoking of methamphetamine, smoking of crack. Method: In this descriptive-sectional study, 195 addicted men had referred to cold turkey centers in Rasht, during 10 months of 1389-1390 selected by available sampling method in six groups. Stress evaluation questionnaire of Markham and the questionnaire of instant craving drug of Franken and also profited by imaginary indexes of computer tests for severity of craving administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between the stress and cue induction craving, and the stress and instant craving. Also, it proved that there is a significant difference between different users in degree of stress, and inductive craving, and instant craving. The average of stress scores, cue induction craving and instant craving in testing groups of methamphetamine users were more than other groups. Conclusion: According to findings of this survey, stress can be an important predicting factor for craving degree in addicted men so, attention of these aspects resulted in selecting an appropriate treatment of psychology for controlling of craving which is the most important factor leading to relapse in substance abuse.

  19. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  20. Growth of Pollen Tubes of Papaver rhoeas Is Regulated by a Slow-Moving Calcium Wave Propagated by Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin-Tong, V. E.; Drobak, B. K.; Allan, A. C.; Watkins, PAC.; Trewavas, A. J.

    1996-08-01

    A signaling role for cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in regulating Papaver rhoeas pollen tube growth during the self-incompatibility response has been demonstrated previously. In this article, we investigate the involvement of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway in Ca2+-mediated pollen tube inhibition. We demonstrate that P. rhoeas pollen tubes have a Ca2+-dependent polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity that is inhibited by neomycin. [Ca2+]i imaging after photolysis of caged inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (Ins[1,4,5]P3) in pollen tubes demonstrated that Ins(1,4,5)P3 could induce Ca2+ release, which was inhibited by heparin and neomycin. Mastoparan, which stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 production, also induced a rapid increase in Ca2+, which was inhibited by neomycin. These data provide direct evidence for the involvement of a functional phosphoinositide signal-transducing system in the regulation of pollen tube growth. We suggest that the observed Ca2+ increases are mediated, at least in part, by Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release. Furthermore, we provide data suggesting that Ca2+ waves, which have not previously been reported in plant cells, can be induced in pollen tubes.

  1. Recessive loci Pps-1 and OM differentially regulate PISTILLATA-1 and APETALA3-1 expression for sepal and petal development in Papaver somniferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sharad K; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Dhawan, Om P; Shasany, Ajit K

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of PISTILLATA (PI) and APETALA (AP) transcription factors in the development of floral organs has previously been elucidated but little is known about their upstream regulation. In this investigation, two novel mutants generated in Papaver somniferum were analyzed--one with partially petaloid sepals and another having sepaloid petals. Progeny from reciprocal crosses of respective mutant parent genotypes showed a good fit to the monogenic Mendelian inheritance model, indicating that the mutant traits are likely controlled by the single, recessive nuclear genes named "Pps-1" and "OM" in the partially petaloid sepal and sepaloid petal phenotypes, respectively. Both paralogs of PISTILLATA (PapsPI-1 and PapsPI-3) were obtained from the sepals and petals of P. somniferum. Ectopic expression of PapsPI-1 in tobacco resulted in a partially petaloid sepal phenotype at a low frequency. Upregulation of PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 in the petal and the petal part of partially petaloid sepal mutant and down-regulation of the same in sepaloid petal mutant indicates a differential pattern of regulation for flowering-related genes in various whorls. Similarly, it was found that the recessive mutation OM in sepaloid petal mutant downregulates PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 transcripts. The recessive nature of the mutations was confirmed by the segregation ratios obtained in this analysis.

  2. 论鸦片战争中的道光帝%On the Emperor Daoguang in Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莎莎

    2015-01-01

    In studying the Opium War, people vulnerable to"traitor mode"effect, in the occasion of national crisis, is recog-nized as a national hero Lin, Qi Shan is hateful traitor. People are more concerned about the courtiers. However, the turning point for the history of Emperor Daoguang in the role less attention, he failed in the end what is the relationship between the Opium War? The author believes that the failure of the Opium War dynasty emperor to bear an important responsibility, the whole course of the war, as the monarch of a country's decision-making ability and leadership are exposed enormous prob-lems, from the side of the decline also reflects the Chinese at that time.%在研究鸦片战争时,人们易受“奸臣模式”影响,在民族危难之际,林则徐是公认的民族英雄,琦善是可恶的卖国贼。人们关注臣子较多。然而对道光帝在历史转折中担任的角色关注较少,他与鸦片战争的失败到底有何关系?笔者认为,道光皇帝对鸦片战争的失败负重要的责任,整个战争过程中,其作为一国之君的决策能力和领导力都暴露出极大问题,从侧面也反映了当时中国的衰落。

  3. Opium consumption in men and diabetes mellitus in women are the most important risk factors of premature coronary artery disease in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Graili, Pooyeh; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Karimi, Abbas Ali; Darvish, Soodabeh; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin

    2010-05-14

    We performed this study to compare of CAD risk factors in young male and female in Iran. In an analytic cross-sectional study, two groups of patients were evaluated with and without Coronary artery disease. The result of study suggests that there is a relationship between CAD and diabetes mellitus, increasing level of LDL and lipoprotein A in women, While CAD in men had more relation with smoking and opium use. High prevalence and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in females and relatively high prevalence of opium consumption in males result in different premature CAD patterns.

  4. Study and Comparison Between Personality Traits and Coping Strategies Among Opium Addicts (within the age of 30-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is looking into the study and comparison between personality traits and coping strategies and their relationship with one another among opium addicts within the age of 30-36. For this purpose, a research group comprising 50 opium addicts was selected with respect to control variables. In order to compare the results, 50 other individuals were selected as a observation group and with regard to control variables both groups were matched together. The five-factor personality trait inventory (NEO-FFI and the coping strategy inventory of Carver and Shearer were used. Moreover, in order to control the effects of depression and anxiety on personality traits, Beck’s test for anxiety and depression was used. The results indicated that without taking the effects of depression and anxiety into account, the addicts showed higher neuroticism trait but lower extraversion, agreeableness and conscientious traits. But when the effects of depression and anxiety were taken into account, the two groups showed a meaningful difference in the conscientious trait. Furthermore, addicts rarely use concentrated coping strategies and usually use non-effective strategies. Non-effective strategies had direct relationship with neuroticism and opposite relationship with conscientiousness.

  5. Preparation of poppy -seed oil microcapsules by complex coacervation and study on stability%复凝聚法制备罂粟籽油微囊及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪光; 陈颜婷

    2016-01-01

    为了提高罂粟籽油的稳定性,通过复凝聚法制备罂粟籽油微囊。以阿拉伯胶和明胶为壁材,通过微囊化技术、喷雾干燥得到微囊。正交优化确定最佳配方,并考察芯壁比(罂粟籽油∶阿拉伯胶/明胶)对微囊包封率、载药量的影响。结果表明,罂粟籽油微囊制备的最佳条件为:壁材浓度为2.0%,芯壁比1∶3,pH 4.2,乳化剂浓度1.5%,此时包封率为76.9%。包封后罂粟籽油的氧化实验表明微囊可提高其存储稳定性。复凝聚法制备罂粟籽油微囊的工艺简单,产品稳定性好,在食品工业中具有较好的应用前景。%The study is aimed to enhance the stability of poppy-see d oil by microencapsulation technolo-gy.Poppy -seed oil microcapsules were successfully prepared using arabic gum and gelatin as wall mate-rials by complex coacervation and spray drying.The optimal formulation was determined by orthogonal test.The core /wall ratio(or different mass ratios of oil to arabic gum /gelatin)on the property of poppy -seed oil microcapsules were evaluated.The optimum preparation conditions of poppy -seed oil microcap-sules were achieved when the wall material concentration was 2.0%,core /wall ratio 1∶3,pH 4.2,emulsi-fier concentration was 1.5%.The encapsulation efficiency was 76.9% at these conditions..The oxidation of encapsulated poppy -seed oil revealed that microcapsules can enhance the storage stability.The prepa-ration of poppy -seed oil microcapsules by complex coacervation is simple,and the stability of poppy -seed oil is improved obviously.This methord has a good application prospect in food industry.

  6. Effectiveness of group cognitive therapy about opium addict complications on attitude of adolescents with drug dependent parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Hojjat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Statistics show that 30% to 40 % of  opium addicted fathers’ children are prone to substance abuse in the future. The present study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of cognitive therapy approach  to attitude changing of adolescents with substance dependent fathers. Materials and Methods:  In this controlled. field-trail randomized study. .data collection tool was “attitude to addiction questionnaire”. The study population was all male students in the first grade of high school in Maneh - Samalghan city. . Six sessions of group cognitive therapy based on the effectiveness of drug side-effects in drug-addicted fathers’ adolescent children’s attitude were held. The above-mentioned questionnaire was filled out before and after intervention. The obtained data  was fed into SPSS software (V: 16 using. Independent t-test .and paired t-test were used for analysis and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results:  There were no significant differences between the two groups in pre-test regarding their attitude about drug abuse (P=.20%. Mean score variance from pre-test to post-test in the intervention group decreased, but in the control group, it showed a slight increase. This means that the intervention reduced the positive attitude towards drugs, but the changes were not statistically significant (p=0.57. Besides, among ten factors decisive in an individual’s attitude about addiction, only group cognitive therapy  was able  to decrease mean points of an individual’s attitude about drug abuse .. Significantly (P = 0.04. Conclusion: It was found that group cognitive therapy education about opium  addict complicationsdidn`t have a significant effect on the attitude of the students with addicted fathers. Thus, a change of adolescents’ attitude requires more research.

  7. Can Opium Use Contribute to a Higher Risk of Colorectal Cancers? A Matched Case-control Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad NAGHIBZADEH-TAHAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs including colon, rectum and anal cancers are the third most prevalent cancers in the world. There are strong evidence showing the risk of the cigarette smoking, alcohol use, low physical activity and some types of diets in CRCs; however, few studies explored the relationship between opium use and CRCs. This study aimed to investigate the association between opioid use and the incidence of CRCs. Methods: In a population-based matched case-control study in Kerman, Iran, 175 patients with colorectal cancers and 350 healthy controls (matched for age, sex, and place of residence were interviewed from Sep 2014 to Nov 2014. Opium and its derivatives, cigarette, alcohol, and diet use were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The use of opioids was associated with an increased risk of CRCs (adjusted odds ratio= 4. 5, 95% CI: 2. 4-8. 7. In addition, a dose-response relationship was observed between the cumulative use of opioids and the incidence of CRCs (with low use OR=3. 7; 95% CI: 1. 5-8. 6 and high use OR= 8. 0; 95% CI: 2. 9-21. 7. This dose-response relationship was also strong in patients with colon cancers, with OR= 3. 9 (95% CI: 1. 5-9. 9 and 9. 4 (95% CI: 3. 3-27. 0 for the low and high uses of opioids, respectively. Conclusion: Opioid use can lead to an increased risk of CRCs. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive policies to control the use of opioids.  

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03706-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.6 1 ( FG603520 ) PF_T3_53R_B11_15AUG2003_093 Opium poppy root cDNA... 46 1.6 1 ( FG599750 ) PF_T3_05R_A07_25JUL2003_063 Opium... poppy root cDNA... 46 1.6 1 ( FG599510 ) PF_T3_02R_D10_24JUL2003_074 Opium poppy root c

  9. 野罂粟丸化种芽萌发特性研究%Studies on the Germinating Rule of Coat-pelleted Seed-bud of Papaver nudicaule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢忠清; 何庆祥; 王军强

    2011-01-01

    利用光照培养箱,参考种子萌发试验法,利用现代技术来研究野罂粟种子在不同温度和光照条件下萌发力的变化,为野罂粟引种驯化栽培提供新的技术指标.当温度为3~5℃时,无光照有利于野罂粟丸化种芽的萌发,当温度为15~20℃时,野罂粟丸化种芽萌发均不受光照的影响,低于5℃,光照条件下野罂粟丸化种芽基本不萌发.发芽指数的变化趋势与发芽率相似,3~5℃时,无光照条件下野罂粟丸化种芽的发芽指数显著高于光照环境下的发芽指数.发芽势的变化趋势差异不显著,随着温度的升高,都呈现出"S"型曲线.温度是影响野罂粟丸化种芽萌发的环境因素中的重要限制因子,光照对其萌发力的影响随着温度的变化而不同.%To solve the problem of the technology of Papaver nudicaule in introduction and cultivation. The author had studied the effects of temperature on the germination of coat-pelleted Papaver nudicaule seed-bud.Using the temperature controller and consulting the examination methods of germination test. Between 3-5℃,the darkness was benefit to bud germination, between 15-20℃, the germination wasn't affected by light, below 5℃, the germination rate decreased obviously under light. The changes trend of germination index was similar to germination rate. Between 3-5℃, the germination energy under dark condition was significantly higher than light condition. The trend of germination energy had little difference between light and without light, all presented ‘S’ profile. Temperature was a main limiting factor affecting the seed germination of coat-pelleted Papaver nudicaule seed-bud and light changed with temperature.

  10. The effect of pretreatment with clonidine on propofol consumption in opium abuser and non-abuser patients undergoing elective leg surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jabbari Moghadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, increases the quality of perioperative sedation and analgesia with a few side effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of clonidine premedication on the anesthesics used for elective below knee surgeries in opium abusers and non-abusers. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 160 patients were selected and assigned into four groups. Eighty patients among the opium abusers were divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each, and 80 among the non-abusers were again divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each group. All were anesthetized for elective orthopedic operation using the same predetermined method. The total administered dose of propofol and other variables were compared. Results: The total propofol dose in a decreasing order was as follows: Abuser patients receiving placebo (862 ± 351 mg, non-abuser patients receiving placebo (806 ± 348 mg, abuser patients receiving clonidine (472 ± 175 mg, and non-abuser patients receiving clonidine (448 ± 160 mg. Hence, a statistically significant difference was observed among the four study groups (P value for ANOVA = 0.0001. Conclusion: Adding clonidine as a preoperative medication decreases the patient′s anesthetic needs; this decrease was even more considerable on the anesthetic needs than the effect of opium abuse history on anesthetic dose.

  11. 关于鸦片战争对中国影响的研究综述%A Survey of the Impact of the Opium War on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鑫; 崔英杰

    2015-01-01

    The Opium War is the beginning of the modern history of China.make the beginning of the modernization process of China.The study of the Opium War has always been one of the important fields of the academic research. This paper briefly reviewed the impact of the Opium War on China from four aspects: political, economic, ideological and social life.%鸦片战争是中国近代史的开端,开启了中国的近代化进程。对鸦片战争的研究一直是学术界研究的重要领域之一。不忘惨痛历史,才能走向伟大复兴。文章拟从政治、经济、思想文化和社会生活四个方面简单综述鸦片战争对中国的影响。

  12. 客家古村落培田劝戒鸦片的启示%Revelation of Hakka Ancient Village Peitian's Persuasive Strategy in Quitting Opium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀菊

    2015-01-01

    吸食鸦片是晚清-民国时期面临的重要社会问题.鸦片毒害国人身心健康,破坏社会秩序.因此,如何劝戒鸦片成为亟需解决的问题.客家古村落培田在劝戒鸦片上从制度建设、文化教育、心理治疗等方面多有建树,是传统社会民间自治的集体智慧结晶,对现代社会具有积极的启示意义.%Opium, harmful for physical and mental health, and disruptive to social order, was a serious social problem confronted in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. Therefore, it became urgent to admonish to quit opium. Hakka ancient villages, Peitian, made great achievements on persuading to quit opium in system construction, cultural education, psychotherapy and other aspects. These strategies are the collective wisdom of traditional autonomy of civil society, which has a positive revelation for modern society.

  13. Total Differences of History and Geography Studies of China's Northwest Frontier around the Opium War%鸦片战争前后西北边疆史地研究的总体差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富聪

    2012-01-01

    The history and geography studies of China's Northwest Frontier after the Opium War not only inherited the studies before the Opium War,but also changed in its purposes,methods,contents and information sources.All research purposes and contents around the Opium War emphasized the practical use.In research method and resource,the research before the Opium War laid stress on field survey,and the one after the Opium War emphasized textual research and had more extensive information sources.%鸦片战争后,西北边疆史地研究在学术研究的动因、方式、关注的内容、资料来源上与鸦片战争之前相比,既有继承,也有变化。在研究目的上继承了之前注重经世致用的一面,在研究方法上则没有延续文献考辨与实地考察相结合的方法,而是考证与论述相结合,在研究内容上关切现实和实事求是并重,在资料来源上呈现出多样性。

  14. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  15. Cell cycle arrest and apoptogenic properties of opium alkaloids noscapine and papaverine on breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadian, Saharolsadat; Vatankhah, Melody; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Kouhsari, Shide Montaser; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Previous report of the vast effectiveness of opium derivatives in cancer therapy is leading us to see possible effects of these derivatives on cancer stem cells in order to find new agent for cancer therapy. In this study, cells were stained for CSC markers and sorted by magnetic beads. CSCs exhibit the characteristic CD44(+)/CD24(-/low)/ESA(+) phenotype. Noscapine and papaverine (alkaloids) showed anti-proliferative activity on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. It was observed that noscapine has more cytotoxic effect on CSC derived from both cell lines compared with their parental cells. Papaverine has more cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 CSCs in comparison with parental cells, while CSCs population of MDA-MB-231 is more resistant to papaverine compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Noscapine enhances apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 CSCs more than parent cells, while in MCF-7 CSCs the apoptosis is less than parent cells. Our results show that papverine is less active in terms of apoptotic effect on CSCs in both cell lines. Moreover, noscapine arrests MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 CSCs cell cycle at G2/M phase, while papverine arrests cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. It was suggested different mechanism for apoptotic cytotoxicity. The results of this study show possible specific effects of noscapine on these breast cell lines CSCs.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09144-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 46 3.2 1 ( FG600195 ) PF_T3_09R_H05_25JUL2003_033 Opium poppy root cDNA... 46 3....2 1 ( FG600182 ) PF_T3_09R_G04_25JUL2003_020 Opium poppy root cDNA... 46 3.2 1 ( EY027481 ) JGI_CAOH2477.rev

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13435-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nom... 50 0.079 1 ( FG607144 ) stem_S019_C11.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 48 0.31 1 ( FG603382 ) P...F_T3_51R_F04_14Aug2003_022 Opium poppy root cDNA... 48 0.31 1 ( FF635596 ) G825P572FH2.T0 Acorn worm normali

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13981-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available i cDNA clo... 34 4.4 3 ( AC181946 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-1008B10, W... 38 5.8 6 ( FG606827 ) stem_S014_E07.SEQ Opiu...m poppy stem cDNA library P... 42 7.6 2 ( FG612501 ) stem_S086_F07.SEQ Opium poppy

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06789-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in l... 36 3.1 2 ( FG605755 ) stem_S001_H01.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 40 3.2 2 ( BZ145777 ) CH...25000 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-29-01-01-1... 34 3.4 2 ( FG610160 ) stem_S057_B10.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA l

  20. Prickles, latex, and tolerance in the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy (Argemone glauca): variation between populations, across ontogeny, and in response to abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kasey E

    2014-04-01

    Covariance among plant defense traits is predicted to occur both within and among plant species, potentially leading to characteristic defense syndromes. I examined patterns of variation in prickle density, latex exudation, and tolerance in order to assess whether traits varied between populations, across plant ontogeny, and as phenotypic plasticity in response to water and light limitation and physical damage using the endemic Hawaiian prickly poppy, Argemone glauca, as a model system. Plants produced copious latex, had extremely variable prickle densities, and were generally tolerant of 50% defoliation. However, expression patterns differed among defense traits. Prickle density was consistent across ontogeny and was not induced by either water limitation or mechanical damage, but was significantly induced under high light conditions. In contrast, latex exudation increased significantly across ontogeny and was reduced by water limitation, but had no response to mechanical damage or light. Prickles, latex, and tolerance differed considerably between populations, suggesting different evolutionary histories for these populations. These disparate patterns indicate that latex and prickles are unlinked within A. glauca, potentially as a result of differences in their function, and providing little evidence that they jointly function as a defense syndrome. Moreover, this study provides the first description patterns of variation for multiple defense traits in an island endemic, and high levels of prickles, latex, and tolerance suggest that A. glauca is well defended against herbivores. Future research in the field will provide additional insights into the functional ecology of these traits in A. glauca.

  1. Murderous Ritual versus Devotional Custom: The Rhetoric and Ritual of Sati and Women’s Subjectivity in Amitav Ghosh’s Sea of Poppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Sarkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation of the practice of sati, the immolation of widows on their husbands’ funeral pyre, has garnered interest for long from postcolonial and feminist discourses among others. While advocates of Western modernity perceive sati as a murderous ritual, the proponents of orthodox Hinduism, on the contrary, claim sati to be a courageous cult of “wifely devotion”. In both bigoted beliefs, as poststructuralists observe, women largely appear as “mute objects”. Amitav Ghosh’s Sea of Poppies (2008 brilliantly sidelines the conundrum of polarizing representation of sati along the East-West axis and reflects instead the subjective experience of women as sati. The article examines how the rhetoric and ritual of sati in the novel enable marginalized women to acquire consciousness of their subjectivity in a colonized society. To this end, the paper analyzes deconstructive readings of sati, such as by Gayatri Spivak, and explores the way the novel uses religion as a ploy, which, instead of perpetrating violence, confers a subjective entity on the sati that can even subvert the constrictive norms of a colonized society.

  2. 《救迷良方》与戒除鸦片烟毒%Jiu mi liang fang (Effective Prescriptions for Rescuing Addict) and quitting from opium addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦

    2008-01-01

    清代青浦著名医家何其伟,在鸦片烟毒泛滥、严重危害人民健康之际,应林则徐要求,秉着医家的责任感和同情心,辑录戒烟方论而成.这部现存最早的戒烟专著,理法方药齐备,对鸦片的危害、性味归经,瘾成过程及病机、瘾发症状等,均有较全面、正确的认识,指出戒烟需先立志坚定,以治心瘾,所载戒烟方药,经过了实践验证,当时流传甚广;所述戒烟思想和方法,一直为后世沿用,在民间广泛传播.%When opium was running rampantly and seriously damaging people's health in the Qing dynasty,in response to the request of Lin Ze-xu,He Qi-wei,a contemporary famous physician at Qingpu,based on his own professional responsibility and compassion,compiled Jiu mi liang fang (Effective Prescriptions for Rescuing Addict),the first extant monograph on quitting opium which includes the detriments of opium,its nature,taste and channel tropism,causes and pathogenesis of addiction,and the symptoms.He pointed out that the powerful will was essential.The prescriptions recorded in the book were effective through the proof of practice and very popular at that time.The thought and measures he mentioned are stillin use even now,and spread widely in the folks.

  3. Flooding of Opium during and influence in Modern Shaanxi%近代陕西烟毒的泛滥及影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亮

    2014-01-01

    After the invasion of western powers in modern times,Chinese society invaded a profound influence. Although Shaanxi away from the coast,it also caused serious social problem. Especially the opium began to appear and serious evil consequence,the traditional economic model of Shaanxi were impacted.In order to rake in money, warlords forced people to grow opium.It caused local agricultural production of decline.The development of national industry suffers from heavy damage.At the same time,because of opium serious evil consequence,Shaanxi social morality began to descend. People smoked led to harm the physical and mental health.%近代西方列强的入侵,对中国社会产生了深远的影响,远离沿海的陕西也未能例外,引发了严重的社会问题。特别是鸦片在陕的传入与蔓延,冲击了陕西地区传统的经济模式,加之军阀为敛财强迫民众种植鸦片,造成当地农业大幅减产,民族工业的发展遭到重创。同时,由于鸦片的泛滥,原本民风淳朴的陕西地区,社会风气急剧下降。民众吸食鸦片,危害了国民的身心健康。

  4. Dilated common bile duct in opium addicts with and without biliary symptoms --implication for research in AIDS cholangiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, S Y; Leong, C K; Pang, C W

    2003-05-01

    Opium addicts (OA) with no biliary symptoms have been shown to have dilated common bile duct (CBD). Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) without biliary drainage in such asymptomatic OA is hazardous. Hence it is not indicated unless there are clear clinical and laboratory evidences of biliary stasis. To show that even when matched with controls with the same clinical diagnosis of the biliary system, OA still have significantly larger CBD diameters and that OA with biliary symptoms should be treated no differently from non-OA with biliary symptoms. Seven OA (all Chinese males), four of whom had undergone ERCP (three for CBD stones and one for ampullary carcinoma), were compared, using t-test, to 7 age, sex, race and diagnosis-matched controls, four of whom had also undergone ERCP (three for CBD stones and one for ampullary carcinoma). When ERCP was not done, ultrasonography was used to assess the biliary system and measure the CBD diameter. The mean (SD) CBD diameters of OA and controls were 15.7 mm (5.65) and 8.3 mm (5.95) respectively (t = 2.399, p = 0.032). The mean (SD) weight of OA and controls were 55.8 kg (9.22) and 57.3 kg (9.21) respectively (t = -0.305, p = 0.763). Only two of the seven OA were born in China, the remaining five in Malaysia. OA do get CBD pathology like non-OA and if indicated there should be no qualms about performing ERCP in them. When matched for age, sex, race and clinical diagnosis, OA still have a significantly larger CBD despite no difference in body weight.

  5. Parallel segmented outlet flow high performance liquid chromatography with multiplexed detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camenzuli, Michelle [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney (Parramatta), Sydney, NSW (Australia); Terry, Jessica M. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Shalliker, R. Andrew, E-mail: r.shalliker@uws.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney (Parramatta), Sydney, NSW (Australia); Conlan, Xavier A.; Barnett, Neil W. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Francis, Paul S., E-mail: paul.francis@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia)

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Multiplexed detection for liquid chromatography. •‘Parallel segmented outlet flow’ distributes inner and outer portions of the analyte zone. •Three detectors were used simultaneously for the determination of opiate alkaloids. -- Abstract: We describe a new approach to multiplex detection for HPLC, exploiting parallel segmented outlet flow – a new column technology that provides pressure-regulated control of eluate flow through multiple outlet channels, which minimises the additional dead volume associated with conventional post-column flow splitting. Using three detectors: one UV-absorbance and two chemiluminescence systems (tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) and permanganate), we examine the relative responses for six opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids under conventional and multiplexed conditions, where approximately 30% of the eluate was distributed to each detector and the remaining solution directed to a collection vessel. The parallel segmented outlet flow mode of operation offers advantages in terms of solvent consumption, waste generation, total analysis time and solute band volume when applying multiple detectors to HPLC, but the manner in which each detection system is influenced by changes in solute concentration and solution flow rates must be carefully considered.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-substituted noscapine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Aaron J; Xie, Jin Han; Ventura, Sabatino; Pouton, Colin W; Capuano, Ben; Scammells, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. It has long been used as an antitussive agent, but has more recently been found to possess microtubule-modulating properties and anticancer activity. Herein we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of 6'-substituted noscapine derivatives. To underpin this structure-activity study, an efficient synthesis of N-nornoscapine and its subsequent reduction to the cyclic ether derivative of N-nornoscapine was developed. Reaction of the latter with a range of alkyl halides, acid chlorides, isocyanates, thioisocyanates, and chloroformate reagents resulted in the formation of the corresponding N-alkyl, N-acyl, N-carbamoyl, N-thiocarbamoyl, and N-carbamate derivatives, respectively. The ability of these compounds to inhibit cell proliferation was assessed in cell-cycle cytotoxicity assays using prostate cancer (PC3), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (Caco-2) cell lines. Compounds that showed activity in the cell-cycle assay were further evaluated in cell viability assays using PC3 and MCF-7 cells.

  7. Characterization of two methylenedioxy bridge-forming cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes of alkaloid formation in the Mexican prickly poppy Argemone mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Chávez, Maria Luisa; Rolf, Megan; Gesell, Andreas; Kutchan, Toni M

    2011-03-01

    Formation of the methylenedioxy bridge is an integral step in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and protoberberine alkaloids in the Papaveraceae family of plants. This reaction in plants is catalyzed by cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. Two cDNAs that encode cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP719 family were identified upon interrogation of an EST dataset prepared from 2-month-old plantlets of the Mexican prickly poppy Argemone mexicana that accumulated the benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid berberine. CYP719A13 and CYP719A14 are 58% identical to each other and 77% and 60% identical, respectively, to stylopine synthase CYP719A2 of benzo[c]phenanthridine biosynthesis in Eschscholzia californica. Functional heterologous expression of CYP719A14 and CYP719A13 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells produced recombinant enzymes that catalyzed the formation of the methylenedioxy bridge of (S)-cheilanthifoline from (S)-scoulerine and of (S)-stylopine from (S)-cheilanthifoline, respectively. Twenty-seven potential substrates were tested with each enzyme. Whereas CYP719A14 transformed only (S)-scoulerine to (S)-cheilanthifoline (K(m) 1.9±0.3; k(cat)/K(m) 1.7), CYP719A13 converted (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine to (S)-canadine (K(m) 2.7±1.3; k(cat)/K(m) 12.8), (S)-cheilanthifoline to (S)-stylopine (K(m) 5.2±3.0; k(cat)/K(m) 2.6) and (S)-scoulerine to (S)-nandinine (K(m) 8.1±1.9; k(cat)/K(m) 0.7). These results indicate that although CYP719A14 participates in only sanguinarine biosynthesis, CYP719A13 can be involved in both sanguinarine and berberine formation in A. mexicana.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02018-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 1 ( DW539183 ) EST_ssal_rgb2_3602 rgb2 Salmo salar cDNA clone ss... 44 5.0 1 ( FG612312 ) stem_S083_D08.SEQ Opium... poppy stem cDNA library P... 44 5.0 1 ( FG608321 ) stem_S033_G09.SEQ Opium

  9. 论抗战前国民政府的禁烟与外交%Anti-Opium and the Diplomacy of the National Government before the Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霆

    2014-01-01

    近代中国,烟毒泛滥,中国政府在国际场合备受责难和讥讽。抗战爆发前,国民政府的禁烟政策渐趋严厉,但租界及治外法权仍是制约禁烟的重要因素。国民政府试图利用禁烟收回民族利权,此举措虽未获成功,但国家形象却大为好转,国际地位亦明显提高,并成功地使日本在国际舆论中处于被动地位。%In modern China,opium rampancy was extremely serious,so Chinese government was blamed and satirized in the international occasions.Before the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War,the National Government anti-opium policies have became more and more se-vere,but the leased territory and extraterritoriality still are important factors to restrict the effect of anti-opium.The National Government tried to make use of anti-opium to recover na-tional rights.Although the policy was not very successful,the national image has been greatly improved and international status also obviously increased,and successfully makes Japan into a passive position in the international community.

  10. A Comparison of Blood-lead Level (BLL) in Opium-dependant Addicts With Healthy Control Group Using the Graphite Furnace/atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS) Followed by Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Amini, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    A comparison of oral/inhaled opium addicts with a healthy control group was investigated. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) followed by chemometric analysis, sub-to-low µg L-1 concentrations of blood lead level (BLL) was detected in both the addict and the control groups. In this study, BLL of 78 subjects (Iranian volunteers) in two opium-addicted (patient group) and healthy control groups was evaluated. All the volunteers were men. The patient group was comprised of 39 patients who used opium orally or by inhalation with a mean age of 48.6 ± 7.3 years. The patient group was selected through systematic incidental sampling from 150 orally or by inhalation opium-addicted patients referred to Shariati Hospital located in Tehran .The control group (39 subjects) was matched with the patient group with regard to age and sex and with a mean age of 44.8 ± 5.6 years. The mean concentration of lead was found to be significantly lower (P = 0.0001) in control group (16.70 ± 12.51 μg/dL) compared to addicts (57.04 ± 46.03 μg/dL). When the addicts were divided into various age groups, there appeared to be a significant difference (p= 0.0451) in blood lead concentration as a function of age, however when the control group was considered, no difference was observed (P = 0.51). Also, a tendency (P = 0.048) towards increasing BLL with respect to BMI was observed due to drug consumption, but there was no significant variation between BLL concentration and BMI when the control group was considered (P = 0.35). It was observed that the BLL in opium-addicts was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. The mean difference of both groups was statistically significant.

  11. Moderate hypothermia and its effects in reducing the applied dose of anesthetics for patients with opium dependence in cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi, Reza Jalaian; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Alizadeh, Kambiz; Mottahedi, Behrooz; Rahdari, Ali; Sheybani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients addicted to opium are experiencing awareness during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) as a result of tolerance to anesthetics. Objectives This research was primarily intended to determine the potential diminishing effects of moderate hypothermia on anesthetic dosage and recall of anesthesia during the procedure. Methods In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, a total of 80 CABG candidates with known addiction to opium were divided into two groups: one normothermic (N) and the other moderately hypothermic (H), both undergoing induction as well as close monitoring from September 2014 to January 2016. The candidates were initially set for a target bispectral index (BIS) score of between 40 and 60. As the score rose to 60, an additional dose of propofol was administered, alongside rise in blood pressure and tear-shedding. To enhance the accuracy of our evaluation of anesthetic depth, we also used two questionnaires to test candidates’ recall filled with the assistance of a colleague 24 hours following surgery. Independent-samples t-test and chi-square test were used by SPSS v 18 for data analysis. Results Eighty patients were studied in two groups of normothermic (N) (n = 40) and hypothermic (H) (n = 40). Given similar demographic data as well as the duration of surgery, we arrived at a propofol dose of 122.52±13.11 cc for normothermic patients and 101.28±14.06 cc for hypothermic subjects (p=0.001). As for fentanyl, the total required sum came up to 39.60±21.04 cc and 31.72±5.81 cc for the above-mentioned groups in order (p=0.025). Moreover, the post-operative interview showed that there was no report of a patient with memory recall following surgery. Conclusions Moderate hypothermia can substantially reduce the need for anesthetics in patients with addiction to opium when undergoing CABG surgery. Trial registration This study is registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with registration number of

  12. Discussion about Some Problems of Dinghai Battles in Opium War%鸦片战争定海之战几个问题的商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗伟伦

    2000-01-01

    1840年7月,中英鸦片战争爆发,首战舟山。定海总兵张朝发殉国,舟山被占,次年2月收复。1841年9月26日起,英军再攻舟山,相持六昼夜,葛云飞、王锡朋、郑国鸿三总兵率部奋战,同日壮烈牺牲。这是鸦片战争中中国军民英勇抵抗英军最激烈的战役之一。舟山两次沦陷,时达五年多,当地军民的反英斗争,在鸦片战争史上占有突出地位。但在地方史的研究与宣传教育工作方面,存在一些问题。如双方兵力与伤亡情况,及其在同整个战争诸役相比较中所居的地位等问题,本文根据可靠史料与数据,提供商讨。%In July, 1840, when the Opium War broke out between China and Britain, the first battle took place in Zhoushan. In the following more than five years, Zhoushan Rad been captured by the British twice. The local army and people's fight against the British has an outstanding position in the history of the Opium War. However, in the study of the local history and in the aspects of propaganda and education,there are some problems about casualties of both armies and about the position compared with all the battles in the whole war, and so on. This paper, on the basis of reliable historical materials and data,put forward some problems, which I'd like to discuss with othe experts.

  13. Effect After the Opium War on China's Salt%鸦片战争以后对我国盐政的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐黎标

    2016-01-01

    In the long river of history, the court has dominated the salt of the franchise. Although the Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, or in the different periods of the various dynasties, in the form of speciifc operations will vary, but by court ofifcials in charge of the salt is always the same. The reason for this is because salt is a matter of national use ". In order to increase in revenue, Shu pin ofifcial salt, salt ofifcials in charge of all pay attention to check the smuggling of salt. After the Opium War, the Qing government was forced to accept all of the peace terms put forward by the United Kingdom, on 29 August 1842 signed in modern history of China's ifrst unequal treaties, in English the Treaty of Nanking. This paper discusses since 1840 after the Opium War in China and the impact of salt.%在漫长的历史长河中,朝廷一直把持着我国食盐的专营权。尽管明代、清代,或是各个朝代的不同时期,在具体的运营形式上会有所不同,但由朝廷命官掌管盐务是始终不变的。之所以如此,是因为“盐课关乎国用”。为增加国课收入,疏销官盐,掌管盐务的官员们无不重视查缉私盐。鸦片战争以后,清政府被迫全部接受了英国提出的议和条款,于1842年8月29日签订了我国近代史上第一个不平等条约——中英《南京条约》。本文论述了自1840年鸦片战争以后对我国盐政的冲击和影响。

  14. Probes into the Reasons of Opium Flooding in Northeast China after The Mukden Incident%九一八事变后中国东北地区鸦片泛滥原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 刘成虎

    2013-01-01

    Japan’s invasion of China had plotted for a long time, its invasion of Northeast China and establishment of a puppet regime was a starting point of a series of aggressive wars. Japan also made the Northeast China as a “Proving Ground” of enslavement and colonization. In opium policy, due to the financial need in occupied territory, Japan increased consumption of opium by making full use of all means of politics, economy, diplomacy, etc., directly or indirectly, led to prolonged opium flooding and damage in the region. To expand opium consumption using the timing of the confusion of war, depositing their responsibilities to the puppet regime, making an excuse for opium monopoly, it was the modus operandi from the beginning that Japan occupied Taiwan after the Treaty of Shimonoseki, then the invasion of whole China after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, and till the outbreak of the Pacific War and the occupation of Southeast Asia. This paper is based on a large amount of historical materials in Japanese, which tracks down the causes of opium flooding in the Northeast China, and to clearly reveal the role of opium policy in Japan’s aggressive policies.%  日本侵华预谋已久,侵略东北和建立傀儡政权是其后发动一系列侵略战争的起点。同时又将东北地区作为日本进行大规模殖民、奴化政策的实验场。在鸦片政策方面,出于对占领地统治的财政需要,不惜动用政治、经济、军事、外交等政策手段扩大鸦片和毒品销售,直接和间接导致了东北的鸦片泛滥和毒害的长期化。通过战争混乱期扩大鸦片消费、将责任推诿于当地伪政权、以此制造事实鸦片专卖制的口实,是日本从马关条约后侵占台湾开始,直到七七事变后全面侵华、太平洋战争开始后全面侵略东南亚过程中惯用的手段。文章立足大量相关日本资料,对九一八事变后东北鸦片泛滥原因进行深入探讨,以更为清

  15. 鸦片战争期间克里水彩画中的舟山%Zhoushan in Watercolors of Cree during the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文洪; 史峰

    2016-01-01

    In July 1840 , the first Sino-British Opium War broke out and Zhoushan became the first Chinese island attacked by the British army .Edward Hodges Cree , a British army surgeon , detailed records of Dinghai Battle with diaries and brushes and what he saw and hear in Zhoushan , including main ports, buildings, customs and agriculture in Zhoushan Islands , as well as the troubled situation of Dinghai occupied by the British twice .In Cree’ s eyes, Zhoushan was China ’ s forefront of the British invasion but it was still beautiful even in the smoke of gunpowder .%1840年7月中英第一次鸦片战争爆发,舟山成为英国进攻的第一个中国岛屿。英国随军医生爱德华·霍奇斯·克里用日记和画笔,详细记载了鸦片战争定海保卫战的场景及他在舟山的所见所闻,主要内容包括舟山群岛的港口、建筑、风俗、农业,以及英军两次攻占定海并陷入困境的情况。在克里看来,舟山是英军侵略中国的前沿阵地,硝烟里的舟山依然美丽。

  16. Piracy and post-opium war introduction of steam ships%鸦片战争后的海盗问题与轮船的引进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉辰

    2015-01-01

    鸦片战争之后,中国沿海的海盗活动有了新的抬头,传统的反海盗手段无力解决这一问题。为此,宁波、上海船商率先购置轮船用于护航捕盗,而官方亦随后仿效。对轮船的运用大大加强了反海盗斗争的效力,也提高了清政府在中外联合反海盗行动中的地位。更重要的是,通过这种途径,轮船开始为中国所用,推动了近代化的进程。%After the opium war ,pirates frequent the Chinese coastal waters .Traditional measures fail to curb the piracy ,and the ship merchants in Ningbo and Shanghai purchase steam ships to navigate the waters and to have pirates readily captured .Government follows suit .Steam ships help with the conque‐ring of pirates ,and the Chinese modernization ,as w ell .

  17. Methadone Detoxification Versus Traditional Gradual Decrease in the Consumed Amount of Refined Opium Dross (Shireh: The Preferred Method for Controlling Withdrawal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Farsinejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of methadone detoxification with traditional method of gradual decrement in the abused amount of the refined opium dross (Shireh to control withdrawal syndrome in Shireh-addicted patients. Methods: In this study, two groups of Shireh addicts were compared. The first group was treated by methadone and the second group by gradual decrement in the amount of consumed Shireh. Those experiencing the adverse effects of the treatment were excluded from the study. Methadone dose was calculated based on the amount of the Shireh consumed and detoxification was performed during a 21-day period. In the second group, the amount of the consumed Shireh was gradually decreased within 21 days and some of the withdrawal symptoms were selected as indicators for patient evaluation. Results: A total of 35 patients (16 versus 19 patients in the first and second groups were evaluated. Their mean age was 43 ± 4 years and all were male. A statistically significant difference was found between these two groups in terms of severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms within the first five days and their duration after the 21st day of the onset of detoxification (P< 0.05. Conclusion: In comparison with methadone detoxification, traditional method of gradually decreasing the consumed amount of Shireh controls the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms better in the course of detoxification.

  18. Combination of electrochemistry with chemometrics to introduce an efficient analytical method for simultaneous quantification of five opium alkaloids in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C; Gargallo, Raimundo; Skov, Thomas; Paimard, Giti

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, an analytical methodology based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and integration of three efficient strategies including variable selection based on ant colony optimization (ACO), mathematical pre-processing selection by genetic algorithm (GA), and sample selection (SS) through a distance-based procedure to improve partial least squares-1 (PLS-1, ACO-GA-SS-PLS-1) multivariate calibration (MVC) for the simultaneous determination of five opium alkaloids including morphine (MOP), noscapine (NOP), thebaine (TEB), codeine (COD), and papaverine (PAP) was used and validated. The baselines of the DPV signals were modeled as a smooth curve, using P-splines, a combination of B-splines and a discrete roughness penalty. After subtraction of the baseline we got a signal with a two-component probability density. One component was for the peaks and it was approximated by a uniform distribution on the potential axis. The other component was for the observed noise around the baseline. Some sources of bi-linearity deviation for electrochemical data were discussed and analyzed. The lack of bi-linearity was tackled by potential shift correction using correlation optimized warping (COW) algorithm. The MVC model was developed as a quinternary calibration model in a blank human serum sample (drug-free) provided by a healthy volunteer to regard the presence of a strong matrix effect which may be caused by the possible interferents present in the serum, and it was validated and tested with two independent sets of analytes mixtures in the blank and actual human serum samples, respectively. Fortunately, the proposed methodology was successful in simultaneous determination of MOP, NOP, TEB, COD, and PAP in both blank and actual human serum samples and its results were satisfactory comparable to those obtained by applying the reference method based on high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV).

  19. The comparison of Updating function of Working Memory in Three Groups of Substance Abusers (Heroin, Opium, Those Treated with Methadone and normal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamrezayee S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic use of opiates is associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate one of the neuropsychological functions, updating function of working memory, in three groups, including substance abusers (heroin and opium, those under treatment with methadone, and normal controls. Methods:The method of this study was causal-comparative. Ninty individuals in three groups, including substance abusers (n = 30, those under treatment with methadone (n = 30, and normal controls (n = 30 were selected from people referred to the addiction treatment Clinics in Shiraz (2015 with the purposeful sampling method. All subjects were evaluated regarding working memory updating and self-reported mental effort scale and the results were analyzed by Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test with SPSS software (version 23. Results:The results showed a significant difference between the three groups in the updating function of working memory; so that effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the normal group was better than the other two groups and the performance effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the group under methadone treatment was better than substance abusers group. conclusions:substance abuse has a negative effect on neurological function. Given that the group of methadone treatment had better performance in the updating function of working memory than the group of substance abusers, these results provide hope that the effects of examined drugs on working memory is not permanent and we can look for psychological interventions to treat these patients and prevent problems recurrence.

  20. Functional Characterization of 4´OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba eGurkok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes remain to be revealed. In this study, expressions of 3-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4´-O-methyltransferase (4´OMT and reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (7OMT genes were subjected tomanipulation to functionally characterize their roles in BIA biosynthesis. Measurements of alkaloid accumulation were performed in leaf, stem and capsule tissues accordingly. Suppression of 4´OMT expression caused reduction in the total alkaloid content in stem tissue whereas total alkaloid content was significantly induced in the capsule. Silencing of the 7OMT gene also caused repression in total alkaloid content in the stem. On the other hand, over-expression of 4´OMT and 7OMT resulted in higher morphine accumulation in the stem but suppressed amount in the capsule. Moreover, differential expression in several BIA synthesis genes (CNMT, TYDC, 6OMT, SAT, COR, 4´OMT and 7OMT were observed upon manipulation of 4´OMT and 7OMT expression. Upon silencing and overexpression applications, tissue specific effects of these genes were identified. Manipulation of 4´OMT and 7OMT genes caused differentiated accumulation of BIAs including morphine and noscapine in capsule and stem tissues.

  1. Functional Characterization of 4′OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkok, Tugba; Ozhuner, Esma; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Özcan, Sebahattin; Turktas, Mine; İpek, Arif; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Okay, Sezer; Unver, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes remain to be revealed. In this study, expressions of 3-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4′–methyltransferase (4′OMT) and reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (7OMT) genes were subjected to manipulation to functionally characterize their roles in BIA biosynthesis. Measurements of alkaloid accumulation were performed in leaf, stem, and capsule tissues accordingly. Suppression of 4′OMT expression caused reduction in the total alkaloid content in stem tissue whereas total alkaloid content was significantly induced in the capsule. Silencing of the 7OMT gene also caused repression in total alkaloid content in the stem. On the other hand, over-expression of 4′OMT and 7OMT resulted in higher morphine accumulation in the stem but suppressed amount in the capsule. Moreover, differential expression in several BIA synthesis genes (CNMT, TYDC, 6OMT, SAT, COR, 4′OMT, and 7OMT) were observed upon manipulation of 4′OMT and 7OMT expression. Upon silencing and overexpression applications, tissue specific effects of these genes were identified. Manipulation of 4′OMT and 7OMT genes caused differentiated accumulation of BIAs including morphine and noscapine in capsule and stem tissues. PMID:26909086

  2. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism: a century of discovery and a brave new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a structurally diverse group of plant specialized metabolites with a long history of investigation. Although the ecophysiological functions of most BIAs are unknown, the medicinal properties of many compounds have been exploited for centuries. These include the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, the antimicrobial agents sanguinarine and berberine, and the antitussive and anticancer drug noscapine. BIA biosynthesis involves a restricted number of enzyme types that catalyze landmark coupling reactions and subsequent functional group modifications. A pathogenesis-related (PR)10/Bet v1 'Pictet-Spenglerase', several O-methyl-, N-methyl- and O-acetyltransferases, cytochromes P450, FAD-dependent oxidases, non-heme dioxygenases and NADPH-dependent reductases have been implicated in the multistep pathways leading to structurally diverse alkaloids. A small number of plant species, including opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Ranunculales, have emerged as model systems to study BIA metabolism. The expansion of resources to include a wider range of plant species is creating an opportunity to investigate previously uncharacterized BIA pathways. Contemporary knowledge of BIA metabolism reflects over a century of research coupled with the development of key innovations such as radioactive tracing, enzyme isolation and molecular cloning, and functional genomics approaches such as virus-induced gene silencing. Recently, the emergence of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics has expedited the discovery of new BIA biosynthetic genes. The growing repository of BIA biosynthetic genes is providing the parts required to apply emerging synthetic biology platforms to the development of production systems in microbes as an alternative to plants as a commecial source of valuable BIAs.

  3. A Historical Study of Opium abolition Movement in the Early period of PRC%新中国成立初期禁止烟毒运动的历史考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫宏伟

    2015-01-01

    新中国成立初期,历史上遗留的鸦片烟毒泛滥成灾。中共中央和中央人民政府对烟毒采取坚决禁止的方针政策,发动城乡人们参与禁烟禁毒斗争,使肆虐多年的种植、贩运、销售、吸食毒品的活动基本禁绝。禁止烟毒斗争作为一场深刻的社会教育和改造运动,对制造、贩运、销售、吸食毒品的犯罪活动给予沉重打击,净化了社会环境,稳定了社会秩序,巩固了新政权。%In the early period of New China, opium and its negative influence left over by history were rampant. Chinese government at that time took a severe measure to forbid this behavior, viz., the government launched a campaign against the opium activity, thus almost putting an end to this activity. And this campaign, a kind of social education and transformative movement, is a heavy blow to this kind of criminal activity, not only purifying the social environment, but keeping the society in good order, which, in turn, consolidates the new regime.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10526-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FG989234 ) GLLCR01TF JCVI-SOY1 Glycine max cDNA 5', mRNA seq... 46 1.1 1 ( FE967887 ) PLATE_T3_043_A11_15NOV2004_095 Opium...rsifo... 44 4.4 1 ( FE964946 ) PLATE_T3_011_C01_23NOV2004_011 Opium poppy elicit... 44 4.4 1 ( CP000102 ) Me

  5. Second Opium War and Foreign Envoys Staying in Beijing%第二次鸦片战争与外国公使驻京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余典浩

    2012-01-01

    From the late 18th century,the western countries headed by Britain for expanding their business interests were continue to put forward the requirements of their envoys staying in Beijing.After the peace negotiation failing,then they forced China to yield by dual strategies of military aggression,intimidation and bribery in the second Opium War.The Qing government did not accept the demands for Envoys staying in Beijing voluntarily,and it was realized by both sides after many rounds of the "game" in the war.The Qing government clung the outmode thought in dealing with the requests,and did not choose traditional ideology and culture,so as to constantly injure national interests.In the war,the strength of the Qing government was weak and backward so that was constantly beaten,and was forced to sign the treaty of humiliation.A really weak country was not contributed to the equal diplomacy,and this lesson was worth to take warning.%从18世纪末起,以英国为首的西方国家出于扩展本国的商业利益,不断向中国提出公使驻京的要求。在和平交涉失败后,继而在第二次鸦片战中以军事侵略恫吓和利诱的"双重策略"迫使清廷屈服。公使驻京要求不是清廷自愿接受的,是双方在战争中经过多轮"博弈"之后才实现的。清廷在对待此要求时,思想上墨守陈规,不能正确取舍传统思想文化,以致不断误国;战争中清廷国力积弱,落后挨打,被迫签订屈辱的城下之盟,可谓弱国无外交,值得引以为戒。

  6. Japanese-Puppet Regime's Opium and Drug Policy in Occupied Hubei Areas During Anti-Japanese War%抗日战争时期日伪在湖北沦陷区的鸦片毒化政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭阳

    2011-01-01

    During the period of Anti-Japanese War,for anesthetizing the thought and weakening the fighting will of Chinese people as well as plundering the economy of the occupied areas,the Japanese armies in the central China ordered the Puppet regime to carry out their crazy opium and drug policy.They legislated the use and monopoly of opium,and instigated the use and planting of opium.The Japanese and Puppet regime's opium and drug policy brought serious disasters to the Chinese people in occupied areas,and made them suffering the toxicity of opium while enduring the huge devastation of the war and the trample by the Japanese and Puppet regime.%抗日战争时期,华中日军为了麻醉沦陷区人民的思想,削弱人民的斗志,掠夺沦陷区的经济,指使湖北各级伪政府在沦陷区实行疯狂的鸦片毒化政策。他们制定法律,通过"鸦片专卖"使销售和吸食毒品合法化,同时,采取各种措施,鼓励民众吸毒,强迫民众种植鸦片。日伪的毒化政策,给湖北沦陷区造成了深重的灾难,使广大民众在经受战火摧残和敌伪蹂躏之后,又饱受烟毒之害。

  7. 浅析鸦片战争期间清廷的政治状况%Analysis of the Political Situation in the Qing Dynasty During the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪宁

    2014-01-01

    鸦片战争是中国近代史上的一场反侵略战争,它作为中国近代史的开端,重新开启了中国认识世界的大门,打破了中国“唯我独尊”的心理状态,同时也带来了重新认识世界的机会,所以鸦片战争在中国历史上占有重要的地位。鸦片战争的失败具有一定的必然性,与当时清王朝腐败的政治状况具有很大的联系,当时的政治状况给抵抗外来侵略增加了许多的阻碍,使屈辱失败的结局永远留在了中国的历史上。可从清王朝的皇权专制制度、“闭关锁国”的外交政策、官吏腐败的管理制度、民族歧视的政策等方面,对鸦片战争期间清廷的政治状况进行详细分析。%The Opium War was a war against aggression in China’s modern history,it served as the beginning of modern Chinese his-tory,and re-opened the door for China to understand the world.The failure of the Opium War is of certain inevitability,and the polit-ical conditions of prevailing corruption in Qing Dynasty has great link to it.The paper closely analyzes the political situation of Qing Dynasty during the Opium War from the aspects of the Qing Dynasty’s imperial autocracy,the implementation of the“closed door”for-eign policy for maintaining the country dignity,the management system with officials’corruption,and the policy of ethnic discrimina-tion.

  8. Studies of the Fu-Kang-Pian on Releasing the Opium Withdrawal Symptom and Signs%福康片对阿片类戒断症状疗效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有德; 王欣

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effectiveness of Fu-Kang-PianOn releasing the opium withdrawal symptom and signs in the drug abusers.Methods:123 heroin Addict victims were studied by observing the side effects of Fu-Kang-Pian quantitatively.Results:Fu-Kang-Pian had obvious effects in releasing the opium withdrawal symptoms and signs when the drug was cut. 100% abolition of the drug was achieved within 7 days of the Fu-Kang-Pian treatment.Most of the victims stopped within 4 days with different relieving effects to the relative victims.The side effects were mainly thirsty and eyes blurred.Conclusions:Fu-Kang-Pian was effective in releasing the opium withdrawal symptoms and signs with controllable side effects and low toxicity.%目的:观察中药福康片对阿片类成瘾者脱毒治疗的临床疗效。方法:对123例海洛因依赖者的戒断症状药物治疗前及治疗后及药物的不良反应采用评分量表法进行判定。结果:福康片能明显控制阿片类的常见戒断症状,7天内脱毒者达100%,尤以4天内为著,对各级戒断症状的效果相似。副作用主要表现为口干、眼花等。结论:福康片具有显著抗阿片类戒断症状的作用,具有治疗的时效作用特点,脱毒效率高,在适宜的剂量范围内不良反应轻,用药安全。

  9. [Guillain-Barre syndrome as a result of poisoning with a mixture of "kompot"(Polish heroin) and drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlikowski, T; Winnik, L

    2001-01-01

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome is the most common form of polineuropathy. It is suggested that some infectious, immune and allergic factors are involved in developing the syndrome. "Kompot" or "Polish heroine", a domestic product, is produced from poppy straw or juice of poppy head (Papaver somniferum) and it is administered intravenously. "Kompot" shows variable contents of heroine, 6-MAM, 3-MAM, morphine, acetylo-codeine and codeine as well as papaverine, thebaine and narcotine. The case history of a young man dependent on "Polish heroine" who developed the Guillain-Barré Syndrome due to severe intoxication induced by home made heroine, barbiturates and benzodiazepines is described.

  10. 潘仕成与鸦片战争的武器捐造(上)%Weapon Produced by Pan-se-chen in the First Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭展鹏

    2014-01-01

    The British navy defeated the navy of Qing dynasty in the First Opium War,so the merchant Pan-se-chen produced the weapon himself. This paper does some research about Pan-se-chen’s weapon production process.%鸦片战争时期,清军不敌英军。潘仕成自行捐造武器,包括水雷、大炮、战船。文章围绕潘仕成捐造武器一事探究了某些具体细节,分析了他制造武器的思想根源以及武器制造为什么没有继续下去。

  11. « Frontiers and Wars: the Opium Economy in Afghanistan ». Journal of Agrarian Change, vol. 5, n° 42, 2005, pp. 191-216.

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ENGELAND, Anicée

    2007-01-01

    Cet article s’attache à décrire l’évolution de l’économie de l’opium en Afghanistan et examine les facteurs de résurgence depuis la chute des Talibans. L’A. analyse les causes historiques de la culture du pavot en relation avec les mouvements de frontières et les tentatives de cristallisation d’un État afghan ainsi que les échecs. Ces espaces de frontières que l’A. décrit comme non-étatiques dans le cas afghan ont facilité les trafics. L’A. analyse ensuite les dynamiques contemporaines de la ...

  12. 浅析鸦片战争清政府失败的主要原因%A Brief Analysis of the Main Reasons of Qing Govern-ment's Failure in the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维

    2013-01-01

      19世纪40年代的鸦片战争以中国的失败英国胜利而告终。本文着重从清朝封建制度的腐朽、政府官员的腐败、清军武器落后等三个方面阐述了中国失败的主要原因。%The 1940s Opium War ended with the failure of the Qing Government. This paper mainly interprets the main reasons from such three aspects as the decadent feudal system of the Qing Dynasty, the corruption of government officials, and the stereo-type Qing weapons.

  13. 论鸦片战争前后中国海关行商垄断制的演变%On the Evolution of Peddlery Monopoly of China Customs around the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘济华

    2013-01-01

    The peddlery monopoly was the China Customs clearance system around the Opium War .In the early days of Qing Dynasty ,the being -executed Guangzhou single port system was taken charge by the Thirteen Guilds to do the customs declaration for goods'import and export ,for management of related personnel ,carrying out purchasing license ,recruiting pilot and interpreter ,guaranteeing the customs declaration and goods sell ,ensuring the operation of inward journey after the entry of goods .In the end ,the peddlery monopoly was abolished due to the absolute monopoly and the lack of internal and external supervision ,and replaced by the consular declaration system . From it , we can have a general idea of the social system's corruption around the Opium War in Qing Dynasty .%行商垄断制是鸦片战争前后中国海关的报关制度,清朝前期实行的广州一口通商由广州十三行负责对进出口货物报关和对相关人员管理的垄断产生,实行购买许可证、聘请引水员和通事、保商报关销售商品、保商购买货物报关后返航等程序的运作,最后却由于绝对的垄断和形同虚设的监管制度致使行商垄断制被废除,为领事报关制度所取代,从中可以窥见清朝鸦片战争前后社会制度腐败一斑。

  14. Qing government's treatment of traitors during the Opium War%鸦片战争时期清政府处理汉奸问题措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金峰

    2011-01-01

    It's partly due to traitors' role that British army in the opium war was able to win one battle after another.Qing government was watchful of traitors' activities,and took various measures against traitors.However,Qing rulers did not have the sober awareness of its political corruption and the dramatic changes of interests between social strata,thus they failed to properly handle various kinds of social contradictions triggered by the invasion.The many measures to deal with traitors only issued orders in paper but malfunction in effect,adding another footnote to the failure in the Opium War.%鸦片战争时期,英军之所以能够屡战屡胜,汉奸作用不容小视。清政府对于汉奸活动极为重视,并注意采取多种措施处理汉奸问题,然而因为清朝统治者认识不清及晚清政治腐败等多种原因,尤其是清政府未能妥善处理外敌入侵时各类社会矛盾激化、社会各阶层利益关系剧烈变动的新形势,使得诸多处理汉奸问题的措施沦为具文而无法真正有效地发挥作用,为鸦片战争的失败添一注脚。

  15. A Total War on Drug Cartels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    undermine the Western culture. From the National Liberation Army in Colombia and Venezuela protecting cannabis and opium poppy laboratory operations, to...to proceed with any actions to guarantee greater success and to mitigate possible failures. Thorough knowledge breeds familiarity and permits empathy

  16. The Paradoxical and Unintended Effects of the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    of coca leaves; 2) heroin, derived from the opium poppy; and, 3) marijuana and hashish from the cannabis plant. Cocaine and crack come into the U.S... Jamaica , and Belize. Hashish is principally produced in Lebanon, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Morocco. 7 2 Demand-Supply A basic economic principal is that

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10387-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1093015537142 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-35-01-01-1... 46 1.3 1 ( FG600026 ) PF_T3_08R_A10_25JUL2003_080 Opi...um poppy root cDNA... 46 1.3 1 ( EW991615 ) LJGD-L7_G03 Adult female Lutzomyia long

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14379-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M901007 ) rc44a09.y1 Meloidogyne hapla egg pAMP1 v1 Meloido... 46 0.77 1 ( FG6096...89 ) stem_S051_D09.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 46 0.77 1 ( FE583594 ) CAXG15607.fwd Amphioxus Bra

  19. 75 FR 69462 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 952(a) and... schedule II: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to...

  20. 77 FR 35057 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 952(a) and...: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the...

  1. 77 FR 55503 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambrex Charles City, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws... Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the... 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cambrex Charles City, Inc. to ensure that the company's registration...

  2. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for opiates and hashish for markets around the world, as well as for precursor chemicals moving into... pushed into settled areas of the country's Northwest Frontier Province, such as the Peshawar Valley and... monitoring of poppy cultivation sites. Diversion of licit opium crops into illegal markets continues despite...

  3. Intelligence Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region: Establishing a Framework for Multilateralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Ya Ba ( crazy drug), also as “horse drug.” In previous years, the opium poppy product growth was related to the deforestation problem in Northern...mentioned that humanitarian and medical aid personnel should con- sider “externalities” such as the “fear factor.” For example, even the mention of smallpox

  4. Record of Tokyo Trial Court and Study of Japan Opium Aggression---Take"Manchukuo"as an example%东京审判庭审记录与日本对华鸦片侵略研究--以“满洲国”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩华

    2015-01-01

    东京审判庭审记录有关日本在“满洲国”实施鸦片侵略的犯罪证据,揭露了日本对华鸦片侵略的犯罪事实,是我们研究二战日本对华鸦片侵略的重要史料,翻译整理这部分史料,将有利于对相关的研究与利用,具有重要的意义。%The record evidence of a crime of Tokyo Trial court related to Japanese in the"Manchukuo"Imple-mentation of opium aggression, exposes Japan's opium facts of the crime of aggression, is important historical Japan's invasion of opium in World War II.Translation and finishment this part of the historical data will facilitate the use of the relevant research, which has important significance.

  5. "Vintage meds": a netnographic study of user decision-making, home preparation, and consumptive patterns of laudanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2015-04-01

    Reviews have commented on rising clandestine manufacture of opiate drug solutions for injecting, and to a lesser extent for oral use. Very little is known about user attempts to culture poppy seeds, widely available on the internet for manufacture of long acting medium-high potency oral solutions, both as poppy seed tea or as opium tincture (laudanum). A netnographic research methodology aimed to provide online consumer insight into user sourcing and decision influences, experiences of home manufacture of laudanum, utilization of opium tincture recipes, and consumptive patterns. A systematic internet search was conducted using the terms: "Laudanum," "Opium tincture," and "Tincture of Opium" in combination with "forum." Following screening of 810 forum threads with exclusion criteria and removal of duplicates, 75 fora threads on 6 online drug fora were analyzed using the empirical phenomenological psychological method. Four themes were generated. Findings illustrated the underpinning of user reminiscing about Victorian use of standardized laudanum, long duration shelf life, and medicinal use for opiate withdrawals with intentions to prepare. Preparation of famous recipes and use of authentic storage bottles boosted nostalgia. Participants appeared well versed in kitchen chemistry processes. Discussions centered on type and amount of alcohol used, use of additives to promote palatability and intoxication effect, homogenization of poppy seeds, and double extraction using opium tincture. Lack of detail available on intoxication experiences, with tentative dosage advised. Development of targeted and credible "counterpublic" harm reduction initiatives situated within online consumerism of communal drug knowledge is warranted.

  6. 一个黄种白人眼里的鸦片战争和中国人形象%The Opium War and the Images of the Chinese in the Eyes of an Anglo-Chinese Writer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮炜

    2012-01-01

    Taking the Opium War as its theme, An Insular Possession by Timothy Mo, an Anglo- Chinese writer, vilifies and denigrates China and the Chinese.. Taking sides almost entirely with the British aggressors, Mo in his interpretation of historical materials leaves abundant signs of simply piecing together historical data so as to make up a story. This can only be explained by a profound identity anxiety on his part resulting from his hybrid parentage and confused sense of belonging.%英国作家毛翔青的《一片孤岛》以鸦片战争为题材,对中国和中国人进行了丑化。该作品在留下大量史料展示和拼凑痕迹的同时,几乎完全站在英国侵略者的立场上来阐释史料、营造故事,而造成这种结果的根本原因在于作者的混合血统和混杂认同所导致的一种深深的身份焦虑。

  7. 鸦片战争前汉口工商业发展特点%The Features of the Industrial and Commercial Development in Hankou City before the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠敏

    2015-01-01

    Because of the peasant uprising in the late of Ming dynasty and the early Qing dynasty,the flourishing industry and commerce in Hankou city,developing from the middle of the Ming dynasty,was destroyed and the social economic development suffered blows in the short period of time.Before the Opium War,Hankou city was developed rapidly with the effort of the local people.The new-estab-lishment of Hankou was not only the economic recovery,but also the sophisticated evolution of the social economic structure with the features of diverse development.%因明末清初农民起义战火的重创,汉口自明中期以来积累的卓著工商业成就转瞬灰飞烟灭,其社会经济发展在短期内遭受巨大挫折。鸦片战争前,通过当地商民戮力重建,汉口迅速发展到全盛阶段。汉口商镇的重新崛起不是简单的经济恢复,而是朝着社会经济结构更复杂层面演进,呈现出多元发展的特点。

  8. 同位素内标-多反应监测同步在线质谱全扫描确证火锅料中罂粟壳成分%Determination of poppy ingredients in chafing dish materials by isotopic internal standard coupled with multiple reaction monitoring and online full scan mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝伟霞; 孙转莲; 袁萍; 杨冀州; 刘亚风; 孙武勇

    2014-01-01

    A confirmative method was developed for determining five poppy alkaloids including morphine,codeine,papaverine,tibane,noscapine in chafing dish ingredients by high perform-ance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q Trap MS). The sample was extracted with dilute HCl solution under heating condi-tion. The removal of lipid procedure was performed with hexane. The purification was carried out on a mixed-cation solid-phase extraction column( MCX)and ethyl acetate-methanol contai-ning 5% aqueous ammonia was used for elution. A PAK ST column was used to separate the analytes,and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate methanol and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate( pH 3. 6)were used as mobile phases. The five alkaloids was detected in the positive mode simulta-neously by multiple reaction monitoring ( MRM ) and online enhanced product ion full scan ( EPI). The LODs were 0. 05-0. 5 μg/kg and the LOQs were 0. 2-2 μg/kg for the five poppy alkaloids. The overall recoveries of the method varied from 64. 2% to 110. 6%,and the RSD were between 4. 2% and 12. 5%. The EPI mass spectra of positive samples were searched through standard library for qualitative confirmation. The detection of real hot pot material sam-ples showed this method can be used for the simple and accurate determination of the five pop-py alkaloid residues in chafing dish.%建立了高效液相色谱-三重四极杆线性离子阱质谱测定火锅料中吗啡、可待因、蒂巴因、罂粟碱、那可丁等5种生物碱残留的确证方法。样品采用稀盐酸加热提取,正己烷除脂,阳离子混合机理固相萃取柱净化,5%氨化乙酸乙酯-甲醇洗脱,PAK ST色谱柱分离,5 mmol/L乙酸铵甲醇溶液-10 mmol/L 乙酸铵水溶液( pH 3.6)作为流动相洗脱,电喷雾正离子模式下多反应监测同步增强子离子在线全扫描( EPI)。在该实验条件下,5种生物碱的 LOD在0.05~0.5μg/kg之间,增强型

  9. About the Accountability after the Opium War%根本之守与应时之变--鸦片战争后失事官员责任追究透视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞成

    2013-01-01

    鸦片战争结束后,清王朝并无我们期待的深刻反思。他们所进行的善后工作中一项重要的内容是战败责任追究,这包括道德拷问和法律责任追究两方面,这两者是王朝要坚守的根本。但承担责任的地方官员,对一场力量悬殊的中外战争中职守责任的理解与朝廷存在差异,同时他们更关注如何应对战后外部的压力和复杂的局面,要求朝廷能做一些变通。根本之守与应时之变的分歧构成战后政治变动的内在张力,并预示着整个晚清政局的走向。%After the Opium War, the Qing imperial court did not make penetrating self-examinations. After the war, the imperial court concentrated on investigating the responsibilities for the defeat of the war, both morally and legally. However, the local officials and the court had different opinions about the responsibilities for the defeat of the war where there was a great disparity in strength between the two sides. The local government officials concerned more about how to deal with the post-war pressure and the complicated situation. The disputes are the internal political tension that decided the situation in the late Qing after the war.

  10. 清代的虎门防御体系与第一次鸦片战争%Humen defense system in the Qing dynasty and the First Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华清; 朱西学

    2012-01-01

    到第一次鸦片战争前,清朝在珠江虎门出海口水道两岸先后建成了大角炮台、沙角炮台、威远炮台、镇远炮台、靖远炮台、横档炮台、永安炮台、巩固炮台、大虎炮台、炮台连同木排铁链、水底石堆、暗桩,在虎门水道构成了一个具有三重门户的防御体系,成为清朝最大最坚固的海防要塞。但这个防御体系在1841年的大角一沙角战役和上横档战役中被英国军队摧毁,战争失败的原因是多方面的,其主要原因还是这个防御体系存在诸多缺陷。%Before the First Opium War, the Qing dynasty had built, on both sides of Humen watercourse of Pearl River, Dajiao Fort, Shajiao fort, Weiyuan fort, Zhenyuan fort, Jingyuan fort, Hengdang fort,Yongan fort, Gonggu fort, Dahu fort. which constituted a triple portal together with the raft chains, underwater rock, piles, But the largest and most robust coastal defense fort of the Qing dynasty was destroyed by British troops in 1841 on Dajiao - Shajiao Campaign and Shanghengdang Campaign. Among the reasons for the failure of the war are the defects ofthe defense system.

  11. The Conceptual Difference of the Dialogues between China and the UK on the Eve of the Opium War%鸦片战争前夕中英交涉中观念的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠杰

    2012-01-01

    鸦片战争前夕,中英两国因制度、文化、观念等差异,导致在处理共同间题时交流不畅,双方的“对话”成了各自的“独白”。在国际体系上,中国的朝贡体系是一种尊卑有序的观念,英国所处的维也纳体系是一种平等原则。在国家类型上,中国是王朝统治,英国是民族国家。在治理模式上,中国注重人治,英国注重法治。在价值观念上,中国偏好集体主义,英国喜欢个人主义。在这种情况下,对话失败了,解决问题的最终方式走向了使用武力。%On the eve of the Opium War, the negotiations addressing the common problems between China and the UK were not unblocked. They had different institutions, cultures and concepts, and their dialogues were monologic. Chinese Tribute System reflected the concepts of superiority and inferiority in the foreign relations, while Britain within Vienna System had the principle of equality. China was a dynastic country, while Britain was a democratic state. China was ruled by man while Britain ruled by law. China preferred to collectivism, and Britain liked individualism and liberalism better. They could not be clearly known each other. In this context, the dialogues were failed. Then the final solution must be the use of military power.

  12. Preliminary Spreading of the Western Free Thought in China Before and After the Opium War%论鸦片战争前后西方自由思想在中国的初步传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福振

    2012-01-01

    鸦片战争前后,一些西方传教士和中国的仁人志士开始把西方自由思想传播到中国,给中国人带来了与中国文化不太相符的东西。踏上中国土地的西方人虽然各有目的,但是他们或创办报刊,或设立学校,或兴办慈善事业,逐渐把西方的自由思想传入中国。魏源等中国人也注意到了西方的自由思想,并自觉不自觉进行宣传。这些自由思想是概括性的,但是为西方自由思想在中国的广泛传播创造了条件。%Occidental missionaries and advanced Chinese people began to spread the Western free thought to China before and after the Opium War which was not consistent with the Chinese culture.Occidental people coming to China had different purposes,but they founded presses,set up schools or organized charities,gradually spreading the Western free thought to China.Wei Yuan and people like him noticed the Western free thought,and consciously or unconsciously made propaganda.Though recapitulative,the spreading activities created the conditions for widespread promulgation of the Western free thought in China.

  13. Light microscopy can reveal the consumption of a mixture of psychotropic plant and fungal material in suspicious death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Hawksworth, David L; Edwards, Kevin J

    2015-08-01

    Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The monoamine oxidase inhibitor prevents DMT from being broken down in the gut, so enabling its passage into the bloodstream and across the blood/brain barrier. Toxicological tests for DMT demonstrated the presence of this compound in the body. The deceased was reported to be in the habit of using Psilocybe semilanceata (liberty cap). This fungus (popularly called magic mushroom) contains psilocybin which is hydrolysed in the gut to psilocin; this compound mimics a serotonin uptake inhibitor, and also invokes psychotropic experiences. Microscopical examination established that the ileum and colon contained spores of Psilocybe and, in addition, pollen of Cannabis sativa and seeds of Papaver cf. somniferum (opium poppy). Both the plant species yield psychotropic substances. Palynological and mycological analysis of containers from the deceased person's dwelling also yielded abundant trace evidence of pertinent pollen and spores. The police had requested analysis for DMT but there was no screening for other psychotropic substances. Investigators were surprised that a mixture of hallucinogenic materials had been consumed by the deceased. The charge was modified from manslaughter to possession of a 'Class A' drug as the deceased had been consuming psychotropic substances not administered by the 'shaman'. Where death involving drugs

  14. Buprenorphine: clinical pharmacokinetics in the treatment of opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkader, Alexander; Sproule, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from thebaine, a naturally occurring alkaloid of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. The pharmacology of buprenorphine is unique in that it is a partial agonist at the opioid mu receptor. Buprenorphine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and therefore has very low oral bioavailability; however, its bioavailability sublingually is extensive enough to make this a feasible route of administration for the treatment of opioid dependence. The mean time to maximum plasma concentration following sublingual administration is variable, ranging from 40 minutes to 3.5 hours. Buprenorphine has a large volume of distribution and is highly protein bound (96%). It is extensively metabolised by N-dealkylation to norbuprenorphine primarily through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The terminal elimination half-life of buprenorphine is long and there is considerable variation in reported values (mean values ranging from 3 to 44 hours). Most of a dose of buprenorphine is eliminated in the faeces, with approximately 10-30% excreted in urine. Naloxone has been added to a sublingual formulation of buprenorphine to reduce the abuse liability of the product. The presence of naloxone does not appear to influence the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine. Buprenorphine crosses the placenta during pregnancy and also crosses into breast milk. Buprenorphine dosage does not need to be significantly adjusted in patients with renal impairment; however, since CYP3A activity may be decreased in patients with severe chronic liver disease, it is possible that the metabolism of buprenorphine will be altered in these patients. Although there is limited evidence in the literature to date, drugs that are known to inhibit or induce CYP3A4 have the potential to diminish or enhance buprenorphine N-dealkylation. It appears that the interaction between buprenorphine and benzodiazepines is more likely to be a pharmacodynamic (additive or synergistic) than a

  15. Signalling and the cytoskeleton of pollen tubes of Papaver rhoeas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snowman, B.N.; Geitmann, A.; Clarke, S.R.; Staiger, C.J.; Franklin, F.C.H.; Emons, A.M.C.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically controlled system used by many flowering plants to prevent self-pollination, often by the inhibition of pollen tube growth. The importance of cytosolic free calcium, [Ca2+]i, for the regulation of pollen tube growth is well known. We have established, using

  16. Gentry Benevolence or Pursuit of Self-interest: The End of the Sino-British Opium Trade%绅士的慈悲还是利益的追逐?——中英鸦片贸易终结过程的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜色

    2012-01-01

    十八、十九世纪英国主导下的鸦片贸易给中国经济和社会造成了灾难性的影响,而英国商人及英属印度殖民政府却从鸦片贸易中获得了丰厚的利润。但是1907年英国却主动向清政府提议并达成了减少印度鸦片出口直至最终禁绝的《禁烟条件》。本文详细分析了鸦片贸易各方在十九世纪末二十世纪初经济、政治和社会结构的变动情况,认为英国国内产业升级带动对外贸易的转型,其国内新兴工业资本家力图扩大对华工业品输出,是导致英国主动停止鸦片贸易的根本原因。这不是绅士的慈悲,而是利益的追逐。%In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the opium trade between British India and China brought tremendous disasters to Chinese economy and society, while earning British government and businessmen huge profits. In 1907, however, British government proposed, and two countries agreed, to reduce and eventually terminate opium exports to China. This article examines the changes in the economic, political and social structures of Britain, India and China in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The author finds that the structural changes in British domestic industry led to similar changes in foreign trade. The aim of British industrial capitalists to expand their exports to China was the fundamental reason that British government curtailed opium exports to China.

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-09

    edibles, is very alert indeed in apprehending those who adulterate alcoholic beverages . Regarding the aid issue the U.S. administration ensured He...border belt. After cutting the poppy bud, opium juice is derived which is processed by the crudest to more sophisticated In Girdi Jungle brown heroin is...stan, Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Iraq, Iran, Kurdistan, stan. According to a report published by our immigra- Thailand , Sri Lanka, and Burma. Uganda

  18. Supporting U.S. Stretegy for Third World Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    especially cocaine, heroin, and cannabis , now unwittingly fund what has been referred to as paramilitary criminality—vast, continent-spanning, rich...defend it. Its absence becomes a source of popular discontent, a breeding ground for disaffection and violence. Often its presence becomes the very...the part of the United States government to encourage foreign governments to eradicate cannabis , coca, and opium poppies, and to promote alternative

  19. On the Ground in Afghanistan: Counterinsurgency in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Baluchi Valley, Uruzgan, 2006–2009 140 Deh Rahsaan Valley, Uruzgan Province, 2009 149 Maps and Figures ix ABP Afghan Border Police ADT agribusiness ...example, in Nan- garhar Province, the Army battalion, provincial reconstruction team, agribusiness de- velopment unit, and counternarcotics team worked... agribusiness development team (ADT) took a backseat role to support a strong provincial governor’s plan to eliminate opium poppy cultivation in Nangarhar

  20. MEXICAN DRUG CARTELS AND TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS, A NEW ALLIANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    insatiable appetite for drugs has enabled cartels to expand market share and significantly profit despite the government’s attempts at 7...limiting the amount of drugs coming into the U.S. A 2012 United Nations (UN) report estimates that worldwide illicit drug trade profits at least $322...role in Afghanistan’s poppy and opium market , the FARC is deeply imbedded in the cocaine trade in Colombia, and more recently al- Qaeda has been linked

  1. An Evaluation of Bioregulators/Modulators as Terrorism and Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    brain should have receptor sites for alkaloids from the opium poppy led to the discovery of a family of natural painkillers , the endorphins (from...traced in human body. In each case a clandestine application of such substances can lead to death - "killing without a trace". Although the use of...the possibility for direct delivery of toxin or bioregulator to the human target or they could be used to transfer the toxin or bioregulator genes to

  2. Strategic Challenges during Changing Times: A Prioritized Research Program, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Colombia , and Ecuador, thousands of Latin American farmers have entered the lucrative coca growing business and its related and even more lucrative...Guatemala. The opium poppy has also been introduced to South America- Colombia in particular. Unless a suitable alternative is found, these farmers may...governments will increase during the next five years. These threats stem from rampant overpopulation , socioeconomic inequalities, poverty, weak

  3. Total biosynthesis of opiates by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAGAWA, Akira; Matsumura, Eitaro; Koyanagi, Takashi; Katayama, Takane; Kawano, Noriaki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Sato, Fumihiko; Minami, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Opiates such as morphine and codeine are mainly obtained by extraction from opium poppies. Fermentative opiate production in microbes has also been investigated, and complete biosynthesis of opiates from a simple carbon source has recently been accomplished in yeast. Here we demonstrate that Escherichia coli serves as an efficient, robust and flexible platform for total opiate synthesis. Thebaine, the most important raw material in opioid preparations, is produced by stepwise culture of four ...

  4. Finding the Balance to Combat a Hybrid Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Russell W. Glenn adds to Hoffman’s definition by stating, “a hybrid threat may employ political, military, economic, social , and information means, as...bud of the plant. Besides illegal opium, the poppy is used in the production of morphine . 134Department of Defense, JP 1-02, Department of Defense...consideration of the people through continuous interaction , but also supported building a rapport with the people, and promoting security through a

  5. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive ...

  6. Securing Afghanistan’s Future Against Opium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    International Studies, 2007), 51. 38 Blanchard, Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy, 35. 39 Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra , Afghanistan Transition Under...Geoffrey and Mark Sedra . Afghanistan: Transition Under Threat. Waterloo, Ontario: Centre for International Governance Innovation and Wilfrid Laurier

  7. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufactured and distributed. Golden triangle in southeast Asia is one of the major regions for opium poppy cultivation. This region has seen many guerrilla warfare for selling illicit drugs especially in Myanmar. Manufactured hroin is usually dealt in Thailand. Golden Crescent region in southwest Asia has a suitable climate for opium poppy cultivation which provides necessay money for purchasing needed weapons by rival groups in northwestern border provinces of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Nigeria is one of the main centers for transporting heroin from Golden Crescent and cocaine from Brazil. Dominics run cocaine trade in New York and New England and Afro-American criminal organizations conduct heroin trading in big cities such as New york, Detroit, Chicago, Phila Delphia and Washington. Street trading of illicit drugs is mainly done by cultural or commanding gangs. Illicit drug traffickers apply many methods to laundering their profits including money exchange, smurfs, electronic transferring, and faced firms (the firms that are only registered.

  8. Amitav Ghosh. Sea of Poppies; River of Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Carballido Coria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se empieza a leer cualquiera de las dos novelas de la trilogía de Amitav Ghosh sobre el tráfico del opio en la primera mitad del siglo XIX, se tiene la sensación de saber ya cuál es el final de la historia: los tratados desiguales impuestos a China durante el siglo XIX y principios del XX; la población de origen indio en lugares como Mauricio, así como las asombrosas variantes ortográficas que presentan sus nombres; el control británico sobre Hong Kong hasta hace relativamente poco tiempo; el hecho de que actualmente buena parte de la elite educada en India hable inglés; el que flores de China, México, India o Gran Bretaña puedan encontrarse en lugares tan distantes a su país de origen. En este sentido, la impresión es que uno está ante un par de textos fundacionales, un par de textos que explican el porqué de las cosas en los océanos Índico y Pacífico.

  9. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    Methyl esters of fatty acids are produced by the transesterification of triglycerides of vegetable oils with methanol with the help of a catalyst. (Klass, 1998). ... sodium sulphate (20 g) and was evaporated at 40°C to get purified oil. For making it more ... producing mixture of fatty acid alkyls ester and glycerol. Proximate analysis ...

  10. Poppy Eradication in Afghanistan: Why Isn’t It Working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-17

    Utilizing international donor support, Thailand undertook extensive road construction in order to bring these alternative crops to market . It took more...flow of drugs and chemicals before they can spread to border markets . ALTERNATIVE CROPS Saffron, which can be used for herbal medicine, food seasoning... perfume , and dye, is one replacement crop currently being grown in western provinces ofAfghanistan, for example in Herat.42 Saffron comes from the

  11. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy - V. Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of pain has very ancient origins, when plant-derived products were used, including mandrake extracts and opium, a dried latex obtained from Papaver somniferum. In the XVI and XVII centuries opium came into the preparation of two compounds widely used for pain relief: laudanum and Dover’s powder. The analgesic properties of extracts of willow bark were then recognized and later, in the second half of the XIX century, experimental studies on chemically synthesized analgesics were planned, thus promoting the marketing of some derivatives of para-amino-phenol and pyrazole, the predecessors of paracetamol and metamizol. In the XX century, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were synthesized, such as phenylbutazone, which was initially considered primarily a pain medication. The introduction on the market of centrally acting analgesics, such as tramadol, sometimes used in the treatment of rheumatic pain. is quite recent.

  12. The Military Defense Value of Modern Grand Canal--The Influence of Grand Canal Decline on the Two Opium Wars and the Sino-Japanese War in 1894%近代大运河的军事国防价值--大运河衰败对两次鸦片战争、甲午战争的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健

    2015-01-01

    The Grand Canal is the water passage for grain transport to the capital, going south to north through the Chinese inland, the life line of people and the flow of goods and materials, as well as the corridor of regional culture. At the same time, it is also an important military strategic pass of south and north. In history, it was the scene or associated area of several important military campaigns at home and abroad, thus it has the great function of military defense and logistic support. Since modern time, the failure of several big campaigns of Qing government was directly or indirectly related to this Grand Canal. In the First Opium War, Qing government did not recognize enough the military strategic position of the Canal, and was forced to sign the unequal agreement when the British forces controlled the strategic forts along the Grand Canal, and the water transport passage from south to north broke down; in the Second Opium War, though they set up the Grand Canal defensive line, the Qing forces was defeated as their defensive idea lagged behind; the failure of the Sino-Japanese War in 1894 was directly related to the function that the Grand Canal could not play the role of military equipment transport. Today, as the world cultural heritage, with perfect communication system, the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal should still be paid attention to in its transport function of golden water passage and military strategic value.%大运河是中国内陆贯穿南北的漕运水道,人流物流交通线,区域文化的廊道,同时,它也是一条极为重要的南北军事战略通道,历史上多次成为国内外重大军事斗争的发生地和关联区,许多重要的战争发生在京杭大运河沿岸,因此,它具有重要的军事防御和后勤保障功能。近代以来,清政府几次重大战役的失败都直接或间接与大运河有关。第一次鸦片战争中,清政府对大运河的军事战略地位重视不够,在英军控

  13. The Opium Taxes and Popular Revolt:Rural Crisis and Government Control in Su County in North of Anhui in 1930’s%烟捐与民变:1930年代皖北宿县乡村危机与政府控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱移山; 陈涛

    2015-01-01

    1932年皖北宿县因烟捐引发民变是20世纪30年代国民政府治下乡村危机频发的侧影。民变前,国家政权与乡村精英结合掌控乡村,而精英间为争夺乡村权力展开派系斗争,官民矛盾、绅民矛盾和绅士间矛盾尖锐。皖省政府依靠乡绅课征烟税,劣绅借机盘剥农民,绅民、官民矛盾激化。民变发生后,关系各方展开利益博弈,政府交替运用武力与怀柔之策控制民变,但无助于化解官民矛盾、绅民矛盾、官绅矛盾和乡绅不同派系间的利益纠葛,反致乡村危机在政府控制下被雪藏。乡村危机是国家政治、经济和社会等多元因素交互作用下产生的,并非如学界过往所认同的经济单线性诱致之结果。%In 1932,it was donated the 1930s rural crisis -prone silhouette under the rule of the National Government that popular revolt caused by the opium taxes in Su county of north Anhui.Before the popular revolt,the state power combined with the rural elite control of villages and rural elite competition for power among factions launched,the official and people’s contra-dictions,contradictions and gentry contradictions between gentlemen.An Hui provincial opium taxes levied rely squire,evil gentry took the opportunity to exploit farmers,gentry,officials and the public conflicts.China change occurs,the relationship be-tween the parties to expand the interests of the game,alternating the use of force and the government’s appeasement policy control civil commotion,but officials and the public contradictions,contradictions and gentry gentry nothing to resolve disputes, renvoi under the rural crisis forced the government was put on ice.Rural crises was the country’s political,economic and social factors such as multi -interaction was not,as previously acknowledged by scholars singlet induced economic results.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND POLYPHENOL CONTENT OF MALT BEVERAGES ENRICHED WITH BEE POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, especially among the brewers, using of natural ingredients is increasingly growing demand. Beer is one of the most popular beverages in the world with evident positive effects on the overall health condition. It can be used as a base for developing a variety of products with specific physiological activity. Bee pollen is considered to be one of the possible sources of active ingredients for that purpose. Activity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in bee pollen can contribute to the antioxidant potential of beer. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of different types and content of bee pollen on the antioxidant properties of malt beverages and to compare phenolic and flavonoid profiles. The technological process of malt beverages preparation with addition of bee pollen was also verified. It was found out that all beverages enriched with bee pollen had higher polyphenol, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential than control sample – pure wort. The higher antioxidant activities of all extracts was measured in sample R2 - wort with 0.6% of dry rapeseed pollen and sample R4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen rapeseed pollen. The higher phenolic content than in other samples was measured in sample M4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen poppy pollen and sample M1 - wort with 0.256% of dry poppy pollen. Higher total flavonoid content was found out in sample M2 - wort with 0.6% of dry poppy pollen and M4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen poppy pollen. In conclusion, the most noticeable results of antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content were achieved in samples with higher 0.6% addition of bee pollen, mostly poppy (Papaver somniferum L. pollen.

  15. GOOD DRUG POLICY IS GOOD PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction At present, there is a myriad of contradictions between international illicit drug policy and good, evidence-based public health policy. Largely to blame are the unrealistic goals which policymakers set themselves ten years ago when Pino Arlacchi, the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), announced plans to create a drug-free world' and to eliminate or significantly reduce the illicit cultivation of the coca bush, the cannabis plant and the opium poppy by the year 2008[1].

  16. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Morphine and Related Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Noritaka

    Morphine, an alkaloid isolated from the opium poppy, has been widely used as an analgesic, and has been a fascinating synthetic target of organic chemists. After the first total synthesis reported in 1952, a number of synthetic studies toward morphine have been reported, and findings obtained in such studies have greatly contributed to the progress of synthetic organic chemistry as well as medicinal chemistry. This review provides an overview of recent studies toward the total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids. Work reported in the literature since 2004 will be reviewed.

  17. Pharm GKB: Opium alkaloids and derivatives [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available derivatives (R05DA) Drugs And Small Molecules The following have been classified under this therapeutic category: codeine dextrometho...rphan hydrocodone methadone morphine EvidenceGene VA CHRNA3 VA CHRNA5 No related dr

  18. Afghan Opium, the Global Consensus and Regional Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    The international counter-narcotics consensus laid down in a comprehensive set of international treaties stipulates that there is a confluence of interest in suppression of illicit trade between consumer, transit and producer states. This article presents the outcome of legal sub-component of a m...

  19. Opium, petroleum and islamism. The crime Triad in Afghanistan; Opium, petrole et islamisme. La Triade du crime en Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafargue, F

    2003-07-01

    The geographical position of Afghanistan, at the crossroads of three main cultural areas, Turkish, Indian and Iranian, explains the unsteadiness of its history. Today, Afghanistan is the key position of Central Asia, a necessary path to dispatch the hydrocarbons of the Caucasus region, in particular from Turkmenistan, towards the harbors of the Indian Ocean or China. These political and oil stakes supply the present day chaos and are the constituents of Afghanistan's misfortune.

  20. [Papaver bracteatum, influence of cold treatment and cloning on Thebaine content of the capsules.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastart-Malsot, M; Paris, M

    1982-05-01

    A high heterogeneity of thébaïne yields is revealed in capsules of plants obtained from seeds cultivated in a phytotron. Clonage methods could be used to perform culture. Heterogeneity of plants hides influence of low temperature on thebaïne production. With clone this influence appears to be slight but appreciable.

  1. Unprecedented Utilization of Pelargonidin and Indole for the Biosynthesis of Plant Indole Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warskulat, Anne-Christin; Tatsis, Evangelos C; Dudek, Bettina; Kai, Marco; Lorenz, Sybille; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-02-15

    Nudicaulins are a group of indole alkaloid glycosides responsible for the color of yellow petals of Papaver nudicaule (Iceland poppy). The unique aglycone scaffold of these alkaloids attracted our interest as one of the most unusual flavonoid-indole hybrid structures that occur in nature. Stable isotope labeling experiments with sliced petals identified free indole, but not tryptamine or l-tryptophan, as one of the two key biosynthetic precursors of the nudicaulin aglycone. Pelargonidin was identified as the second key precursor, contributing the polyphenolic unit to the nudicaulin molecule. This finding was inferred from the temporary accumulation of pelargonidin glycosides in the petals during flower bud development and a drop at the point in time when nudicaulin levels start to increase. The precursor-directed incorporation of cyanidin into a new 3'-hydroxynudicaulin strongly supports the hypothesis that anthocyanins are involved in the biosynthesis of nudicaulins.

  2. Comparative anatomy of some selected species of the poppy family (Papaveraceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Heidary Chaleshtori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a comparative anatomical study of stem, midrib of basal leave and fruit is provided. In this paper, 45 anatomical characters of stem, midrib and fruit of some species such as Glaucium grandiflorum, G. fimbrilligerum, G. corniculatum, G. contortuplicatum, G. haussknechtii, G. elegans and other species such as Roemeria hybrida, R. refracta, H. pendulum and C. majus are presented. In this study, we report the presence of glandular hair in G. oxylobum and G. pulchrum for the first time. Among the examined traits, some traits such as shape of placenta, the presence of hairs, carpellary angle, the shape of carpellary angle, the number of external and internal layers of parenchyma of outer wall of ovary, the number of vascular bundles of placenta in the fruit and the presence of the central cavity, existence of hairy glands, the number of vascular bundles of phloem, lack of strengthening tissue surrounding the vascular bundles in the midrib of some species are different and the differences are significant enough to be useful in the delimitation of some species of Glaucium. Anatomical features of midrib in these genera indicate, in spite of some differences, the fundamental structure is similar, so cross section of blade by itself cannot be a good scale for identification of the species of the genus Glaucium and other genera. Anatomical features of stem are neither a suitable scale for separating species of Glaucium, nor for other genera. Anatomical features of fruit are useful in identification and determination species of genus Glaucium, but also, for four other genera, especially cross section of the fruit of H. pendulum showed significant differences in comparison with other genera. Some anatomical features of fruit in Glucium can be used in taxonomically grouping of the genus. The most important traits are the apparent shape of ovarian placenta.

  3. Modulation of CYPs, P-gp, and PXR by Eschscholzia californica (California Poppy) and Its Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Vamshi K; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Dale, Olivia R; Kumarihamy, Mallika; Cutler, Stephen J; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias; Khan, Shabana I

    2016-04-01

    Eschscholzia californica, a native US plant, is traditionally used as a sedative, analgesic, and anxiolytic herb. With the rapid rise in the use of herbal supplements together with over-the-counter and prescription drugs, the risk for potential herb-drug interactions is also increasing. Most of the clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions occur due to modulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), P-glycoprotein, and the pregnane X receptor by concomitantly used herbs. This study aimed to determine the effects of an EtOH extract, aqueous extract (tea), basic CHCl3 fractions, and isolated major alkaloids, namely protopine (1), escholtzine (2), allocryptopine (3), and californidine (4), of E. californica on the activity of cytochrome P450s, P-glycoprotein and the pregnane X receptor. The EtOH extract and fractions showed strong time-dependent inhibition of CYP 3A4, CYP 2C9, and CYP 2C19, and reversible inhibition of CYP 2D6. Among the alkaloids, escholtzine (2) and allocryptopine (3) exhibited time-dependent inhibition of CYP 3A4, CYP 2C9, and CYP 2C19 (IC50 shift ratio > 2), while protopine (1) and allocryptopine (3) showed reversible inhibition of CYP 2D6 enzyme. A significant activation of the pregnane X receptor (> 2-fold) was observed with the EtOH extract, basic CHCl3 fraction, and alkaloids (except protopine), which resulted into an increased expression of mRNA and the activity of CYP 3A4 and CYP 1A2. The expression of P-glycoprotein was unaffected. However, aqueous extract (tea) and its main alkaloid californidine (4) did not affect cytochrome P450s, P-glycoprotein, or the pregnane X receptor. This data suggests that EtOH extract of E. californica and its major alkaloids have a potential of causing interactions with drugs that are metabolized by cytochrome P450s, while the tea seems to be safer.

  4. Modulation of CYPs, P-gp, and PXR by Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) and its alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschscholzia californica Cham., a native US plant, is traditionally used as a sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic herb. With the rapid rise in the use of herbal supplements together with over the counter (OTC) and prescription drugs, the risk for potential herb-drug interactions is also increasing. M...

  5. Biochemistry and occurrence of O-demethylation in plant metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Hagel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism.

  6. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  7. Complete biosynthesis of opioids in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanie, Stephanie; Thodey, Kate; Trenchard, Isis J; Filsinger Interrante, Maria; Smolke, Christina D

    2015-09-04

    Opioids are the primary drugs used in Western medicine for pain management and palliative care. Farming of opium poppies remains the sole source of these essential medicines, despite diverse market demands and uncertainty in crop yields due to weather, climate change, and pests. We engineered yeast to produce the selected opioid compounds thebaine and hydrocodone starting from sugar. All work was conducted in a laboratory that is permitted and secured for work with controlled substances. We combined enzyme discovery, enzyme engineering, and pathway and strain optimization to realize full opiate biosynthesis in yeast. The resulting opioid biosynthesis strains required the expression of 21 (thebaine) and 23 (hydrocodone) enzyme activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. This is a proof of principle, and major hurdles remain before optimization and scale-up could be achieved. Open discussions of options for governing this technology are also needed in order to responsibly realize alternative supplies for these medically relevant compounds.

  8. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough.

  9. Total biosynthesis of opiates by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Akira; Matsumura, Eitaro; Koyanagi, Takashi; Katayama, Takane; Kawano, Noriaki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Sato, Fumihiko; Minami, Hiromichi

    2016-02-05

    Opiates such as morphine and codeine are mainly obtained by extraction from opium poppies. Fermentative opiate production in microbes has also been investigated, and complete biosynthesis of opiates from a simple carbon source has recently been accomplished in yeast. Here we demonstrate that Escherichia coli serves as an efficient, robust and flexible platform for total opiate synthesis. Thebaine, the most important raw material in opioid preparations, is produced by stepwise culture of four engineered strains at yields of 2.1 mg l(-1) from glycerol, corresponding to a 300-fold increase from recently developed yeast systems. This improvement is presumably due to strong activity of enzymes related to thebaine synthesis from (R)-reticuline in E. coli. Furthermore, by adding two genes to the thebaine production system, we demonstrate the biosynthesis of hydrocodone, a clinically important opioid. Improvements in opiate production in this E. coli system represent a major step towards the development of alternative opiate production systems.

  10. Drug: D03444 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8112 Opiates D03444 Opium, powdered (JP16); Opium (U...LGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA02 Opium D03444 Opium, powdered (JP16); Opium (USP)

  11. Extraction and Functional Properties of Proteins from Pre-roasted and Enzyme Treated Poppyseed (Papaver somniferum L.) Press Cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Emin; Emir, Dilek Dündar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteins of the defatted meals obtained from cold-pressed poppyseed previously treated (pre-roasting and enzyme against control) were extracted and their compositional and functional properties were determined. Saline-alkaline extraction (pH 11-12, and 0.2-0.6 M NaCI) and isoelectric point (pH 4.0-5.5) precipitation technique showed that seed pre-roasting enhances protein yield while enzyme treatment reduces it. There were 7 bands on SDS-PAGE, and enzyme treated samples were weaker than control. While enzyme treatment decreased denaturation temperatures (T(d)), roasting enhanced the enthalpy change (ΔH) values. Pre-treatments caused a decrease in protein least gelling concentration (LGC) values. Water and oil holding capacities (WHC and OHC) were found lower in enzyme treated and higher in preroasted samples. Similar effects were also determined for emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) values. While foaming capacity (FC) in treated samples decreased, foam stability (FS) increased oppositely. In conclusion, poppyseed meals can be nutritionally good source for diet protein, and a limited pre-roasting can be very beneficial for enhanced protein extraction yield and desirable functional properties.

  12. 鸦片战争前的鸦片贸易再研究%A Reconsideration of the Opium Trade before the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义雄

    2002-01-01

    鸦片战争前的鸦片贸易问题一向为中外研究者所重视,但因各种原因,迄今为止,对当时对华鸦片贸易状况的所有统计和描述都在不同程度上存在着不够准确、不够完整之处.鸦片战争前发行于广州的英文和保存了持续多年、即时公布的有关鸦片贸易的丰富资料,为重新统计1821-1839年期间各年度各种鸦片的贸易数量、价格和贸易额,从而比较完整、准确地显示这一时期的鸦片贸易状况提供了可能.综合前人的研究和新发现的资料,可知在鸦片战争前的18年中,平均每年有1万多箱鸦片输入和1000多万两白银被掠夺,这一数字虽不如以往有的研究所揭示的那么庞大,但已足以揭露鸦片贩子和其背后的利益集团的掠夺本性.

  13. Opium Addiction as a Novel Predictor of Atrial Fibrillation after Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Soleimani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery. It occurs in approximately 20% to 35% of patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery and in more than 50% of patients after valve surgery (1. AF after cardiac surgery is a major cause of patients’ morbidity and mortality. Moreover, it can prolong hospitalization and increase health care costs in these patients (2.

  14. Bandits, borderlands and opium wars: Afghan state-building viewed from the margins

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhand, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The drugs economy has been an important part of the story of borderland transformation in Afghanistan. Because of drugs, borderlands are no longer marginal, but have become a resource to be exploited by the centre of the fragile state. This Working Paper explores the linkages between the drugs economy, borderlands and 'post conflict' state-building in Sheghnan, a remote district on the Afghan-Tajik border in the north-east Afghanistan. It does this through a fine grained historical analysis o...

  15. Entering WTO and the Opium War%加入WTO与鸦片战争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常松; 王殿阁

    2002-01-01

    @@ 2001年11月11日世界贸易组织(WTO)多哈会议批准了,按照有关法律程序,一个月后,中国正式成为WTO的第143个成员.面对这一举世瞩目的历史事件,我们不由自主地联想到"鸦片战争".

  16. 革命导师论鸦片战争%Revolutionary teachers expounding Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路芳

    2004-01-01

    1840年的鸦片战争,英国侵略者用大炮打开了中国的大门,革命导师马克思、恩格斯撰写了多篇文章,阐述了鸦片贸易的性质和鸦片战争发生原因,以及鸦片战争给中英两国带来的影响,对鸦片战争史的研究有重要指导意义.

  17. More mysteries of opium reveal'd: 300 years of opiates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R J; Tran, P B

    2000-08-01

    This year is the 300th anniversary of the publication of one of the first books written about opiates and their subjective effects. Since that time the influence of opiates in Western society has grown enormously, as has our knowledge of the mechanisms by which these drugs produce their effects. Wars have been fought over the use of opiates and the economies of several countries depend on their production. In this article, some aspects of the history and effects of opiates on the arts in particular are explored.

  18. Shanghai's Trade, China's Growth: Continuity, Recovery, and Change since the Opium Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller; Ben Li; Shiue, Carol H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of China's trade performance from the 1840s to the present. Its focus is on Shanghai, the world's largest port, which began direct trade relations with Western nations starting in 1843. The paper finds that Shanghai had, and continues to have, an important role in China's trade structure. Applying the well-known gravity equation of trade for Shanghai's treaty port period, the paper shows that this relationship fits today's actual trade quite well when projected...

  19. Radical scavenging and iron-chelating activities of some greens used as traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, Sedef Nehir; Karakaya, Sibel

    2004-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the antioxidative activity of nine different families of greens. Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish), Anchusa azurea (bugloss), Daucus carota (wild carrot), Sonchus oleraceus (sowthistle), Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy), Malva sylvestris (blue mallow), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Salicornia europaea (jointed glasswort) are native to the Mediterranean and are commonly consumed as a salad or an ingredient in some recipes. The antioxidative activities, including the radical scavenging effects, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and Fe(2+)-chelating activity, were studied. All samples showed antioxidant activity as a radical scavenger in the experiment using the DPPH* radical. The ratio between the slopes of the kinetic model was used to compare antioxidant efficiency of different greens. Greens also possessed antioxidative activity toward H(2)O(2). Especially, greens exhibited a marked scavenging effect on H(2)O(2) at 0.2 g/ml concentration. The Fe(2+) ion-chelating activities of the samples except jointed glasswort were greater than 70%. The antioxidant activity of samples with different methods based on the inhibition of different reactions could not be compared. The current dietary guidelines include recommendations for an increase in the consumption of plant foods. Greens should provide an optimal supply of antioxidant substances in the diet.

  20. 让罂粟变为纯洁之花%Let the Poppy Flower be the Flower of Purity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏翔

    1999-01-01

    @@ 在印度,人们崇拜一位叫卡利大妈(Mother kali)的女神,她赐给人们一种有名的植物--罂粟,这种植物能够给人类带来巨大的财富. 罂粟原产于欧洲,亦称"罂子粟",二年生草本植物,全株无毛,叶长椭圆形,基部抱茎,边缘有缺刻.花型较大,呈红、紫或白色.蒴果球型,种子小而多.

  1. Drug: D03866 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03866 Mixture, Drug Opium alkaloids and scopolamine injection (JP16); Weak opium alkaloid...s and scopolamine injection (JP16); Opium alkaloids hydrochloride - scopolamine hydrobromide hydrate ... Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8119 Others D03866 Opium alkaloids and scopolamine in...jection (JP16); Weak opium alkaloids and scopolamine injection (JP16) PubChem: 17397950 ... ...mixt; Opisco (TN) Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides [DR:D03445], Scopolamine hydrobromide [DR:D02071] Therapeut

  2. The Noscapine Chronicle: A Pharmaco-Historic Biography of the Opiate Alkaloid Family and its Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rida, Padmashree C G; LiVecche, Dillon; Ogden, Angela; Zhou, Jun; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-09-01

    Given its manifold potential therapeutic applications and amenability to modification, noscapine is a veritable "Renaissance drug" worthy of commemoration. Perhaps the only facet of noscapine's profile more astounding than its versatility is its virtual lack of side effects and addictive properties, which distinguishes it from other denizens of Papaver somniferum. This review intimately chronicles the rich intellectual and pharmacological history behind the noscapine family of compounds, the length of whose arms was revealed over decades of patient scholarship and experimentation. We discuss the intriguing story of this family of nontoxic alkaloids, from noscapine's purification from opium at the turn of the 19th century in Paris to the recent torrent of rationally designed analogs with tremendous anticancer potential. In between, noscapine's unique pharmacology; impact on cellular signaling pathways, the mitotic spindle, and centrosome clustering; use as an antimalarial drug and cough suppressant; and exceptional potential as a treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome, strokes, and diverse malignancies are catalogued. Seminal experiments involving some of its more promising analogs, such as amino-noscapine, 9-nitronoscapine, 9-bromonoscapine, and reduced bromonoscapine, are also detailed. Finally, the bright future of these oftentimes even more exceptional derivatives is described, rounding out a portrait of a truly remarkable family of compounds.

  3. Drug: D06499 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8113 Opiate tinctures and extracts D06499 Opium ti...ICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA02 Opium D06499 Opium tincture (JP16) CAS: 8008-60-4 PubChem: 47208155 NIKKAJI: J2.178.389G ...

  4. The Opium Trade at Golden-star Anchorage Before and After the Opium War%鸦片战争前后金星门的鸦片贸易

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏雅丽

    2013-01-01

    位于广东珠江口西侧的金星门,在鸦片战争前后以其独特的地理位置和有利的条件,从19世纪20年代外国鸦片船的偶然碇泊所,发展到30年代外国鸦片船的固定碇泊所,四五十年代则成为广州市场甚至整个珠江三角洲市场鸦片的重要供应地.对金星门鸦片贸易的个案作较为深入的分析,对探讨鸦片战争前后中西关系的演变,有一定的学术价值.

  5. The Problem on the Circulation of Opium in Chinese Inland before the Opium War%鸦片战争前中国内陆的鸦片流通问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭剑波

    2003-01-01

    鸦片问题是中国近代史研究领域令人关注的课题,许多学者已对鸦片走私数量、中国吸食人数、白银外流数量等问题作过研究。但对鸦片战争前中国内地鸦片流通问题却语焉不详,缺乏有深度的研究。笔者主要根据档案资料拟作初步探讨。

  6. 鸦片战争前粤海关税费问题与战后海关税则谈判%Pre-Opium War Tariff Problems in Guangdong and the Post-Opium War Negotiations on Customs Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义雄

    2005-01-01

    从17世纪末到鸦片战争前,广州口岸关税征收中的税费问题以及由此引发的中外争端,一直贯穿于以中英贸易为主体的中西贸易史中.在税费征取过程中形成的地方关税利益集团,滥用职权,中饱私囊,这不仅引起以英商为主的西方商人的长期抗争,也损及清政府的财政利益.鸦片战后清政府逐步接受英方协定关税的要求,以确保关税"有盈无绌".战后的订立,实际上是战前中外粤海关税费问题争端长期持续和演变的结果.

  7. Effects of Dextromethorphan on reducing methadone dosage in opium addicts undergoing methadone maintenance therapy: A double blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Zargar, Ali; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dextromethorphan (DM) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that may be useful during opiate addiction process, especially in reducing methadone consumption in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of DM on reducing methadone dose in MMT used to treat illicit opioid drug abuse. METHODS: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial was designed. Seventy two opiate abusers undergoing MMT were randomly divided into two groups. Participants in the intervention group were medicated by DM while those in the control group received placebo. After a 6-week follow-up, methadone consumption dosage, quality of life (QOL) and withdrawal symptoms were assessed and compared between the two groups by repeated measure ANOVA statistical test. RESULTS: The mean of methadone consumption in the DM and control groups were 62.7 mg/day (52.7-72.7) and 70.4 mg/day (60.4-80.4), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups among the four evaluations made (F = 1.192, P = 0.279). There were not any significant differences in withdrawal symptoms between the two groups (P > 0.05). Total mean scores of QOL in the intervention and control groups were 84.8 (78.7-90.8) and 77.8 (71.8-83.7) (P > 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although DM might be useful for opioid dependence treatment, results of the current study did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Therefore, further studies exploring this possibility are needed. PMID:22973331

  8. Alkaloidy opium w toksykologicznej praktyce medyczno-sądowej Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej UJ CM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kłys

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Opiaty są uważane za najstarsze narkotyki znane w historii ludzkości. Na przestrzeni wieków, zmieniało się spojrzenie na problem narkomanii, tworzyły się wieloaspektowe obszary badawcze. Współczesna narkomania stanowi przede wszystkim problem społeczny i kliniczny, obejmując swym zasięgiem między innymi, ratownictwo w zatruciach i leczenie uzależnień. Z drugiej strony, jest to także problem wymiaru sprawiedliwości, realizującej zasadę trafnej represji w przypadkach kryminalnych (gwałty, rozboje, kierowcy, produkcja narkotyków i handel oraz konieczność monitorowania zgonów związanych z narkotykami. Możliwości badawcze we wszystkich przypadkach mające związek z narkomanią wzrosły wraz z wprowadzeniem i rozwojem niezwykle czułych i specyficznych metod analitycznych (GC-MS, LC/MS, HPLC/DAD, umożliwiających wykrywanie i identyfikację wieloskładnikowych mieszanin ksenobiotyków w złożonych matrycach biologicznych na niskim poziomie stężeń. Historia krakowskiego Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej sięga roku 1877, gdyż od tego czasu przechowywany jest materiał archiwalny. Pojedyncze zgony w wyniku zatrucia morfiną dotyczące głównie pracowników służby zdrowia były przedmiotem ekspertyz medyczno-sądowych od początku XX wieku, ale dopiero lata 1980-te przyniosły zapotrzebowanie na wielokierunkowe badania toksykologiczne opiatów oraz ich metabolitów w zróżnicowanym materiale biologicznym i nie biologicznym. Niniejsza praca jest specyficznym raportem z opublikowanych prac dotyczących badań nad opiatami w materiale krakowskiego Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej.

  9. Lessons from the First Opium War%鸦片战争失败原因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宗英

    2002-01-01

    清政府的闭关锁国政策是造成鸦片战争失败的原因,因为长期的闭关锁国,清朝统治者养成夜郎自大的文化优势心理和对西方科技的盲目排斥,而这正是鸦片战争失败的最直接原因.

  10. Effects of Dextromethorphan on reducing methadone dosage in opium addicts undergoing methadone maintenance therapy: A double blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Although DM might be useful for opioid dependence treatment, results of the current study did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Therefore, further studies exploring this possibility are needed.

  11. Fighting Afghanistan’s Opium Dependency as a Means of Disrupting Al Qaeda’s Illicit Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    taking a quick survey of the multidecade effort to combat the Latin American cocaine crisis one can better understand how this translates into the CN...on 2 December 1993, in a shootout with soldiers from the Bloque de Búsqueda, or Search Bloc (Bowden 2001, 249). Some of these successful programs

  12. Coercion, Cash-Crops and Culture: From Insurgency to Proto-State in Asia’s Opium Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Hodes and Sedra claim a more extensive Taliban extraction system that includes taxation of production, transportation, and processing,33 Turning to...33 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2007), 39. 34 Martin Smith, Burma...104 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2007), 26. 105 Giustozzi

  13. A preliminary study on species differences among Papaver somniferum L, Papaver rhoeas L and Cannabis sativa L by AFLP technique%AFLP技术鉴别罂粟、虞美人和大麻种属差异的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路帆; 方平; 程宝文; 李虹; 曾发明; 洪俊彦; 文云波; 焦德强; 李丽莎; 赵文嵩

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨采用AFLP技术检测植物DNA,鉴别罂粟、虞美人和大麻植物种属间差异的方法.方法 收集罂粟根、茎、叶、花、果以及虞美人和大麻叶检材,用AxyPrep DNA试剂盒提DNA,经EcoR I/Mse I酶切,人工接头及PCR预扩增,用E-ACA/M-CAG、E-ACT/M-CTC、E-ACC/M-CTA、E-ACC/M-CTG、E-AGC/M-CTY、E-AGG/M-CTA 6对标记了荧光的选择性引物进行PCR扩增,其产物在的CEQ 8000遗传分析仪上检测.结果 6对引物分别在罂粟、大麻和虞美人样本中检出27~46、5~20、4~31条扩增片段,种属间存在明显差异;同一罂粟根、茎、叶、花和果的DNA检测结果相同.结论 罂粟、虞美人和大麻3种植物的AFLP分析结果显示出的差异性,同一植株不同部位DNA AFLP结果的同一性,有可能用于检测未知植物检材的种属来源.

  14. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues.

  15. Structure-based discovery of opioid analgesics with reduced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglik, Aashish; Lin, Henry; Aryal, Dipendra K; McCorvy, John D; Dengler, Daniela; Corder, Gregory; Levit, Anat; Kling, Ralf C; Bernat, Viachaslau; Hübner, Harald; Huang, Xi-Ping; Sassano, Maria F; Giguère, Patrick M; Löber, Stefan; Da Duan; Scherrer, Grégory; Kobilka, Brian K; Gmeiner, Peter; Roth, Bryan L; Shoichet, Brian K

    2016-09-08

    Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids. Structure-based optimization yields PZM21-a potent Gi activator with exceptional selectivity for μOR and minimal β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Unlike morphine, PZM21 is more efficacious for the affective component of analgesia versus the reflexive component and is devoid of both respiratory depression and morphine-like reinforcing activity in mice at equi-analgesic doses. PZM21 thus serves as both a probe to disentangle μOR signalling and a therapeutic lead that is devoid of many of the side effects of current opioids.

  16. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-311-2087, Penick Corporation, Newark, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klincewicz, S.; Siwinski, G.; Fleeger, A.; Paulozzi, L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to a request from the International Chemical Workers Union to evaluate symptoms of headache, nausea, and respiratory symptoms among workers, an investigation was begun of possible hazardous working conditions at the Penick Corporation (SIC-2833), Newark, New Jersey. The company produced morphine, codeine, synthetic and semisynthetic narcotics from the raw materials gum opium and poppy straw concentrate. Industrial hygiene monitoring detected substantial exposures to alkaloid dusts throughout the building. A concentration as high as 23,564 micrograms/cubic meter was detected in a short term sample collected during the hand scooping of dry powder. Over exposures were detected to toluene (108883), butanol (71363), methanol (67561), and ethanol (64175) during short term episodic jobs. Thirty-two current employees participated in a study of immunologic parameters. A significant decrease in morphine-6-hemisuccinate/human serum albumin immunoglobulin-G antibody levels was noted in 21 workers who submitted blood specimens during both test periods. Narcotic production workers had greater reactivity to most of the compounds on a quantitative skin prick test with opiates. The authors conclude that workers at Penick Corporation developed asthma from occupational exposure to narcotic dusts. The authors recommend that exposures to narcotic dusts and solvents be reduced, and that workers with suspected work related illnesses be evaluated.

  17. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  18. Maintainence Treatment of Opioid Dependence with Tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Siddharth; Varshney, Mohit; Patil, Vaibhav; Lal, Rakesh

    2017-08-01

    Although tramadol has been used in the management of acute withdrawal in patients with opioid dependence, its use for maintenance treatment as a harm reduction approach has not been assessed systematically. This case series describes patients with opioid dependence who were treated with tramadol for long-term maintenance. Patients with opioid dependence who received treatment at the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were included in the study. Patients who received at least 6 months of tramadol and had follow-up adherence of more than 80% were included in the case series. A total of 25 cases were included, all of whom were males. The types of opioids being taken at the time of initiation of tramadol were natural opiates (poppy husk and raw opium), followed by heroin. The median dose of tramadol at initiation and maintenance was 300 mg/day. Nineteen patients were able to achieve complete abstinence to other opiates on tramadol. Tramadol may be an effective option in the long-term management of patients with opioid dependence. Further studies are required for establishing the efficacy of tramadol for agonist management of patients with opioid dependence.

  19. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fossati

    Full Text Available Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S-reticuline starting from (R,S-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS, salutaridine reductase (PsSAR and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes.

  20. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  1. Forest conflict in Thailand: northern minorities in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hares, Minna

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims at exploring the local background of and solutions to the forest conflict in upland areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, who are called hill tribes, in northern Thailand. A so-called hill tribe problem has been officially identified as a result of the slash-and-burn cultivation and other perceived problems, such as opium poppy cultivation, illegal immigration, and the suspicion of disloyalty to the state. This has created distrust and tension between the groups and authorities. The local conflict has recently been related to the dilemma of conserving the forest from all human interference, while many people live and make their livelihood within and adjacent to the protected areas. Furthermore, as the results imply, strictly protected areas and reforestation have also increased the competition over land and natural resources and, thereby, the likelihood of local conflicts. The scarcity and pollution of water, illegal logging, and poor fire control have contributed to the conflicts between local communities. The conflicts between the local communities and officials have been nourished by political and public discussions. Using definitions and terms with negative connotations and ignoring the heterogeneity between the groups or labeling some groups as malevolent have increased distrust and strengthened existing stereotypical images. Conflict resolution starts with efforts toward better mutual understanding, and changes in structures and attitudes are necessary. Local cooperation, utilization of traditional methods, and local institutions are central to conflict solving.

  2. Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoumi, Francisco E

    2012-01-01

    This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change.

  3. On analgesic and narcotic plants: Pliny and his Greek sources, the history of a complex graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Grafting is an important concept in the study of Pliny the Elder, who is a compiler of written sources. We intend to examine how this grafting works in Pliny's discussion of analgesic and narcotic plants, especially the most famous: opium poppy, henbane, mandrake, and hound's berry. We will study Pliny's use of Greek sources and ask how he took up his predecessors' works while integrating the changes that took place during the centuries in the diagnosis and treatment of pain. This cultural graft remains elusive because we do not have access to all of Pliny's Greek sources. When Pliny speaks about these plants, he sometimes copies out information, adding or removing details, and occasionally makes significant mistakes. The graft was particularly difficult in this case because these analgesic plants were considered so special and poisonous that they were sometimes rejected or even condemned. Nevertheless, we can say that this cultural graft succeeded, despite some obstacles, because Pliny assimilated and adapted these old Greek materials to his own time, society, and project.

  4. Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan.

  5. Noscapine protects OLN-93 oligodendrocytes from ischemia-reperfusion damage: Calcium and nitric oxide involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjafi, S; Ebrahimi, S-A; Rahbar-Roshandel, N

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from opium poppy, on oligodendrocyte during ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury. Changes in intracellular calcium levels due to chemical ischemia and nitric oxide (NO) production during ischemia/reperfusion were evaluated as the hallmarks of ischemia-derived excitotoxic event. OLN-93 cell line (a permanent immature rat oligodendrocyte) was used as a model of oligodendrocyte. 30- or 60-minute-oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 hours reperfusion were used to induce excitotoxicity. MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Ratiometric fluorescence microscopy using Ca(2+)-sensitive indicator Fura-2/AM was utilized to assess intracellular calcium levels. NO production was evaluated by Griess method. Noscapine (4 μM) significantly attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) elevation (P noscapine significantly decreased NO production during a 30-minute oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (P noscapine (4 μM) on intracellular Ca(2+) was greater than ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists. Noscapine is protective against ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury in OLN-93 oligodendrocyte. This protective effect seems to be related to attenuation of intracellular Ca(2+) overload and NO production.

  6. Forest Conflict in Thailand: Northern Minorities in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hares, Minna

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims at exploring the local background of and solutions to the forest conflict in upland areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, who are called hill tribes, in northern Thailand. A so-called hill tribe problem has been officially identified as a result of the slash-and-burn cultivation and other perceived problems, such as opium poppy cultivation, illegal immigration, and the suspicion of disloyalty to the state. This has created distrust and tension between the groups and authorities. The local conflict has recently been related to the dilemma of conserving the forest from all human interference, while many people live and make their livelihood within and adjacent to the protected areas. Furthermore, as the results imply, strictly protected areas and reforestation have also increased the competition over land and natural resources and, thereby, the likelihood of local conflicts. The scarcity and pollution of water, illegal logging, and poor fire control have contributed to the conflicts between local communities. The conflicts between the local communities and officials have been nourished by political and public discussions. Using definitions and terms with negative connotations and ignoring the heterogeneity between the groups or labeling some groups as malevolent have increased distrust and strengthened existing stereotypical images. Conflict resolution starts with efforts toward better mutual understanding, and changes in structures and attitudes are necessary. Local cooperation, utilization of traditional methods, and local institutions are central to conflict solving.

  7. Origin and Development of Drug Addiction in South Asia with Special Reference to Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Farhana Sarfaraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During the course of this search man has extracted opium from poppy plant, cocaine from the leaves of coca bush, and cannabis from the hemp plant. Initially the use of these was only for the purpose of relieving the physical and mental capabilities, and for medicinaland surgical purpose. But the human spirit of innovation must have led to the use of these substances for mood-altering effects and offer an escape from the real and difficult world of existence to a more agreeable world of fantasy. These things are perhaps a few of the oldest natural substances a fewer of the oldest natural substances used by human race.The major purpose of the study is to highlight the origin and development of the drug addiction in the South Asian region, and discover its impacts on Pakistan. The problem of the drug addiction, which once could be learned as a by-product of drug traffickingthroughout Pakistan has become a major challenge for the governments, philanthropists and the social reformers of this age. The present extent of addiction depicts a bleak future for the generation to come, unless a revolutionary, well-coordinated and determined approach is envisaged and implemented.

  8. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle - from which our genetic endowment had its origins - because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive.

  9. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  10. Floral homeotic C function genes repress specific B function genes in the carpel whorl of the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellina Aravinda L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG confers stamen and carpel identity and is involved in the regulation of floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis ag mutants show complete homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and carpels into sepals as well as indeterminacy of the floral meristem. Gene function analysis in model core eudicots and the monocots rice and maize suggest a conserved function for AG homologs in angiosperms. At the same time gene phylogenies reveal a complex history of gene duplications and repeated subfunctionalization of paralogs. Results EScaAG1 and EScaAG2, duplicate AG homologs in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica show a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression, although EScaAG2 expression is lower than EScaAG1 expression. Functional studies employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS demonstrate that knock down of EScaAG1 and 2 function leads to homeotic conversion of stamens into petaloid structures and defects in floral meristem termination. However, carpels are transformed into petaloid organs rather than sepaloid structures. We also show that a reduction of EScaAG1 and EScaAG2 expression leads to significantly increased expression of a subset of floral homeotic B genes. Conclusions This work presents expression and functional analysis of the two basal eudicot AG homologs. The reduction of EScaAG1 and 2 functions results in the change of stamen to petal identity and a transformation of the central whorl organ identity from carpel into petal identity. Petal identity requires the presence of the floral homeotic B function and our results show that the expression of a subset of B function genes extends into the central whorl when the C function is reduced. We propose a model for the evolution of B function regulation by C function suggesting that the mode of B function gene regulation found in Eschscholzia is ancestral and the C-independent regulation as found in Arabidopsis is evolutionarily derived.

  11. Reproduction and pollination of the endangered dwarf bear-poppy Arctomecon humilis (Papaveraceae)across a quarter century: unraveling of a pollination web?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT.—Arctomecon humilis, a rare gypsophile of the extreme northeastern Mojave Desert, is restricted to a few isolated populations in Washington County, Utah, USA. At several times in the past quarter century, we have studied the breeding system and reproductive success of this endangered specie...

  12. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  13. 77 FR 66832 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ..., milkweed, mustard seed, Niger seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rose hip, sesame, Stokes aster, sweet rocket... mustard, jojoba, lesquerella, lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, Niger seed, oil radish, poppy...

  14. 75 FR 34114 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... seed, gold of pleasure, hare's ear mustard, lesquerella, lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed... pleasure, hare's ear mustard, lesquerella, lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy... mustard, lesquerella, lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed...

  15. A validated hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap LC-MS method for the analysis of morphine and morphine glucuronides applied to opiate deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kerry; Elliott, Simon

    2009-05-30

    A hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionisation ion source coupled to a HPLC system has been used to develop a method which can accurately measure morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in plasma, whole blood and post-mortem blood following solid-phase extraction. The method can also qualitatively detect various other opioids and related compounds including: codeine, dihydrocodeine (and metabolites), noscapine, papaverine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). The method has been favourably compared to an existing laboratory method using a now discontinued radio-immunoassay technique. The advantage of measuring the glucuronides directly rather than following deconjugation by beta-glucuronidase has also been shown. Detection and quantification of compounds was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) incorporating the use of deuterated morphine and M3G as internal standards. Precision and accuracy was determined to be less than 10% at both high and low levels for all analytes and the calibration curve was deemed linear over an acceptable range. Recovery in blood was greater than 90% and ion suppression/enhancement was shown to be less than 15%. This method was applied to over 130 post-mortem cases involving the use of heroin, prescribed morphine and codeine. The range of concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G was large (particularly in heroin and prescribed morphine cases), reflecting the many different factors involved with therapeutic use or fatal opiate poisonings, including tolerance associated with regular use, variable dose regimens and co-administration of other drugs. Detection of other constituents of the opium poppy such as noscapine and papaverine and metabolites of diacetylmorphine in the blood (6-AM) was useful in determining the source of the morphine (i.e. illicit heroin) and the rapidity of death after administration.

  16. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives. The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg, Papaveraceae (opium poppy, Cactaceae (peyote, Convolvulaceae (morning glory, Solanaceae (tobacco, Lamiaceae (mints, Apocynaceae (dogbane have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence. However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants

  17. The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg), Papaveraceae (opium poppy), Cactaceae (peyote), Convolvulaceae (morning glory), Solanaceae (tobacco), Lamiaceae (mints), Apocynaceae (dogbane) have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence). However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants suggests

  18. Drug addiction. Part I. Psychoactive substances in the past and presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetulani, J

    2001-01-01

    Substances capable of changing the functions of the central nervous system are widely distributed in plant kingdom, and many of them were discovered by ancient food-gatherers at the dawn of humanity. In the Old World only a few substances producing euphoria or altered states of consciousness and having habit-forming properties are still widely used. They are the products of poppy (opium, morphine), hemp (hashish, marijuana), and of fermentation of various organic materials alkohol. This list has recently been joined by the psilocybin-containing mushrooms. The addiction-forming compounds originated in the New World and widely spread are tobacco (nicotine) and cocaine. In the 19th and 20th, century the development of medicinal chemistry resulted in several synthetic compounds, originally proposed as therapeutics, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines and amphetamines. Due to legal problems, to avoid production of the substances already prohibited, many designer drugs were manufactured. In addition, several compounds were synthesized as recreational drugs. Also some compounds that were not regarded as drugs, such as aromatic hydrocarbons and other cleansing agents, as well as steroids were found to have properties of dangerous, habit-forming agents. The attitude of society and the pattern of use of psychoactive substances have changed with time, particularly in the last decades. The active principles are now more addictive because of concentration, purification, chemical modifications and the way of ingestion, which now favors most rapid transport to the central nervous system. The substance abuse approaches the level of global epidemics, and the recent usage of drugs of addition is also reviewed.

  19. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.; van Ginkel, P.; Benschop, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aim The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these

  20. "Un paysage hanté, intense comme l'opium". Ville et notion de paysage selon Siegfried Kracauer et Walter Benjamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    bykultur, filosofi, Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Berlin, Paris, landskab, begrebet bylandskab......bykultur, filosofi, Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Berlin, Paris, landskab, begrebet bylandskab...

  1. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

  2. Corruption is the main cause of the defeat in the Opium Wars%腐败是鸦片战争失败的主要原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼霞

    2002-01-01

    鸦片战争是西方列强对中国发动的第一次大规模侵略战争,这场战争由于清朝政治、军事的极端腐败,掌握战争领导权的封建统治者和本国的广大人民处于尖锐对立的地位,使我之所长不能发挥,敌人之短却得以避免,造成了战败的结局.

  3. Analysis of Japanese Scholars'Ideas about China during the Opium War%试析鸦片战争时期日本士人的中国观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔昆仑

    2011-01-01

    透过鸦片战争的失败,日本士人认识到晚清中国愚昧衰弱、自大保守,不复往日之盛.由此,敬畏中国的传统观念开始动摇,并开始产生轻视的心态,进而渐露觊觎中国的野心.鸦片战争遂成为近代日本蔑华侵华意识的源头之一.

  4. 第二次鸦片战争中的美国对华政策%The America's Polices in the Opium War Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸静

    2002-01-01

    在第二次鸦片战争中,美国扮演次要角色,追随英法,充当"免费搭便车的帝国主义",但又保持其独立性,不甘心小伙计的地位.文章主要论述美国在第二次鸦片战争中的对华政策并分析其现实原因和历史的、社会的,以至民族心理上的根源.

  5. ANALYSIS ON THE DELAY OF COPYING THE WEST AFTER THE OPIUM WAR%鸦片战后师夷新政被延误之探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴多智

    2007-01-01

    师夷新政缘何在第一次鸦片战争后未能即时兴起,原因很多.由于传统思想束缚第一次鸦片战争未能迅速激起民族危机感,同时道光帝认识的偏差和缺乏强有力政治力量的支持,以及财政上的捉襟见肘,使这场中国低层次学习西方的运动被延误了近20年.

  6. 侵华日军对南京的鸦片毒害%The Opium Poison against Nanjing People by Japanese Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许金生

    2004-01-01

    鸦片侵略是日本对华侵略的一个重要组成部分.本文在比较抗日战争全面爆发前后南京鸦片状况的同时,就鸦片流入南京的主要途径、尤其是鸦片等毒品泛滥的实态进行了考察,指出正是日军对贩毒销毒的积极参与和纵容,使南京由全国模范禁烟城市迅速沦为一个毒流泛滥的毒品之都.而日军鸦片统制的目的则在于:解决南京伪政府的财政问题,削弱南京人民的抗战能力.

  7. Changes in Fujian Ocean Shipping Industry after the Opium War%鸦片战争后福建海洋航运业的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖大珂

    2002-01-01

    鸦片战争后,西方航运业侵入福建,压倒了福建传统的航运业,不仅垄断了福建的远洋航运业,而且还控制了沿海航运.尽管旧式的帆船业出现了凋零,但是福建的海洋航运业并未因此消亡,新的民族轮船航运业应运而生,顽强地生存、发展.

  8. 贸易失衡的罪恶战争——鸦片战争再解读%LOOK BACK OPIUM WAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建伟

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、中国茶征服不列颠 说到鸦片,必先说茶. 茶在中国,历史悠久.陆羽说,茶之为饮,发乎神农氏.欧洲人首次知道"茶",是在1550年.1606年,第一箱中国茶叶通过荷兰东印度公司运抵阿姆斯特丹,也是中国茶第一次到达欧洲.

  9. On the Western Musical Instruments Introduced to china Before the Opium War%鸦片战争前传入中国的西洋乐器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧灵

    2003-01-01

    鸦片战争前,一些西洋乐器被西方传教士陆续带到了中国.虽然它们的种类、数量不多,影响范围不大,但在中西音乐文化交流中占有重要的地位.本文分别介绍的管风琴、钢琴、小提琴、竖琴等乐器就是其中较具代表性的几类乐器.

  10. 抗战时期日本对中国社会的毒化政策%Japan's Opium Policy to China During the Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶锋

    2006-01-01

    日本帝国主义在抗日战争时期出于经济、政治和军事等方面的原因,采取了各种各样的手段对中国社会实行了惨无人道的鸦片毒化政策,给中国的社会经济和人民生活造成了巨大的灾难.

  11. The second opium war brings us thinking%第二次鸦片战争给我们带来的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正权

    2010-01-01

    学习历史的社会功能在于以史为鉴、启发智慧、面向未来,即不能沉缅于过去,而要构筑历史通向现实、通向未来的渠道,使人能够透析人生,洞悉社会.这也是英国哲学家、作家和科学家弗兰西斯·培根竭力倡导的"读史使人明智"的理由.

  12. The issue of prisoners of war during the Opium War%鸦片战争时期的战俘问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞成

    2004-01-01

    战俘问题一直是人类文明史上一个值得关注的问题:不同文明冲突过程中,如何对待和处理战俘,体现着冲突双方的观念、相互认知和交往方式.鸦片战争史研究中,战俘问题一直是被忽略的战争组成部分.鸦片战争时期战俘的获取、处置、交涉,以及其中反映出的观念,是我们了解这场战争的一个侧面,也是由此观察清王朝的一个视角.

  13. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.; van Ginkel, P.; Benschop, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aim The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these d

  14. 近代国际法与林则徐禁烟%Modern Law of Nations and Lin Zexu's Working Against Opium- smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫明; 王黎明

    2005-01-01

    1839年广东禁烟期间,林则徐引进近代国际法用以指导禁烟运动.从禁烟政策的必要性到禁烟政策的可行性,再到禁烟文书的拟制以及禁烟策略的形成,均表明国际法对禁烟运动提供了适时而重要的法律援助.林则徐将世界流行的近代国际法与厉行禁烟这一民族使命有机结合起来,首开近代公法外交之先风,在一定程度上开创了晚清外交的新局面.

  15. An Introduction to Some Newly Found Lin Zexu's Papers during the Opium War%林则徐鸦片战争时期佚文评介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义雄

    2011-01-01

    在各种中外历史文献中,仍有不少林则徐佚文未被注意.中保存的,即为一篇极重要的林氏佚文.该书收录的林则徐其他文件,亦具研究意义.和中保存了10件以上的林则徐公牍英译件.此外,卫三畏中收有林则徐致英国女王照会初稿.

  16. Assortment of the plants in the Medieval diet in Czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culíková, V

    2000-01-01

    The finds of remains of useful plants in archaeological objects were drawing attention already in the last century. However, it was not until after the World War II, in relation with renovation of historical cores of the towns, when a separate branch of the botany--archaeobotany constituted. In the Czech Republic it was E. Opravil who was the first to become engaged in a systematic archaeobotanical research at the beginning of the 60's. All the vegetal remains--fruits and seeds on the first place as well as pollen grains from prehistoric times to the post-medieval period, are the subjects of archaeobotany. The medieval waste pits are the richest sources of the vegetal remains. They contain a lot of diasporas of cultural as well as wild plants. The remains of useful plants are an authentic document of the vegetal component of diet. Even though some vegetal species, such as for example garlic, onion or stalk-plants, about whose cultivation we are informed from literature, occur only seldom, there appeared also the species not mentioned in literature. All the basic cereals have been known in our country already since the early Middle Ages. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale), as well as millet (Panicum miliaceum) that, along with buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), were replaced by potatoes in the modern times were the most important. Also leguminous plants were of great importance in the diet even though their charred seeds seldom preserved. Remains of oil plants such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), flax (Linum usitatissimum) and poppy (Papaver somniferum) preserved well. It was successfully proved that cucumber (Cucumis sativus), among other numerous kinds of vegetables, was introduced by the Slavs already in the 8th century in Moravia and in the 9th century in Bohemia. The assortment of fruit was rich--especially the assortment of cultivated fruit. Among the imported kinds of fruit the first place occupied figs (Ficus carica), from the numerous finds it can

  17. Drug: D03872 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8119 Others D03872...r08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA55 Oxycodone, combin

  18. Drug: D02101 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8115 Codeines D02101 Codeine phosphate hydrate (JP16); Co... EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloids and derivatives R05DA04 Codeine D02101 Codeine phosphate hydrate (JP16);

  19. Drug: D04336 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 03] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05F COUGH SUPPRESSANTS AND EXPECTORANTS, COMBINATIONS R05FA Opium... derivatives and expectorants R05FA01 Opium derivatives and mucoly

  20. Drug: D04340 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available COLD PREPARATIONS R05F COUGH SUPPRESSANTS AND EXPECTORANTS, COMBINATIONS R05FA Opium... derivatives and expectorants R05FA02 Opium derivatives and expectorants D04340 Dextromethorphan hydrobromide - potassium cresolsulfonate mixt PubChem: 17398062 ...

  1. Modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission by morphine in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Moleman (Peter)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractThe pleasant effects of opium were already known 6000 years ago and opium has been used for medical purposes for at least 3500 years. Opium, and its r.1ain constituent morphine, evoke a feeling of well-being and always relieve pain of any origin, in other words, a perfect analgesic and e

  2. Drug: D03863 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03863 Mixture, Drug Opium alkaloids and atropine injection (JP16); Opium alkaloids hydr...ochloride - atropine sulfate hydrate mixt; Opiato (TN) Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides [DR:D03445], Atro...pine sulfate [DR:D02069] Therapeutic category: 8119 Injection Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br0

  3. The Voice for "Waging War on Opium Trade by Opium Trade" during the Late Qing and the Irrationality of Modern Economic Nationalism%晚清"鸦片商战"观与近代经济民族主义的非理性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增合

    2005-01-01

    经济民族主义是晚清以来民族主义充分彰显的一个领域,"鸦片商战"则是近代经济民族主义观念的重要形式.鸦片战争以后,清廷无法有效地禁绝外来鸦片.民间人士为抵制外国鸦片入侵,纷纷主张弛禁土产鸦片,扩张罂粟种植面积.这种观念不但表现在一般士大夫身上,而且清廷重臣、地方官员也不乏其意,域外人士与国内士绅声气相求,世俗报刊与教会媒介均有相关言论刊布.作为一种非理性的经济民族主义观念,"鸦片商战"给晚清社会和国家造成的负面影响难以估量.

  4. 中国传统外交思想近代转型的初次实践——鸦片战争前夕禁烟运动中的"具结"析论%Guaranty in banning opium smoking and trafficking before the first Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅

    2007-01-01

    为了深入了解中国近代意义外交观念的形成,外交思想从传统向近代的转变,通过对林则徐在禁烟过程中倡导并坚持的"具结"方式的分析,认为:在禁烟斗争中,林则徐不仅围绕"具结"与义律(Charles Elliot 1801-1875)展开了较量,同时尝试运用近代外交理念处理对外交涉.但是由于时代的局限,林则徐尚不清楚真正意义上的近代国际交往,出现了策略及认识上的失误.因此,如何有效地捍卫国家主权,进行对外斗争,成为中国人民必须面对的新挑战.

  5. 论夏目漱石《虞美人草》小说结构的戏剧化%A Study on the Novel Structure Dramatization of Natsume Soseki's Poppies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娇

    2016-01-01

    《虞美人草》作为日本文坛首屈一指的文豪夏目漱石职业作家生涯的处女作,自问世起的一个多世纪以来,以其独特的文学艺术特色,成为饱受争议却永不褪色的文学巨著.从小说的时间结构、空间结构和情节结构三个方面,分析《虞美人草》在小说结构上的戏剧化特点,可以体会夏目漱石独具匠心的艺术创作和小说“戏剧性”的艺术魅力.

  6. 罂粟基因的发现有可能促使便宜的止痛药出现%Poppy Gene Discovery Could Lead to Cheaper Painkillers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周一奇

    2010-01-01

    @@ 卡尔加里--卡尔加里大学的研究人员说,他们已经准确找到了难以找到的罂粟基因,这一发现可能促使便宜、更普遍的止痛药出现.卡尔加里大学生物学教授Peter Facchini表示由两个基因编码的酶困扰科学家们至少已有50年了,这就是植物中唯一地能产生可待因和吗啡的罂粟的特有的两个基因.可待因和吗啡是世界上最广泛使用的止痛药.

  7. Application of an integrated LC-UV-MS-NMR platform to the identification of secondary metabolites from cell cultures: benzophenanthridine alkaloids from elicited Eschscholzia californica (california poppy) cell cultures().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathungu, Rose M; Oldham, John T; Bird, Susan S; Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T; Vouros, Paul; Kautz, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue cultures are a scalable and controllable alternative to whole plants for obtaining natural products of medical relevance. Cultures can be optimized for high yields of desired metabolites using rapid profiling assays such as HPLC. We describe an approach to establishing a rapid assay for profiling cell culture expression systems using a novel microscale LC-UV-MS-NMR platform, designed to acquire both MS and NMR each at their optimal sensitivity, by using nanosplitter MS from 4 mm analytical HPLC columns, and offline microdroplet NMR. The approach is demonstrated in the analysis of elicited Eschscholzia californica cell cultures induced with purified yeast extract to produce benzophenanthridine alkaloids. Preliminary HPLC-UV provides an overview of the changes in the production of alkaloids with time after elicitation. At the time point corresponding to the production of the most alkaloids, the integrated LC-MS-microcoil NMR platform is used for structural identification of extracted alkaloids. Eight benzophenanthridine alkaloids were identified at the sub-microgram level. This paper demonstrates the utility of the nanosplitter LC-MS/microdroplet NMR platform when establishing cell culture expression systems.

  8. Drug: D00195 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gif Papaver somniferum [TAX:3469] Antitussive; Analgesic [narcotic] ATC code: R05DA04 opioids prodrug, activ...195 Codeine (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Opioid Analgesics, Short-acting Codeine D0

  9. Demirgan et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cytotoxicity, Anticancer activity, Papaver alkaloids, HeLa cell line, Vero ... The use of medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of human diseases is an .... From the tested alkaloids, berberine, macranthine, mecambrine for the HeLa ...

  10. Arraigo Histórico del Narcocorrido en Culiacán Arraigo Histórico del Narcocorrido en Culiacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Rodríguez Benítez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available “Narcocorridos” are ballads about the traffic in drugs, and in a musical form chronicle the fate of two social actors: the protagonists of the production, distribution and consumption of hard drugs extracted from opium poppy, coca leaves, and marijuana, and of the government agents responsible for combating the former. In Sinaloa, along with the commercial production of drugs since 1940, encouraged by the US government, a musical movement has been generated which records the vicissitudes of drug dealers and the police and military agents who combat them as well as the conflicts surrounding the control of a multibillion dollar business. This essay provides data dealing with the origins and developmentof the illegal drug traffic in both Culiacán and Badiraguato; analyzes the context of its explosive growth in the 1970s, and the campaigns in the 1960s and 1970s to combat it; and finally, proposes a means of classifying the musical messages of the “narcocorridos”.El narcocorrido, balada del tráfico de drogas, es la crónica musical de la suerte de dos actores sociales: los protagonistas de la producción, distribución y consumo de drogas derivadas de la amapola, la hoja de coca y la marihuana y los agentes responsables de su combate. En Sinaloa, junto a la producción comercial de la droga desde 1940, alentada por el gobierno norteamericano, se ha generado un movimiento musical que registra las vicisitudes de traficantes y de policías y militares que los combaten, así como de las pugnas por el control de ese tráfico que deja ganancias millonarias. En este ensayo se ofrecen datos del surgimiento y desarrollo de esa actividad ilícita en Culiacán y Badiraguato; se analiza el contexto en que repunta esa actividad en la década de 1970 y las campañas para su combate en las décadas de 1960 y 1970, y se hace una clasificación del mensaje musical de los narcocorridos.

  11. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Milan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century a new era began in medicine, pharmaceutics and chemistry that was strongly connected with alkaloids and alkaloid drugs. Even before that it was known that certain drugs administered in limited doses were medicines, and toxic if taken in larger doses (opium, coke leaves, belladonna roots, monkshood tubers crocus or hemlock seeds. However, the identification, isolation and structural characterization of the active ingredients of the alkaloid drugs was only possible in the mid 20th century by the use of modern extraction equipment and instrumental methods (NMR, X-ray diffraction and others.In spite of continuing use over a long time, there is still great interest in investigating new drugs, potential raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the more detailed investigation and definition of bio-active components and the indication of their activity range, and the partial synthesis of new alkaloid molecules based on natural alkaloids. The scope of these investigations, especially in the field of semi-synthesis is to make better use of the bio-active ingredients of alkaloid drugs, i.e. to improve the pharmacological effect (stronger and prolonged effect of the medicine, decreased toxicity and side effects, or to extend or change the applications. A combined classification of alkaloids was used, based on the chemical structure and origin, i.e. the source of their isolation to study alkaloid structure. For practical reasons, the following classification of alkaloids was used: ergot alkaloids, poppy alkaloids, tropanic alkaloids purine derivative alkaloids, carbon-cyclic alkaloids, and other alkaloids. The second part of this report presents a table of general procedures for alkaloid isolation from plant drugs (extraction by water non-miscible solvents, extraction by water-miscible solvents and extraction by diluted acid solutions. Also, methods for obtaining chelidonine and

  12. FUNDAMENTOS BIOQUÍMICOS DE LA INMUNOTOXICOLOGÍA DE LOS OPIÁCEOS Fundamentals of opioids biochemical immunotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Orlando Narváez Quintero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha descubierto que la morfina, anteriormente conocida como una sustancia de origen vegetal extraída de la amapola, es sintetizada también por el cuerpo humano y hace parte del sistema opioide endógeno. La morfina endógena está involucrada en la regulación negativa del sistema inmune, regresándolo a sus condiciones basales luego de haber sido activado. Las investigaciones experimentales preclínicas y clínicas han mostrado que la administración de morfina conduce a efectos inmunosupresores, inhibiendo la actividad de las células asesinas naturales, la proliferación linfocitaria y la capacidad fagocítica de los polimorfonucleares y monocitos. Adicionalmente esta sustancia altera el patrón de síntesis, secreción y actividad paracrina de citocinas, favoreciendo así la respuesta inmune mediada por anticuerpos (Th2-dependiente e inhibiendo la respuesta inmune mediada por células (Th1- dependiente. Estos efectos son suprimidos por la naloxona, un antagonista de los receptores µ. Al parecer la morfina actúa a través de una nueva variante del receptor µ de péptidos opioides denominado µ3, presente en la superficie de las células inmunocíticas. Llama la atención la similitud entre los efectos inmunotóxicos generados en adictos al opio, VIH negativos, con aquellos observados en pacientes no drogadictos VIH positivos que progresan hacia sida.Morphine, previously known as a substance of plant origin extracted from poppy flowers, is also produced by the human body as a part of the endogenous opioid system. Endogenous morphine is involved in the regulation of the immune system, helping it return to its baseline state after it has been activated. Clinical and pre-clinical investigations have shown that the administration of morphine leads to immunosuppressive effects, inhibiting the actions of natural killer cells, lymphocyte proliferation and the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes. Additionally, this

  13. Environ: E00628 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00628 Corydalis bungeana herb Crude drug Alkaloid, Coumarin [CPD:C05851], Steroid ...[CPD:C00377] Corydalis bungeana, Corydalis [TAX:3463] Papaveraceae (poppy family) Corydalis bungeana herb (d...ried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Papaveraceae (poppy family) E00628 Corydalis bungeana herb ...

  14. 78 FR 69134 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration: AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review... Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will manufacture Thebaine intermediates to...

  15. 76 FR 81979 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will manufacture Thebaine...

  16. NATO in Afghanistan: A Test of the Transatlantic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-03

    switch to alternative crops. Many crops, however, cannot compete with poppies; income from a hectare of poppies can reach $4,600 a year, while wheat ...growing prevalence, Afghanistan exemplifies conditions in which “extreme belief systems ... unstable and intolerant societies, strategic crime and

  17. 338 cases of opium addicts insist on methadone maintenance treatment effect analysis%338例阿片类药物成瘾者美沙酮维持治疗的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贠赟; 周东生; 杨洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To describe the effect of the patient with methadone maintenance treatment adhere to treatment more than one year in Kaifeng city. Methods:Survey carried out face to face with 338 patients who participate in the maintenance treatment in from February 2009 to June 2013 and get treatment for more than one year. Collect and analyze the information of demographic,drug addic-tion situation,social and family situation,criminal. Results:There were 279 males(82. 5% )and 59 females(17. 5% )in the 338 survey respondents. Their average age was(40. 7 ± 6. 7)years. Most of them were unemployed. Their primary education was junior high school. After treatment,90. 2% of the patients felt better than before,76. 9% of the governed feel little or no drug addiction, Crime rate fell to 28. 1% from the 45. 6% ,the relationship with their families increased from 23. 1% to 54. 4% ,a good relationship with drug addicts increased from 78. 7% down to 35. 5% . Conclusion:Methadone maintenance treatment clinics on the curative effect does make treatment in better health. can really make the patients to reduce crime. Reduce interaction with drug addicts,strengthen communication with family,but it play a very small role in restoring social functions,in future we should increase publicity,social sup-port to help solve the issues of life skills and employment.%目的:了解开封市美沙酮维持治疗门诊患者坚持治疗1年以上的治疗效果。方法:对开封市美沙酮维持治疗门诊2009年2月一2013年6月入组参加维持治疗,且治疗时间超过1年的患者共338人进行面对面问卷调查,并收集一般人口学、药物成瘾情况、社会家庭情况、违法犯罪情况等信息进行分析。结果:在338名调查对象中其中男性279人(82.5%),女性59人(17.5%);年龄(40.7±6.7)岁,无业、初中及以下文化程度为主。通过治疗,90.2%的患者感到身体精神好转,76.9%的受治者感到基本或完全没有毒瘾,犯罪率由45.6%降至28.1%,受治者与家人关系良好的比例由23.1%升高至54.4%,与毒友关系良好的比例由78.7%降至35.5%。结论:美沙酮维持治疗门诊在疗效上确实能使受治者身体状况好转。在社会效果上能一定程度上减少犯罪、减少与毒友的交往、加强与家人的沟通,但在恢复社会功能方面改善不大,今后应该加大宣传力度,得到社会支持帮助他们解决生活技能和就业问题。

  18. 鸦片战争至辛亥革命的贵州民族研究%The analysis of Guizhou ethics groups from the period of Opium War to The Revolution of 1911

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁泽红

    2012-01-01

    本文主要从外国传教士及学者与贵州民族研究、客籍文士及黔中文人与贵州民族研究、地方志与贵州民族研究等视角,论述了鸦片战争至辛亥革命的贵州民族研究.

  19. "李秀成公文"及"鸦片战役文牍"新证%New Proof of "Li Xiu-Cheng's Dispatches" and "Documents on the Opium War"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳和城

    2000-01-01

    @@ (一) 罗家伦先生1926年6月从欧洲游学归国,带回了一批在伦敦、巴黎等地购得的中国近代史料及千余册书籍.同年8月,他在上海将两包原属清政府两广总督衙门所藏外交文件--"鸦片战役文牍",请张元济先生审定编目(参见1998年第6期《档案与史学》拙文《张元济与"鸦片战役文牍"》).

  20. On the Ideological Foundation of Guangdong People's Fight Against the Aggression Around the Opium War%论鸦片战争时期广东民众反侵略斗争的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘荣新

    2006-01-01

    鸦片战争时期,广东民众反侵略斗争的浪潮不断,是什么原因促使他们进行着如此长时间和形式多样的斗争?显然,义愤情绪、保卫权益的思想要求和华夏中心主义是促使他们行动起来的重要思想基础.

  1. About Strategy of Emperor Xian Feng against Foreigner in Second Opium War%第二次鸦片战争中咸丰帝制夷方略浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔国才

    2005-01-01

    第二次鸦片战争期间,咸丰帝在抵制列强侵略过程中采取了一系列"制夷"方略:抚剿兼施、用民剿夷和以夷制夷.由于阶级局限,加之国势衰颓,"制夷"方略终难奏效.

  2. 论鸦片战争前后的"更法"与"借法"%On "Political Reform" and "Making Use of the Foreign Way" before and after the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐松荣

    2006-01-01

    在鸦片战争前后的特定历史背景下,揭开了晚清改革的序幕.从"更法",即变更旧制、整顿旧法开始,在新形势下又转向"借法",即学习和取法西方.学习、借法西方从上、下两个层面展开,从而引发了太平天国运动和洋务自强运动.

  3. 鸦片战后清朝统治者对外国侵略者的态度和心理%The Qing Dynasty Rulers' Attitude and Psychology towards Foreign InvadersAfter the Opium Wars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳

    2002-01-01

    鸦片战后清朝统治者对外国侵略者的态度和心理是复杂和矛盾的.这些复杂和矛盾的心理对清廷的内外政策产生了重大影响,致使清廷的内外政策也矛盾重重,清廷矛盾重重的内外政策不可能把中国带上富强之路.

  4. 明至清代鸦片战争前中医外科学的重大成就%Important Achievements in Chinese Surgery in Ming and Qing Dynasties before the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊兵

    2001-01-01

    从外科实践、外科理论、外科学派3个方面阐述明清时期中医外科所取得的重大成就。这一时期,我国中医外科强调实践,不断提出新理论和新观点,并产生了外科学派。

  5. The Qing Government's Attitude and Policy Towards Trading with Britain Before the Opium War%鸦片战争前清政府对待中英贸易的态度与政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢甲志

    2006-01-01

    鸦片战争前,在所有同中国进行国际贸易的国家中,英国占据首位.清政府由于观念上的落后,颁布了许多苛刻的限制措施,这些措施引起英商的强烈反弹,成为鸦片战争爆发的一个重要因素.

  6. Did the British Dump Goods to China after the Second Opium War%第二次鸦片战争后英国向中国"倾销"商品了吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹流芳

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1856-1860年,英法联军发动了侵略中国的第二次鸦片战争.通过战争,联军达到了"进一步扩大侵略权益,打开中国市场"的目的.随后,以英国为首的"西方资本主义国家掀起了向中国倾销商品,掠夺原材料的狂潮"(参阅上册,第16页).

  7. The patriotic endeavors of the Chinese youth during the Opium War%论鸦片战争时期中国青年的爱国主义斗争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庚存

    2004-01-01

    鸦片战争严重影响了中国近代历史的进程,给中国青年带来深重的灾难.为挽救民族危亡,爱国青年英勇反对英国入侵,并开始向西方学习.鸦片战争时期的中国青年表现了可贵的爱国主义精神.

  8. On the Issue of Common People Serving as Traitors during the Opium War%鸦片战争时期平民充当汉奸问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘攀

    2003-01-01

    本文主要探讨了鸦片战争时期汉奸所起的恶劣作用,以及平民充当汉奸的原因.鸦片战争时期,沿海一带平民从奸的原因是复杂的.既有经济、政治方面的原因,也有思想意识方面的因素.

  9. 第二次鸦片战争结束后中外交涉四题%Four Problems of Chinese and Western Negotiation after the Second Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开玺

    2003-01-01

    第二次鸦片战争期间的中外关系与交涉,史学界的相关论文、论著已多有论列,但第二次鸦片战争结束后有关的中外交涉却少有论说。笔者择其有代表性的四个具体问题,略作分析,以便人们更准确地认识当时的中外关系。

  10. 梁廷枏《夷氛闻记》及其鸦片战争史研究%A Review of Liang Ting-nan's YIFEN WENJI and Its Significance to the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恩维

    2009-01-01

    梁廷枏记录、分析鸦片战争爆发的原因、经过及其影响,寻求御敌制夷之法,弘扬抵抗精神,体现了强烈的爱国思想.以当时人记当时事,兼具私史和当代史的二重性质,具有引领清代史学变迁的学术史意义.

  11. On the "Transformation" View of the Westernization School and China's Coastal Defense Construction in the Wake of the Opium War%洋务论者的"变局"观与海防建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚东玲

    2003-01-01

    鸦片战争爆发后,清朝内外局势发生重大变化.以李鸿章为代表的洋务派认为,面对"变局"形势,中国应该大力开展以近代化海军与海防设施为中心的海防建设,其"变局"观的发展与清朝海防建设的实施有重要的因果关系.

  12. Analysis of American China Policy Before and after the Second Opium War%第二次鸦片战争前后美国对华政策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建

    2008-01-01

    第二次鸦片战争前后是美国对华政策的过渡时期,在此之前其奉行的是孤立主义的外交方针,而在此期间其政策则反复多变,过渡性的特点十分明显.这种过渡为其后它倡行"合作政策"打下了基础.

  13. The influence of Opium War to the Guangdong coast resident immigrate%论鸦片战争对广东沿海居民移民的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李事明

    2010-01-01

    本文结合广东省人口、自然环境和自然经济解体、战争连连、清政府移民政策转变等社会背景,以及西方列强对劳动力的需求等几个方面阐述了鸦片战争对广东移民高潮的影响.

  14. 第二次鸦片战争时期中美赔偿问题论略%Brief on the Problem of Compensatory between China and American during the Second Opium Wars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松

    2007-01-01

    中美两国政府间第一次大规模的赔偿问题发生在第二次鸦片战争期间。但长期以来这一问题并没有引起人们的足够重视。了解这次赔偿问题对认识和把握第二次鸦片战争时期,以至早期中美关系无疑都具有重要意义。

  15. 民国时期甘肃鸦片生产规模的数量分析%Analisis on the Amount of the Production Scale of Opium in Gansu in the Time of MinGuo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志龙

    2002-01-01

    分析民国时期甘肃鸦片的种植面积、鸦片的亩产量及鸦片税收发现,鸦片的种植和生产是当时甘肃农村经济的重要组成部分,当时的甘肃财政对鸦片生产的依重相当巨大,这也是近代甘肃社会经济发展滞后的重要原因之一.

  16. Afghanistan: Nation or Narco State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    famous for aspirin, came up with a name for the awe-inspiringly powerful painkiller based on the German word heroisch, meaning heroic. It would...Through interaction with opiate receptors in the brain , opium and heroin may well have an inherent biological logic that makes their mass abuse a...produces opium alkaloid: "…the plant has developed opium simply to ensure humans maintain it in cultivation, an elaborate and incredibly ingenious

  17. 辩护与谴责:试析近代来华传教士的中外冲突观——以鸦片战争和鸦片贸易为中心%Defense and Condemnation: Analysis of the Views of Foreign Missionaries in Modern China for the Conflicts between China and other Countries— An Examination Centering on the Opium War and the Opium Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2011-01-01

    鸦片战争和鸦片贸易,是近代中外冲突中的重要事件.鸦片战争起因于鸦片贸易,而战争的结果又促进了鸦片在中国的泛滥.近代来华传教士把战争和贸易看成了截然不同的两个事件,对战争的辩护丝毫没有影响他们对贸易的谴责.这种矛盾的认识态度具有内在的统一性.

  18. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Phoenix "It's Never Been Like That", Opium Flirt "Vibratiooni Sessioon", Mobb Deep "Blood Money", Roy Orbison "Thev Essential", Depoo "Amazing", Bardi Johannsson "Haxan", Honeymunch "Bunch"

  19. Drug: D01481 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rants 2242 Codeines D01481 Dihydrocodeine phosphate (JP16) 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloid...c Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloid

  20. Drug: D00842 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8114 Morphines D00842 Morphine su...3] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA01 Morphine D00842 Morphi

  1. Common Challenges, Common Responses: Fighting Narcotics as a Harbinger of International Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Popular and elite attitudes towards the production and trade in opium and its derivatives have undergone drastic changes over the last two hundred years. Introduced to the region as a cash crop by colonial powers controlling its international trade routes, opium had become by the mid 20th century...

  2. Drug: D03869 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44], Ipecac [DR:D03868] Therapeutic category: 8119 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Nar...D03869 Mixture, Drug Opium ipecac powder (JP16); Dover's powder (TN) Opium [DR:D034

  3. Drug: D02175 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8119 ATC code: N02AA05 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloid...herapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloid

  4. Drug: D05462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tagonists Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloid...assification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloid

  5. 76 FR 16413 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ..., lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed (canola), sesame, and sweet...: Quizalofop-p-ethyl. Proposed Uses: Sorghum containing the INZEN AII herbicide tolerance trait and...

  6. Moonidega roosa kapp / Kristjan Arunurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arunurm, Kristjan

    2004-01-01

    "Poppy" mööblikauplusest Tallinnas. Pakutakse maalingutega lastemööblit. Juhataja Evely Kasemaa, mööblikavandeid teeb Annika Alus, mööblit kaunistavad maalingutega A. Alus, Helina Toater. 9 ill

  7. 76 FR 30969 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ..., 2011, and published in the Federal Register on March 17, 2011, 76 FR 14688, Aptuit, 10245 Hickman Mills... Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import a...

  8. Calendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... On Ltd) that contains mullein, garlic, calendula, and St. John’s wort to the ear for 3 days reduces ear ... calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, St. John's wort, skullcap, valerian, yerba mansa, and others.

  9. 75 FR 807 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revision to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ...) Milkweed, Asclepias spp. L.; (19) Mustard seed, Brassica hirta Moench, Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba; (20... pleasure; Hare's ear mustard; Lesquerella; Lunaria; Meadowfoam; Milkweed; Mustard seed; Oil radish; Poppy...

  10. Drug use and harm reduction in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends.

  11. AcEST: BP918355 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CU Taxadien-5-alpha-ol O-acetyltransferase OS=... 45 2e-04 sp|Q94FT4|SALAT_PAPSO Salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltra...2 >sp|Q94FT4|SALAT_PAPSO Salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase OS=Papaver somniferum GN=SALAT PE=1 SV=1 Length

  12. AcEST: DK962766 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _DIACA Anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase protein ... 69 2e-11 sp|Q94FT4|SALAT_PAPSO Salutaridinol 7-O-acetyl...9 >sp|Q94FT4|SALAT_PAPSO Salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase OS=Papaver somniferum GN=SALAT PE=1 SV=1 Length

  13. Drug: D07848 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkalo...ids and derivatives R05DA11 Dimemorfan D07848 Dimemorfan

  14. Drug: D08579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkalo...ids and derivatives R05DA10 Thebacon D08579 Thebacon hyd

  15. Drug: D01036 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkal...oids and derivatives R05DA07 Noscapine D01036 Noscapine

  16. Drug: D03876 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8119 Others D03876 Morphine hydrochloride hydrat...category: 8119 ATC code: N02AG01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloid

  17. Drug: D07384 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloids and derivatives R05DA06 Normethadone D07384 Nor...303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH E

  18. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Opioid Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Absalom, Anthony; Visser, Anniek; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; De Vries, Erik FJ; Van Waarde, Aren; Luiten, Paul GM

    2014-01-01

    The opioid system consists of opioid receptors (which mediate the actions of opium), their endogenous ligands (the enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins, dynorphin, and nociceptin), and the proteins involved in opioid production, transport, and degradation. PET tracers for the various opioid recepto

  19. The neuropsychological impacts of addictive drugs on the addicts in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Seyed Mahmoudi

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: The current study confirmed that opium and Norjizak abusing had destructive effects mainly in the functions of specific brain regions supporting memory, learning, and executive functions. However, methadone can minimize these negative effects.

  20. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by morphine, confirmed by positive patch test and lymphocyte transformation test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardaun, Sylvia H.; de Monchy, Jan G.

    Morphine, an opium alkaloid, frequently causes side effects such as hyperhidrosis and facial flushing, but serious cutaneous adverse drug reactions are seldom observed. Best known are Urticaria, erythema, and pruritus; sometimes pseudoallergic anaphylactoid reactions, and blisters are reported.

  1. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by morphine, confirmed by positive patch test and lymphocyte transformation test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardaun, Sylvia H.; de Monchy, Jan G.

    2006-01-01

    Morphine, an opium alkaloid, frequently causes side effects such as hyperhidrosis and facial flushing, but serious cutaneous adverse drug reactions are seldom observed. Best known are Urticaria, erythema, and pruritus; sometimes pseudoallergic anaphylactoid reactions, and blisters are reported.

  2. Forma odezhdõ - v tsvetotshek / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2003-01-01

    Tatjana Tridvornova organiseeritud lilleballist Tallinnas. Algas lillekleitide defileega Saku Suurhallis ja jätkus lillekleitide konkursiga klubis Opium. Žürii koosseis. Võitja on läti florist Druvis Ciritis lillekleidiga "Puudutus"

  3. Drug: D07385 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloi...ds and derivatives R05DA08 Pholcodine D07385 Pholcodine

  4. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers, such as ... tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid. Some opioids are made from the opium plant, ...

  5. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Opioid Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Absalom, Anthony; Visser, Anniek; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; De Vries, Erik FJ; Van Waarde, Aren; Luiten, Paul GM

    2014-01-01

    The opioid system consists of opioid receptors (which mediate the actions of opium), their endogenous ligands (the enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins, dynorphin, and nociceptin), and the proteins involved in opioid production, transport, and degradation. PET tracers for the various opioid

  6. Pop / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mando Diao "Never Seen the Light of Day", Joyce & Tutty Moreno "Samba Jazz & Outras Bossas", Neil Young "Chrome Dreams II", John Fogerty "Revival", Opium Flirt "Tehislend", Joni Mitchell "Shine", Serj Tankian "Elect the Dead"

  7. Lainetab, ei laineta, lainetab... / Kati Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Kati, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Kiwa kureeritud noortenäitus "NO Wave" galeriis Vaal 9. juunini. Avamisel esines bänd Opium Flirt. Graafiline disainer Risto Kalmre. Pikemalt Ott Pilipenko installatsioonist "Surmatants" ja Jevgeni Zolotko tööst

  8. Pop / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mando Diao "Never Seen the Light of Day", Joyce & Tutty Moreno "Samba Jazz & Outras Bossas", Neil Young "Chrome Dreams II", John Fogerty "Revival", Opium Flirt "Tehislend", Joni Mitchell "Shine", Serj Tankian "Elect the Dead"

  9. Vsepobezhdajushtshaja strast / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Professionaalsete lilleseadjate võistlusest "Lillekleit 2003" Tallinnas klubis Opium. Võitis läti lilleseadja Druvis Ciritise lillekleit "Puudutus", II koha sai Irmen Laving ja III koha Heiki Põder. Rikkalikult illustreeritud

  10. Forma odezhdõ - v tsvetotshek / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2003-01-01

    Tatjana Tridvornova organiseeritud lilleballist Tallinnas. Algas lillekleitide defileega Saku Suurhallis ja jätkus lillekleitide konkursiga klubis Opium. Žürii koosseis. Võitja on läti florist Druvis Ciritis lillekleidiga "Puudutus"

  11. 25 CFR 140.19 - Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not keep for sale, or sell, give away, or use any opium, chloral, cocaine, peyote or mescal bean, hashish or Indian hemp or marihuana, or any compound containing either ingredient, and for...

  12. Auditory sensitivity in opiate addicts with and without a history of noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Rawool

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several case reports suggest that some individuals are susceptible to hearing loss from opioids. A combination of noise and opium exposure is possible in either occupational setting such as military service or recreational settings. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency of the U.S. Department of Justice, prescriptions for opiate-based drugs have skyrocketed in the past decade. Since both opium and noise independently can cause hearing loss, it is important to know the prevalence of hearing loss among individuals who are exposed to opium or both opium and noise. The purpose of this research was to evaluate auditory sensitivity in individuals with a history of opium abuse and/or occupational or nonoccupational noise exposure. Twenty-three men who reported opiate abuse served as participants in the study. Four of the individuals reported no history of noise exposure, 12 reported hobby-related noise exposure, 7 reported occupational noise exposure including 2 who also reported hobby-related noise exposure. Fifty percent (2/4 of the individuals without any noise exposure had a hearing loss confirming previous reports that some of the population is vulnerable to the ototoxic effects of opioids. The percentage of population with hearing loss increased with hobby-related (58% and occupational noise exposure (100%. Mixed MANOVA revealed a significant ear, frequency, and noise exposure interaction. Health professionals need to be aware of the possible ototoxic effects of opioids, since early detection of hearing loss from opium abuse may lead to cessation of abuse and further progression of hearing loss. The possibility that opium abuse may interact with noise exposure in determining auditory thresholds needs to be considered in noise exposed individuals who are addicted to opiates. Possible mechanisms of cochlear damage from opium abuse, possible reasons for individual susceptibility, and recommendations for future studies are presented in the article.

  13. Cutting the Link Between Drugs and Terrorists: Countering Major Terrorist-Financing Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    try to fill these gaps of the terrorist narcotic interactions by providing a model which could offer a reasonable solution for cutting the links...consumption. In addition to undermining economic and social development, the use of these drugs has brought misery to thousands of people and contributed...consists of nine stages: extracting the morphine from raw opium, separating the morphine solution from the water-insoluble opium components, treatment

  14. The anti-cancer activity of noscapine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Massoud; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh

    2009-01-01

    Noscapine is an isoqiunoline alkaloid found in opium latex. Unlike most other alkaloids obtained from opium latex, noscapine is not sedative and has been used as antitussive drug in various countries. Recently, it has been introduced as an anti-mitotic agent. This drug can be used orally. When the resistance to other anti-cancer drugs such as paclitaxel manifests, noscapine might be effective. Therefore, noscapine and its analogs have great potential as novel anti-cancer agents.

  15. The Influence of the Rate of Value between Silver and Copper Cash on the China and Foreign Trade during the Decade after Opium War%关于鸦片战后10年间银贵钱贱影响下中国对外贸易问题的商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪敬虞

    2006-01-01

    1961年彭泽益先生发表了他的具有开创性的论文,1983年该文收入他的论文专集.本文是作者根据上个世纪80年代阅读彭先生大作时所做的一些读书笔记整理而成的,本文认为影响中国白银汇价短期波动的直接因素是中国对外贸易的收支状况,而中国白银汇价长期变动的最后根据是国际金银市场的供需状况.白银汇价的变动也对中国的对外贸易产生了一定的影响;而银贵钱贱现象则在一定程度上加强了中国工农结合的小农经济对机制洋货的抵制;最后,鸦片战后10年间,西方国家用以平衡其与中国贸易的主要工具,仍然是走私进口的鸦片.

  16. 论中国近代军事后勤体制建设--从鸦片战争到甲午战争%On Rear-Service System Building in China's Modern Military (From the Opium War to the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗绪安; 方新兵

    2004-01-01

    鸦片战争以来,为了对内镇压太平天国运动、对外抗击西方列强侵略,清政府逐步引进、进而自制近代武器装备.近代武器装备的运用导致近代后勤体制逐步建立:专业的后勤机构出现,后勤人员与作战部队分离,军费筹措及消费途径改变.军事后勤体制逐步由古代转变到近代.

  17. 鸦片战争可否称为商业战争--一个研究性学习的案例及教学反思%Can The Opium War Be Called Commercial War--From Original Version to Version and Discussing with Ma Zhibin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋碧勇

    2005-01-01

    @@ 编者按:本刊2003年12期发表了张、蔡二位老师《鸦片战争也应有"维护商业"性质》一文,引起众多人士的关注,至今也没有平息.湖北公安县车胤中学蒋老师不仅以此为题搞了一堂研究性学习课,而且进一步提出了教材为"蓝本"还是"文本"的问题.实质上,一字之差体现出截然不同的教学理念.一线教师在思考这个问题,为中学历史教学服务的办刊者、教材的编写者,是不是也应该认真思考?

  18. On Reasons of the Disordered Escape of Qing Army in Opium War --Taking Humen War as an Example%鸦片战争中清军临阵溃逃原因研究--以虎门战役为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟; 张建华; 王自云

    2005-01-01

    1840年6月,中英鸦片战争爆发,中国战败.其中原因虽然很多,但是清军大规模临阵溃逃,毫无战斗力却是中国战败的主要原因之一.本文试图从军事纪律、军队风气、将领、士兵心理等几个方面来探讨清兵临阵溃逃的原因.

  19. Identifying with Heroes by Authority and Among the People in the Case of Hailing's Death during the Opium War%从海龄之死看鸦片战争时期官方与民间的英雄认同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连银

    2006-01-01

    海龄由于其不恰当的军事手段,导致矛盾激化,矛盾聚焦于海龄在京口的活动、死亡方式.围绕其死亡方式,各方争端不断,持续长久.争端方对此各执一词,镇江人利用流言否认海龄殉节,与官方直接对立.争端折射出官方与民间在认同上的差异.

  20. 近代中国社会变革的历史洞察——读《鸦片战争与近代中国》及其它%A Review on 'The Opium Wars (1840-1842) and Modern China'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁立春; 刘曼容

    2002-01-01

    @@ 近期再读萧致治先生所著《鸦片战争与近代中国》,感触甚深,受益良多。古人云:“十年磨一剑”,这正是该书的真实写照。它是先生40年来研究中国近代历史的部分成果,也是其40年来学术研究的一次总结。全书53万多字,分为五编,收录了……

  1. Modeling Policy and Agricultural Decisions in Afghanistan

    CERN Document Server

    Widener, Michael J; Gros, Andreas; Metcalf, Sara; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is responsible for the majority of the world's supply of poppy crops, which are often used to produce illegal narcotics like heroin. This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates policy scenarios to characterize how the production of poppy can be dampened and replaced with licit crops over time. The model is initialized with spatial data, including transportation network and satellite-derived land use data. Parameters representing national subsidies, insurgent influence, and trafficking blockades are varied to represent different conditions that might encourage or discourage poppy agriculture. Our model shows that boundary-level interventions, such as targeted trafficking blockades at border locations, are critical in reducing the attractiveness of growing this illicit crop. The principle of least effort implies that interventions decrease to a minimal non-regressive point, leading to the prediction that increases in insurgency or other changes are likely to lead to worsening conditions,...

  2. 阿让特伊附近的野罂粟花

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude Monet

    2012-01-01

    Painted in the fields of Argenteuil, Monet treated the canvas with a white primer to achieve this bright and summery effect. The mother and child in the foreground are likely to be his wife and son, who act as a pretext for a diagonal contour receding towards the figures in the background, balancing the composition. Forms are composed entirely of contrasts in colour -- there are no lines. The sprinkled poppies get disproportionately large towards the foreground, generating a sense of rhythm and paving the way for abstraction -- the visual impression of the poppies takes precedence over painting them accurately.

  3. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of some plants used as folk remedy in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Ilhan; Ustün, Osman; Yesilada, Erdem; Sezik, Ekrem; Kutsal, Osman

    2003-09-01

    Five herbal remedies used as gastroprotective crude drugs in Turkey were assessed for anti-ulcerogenic activity using the EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis model in rat. The crude drugs investigated comprises fruits of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae), fresh fruits of Hibiscus esculentus L. (Malvaceae), fresh roots of Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae), leaves of Phlomis grandiflora H.S. Thomson (Lamiaceae) and fresh fruits of Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae). Extracts were prepared according to the traditional indications of use. Under our experimental conditions, all extracts exhibited statistically significant gastroprotective effect with better results for Phlomis grandiflora and Rosa canina (100%). At the concentration under study, both crude drugs were more effective than the reference compound misoprostol at 0.4 mg/kg. Even the weakest anti-ulcerogenic effect observed for Papaver rhoeas roots was found statistically potent (95.6%). Histopathological studies confirmed the results of the in vivo test.

  4. AcEST: BP914441 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available transferase OS=G... 36 0.15 sp|Q12226|AYT1_YEAST Trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase OS=Sacc... 35 0.34 sp|Q94FT4|SALAT_PAPSO Salut...1 E L DK Sbjct: 458 ECLNADK 464 >sp|Q94FT4|SALAT_PAPSO Salutaridinol 7-O-acetyltransferase OS=Papaver somnif

  5. Comparison of the biological behaviour of morphine and its N-oxides in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurkan, E.; Demirel, B.; Ozker, K. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1982-04-01

    /sup 14/C labelled morphine and morphine N-oxide solutions are injected into rats for the in vivo detection and comparison of morphine N-oxides, the natural presence of which in Papaver somniferum L. was proved by us in an earlier work /1/ and morphine itself and the distributions of these two substances in the kidneys, liver, blood and urine of the injected animals are investigated, in various time intervals.

  6. Prehistoric Agricultural Communities in West Central Alabama. Volume 2. Studies of Material Remains from the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    grape (Vitis sp.), two gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), four sedge family ( Cyperaceae ), one sage (Salvia sp.), and one prickly poppy (Argemone sp.). Sixty...present. Passionflower, Chenopodium. sedge , .aygrass, and sage seeds were also identified from this feature; also present 0- ".’ T.: " . - .:.1

  7. 75 FR 9614 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated October 16, 2009, and published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55584), Clinical Supplies... Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670), a basic class...

  8. Hetkehitt : Rihanna feat. Jay-Z "Umbrella". Mikk Saar rootslaste lahjendatud versioonis. Kilehäälne Stelle trummari tehtud meigiga / Piret Järvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järvis, Piret, 1984-

    2007-01-01

    Laulust. Heliplaadist "See on see". Psühhedeelset power-poppi viljelevast ansamblist Stella, debüütplaadi "First Kiss" esitluskontserdist 18. mail Tallinnas üritusel Mutant Disco (bändi lugusid saab kuulata: www.myspace.com/stellatallinn)

  9. Criticality of U.S. Military Presence in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The United States can also bring information technology to these societies. New technologies, including biotechnology , have enormous potential to...million cannabis and 12,500 poppy plants during operations in Belize, Costa Rica and Guatemela.58 Unfortunately, future successes like these are likely

  10. East Europe Report: Economic and Industrial Affairs, No. 2416

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-28

    of insecticides (Pirimor 0.4 kg) 35. Harvest of beet cuts and transport 36. Harvest of beet roots and transport 37. Silaging of beet cuts, spreading...Grain maize 10. Edible peas 11. Fava beans 12. Winter rape 13. Poppies 14. Sugar beets 15. Fodder beets 16. Sugar beet seedlings 17. Sugar beet seed

  11. The heroin addict! A personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyngler, Charles

    2002-04-01

    Heroin beckons like the sweet seductive calls of Ulysses' sirens. The alluring nectar of the poppy seed, once experienced is not easy to escape. The greed for pleasure is endless. Gratification begets gratification. This paper explores issues and complications of treatment intervention in heroin addiction. The author is a general practitioner with 25 years experience and special interest in substance abuse medicine.

  12. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  13. La Artesania Mexicana (Mexican Handicrafts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Bettina

    This booklet contains instructions in English and Spanish for making eleven typical Mexican craft articles. The instructions are accompanied by pen-and-ink drawings. The objects are (1) "La Rosa" (The Rose); (2) "El Crisantemo" (The Chrysanthemum); (3) "La Amapola" (The Poppy); (4) "Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes); (5) "Ojitos con dos caras" (Two-Sided…

  14. 2012 National Guard Bureau Posture Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    alfalfa , and saffron. Domestically, the National Guard is ready to respond on a moment’s notice to any emergency, manmade or natural. The...horticulture (plant cultivation ), pest control, veterinary/animal husbandry techniques, civil engineering, and energy management. As a result of the...ADTs, Afghanistan decreased poppy production while increasing harvests of apples, grapes, pomegranates, cherries, almonds, wheat, corn, alfalfa

  15. Effects of types and doses of yeast on gas production and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-12

    Nov 12, 2016 ... on the dynamics of gas production and in vitro digestibility when dosed at ..... Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of ... Poppy, G.D., Rabiee, A.R., Lean, I.J., Sanchez, W.K., Dorton, K.L., Morley, P.S., 2012.

  16. 77 FR 55505 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; AMPAC Fine Chemicals LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... inspection and testing of the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to... (9670) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company...

  17. 76 FR 65749 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore...: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import a... trial study. In addition, the company also plans to import an ointment for the treatment of wounds which...

  18. 78 FR 35052 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Noramco, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and... Phenylacetone (8501) II Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II ] The company... company plans to import an intermediate form of Tapentadol (9780) to bulk manufacture Tapentadol for...

  19. 《楠塔基特岛的夜行鸟》——你也可以是英雄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琼·艾肯; 月棠; 辛彩娜

    2013-01-01

    精彩片断Captain Casket was wild and feverish, rolled about in his bed, and kept throwing imaginary harpoons 1) at unseen whales. "He needs a dose of poppy syrup 2) ," Doctor Mayhew said. "That’ll give him some rest." He administered a draught 3) . Immediately Captain Casket fell back and began snoring

  20. 76 FR 14688 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... to Rhodes Technologies, 72 FR 3417 (2007), comments and requests for hearings on applications to... notice published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, (40 FR 43745-46), all applicants for... schedules I and II: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans...