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Sample records for operational transconductance amplifier

  1. Grounded Capacitor Oscillators Using A Single Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti; Muhammad Haroon Khan

    1996-01-01

    New oscillator circuits using operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) are presented. Each circuit uses a single OTA and grounded capacitors. The feasibility of obtaining oscillators with independent control of frequency and oscillation is considered. Also, the feasibility of exploiting, to advantage, the frequency dependence of the OTA-transconductance is considered. This may result in OTA-based RC oscillators using only one externally-connected capacitor.

  2. Processing of Communication Signal Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A.; Ghosh, K.; Mondal, S; Ray, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a signal processing methodology of communication system and realized that circuits using operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). Two important classes of communication circuit, delta modulator and compander have been designed using that procedure. In the first implementation coded pulse modulation system is demonstrated which employ sampling, quantizing and coding to convert analog waveforms to digital signals while the second gives data compression and expansion in ...

  3. Design of an operational transconductance amplifier applying multiobjective optimization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pereira-Arroyo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem at hand consists in the sizing of an Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA. The Pareto front is introduced as a useful analysis concept in order to explore the design space of such analog circuit. A genetic algorithm (GA is employed to automatically detect this front in a process that efficiently finds optimal parameteriza­tions and their corresponding values in an aggregate fitness space. Since the problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization task, different measures of the amplifier like the transconductance, the slew rate, the linear range and the input capacitance are used as fitness functions. Finally, simulation results are pre­sented, using a standard 0,5μm CMOS technology.

  4. A novel fully differential telescopic operational transconductance amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tianwang; Jiang Jinguang [Department of Integrated Circuits and Communication Software, International School of Software, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Ye Bo, E-mail: jgjiang95@yahoo.com.c [Faculty of Computer and Information Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China)

    2009-08-15

    A novel fully differential telescopic operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is proposed. An additional PMOS differential pair is introduced to improve the unit-gain bandwidth of the telescopic amplifier. At the same time, the slew rate is enhanced by the auxiliary slew rate boost circuits. The proposed OTA is designed in a 0.18{mu}m CMOS process. Simulation results show that there is a 49% improvement in the unit-gain bandwidth compared to that of a conventional OTA; moreover, the DC gain and the slew rate are also enhanced. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Design of Enhanced Performance Folded Cascoded Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Priyanka; Singh, B. P.; Bhardwaj, Monika

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a modified folded cascode transconductance amplifier. Inclusion of an extra stage and compensation network in the proposed amplifier enhanced the performance over the conventional folded. The proposed circuit offers good trade-off on the conflicting performance parameters such as bandwidth, slew rate, d.c. gain, phase margin and settling time. The simulation has been carried out on Tanner EDA tool on TSMC 180 nm technology.

  6. The energy transfer between the ports of an implemented gyrator using LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatai, Ildiko; Zaharie, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a gyrator implementation using a LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier is analyzed. It was first verified under PSpice simulation and experimentally the antireciprocity of this gyrator, i.e., its properties. This type of gyrator can be used for controlling the energy transfer from one port to the other by modifying the bias currents of the operational transconductance amplifier.

  7. The energy transfer between the ports of an implemented gyrator using LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatai, Ildiko; Zaharie, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a gyrator implementation using a LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier is analyzed. It was first verified under PSpice simulation and experimentally the antireciprocity of this gyrator, i.e., its properties. This type of gyrator can be used for controlling the energy transfer from one port to the other by modifying the bias currents of the operational transconductance amplifier.

  8. Efficient Slew-Rate Enhanced Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Peng Wan; Fei-Xiang Zhang; Shao-Wei Zhen; Ya-Juan He; Ping Luo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract⎯Today, along with the prevalent use of portable equipment, wireless, and other battery powered systems, the demand for amplifiers with a high gain-bandwidth product (GBW), slew rate (SR), and at the same time very low static power dissipation is growing. In this work, an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with an enhanced SR is proposed. By inserting a sensing resistor in the input port of the current mirror in the OTA, the voltage drop across the resistor is converted into an output current containing a term in proportion to the square of the voltage, and then the SR of the proposed OTA is significantly enhanced and the current dissipation can be reduced. The proposed OTA is designed and simulated with a 0.5μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The simulation results show that the SR is 4.54 V/μs, increased by 8.25 times than that of the conventional design, while the current dissipation is only 87.3%.

  9. Low-power, enhanced-gain adaptive-biasing-based Operational Transconductance Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad

    A symmetrical PMOS OTA (Operational Transconductance Amplifier) is used to build an advanced rail-to-rail amplifier with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption. By using the adaptive biasing circuit for two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be achieved, reducing power...

  10. An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, F.; Martınez, S.O.; Dieck, G.; Rossetto, O.

    2007-01-01

    special issue in one of the Eurasip journals (Hindawi Publishing Corporation); International audience; A novel differential-input single-output Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) is presented in this paper. The topology proposed consists of an input stage based on a folded cascoded amplifier, and an output stage based on a current source amplifier and a bulk-driven current mirror. The simulations show that the amplifier has a 1.94¹W power dissipation, 92dB open-loop DC gain, a unit ...

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A novel fully differential telescopic operational transconductance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwang, Li; Bo, Ye; Jinguang, Jiang

    2009-08-01

    A novel fully differential telescopic operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is proposed. An additional PMOS differential pair is introduced to improve the unit-gain bandwidth of the telescopic amplifier. At the same time, the slew rate is enhanced by the auxiliary slew rate boost circuits. The proposed OTA is designed in a 0.18μm CMOS process. Simulation results show that there is a 49% improvement in the unit-gain bandwidth compared to that of a conventional OTA; moreover, the DC gain and the slew rate are also enhanced.

  12. Design of Biquad Universal Filter Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier in 180nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents concept of universal filter using operational transconductance amplifier (OTA.The 0.18μm CMOS process is used for design and simulation. This OTA has basing current of 50μA with supply voltage ±1.25v. The design and simulation of this OTA is done using CADENCE virtuoso environment with UMC 0.18μm technology file. This paper presents a electronically tunable voltage mode universal biquadratic filter with Three input and single output using two single ended OTA and two capacitors. The proposed filter provides low-pass,High-pass,Band-pass and Band-stop by appropriately connecting the input terminals. The natural frequency and the quality factor can be set orthogonally by adjusting the circuit components.Also the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via the bias currents of OTAs.

  13. Generation of equivalent forms of operational trans-conductance amplifier-RC sinusoidal oscillators: the nullor approach

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Senani; Manish Gupta; Data Ram Bhaskar; Abdhesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown in two earlier papers published from this study that corresponding to a given single-operational trans-conductance amplifier (single-OTA)-RC and dual-OTA-RC sinusoidal oscillators, there are three other structurally distinct equivalent forms having the same characteristic equation, one of which employs both grounded capacitors (GC). In this study, an earlier nullor-based theory of generating equivalent op-amp oscillator circuits, proposed by the first author, is extended to ...

  14. Design, simulation and comparative analysis of CNT based cascode operational transconductance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamuddin, M.; Loan, Sajad A.; Alamoud, Abdul R.; Abbassi, Shuja A.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, design and calibrated simulation of carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET)-based cascode operational transconductance amplifiers (COTA) have been performed. Three structures of CNTFET-based COTAs have been designed using HSPICE and have been compared with the conventional CMOS-based COTAs. The proposed COTAs include one using pure CNTFETs and two others that employ CNTFETs, as well as the conventional MOSFETs. The simulation study has revealed that the CNTFET-based COTAs have significantly outperformed the conventional MOSFET-based COTAs. A significant increase in dc gain, output resistance and slew rate of 81.4%, 25% and 13.2%, respectively, have been achieved in the proposed pure CNT-based COTA in comparison to the conventional CMOS-based COTA. The power consumption in the pure CNT-COTA is 324 times less in comparison to the conventional CMOS-COTA. Further, the phase margin (PM), gain margin (GM), common mode and power supply rejection ratios have been significantly increased in the proposed CNT-based COTAs in comparison to the conventional CMOS-based COTAs. Furthermore, to see the advantage of cascoding, the proposed CNT-based cascode OTAs have been compared with the CNT-based OTAs. It has been observed that by incorporating the concept of cascode in the CNTFET-based OTAs, significant increases in gain (12.5%) and output resistance (13.07%) have been achieved. The performance of the proposed COTAs has been further observed by changing the number of CNTs (N), CNT pitch (S) and CNT diameter (DCNT) in the CNTFETs used. It has been observed that the performance of the proposed COTAs can be significantly improved by using optimum values of N, S and DCNT.

  15. Fully integrated high quality factor GmC bandpass filter stage with highly linear operational transconductance amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Briem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an electrical, fully integrated, high quality (Q factor GmC bandpass filter (BPF stage for a wireless 27 MHz direct conversion receiver for a bendable sensor system-in-foil (Briem et al., 2016. The core of the BPF with a Q factor of more than 200 is an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA with a high linearity at an input range of up to 300 mVpp, diff. The OTA's signal-to-noise-and-distortion-ratio (SNDR of more than 80 dB in the mentioned range is achieved by stabilizing its transconductance Gm with a respective feedback loop and a source degeneration resistors RDG. The filter stage can be tuned and is tolerant to global and local process variations due to offset and common-mode feedback (CMFB control circuits. The results are determined by periodic steady state (PSS simulations at more than 200 global and local process variation parameter and temperature points and corner simulations. It is expected, that the parasitic elements of the layout have no significant influence on the filter behaviour. The current consumption of the whole filter stage is less than 600 µA.

  16. Fully integrated high quality factor GmC bandpass filter stage with highly linear operational transconductance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briem, Jochen; Mader, Marco; Reiter, Daniel; Amirpour, Raul; Grözing, Markus; Berroth, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an electrical, fully integrated, high quality (Q) factor GmC bandpass filter (BPF) stage for a wireless 27 MHz direct conversion receiver for a bendable sensor system-in-foil (Briem et al., 2016). The core of the BPF with a Q factor of more than 200 is an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with a high linearity at an input range of up to 300 mVpp, diff. The OTA's signal-to-noise-and-distortion-ratio (SNDR) of more than 80 dB in the mentioned range is achieved by stabilizing its transconductance Gm with a respective feedback loop and a source degeneration resistors RDG. The filter stage can be tuned and is tolerant to global and local process variations due to offset and common-mode feedback (CMFB) control circuits. The results are determined by periodic steady state (PSS) simulations at more than 200 global and local process variation parameter and temperature points and corner simulations. It is expected, that the parasitic elements of the layout have no significant influence on the filter behaviour. The current consumption of the whole filter stage is less than 600 µA.

  17. Ultra-Low-Voltage Low-Power Bulk-Driven Quasi-Floating-Gate Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Alsibai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ultra-low-voltage (LV low-power (LP bulk-driven quasi-floating-gate (BD-QFG operational transconductance amplifier (OTA is presented in this paper. The proposed circuit is designed using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. A supply voltage of ±0.3 V and a quiescent bias current of 5 μA are used. The PSpice simulation result shows that the power consumption of the proposed BD-QFG OTA is 13.4 μW. Thus, the circuit is suitable for low-power applications. In order to confirm that the proposed BD-QFG OTA can be used in analog signal processing, a BD-QFG OTA-based diodeless precision rectifier is designed as an example application. This rectifier employs only two BD-QFG OTAs and consumes only 26.8 μW.

  18. Generation of equivalent forms of operational trans-conductance amplifier-RC sinusoidal oscillators: the nullor approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Senani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in two earlier papers published from this study that corresponding to a given single-operational trans-conductance amplifier (single-OTA-RC and dual-OTA-RC sinusoidal oscillators, there are three other structurally distinct equivalent forms having the same characteristic equation, one of which employs both grounded capacitors (GC. In this study, an earlier nullor-based theory of generating equivalent op-amp oscillator circuits, proposed by the first author, is extended to derive equivalent OTA-RC circuits which discloses the existence of an additional number of equivalent forms for the same given OTA-RC oscillators than those predicted by the quoted earlier works, and thereby considerably enlarging the set of equivalents of a given OTA-RC oscillator. Furthermore, the presented nullor-based theory of generating equivalent OTA-RC oscillators results in three additional interesting outcomes: (i the revelation that corresponding to any given OTA-RC oscillator there are two ‘both-GC’ oscillators (and not merely one, as derived in the quoted earlier works; (ii the availability of explicit current outputs in several of the derived equivalents and (iii the realisability explicit-current-output ‘quadrature oscillators’ in some of the generated equivalent oscillators. The workability of the generated equivalent OTA-RC oscillators has been verified by SPICE simulations, based on CMOS OTAs using 0.18 µm CMOS technology process parameters, and some sample results are given.

  19. Realization of Integrable Incommensurate-Fractional-Order-Rössler-System Design Using Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) and Its Experimental Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mohammad Rafiq; Kant, Nasir Ali; Khanday, Farooq Ahmad

    In this paper, electronic implementation of fractional-order Rössler system using operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) is presented which until now was only being investigated through numerical simulations. The realization offers the benefits of low-voltage implementation, integrability and electronic tunability. In addition, the proposed circuit is a MOS only design (as no BJTs have been used) which contains only grounded components and is therefore suitable for monolithic VLSI design. The chaotic behavior of the fractional-order Rössler system in consideration with the incommensurate orders has been demonstrated which finds many applications in several fields. The theoretical predictions of the proposed implementation have been verified through experimentation and HSPICE simulator using Austrian Micro System (AMS) 0.35μm CMOS process and the obtained results have been found in good agreement with the Matlab simulink theoretical results obtained using FOMCON simulink toolbox. Besides, a secure message communication system has been considered to demonstrate fully the usefulness of the chaotic system.

  20. Investigation of Non-classical Under lap Design on Linearity of a Folded Cascode Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. S.; Kranti, A.; Armstrong, G. A.

    2011-08-01

    The significance of optimization of gate-source/drain extension region (also known as a non-classical underlap design) in double gate (DG) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) FETs to improve the linearity performance of a low power folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is described. Based on a new figure-of-merit (FoM) involving AV, linearity, unity gain bandwidth fT and dc power consumption PDC, this article presents guideline for optimum design for underlap spacer s and film thickness Tsi to maximize the performance of OTA. It has been shown that FoM exhibited by an underlap DG MOSFET OTA gives significantly higher value (≅9) compared to a conventional single gate bulk MOSFET OTA. This is due to a combination of both higher fT, and higher gain AV for the same linearity at low power consumption of 360 μW. With gate length scaling, FoM continues to improve, primarily due to higher value of fT. A scaled bulk MOSFET OTA exhibits similar but much smaller enhancement in trend for FoM.

  1. Impact of gate-source/drain channel architecture on the performance of an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranti, Abhinav; Rashmi; Armstrong, G. Alastair

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we report on the significance of gate-source/drain extension region (also known as underlap design) optimization in double gate (DG) FETs to improve the performance of an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). It is demonstrated that high values of intrinsic voltage gain (AVO_OTA) > 55 dB and unity gain frequency (fT_OTA) ~ 57 GHz in a folded cascode OTA can be achieved with gate-underlap channel design in 60 nm DG MOSFETs. These values correspond to 15 dB improvement in AVO_OTA and three fold enhancement in fT_OTA over a conventional non-underlap design. OTA performance based on underlap single gate SOI MOSFETs realized in ultra-thin body (UTB) and ultra-thin body BOX (UTBB) technologies is also evaluated. AVO_OTA values exhibited by a DG MOSFET-based OTA are 1.3-1.6 times higher as compared to a conventional UTB/UTBB single gate OTA. fT_OTA values for DG OTA are 10 GHz higher for UTB OTAs whereas a twofold improvement is observed with respect to UTBB OTAs. The simultaneous improvement in AVO_OTA and fT_OTA highlights the usefulness of underlap channel architecture in improving gain-bandwidth trade-off in analog circuit design. Underlap channel OTAs demonstrate high degree of tolerance to misalignment/oversize between front and back gates without compromising the performance, thus relaxing crucial process/technology-dependent parameters to achieve 'idealized' DG MOSFETs. Results show that underlap OTAs designed with a spacer-to-straggle (s/σ) ratio of 3.2 and operated below a bias current (IBIAS) of 80 µA demonstrate optimum performance. The present work provides new opportunities for realizing future ultra-wide band OTA design with underlap DG MOSFETs.

  2. A High-Voltage Bipolar Transconductance Amplifier for Electrotactile Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaning, Matthew A.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a high-performance transconductance amplifier specifically designed for electrotactile (electrocutaneous) stimulation. It enables voltages up to ±600 V to be produced at the output which will allow the psychophysiological performance associated with stimulation of the fingertip using various stimulation waveforms to be studied more thoroughly. The design has a transconductance of up to 20 mA/V, an 8.8-MΩ output resistance, and can provide output currents up to ±20 mA. A complete schematic diagram is presented along with a discussion of theory of operation and safety issues as well as performance and derating plots from the implemented design. PMID:18838369

  3. An Electronically Tunable Transconductance Amplifier for Use in Auditory Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARAGO, P.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage and low-power trends in analog electronics enable novel features in modern bio-medical devices, such as extensive portability, autonomy and even battery-less operation. One specific example is the cochlear implant (CI, which emulates the physiology of hearing to produce auditory sensations via neural stimulation. Besides low-voltage and low-power operation, a key feature in modern CIs is wide-range programmability of the speech processing parameters. This paper proposes an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA for use in CIs, with wide-range electronic tuning of the transconductance value. The proposed OTA is developed around a cascade of two transconductor stages, making the transconductance dependent on the bias current ratio. A combination of linearization techniques: bulk input, parallel differential pairs and feedback, is used to achieve sufficient linear range for CI speech processing. Wide-range parameter tuning of the speech processing sections is illustrated on a variable gain amplifier, a bandpass Tow-Thomas biquad and an envelope detector. Finally, the complete CI speech processing chain is illustrated. The proposed OTA and its employment in CI analog speech processing are validated on a 350 nm CMOS process.

  4. CNFET Based Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxya; Prasad, Dinesh; Mainuddin; Islam, S. S.

    2017-08-01

    In CMOS Technology basic Problem mainly includes dopant fluctuation, tunnelling effect and line edge roughness below 45nm technology. Carbon Nanotube based structures is better option for widen the Moore’s law due to its scalability channel electrostatics and higher mobility. In this manuscript we demonstrate an optimum design for linear property of CNTFET based VDTA at 32nm technology node. The proposed circuit consist of VDTA with CNTFET having two voltage input and two current outputs so that it works as voltage and transconductance operation to obtain the high performance. The minimum supply voltages of ±0.9V with 32nm technology mode are used. The CNTFET-VDTA performance is simulated on HSPICE. In this paper CNFET-based VDTA provides better results of DC transfer characteristics as compared with CMOS. All the simulation results are performed on HSPICE.

  5. On-chip frequency compensation with a dual signal path operational transconductance amplifier for a voltage mode control DC/DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Ye; Jie, Liu; Bing, Yuan; Xinquan, Lai; Ning, Liu

    2012-04-01

    A novel on-chip frequency compensation circuit for a voltage-mode control DC/DC converter is presented. By employing an RC network in the two signal paths of an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), the proposed circuit generates two zeros to realize high closed-loop stability. Meanwhile, full on-chip integration is also achieved due to its simple structure. Hence, the number of off-chip components and the board space is greatly reduced. The structure of the dual signal path OTA is also optimized to help get a better transition response. Implemented in a 0.5 μm CMOS process, the voltage mode control DC/DC converter with the proposed frequency compensation circuit exhibits good stability. The test results show that both load and line regulations are less than 0.3%, and the output voltage can be recovered within 15 μs for a 400 mA load step. Moreover, the compensation components area is less than 2% of the die's area and the board space is also reduced by 11%. The efficiency of the whole chip can be up to 95%.

  6. Analysis of CMOS Transconductance Amplifiers for Sampling Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chaivipas, Win; Okada, Kenichi; Matsuzawa, Akira

    In this paper the transfer function of a system with windowed current integration is discussed. This kind of integration is usually used in a sampling mixer and the current is generated by a transconductance amplifier (TA). The parasitic capacitance (Cp) and the output resistance of the TA (Ro,TA) before the sampling mixer heavily affect the performance. Calculations based on a model including the parasitic capacitance and the output resistance of the TA is carried out. Calculation results show that due to the parasitic capacitance, a notch at the sampling frequency appears, which is very harmful because it causes the gain near the sampling frequency to decrease greatly. The output resistance of the TA makes the depth of the notches shallow and decreases the gain near the sampling frequency. To suppress the effect of Cp and Ro,TA, an operational amplifier is introduced in parallel with the sampling capacitance (Cs). Simulation results show that there is a 17dB gain increase while Cs is 1pF, gm is 9mS, N is 8 with a clock rate of 800MHz.

  7. 0.5 µW Sub-Threshold Operational Transconductance Amplifiers Using 0.15 µm Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FDSOI Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Olejarz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a low voltage, low power operational transconductance amplifier (OTA designed using a Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FDSOI process. For very low voltage application down to 0.5 V, two-stage miller-compensated OTAs with both p-channel MOSFET (PMOS and n-channel MOSFET (NMOS differential input have been investigated in a FDSOI complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS 150 nm process, using 0.5 V threshold transistors. Both differential input OTAs have been designed to operate from the standard 1.5 V down to 0.5 V with appropriate trade-offs in gain and bandwidth. The NMOS input OTA has a simulated gain/3 dB-bandwidth/power metric of 9.6 dB/39.6 KHz/0.48 µW at 0.6 V and 46.6 dB/45.01 KHz/10.8 µW at 1.5 V. The PMOS input OTA has a simulated metric of 19.7 dB/18.3 KHz/0.42 µW at 0.4 V and 53 dB/1.4 KHz/1.6 µW at 1.5 V with a bias current of 125 nA. The fabricated OTAs have been tested and verified with unity-gain configuration down to a 0.5 V supply voltage. Comparison with bulk process, namely the IBM 180 nm node is provided and with relevant discussion on the use of FDSOI process for low voltage analog design.

  8. A CMOS class-AB transconductance amplifier for switched-capacitor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijns, J.J.F.; Rijns, J.J.F.; Wallinga, Hans

    1990-01-01

    A CMOS operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) using a fully differential single-stage core OTA as the input stage and a differential to single current converter as the output stage, each biased at a separate current level, is presented. A large gain-bandwidth product (2.7 MHz) and a high

  9. A CMOS class-AB transconductance amplifier for switched-capacitor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijns, J.J.F.; Rijns, J.J.F.; Wallinga, Hans

    1990-01-01

    A CMOS operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) using a fully differential single-stage core OTA as the input stage and a differential to single current converter as the output stage, each biased at a separate current level, is presented. A large gain-bandwidth product (2.7 MHz) and a high slew-

  10. New Simple CMOS Realization of Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifier and Its RF Filter Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yeşil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA is a recently introduced active element for analog signal processing. However, the realization of VDTA is not given by any author yet. In this work, a new and simple CMOS realization of VDTA is presented. The proposed block has two voltage inputs and two kinds of current output, so it is functional for voltage- and transconductance-mode operation. Furthermore, VDTA exhibits two different values of transconductance so that there is no need to external resistors for VDTA based applications which seems to be a good advantage for analog circuit designer. A CMOS implementation of VDTA and a voltage-mode VDTA based filter are proposed and simulated. An application example of fourth order flat-band band-pass amplifier is given and the performance of the circuit is demonstrated by comparing the theory and simulation.

  11. A High Efficiency Variable Gain Amplifier Circuit with Controllable Transconductance Amp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Tetsuro; Okura, Shunsuke; Ido, Toru; Taniguchi, Kenji

    A novel power reduction technique for a variable gain amplifier (VGA) with a two-stage operational amplifier is proposed. The technique improves the power consumption of a VGA by optimizing the bandwidth and the phase margin dynamically on all gain range of the VGA through controlling the input transconductance of opamp. A VGA utilizing the proposed technique shows 40% reduction of power consumption against a conventional VGA at the best condition of VGA gain range.

  12. The performance of integrated transconductance amplifiers as variable current sources for bio-electric impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D N

    1992-01-01

    Multiple applied current impedance measurement systems require numbers of current sources which operate simultaneously at the same frequency and within the same phase but at variable amplitudes. Investigations into the performance of some integrated operational transconductance amplifiers as variable current sources are described. Measurements of breakthrough, non-linearity and common-mode output levels for LM13600, NE5517 and CA3280 were carried out. The effects of such errors on the overall performance and stability of multiple current systems when driving floating loads are considered.

  13. Particle detector tunable monolithic Semi-Gaussian shaping filter based on transconductance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulis, T.; Deradonis, C.; Siskos, S.; Sarrabayrouse, G.

    2008-05-01

    An IC semi-Gaussian shaper architecture for X-rays silicon strip detectors is presented. The specific structure is based on operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and was implemented using an alternative design technique. The shaper was designed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm process by Austria Mikro Systeme and provides continuous variable operating bandwidth in a relatively low-frequency region, capability that indicates it as an optimum selection for a variety of readout applications. Analysis is supported by measurement results confirming the advantageous shaping filter performance. The circuit appears to be low power providing 530 μW power dissipation, while the output noise performance is 167 μV (rms) for an operating bandwidth of 260 kHz. Extensive experimental results concerning the total harmonic distortion and the dynamic range of the circuit also confirm its satisfactory performance.

  14. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  15. Operational Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  16. Active Comb Filter Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Ranjan; Surya Prasanna Yalla; Shubham Sorya; Paul, Sajal K.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for the design of an active comb filter is proposed to remove the selected frequencies of various signals. The proposed filter is based on only OTAs and capacitors, hence suitable for monolithic integrated circuit implementation. The workability of the circuit is tested using PSPICE for test signals of 60, 180, 300, and 420 Hz as in ECG signal. The results are given in the paper and found to agree well with theory.

  17. Active Comb Filter Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for the design of an active comb filter is proposed to remove the selected frequencies of various signals. The proposed filter is based on only OTAs and capacitors, hence suitable for monolithic integrated circuit implementation. The workability of the circuit is tested using PSPICE for test signals of 60, 180, 300, and 420 Hz as in ECG signal. The results are given in the paper and found to agree well with theory.

  18. Tunable Universal Filter with Current Follower and Transconductance Amplifiers and Study of Parasitic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeřábek, Jan; Šotner, Roman; Vrba, Kamil

    2011-11-01

    A universal filter with dual-output current follower (DO-CF), two transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and two passive elements is presented in this paper. The filter is tunable, of the single-input multiple-output (SIMO) type, and operates in the current mode. Our solution utilizes a low-impedance input node and high-impedance outputs. All types of the active elements used can be realized using our UCC-N1B 0520 integrated circuit and therefore the paper contains not only simulation results that were obtained with the help of behavioral model of the UCC-N1B 0520 element, but also the characteristics that were gained by measurement with the mentioned circuit. The presented simulation and measurement results prove the quality of designed filter. Similar multi-loop structures are very-well known, but there are some drawbacks that are not discussed in similar papers. This paper also contains detailed study of parasitic influences on the filter performance.

  19. Realization of Electronic OTA Amplifiers with Linear and Tunable Transconductance and its Usages in Continuous - Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Borzabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the introduction of a CMOS OTA basic block that its transconductance gain can be electronically and linearly tuned. This transconductance is proportional to the square root of the bias current. To achieve the maximum output voltage and create a wide range of linear transconductance the CMOS OTA has been used.Then the variation of the transconductance and its effects on the performance of Continuous-time filters has been considered. The novelty of this paper is to show that how the transconductance of a first-Order filter is transformed to high pass and low pass filters and the transfer function of a second-order filter is transformed into high pass, low pass , band pass and band rejection filters. The performance of the proposed circuit is discussed and confirmed through MATLAB and PSPICE-simulation results.

  20. Multifunction Current Differencing Cascaded Transconductance Amplifier (MCDCTA) and Its Application to Current-Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Lin, Hairong

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new versatile active element, namely multifunction current differencing cascaded transconductance amplifier (MCDCTA), is proposed. This device which adopts a simple configuration enjoys the performances of low-voltage, low-input and high-output impedance, wide bandwidth etc. It simplifies the design of the current-mode analog signal processing circuit greatly, especially the design of high-order filter and oscillator circuits. Moreover, an example as a new current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO) using MCDCTA is described in this paper. The proposed oscillator, which employs only one MCDCTA and minimum grounded passive elements, is easy to be realized. It can provide random n (n being odd or even) output current signals and these output currents are equally spaced in phase all at high output impedance terminals. Its oscillation condition and the oscillation frequency can be adjusted independently, linearly and electronically by controlling the bias currents of MCDCTA. The operation of the proposed oscillator has been testified through PSPICE simulation and experimental results.

  1. Oscillators and operational amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation...

  2. Chaotic behaviors of operational amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Geo-Su; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Park, Young-Jai; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Soo-Young; Kye, Won-Ho; Kim, Chil-Min

    2004-04-01

    We investigate nonlinear dynamical behaviors of operational amplifiers. When the output terminal of an operational amplifier is connected to the inverting input terminal, the circuit exhibits period-doubling bifurcation, chaos, and periodic windows, depending on the voltages of the positive and the negative power supplies. We study these nonlinear dynamical characteristics of this electronic circuit experimentally.

  3. Operational amplifiers theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsing, Johan

    2017-01-01

    This proven textbook guides readers to a thorough understanding of the theory and design of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The core of the book presents systematically the design of operational amplifiers, classifying them into a periodic system of nine main overall configurations, ranging from one gain stage up to four or more stages. This division enables circuit designers to recognize quickly, understand, and choose optimal configurations. Characterization of operational amplifiers is given by macro models and error matrices, together with measurement techniques for their parameters. Definitions are given for four types of operational amplifiers depending on the grounding of their input and output ports. Many famous designs are evaluated in depth, using a carefully structured approach enhanced by numerous figures. In order to reinforce the concepts introduced and facilitate self-evaluation of design skills, the author includes problems with detailed solutions, as well as simulation exercises. Provides te...

  4. PID Controller with Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a PID controller made with LM741 operational amplifier that implement the PID controllers laws and allow for a widerange of applications of in the field of automatic control of technicalprocesses and systems.

  5. Television-optical operational amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J; Häusler, G; Sesselmann, R

    1979-08-15

    The advantages of negative feedback are well known in electronics and extensively used in the operational amplifier. The properties of such a system are nearly independent of the parameters in the forward branch of the system; they are only determined by external elements in the backward branch. An optical analog of such an operational amplifier is reported. The essential operations, amplifications, and inversion of the circulating signals are carried out using a TV system. The capability of the system to compensate for spatial inhomogeneities and for nonlinearities is demonstrated. In addition, the system is able to create the inverse of a transfer function located in the feedback branch.

  6. Limit circuit prevents overdriving of operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, F. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cutoff-type high gain amplifier coupled by a diode prevents overdriving of operational amplifier. An amplified feedback signal offsets the excess input signal that tends to cause the amplifier to exceed its preset limit. The output is, therfore, held to the set clamp level.

  7. Dirac point and transconductance of top-gated graphene field-effect transistors operating at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V., E-mail: k.vasilevskiy@ncl.ac.uk; Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O' Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-21

    Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27 nm thick Al₂O₃ gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100 °C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100 °C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100 °C.

  8. Bio-isolated DC operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Possibility of shocks from leakage currents can be reduced by use of isolated preamplifiers. Amplifier consists of battery-powered operational amplifier coupled by means of light-emitting diodes to another amplifier which may be grounded and operated from ac power mains or separate battery supply.

  9. Design of a high frequency low voltage CMOS operational amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kakoty

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented in this paper for the design of a high frequency CMOS operational amplifier (Op-Amp which operates at 3V power supply using tsmc 0.18 micron CMOS technology. The OPAMPdesigned is a two-stage CMOS OPAMP followed by an output buffer. This Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA employs a Miller capacitor and is compensated with a current buffer compensation technique. The unique behaviour of the MOS transistors in saturation region not only allows a designer to work at a low voltage, but also at a high frequency. Designing of two-stage op-ampsis a multi-dimensional-optimization problem where optimization of one or more parameters may easily result into degradation of others. The OPAMP is designed to exhibit a unity gain frequency of 2.02GHzand exhibits a gain of 49.02dB with a 60.50 phase margin. As compared to the conventional approach, the proposed compensation method results in a higher unity gain frequency under the same load condition.Design has been carried out in Tanner tools. Simulation results are verified using S-edit and W-edit.

  10. Design of a high frequency low voltage CMOS operational amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kakoty

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented in this paper for the design of a high frequency CMOS operational amplifier (Op-Amp which operates at 3V power supply using tsmc 0.18 micron CMOS technology. The OPAMPdesigned is a two-stage CMOS OPAMP followed by an output buffer. This OperationalTransconductance Amplifier (OTA employs a Miller capacitor and is compensated with a current buffercompensation technique. The unique behaviour of the MOS transistors in saturation region not onlyallows a designer to work at a low voltage, but also at a high frequency. Designing of two-stage op-ampsis a multi-dimensional-optimization problem where optimization of one or more parameters may easilyresult into degradation of others. The OPAMP is designed to exhibit a unity gain frequency of 2.02GHzand exhibits a gain of 49.02dB with a 60.50 phase margin. As compared to the conventional approach, theproposed compensation method results in a higher unity gain frequency under the same load condition.Design has been carried out in Tanner tools. Simulation results are verified using S-edit and W-edit.

  11. A CMOS current-mode operational amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A fully differential-input, differential-output, current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...... current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain-bandwidth product of 3 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 μA (signal range ±700 μA), and a (theoretically) unlimited slew rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2...

  12. CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...... current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 ¿A (signal-range ±700¿A) and a (theoretically) unlimited slew-rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2...

  13. Recent Advances on the Design of High-Gain Wideband Operational Transconductance Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Assaad

    2009-01-01

    greater than 90 dB DC gain, GBW of 325 MHz and better than 70∘ phase margin is discussed. The settling-time- of the NCFF topology can be faster than that of OTAs with Miller compensation. Experimental results for the recycling folded-cascode OTA fabricated in TSMC 0.18 m CMOS, and results of the NCFF demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the feed-forward schemes.

  14. Programmable Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter Using Two Current Conveyors and One Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti; Azhar Quddus

    1996-01-01

    A new voltage-mode active-filter with single input and three outputs is presented. The parameters of the proposed filter are programmable and the filter uses grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit can simultaneously realize lowpass, highpass, and bandpass biquadratic filter functions and enjoys low temperature sensitivities.

  15. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  16. Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, J C C

    1995-01-01

    This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu

  17. Feedback analysis of transimpedance operational amplifier circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1993-01-01

    The transimpedance or current feedback operational amplifier (CFB op-amp) is reviewed and compared to a conventional voltage mode op-amp using an analysis emphasizing the basic feedback characteristics of the circuit. With this approach the paradox of the constant bandwidth obtained from CFB op...

  18. High-Performance Operational and Instrumentation Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahi, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes techniques to reduce the offset error in precision instrumentation and operational amplifiers. The offset error which is considered a major error source associated with gain blocks, together with other errors are reviewed. Conventional and newer approaches to remove offset and

  19. Operational amplifier with adjustable frequency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulisek, D; Hencek, M

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe an operational amplifier with an adjustable frequency response and its use in membrane physiology, using the voltage clamp and current clamp method. The amplifier eliminates feedback poles causing oscillation. It consists of a follower with a high input resistance in the form of a tube and of an actual amplifier with an adjustable frequency response allowing the abolition of clicks by one pole and of oscillation by two poles in the 500 Hz divided by infinity range. Further properties of the amplifier: a long-term voltage drift of 1 mv, a temperature voltage drift of 0.5 mv/degrees K, input resistance greater than 1 GOhm, amplification greater than 80 dB, output +/- 12 v, 25 ma, noise, measured from the width of the oscilloscope track in the presence of a ray of normal brightness, not exceeding 50 muv in the 0-250 kHz band, f1 = 1 MHz. A short report on the amplifier was published a few years ago (Gulísek and Hencek 1973).

  20. Cryogenic operation of a 24 GHz MMIC SiGe HBT medium power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Jiang, Ningyue; Seo, Jung-Hun; Cho, Namki; Ponchak, George E.; van der Weide, Daniel; Ma, Pingxi; Stetson, Scott; Racanelli, Marco; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-12-01

    The performance of a SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) millimetre-wave power amplifier (PA) operating at cryogenic temperature was reported and analysed for the first time. A 24 GHz two-stage medium PA employing common-emitter and common-base SiGe power HBTs in the first and the second stage, respectively, showed a significant power gain increase at 77 K in comparison with that measured at room temperature. Detailed analyses indicate that cryogenic operation of SiGe HBT-based PAs mainly affects (improves) the performance of the SiGe HBTs in the circuits due to transconductance enhancement through magnified, favourable changes of SiGe bandgap due to cooling (ΔEg/kT) and minimized thermal effects, with little influence on the passive components of the circuits.

  1. Microscopic Theory of Transconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Jauho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of momentum transfer between two closely spaced mesoscopic electronic systems, which couple via Coulomb interaction but where tunneling is inhibited, have proven to be a fruitful method of extracting information about interactions in mesoscopic systems. We report a fully microscopic theory for transconductivity σ12, or, equivalently, momentum transfer rate between the system constituents. Our main formal result expresses the transconductivity in terms of two fluctuation diagrams, which are topologically related, but not equivalent to, the Azlamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson diagrams known for superconductivity. In the present paper the magnetic field dependence of σ12 is discussed, and we find that σ12(B is strongly enhanced over its zero field value, and it displays strong features, which can be understood in terms of a competition between density-of-states and screening effects.

  2. High-Performance Operational and Instrumentation Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Shahi, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes techniques to reduce the offset error in precision instrumentation and operational amplifiers. The offset error which is considered a major error source associated with gain blocks, together with other errors are reviewed. Conventional and newer approaches to remove offset and low frequency noise are discussed, with a focus on the work of this thesis “Chopper-Stabilized Auto-Zeroed Chopper Instrumentation Amplifiers”. The technique is demonstrated through the application...

  3. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  4. Feedback analysis of transimpedance operational amplifier circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Erik

    1993-01-01

    The transimpedance or current feedback operational amplifier (CFB op-amp) is reviewed and compared to a conventional voltage mode op-amp using an analysis emphasizing the basic feedback characteristics of the circuit. With this approach the paradox of the constant bandwidth obtained from CFB op-amps is explained. It is demonstrated in a simple manner that the constant gain-bandwidth product of the conventional op-amp and the constant bandwidth of the CFB op-amp are both in accordance with bas...

  5. Bio-isolated dc operational amplifier. [for bioelectric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A bio-isolated dc operational amplifier is described for use in making bioelectrical measurements of a patient while providing isolation of the patient from electrical shocks. The circuit contains a first operational amplifier coupled to the patient with its output coupled in a forward loop through a first optic coupler to a second operational amplifier. The output of the second operational amplifier is coupled to suitable monitoring circuitry via a feedback circuit including a second optic coupler to the input of the first operational amplifier.

  6. Current feedback operational amplifiers and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, A K; Singh, V K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes a variety of current feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) architectures and their applications in analog signal processing/generation. Coverage includes a comprehensive survey of commercially available, off-the-shelf integrated circuit CFOAs, as well as recent advances made on the design of CFOAs, including design innovations for bipolar and CMOS CFOAs.  This book serves as a single-source reference to the topic, as well as a catalog of over 200 application circuits which would be useful not only for students, educators and researchers in apprising them about the recent developments in the area but would also serve as a comprehensive repertoire of useful circuits for practicing engineers who might be interested in choosing an appropriate CFOA-based topology for use in a given application.

  7. A novel low-voltage operational amplifier for low-power pipelined ADCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Mingjun; Ren Junyan; Guo Yao; Li Ning; Ye Fan; Li Lian, E-mail: 052052003@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-01-15

    A novel low-voltage two-stage operational amplifier employing class-AB architecture is presented. The structure utilizes level-shifters and current mirrors to create the class-AB behavior in the first and second stages. With this structure, the transconductances of the two stages are double compared with the normal configuration without class-AB behaviors with the same current consumption. Thus power can be saved and the operation frequency can be increased. The nested cascode miller compensation and symmetric common-mode feedback circuits are used for large unit-gain bandwidth, good phase margin and stability. Simulation results show that the sample-and-hold of the 12-bit 40-Ms/s pipelined ADC using the proposed amplifier consumes only 5.8 mW from 1.2 V power supply with signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio 89.5 dB, spurious-free dynamic range 95.7 dB and total harmonic distortion -94.3 dB with Nyquist input signal frequency.

  8. A novel low-voltage operational amplifier for low-power pipelined ADCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingjun, Fan; Junyan, Ren; Yao, Guo; Ning, Li; Fan, Ye; Lian, Li

    2009-01-01

    A novel low-voltage two-stage operational amplifier employing class-AB architecture is presented. The structure utilizes level-shifters and current mirrors to create the class-AB behavior in the first and second stages. With this structure, the transconductances of the two stages are double compared with the normal configuration without class-AB behaviors with the same current consumption. Thus power can be saved and the operation frequency can be increased. The nested cascode miller compensation and symmetric common-mode feedback circuits are used for large unit-gain bandwidth, good phase margin and stability. Simulation results show that the sample-and-hold of the 12-bit 40-Ms/s pipelined ADC using the proposed amplifier consumes only 5.8 mW from 1.2 V power supply with signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio 89.5 dB, spurious-free dynamic range 95.7 dB and total harmonic distortion -94.3 dB with Nyquist input signal frequency.

  9. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique...

  10. A Gallium Arsenide MESFET Operational Amplifier for Use in Composite Operational Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    F., Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, 1991. 6. Sedra , A. S., and Smith , K. C., Microelectronic Circuits...7, pp. 1422-1429, July 1992. 17. McCamant, A. J., McCormack G. D., and Smith , D. H., "An Improved GaAs MESFET Model for SPICE," IEEE Transactions of...34Modeling Frequency Dependence of out Impedance of a Microwave MESFET at Low Frequencies," Electronics Letters, pp. 528-529, June 1985. 39. Smith , M. et al

  11. Design procedure for optimizing CMOS low noise operational amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhiyuan; Ye Yizheng; Ma Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and experimentally verifies an optimized design procedure for a CMOS low noise operational amplifier.The design procedure focuses on the noise performance,which is the key requirement for low noise operational amplifiers.Based on the noise level and other specifications such as bandwidth,signal swing,slew rate,and power consumption,the device sizes and the biasing conditions are derived.In order to verify the proposed design procedure,a three-stage operational amplifier has been designed.The device parameters obtained from the proposed design procedure closely agree with the simulated results obtained by using HSPICE.

  12. High-gain, high-bandwidth, rail-to-rail, constant-gm CMOS operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Yi; Wang, Bo-Ruei

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a high-gain, high-bandwidth, constant-gm , rail-to-rail operational amplifier (op-amp). The constant transconductance is improved with a source-to-bulk bias control of an input pair. A source degeneration scheme is also adapted to the output stage for receiving wide input range without degradation of the gain. Additionally, several compensation schemes are employed to enhance the stability. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process. The active area of the op-amp is 181 × 173 µm2 and it consumes a power of 2.41 mW at a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The op-amp achieves a dc gain of 94.3 dB and a bandwidth of 45 MHz when the output capacitive load is connected to an effective load of 42.5 pF. A class-AB output stage combining a slew rate (SR) boost circuit provides a sinking current of 6 mA and an SR of 17 V/µs.

  13. Optimising operational amplifiers by evolutionary algorithms and gm/Id method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlelo-Cuautle, E.; Sanabria-Borbon, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    The evolutionary algorithm called non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is applied herein in the optimisation of operational transconductance amplifiers. NSGA-II is accelerated by applying the gm/Id method to estimate reduced search spaces associated to widths (W) and lengths (L) of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFETs), and to guarantee their appropriate bias levels conditions. In addition, we introduce an integer encoding for the W/L sizes of the MOSFETs to avoid a post-processing step for rounding-off their values to be multiples of the integrated circuit fabrication technology. Finally, from the feasible solutions generated by NSGA-II, we introduce a second optimisation stage to guarantee that the final feasible W/L sizes solutions support process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations. The optimisation results lead us to conclude that the gm/Id method and integer encoding are quite useful to accelerate the convergence of the evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II, while the second optimisation stage guarantees robustness of the feasible solutions to PVT variations.

  14. High-gain cryogenic amplifier assembly employing a commercial CMOS operational amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, J E; Smith, A W; Jung, T M; Woods, S I

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a cryogenic amplifier for the measurement of small current signals (10 fA-100 nA) from cryogenic optical detectors. Typically operated with gain near 10(7) V/A, the amplifier performs well from DC to greater than 30 kHz and exhibits noise level near the Johnson limit. Care has been taken in the design and materials to control heat flow and temperatures throughout the entire detector-amplifier assembly. A simple one-board version of the amplifier assembly dissipates 8 mW to our detector cryostat cold stage, and a two-board version can dissipate as little as 17 μW to the detector cold stage. With current noise baseline of about 10 fA/(Hz)(1/2), the cryogenic amplifier is generally useful for cooled infrared detectors, and using blocked impurity band detectors operated at 10 K, the amplifier enables noise power levels of 2.5 fW/(Hz)(1/2) for detection of optical wavelengths near 10 μm.

  15. Amplifier circuit operable over a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald D.; Cannon, William L.

    1979-01-01

    An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide temperature range from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with temperature.

  16. A low-voltage sense amplifier with two-stage operational amplifier clamping for flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiarong

    2017-04-01

    A low-voltage sense amplifier with reference current generator utilizing two-stage operational amplifier clamp structure for flash memory is presented in this paper, capable of operating with minimum supply voltage at 1 V. A new reference current generation circuit composed of a reference cell and a two-stage operational amplifier clamping the drain pole of the reference cell is used to generate the reference current, which avoids the threshold limitation caused by current mirror transistor in the traditional sense amplifier. A novel reference voltage generation circuit using dummy bit-line structure without pull-down current is also adopted, which not only improves the sense window enhancing read precision but also saves power consumption. The sense amplifier was implemented in a flash realized in 90 nm flash technology. Experimental results show the access time is 14.7 ns with power supply of 1.2 V and slow corner at 125 °C. Project supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 61376028).

  17. Transpermeance Amplifier Applied to Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossana Ferreira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most conventional approach of controlling magnetic forces in active magnetic bearings (AMBs is through current feedback amplifiers: transconductance. This enables the operation of the AMB to be understood in terms of a relatively simple current-based model as has been widely reported on in the literature. The alternative notion of using transpermeance amplifiers, which approximate the feedback of gap flux rather than current, has been in commercial use in some form for at least thirty years, however is only recently seeing more widespread acceptance as a commercial standard. This study explores how such alternative amplifiers should be modeled and then examines the differences in behavior between AMBs equipped with transconductance and transpermeance amplifiers. The focus of this study is on two aspects. The first is the influence of rotor displacement on AMB force, commonly modeled as a constant negative equivalent mechanical stiffness, and it is shown that either scheme actually leads to a finite bandwidth effect, but that this bandwidth is much lower when transpermeance is employed. The second aspect is the influence of eddy currents. Using a very simple model of eddy currents (a secondary short-circuited coil, it is demonstrated that transpermeance amplifiers can recover significant actuator bandwidth compared with transconductance, but at the cost of needing increased peak current headroom.

  18. Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey P. Koplow; Dahv A. V. Kliner; Lew Goldberg

    2000-01-19

    The authors report a new approach to obtain single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier, in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. They have demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 {micro}m and NA of {minus}0.1 (V {approx} 7.4). When operated as an ASE source, the output beam had an M{sup 2} value of 1.09 {+-} 0.09; when seeded at 1,064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique does not require exotic fiber designs or increase system complexity and is inexpensive to implement. It will allow scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality.

  19. A Novel Current-Mode Differential Transconductance LNA for IEEE 802.11a Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yuxiang; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Lei; Wu, Zhangbin; Zhang, Guangxiang

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a novel current-mode differential transconductance low noise amplifier (LNA) designed in the chartered 0.18 μm CMOS technology is proposed to realize the receiver front-end. The proposed LNA frequency ranges from 4.7 GHz to 6 GHz,mainly targeting at IEEE802.11a application. It utilizes two stage structure, with a PMOS current-mirrorr using inductive series peaking technique to achieve optimized current output. The noise performance is improved through the use of a gm-boosting technique, while the gain performance is improved and power consumption is saved by using current-reused technique. Measured results demonstrate that the circuit provides flat transconductance gain higher than 17.0 dB, noise figure lower than 2.31 dB and low operating voltage of 0.85 V in frequency band. A comparison with other LNAs in similar and nearby frequency bands shows the proposed LNA has advantages of higher gain, lower noise figure and better other performances.

  20. Low-voltage CMOS operational amplifiers theory, design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    Low-Voltage CMOS Operational Amplifiers: Theory, Design and Implementation discusses both single and two-stage architectures. Opamps with constant-gm input stage are designed and their excellent performance over the rail-to-rail input common mode range is demonstrated. The first set of CMOS constant-gm input stages was introduced by a group from Technische Universiteit, Delft and Universiteit Twente, the Netherlands. These earlier versions of circuits are discussed, along with new circuits developed at the Ohio State University. The design, fabrication (MOSIS Tiny Chips), and characterization of the new circuits are now complete. Basic analog integrated circuit design concepts should be understood in order to fully appreciate the work presented. However, the topics are presented in a logical order and the circuits are explained in great detail, so that Low-Voltage CMOS Operational Amplifiers can be read and enjoyed by those without much experience in analog circuit design. It is an invaluable reference boo...

  1. Third Order Universal Filter Using Single Operational Transresistance Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourina Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-input single-output (MISO third order voltage mode (VM universal filter using only one operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA. The proposed circuit realizes low-pass, high-pass, all-pass, band-pass, and notch responses from the same topology. The PSPICE Simulation results using 0.5 μm CMOS technology agree well with the theoretical design.

  2. Radiation and annealing effects on integrated bipolar Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, J.

    2017-02-01

    Integrated bipolar Operational Amplifier (op-amp) type μA 741 was irradiated with neutrons and gamma rays. The radiation on gain factors, slew rate, and power supply current have been evaluated. The experimental results show a decrease of these parameter values after exposing to the radiation. The advantage of the increase of the voltage power supplies and the thermal annealing treatment on the damaged parameters was also explored. The relationship among different frequency response parameters is also studied leading to an analytical formula for the above degraded parameters.

  3. Towards a generic operational amplifier with dynamic reconfiguration capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Lakshmanan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog and analog-digital mixed signal electronics needed for sensor systems are indispensable components which tend to drifts from the normal phase of operation due to the impact of manufacturing conditions and environmental influences like etching, aging etc. Precise design methodology, trimming / calibration are essential to restore functionality of the system. Recent block level granular approaches using Field Programmable Analog Array and the more recent approaches from evolutionary electronics providing transistor level granularity using Field Programmable Transistor Arrays offers considerable extensions. In our work, we started on a new medium granular level approach called Field Programmable medium-granular Mixed-signal Array (FPMA providing basic building blocks of heterogeneous array of active and passive devices to configure established circuit structures which are adaptive, biologically inspired and dynamically re-configurable. Our design objective is to create components of clear compatibility to that of the industrial standards having predictable behavior along with the incorporation of existing design knowledge. The cells can be used in as a single instance or multiple instances. Further, we will focus on a generic dynamic reconfigurable amplifier cell with flexible topology and dimension called Generic Operational Amplifier (GOPA. The incentive of our work comes from recent development in the field of measurement and instrumentation. The digital programming of analog devices is carried out using range of algorithms from simple to evolutionary. Physical realization of the basic cells is carried out in 0.35 μm CMOS technology.

  4. The design of a 4’th order Bandpass Butterworth filter with one operational amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2008-01-01

    band pass filter with Butterworth poles applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. The unity gain amplifiers have the advantage of providing low power consumption, yielding a large dynamic range, sometimes simplifying the amplifier design and being usable over a larger......A numerical design method is presented for the design of all pole band pass active-RC filters applying just one operational amplifier. The operational amplifier model used is the integrator model: ωt/s where ωt is the unity gain fre-quency. The design method is used for the design of a fourth order...

  5. UV-LIGA Microfabrication of 220 GHz Sheet Beam Amplifier Gratings with SU-8 Photoresists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    transconductance amplifier was built to handle the needs of a large-scale (25 l bath) copper electroforming system presently under construction...UV-LIGA microfabrication of 220 GHz sheet beam amplifier gratings with SU-8 photoresists This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please...burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA

  6. Operational Transresistance Amplifier-Based Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase sinusoidal oscillator circuits are presented which utilize Operational Transresistance Amplifier (OTRA as the active element. The first circuit produces n odd-phase oscillations of equal amplitudes and equally spaced in phase. The second circuit is capable of producing n odd- or even- phase oscillations equally spaced in phase. An alternative approach is discussed in the third circuit, which utilizes a single-phase tunable oscillator circuit which is used to inject signals into a phase shifter circuits. An automatic gain control (AGC circuit has been implemented for the second and third circuit. The circuits are simple to realize and have a low component count. PSPICE simulations have been given to verify the theoretical analysis. The experimental outcome corroborates the theoretical propositions and simulated results.

  7. Design and Implementation of Schmitt Trigger using Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moyeed Abrar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Schmitt trigger is an electronic circuit, a Comparator that is used to detect whether a voltage has crossed over a given reference level. It has two stable states and is very useful as signal conditioning device. When an input waveform in the form of sinusoidal waveform, triangular waveform, or any other periodic waveform is given, the Schmitt trigger will produce a Rectangular or square output waveform that has sharp leading and trailing edges. Such fast rise and fall times are desirable for all digital circuits. The state of the art presented in the paper is the design and implementation of Schmitt trigger using operational amplifier µA-741, generating a Rectangular waveform. Furthermore, the Schmitt trigger exhibiting hysteresis is also presented in the paper. Due to the phenomenon of hysteresis, the output transition from HIGH to LOW and LOW to HIGH will take place at various thresholds

  8. Noise and frequency response of silicon photodiode operational amplifier combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, R H; Wendland, P

    1972-07-01

    The noise in dark and illuminated Schottky barrier and diffused PIN non-guard-ring photodiodes has been measured between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz and compared to theory with an excellent fit. It is shown that diodes used photovoltaically are free of 1/f noise in the dark. It is also demonstrated that there is an optimum bias (ca. 100 mV) for minimum noise equivalent power. When only a resistive load is used with a detector, it often determines the frequency response and noise of the detector circuit. We develop and demonstrate equations for the major improvements in both noise and frequency response that can be obtained using a current mode (inverting) operational amplifier.

  9. Investigating student understanding of operational-amplifier circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Christos P.; Tombras, George S.; Van De Bogart, Kevin L.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.

    2015-12-01

    The research reported in this article represents a systematic, multi-year investigation of student understanding of the behavior of basic operational-amplifier (op-amp) circuits. The participants in this study were undergraduates enrolled in upper-division physics courses on analog electronics at three different institutions, as well as undergraduates in introductory and upper-division electrical engineering courses at one of the institutions. The findings indicate that many students complete these courses without developing a functional understanding of the behavior of op-amp circuits. This article describes the most prevalent conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified (typically after lecture and hands-on laboratory experience) as well as several implications for electronics instruction that have emerged from this investigation.

  10. Four-quadrant analogue multiplier using operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewruja, Vanchai; Rerkratn, Apinai

    2011-04-01

    A method to realise a four-quadrant analogue multiplier using general-purpose operational amplifiers (opamps) as only the active elements is described in this article. The realisation method is based on the quarter-square technique, which utilises the inherent square-law characteristic of class AB output stage of the opamp. The multiplier can be achieved from the proposed structure with using either bipolar or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) opamps. The operation principle of the proposed multiplier has been confirmed by PSPICE analogue simulation program. Simulation results reveal that the principle of proposed scheme provides an adequate performance for a four-quadrant analogue multiplier. Experimental implementations of the proposed multiplier using bipolar and CMOS opamps are performed to verify the circuit performances. Measured results of the experimental proposed schemes based on the use of bipolar and CMOS opamps with supply voltage ±2.4 V show the worst-case relative errors of 0.32% and 0.47%, and the total harmonic distortions of 0.47% and 0.98%, respectively.

  11. CMOS VHF transconductance-C lowpass filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, B.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results of a VHF CMOS transconductance-C lowpass filter are described. The filter is built with transconductors as published earlier. The cutoff frequency can be tuned from 22 to 98 MHz and the measured filter response is very close to the ideal response

  12. Linear CMOS transconductance element for VHF filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, B.; Seevinck, E.

    1989-01-01

    A differential transconductance element based on CMOS inverters is presented. With this circuit a linear, tunable integrator for very high-frequency continuous-time integrated filters can be made. This integrator has good linearity properties (THD<0.04%, Vipp=1.8 V), nondominant poles in the gigaher

  13. Design of low-voltage bipolar operational amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonderie, Jeroen

    The design of input stages for low voltage Operational Amplifiers (OpAmps) is considered. The purpose of this design emanates from the objective of having a common mode input voltage range that reaches from one supply rail to the other, and designs that have this feature both at a 2 V and at a 1 V supply are discussed. Possible output stage configurations are analyzed. This discussion is restricted to output stages that have an output voltage range that also reaches from rail to rail. Further, the output stage should be able to supply a sufficiently large output current to the load that is externally connected to the OpAmp. The frequency response of the output stage is the focus of the discussion. The circuit parts that remain to complete the design of the OpAmp are discussed. These circuit parts are the intermediate stage, inserted between the input and output stage to boost the overall gain of the OpAmp, some implementations of the class AB current control circuit, circuitry to protect the output transistor from heavy saturation and from excessive power consumption, and, finally, the proportional to absolute temperature reference current generator. A detailed analysis of the frequency compensation techniques that can be used to stabilize the OpAmp is given. From this theory, design criteria to successfully implement the compensation method are derived. The experimental OpAmp designs and the measurements performed on these designs are described. Conclusions and suggestions for further research are given.

  14. Performance Analysis of Low Power, High Gain Operational Amplifier Using CMOS VLSI Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush S. Patharkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The operational amplifier is one of the most useful and important component of analog electronics. They are widely used in popular electronics. Their primary limitation is that they are not especially fast. The typical performance degrades rapidly for frequencies greater than about 1 MHz, although some models are designed specifically to handle higher frequencies. The primary use of op-amps in amplifier and related circuits is closely connected to the concept of negative feedback. The operational amplifier has high gain, high input impedance and low output impedance. Here the operational amplifier designed by using CMOS VLSI technology having low power consumption and high gain.

  15. Evaluation of Silicon-on-Insulator HTOP-01 Operational Amplifier for Wide Temperature Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electronics capable of operation under extreme temperatures are required in many of NASA space exploration missions. Aerospace and military applications, as well as some terrestrial industries constitute environments where electronic systems are anticipated to be exposed to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings. Electronics that are able to withstand and operate efficiently in such harsh environments would simplify, if not eliminate, traditional thermal control elements and their associated structures for proper ambient operation. As a result, overall system mass would be reduced, design would be simplified, and reliability would be improved. Electronic parts that are built utilizing silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are known to offer better radiation-tolerance compared to their conventional silicon counterparts, provide faster switching, and consume less power. They also exhibit reduced leakage current and, thus, they are often tailored for high temperature operation. These attributes make SOI-based devices suitable for use in harsh environments where extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings are anticipated. A new operational amplifier, based on silicon-on-insulator technology and geared for high temperature well-logging applications, was recently introduced by Honeywell Corporation. This HTOP-01 dual precision operational amplifier is a low power device, operates on a single supply, and has an internal oscillator and an external clocking option [1]. It is rated for operation from -55 C to +225 C with a maximum output current capability of 50 mA. The amplifier chip is designed as a 14-pin, hermetically-sealed device in a ceramic package. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  16. Study and stability improving of operational amplifiers in the capacitance sensor drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotra Z. Yu.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Driver for capacitance loads more than 10 nF is developed and investigated. Driver provides high operational stability of the transducer by decoupling operational amplifier output from reactive load.

  17. Operation regimes, gain dynamics and highly stable operation points of Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Kroetz, Peter; Calendron, Anne-Laure; Chatterjee, Gourab; Cankaya, Huseyin; Murari, Krishna; Kaertner, Franz X; Hartl, Ingmar; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of laser pulse amplification with respect to operation regimes, gain dynamics, and highly stable operation points of Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers (RAs). The findings are expected to be more generic than for this specific case. Operation regimes are distinguished with respect to pulse energy and the appearance of pulse instability as a function of the repetition rate, seed energy, and pump intensity. The corresponding gain dynamics are presented, identifying highly stable operation points related to high gain build -up during pumping and high gain depletion during pulse amplification. These operation points are studied numerically and experimentally as a function of several parameters, thereby achieving, for our Ho:YLF RA, highly stable output pulses with measured fluctuations of only 0.19% (standard deviation).

  18. Operational amplifier speed and accuracy improvement analog circuit design with structural methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Vadim V

    2004-01-01

    Operational Amplifier Speed and Accuracy Improvement proposes a new methodology for the design of analog integrated circuits. The usefulness of this methodology is demonstrated through the design of an operational amplifier. This methodology consists of the following iterative steps: description of the circuit functionality at a high level of abstraction using signal flow graphs; equivalent transformations and modifications of the graph to the form where all important parameters are controlled by dedicated feedback loops; and implementation of the structure using a library of elementary cells. Operational Amplifier Speed and Accuracy Improvement shows how to choose structures and design circuits which improve an operational amplifier's important parameters such as speed to power ratio, open loop gain, common-mode voltage rejection ratio, and power supply rejection ratio. The same approach is used to design clamps and limiting circuits which improve the performance of the amplifier outside of its linear operat...

  19. Maximally Flat Waveforms Operation of Class-F Power Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krizhanovski

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The requirements to output network's impedance on higher harmoniccomponents and appropriate input driving for formation maximally flatwaveforms of drain current and voltage were presented. Using suchwaveforms allows obtaining maximal efficiency and output powercapability of class-F power amplifiers.

  20. OperationalAmplifier Analysis when Migrating from 0.18 µm to 65 µm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the analysis of operational amplifier parameter changes, when circuits are scaled from 0.18 μm to 65 nm CMOS technology. Two two-stage operational amplifiers were designed for this purpose: first uses n-MOS input differential pair; second uses cascaded active loads structure and p-MOS type input differential pair. The operational amplifiers were designed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology and scaled to 65 nm CMOS. Other scaling methods were also analysed when redesigning circuits from one IC technology to another. Results of the original and scaled operational amplifier parameters are presented and analysed.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Smartphone Operated Signal Transduction by Ion Nanogating (STING) Amplifier for Nanopore Sensors: Design and Analytical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Rıfat Emrah; Kahnemouyi, Sina; Fan, Hsinwen; Mak, Wai Han; Lohith, Akshar; Seger, Adam; Teodorescu, Mircea; Pourmand, Nader

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrated a handheld wireless voltage-clamp amplifier for current measurement of nanopore sensors. This amplifier interfaces a sensing probe and connects wirelessly with a computer or smartphone for the required stimulus input, data processing and storage. To test the proposed Signal Transduction by Ion Nanogating (STING) wireless amplifier, in the current study the system was tested with a nano-pH sensor to measure pH of standard buffer solutions and the performance was compared against the commercial voltage-clamp amplifier. To our best knowledge, STING amplifier is the first miniaturized wireless voltage-clamp platform operated with a customized smart-phone application (app). PMID:27602408

  2. Bandwidth enhancement for parametric amplifiers operated in chirped multi-beam mode

    CERN Document Server

    Terranova, F; Pegoraro, F

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the bandwidth enhancement that can be achieved in multi-Joule OPCPA systems exploiting the tunability of parametric amplification. In particular, we consider a pair of single pass amplifiers based on DKDP, pumped by the second harmonic of Nd:glass and tuned to amplify adjacent regions of the signal spectrum. We demonstrate that a bandwidth enhancement up to 50% is possible in two configurations; in the first case, one of the two amplifiers is operated near its non-collinear broadband limit; to allow for effective recombination and recompression of the outgoing signals this configuration requires filtering and phase manipulation of the spectral tail of the amplified pulses. In the second case, effective recombination can be achieved simply by spectral filtering: in this configuration, the optimization of the parameters of the amplifiers (pulse, crystal orientation and crystal length) does not follow the recipes of non-collinear OPCPA.

  3. Challenges of VDD scaling for analog circuits: an amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli-Stoffi, A.; Sauerbrey, J.; Wang, J.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2005-05-01

    With the shrinking of the device dimensions, the power supply voltage value is continuously decreasing. Since the threshold voltage value does not decrease as much as the power supply and the drain source saturation voltage becomes an important fraction of the power supply, many amplifier architectures are no more suitable for modern processes. A transconductance amplifier based on current mirrors is analyzed highlighting the main challenges of a low-voltage analog design. Among the many proposed amplifier architectures, a topology based on current mirrors has been chosen as the most promising to operate with low voltages. Simulations with 90nm CMOS prove the feasibility of circuit operation with satisfactory performance at an operating power supply voltage as low as 0.6V.

  4. Optical amplifier exhibiting net phase-mismatch selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feve, Jean-Philippe; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Farrow; Roger L.

    2011-02-01

    An optical amplifier, such as an optical waveguide amplifier (e.g., an optical fiber amplifier or a planar waveguide) or a non-guiding optical amplifier, that exhibits a net phase-mismatch selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation thereof is disclosed. In one aspect of the invention, an optical amplifier structure includes at least one optical amplifier having a length and a gain region. The at least one optical amplifier exhibits a net phase-mismatch that varies along at least part of the length thereof selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation thereof.

  5. Slew Rate and Step Response of the Noninverting Structure with an Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Puncochar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available When a large-step input voltage is applied to an operational amplifier (OP AMP input, the output waveform reises with a finite slope called the slex rate which is due to an amplifier input stage current limiting (Im and because of a compensating capacitor Ck. We will solve this step response for large-step input voltages which cannot be done by means of the linear analysis only.

  6. Modeling, Analysis and Design of Feedback Operational Amplifier for Undergraduate Studies in Electrical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analog electronics is a challenging subject for undergraduate students in electrical engineering, due to the complex combination of many previous subjects, such as linear circuit analysis, signal and system, linear control theory and some sort of mathematics. This paper presents the modeling, analysis and design of the operational amplifier, which is used as benchmark system for analog electronics, for undergraduate studies in electrical engineering. Followed by the introduction of the operation amplifier circuit, the design of feedback network for the operational amplifier using MATLAB is presented. The bandwidth and sensitivity analysis for the feedback control loop are also discussed. In order to enhance the stability margin and dynamic characteristics of the operational amplifier, the lead compensator is designed for the feedback loop by adding capacitive component to the feedback resistive network. The presented analysis and design method of the operational amplifier by using MATLAB/SIMULINK can be highly effective to compliment the classroom teaching for circuit design courses for undergraduate studies in electrical engineering.

  7. Low Power and Fast Transient High Swing CMOS Telescopic Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Kumar Kansal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CMOS telescopic operational amplifier with high-swing and high-performance is described in this paper. The swing is attained by using the tail and current source-transistors in deep-linear region. The resultant deprivation in parameters like differential gain, CMRR and added characteristics are recompensed by using regulatedcascode differential gain enhancement and a replica-tail feedback technique. Operating at power supply of 3.3V, the power consumption, slew rate and settling time are improved using transmission controlled pass circuitry and level amplifier. It is shown through simulations that the Op-Amp preserves its high CMRR and unity gain frequency.

  8. Extreme High and Low Temperature Operation of the Silicon-On-Insulator Type CHT-OPA Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    A new operational amplifier chip based on silicon-on-insulator technology was evaluated for potential use in extreme temperature environments. The CHT-OPA device is a low power, precision operational amplifier with rail-to-rail output swing capability, and it is rated for operation between -55 C and +225 C. A unity gain inverting circuit was constructed utilizing the CHT-OPA chip and a few passive components. The circuit was evaluated in the temperature range from -190 C to +200 C in terms of signal gain and phase shift, and supply current. The investigations were carried out to determine suitability of this device for use in space exploration missions and aeronautic applications under wide temperature incursion. Re-restart capability at extreme temperatures, i.e. power switched on while the device was soaked at extreme temperatures, was also investigated. In addition, the effects of thermal cycling under a wide temperature range on the operation of this high performance amplifier were determined. The results from this work indicate that this silicon-on-insulator amplifier chip maintained very good operation between +200 C and -190 C. The limited thermal cycling had no effect on the performance of the amplifier, and it was able to re-start at both -190 C and +200 C. In addition, no physical degradation or packaging damage was introduced due to either extreme temperature exposure or thermal cycling. The good performance demonstrated by this silicon-on-insulator operational amplifier renders it a potential candidate for use in space exploration missions or other environments under extreme temperatures. Additional and more comprehensive characterization is, however, required to establish the reliability and suitability of such devices for long term use in extreme temperature applications.

  9. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Yiqiang, Zhao; Shilin, Zhang; Hongliang, Zhao

    2011-04-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 × 183 μm2. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz.

  10. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Yiqiang; Zhang Shilin [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao Hongliang, E-mail: zhaoyq@tju.edu.cn [School of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 x 183 {mu}m{sup 2}. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 {mu}W with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. High repetition rate Yb:CaF2 multipass amplifiers operating in the 100 mJ range

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios PAPADOPOULOS; Friebel, Florence; Pellegrina, Alain; Hanna, Marc; Camy, Patrice; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Moncorgé, Richard; Georges, Patrick; Druon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    International audience; — We present the research advances on the development of 50-200 mJ energy range diode-pumped Yb:CaF 2-based multipass amplifiers operating at relatively high repetition rates. These laser amplifiers are based on diverse innovative geometries. All these innovations aim to design compact, stable and reliable amplifiers adapted to our application that consists in pumping ultrashort-pulse OPCPA (optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier) systems in the frame of the Apollo...

  12. Optical Amplifier with Flat-Gain and Wideband Operation Utilizing Highly Concentrated Erbium-Doped Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamida, B. A.; Cheng, X. S.; Naji, A. W.; Ahmad, H.; Al-Khateeb, W.; Khan, S.; Harun, S. W.

    In this paper, we proposed a flat-gain and wide-band erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using two chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) in serial configuration for double-pass operation. The amplifier consists of two sections of Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) operating in C-band and L-band respectively. A CFBG is used in each section to reflect the amplified signal back to the active area so that the overall gain spectrum can be enhanced and flattened. It is also observed that the gain of the amplifier produces a relatively higher gain with the Bismuth-based EDF (Bi-EDF) in the first stage compared to that of silica-based EDF (Si-EDF), especially in a longer wavelength region. The small signal gain of more than 19 dB is obtained within a wavelength region from 1545 to 1605 nm by the use of Bi-EDF with a small noise figure penalty. With a Si-EDF, the flat gain spectrum is observed within a wavelength region ranging from 1535 nm to 1605 nm with a gain variation of less than 2 dB at input signal of 0 dBm. This shows that the proposed serial double-pass amplifier may find its broad applications in wavelength division multiplexing long-haul systems as well as local optical networks.

  13. Design of an Operational Amplifier for High Performance Pipelined ADCs in 65nm CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Payami, Sima

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a fully differential Operational Amplifier (OpAmp) with high Gain-Bandwidth (GBW), high linearity and Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) has been designed in 65nm CMOS technology with 1.1v supply voltage. The performance of the OpAmp is evaluated using Cadence and Matlab simulations and it satisfies the stringent requirements on the amplifier to be used in a 12-bit pipelined ADC. The open-loop DC-gain of the OpAmp is 72.35 dB with unity-frequency of 4.077 GHz. Phase-Margin (PM) of the ...

  14. Properties of dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide fiber amplifiers operating at 1.3 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, B N; Schweizer, T; Hewak, D W; Laming, R I

    1997-05-15

    In light of recent progress in the fabrication of gallium lanthanum sulfide (GaLaS) fibers, we have modeled the performance of dysprosium-doped GaLaS fiber amplifiers operating at 1.3 microm . Based on experimental data, we find that the incorporation of a codopant (terbium) in the fiber core significantly shortens the optimum amplifier length from >30 m to approximately 3 m . Such a device may be practical, given the fiber losses currently achieved in GaLaS fibers.

  15. Efficient operation of a high-power {ital X}-band traveling wave tube amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P.; Xu, Z.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.; Naqvi, S.; Schachter, L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    1999-10-01

    We report experimental results demonstrating 54{percent} power conversion efficiency (43{percent} energy conversion efficiency), from a two-stage {ital X}-band traveling wave tube amplifier designed for high-power operation. The first stage of the amplifier is a 12-cm-long Boron Nitride dielectric section used to modulate the electron beam. The second stage consists of a long high-phase-velocity bunching section followed by a short low-phase-velocity output section. Output powers of up to 78 MW with narrow spectrum width were obtained with {approximately}700 kV, {approximately}200 A beam. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Low Power and Fast Transient High Swing CMOS Telescopic Operational Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay Kumar Kansal; Asst Prof. Gayatri Sakya

    2015-01-01

    CMOS telescopic operational amplifier with high-swing and high-performance is described in this paper. The swing is attained by using the tail and current source-transistors in deep-linear region. The resultant deprivation in parameters like differential gain, CMRR and added characteristics are recompensed by using regulatedcascode differential gain enhancement and a replica-tail feedback technique. Operating at power supply of 3.3V, the power consumption, slew rate and settling t...

  17. The causes of GaN HEMT bell-shaped transconductance degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Hsu; Sadler, Robert; Wang, Dave; Hou, Daniel; Yang, Yuefei; Yau, Wing; Sutton, William; Shim, JeoungChill; Wang, Shiguang; Duong, Ai

    2016-12-01

    Modern communication systems require high linearity, usually in addition to high output power. High linearity requires a flat device transconductance (gm) vs. gate-source voltage (Vgs), while at the same time, transconductance must be high for high gain. In spite of much research to investigate device/system linearity, GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices generally show a bell-shaped gm curve characteristic much like other FET devices. In this study, we examine gm behavior and conclude that the bell-shaped gm is caused by: (1) devices operating in the linear region, generally under low to moderate Vds bias, (2) nonlinear source and drain resistances, and (3) self-heating thermal effects. When Ids no longer follows a linear increase with Vgs due to these three causes, gm decreases and forms a bell shape. The key to maintain the gm flatness is to reduce both parasitic electrical and thermal resistances.

  18. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degrees C using low-cost CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Jens; Ackermann, Joerg; Uffmann, Dirk; Aderhold, Jochen

    1996-09-01

    There is an increasing demand from automotive, aircraft and space industry for reliable high temperature resistant electronics. Circuits with reliable functionality up to temperatures of 250 degree(s)C would be sufficient for most of these applications. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers are the basic building blocks of these circuits. Commercially available digital standard cell libraries and operational amplifiers are normally specified for operation up to a maximum temperature of 125 degree(s)C. Hence, the purpose of this work was the design and characterization of digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degree(s)C using a low-cost 1.0 micrometers epi-CMOS process. Several design measures were applied to the cells in order to further improve latch-up resistivity and to limit leakage currents, respectively. The transfer curves of all digital cells for all input signal combinations have been recorded in the temperature range from 30 to 250 degree(s)C. Significant results are very low temperature shifts of the noise margins and of the switching point, respectively. Furthermore, the low (0 V) and high (5 V) levels are reached exactly over the entire temperature range. Outstanding characteristics of the operational amplifier comprise low open-loop gain temperature drift as well as low offset and offset temperature drift, respectively. The open-loop gain was greater than 83 dB at room temperature with a drift of less than 0.02 dB/ degree(s)C. The offset voltage amounted to -1 mV at room temperature and 1 mV at 250 degree(s)C, respectively. The long-term behavior of these cells is currently under investigation.

  19. A compact nanopower low output impedance CMOS operational amplifier for wireless intraocular pressure recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresher, Russell P; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensing has shown potential benefits for the continuous-time measurement of physiological data. One such application is the recording of intraocular pressure (IOP) for patients with glaucoma. Ultra-low-power circuits facilitate the use of inductively-coupled power for implantable wireless systems. Compact circuit size is also desirable for implantable systems. As a first step towards the realization of such circuits, we have designed a compact, ultra-low-power operational amplifier which can be used to record IOP. This paper presents the measured results of a CMOS operational amplifier that can be incorporated with a wireless IOP monitoring system or other low-power application. It has a power consumption of 736 nW, chip area of 0.023 mm2, and output impedance of 69 Omega to drive low-impedance loads.

  20. The practical operational-amplifier gyrator circuit for inductorless filter synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    A literature is reported for gyrator circuits utilizing operational amplifiers as the active device. A gyrator is a two port nonreciprocal device with the property that the input impedance is proportional to the reciprocal of the load impedance. Following an experimental study, the gyrator circuit with optimum properties was selected for additional testing. A theoretical analysis was performed and compared to the experimental results for excellent agreement.

  1. Synergistic effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation in bipolar operational amplifier OP07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Liu, E-mail: liuyan@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wei, Chen; Shanchao, Yang; Xiaoming, Jin [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); Chaohui, He [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-09-21

    This paper presents the synergistic effects in bipolar operational amplifier OP07. The radiation effects are studied by neutron beam, gamma ray, and mixed neutron/gamma ray environments. The characterateristics of the synergistic effects are studied through comparison of different experiment results. The results show that the bipolar operational amplifier OP07 exhibited significant synergistic effects in the mixed neutron and gamma irradiation. The bipolar transistor is identified as the most radiation sensitive unit of the operational amplifier. In this paper, a series of simulations are performed on bipolar transistors in different radiation environments. In the theoretical simulation, the geometric model and calculations based on the Medici toolkit are built to study the radiation effects in bipolar components. The effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation is simulated based on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects in bipolar transistors. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the radiation effects in the bipolar devices subjected to mixed neutron and gamma environments is not a simple combination of total ionizing dose (TID) effects and displacement damage. The data suggests that the TID effect could enhance the displacement damage. The synergistic effect should not be neglected in complex radiation environments.

  2. A noble track-and-hold amplifier with 10-b 120-MS/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, J. K.

    2010-07-01

    A novel track-and-hold (T&H) employing an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with two cross-coupled differential pairs (CCDPs) is proposed for high-accuracy and high-frequency applications. The T&H has a simple architecture requiring smaller capacitors and fewer switches and offers higher speed, lower distortion and lower power dissipation than its op-amp-based counterparts. The chip implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS process operates from a single 1.8 V supply and achieves more than 10-bits precision for sampling rate in excess of 120 MS/s.

  3. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  4. Charge-Sensitive Front-End Electronics with Operational Amplifiers for CdZnTe Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Födisch, P; Lange, B; Kirschke, T; Enghardt, W; Kaever, P

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, "CZT") radiation detectors are announced to be a game-changing detector technology. However, state-of-the-art detector systems require high-performance readout electronics as well. Even though an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an adequate solution for the readout, our demands on a high dynamic range for energy measurement and a high throughput are not served by any commercially available circuit. Consequently, we had to develop the analog front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for an 8x8 pixelated CZT detector. For this purpose, we model an electrical equivalent circuit of the CZT detector with the associated charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA). Therefore, we present the mathematical equations for a detailed network analysis. Additionally, we enhance the design with numerical values for various features such as ballistic deficit, charge-to-voltage gain, rise time, noise level and verify the performance with synthetic detector signals. With this benchm...

  5. Current feedback operational amplifiers as fast charge sensitive preamplifiers for photomultiplier read out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Pessina, G, E-mail: claudio.gotti@mib.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126, Milano (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Fast charge sensitive preamplifiers were built using commercial current feedback operational amplifiers for fast read out of charge pulses from a photomultiplier tube. Current feedback opamps prove to be particularly well suited for this application where the charge from the detector is large, of the order of one million electrons, and high timing resolution is required. A proper circuit arrangement allows very fast signals, with rise times down to one nanosecond, while keeping the amplifier stable. After a review of current feedback circuit topology and stability constraints, we provide a 'recipe' to build stable and very fast charge sensitive preamplifiers from any current feedback opamp by adding just a few external components. The noise performance of the circuit topology has been evaluated and is reported in terms of equivalent noise charge.

  6. Current feedback operational amplifiers as fast charge sensitive preamplifiers for photomultiplier read out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2011-05-01

    Fast charge sensitive preamplifiers were built using commercial current feedback operational amplifiers for fast read out of charge pulses from a photomultiplier tube. Current feedback opamps prove to be particularly well suited for this application where the charge from the detector is large, of the order of one million electrons, and high timing resolution is required. A proper circuit arrangement allows very fast signals, with rise times down to one nanosecond, while keeping the amplifier stable. After a review of current feedback circuit topology and stability constraints, we provide a "recipe" to build stable and very fast charge sensitive preamplifiers from any current feedback opamp by adding just a few external components. The noise performance of the circuit topology has been evaluated and is reported in terms of equivalent noise charge.

  7. Operational Simulation of LC Ladder Filter Using VDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a systematic approach for implementing operational simulation of LC ladder filter using voltage differencing transconductance amplifier is presented. The proposed filter structure uses only grounded capacitor and possesses electronic tunability. PSPICE simulation using 180 nm CMOS technology parameter is carried out to verify the functionality of the presented approach. Experimental verification is also performed through commercially available IC LM13700/NS. Simulations and experimental results are found to be in close agreement with theoretical predictions.

  8. Study on laser characteristics of Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers: Operation regimes, gain dynamics, and highly stable operation points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroetz, P.; Ruehl, A.; Calendron, A.-L.; Chatterjee, G.; Cankaya, H.; Murari, K.; Kärtner, F. X.; Hartl, I.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2017-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study of laser pulse amplification of Ho:YLF regenerative amplifiers (RAs) with respect to operation regimes, gain dynamics, and output pulse stability. The findings are expected to be more generic than for this specific gain material. Operation regimes are distinguished with respect to pulse energy and the appearance of pulse instability, and are studied as a function of the repetition rate, seed energy, and pump intensity. The corresponding gain dynamics are presented, identifying highly stable operation points related to high-gain build-up during pumping and high-gain depletion during pulse amplification. Such operation points are studied numerically and experimentally as a function of several parameters, thereby achieving, for our Ho:YLF RA, highly stable output pulses with measured fluctuations of only 0.19% (standard deviation).

  9. Adaptive Synchronization of Chaotic Systems considering Performance Parameters of Operational Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruíz-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an adaptive control approach for synchronizing two chaotic oscillators with saturated nonlinear function series as nonlinear functions. Mathematical models to characterize the behavior of the transmitter and receiver circuit were derived, including in the latter the adaptive control and taking into account, for both chaotic oscillators, the most influential performance parameters associated with operational amplifiers. Asymptotic stability of the full synchronization system is studied by using Lyapunov direct method. Theoretical derivations and related results are experimentally validated through implementations from commercially available devices. Finally, the full synchronization system can easily be reproducible at a low cost.

  10. Investigation of the effect of noise on the operation of the charge sensitive amplifier with compensated pyroelectric interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starcev V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problems that arise during the operation of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA in critical conditions. Simplified schemes and mathematical models of the CSA are presented in order to study the effect of noise of operational amplifier and high-resistance resistor of negative feedback loop. The dependence of the CSA noise level on the pyroelectric interference compensation value is studied. Mathematical analysis data is confirmed by computer circuit simulation.

  11. Charging of capacitors with double switch. The principle of operation of auto-zero and chopper-stabilized DC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Yordanov, Vasil G; Manolev, Stojan G; Mishonov, Todor M

    2015-01-01

    The principle of operation of auto-zero and chopper-stabilized DC amplifiers, which is realized in many contemporary operational amplifiers is illustrated by a simple experimental setup given at the Open Experimental Physics Olympiad 2014 - "The Day of the Capacitor", held in Sofia and Gevgelija. The Olympiad was organized by the Sofia Branch of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria and the Regional Society of Physicists of Strumica, Macedonia. In addition to the solution of the secondary school task in the paper is given a detailed engineering description of the patent by Edwin Goldberg and Jules Lehmann, Stabilized direct current amplifier, U.S. Patent 2,684,999 (1949).

  12. A HIGH PERFORMANCE FULLY DIFFERENTIAL PURE CURRENT MODE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED JAVAD AZHARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel high performance all current-mode fully-differential (FD Current mode Operational Amplifier (COA in BIPOLAR technology is presented. The unique true current mode simple structure grants the proposed COA the largest yet reported unity gain frequency while providing low voltage low power operation. Benefiting from some novel ideas, it also exhibits high gain, high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR, high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR, high output impedance, low input impedance and most importantly high current drive capability. Its most important parameters are derived and its performance is proved by PSPICE simulations using 0.8 μm BICMOS process parameters at supply voltage of ±1.2V indicating the values of 82.4 dB,52.3º, 31.5 Ω, 31.78 MΩ, 179.2 dB, 2 mW and 698 MHz for gain, phase margin, input impedance, output impedance, CMRR, power and unity gain frequency respectively. Its CMRR also shows very high frequency of 2.64 GHz at zero dB. Its very high PSRR+/PSRR- of 182 dB/196 dB makes the proposed COA a highly suitable block in Mixed-Mode (SOC chips. Most favourably it can deliver up to ±1.5 mA yielding a high current drive capability exceeding 25. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed COA, it is used to realize a constant bandwidth voltage amplifier and a high performance Rm amplifier.

  13. 基于跨导运算放大器的可重构模拟电路及应用设计%Reconfigurable Analog Circuit and Application Design Based on Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟伟; 王友仁; 石玉; 崔江

    2009-01-01

    常规的粗粒度可重构模拟电路灵活性不高,而且可重构模拟单元(CAB)结构较为复杂.针对此类问题,该文改进并设计了一种新的基于OTA的可重构模拟电路.该电路设计方案降低了CAB的复杂度,提高了CAB的使用效率.该文方法的有效性通过3个模拟设计实例(二阶低通滤波器、高通滤波器和三阶巴特沃思低通滤波器)的设计加以验证.实验结果表明,所提出的方法正确有效,可以较好地兼顾CAB资源与所要求功能的平衡.%The conventional coarse-grained reconfigurable analog circuits have bad flexibility, and the reConfigurable Analog Block (CAB) structure is complicated. In order to solve such problems, a new OTA-based reconfigurable analog circuit is presented in this paper. In this circuit scheme, the complexity of CAB is reduced and the CAB utilization rate is increased. To verify the effectiveness, three examples of analog circuit design (a second-order low pass filter, a second-order high pass filter and a low-pass third-order Butterworth filter) are presented. The experimental results indicate that the proposed circuits is effective and feasible, which make a better balance between circuit resources and functions.

  14. Design and Characterization of two stage High-Speed CMOS Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Chaudhari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A method described in this paper is to design a Two Stage CMOS operational amplifier and analyze the effect of various aspect ratios on the characteristics of this Op-Amp, which operates at 1.8V power supply using tsmc 0.18μm CMOS technology. In this paper trade-off curves are computed between all characteristics such as Gain, PM, GBW, ICMRR, CMRR, Slew Rate etc. The OPAMP designed is a two-stage CMOS OPAMP. The OPAMP is designed to exhibit a unity gain frequency of 14MHz and exhibits a gain of 59.98dB with a 61.235 phase margin. Design has been carried out in Mentor graphics tools. Simulation results are verified using Model Sim Eldo and Design Architect IC. The task of CMOS operational amplifiers (Op-Amps design optimization is investigated in this work. This Paper focused on the optimization of various aspect ratios, which gave the result of different parameter. When this task is analyzed as a search problem, it can be translated into a multi-objective optimization application in which various Op-Amps’ specifications have to be taken into account, i.e., Gain, GBW (gain-bandwidth product, phase margin and others. The results are compared with respect to standard characteristics of the op-amp with the help of graph and table. Simulation results agree with theoretical predictions. Simulations confirm that the settling time can be further improved by increasing the value of GBW, the settling time is achieved 19ns. It has been demonstrated that when W/L increases the parameters GBW increases and settling time reduces.

  15. Operating Regime for a Backward Raman Laser Amplifier in Preformed Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Clark; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2003-02-06

    A critical issue in the generation of ultra-intense, ultra-short laser pulses by backward Raman scattering in plasma is the stability of the pumping pulse to premature backscatter from thermal fluctuations in the preformed plasma. Malkin et al. [V.M. Malkin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (6):1208-1211, 2000] demonstrated that density gradients may be used to detune the Raman resonance in such a way that backscatter of the pump from thermal noise can be stabilized while useful Raman amplification persists. Here plasma conditions for which the pump is stable to thermal Raman backscatter in a homogeneous plasma and the density gradients necessary to stabilize the pump for other plasma conditions are quantified. Other ancillary constraints on a Raman amplifier are also considered to determine a specific region in the Te-he plane where Raman amplification is feasible. By determining an operability region, the degree of uncertainty in density or temperature tolerable for an experimental Raman amplifier is thus also identified. The fluid code F3D, which includes the effects of thermal fluctuations, is used to verify these analytic estimates.

  16. Charge-sensitive front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for CdZnTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Födisch, P.; Berthel, M.; Lange, B.; Kirschke, T.; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, CZT) radiation detectors are suitable for a variety of applications, due to their high spatial resolution and spectroscopic energy performance at room temperature. However, state-of-the-art detector systems require high-performance readout electronics. Though an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an adequate solution for the readout, requirements of high dynamic range and high throughput are not available in any commercial circuit. Consequently, the present study develops the analog front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for an 8×8 pixelated CZT detector. For this purpose, we modeled an electrical equivalent circuit of the CZT detector with the associated charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA). Based on a detailed network analysis, the circuit design is completed by numerical values for various features such as ballistic deficit, charge-to-voltage gain, rise time, and noise level. A verification of the performance is carried out by synthetic detector signals and a pixel detector. The experimental results with the pixel detector assembly and a 22Na radioactive source emphasize the depth dependence of the measured energy. After pulse processing with depth correction based on the fit of the weighting potential, the energy resolution is 2.2% (FWHM) for the 511 keV photopeak.

  17. Input-output Transfer Function Analysis of a Photometer Circuit Based on an Operational Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2008-01-09

    In this paper an input-output transfer function analysis based on the frequencyresponse of a photometer circuit based on operational amplifier (op amp) is carried out. Opamps are universally used in monitoring photodetectors and there are a variety of amplifierconnections for this purpose. However, the electronic circuits that are usually used to carryout the signal treatment in photometer circuits introduce some limitations in theperformance of the photometers that influence the selection of the op amps and otherelectronic devices. For example, the bandwidth, slew-rate, noise, input impedance and gain,among other characteristics of the op amp, are often the performance limiting factors ofphotometer circuits. For this reason, in this paper a comparative analysis between twophotodiode amplifier circuits is carried out. One circuit is based on a conventional currentto-voltage converter connection and the other circuit is based on a robust current-to-voltageconverter connection. The results are satisfactory and show that the photodiode amplifierperformance can be improved by using robust control techniques.

  18. Design Considerations for CMOS Current Mode Operational Amplifiers and Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    This dissertation is about CMOS current conveyors and current mode operational amplifiers (opamps). They are generic devices for continuous time signal processing in circuits and systems where signals are represented by currents.Substantial advancements are reported in the dissertation, both...... implementations of current mode opamps in CMOS technology are described. Also, current conveyor configurations with multiple outputs and flexible feedback connections from outputs to inputs are introduced. The dissertation includes several examples of circuit configurations ranging from simple class A and class...... AB conveyor implementations to implementations based on purely digital circuit structures and on more complex analog subsystems such as a voltage mode opamp with feedback to provide a voltage follower action. An important by-product of the investigation of current mode structures is the definition...

  19. New Voltage-Mode All-pass Filter Topology Employing Single Current Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çiçekli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage-mode all-pass filter topology based on single current operational amplifier (COA and the implementation of COA by using current conveyors are presented. The proposed topology employs three admittances and single active circuit element. COA implementation by using current conveyor blocks as sub-circuit contributes to workability of the COA employing circuits by using commercially available integrated circuits that can be employed as current conveyor. The validity of the proposed filter is verified by PSPICE simulation programme by using the MOSIS 0.35 micron CMOS process parameters. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis and the circuit achieve a good total harmonic distortion (THD performance.

  20. Design Considerations for CMOS Current Mode Operational Amplifiers and Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    This dissertation is about CMOS current conveyors and current mode operational amplifiers (opamps). They are generic devices for continuous time signal processing in circuits and systems where signals are represented by currents.Substantial advancements are reported in the dissertation, both...... related to circuit implementations and system configurations and to an analysis of the fundamental limitations of the current mode technique.In the field of system configurations and circuit implementations different configurations of high gain current opamps are introduced and some of the first...... implementations of current mode opamps in CMOS technology are described. Also, current conveyor configurations with multiple outputs and flexible feedback connections from outputs to inputs are introduced. The dissertation includes several examples of circuit configurations ranging from simple class A and class...

  1. A 12-bit, 40-Ms/s pipelined ADC with an improved operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang; Haigang, Yang; Tao, Yin; Fei, Liu

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a 12-bit, 40-Ms/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an improved high-gain and wide-bandwidth operational amplifier (opamp). Based on the architecture of the proposed ADC, the non-ideal factors of opamps are first analyzed, which have the significant impact on the ADC's resolution. Then, the compensation techniques of the ADC's opamp are presented to restrain the negative effect introduced by the gain-boosting technique and switched-capacitor common-mode-feedback structure. After analysis and optimization, the ADC implemented in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process shows a maximum signal-to-noise distortion ratio of 60.5 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range of 74.5 dB, respectively, at a 40 MHz sample clock with over 2 Vpp input range.

  2. A 12-bit, 40-Ms/s pipelined ADC with an improved operational amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Yang Haigang; Yin Tao; Liu Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a 12-bit,40-Ms/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an improved high-gain and wide-bandwidth operational amplifier (opamp).Based on the architecture of the proposed ADC,the non-ideal factors ofopamps are first analyzed,which have the significant impact on the ADC's resolution.Then,the compensation techniques of the ADC's opamp are presented to restrain the negative effect introduced by the gainboosting technique and switched-capacitor common-mode-feedback structure.After analysis and optimization,the ADC implemented in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process shows a maximum signal-to-noise distortion ratio of 60.5 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range of 74.5 dB,respectively,at a 40 MHz sample clock with over 2 Vpp input range.

  3. Study and Performance Analysis of High Frequency and High Speed Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Goyal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis of the two stage CMOS operational amplifiers employing Miller capacitor in conjunction with the common gate current buffer is presented. Unlike the previously reported design strategies of the opamp of this type, this results in the opamp with a lower power supply requirements, better phase margin and better speed. The Opamp is designed to exhibit a unity gain frequency of 1.46GHz and exhibits a gain of 115dB with a 117˚ phase margin. The slew rate is found as high as 50 V/µs. Power supply noise rejection is also better in case of current buffer compensation. As compared to the conventional approach, the current buffer compensation method results in a higher unity gain frequency hence higher bandwidth under the same load condition. Simulation has been carried out in LT-SPICE

  4. A sub-0.5 V operating RF low noise amplifier using tunneling-FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhon, Hee-Sauk; Jeon, Jongwook; Kang, Myunggon; Choi, Woo Young

    2017-02-01

    60 nm tunneling FET (TFET) based low noise amplifier (LNA) with a sub-0.5 V supply voltage for 2.4 GHz WSN application has been evaluated systematically from device level up to circuit level design. With the help of TFET’s unique property of high subthreshold swing, it shows that substantial increase of gain performance was confirmed compared to that of conventional LNA using 60 nm bulk MOSFET at ultra-low voltage (ULV) condition. From the simulation study, TFET LNA at 0.4 V operating voltage has the gain of 15.1 dB and noise figure 50 of 3.5 dB while dissipating DC power consumption of 0.41 mW.

  5. Quantum limited noise figure operation of high gain erbium doped fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Ole; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Schüsler, Kim;

    1993-01-01

    powers below -5 dBm, and an improvement of 2.0 dB with a simultaneous gain increase of 4.1 dB is measured relative to a gain-optimized fiber. The optimum isolator location is evaluated for different pump and signal wavelengths in both an Al/Er-doped and a Ge/Er-doped fiber, for pump and signal power......Performance improvements obtained by using an isolator as an amplified-spontaneous-emission-suppressing component within erbium-doped fibers are evaluated. Simultaneous high-gain and near-quantum-limited noise figures can be obtained by such a scheme. The noise figure improves for input signal...... variations and different pump configurations. In all cases the optimum isolator position lies within 10-37% of the total fiber length for small signal operation...

  6. Annealing behavior of radiation damage in JFET-input operational amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yuzhan; Lu Wu; Ren Diyuan; Wang Yiyuan; Guo Qi; Yu Xuefeng

    2009-01-01

    The elevated and room temperature annealing behavior of radiation damage in JFET-input operational amplifiers (op-amps) were investigated. High-and low-dose-rate irradiation results show that one of the JFET-input op-amps studied in this paper exhibits enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity and the other shows time-dependent effect. The offset voltage of both op-amps increases during long-term annealing at room temperature. However, the offset voltage decreases at elevated temperature. The dramatic difference in annealing behavior at room and elevated temperatures indicates the migration behavior of radiation-induced species at elevated and room temperatures. This provides useful information to understand the degradation and annealing mechanisms in JFET-input op-amps under total ionizing radiation. Moreover, the annealing of oxide trapped charges should be taken into consideration, when using elevated temperature methods to evaluate low-dose-rate damage.

  7. Signal processing with a summing operational amplifier in multicomponent potentiometric titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parczewski, A

    1987-06-01

    It has been proved that application of two indicator electrodes connected to the ordinary titration apparatus through an auxiliary electronic device (a summing operational amplifier) significantly extends the scope of multicomponent potentiometric titrations in which the analytes are determined simultaneously from a single titration curve. For each analyte there is a corresponding potential jump on the titration curve. By application of the proposed auxiliary device, the sum of the electrode potentials is measured. The device also enables the relative sizes of the potential jumps at the end-points on the titration curve to be varied. The advantages of the proposed signal processing are exemplified by complexometric potentiometric titrations of Fe(III) and Cu(II) in mixtures, with a platinum electrode and a copper ion-selective electrode as the indicator electrodes.

  8. Design of high-linear CMOS circuit using a constant transconductance method for gamma-ray spectroscopy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I.I. [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Institute of Innovative Functional Imaging, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.S. [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y.-W., E-mail: ychoi@cau.ac.k [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    We propose a novel circuit to be applied to the front-end integrated circuits of gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. Our circuit is designed as a type of current conveyor (ICON) employing a constant-g{sub m} (transconductance) method which can significantly improve the linearity in the amplified signals by using a large time constant and the time-invariant characteristics of an amplifier. The constant-g{sub m} method is obtained by a feedback control which keeps the transconductance of the input transistor constant. To verify the performance of the propose circuit, the time constant variations for the channel resistances are simulated with the TSMC 0.18{mu}m transistor parameters using HSPICE, and then compared with those of a conventional ICON. As a result, the proposed ICON shows only 0.02% output linearity variation and 0.19% time constant variation for the input amplitude up to 100 mV. These are significantly small values compared to a conventional ICON's 1.39% and 19.43%, respectively, for the same conditions.

  9. A study on positive-feedback configuration of a bipolar SiC high temperature operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarrazi, Saleh; Lanni, Luigia; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the design and implementation of an integrated operational amplifier in bipolar SiC, and elaborates on its operation in positive-feedback configuration.The opamp is studied in different feedback setups: closed-loop compensated amplifier, comparator with hysteresis (Schmitt trigger), and as a relaxation oscillator. Measurement results suggest a stable closed-loop opamp with ∼40 dB gain, a Schmitt trigger with constant threshold levels over a wide temperature range, and a relaxation oscillator tested up to 540 kHz. All the setups were tested from 25 °C up to 500 °C.

  10. Design and analysis of various multifunctional operations at ultrahigh speed by using a semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovkesh; Marwaha, Anupma

    2016-03-01

    Various multifunctional operations are performed by proposing designs of optical adder, subtractor, comparator, and decoder at 60 Gb/s. In all operations, constructive interference is produced by choosing optimized parameters, i.e., optical pulse generator power, input power, semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach-Zehnder interferometer parameters, and so on, for delivering a true output signal. An optical pulse-generated signal is required for all operations except addition, subtraction and equal to in a comparator.

  11. Low phase noise oscillator using two parallel connected amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1987-01-01

    A high frequency oscillator is provided by connecting two amplifier circuits in parallel where each amplifier circuit provides the other amplifier circuit with the conditions necessary for oscillation. The inherent noise present in both amplifier circuits causes the quiescent current, and in turn, the generated frequency, to change. The changes in quiescent current cause the transconductance and the load impedance of each amplifier circuit to vary, and this in turn results in opposing changes in the input susceptance of each amplifier circuit. Because the changes in input susceptance oppose each other, the changes in quiescent current also oppose each other. The net result is that frequency stability is enhanced.

  12. Observation of negative differential transconductance in tunneling emitter bipolar transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenhuizen, Marc J.; Locatelli, Nicolas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Chang, Joonyeon

    2009-08-01

    We report on measurement of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) of iron (Fe)/magnesium-oxide (MgO)/silicon tunneling emitter NPN bipolar transistors. Device simulations reveal that the NDTC is a consequence of an inversion layer at the tunneling-oxide/P-silicon interface for low base voltages. Electrons travel laterally through the inversion layer into the base and give rise to an increase in collector current. The NDTC results from the recombination of those electrons at the interface between emitter and base contact which is dependent on the base voltage. For larger base voltages, the inversion layer disappears marking the onset of normal bipolar transistor behavior.

  13. High-transconductance graphene solution-gated field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L. H.; Hauf, M. V.; Seifert, M.; Speck, F.; Seyller, T.; Stutzmann, M.; Sharp, I. D.; Garrido, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on the electronic properties of solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFETs) fabricated using large-area graphene. Devices prepared both with epitaxially grown graphene on SiC as well as with chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on Cu exhibit high transconductances, which are a consequence of the high mobility of charge carriers in graphene and the large capacitance at the graphene/water interface. The performance of graphene SGFETs, in terms of gate sensitivity, is compared to other SGFET technologies and found to be clearly superior, confirming the potential of graphene SGFETs for sensing applications in electrolytic environments.

  14. On the operation of switch-less transversely excited atmosphere CO2 lasers in the oscillator and amplifier configurations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam C Patil; Pallavi Raote; J Padma Nilaya; D J Biswas

    2010-11-01

    The work presented in this paper deals with the triggering aspect of a switch-less laser. Many methods were utilized to affect the operation of two switch-less lasers in the oscillator–amplifier configuration. Most satisfactory performance in terms of the range and reliability of the delay was obtained with the LC inversion-based triggering option.

  15. Multisensor readout circuit using a multiple differential-input operation amplifier with pulse output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruey-Lue; Fu, Chien-Cheng; Yu, Chi; Wu, Wei-De; Chuang, Yan-Tse; Lin, Chen-Fu; Liao, Hsin-Hao; Tsai, Hann-Huei; Juang, Ying-Zong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a CMOS multisensor readout circuit is presented. A multiple differential-input operational amplifier (MDI-OPA) with three distinct positive inputs and one common negative input is designed to make one of the three inputs to act as a general differential-input OPA through a built-in multiplexer. A voltage-to-current converter and a current-controlled oscillator are integrated with the MDI-OPA so that the selected analog input voltage can be used to generate a pulse output whose frequency is linearly proportional to the selected input voltage. The linearity of the transfer characteristic is at least 99.99% for input voltages below 1.44 V. An added current-offset structure is used to modify the transfer characteristic that usually varies owing to process variation. The measured output transfer characteristics of three input channels show nearly the same sensitivity of 90 Hz/mV or so with a linearity of at least 99.99% with the assistance of the current-offset mechanism.

  16. Low Power CMOS Operational Amplifier with Integrated Common-Mode Feedback for Data Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad S.A.Z

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development a high-performance design of analog circuits becomes increasingly challenging with the continuous trend towards reducing the voltage supply and low power consumption without neglecting the trade-off among other performance parameters. This paper presents the design and implementation of CMOS operational amplifier (op-amp with integrated common-mode feedback (CMFB circuit for data converter using 0.13-μm Silterra CMOS technology. The folded cascode topology is employed as a main op-amp design because it provides high gain and high bandwidth besides low power consumption. The simulation results indicate that the DC gain of 64.5 dB along 133.1 MHz unity gain bandwidth (UGB is achieved for a 1 pF load capacitor. The slew rate of 22.6 V/μs, the phase margin (PM of 68.4° with settling time of 72.4 ns are obtained. The power consumption of this op-amp is 0.3 mW through voltage supply of 1.8 V.

  17. Comparison of an Analog Behavioral and Transistor Level Model of Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Smiesko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present time of the electronics development lot of the measure equipments are standing in a very close neighborhood of each other. The surrounding of them is then full of various signals of various frequencies and shapes. The electromagnetic influence of these equipments is important for their functionality and performance. The high frequency disturbance with the frequency of 1 MHz and more influence of course also the performance of the operational amplifiers. Lot of such circuit swith the lower power consumption are also sensitive to the very small disturbances. This paper is our contribution to the creating of an Analog Behavioral Model (ABM of the OPAMP, which is one of thevery power ful tool and can be used for the SPICE simulations. Some results of the simulations with our proposed model were compared with the measured results as well as with the SPICE simulations on the transistor level. The results showed the good agreement between the modeled and measured values.

  18. Low-noise RF-amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide coupled optoelectronic oscillators: physics and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, William; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Plant, Jason J; O'Donnell, Frederick J; Grein, Matthew E; Klamkin, Jonathan; Duff, Shannon M; Juodawlkis, Paul W

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrate a 10-GHz RF-amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide coupled optoelectronic oscillator (SCOW-COEO) system operating with low phase-noise (70 dB measurement-limited). The optical pulses generated by the SCOW-COEO exhibit 26.8-ps pulse width (post compression) with a corresponding spectral bandwidth of 0.25 nm (1.8X transform-limited). We also investigate the mechanisms that limit the performance of the COEO. Our measurements indicate that degradation in the quality factor (Q) of the optical cavity significantly impacts COEO phase-noise through increases in the optical amplifier relative intensity noise (RIN).

  19. Fixed-gain CMOS differential amplifiers with no external feedback for a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Vratislav; Klisnick, Geoffroy; Sou, Gérard; Redon, Michel; Kreisler, Alain J.; Dégardin, Annick F.

    2009-11-01

    We present original CMOS amplifiers designed for the DC to 10 MHz frequency range and operating in the 70-380 K temperature range. Aimed applications concern readout circuitry to be associated with THz bolometric pixels (either high- Tc superconducting or uncooled semiconducting), which require accuracy, low noise and low power consumption. Two designs are described that both exhibit high fixed-gain (40 dB) in a feedback-free architecture, which is based on a new low-transconductance composite transistor for an accurate control of this gain. Both amplifiers have been realized in a regular 0.35 μm CMOS process and tested in the 4.2-380 K temperature range, exhibiting good agreement between designed and measured characteristics.

  20. An improved nonlinear model of HEMTs with independent transconductance tail-off fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Linsheng

    2011-01-01

    We present an improved large-signal device model of GaAs/GaN HEMTs, amenable for use in commercial nonlinear simulators. The proposed model includes a new exponential function to independently control the transconductance compression/tail-offbehaviors. The main advantage of this model is to provide a simple and coherent description of the bias-dependent drain current (I-V) that is valid in all regions of operation. All aspects of the model are validated for 0.25-μm gate-length GaAs and GaN HEMT processes. The simulation results of DC/pulsed I-V, RF large-signal power and intermodulation distortion products show excellent agreement with the measured data.

  1. New active-only grounded inductance simulator employing current-mode approach suitable for wide band operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamacli, Serhan; Ozcan, Sadri; Kuntman, Hakan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an active-only grounded lossless inductance simulator operating in current-mode is presented. The circuit uses only a current operational amplifier (COA) and an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). The novelty of the proposed circuit is that it uses a COA instead of a voltage operational amplifier (VOA) to take the wider frequency operation advantage of the current-mode approach. The simulation results obtained through SPICE with 0.5 μm standard CMOS technology verify that the designed circuit can be operated up to 30 MHz, which is much higher than the operation frequency of previously reported inductance simulators utilising VOAs. The inductance value of the presented circuit can be adjusted electronically between 3.9 μH and 37 μH via the biasing current of the OTA. A parallel resonance circuit application is also given validating the operation of the proposed inductance simulator.

  2. Characterization of a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor operational amplifier from 300 to 4.2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, J. Todd; Ng, K.-W.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first operation of a commercially available complementary metal-oxide semiconductor operational amplifier, at liquid helium temperature. In addition, we have characterized several factors important to the practical application of such a circuit from room temperature down to 4.2 K. The temperature dependence and measurement techniques for open-loop gain, input offset voltage, input referred noise voltage, and quiescent current are presented. We will discuss our observations of low temperature behavior of the opamp with respect to others' previous results. This work represents an advancement over earlier studies which only reported opamp operation down to 77 or 30 K with measurements taken only at a limited number of temperatures instead of a broad range. Our data suggest that under special operating conditions the opamps can be effectively used with careful consideration of noise and gain performance. Input offset voltage levels and quiescent current (including power consumption) resemble normal room temperature operation.

  3. 67 cm long bismuth-based erbium doped fiber amplifier with wideband operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X. S.; Hamida, B. A.; Naji, A. W.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a wideband Bismuth-based erbium doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) using two pieces of bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with a total length of 67 cm as gain media in a double pass parallel configuration. Both Bi-EDFs have an erbium ion concentration of 6300 ppm. Compared to conventional silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Si-EDFA) with the same amount of erbium ions, the Bi-EDFA provides a higher attainable gain as well as a greater amplification bandwidth, which ranging from 1525 to 1620 nm. The proposed Bi-EDFA achieved a wideband gain of around 18 dB within the wavelength region from 1530 to 1565 nm. The noise figures are maintained below 10 dB within a wide wavelength region from 1535 nm to 1620 nm.

  4. An operational amplifier B1404UD1A-1 in the patch-clamp current-to-voltage converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzun, A M; Rozinov, S V; Abashin, G I

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of the home-made operational amplifier B1404UD1A-1 in a patch-clamp current-to-voltage converter was analyzed. Its parameters (background noise, input bias current, and gain-bandwidth product) were estimated. Schematic solutions and practical recommendations for the use of this amplifier in a current-to-voltage converter were given. Based on the background noise and frequency parameters of the converter, we found that this device can be used for measuring ion channel currents with a high sensitivity and within a broad frequency range (0.055 pA, to 1 kHz; 0.4 pA, to 10 kHz). An example of the converter application in experiments is given.

  5. 1.5 V低功耗CMOS恒跨导轨对轨运算放大器%A 1.5 V Low-power Rail-to-Rail CMOS Operational Amplifier with Constant-gm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红辉; 尹勇生; 高明伦

    2009-01-01

    运算放大器是模拟集成电路中用途最广、最基本的部件.随着系统功耗及电源电压的降低,传统的运算放大器已经不能满足低压下大共模输入范围及宽输出摆幅的要求.轨对轨运算放大器可以有效解决这一问题,然而传统的轨对轨运算放大器存在跨导不恒定的缺点.本文设计一种1.5V低功耗CMOS恒跨导轨对轨运算放大器,输入级采用最小电流选择电路,不仅实现了跨导的恒定,而且具有跨导不依赖于理想平方律模型、MOS管可以工作于所有区域、移植性好的优点.输出级采用前馈式AB类输出级,不仅能够精确控制输出晶体管电流,而且使输出达到轨对轨全摆幅.所设计的运算放大器采用了改进的级联结构,以减小运算放大器的噪声和失调.基于SMIC 0.18 μm工艺模型.利用Hspice软件对电路进行仿真,仿真结果表明,当电路驱动2 pF的电容负载以及10 KΩ的电阻负载时,直流增益达到83.2 dB,单位增益带宽为7.76 MHz,相位裕度为63°;输入输出均达到轨对轨全摆幅;在整个共模输入变化范围内跨导变化率仅为2.49%;具有较高的共模抑制比和电源抑制比;在1.5V低压下正常工作,静态功耗仅为0.24mW.%Operational amplifier is a basic device, most widely used in the analog integrated circuits. With the reduction of the system power consumption and with a low power supply voltage, the traditional operational amplifier can not meet the requirements of the large input common-mode range and the wide output swing under a low voltage. The rail-to-rail operational amplifier can meet these requirements. But the trans -conductance of the traditionalrail-to-rail operational amplifier is not constant. A 1.5 V low-power CMOS rail-to-rail operational amplifier is designed in this paper. A minimum current selection circuit is adopted in the input stage to achieve constant-g_m so that the trans-conductance is not independent of the ideal square

  6. Ultra-low noise miniaturized neural amplifier with hardware averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweiri, Yazan M.; Eggers, Thomas; McCallum, Grant; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Peripheral nerves carry neural signals that could be used to control hybrid bionic systems. Cuff electrodes provide a robust and stable interface but the recorded signal amplitude is small (amplifier should add as little noise as possible. Since mainstream neural amplifiers have a baseline noise of 2 μVrms or higher, novel designs are required. Approach. Here we apply the concept of hardware averaging to nerve recordings obtained with cuff electrodes. An optimization procedure is developed to minimize noise and power simultaneously. The novel design was based on existing neural amplifiers (Intan Technologies, LLC) and is validated with signals obtained from the FINE in chronic dog experiments. Main results. We showed that hardware averaging leads to a reduction in the total recording noise by a factor of 1/√N or less depending on the source resistance. Chronic recording of physiological activity with FINE using the presented design showed significant improvement on the recorded baseline noise with at least two parallel operation transconductance amplifiers leading to a 46.1% reduction at N = 8. The functionality of these recordings was quantified by the SNR improvement and shown to be significant for N = 3 or more. The present design was shown to be capable of generating amplifier. Significance. These results demonstrate the efficacy of hardware averaging on noise improvement for neural recording with cuff electrodes, and can accommodate the presence of high source impedances that are associated with the miniaturized contacts and the high channel count in electrode arrays. This technique can be adopted for other applications where miniaturized and implantable multichannel acquisition systems with ultra-low noise and low power are required.

  7. Cross-differential amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  8. Design of a Ka-band gyro-TWT amplifier for broadband operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaria, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, A. K. [Microwave Tubes Area, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031 (India); Choyal, Y. [Department of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, the design of a Ka-band periodically ceramic loaded gyro-TWT amplifier has been carried out. The design predict that the interaction structure can produce more than 80 kW output power, 50 dB saturated gain, and 3 dB bandwidth for 65 kV and 5 A electron beam with velocity ratio (α) of 1.2. This paper describes the design and simulation of a high performance 35 GHz TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWT that applies the same technique of employing a periodic dielectric loaded interaction structure to achieve stability and wide bandwidth. The design of input coupler with loaded interaction structure for Ka-band Gyro-TWT has been carried out using Ansoft hfss. The return loss (S{sub 11}) and transmission loss (S{sub 21}) of the Ka-band gyro-TWT input coupler have been found to be −27.3 dB and −0.05 dB, respectively. The design of output window for Ka-band Gyro-TWT has been carried out using cst microwave studio.

  9. A current to voltage converter for cryogenics using a CMOS operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Saitoh, K.; Shibayama, Y.; Shirahama, K.

    2009-02-01

    We have constructed a versatile current to voltage (I-V) converter operating at liquid helium temperature, using a commercially available all-CMOS OPamp. It is valuable for cryogenic measurements of electrical current of nano-pico amperes, for example, in scanning probe microscopy. The I-V converter is thermally linked to liquid helium bath and self-heated up to 10.7 K. We have confirmed its capability of a transimpedance gain of 106 V/A and a bandwidth from DC to 200 kHz. In order to test the practical use for a frequency-modulation atomic force microscope, we have measured the resonance frequency shift of a quartz tuning fork at 32 kHz. In the operation of the I-V converter close to the sensor at liquid helium temperature, the signal-to-noise ratio has been improved to a factor of 13.6 compared to the operation at room temperature.

  10. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including t...

  11. Comparative analysis of fourth-harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers operating at different frequency multiplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Kao, W. J.; Li, L. J.; Guo, Y. W.

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. This study presents a comparative analysis of fourth-harmonic multiplying gyro-TWAs with three schemes of operation. An improved mode-selective circuit using circular waveguides with various radii provides the rejection points within the range of operating frequencies to suppress the competing modes of gyro-TWAs. The simulated results reveal that gyro-TWAs are the most susceptible to the fundamental-harmonic TE11 competing mode, regardless of the operating scheme, and that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 20 dB to suppress the competing modes. The amplification of the waves in a gyro-TWA depends on the lengths of the sections, and the simulated results show that the gain increases for all schemes, as the length of the lossy section or the length of the copper section increases. All schemes exhibit nearly the same saturated output powers and bandwidths; however, the saturated gain of the scheme at a high frequency multiplication ratio is less than that of the scheme at a low frequency multiplication ratio. Extensive numerical calculations of power and gain scaling are conducted for all schemes.

  12. Significance of the double-layer capacitor effect in polar rubbery dielectrics and exceptionally stable low-voltage high transconductance organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Kong, Desheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Schweicher, Guillaume; Nakajima, Reina; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Wu, Hung-Chin; Lopez, Jeffery; Diao, Ying; Gu, Xiaodan; Himmelberger, Scott; Niu, Weijun; Matthews, James R.; He, Mingqian; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-12-01

    Both high gain and transconductance at low operating voltages are essential for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we describe the significance of the double-layer capacitance effect in polar rubbery dielectrics, even when present in a very low ion concentration and conductivity. We observed that this effect can greatly enhance the OFET transconductance when driven at low voltages. Specifically, when the polar elastomer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVDF-HFP) was used as the dielectric layer, despite a thickness of several micrometers, we obtained a transconductance per channel width 30 times higher than that measured for the same organic semiconductors fabricated on a semicrystalline PVDF-HFP with a similar thickness. After a series of detailed experimental investigations, we attribute the above observation to the double-layer capacitance effect, even though the ionic conductivity is as low as 10-10 S/cm. Different from previously reported OFETs with double-layer capacitance effects, our devices showed unprecedented high bias-stress stability in air and even in water.

  13. Linear-log counting-rate meter uses transconductance characteristics of a silicon planar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichholz, J. J.

    1969-01-01

    Counting rate meter compresses a wide range of data values, or decades of current. Silicon planar transistor, operating in the zero collector-base voltage mode, is used as a feedback element in an operational amplifier to obtain the log response.

  14. Pyroelectric detectors with integrated operational amplifier for high modulation frequencies; Pyroelektrische Detektoren mit integriertem Operationsverstaerker fuer hohe Modulationsfrequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, N.; Saenze, H.; Heinze, M. [InfraTec GmbH Dresden (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    In order to use the advantages of the current mode operation a pyroelectric detector family with integrated transimpedance amplifier (TIA) was developed particularly for modulation frequencies up to the kHz range with a simplified external circuitry for new application fields, e.g. absorption spectroscopy using quantum-cascade-laser. The essential advantages of the TIA arise from the small electrical time constant {tau}{sub E} and the short-circuiting of the pyroelectric element. A flat amplitude response up to some kHz was aimed at for a sufficiently high response of 7500 V/W, appr., also at high modulation frequencies. This can be achieved through a electrical time constant of 1 ms or less and a wide bandwidth of the op amp. The article describes in detail how these demands were accomplished and which compromises had to be accepted. (orig.)

  15. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  16. A current to voltage converter for cryogenics using a CMOS operational amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K; Saitoh, K; Shibayama, Y; Shirahama, K [Department of Physics, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: khayashi@a2.keio.jp

    2009-02-01

    We have constructed a versatile current to voltage (I-V) converter operating at liquid helium temperature, using a commercially available all-CMOS OPamp. It is valuable for cryogenic measurements of electrical current of nano-pico amperes, for example, in scanning probe microscopy. The I-V converter is thermally linked to liquid helium bath and self-heated up to 10.7 K. We have confirmed its capability of a transimpedance gain of 10{sup 6} V/A and a bandwidth from DC to 200 kHz. In order to test the practical use for a frequency-modulation atomic force microscope, we have measured the resonance frequency shift of a quartz tuning fork at 32 kHz. In the operation of the I-V converter close to the sensor at liquid helium temperature, the signal-to-noise ratio has been improved to a factor of 13.6 compared to the operation at room temperature.

  17. Energy efficient low-noise neural recording amplifier with enhanced noise efficiency factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidzadeh, V; Schmid, A; Leblebici, Y

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a neural recording amplifier array suitable for large-scale integration with multielectrode arrays in very low-power microelectronic cortical implants. The proposed amplifier is one of the most energy-efficient structures reported to date, which theoretically achieves an effective noise efficiency factor (NEF) smaller than the limit that can be achieved by any existing amplifier topology, which utilizes a differential pair input stage. The proposed architecture, which is referred to as a partial operational transconductance amplifier sharing architecture, results in a significant reduction of power dissipation as well as silicon area, in addition to the very low NEF. The effect of mismatch on crosstalk between channels and the tradeoff between noise and crosstalk are theoretically analyzed. Moreover, a mathematical model of the nonlinearity of the amplifier is derived, and its accuracy is confirmed by simulations and measurements. For an array of four neural amplifiers, measurement results show a midband gain of 39.4 dB and a -3-dB bandwidth ranging from 10 Hz to 7.2 kHz. The input-referred noise integrated from 10 Hz to 100 kHz is measured at 3.5 μVrms and the power consumption is 7.92 μW from a 1.8-V supply, which corresponds to NEF = 3.35. The worst-case crosstalk and common-mode rejection ratio within the desired bandwidth are - 43.5 dB and 70.1 dB, respectively, and the active silicon area of each amplifier is 256 μm × 256 μm in 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  18. Solid-state repetitive generator with a gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line operating as a peak power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. I.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Timoshenkov, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, experiments were made in which gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) operates as a peak power amplifier of the input pulse. At such an operating regime, the duration of the input pulse is close to the period of generated oscillations, and the main part of the input pulse energy is transmitted only to the first peak of the oscillations. Power amplification is achieved due to the voltage amplitude of the first peak across the NLTL output exceeding the voltage amplitude of the input pulse. In the experiments, the input pulse with an amplitude of 500 kV and a half-height pulse duration of 7 ns is applied to the NLTL with a natural oscillation frequency of ˜300 MHz. At the output of the NLTL in 40 Ω coaxial transmission line, the pulse amplitude is increased to 740 kV and the pulse duration is reduced to ˜2 ns, which correspond to power amplification of the input pulse from ˜6 to ˜13 GW. As a source of input pulses, a solid-state semiconductor opening switch generator was used, which allowed carrying out experiments at pulse repetition frequency up to 1 kHz in the burst mode of operation.

  19. An Operational Amplifier with Recycling Folded Cascode Topology and Adaptive Biasing

    OpenAIRE

    Saumya Vi; Anu Gupta; Alok Mittal

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a highly adaptive operational a mplifier with high gain, high bandwidth, high speed and low power consumption. By adopting the recyclin g folded cascode topology along with an adaptive- biasing circuit, this design achieves high performa nce in terms of gain-bandwidth product (GBW) and sl ew rate (SR). This single stage op-amp has been design ed in 0.18μ m technology with a power supply of 1.8V and a 5pF load. The...

  20. Chopper amplifier circuit with CMOS switches and amplifier FETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsing, J.H.; Bakker, A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1001231 (C2) The input voltage is fed to the inputs of an operational amplifier via a chopping reversal switchThe CMOS operational amplifier has a current source and a current mirror. The operational amplifier output is fed to an output circuit. The possible offset voltage is supp

  1. Strong coupling operation of a free-electron-laser amplifier with an axial magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rullier, J.L.; Devin, A.; Gardelle, J.; Labrouche, J.; Le Taillandier, P. [Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique, Boite Postale 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Donohue, J.T. [Centre dEtudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Boite Postale 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    1996-03-01

    We present the results of a free-electron-laser (FEL) experiment at 35 GHz, using a strongly relativistic electron beam ({ital T}=1.75 MeV). The electron pulse length is 30 ns full width at half maximum with a peak current of 400 A. The FEL is designed to operate in the high-gain Compton regime, with a negative coupling parameter ({Phi}{lt}0) leading to a strong growth rate. More than 50 MW of rf power in the TE{sub 1}{sub 1} mode (43 dB gain) has been obtained with good reproducibility. The experimental results are in good agreement with predictions made using the three-dimensional stationary simulation code solitude. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. GaInNAs-based Hellish-vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier for 1.3 μm operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Hot electron light emission and lasing in semiconductor heterostructure (Hellish) devices are surface emitters the operation of which is based on the longitudinal injection of electrons and holes in the active region. These devices can be designed to be used as vertical cavity surface emitting laser or, as in this study, as a vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA). This study investigates the prospects for a Hellish VCSOA based on GaInNAs/GaAs material for operation in the 1.3-μm wavelength range. Hellish VCSOAs have increased functionality, and use undoped distributed Bragg reflectors; and this coupled with direct injection into the active region is expected to yield improvements in the gain and bandwidth. The design of the Hellish VCSOA is based on the transfer matrix method and the optical field distribution within the structure, where the determination of the position of quantum wells is crucial. A full assessment of Hellish VCSOAs has been performed in a device with eleven layers of Ga0.35In0.65N0.02As0.08/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) in the active region. It was characterised through I-V, L-V and by spectral photoluminescence, electroluminescence and electro-photoluminescence as a function of temperature and applied bias. Cavity resonance and gain peak curves have been calculated at different temperatures. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results has been obtained. PMID:21711630

  3. A High-Performance Operational Amplifier for High-Speed High-Accuracy Switch-Capacitor Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Fan; Ning Ning; Qi Yu; Da Chen

    2007-01-01

    A highspeed highaccuracy fully differenttial operational amplifier (opamp) is realized based on noMillercapacitor feedforward (NMCF) compensation scheme. In order to achieve a good phase margin, the NMCF compensation scheme uses the positive phase shift of lefthalfplane (LHP) zero caused by the feedforward path to counteract the negative phase shift of the nondominant pole. Compared to traditional Miller compensation method, the opamp obtains high gain and wide band synchronously without the polesplitting effect while saves significant chip area due to the absence of the Miller capacitor. Simulated by the 0.35 μm CMOS RF technology, the result shows that the openloop gain of the opamp is 118 dB with the unity gainbandwidth (UGBW)of 1 GHz, and the phase margin is 61°while the settling time is 5.8 ns when achieving 0.01% accuracy. The opamp is especially suitable for the frontend sample/hold (S/H)cell and the multiplying D/A converter(MDAC) module of the highspeed highresolution pipelined A/D converters(ADCs).

  4. Single Event Transient Analysis of an SOI Operational Amplifier for Use in Low-Temperature Martian Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Scheik, Leif; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Mojarradi, Mohammad M; Chen, Yuan; Miyahira, Tetsuo; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Doyle, Barney

    2006-01-01

    The next generation of Martian rover#s to be launched by JPL are to examine polar regions where temperatures are extremely low and the absence of an earth-like atmosphere results in high levels of cosmic radiation at ground level. Cosmic rays lead to a plethora of radiation effects including Single Event Transients (SET) which can severely degrade microelectronic functionality. As such, a radiation-hardened, temperature compensated CMOS Single-On-Insulator (SOI) Operational Amplifier has been designed for JPL by the University of Tennessee and fabricated by Honeywell using the SOI V process. SOI technology has been shownto be far less sensitive to transient effects than both bulk and epilayer Si. Broad beam heavy-ion tests at the University of Texas A&M using Kr and Xebeams of energy 25MeV/amu were performed to ascertain the duration and severity of the SET for the op-amp configured for a low and high gain application. However, some ambiguity regarding the location of transient formation required the use of a focused MeV ion microbeam. A 36MeV O6(+) microbeam. the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) was used to image and verify regions of particular concern. This is a viewgraph presentation

  5. Construction and evaluation of ion selective electrodes for nitrate with a summing operational amplifier. Application to tobacco analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Olmos, R; Rios, A; Fernández, J R; Lapa, R A; Lima, J L

    2001-01-05

    In this paper, the construction and evaluation of an electrode selective to nitrate with improved sensitivity, constructed like a conventional electrode (ISE) but using an operational amplifier to sum the potentials supplied by four membranes (ESOA) is described. The two types of electrodes, without an inner reference solution, were constructed using tetraoctylammonium bromide as sensor, dibutylphthalate as solvent mediator and PVC as plastic matrix, the membranes obtained directly applied onto a conductive epoxy resin support. After the comparative evaluation of their working characteristics they were used in the determination of nitrate in different types of tobacco. The limit of detection of the direct potentiometric method developed was found to be 0.18 g kg(-1) and the precision and accuracy of the method, when applied to eight different samples of tobacco, expressed in terms of mean R.S.D. and average percentage of spike recovery was 0.6 and 100.3%, respectively. The comparison of variances showed, on all ocassions, that the results obtained by the ESOA were similar to those obtained by the conventional ISE, but with higher precision. Linear regression analysis showed good agreement (r=0.9994) between the results obtained by the developed potentiometric method and those of a spectrophotometric method based on brucine, adopted as reference method, when applied simultaneously to 32 samples of different types of tobacco.

  6. Single Event Transient Analysis of an SOI Operational Amplifier for Use in Low-Temperature Martian Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Scheik, Leif; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Mojarradi, Mohammad M; Chen, Yuan; Miyahira, Tetsuo; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Doyle, Barney

    2006-01-01

    The next generation of Martian rover#s to be launched by JPL are to examine polar regions where temperatures are extremely low and the absence of an earth-like atmosphere results in high levels of cosmic radiation at ground level. Cosmic rays lead to a plethora of radiation effects including Single Event Transients (SET) which can severely degrade microelectronic functionality. As such, a radiation-hardened, temperature compensated CMOS Single-On-Insulator (SOI) Operational Amplifier has been designed for JPL by the University of Tennessee and fabricated by Honeywell using the SOI V process. SOI technology has been shownto be far less sensitive to transient effects than both bulk and epilayer Si. Broad beam heavy-ion tests at the University of Texas A&M using Kr and Xebeams of energy 25MeV/amu were performed to ascertain the duration and severity of the SET for the op-amp configured for a low and high gain application. However, some ambiguity regarding the location of transient formation required the use of a focused MeV ion microbeam. A 36MeV O6(+) microbeam. the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) was used to image and verify regions of particular concern. This is a viewgraph presentation

  7. Continuous-time ΣΔ ADC with implicit variable gain amplifier for CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Bermak, Amine; Abbes, Amira; Benammar, Mohieddine Amor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a column-parallel continuous-time sigma delta (CTSD) ADC for mega-pixel resolution CMOS image sensor (CIS). The sigma delta modulator is implemented with a 2nd order resistor/capacitor-based loop filter. The first integrator uses a conventional operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), for the concern of a high power noise rejection. The second integrator is realized with a single-ended inverter-based amplifier, instead of a standard OTA. As a result, the power consumption is reduced, without sacrificing the noise performance. Moreover, the variable gain amplifier in the traditional column-parallel read-out circuit is merged into the front-end of the CTSD modulator. By programming the input resistance, the amplitude range of the input current can be tuned with 8 scales, which is equivalent to a traditional 2-bit preamplification function without consuming extra power and chip area. The test chip prototype is fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process and the measurement result shows an ADC power consumption lower than 63.5 μW under 1.4 V power supply and 50 MHz clock frequency.

  8. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-K.; Jeun, M.; Jang, H.-J.; Cho, W.-J.; Lee, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor

  9. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-K; Jeun, M; Jang, H-J; Cho, W-J; Lee, K H

    2015-10-28

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL(-1)) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.

  10. Self-amplified CMOS image sensor using a current-mode readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrick M.; de Lima Monteiro, Davies W.; Pittet, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The feature size of the CMOS processes decreased during the past few years and problems such as reduced dynamic range have become more significant in voltage-mode pixels, even though the integration of more functionality inside the pixel has become easier. This work makes a contribution on both sides: the possibility of a high signal excursion range using current-mode circuits together with functionality addition by making signal amplification inside the pixel. The classic 3T pixel architecture was rebuild with small modifications to integrate a transconductance amplifier providing a current as an output. The matrix with these new pixels will operate as a whole large transistor outsourcing an amplified current that will be used for signal processing. This current is controlled by the intensity of the light received by the matrix, modulated pixel by pixel. The output current can be controlled by the biasing circuits to achieve a very large range of output signal levels. It can also be controlled with the matrix size and this permits a very high degree of freedom on the signal level, observing the current densities inside the integrated circuit. In addition, the matrix can operate at very small integration times. Its applications would be those in which fast imaging processing, high signal amplification are required and low resolution is not a major problem, such as UV image sensors. Simulation results will be presented to support: operation, control, design, signal excursion levels and linearity for a matrix of pixels that was conceived using this new concept of sensor.

  11. 1.8V Operation Power Amplifier IC for Bluetooth Class 1 Utilizing p+-GaAs Gate Hetero-Junction FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Fumio; Bito, Yasunori; Takahashi, Hidemasa; Iwata, Naotaka

    We have developed a power amplifier IC for Bluetooth Class 1 operating at single low voltage of 1.8V for both control and drain voltages. We can realize it due to fully enhancement-mode hetero-junction FETs utilizing a re-grown p+-GaAs gate technology. The power amplifier is a highly compact design as a small package of 1.5mm×1.5mm×0.4mm with fully integrated gain control and shutdown functions. An impressive power added efficiency of 52% at an output power of 20dBm is achieved with an associated gain of 22dB. Also, sufficiently low leakage current of 0.25μA at 27°C is exhibited, which is comparable to conventional HBT power amplifiers.

  12. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2014-06-09

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9–11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  13. Active Reconfigurable Metamaterial Unit Cell Based on Non-Foster Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    two operational amplifiers is sketched in Figure 4-24. Figure 4-24 OPAMP transconductance amplifier circuit as a replacement for a MOSFET...68  Figure 4-24 OPAMP transconductance amplifier circuit as a replacement for a MOSFET device...the designed negative inductance ................................ 70  Figure 4-25 The response of the transconductance amplifier

  14. Improved-Bandwidth Transimpedance Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The widest available operational amplifier, with the best voltage and current noise characteristics, is considered for transimpedance amplifier (TIA) applications where wide bandwidth is required to handle fast rising input signals (as for time-of-flight measurement cases). The added amplifier inside the TIA feedback loop can be configured to have slightly lower voltage gain than the bandwidth reduction factor.

  15. 模拟跨导滤波器多目标并行进化的设计%Multi-objective parallel evolutionary design of analog transconductance filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学华; 李尧

    2013-01-01

    以往模拟滤波器的设计,需要经过人工多次修改、计算和调试。提出一种模拟跨导滤波器的硬件进化结构及多目标并行进化的设计方法。应用一种基于渗透原理迁移策略的多目标并行遗传算法,实现跨导滤波器的参数优化。对多目标并行遗传算法的遗传操作进行了改进,构造了适合滤波器参数进化的多目标适应度函数。在高Q值的跨导滤波器的设计中,采用级联法构成的四阶带通跨导滤波器能够满足其在阻带、通带以及过渡带方面的性能要求,对其实效性进行了仿真和验证,进化的参数数值与理论结果符合得非常好。%An analog filter’s design used to need modification, computation and debugging in many times by manual work. An evolutionary hardware structure and multi-objective parallel evolvable design method for an analogue transconductance filter is presented. A parallel genetic algorithm with migration scheme based on penetration theory is applied, and parameters optimization of the transconductance filter is realized. Genetic operations to multi-objective parallel genetic algorithm are improved, and a multi-object fitness function for the filter parameter has been built. In the course of high Q value transconductance filter designing, structure of four-order bandpass transconductance filter is built by cascade method, which is able to meet performance request in its stop-band, passing band, transition band, and the practicality has been simulated and verified. Values of evolutionary parameters are in line with theoretical values exceedingly.

  16. Free-Electron Laser Operation and Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Using a Step-Tapered Undulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D. A.; Prazeres, R.; Glotin, F.; Ortega, J. M.; Oepts, D.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Knippels, G.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical evaluation of a new method of enhancing the efficiency and gain of the free-electron laser (FEL) and observations of self-amplified spontaneous emission at start-up of the step-tapered FEL. The stepped undulator is divided into two uniform sections of

  17. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  18. Method of implementing frequency-encoded NOT, OR and NOR logic operations using lithium niobate waveguide and reflecting semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sisir Kumar Garai; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2009-11-01

    Optics has already proved its strong potentiality for the conduction of parallel logic, arithmetic and algebraic operations. In the last few decades several all-optical data processors were proposed. To implement these processors different data encoding/decoding techniques have been reported. In this context, polarization encoding technique, intensity-based encoding technique, tristate and quaternary logic operation, multivalued logic operations, symbolic substitution techniques etc. may be mentioned. Very recently, frequency encoding/decoding technique has drawn interest from the scientific community. Frequency is the fundamental character of any signal; and it remains unaltered in reflection, refraction, absorption etc. during the propagation and transmission of the signal. This is the most important advantage of frequency encoding technique over the conventional encoding techniques. In this communication the authors propose a new scheme for implementing NOT, OR and NOR logic operations. For this purpose co-propagating beams having different frequencies in C-band (1535–1560 nm) have been used for generating cascaded sum and difference frequency, exploiting the nonlinear response character of periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide. The cross-gain modulation property of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and the wavelength conversion property of the reflecting semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOA) are exploited here to implement the desired optical logic and arithmetic operations.

  19. BiCMOS operational amplifier with precise and stable dc gain for high-frequency switched capacitor circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschirotto, A.; Alini, R.; Castello, R.

    1991-07-01

    A novel approach in the design of high-frequency switched capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It is based on the use of simple and fast amplifiers with low but precisely controlled gain value. The effect of the precisely known and stable opamp gain is compensated for by changing the capacitor values during the synthesis of the SC cell. An example of an opamp with these features and the synthesis of a biquadratic filter based on this approach are given.

  20. Charge-sensitive amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Startsev V. I.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider design and circuit design techniques of reduction of the influence of the pyroelectric effect on operation of the charge sensitive amplifiers. The presented experimental results confirm the validity of the measures taken to reduce the impact of pyroelectric currents. Pyroelectric currents are caused by the influence of the temperature gradient on the piezoelectric sensor and on the output voltage of charge sensitive amplifiers.

  1. K+-Na+ ion-exchanged sodium magnesium aluminum germanate glass waveguide amplifier operating in the first telecommunications window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dianlai; Zhang, Jie; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Lin, Hai

    2010-12-01

    Potassium-sodium (K+-Na+) ion-exchanged multimode channel waveguide amplifiers have been fabricated based on Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped sodium magnesium aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass substrates. The normalized optical and relative gain coefficients of a 2.20 cm long device were identified to be 3.65 dB/cm and 1.58 dB/cm, respectively, at a signal wavelength of 810 nm under 457 mW 980 nm laser diode excitation. These are the highest values reported, and the results indicate that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped NMAG glasses are an attractive material for optical amplification in the first telecommunications window.

  2. Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency in InAs/InP quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier operating at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karni, Ouri; Capua, Amir; Eisenstein, Gadi; Sichkovskyi, Vitalii; Ivanov, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2013-11-04

    We report direct observations of Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency in a quantum dot optical amplifier operating at room temperature. The experiments make use of pulses whose durations are shorter than the coherence time which are characterized using Cross-Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating. A numerical model which solves the Maxwell and Schrödinger equations and accounts for the inhomogeneously broadened nature of the quantum dot gain medium confirms the experimental results. The model is also used to explain the relationship between the observability of Rabi oscillations, the pulse duration and the homogeneous and inhomogeneous spectral widths of the semiconductor.

  3. Improve the transconductance of a graphene field-effect transistor by folding graphene into a wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guiming; Liu, Weihua; Cao, Meng; Li, Xin; Zhang, Anping; Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Bangdao

    2016-07-01

    The transport property of a graphene wedge channel is studied theoretically and its leakage current through field emission is estimated when considering the effect of the internal electric field. The transconductance of the graphene transistor is improved from 0.016 to 0.321 μS μm-1 when the graphene is folded into a wedge (with angle of wedge π/6 and radius curvature 2.7 nm at the tip), while the wedge height is much smaller than the space between the top-gate and the channel. The improved transconductance is due to the locally enhanced electric field, which results in a potential well and causes electron accumulation at the wedge tip. The leakage current through field emission J FE shows a super-linear increase with the channel conductive current J DS, where overall the electron supply for the field emission at the wedge tip is improved by the channel bias voltage V DS.

  4. 嵌套式斩波运放的分析与设计%Analysis and Design of Nested Chopper Operational Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锗源; 杨发顺; 杨法明; 张荣芬; 邓朝勇

    2012-01-01

    A nested chopper operational amplifier was designed to solve the problem of large residual offset in traditional chopper amplifiers. Simulation with Spectre based on SMIC 0. 18 μm CMOS process showed that the circuit had an open loop gain of 78. 3 dB and a CMMR up to 112 dB. With chopper frequency /chophigh = 10 kHz and fchoplow=500 Hz, the single chopper and nested chopper opamp were simulated, respectively, using non-matched chopper switch. Results indicated that the nested chopper was helpful to reduce residual offset The nested chopper opamp is suitable for processing weak signal with low bandwidth, such as front-end readout circuit in sensors and audio signal amplifier circuit.%针对传统的斩波运放具有大残余失调的特点,设计了一个嵌套式斩波运放.基于SMIC0.18μm工艺,通过Spectre仿真工具进行验证与仿真,运放的开环增益达到78.3 dB,共模抑制比达到112 dB.在斩波频率fchophigh=10 kHz、fchoplow=500 Hz的条件下,通过使用非匹配斩波开关,分别对单斩波和嵌套式斩波运放进行仿真.结果表明,嵌套式斩波技术能有效减小残余失调的影响.适用于带宽较低的微弱信号检测与处理电路,如传感器前端读出电路和音频信号放大电路等.

  5. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  6. Learning and evolution in bacterial taxis: an operational amplifier circuit modeling the computational dynamics of the prokaryotic 'two component system' protein network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Vieri; Marijuán, Pedro C; Lahoz-Beltra, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in unicellular organisms (i.e., bacteria) depends on highly organized networks of proteins governing purposefully the myriad of molecular processes occurring within the cellular system. For instance, bacteria are able to explore the environment within which they develop by utilizing the motility of their flagellar system as well as a sophisticated biochemical navigation system that samples the environmental conditions surrounding the cell, searching for nutrients or moving away from toxic substances or dangerous physical conditions. In this paper we discuss how proteins of the intervening signal transduction network could be modeled as artificial neurons, simulating the dynamical aspects of the bacterial taxis. The model is based on the assumption that, in some important aspects, proteins can be considered as processing elements or McCulloch-Pitts artificial neurons that transfer and process information from the bacterium's membrane surface to the flagellar motor. This simulation of bacterial taxis has been carried out on a hardware realization of a McCulloch-Pitts artificial neuron using an operational amplifier. Based on the behavior of the operational amplifier we produce a model of the interaction between CheY and FliM, elements of the prokaryotic two component system controlling chemotaxis, as well as a simulation of learning and evolution processes in bacterial taxis. On the one side, our simulation results indicate that, computationally, these protein 'switches' are similar to McCulloch-Pitts artificial neurons, suggesting a bridge between evolution and learning in dynamical systems at cellular and molecular levels and the evolutive hardware approach. On the other side, important protein 'tactilizing' properties are not tapped by the model, and this suggests further complexity steps to explore in the approach to biological molecular computing.

  7. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  8. A Three-Stage Operational Amplifier for a Wide Range of Capacitive Loads%适合宽范围电容负载的三级运放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晶晶; Huijsing J H; 任俊彦

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a three-stage CMOS operational amplifier(opamp)that combines accuracy withstability for a wide range of capacitive loads.A so-called quenching capacitor is added to a multipath nested Miller compensation(MNMC)topology to obtain stability for a wide range of capacitive loads.Theoretical analysis and mathematical formulas are provided to prove the improvement in stability.A prototype of this frequency compensation scheme is implemented in a 0.7μm CMOS process.Measurements show that the amplifier can drive capacitive loads ranging from 100pF to 100μF with a gain of 90dB and a minimum phase margin of 26°The amplifier has a unity-gain bandwidth of 1MHz for a 100pF capacitive load.It employs a quenching capacitance of 18pF.%结合精确度和稳定性的要求提出了一种适合宽范围电容负载的CMOS运放.在多径嵌套式密勒补偿结构中加入一个抑制电容得到适合各种电容负载的稳定性.为了证实稳定性的提高对该结构进行了理论分析并计算得出数学表达式.基于这种新的频率补偿结构,利用CMOS 0.7μm工艺模型设计了样品芯片.测试结果表明:该运放可以驱动从100pF到100μF负载电容,直流增益为90dB,最小相位裕度为26°;该运放在100pF负载情况下单位增益带宽为1MHz,使用抑制电容仅为18pF.

  9. A 0.8V, 7μA, rail-to-rail input/output, constant Gm operational amplifier in standard digital 0.18μm CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citakovic, J; Nielsen, I. Riis; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel

    2005-01-01

    A two-stage amplifier, operational at 0.8V and drawing 7μA, has been integrated in a standard digital 0.18μm CMOS process. Rail-to-rail operations at the input are enabled by complementary transistor pairs with gm control. The efficient rail-to-rail output stage is biased in class AB. The measured...... DC gain of the amplifier is 75dB, and the unity-gain frequency is 870kHz with a 12pF, 100kΩload. Both input and output stage transistors are biased in weak inversion....

  10. A High-performance Small Signal Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    According to questions in the design of high quality small signal amplifier, this paper gave a new-type high performance small signal amplifier. The paper selected the operational amplifier of ICL Company and designed a new-type circuit with simple, low cost and excellent performance.

  11. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  12. High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Jenkins, Keith A; Valdes Garcia, Alberto; Franklin, Aaron D; Bol, Ageeth A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2011-09-14

    While graphene transistors have proven capable of delivering gigahertz-range cutoff frequencies, applying the devices to RF circuits has been largely hindered by the lack of current saturation in the zero band gap graphene. Herein, the first high-frequency voltage amplifier is demonstrated using large-area chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has a 6-finger gate design with gate length of 500 nm. The graphene common-source amplifier exhibits ∼5 dB low frequency gain with the 3 dB bandwidth greater than 6 GHz. This first AC voltage gain demonstration of a GFET is attributed to the clear current saturation in the device, which is enabled by an ultrathin gate dielectric (4 nm HfO(2)) of the embedded gate structures. The device also shows extrinsic transconductance of 1.2 mS/μm at 1 V drain bias, the highest for graphene FETs using large-scale graphene reported to date.

  13. 2010 Neuroscience Director’s Strategic Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    scan the 16-channel inputs. The second stage and third stage use operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) to implement a low-pass filter, high...multiplexer NIR near infrared OTA operational transconductance amplifier PCB printed circuit board PDs photodiodes PLI phase lag index PLS partial...our 16-channel neural amplifier . The transconductance Gm of the amplifier is controlled by the bias current from M9. The input transistors (M1–M2

  14. 一款低噪声CMOS运算放大器的改进与设计%Improvement and Design of the Low-Noise CMOS Operational Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭虎

    2012-01-01

    采用台积电(TSMC)0.1gum标准RFCMOS工艺进行仿真验证;改进了器件的噪声模型,给出了在功耗和阻抗匹配条件下噪声性能优化的设计方法。在遵守模拟电路设计的八边形法则的基础上,对参数进行折衷考虑(trade—o国和整体优化处理。仿真结果表明,此运算放大器的各项主要参数均满足预期要求,性能优异。%This paper completes the simulation verification using RF CMOS process of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing (TSMC) 0.18 um standard. It improves the device noise model, proposes the design method of noise performance optimization under the power consumption and impedance matching condition. Abiding by the octagon rule of analog circuit design, all the parameters are made a compromise and optimized. The simulation results show that the key parameters of the operational amplifier meet the expected requirement, and the performance is excellent.

  15. 3.7 GHz repetition rate operated narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulsed Yb fiber amplifier with an all-fiber multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, K. H.; Wen, R. H.; Guo, Y.

    2016-04-01

    A high power picosecond pulsed Yb fiber amplifier with a pulse repetition rate of 3.7 GHz is experimentally demonstrated. The seed is a gain switched distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) structured laser diode (LD) with a pulse duration of 130 ps and a repetition rate of 460 MHz. The pulse repetition rate is increased to 3.7 GHz by introducing an all-fiber multiplier, which is composed of four 2  ×  2 structured fiber couplers. The multiplied pulse train is amplified to 81 W through two stage Yb fiber amplifiers.

  16. A third-order complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sigma-delta modulator operating between 4.2 K and 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okcan, Burak; Gielen, Georges; Van Hoof, Chris

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a third-order switched-capacitor sigma-delta modulator implemented in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process. It operates from 300 K down to 4.2 K, achieving 70.8 dB signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio (SNDR) in a signal bandwidth of 5 kHz with a sampling frequency of 500 kHz at 300 K. The modulator utilizes an operational transconductance amplifier in its loop filter, whose architecture has been optimized in order to eliminate the cryogenic anomalies below the freeze-out temperature. At 4.2 K, the modulator achieves 67.7 dB SNDR consuming 21.17 μA current from a 3.3 V supply.

  17. REGENERATIVE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabell, L.J.

    1958-11-25

    Electrical circults for use in computers and the like are described. particularly a regenerative bistable transistor amplifler which is iurned on by a clock signal when an information signal permits and is turned off by the clock signal. The amplifier porforms the above function with reduced power requirements for the clock signal and circuit operation. The power requirements are reduced in one way by employing transformer coupling which increases the collector circuit efficiency by eliminating the loss of power in the collector load resistor.

  18. Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C

    2014-04-01

    A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.

  19. A balanced wide-band amplifier for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzariu, Mircea; Lupescu, Horia; Dumitrascu, Ana; Tamas, Razvan D.

    2015-02-01

    Due to its better performance, high fiability and large power capability, balanced amplifier is one of the most popular designs used in narrow band applications. However, with a balanced amplifier in class A operation, the band-pass is still narrow with classical coupler [1]. In this paper, we propose a new method for widen the band-pass and linearity of the amplifier, by using two Lange couplers and by adding two drivers, so that small signal could be amplified [2], [3], [4], [5]. The proposed amplifier works in the 0.9 - 2.4 GHz band, with good performances. We also propose an A class X-band amplifier, with Wilkinson power divider used as a combiner and divider. The amplifier will operate at 9,5 GHz with Continuous Wave (C.W). The two methods were validated by simulating the balanced amplifier with Lange coupler and the balanced amplifier with Wilkinson power divider, in class A operation.

  20. Design of a Simple UV Double Beam Spectrophotometer Detector Based on a High Gain Trans Impedance Operational Amplifiers for RNA Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakhib Ibrahim Abdelbary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work a simple double beam spectrophotometer detector for the nucleic acid detection has been designed. The developed system contains photodiodes as a sensor, logarithamatic transimpedance amplifier circuit and filter circuit.The developed prototype design accuracy is validated by running a RNA sample and the result shows that our simplified developed setup detects the present of RNA in the sample.

  1. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...

  2. Capacitively-coupled chopper amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Qinwen; Huijsing, Johan H

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the concept and design of the capacitively-coupled chopper technique, which can be used in precision analog amplifiers. Readers will learn to design power-efficient amplifiers employing this technique, which can be powered by regular low supply voltage such as 2V and possibly having a +\\-100V input common-mode voltage input. The authors provide both basic design concepts and detailed design examples, which cover the area of both operational and instrumentation amplifiers for multiple applications, particularly in power management and biomedical circuit designs. Discusses basic working principles and details of implementation for proven designs; Includes a diverse set of applications, along with measurement results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique; Explains advantages and drawbacks of the technique, given particular circumstances.

  3. 5-W Microwave Integrated Circuits (MIC) Gallium Nitride (GaN) Class F Power Amplifier Operating at 2.8 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 15  Distribition List 16 iv List of Figures Figure 1. I-V characteristics GaN HEMT packaged device...characteristics GaN HEMT packaged device: (a) Cree large-signal model and (b) measured data (Vgs values of –2.8 V to 0.1 V in steps of 0.1 V). S...Two-Stage Quasi-Class-E Power Amplifier in GaN HEMT Technology. IEEE Microwave And Wireless Components Letters 2006, 16, 28–30. 4. Wu, D. Y

  4. Interpretation of transconductance dispersion in AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor by capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, K J; Yoo, H M; Lee, G Y

    1998-01-01

    The transconductance dispersion in AlGaAs/InGaAs PHEMT grown by MBE was interpreted by means of capacitance DLTS technique. When the gate bias was -0.2 V, the transconductance decreased at a very broad frequency range of 5.5 Hz -1.7x10 sup 4 Hz. However, when a positive bias was applied to the gate, the transconductance increased at a low frequency range and then decreased at a high frequency range. In the transconductance dispersion measurement as a function of temperature, the transition frequency shifted to higher frequency region with the increase in temperature. The emission energy for the change in the transition frequency was determined to be 0.394 eV from the temperature dependency of the transition frequency. In the capacitance DLTS measurements, we observed DX-center with thermal activation energy of 0.420 eV and two hole trap-like signals. The DX-center peak decreased as the filling pulse decreased from +0.6 V and disappeared at the bias of -0.1 V. Comparing the activation energy of DX-center in DL...

  5. Negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect/bipolar hybrid transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken [Texas Instruments, Inc., Richardson, Texas 75243 (United States)

    2014-11-24

    Introducing explicit quantum transport into Si transistors in a manner amenable to industrial fabrication has proven challenging. Hybrid field-effect/bipolar Si transistors fabricated on an industrial 45 nm process line are shown to demonstrate explicit quantum transport signatures. These transistors incorporate a lateral ion implantation-defined quantum well (QW) whose potential depth is controlled by a gate voltage (V{sub G}). Quantum transport in the form of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) is observed to temperatures >200 K. The NDTC is tied to a non-monotonic dependence of bipolar current gain on V{sub G} that reduces drain-source current through the QW. These devices establish the feasibility of exploiting quantum transport to transform the performance horizons of Si devices fabricated in an industrially scalable manner.

  6. Bi-doped fiber amplifier with a flat gain of 25  dB operating in the wavelength band 1320-1360  nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipparapu, N K; Umnikov, A A; Barua, P; Sahu, J K

    2016-04-01

    Bismuth (Bi)-doped phosphosilicate fibers have been fabricated by the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD)-solution doping technique under different process conditions. The influence of fabrication conditions on unsaturable loss in fibers has been investigated. Pump wavelength dependent Bi gain has been studied to obtain a flat gain over a wide bandwidth. A diode pumped all-fiber Bi-doped amplifier with a flat gain of 25±1  dB from 1320-1360 nm (40 nm) has been demonstrated for -10  dBm of input signal power with a noise figure (NF) ranging from 4-6 dB. Moreover, a small signal gain of 29 dB and a NF of 4.5 dB at 1340 nm has been achieved for an input signal power of -30  dBm.

  7. High Average Power Optical FEL Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, I; Litvinenko, V

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL amplifier and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance a 100 kW average power FEL. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting energy recovery linacs combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs with some advantages. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Li...

  8. Based on the EWB 0.6μm CMOS Operational Amplifier Design%基于EWB 0.6μm CMOS运放设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈添兰

    2013-01-01

    根据运放的结构原理及理论指标要求设计一个基于0.6μm CMOS运算放大器.并采用EWB仿真软件仿真运放的各主要指标.指标包括运放的静/动态仿真分析、共/差模抑制比仿真分析.最后参考设计指标要求将仿真结果与理论计算结果相比对,设计出稳定的运放电路.%according to the structure principle and the theory of operational requirement design based on a 0.6μm CMOS opera?tional amplifier. And the use of EWB simulation software simulate OPAMP major indicators, indicators include the static / dy?namic simulation analysis, Co / differential mode rejection ratio. Finally,the reference design requirements the simulation results with the theoretical calculation results compared to design amplifier circuit.

  9. 338-GHz Semiconductor Amplifier Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Fung, King Man; Rasisic, Vesna; Deal, William; Leong, Kevin; Mei, Xiao Bing; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, Po-Hsin; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers.

  10. Thickness-dependent carrier transport and optically enhanced transconductance gain in III-VI multilayer InSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Hwa

    2016-06-01

    Multilayer InSe with a thickness above ˜20 nm, is a direct semiconductor with a peak absorption wavelength approaching λ = 1000 nm, which is a promising candidate for solar-energy conversion and 2D optoelectronics devices. We present herein the experimental observations of thickness-dependent conductivity and photoconductive-responsivity spectrum in multilayer InSe as well as optically enhanced transconductance gain in the multilayer InSe metal-semiconductor-field-effect transistor (MESFET) illuminated by a halogen lamp. The voltage-current (V-I) measurement result shows multilayer InSe belongs to a p-type semiconductor, which can form a p-channel FET device. Thickness (t) dependent conductivity (σ) of multilayer InSe reveals about six-order variation from 5076 (Ω-cm)-1 (t = 5 nm) to 2.56 × 10-3 (Ω-cm)-1 (t = 184 μm, bulk) following a relationship of σ ∝ t -1.38. The highest conductivity in a thin InSe (e.g. t = 5 nm) is due to the increase of carrier density when the thickness is decreased. The photoresponsivity spectrum of a Ag-InSe-Ag multilayer photoconductor demonstrates a prominent peak absorption at 1.1 ˜ 1.3 eV, matches well with the direct-free-exciton energy of the InSe. A multilayer p-InSe MESFET was tested by V-I measurement. The transconductance was measured and determined to be {g}m={≤ft|\\tfrac{\\partial {{{I}}}{{D}}}{\\partial {{{V}}}{{G}}}\\right|}{{{V}}{{SD}}={{2V}}} = ({1.25 +/- 0.008})× {10}-4≤ft(\\tfrac{{{A}}}{{{V}}}\\right). The gm value will enhance about three times when the MESFET was placed under the illumination of a tungsten halogen lamp of a lower power density ˜0.5 mW · cm-2. All the experimental results demonstrate multilayer InSe a promising 2D material available for microelectronics and optoelectronics applications.

  11. Achieving and maintaining cleanliness in NIF amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A. K.; Horvath, J. A.; Letts, S. A.; Menapace, J. A.; Stowers, I. F.

    1998-07-28

    Cleanliness measurements made on AMPLAB prototype National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser amplifiers during assembly, cassette transfer, and amplifier operation are summarized. These measurements include particle counts from surface cleanliness assessments using filter swipe techniques and from airborne particle monitoring. Results are compared with similar measurements made on the Beamlet and Nova lasers and in flashlamp test fixtures. Observations of Class 100,000 aerosols after flashlamp firings are discussed. Comparisons are made between typical damage densities on laser amplifier optics from Novette, NOVA, Beamlet, and AMPLAB.

  12. Auto-Zero Differential Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, Gerard T. (Inventor); Aslam, Shahid (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An autozero amplifier may include a window comparator network to monitor an output offset of a differential amplifier. The autozero amplifier may also include an integrator to receive a signal from a latched window comparator network, and send an adjustment signal back to the differential amplifier to reduce an offset of the differential amplifier.

  13. Study on transconductance non-linearity of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs considering acceptor-like traps in barrier layer under the gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Chen, Nanting; Jiang, Zhiguang; Bai, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yong; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    DC and pulsed transfer characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been systematically investigated. A significant difference of transconductance linearity between DC and gate-pulsed measurements is clearly observed. The acceptor-like traps in the barrier layer under the gate is the main cause of non-linear behavior of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs transconductance. A physical model has been constructed to explain the phenomenon. In the modeling, an acceptor-like trap concentration of 1.2 × 1019 cm-3 with an energy level of 0.5 eV below the conduction band minimum shows the best fit to measurement results.

  14. MMIC Amplifiers for 90 to 130 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, Lorene; Pukala, David; Peralta, Alejandro; Bryerton, Eric; Morgan, Matt; Boyd, T.; Hu, Ming; Schmitz, Adele

    2007-01-01

    This brief describes two monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifier chips optimized to function in the frequency range of 90 to 130 GHz, covering nearly all of F-band (90 - 140 GHz). These amplifiers were designed specifically for local-oscillator units in astronomical radio telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). They could also be readily adapted for use in electronic test equipment, automotive radar systems, and communications systems that operate between 90 and 130 GHz.

  15. Active filter based on operational amplifier circuit simulation and research%基于运算放大器的有源滤波器电路仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张科; 蒲娟

    2014-01-01

    为降低模拟采样前置电路的噪声,文章用集成运算放大器分别设计了低通滤波器,高通滤波器和带通滤波器电路三种电路,并用Multisim 12软件分别对这些电路进行了仿真并分析了电路各项指标和特点。%In order to reducing the noise of the analog front end circuit sampling, the authors use the integrated operational amplifier design respectively low-pass filter, high-pass filter and bandpass filter circuit, and software Multisim 12 of these circuits are simulated and analyzed respectively circuit and characteristics of the indicators.

  16. Low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, J. R.; García-Delgado, L. A.; Gómez-Fuentes, R.; García-Juárez, A.

    2016-09-01

    A low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications is presented and described. The amplifier is based on a class-D half-bridge amplifier with a voltage mirror driver. The RF amplifier is composed of an RF class-D amplifier, an envelope modulator to ramp up the RF voltage during the ion analysis stage, a detector or amplitude demodulation circuit for sensing the output signal amplitude, and a feedback amplifier that linearizes the steady state output of the amplifier. The RF frequency is set by a crystal oscillator and the series resonant circuit is tuned to the oscillator frequency. The resonant circuit components have been chosen, in this case, to operate at 1 MHz. In testings, the class-D stage operated at a maximum of 78 mW at 1.1356 MHz producing 225 V peak.

  17. Optoisolators simplify amplifier design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Joseph Wee

    2007-09-01

    Simplicity and low parts count are key virtues to this high voltage amplifier. Optoisolators replace complex high voltage transistor biasing schemes. This amplifier employs only 2 optoisolators, 16 high voltage mosfets transistors, 2 low voltage ones, 6 linear IC's and a score of passive components. Yet it can amplify opamp signals to 5 kV peak-to-peak from DC to sine waves up to 20 kHz. Resistor feedback guarantees the fidelity of the signal. It can source and sink 10 mA of output current. This amplifier was conceived to power ion traps for biological whole cell mass measurements. It is a versatile tool for a variety of applications.

  18. RF Power Amplifier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lokay

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The special program is presented for the demonstration of RF power transistor amplifiers for the purposes of the high-school education in courses of radio transmitters. The program is written in Turbo Pascal 6. 0 and enables to study the waveforms in selected points of the amplifier and to draw the trajectories of the working point in a plot of output transistor characteristics.

  19. Note: A high dynamic range, linear response transimpedance amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, S; Sushkov, A O; Lamoreaux, S K

    2012-02-01

    We have built a high dynamic range (nine decade) transimpedance amplifier with a linear response. The amplifier uses junction-gate field effect transistors (JFETs) to switch between three different resistors in the feedback of a low input bias current operational amplifier. This allows for the creation of multiple outputs, each with a linear response and a different transimpedance gain. The overall bandwidth of the transimpedance amplifier is set by the bandwidth of the most sensitive range. For our application, we demonstrate a three-stage amplifier with transimpedance gains of approximately 10(9)Ω, 3 × 10(7)Ω, and 10(4)Ω with a bandwidth of 100 Hz.

  20. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  1. SPS RF System Amplifier plant

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.

  2. Laser Cooled High-Power Fiber Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Nemova, Galina

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for laser cooled continuous-wave fiber amplifier is presented. The amplification process takes place in the Tm3+-doped core of the fluoride ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass fiber. The cooling process takes place in the Yb3+:ZBLAN fiber cladding. It is shown that for each value of the pump power and the amplified signal there is a distribution of the concentration of the Tm3+ along the length of the fiber amplifier, which provides its athermal operation. The influence of a small deviation in the value of the amplified signal on the temperature of the fiber with the fixed distribution of the Tm3+ions in the fiber cladding is investigated.

  3. A Three-Stage Operational Amplifier for a Wide Range of Capacitive Loads%一种适合宽范围电容负载的三级运放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晶晶; Johan H. Huijsing; 任俊彦

    2008-01-01

    结合精确度和稳定性的要求提出了一种适合宽范围电容负载的CMOS运放.在多径嵌套式密勒补偿结构中加入一个抑制电容,得到适合各种电容负载的稳定性.为了证实稳定性的提高,对该结构进行了理论分析并计算得出数学表达式.基于这种新的频率补偿结构,利用CMOS 0.7 μm工艺模型设计了样品芯片.测试结果表明该运放可以驱动从100 pF到100 μF负载电容, 直流增益为90 dB,最小相位裕度为26°.该运放在100 pF负载情况下单位增益带宽为1 MHz,抑制电容仅为18 pF.%It is presented a three-stage CMOS operational amplifier (opamp) that meets the requirement of both accuracy and stability for a wide range of capacitive loads. A so-called quenching capacitor is added to multipath nested Miller compensation (MNMC) topology to obtain stability for a variety of capacitive loads. Theoretical analysis and calculation are carried out to prove the stability improvement. A prototype of this frequency compensation scheme is implemented in 0.7 μm CMOS process. The measurement results show that the amplifier is able to drive capacitive loads ranging from 100 pF to 100 μF with a gain of 90 dB and a minimum phase margin of 26°. The amplifier has a unity-gain bandwidth of 1 MHz for 100 pF capacitive load. The quenching capacitance is only 18 pF.

  4. 一种带有增益提高技术的高速CMOS运算放大器设计%Design of a high speed CMOS operational amplifier with gain boosting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋奇伟; 陆安江; 张正平

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种用于高速ADC中的高速高增益的全差分CMOS运算放大器。主运放采用带开关电容共模反馈的折叠式共源共栅结构,利用增益提高和三支路电流基准技术实现一个可用于12~14 bit精度,100 MS/s采样频率的高速流水线(Pipelined)ADC的运放。设计基于SMIC 0.25μm CMOS工艺,在Cadence环境下对电路进行Spectre仿真。仿真结果表明,在2.5 V单电源电压下驱动2 pF负载时,运放的直流增益可达到124 dB,单位增益带宽720 MHz,转换速率高达885 V/μs,达到0.1%的稳定精度的建立时间只需4 ns,共模抑制比153 dB。%A fully differential opamp used in a high speed ADC was designed.The main amplifier is a folded cascode amplifier with SC CMFB.The opamp can be used in a 12 bit、100MS/s high speed Pipelined ADC with gain boosting and the triple-branch current reference technique.The operational amplifier is implemented in a standard 0.25 μm CMOS process,simulated with Spectre under Cadence.With 2.5 V power supply and 2 pF load capacitance has a DC gain of 124 dB,a unity gain bandwidth of 720 MHz,Slew Rate of 885 V/μs,4 ns settling time and 153dB CMRR.

  5. 基于低压高精度运放的带隙基准电压源设计%Design of Band-Gap Voltage Reference Based on Low Voltage and High Precision Operational Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静; 唐路; 陈庆; 施敏

    2012-01-01

    基于传统带隙基准源的电路结构,采用电平移位的折叠共源共栅输入级和甲乙类互补推挽共源输出级改进了其运算放大器的性能,并结合一阶温度补偿、电流负反馈技术设计了一款低温度系数、高电源电压抑制比(PSRR)的低压基准电压源.利用华润上华公司的CSMC 0.35 μm标准CMOS工艺对电路进行了Hspice仿真,该带隙基准源电路的电源工作范围为1.5~2.3 V,输出基准电压为(600±0.2) mV;工作温度为10 ~130 ℃,输出电压仅变化8μV,温度系数为1.86×10-6/℃,低频时PSRR为- 72 dB.实际流片进行测试,结果表明达到了预期结果.%A low voltage band-gap voltage reference with good temperature characteristics and high power supply rejection ratio ( PSRR) was designed by temperature compensation, current negative feedback and high performance operational amplifier technology. The improved operational amplifier, the core circuit of the voltage reference, was constituted with a folded-cascade input and a common-source output gain stage. This band-gap voltage reference was simulated by Hspice software with CSMC 0. 35 (xm CMOS process technology model. The results show that the output voltage of voltage reference is (600 ±0. 2) mV with the power operating from 1.5 V to 2. 3 V. The temperature coefficient is 1. 86 × 10-6/℃ with the temperature range from 10 ℃ to 130 ℃ and the output voltage only change is 8 μV. And the PSRR is -72 dB at low frequency. Test results are very consistent with the expected results.

  6. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  7. Investigations of electronic amplifiers supplying a piezobimorph actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milecki, Andrzej; Regulski, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Piezoelectric bending actuators, also known as bimorphs, are characterized by very good dynamic properties and by displacements in a range of a few millimeters. Therefore these actuators are used in a wide range of applications. However their usage is limited because they require supplying amplifiers with output voltage of about 200 V, which are rather expensive. This paper presents investigation results of such amplifiers with high voltage output. The model of a piezobending actuator is proposed and implemented in Matlab-Simulink software in order to simulate the behavior of the actuator supplied by the amplifiers. The simulation results are presented and compared with investigation results of high voltage amplifier used for supplying a piezoactuator. The influence of current limitation of operational amplifier on the actuator current is tested. Finally, a low cost audio power amplifier is proposed to control the piezobender actuator (as a cheaper alternative to the high-voltage amplifier) and its investigations results are presented in the paper.

  8. Realization of OFCC based Transimpedance Mode Instrumentation Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an instrumentation amplifier suitable for amplifying the current source transducer signals. It provides a voltage output. It has a high gain, common mode rejection ratio and gain independent bandwidth. It uses three Operational Floating Current Conveyors (OFCCs and four resistors. The effect of nonidealities of OFCC on performance of proposed transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is also analyzed. The proposal has been verified through SPICE simulations using CMOS based schematicThe paper presents an instrumentation amplifier suitable for amplifying the current source transducer signals. It provides a voltage output. It has a high gain, common mode rejection ratio and gain independent bandwidth. It uses three operational floating current conveyors (OFCCs and four resistors. The effect of nonidealities of OFCC on performance of proposed transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is also analyzed. The proposal has been verified through SPICE simulations using CMOS based schematic.

  9. Fourier plane image amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  10. Fourier plane image amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  11. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  12. Wide-temperature integrated operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad (Inventor); Levanas, Greg (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Cozy, Raymond S. (Inventor); Greenwell, Robert (Inventor); Terry, Stephen (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reference current circuit. The reference circuit comprises a low-level current bias circuit, a voltage proportional-to-absolute temperature generator for creating a proportional-to-absolute temperature voltage (VPTAT), and a MOSFET-based constant-IC regulator circuit. The MOSFET-based constant-IC regulator circuit includes a constant-IC input and constant-IC output. The constant-IC input is electrically connected with the VPTAT generator such that the voltage proportional-to-absolute temperature is the input into the constant-IC regulator circuit. Thus the constant-IC output maintains the constant-IC ratio across any temperature range.

  13. Amplifying genetic logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew

    2013-05-03

    Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.

  14. Optimization of plasma amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, James D.; Trines, Raoul M. Â. G. Â. M.; Tabak, Max; Haberberger, Dan; Froula, Dustin H.; Davies, Andrew S.; Bucht, Sara; Silva, Luís O.; Alves, E. Paulo; Fiúza, Frederico; Ceurvorst, Luke; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F.; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma amplifiers offer a route to side-step limitations on chirped pulse amplification and generate laser pulses at the power frontier. They compress long pulses by transferring energy to a shorter pulse via the Raman or Brillouin instabilities. We present an extensive kinetic numerical study of the three-dimensional parameter space for the Raman case. Further particle-in-cell simulations find the optimal seed pulse parameters for experimentally relevant constraints. The high-efficiency self-similar behavior is observed only for seeds shorter than the linear Raman growth time. A test case similar to an upcoming experiment at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics is found to maintain good transverse coherence and high-energy efficiency. Effective compression of a 10 kJ , nanosecond-long driver pulse is also demonstrated in a 15-cm-long amplifier.

  15. STABILIZED TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, J.B.

    1963-05-01

    A temperature stabilized transistor amplifier having a pair of transistors coupled in cascade relation that are capable of providing amplification through a temperature range of - 100 un. Concent 85% F to 400 un. Concent 85% F described. The stabilization of the amplifier is attained by coupling a feedback signal taken from the emitter of second transistor at a junction between two serially arranged biasing resistances in the circuit of the emitter of the second transistor to the base of the first transistor. Thus, a change in the emitter current of the second transistor is automatically corrected by the feedback adjustment of the base-emitter potential of the first transistor and by a corresponding change in the base-emitter potential of the second transistor. (AEC)

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Algan/GAN High Electron Mobility Transistors to Process Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    fullest, specifically its use in high power amplifiers operating at GHz or higher frequencies. Unfortunately, there were, and still are, fabrication...simulated data and since optimal operation is found at Vmax the drop at -1V Vg is not explored in this research. Figure 60: Transconductance vs Vg...6 2.2.1 Transconductance (gm

  17. A 24 channel acoustic/vibration test power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    In the present paper, the advantages and drawbacks of a multichannel amplifier operating in a vibration or acoustic facility are discussed. The configuration of the facility and the multichannel amplifier proposed is a compromise based on the particular requirements and anticipated work load in a specific case under consideration.

  18. A numerical design approach for single amplifier, Active-RC Butterworth filter of order 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2007-01-01

    A design method is presented for the design of all pole lowpass active-RC filters applying operational amplifiers. The operational amplifier model used is the integrator model: omegat/s where omegat is the unity gain frequency. The design method is used for the design of a fifth order Butterworth...... filter applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. It is shown that the influence from the real operational amplifier may be reduced by trimming just one resistor in the circuit. The unity gain amplifiers have the advantage of providing low power consumption, yielding...... a large dynamic range, sometimes simplifying the amplifier design and being usable over a larger frequency range than conventional constant gain amplifiers. The Schoeffler sensitivity index is used as a basis for a sensitivity comparison with other similar filters reported in the literature. © 2007 IEEE....

  19. Development of a Precision Amplifier for the Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Ki-Hyeon; Hong, Suk-Mo; Jeong, Seong-Hun; Jung, Young-Gyu; Kang, Bong-Koo; Lee, Hee-Seock; Wha Chung, Chin; Woo Lee, Wol

    2005-01-01

    A high gain trans-resistance amplfier has been developed for measuring the intensity of synchrotron radiation at Pohang Light Source(PLS). This amplifier built with discrete elements and operational amplifiers.It had the capability of measuring range from 1pA to 1 uA with good linearity. A microprocessor was also installed to interface the amplifier with the computer, and controlled the other sub-circuits. The various characteristics of amplifier such as linearity, sensitivity,stability, etc. have been investigated, and its experimental results carried out at the beam line are presented in this paper.

  20. Principal modes in fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Moti; Dubinskii, Mark; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of the state of polarization in single mode and multimode fiber amplifiers are presented. The experimental results reveal that although the state of polarizations at the output can vary over a large range when changing the temperatures of the fiber amplifiers, the variations are significantly reduced when resorting to the principal states of polarization in single mode fiber amplifiers and principal modes in multimode fiber amplifiers.

  1. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  2. Radio Frequency Solid State Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, J

    2015-01-01

    Solid state amplifiers are being increasingly used instead of electronic vacuum tubes to feed accelerating cavities with radio frequency power in the 100 kW range. Power is obtained from the combination of hundreds of transistor amplifier modules. This paper summarizes a one hour lecture on solid state amplifiers for accelerator applications.

  3. Polarization effect in parametric amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhe Zhou; Jianping Chen; Xinwan Li; Guiling Wu; Yiping Wang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Polarization effect in parametric amplifiers is studied. Coupled equations are derived from the basic propagation equations and numerical solutions are given for both one-wavelength-pump and two-wavelengthpump systems. Several parametric amplifiers driven by pumps at one wavelength and two wavelengths are analyzed and the polarization independent parametric amplifier is proposed.

  4. The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, R. M.; Baxendale, J. F.

    1980-07-01

    The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) concept has existed for three decades; but only within the last decade has an active, well-defined program been underway to develop devices that can operate as high-power radio frequency(RF) amplifiers, fast risetime switches, and current and voltage pulse amplifiers. This report discusses the test procedures, data and results of reliability testing of RF and video pulse EBS amplifiers at Electronics Research and Development Command (ERADCOM), Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. Also, the experimental analysis of the series connected diode EBS device is described in detail. Finally, the report concludes with a discussion of the state-of-the-art of EBS and future trends of the technology.

  5. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.; Vorobiov, S.

    2012-12-01

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  6. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuy, A., E-mail: asanuy@ecm.ub.es [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gascon, D. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Sieiro, X. [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, CC072, bat. 13, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Glicenstein, J-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Ribo, M. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-12-11

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  7. Multiple Differential-Amplifier MMICs Embedded in Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Schlecht, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Compact amplifier assemblies of a type now being developed for operation at frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz comprise multiple amplifier units in parallel arrangements to increase power and/or cascade arrangements to increase gains. Each amplifier unit is a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) implementation of a pair of amplifiers in differential (in contradistinction to single-ended) configuration. Heretofore, in cascading amplifiers to increase gain, it has been common practice to interconnect the amplifiers by use of wires and/or thin films on substrates. This practice has not yielded satisfactory results at frequencies greater than 200 Hz, in each case, for either or both of two reasons: Wire bonds introduce large discontinuities. Because the interconnections are typically tens of wavelengths long, any impedance mismatches give rise to ripples in the gain-vs.-frequency response, which degrade the performance of the cascade.

  8. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  9. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  10. Wideband amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Hollister, Allen L

    2007-01-01

    In this book, the theory needed to understand wideband amplifier design using the simplest models possible will be developed. This theory will be used to develop algebraic equations that describe particular circuits used in high frequency design so that the reader develops a ""gut level"" understanding of the process and circuit. SPICE and Genesys simulations will be performed to show the accuracy of the algebraic models. By looking at differences between the algebraic equations and the simulations, new algebraic models will be developed that include parameters originally left out of the model

  11. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  12. Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard;

    2014-01-01

    Transverse mode instability (TMI) in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers operating above an average power threshold is caused by intermodal stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering due to quantum defect heating. We investigate thermally induced longitudinal waveguide perturbations causing power trans...

  13. 负阻负载和复制运放增益增强技术相结合的低电压低功耗高增益端到端输出范围运算放大器%A 1V,156.7μW,65.9dB Rail-to-Rail Operational Amplifier by Means of Negative Resistance Load and Replica-Amplifier Gain Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱荣; 杨华中

    2006-01-01

    A low-voltage,low-power,and high-gain rail-to-rail operational amplifier(OpAmp)is presented.The replica-amplifier gain enhancement technique is applied to improve the DC gain of the amplifier,which does not degrade the output swing and is very suitable for low-voltage applications.In a 0.18μm standard CMOS process,a 1V OpAmp with rail-to-rail output is designed.For a load capacitance of 5 pF,simulation by HSPICE shows that this OpAmp achieves an effective open-loop DC gain of 65.9dB,gain bandwidth of 70.28 MHz,and phase margin of 50° with a quiescent power dissipation of 156.7μW.%设计了一种低电压低功耗高增益端到端运算放大器.为了提高运放的直流增益,采用了复制运放增益增强技术,这种技术的特点是在提高增益的同时不影响输出摆幅,非常适合低电压场合.该运放采用0.18μm标准CMOS工艺,工作电压为1V.仿真结果表明,在5pF负载电容下所获得运放的直流增益达到65.9dB,增益带宽积为70.28MHz,相位裕度为50°,静态功耗为156.7μW.

  14. Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable research investigating the Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (FeFET) in memory circuits. However, very little research has been performed in applying the FeFET to analog circuits. This paper investigates the use of FeFETs in a common analog circuit, the differential amplifier. The two input Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors in a general MOS differential amplifier circuit are replaced with FeFETs. Resistors are used in place of the other three MOS transistors. The FeFET model used in the analysis has been previously reported and was based on experimental device data. Because of the FeFET hysteresis, the FeFET differential amplifier has four different operating modes depending on whether the FeFETs are positively or negatively polarized. The FeFET differential amplifier operation in the different modes was analyzed by calculating the amplifier voltage transfer and gain characteristics shown in figures 2 through 5. Comparisons were made between the FeFET differential amplifier and the standard MOS differential amplifier. Possible applications and benefits of the FeFET differential amplifier are discussed.

  15. Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.

  16. Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.

  17. A low-noise current-sensitive amplifier-discriminator system for beta particle counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sephton, J P; Johansson, L C; Williams, J M

    2008-01-01

    NPL has developed a low-noise current amplifier/discriminator system for radionuclides that emit low-energy electrons and X-rays. The new beta amplifier is based on the low-noise Amptek A-250 operational amplifier. The design has been configured for optimum signal to noise ratio. The new amplifier is described and results obtained using primarily electron-capture decaying radionuclides are presented. The new amplifier gives rise to higher particle detection efficiency than the previously used Atomic Energy of Canada Limited-designed amplifier. This is shown by measurements of (54)Mn and (65)Zn. The counting plateaux are significantly longer and have reduced gradients.

  18. 100-J level amplifier concepts for HiLASE and ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikocinski, P.; Divoky, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Sawicka, M.; Novak, J.; Rus, B.; Mocek, T.

    2012-07-01

    We present comparison of two alternative layouts of a 100 J cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG multi-slab laser system operating at 10 Hz for HiLASE and ELI Beamlines projects. In the first approach, the 100 J slab amplifier consists of a preamplifier and power amplifier, while in the second approach it uses single power amplifier with two amplifier heads. These two concepts are compared, with respect to output power, B-integral, accumulated B-integral, and peak fluence. Results are obtained by simulating beam propagation in MIRÓ code and calculating stored energy in the amplifier by homemade ray-tracing MATLAB code for amplified spontaneous emission evaluation.

  19. A Novel Frequency Compensation Structure for Rail-to-Rail Operational Amplifier%一种用于轨到轨运算放大器的新型频率补偿结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏; 曾龄宇; 胡乔; 于奇; 宁宁; 王向展; 邓春健

    2011-01-01

    Based on frequency compensation theory for higher-order system and small signal settling theory, a novel frequency compensation structure for rail-to-rail high-speed and low-power operational amplifier was presented for active OLED panel driver. The novel structure, which combined cascode Miller compensation with output zero compensation technique, enabled the op amp to drive heavy loads in a fast and stable way, only with small compensation capacitor and little quiescent current. The proposed circuit was designed based on 0. 18 μm CMOS mixed signal process. Simulation results showed that, for a 4-V rail-to-rail input pulse and 20 pF load capacitance, the opamp had a settling time of 0. 76 μs, a quiescent current of only 2.6μA and a phase margin of 55°, with a compensation capacitor of only 120 fF.%针对有源OLED面板驱动芯片源驱动模块对高速低功耗运算放大器的要求,基于高阶系统频率补偿理论和小信号建立理论,通过结合共栅共源密勒(Cascode Miller)补偿和输出零点补偿,提出一种用于轨到轨高速低功耗运算放大器的新型频率补偿方法,只需很小的密勒补偿电容和静态工作电流,就可以高速、稳定地驱动大电容负载.采用0.18μmCMOS数模混合信号工艺,通过EDA软件仿真,结果表明,在4V电源电压和20pF负载电容下,该运算放大器的轨到轨建立时间为0.76μs,静态工作电流仅为2.6μA,相位裕度为55°,只需要120fF的密勒补偿电容.

  20. Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther

    We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....

  1. Short wavelength regenerative amplifier free electron lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Dunning, D J; McNeil, B. W. J.; Thompson, N. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss extending the operating wavelength range of tunable Regenerative Amplifier FELs to shorter wavelengths than current design proposals, notably into the XUV regions of the spectrum and beyond where the reflectivity of broadband optics is very low. Simulation studies are presented which demonstrate the development of good temporal coherence in generic systems with a broadband radiation feedback of less than one part in ten thousand.

  2. Pulse laser imaging amplifier for advanced ladar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir; Tomov, Ivan; Murrell, David

    2016-05-01

    Security measures sometimes require persistent surveillance of government, military and public areas Borders, bridges, sport arenas, airports and others are often surveilled with low-cost cameras. Their low-light performance can be enhanced with laser illuminators; however various operational scenarios may require a low-intensity laser illumination with the object-scattered light intensity lower than the sensitivity of the Ladar image detector. This paper discusses a novel type of high-gain optical image amplifier. The approach enables time-synchronization of the incoming and amplifying signals with accuracy <= 1 ns. The technique allows the incoming signal to be amplified without the need to match the input spectrum to the cavity modes. Instead, the incoming signal is accepted within the spectral band of the amplifier. We have gauged experimentally the performance of the amplifier with a 40 dB gain and an angle of view 20 mrad.

  3. Digital Lock-in Amplifier Based on Microcontroller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-li TAO; Guo-dong XU; Ke-xue LUO; Gang-ling ZHANG

    2010-01-01

    A method of implementing high cost-effective and highly integrated digital lock-in amplifier with microcontroller is discussed. And the digital lock-in amplifier is more suitable for measuring low-frequency weak signal.Digital signal sequence is obtained through sampling signal measured over an integer number of signal periods, but digital reference sequence is acquired through mathematical operation, then digital phase sensitive detection can be implemented by calculating the cross-correlation function of digital signal sequence and digital reference sequence.In addition, the frequency response and phase character of the digital lock-in amplifier is analyzed. Finally, the designed digital lock-in amplifier is achieved. Experimental results show that the digital lock-in amplifier can be used for measuring weak signal with low ignal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Time-reversal duality of high-efficiency RF power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Popovic, Z

    2012-12-06

    The similarity between RF power amplifiers and rectifiers is discussed. It is shown that the same high-efficiency harmonically-terminated power amplifier can be operated in a dual rectifier mode. Nonlinear simulations with a GaN HEMT transistor model show the time-reversal intrinsic voltage and current waveform relationship between a class-F amplifier and rectifier. Measurements on a class-F-1 amplifier and rectifier at 2.14 GHz demonstrate over 80% efficiency in both cases.

  5. AS_635_A4 OK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    (AOP) fait à base de la technologie CMOS sur le logiciel de simulation Proteus. Cet AOP est pour l' ... Design and simulation of a high speed Operational Amplifier made with CMOS. The objective of .... Avec la transconductance du transistor.

  6. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  7. Investigation of a background suppression transimpedance amplifier for photovoltaic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Ferdinand J., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The current generation of transimpedance amplifier based detector systems are limited by opamp saturation when operating at a high gain or in the presence of a large background signal. To eliminate saturation, an amplifier that is frequency dependent is developed. Additionally, the noise sources in the conventional transimpedance amplifier and photovoltaic detector are quantified for comparison to any modified circuit. Initial results indicate that the frequency dependent detector system is a viable system, however, further development is required. Further research of this technology is expected to support future infrared and long range detection applications.

  8. High power solid state rf amplifier for proton accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Hannurkar, P R

    2008-01-01

    A 1.5 kW solid state rf amplifier at 352 MHz has been developed and tested at RRCAT. This rf source for cw operation will be used as a part of rf system of 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. A rf power of 1.5 kW has been achieved by combining output power from eight 220 W rf amplifier modules. Amplifier modules, eight-way power combiner and divider, and directional coupler were designed indigenously for this development. High efficiency, ease of fabrication, and low cost are the main features of this design.

  9. Efficient performance simulation of class D amplifier output stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Straightforward simulation of amplifier distortion involves transient simulation of operation on a sine wave input signal, and a subsequent FFT of the output voltage. This approach is very slow on class D amplifiers, since the switching behavior forces simulation time steps that are many orders...... of magnitude smaller than the duration of one period of an audio sine wave. This work presents a method of simulating the amplifier transfer characteristic using a minimum amount of simulation time, and then deriving THD from the results....

  10. Optimization and Performance Analysis of Bulk-Driven Differential Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet kaur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for high-speed digital circuits at low power consumption. This paper presents a design of input stage of Operational Amplifier i.e cascode differential amplifier using a standard 65nm CMOS Technology.A comparison betweem gate-driven, bulk-driven and cascode bulk driven bulk-driven differential amplifier is described. The Results demonstrate that CMMR is 83.98 dB, 3-dB Bandwidth is 1.04 MHz. The circuit dissipate power of 28uWunder single supply of 1.0V.

  11. Design of High Power Density Amplifiers: Application to Ka Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Davide; Leggieri, Alberto; Di Paolo, Franco; Bartocci, Marco; Tafuto, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Recent developments in the design of high-power-high-frequency amplifiers are assessed in this paper by the analysis and measurements of a high power density amplifier operating in the Ka Band. Design procedure is presented and a technical investigation is reported. The proposed device has shown over 23% of useful frequency bandwidth. It is an ensemble of 16 monolithic solid state power amplifiers that employees mixed technologies as spatial and planar combiners. Test performed have given maximum delivered power of 47.2 dBm.

  12. Fundamentals of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Mikirtychev, Valerii (Vartan)

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental aspects of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers, and includes a wide range of material from laser physics fundamentals to state-of-the-art topics in this rapidly growing field of quantum electronics. Emphasis is placed on the nonlinear processes taking place in fiber lasers and amplifiers, their similarities, differences to, and their advantages over other solid-state lasers. The reader will learn basic principles of solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy of laser active centers in fibers, main operational laser regimes, and practical recommendations and suggestions on fiber laser research, laser applications, and laser product development. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who work with lasers, in the optical communications, chemical and biological industries, etc.

  13. High Gain Amplifier with Enhanced Cascoded Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lemus-Lopez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage CMOS operational amplifier with both, gain-boosting and indirect current feedback frequency compensation performed by means of regulated cascode amplifiers, is presented. By using quasi-floating-gate transistors (QFGT the supply requirements, the number of capacitors and the size of the compensation capacitors respect to other Miller schemes are reduced. A prototype was fabricated using a 0.5 μm technology, resulting, for a load of 45 pF and supply voltage of 1.65 V, in open-loop-gain of 129 dB, 23 MHz of gain-bandwidth product, 60o phase margin, 675 μW power consumption and 1% settling time of 28 ns.

  14. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin J.P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  15. Capacities of quantum amplifier channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation. Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.

  16. Small signal microwave amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  17. Photonic-Band-Gap Traveling-Wave Gyrotron Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, E. A.; Lewis, S. M.; Shapiro, M. A.; Griffin, R. G.; Temkin, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a gyrotron traveling-wave-tube amplifier at 250 GHz that uses a photonic band gap (PBG) interaction circuit. The gyrotron amplifier achieved a peak small signal gain of 38 dB and 45 W output power at 247.7 GHz with an instantaneous −3 dB bandwidth of 0.4 GHz. The amplifier can be tuned for operation from 245–256 GHz. The widest instantaneous −3 dB bandwidth of 4.5 GHz centered at 253.25 GHz was observed with a gain of 24 dB. The PBG circuit provides stability from oscillations by supporting the propagation of transverse electric (TE) modes in a narrow range of frequencies, allowing for the confinement of the operating TE03-like mode while rejecting the excitation of oscillations at nearby frequencies. This experiment achieved the highest frequency of operation for a gyrotron amplifier; at present, there are no other amplifiers in this frequency range that are capable of producing either high gain or high output power. This result represents the highest gain observed above 94 GHz and the highest output power achieved above 140 GHz by any conventional-voltage vacuum electron device based amplifier. PMID:24476286

  18. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation of...

  19. International Standardization Activities for Optical Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haruo Okamura

    2003-01-01

    International standardization activities for Optical Amplifiers at IECTC86 and ITU-T SG15 are reviewed. Current discussions include Optical Amplifier safety guideline, Reliability standard, Rest methods of Noise and PMD, Definitions of Raman amplifier parameters and OA classification.

  20. Characterization of SLUG microwave amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, I.-C.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; McDermott, R.; Mutus, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Roushan, P.; Fowler, A.; Sank, D.; White, T.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of superconducting circuits quantum technology, a near quantum-limited amplifier at GHz frequency is needed to enable high fidelity measurements. We describe such an amplifier, the SQUID based, superconducting low inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. We measure the full scattering matrix of the SLUG. In particular, we measure both forward and reverse gain, as well as reflection. We see 15dB forward gain with added noise from one quanta to several quanta. The -1 dB compression point is around -95 dBm, about two orders of magnitude higher than that of typical Josephson parametric amplifiers. With these properties, SLUG is well suited for the high fidelity, simultaneous multiplexed readout of superconducting qubits.

  1. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  2. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ηMAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  3. TARC: Carlo Rubbia's Energy Amplifier

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) is Carlo Rubbia's energy amplifier. This CERN experiment demonstrated that long-lived fission fragments, such as 99-TC, can be efficiently destroyed.

  4. FDML swept source at 1060 nm using a tapered amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang;

    2010-01-01

    in this wavelength range. We demonstrate that a tapered amplifier can be integrated into a fiber-based swept source and allows for high-speed FDML operation. The developed light source operates at a sweep rate of 116kHz with an effective average output power in excess of 30mW. With a total sweep range of 70 nm...

  5. Room Temperature Erbium-Doped Yttrium Vanadate (Er:YVO4) Laser and Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    using setup #1, as shown in Fig. 6b. The second amplifier version (setup #2, which included L3) was also tested and yielded a small gain of 2.1, as...gain of 2.1. The influence of high duty cycle operation on amplifier performance was tested by pumping the amplifier with a diode power of...high-duty cycle operation. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 11 6. References 1. Shibata Y, Nagasawa C, Abo M. A direct

  6. A KIND OF NEW AMPLIFIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN XUN-HE; FENG RU-PENG; REN YONG

    2000-01-01

    Chaotic characteristics in the iteration of logistic map (one-dimensional discrete dynamic system) are simulatedand analyzed. The circuit implementation of a kind of chaotic amplifier model is based on the chaotic characteristicsthat chaos is sensitively dependent on its initial conditions, and the circuit simulation result is given using simulationprogram with integrated circuit emphasis for personal computer (PSPICE), and is compared with linear amplifier.Advantages and disadvantages of such a model are indicated.

  7. Wideband high efficiency CMOS envelope amplifiers for 4G LTE handset envelope tracking RF power amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Fourth generation cellular networks offer performance similar to cable modems while allowing wide mobility. Although the use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing in fourth generation increases its spectral efficiency but it also increases the peak-to-average power ratio of the transmitted signal. If a conventional power amplifier is used to transmit a high peak-to-average power ratio signal, then to meet the stringent linearity requirements, it will be operating 6 to 10 dB back-off f...

  8. Gate length and temperature dependence of negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken [Texas Instruments Inc., Richardson, Texas 75243 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Introducing quantum transport into silicon transistors in a manner compatible with industrial fabrication has the potential to transform the performance horizons of large scale integrated silicon devices and circuits. Explicit quantum transport as evidenced by negative differential transconductances (NDTCs) has been observed in a set of quantum well (QW) transistors fabricated using industrial silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing. Detailed gate length and temperature dependence characteristics of the NDTCs in these devices have been measured. The QW potential was formed via lateral ion implantation doping on a commercial 45 nm technology node process line, and measurements of the transfer characteristics show NDTCs up to room temperature. Gate length dependence of NDTCs shows a correlation of the interface channel length with the number of NDTCs formed as well as with the gate voltage (V{sub G}) spacing between NDTCs. The V{sub G} spacing between multiple NDTCs suggests a quasi-parabolic QW potential profile. The temperature dependence is consistent with partial freeze-out of carrier concentration against a degenerately doped background.

  9. 基于0.5μm CMOS工艺的一款新型BiCMOS集成运算放大器设计%Design of New BiCMOS Integrated Operational Amplifier Based on 0.5 μm CMOS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊霞; 陆雅明

    2011-01-01

    为了提高运算放大器的驱动能力,依据现有CMOS集成电路生产线,介绍一款新型BiCMOS集成运算放大电路设计,探讨BiCMOS工艺的特点.在S-Edit中进行"BiCMOS运放设计"电路设计,并对其电路各个器件参数进行调整,包括MOS器件的宽长比和电容电阻的值.完成电路设计后,在T-spice中进行电路的瞬态仿真,插入CMOS,PNP和NPN的工艺库,对电路所需的电源电压和输入信号幅度和频率进行设定调整,最终在W-Edit输出波形图.在MCNC 0.5μm工艺平台上完成由MOS、双极型晶体管和电容构成的运算放大器版图设计.根据设计的版图,设计出BiCMOS相应的工艺流程,并提取各光刻工艺的掩模版.%In order to improve the drive capability of operational amplifier, a new circuit of BiCMOS integrated operational amplifier is designed on the basis of available CMOS integrated circuit production line.The technique characteristics of BiCMOS is discussed.The BiCMOS operational amplifier is designed in S-Edit.The parameters of various devices in the circuit is adjusted, including width to length ratio of MOS device and capacitance values of resistors.After the circuit design, the transient simulation is performed in T-spice, and the CMOS, PNP and NPN bipolar technology library are used to set the supply voltage, the amplitude and frequency of the input signal, and then send out the final waveform diagram in W-Edit.The layout design of the operational amplifier composed of MOS, bipolar transistors and capacitors on the MCNC 0.5 μm IC Process Line is completed.According to the designed layout, the corresponding BiCMOS process flows are designed, and the masks of lithography process are extracted.

  10. Analog circuit design techniques at 0.5V

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Shouri; Stanic, Nebojša

    2010-01-01

    This book tackles challenges for the design of analog integrated circuits that operate from ultra-low power supply voltages (down to 0.5V). Coverage demonstrates the signal processing circuit and circuit biasing approaches through the design of operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs). These amplifiers are then used to build analog system functions including continuous time filter and a sample and hold amplifier.

  11. A high-fidelity noiseless amplifier for quantum light states

    CERN Document Server

    Zavatta, A; Bellini, M

    2010-01-01

    Noise is the price to pay when trying to clone or amplify arbitrary quantum states. The quantum noise associated to linear phase-insensitive amplifiers can only be avoided by relaxing the requirement of a deterministic operation. Here we present the experimental realization of a probabilistic noiseless linear amplifier that is able to amplify coherent states at the highest level of effective gain and final state fidelity ever reached. Based on a sequence of photon addition and subtraction, and characterized by a significant amplification and low distortions, this high-fidelity amplification scheme may become an essential tool for quantum communications and metrology, by enhancing the discrimination between partially overlapping quantum states or by recovering the information transmitted over lossy channels.

  12. A programmable log-linear amplifier for wide range nuclear power measuring channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleeq, M. Tahir; Alam, Mahmood; Ghumman, Iftikhar Ahmad

    2002-12-01

    A programmable log-linear amplifier has been developed for nuclear channels. The amplifier can be programmed for logarithmic, linear or log-linear mode of operation. In the log-linear mode, the amplifier operates partially in log mode and automatically switches to linear mode at any preset point. The log-linear mode is used for wide range operation of nuclear channels and, hence, the amplifier will improve the fault finding capabilities of the nuclear channels used in power range. The amplifier is tested at nuclear reactor and the results are found in very good agreement with the designed specifications. This article presents design and construction of the amplifier and field test results.

  13. EMI-resilient amplifier circuits

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, Marcel J; Linnenbank, André C

    2014-01-01

    This book enables circuit designers to reduce the errors introduced by the fundamental limitations and electromagnetic interference (EMI) in negative-feedback amplifiers.  The authors describe a systematic design approach for application specific negative-feedback amplifiers, with specified signal-to-error ratio (SER).  This approach enables designers to calculate noise, bandwidth, EMI, and the required bias parameters of the transistors used in  application specific amplifiers in order to meet the SER requirements.   ·         Describes design methods that incorporate electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the design of application specific negative-feedback amplifiers; ·         Provides designers with a structured methodology to avoid the use of trial and error in meeting signal-to-error ratio (SER) requirements; ·         Equips designers to increase EMI immunity of the amplifier itself, thus avoiding filtering at the input, reducing the number of components and avoiding detr...

  14. Amplified graph C*-algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Eilers, Søren; Sørensen, Adam P W

    2011-01-01

    We provide a complete invariant for graph C*-algebras which are amplified in the sense that whenever there is an edge between two vertices, there are infinitely many. The invariant used is the standard primitive ideal space adorned with a map into {-1,0,1,2,...}, and we prove that the classification result is strong in the sense that isomorphisms at the level of the invariant always lift. We extend the classification result to cover more graphs, and give a range result for the invariant (in the vein of Effros-Handelman-Shen) which is further used to prove that extensions of graph C*-algebras associated to amplified graphs are again graph C*-algebras of amplified graphs.

  15. Residual phase noise modeling of amplifiers using silicon bipolar transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Konstantinos; Everard, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the modeling of residual 1/f phase noise for Si bipolar amplifiers operating in the linear region. We propose that for Si bipolar amplifiers, the 1/f phase noise is largely caused by the base emitter recombination flicker noise. The up-conversion mechanism is described through linear approximation of the phase variation of the amplifier phase response by the variation of the device parameters (C(b)c, C(be), g(m), r(e)) caused by the recombination 1/f noise. The amplifier phase response describes the device over the whole frequency range of operation for which the influence of the poles and zeros is investigated. It is found that for a common emitter amplifier it is sufficient to only incorporate the effect of the device poles to describe the phase noise behavior over most of its operational frequency range. Simulations predict the measurements of others, including the flattening of the PM noise at frequencies beyond f(3dB), not predicted by previous models.

  16. Coherent amplified optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bin; Chen, Zhongping

    2007-07-01

    A technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a high speed 1300 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system was demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was employed in the sample arm to coherently amplify the weak light back-scattered from sample tissue without increasing laser power illuminated on the sample. The image quality improvement was visualized and quantified by imaging the anterior segment of a rabbit eye at imaging speed of 20,000 A-lines per second. The theory analysis of SNR gain is given followed by the discussion on the technologies that can further improve the SNR gain.

  17. Impact of series resistance on the operation of junctionless transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dae-Young; Park, So Jeong; Mouis, Mireille; Barraud, Sylvain; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Ghibaudo, Gérard

    2017-03-01

    Transconductance (gm) and its derivative (dgm/dVg) of junctionless transistors (JLTs), considered as a possible candidate for future CMOS technology, show their unique operation properties such as bulk neutral and surface accumulation conduction. However, source/drain series resistance (Rsd) causes significant degradation of intrinsic gm and dgm/dVg behavior in JLTs. In this letter, the Rsd effects on the operation of JLTs were investigated in detail and also verified with analytical modeling equations. This work provides helpful information for a better understanding of the operation mechanism of JLTs with de-embedded Rsd effects.

  18. High performance multi-channel MOSFET on InGaAs for RF amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Manoj Singh; Singh, Yashvir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-channel MOSFET (MC-MOSFET) on In0.53Ga0.47As for the first time by utilising trenches in the conventional planar MOSFET (CP-MOSFET) for RF amplifier applications. The proposed multi-channel MOSFET (MC-MOSFET) has two vertical-gates placed in trenches creating multiple channels in p-body for parallel conduction of drain current. High-k Al2O3 having thickness of 2 nm is used as gate dielectric in the proposed device. The TaN gate electrodes are placed in two different trenches in the p-type InGaAs layer where multiple n-channels are formed. Simultaneous conduction from multiple channels enhances the drain current (ID) and gives higher transconductance (gm) leading to improvement in overall frequency response. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of both MC-MOSFET and CP-MOSFET are performed by using ATLAS device simulator and their different performance parameters are compared. The proposed multi-channel structure provides 6.79 times higher ID, 5.57 times improvement in gm, 2.5 times increase in unity current gain (ft), 15.85% higher unilateral power gain (fmax) and suppress the short-channel effects (SCEs) as compared with the CP-MOSFET.

  19. Using MEMS Capacitive Switches in Tunable RF Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danson John

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A MEMS capacitive switch suitable for use in tunable RF amplifiers is described. A MEMS switch is designed, fabricated, and characterized with physical and RF measurements for inclusion in simulations. Using the MEMS switch models, a dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA operating at GHz and GHz, and a tunable power amplifier (PA at GHz are simulated in m CMOS. MEMS switches allow the LNA to operate with 11 dB of isolation between the two bands while maintaining dB of gain and sub- dB noise figure. MEMS switches are used to implement a variable matching network that allows the PA to realize up to 37% PAE improvement at low input powers.

  20. High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier: From the Lab to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginnings of space travel, various microwave power amplifier designs have been employed. These included Class-A, -B, and -C bias arrangements. However, shared limitation of these topologies is the inherent high total consumption of input power associated with the generation of radio frequency (RF)/microwave power. The power amplifier has always been the largest drain for the limited available power on the spacecraft. Typically, the conversion efficiency of a microwave power amplifier is 10 to 20%. For a typical microwave power amplifier of 20 watts, input DC power of at least 100 watts is required. Such a large demand for input power suggests that a better method of RF/microwave power generation is required. The price paid for using a linear amplifier where high linearity is unnecessary includes higher initial and operating costs, lower DC-to-RF conversion efficiency, high power consumption, higher power dissipation and the accompanying need for higher capacity heat removal means, and an amplifier that is more prone to parasitic oscillation. The first use of a higher efficiency mode of power generation was described by Baxandall in 1959. This higher efficiency mode, Class-D, is achieved through distinct switching techniques to reduce the power losses associated with switching, conduction, and gate drive losses of a given transistor.

  1. Thermal recovery of NIF amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S.; Marshall, C.; Petty, C.; Smith, L.; van Wonterghem, B.; Mills, S.

    1997-02-01

    The issue of thermal recovery of the NIF amplifiers has taken on increased emphasis as program goals move toward increasing the shot rate to once every four hours. This paper addresses the technical issues associated with achieving thermal recovery in the NIF amplifiers. We identify two temperature related thermal recovery quantities: (1) the difference between the average slab temperature and the temperature of other surfaces in the amplifier cavity, and (2) the temperature difference in the slab over the aperture. The first quantity relates to optical disturbances in the gas column in the system, while the second quantity is associated with optical aberrations in the laser media itself. Calculations and experiments are used to quantify recovery criteria, and develop cooling approaches. The cooling approaches discussed are (1) active cooling of the flashlamps with ambient gas and chilled gas, and (2) active cooling of the slab edge cladding. Calculations indicate that the NIF baseline cooling approach of 20 cfm per lamp ambient temperature gas flow in both the central and side flashlamp cassettes is capable of meeting thermal recovery requirements for an 8 hour shot period, while to achieve a 4 hour shot period requires use of chilled gas and edge cladding cooling. In addition, the effect of changing the amplifier cavity and beamtube fill gas from nitrogen to helium is addressed, showing that a factor of 8 reduction in the sensitivity to thermal disturbances is possible. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length

  3. Microprocessor based interface unit for coupling a picosecond laser oscillator with external laser amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navathe, C. P.; Ansari, M. S.; Upadhyaya, J.; Sreedhar, N.; Chandra, R.; Kumbhare, S. R.; Chakera, J. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    1996-07-01

    A microprocessor based interface unit for coupling a commercial picosecond Nd:YLF laser oscillator amplifier to external high power Nd:phosphate glass laser amplifier stages is described. The system generates charging and firing signals required for the picosecond oscillator, and also carries out the charging and firing sequence of external amplifiers for a single shot or a repetitive mode of operation. The electronics developed is simple and modular, with sufficient scope for expansion of the system, and resistant to electromagnetic interference.

  4. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify the design, increase...... efficiency, reduce the product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented....

  5. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode; Amplificador espectroscopico para diodo Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: bebe.luna_s@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  6. Design of A Microwave Amplifier for Wireless Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNA are very indispensable components in the design of numerous types of communication receivers employed in microwave technology. This paper is presents the design and development of low bias(Vce = 8v, Ic =10 mA single stage low noise microwave amplifier operating in 1.5GHZ frequency range, Gain 13dB ± 0.5dB, input/output return loss Approach: The principal design target is to obtain a minimum noise figure while concomitantly achieving a maximum gain by presenting the optimum noise impedance (Zopt which is characteristically implemented by adding a matching circuit between the source and the input of the amplifier. Results: The proposed low-noise amplifier for microwave wireless application is designed, simulated and optimized using Serenade Harmonica (by Ansoft Corporation and Advance Design System (ADS software by Agilent. Conclusion: In this paper a low-noise amplifier operated at 1.5 GHz. is designed because of the significant roles played in the field of microwave communication technology, which includes the application in the output stage of a transmitter where the signals needs to be strengthen before transmission.

  7. Accurate nine-decade temperature-compensated logarithmic amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobis, J. P.; Mc Dowell, W. P.; Paul, V. M.

    1969-01-01

    Transistor-driven temperature-stable amplifier with logarithmic operating characteristics permits presentation of the entire range of the reactor without range switching. This circuit is capable of monitoring ion chamber currents over spans of 8 or 9 decades and is used in nuclear reactor instrumentation. Application is found in materials under ultrahigh vacuum.

  8. Optimum design of Nd-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The waveguide parameters for a Nd-doped fluoride (Nd:ZBLANP) fiber amplifier have been optimized for small-signal and booster operation using an accurate numerical model. The optimum cutoff wavelength is shown to be 800 nm and the numerical aperture should be made as large as possible. Around 80...

  9. Compact, Single-Stage MMIC InP HEMT Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; Deal, W. R.; Mei, Gerry; Radisic, Vesna; Lai, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A monolithic micro - wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) singlestage amplifier containing an InP-based high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) plus coplanar-waveguide (CPW) transmission lines for impedance matching and input and output coupling, all in a highly miniaturized layout as needed for high performance at operating frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz is described.

  10. Linearisation of RF Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Asbeck

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with linearisation techniques of RF power amplifiers (PA), PA design techniques and integration of the necessary building blocks in a CMOS technology. The opening chapters introduces the theory of transmitter architectures, RF-signal representation and the principles of digital...... modulation. Furthermore different types of power amplifiers, models and measures of non-linearities are presented. A chapter is also devoted to different types of linearisation systems. The work carried out and described in this thesis can be divided into a more theoretical and system oriented treatment...... the polar loop architecture and it’s suitability to modern digital transmitters is discussed. A proposal of an architecture that is suitable for digital transmitters, which means that it has an interface to the digital back-end, defined by low-pass signals in polar form, is presented. Simulation guidelines...

  11. A Method To ModifyCorrect The Performance Of Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohith Krishnan R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The actual response of the amplifier may vary with the replacement of some aged or damaged components and this method is to compensate that problem. Here we use op-amp Fixator as the design tool. The tool helps us to isolate the selected circuit component from rest of the circuit adjust its operating point to correct the performance deviations and to modify the circuit without changing other parts of the circuit. A method to modifycorrect the performance of amplifiers by properly redesign the circuit is presented in this paper.

  12. Gain dynamics and saturation in semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2004-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD)-based semiconductor optical amplifiers offer unique properties compared with conventional devices based on bulk or quantum well material. Due to the bandfilling properties of QDs and the existence of a nearby reservoir of carriers in the form of a wetting layer, QD semiconductor...... optical amplifiers may be operated in regimes of high linearity, i.e. with a high saturation power, but can also show strong and fast nonlinearities by breaking the equilibrium between discrete dot states and the continuum of wetting layer states. In this paper, we analyse the interplay of these two...

  13. Static gain saturation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuer, Christian; Kim, Jungho; Laemmlin, Matthias; Liebich, Sven; Capua, Amir; Eisenstein, Gadi; Kovsh, Alexey R; Mikhrin, Sergey S; Krestnikov, Igor L; Bimberg, Dieter

    2008-05-26

    Measurements of saturated amplified spontaneous emission-spectra of quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers demonstrate efficient replenishment of the quantum-dot ground state population from excited states. This saturation behavior is perfectly modeled by a rate equation model. We examined experimentally the dependence of saturation on the drive current and the saturating optical pump power as well as on the pump wavelength. A coherent noise spectral hole is observed with which we assess dynamical properties and propose optimization of the SOA operating parameters for high speed applications.

  14. Tapered amplifier laser with frequency-shifted feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Bayerle, A; Vlaar, P; Pasquiou, B; Schreck, F

    2016-01-01

    We present a frequency-shifted feedback (FSF) laser based on a tapered amplifier. The laser operates as a coherent broadband source with up to 370GHz spectral width and 2.3us coherence time. If the FSF laser is seeded by a continuous-wave laser a frequency comb spanning the output spectrum appears in addition to the broadband emission. The laser has an output power of 280mW and a center wavelength of 780nm. The ease and flexibility of use of tapered amplifiers makes our FSF laser attractive for a wide range of applications, especially in metrology.

  15. Small and lightweight power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Fox, Robert L.; Moses, Robert W.; Bryant, Robert G.; Robinson, Paul C.; Shirvani, Mir

    2002-07-01

    The control of u wanted structural vibration is implicit in most of NASA's programs. Currently several approaches to control vibrations in large, lightweight, deployable structures and twin tail aircraft at high angles of attack are being evaluated. The Air Force has been examining a vertical tail buffet load alleviation system that can be integrated onboard an F/A-18 and flown. Previous wind tunnel and full-scale ground tests using distributed actuators have shown that the concept works; however, there is insufficient rom available onboard an F/A-18 to store current state-of- the-art system components such as amplifiers, DC-to-DC converter and a computer for performing vibration suppression. Sensor processing, power electronics, DC-to-DC converters, and control electronics that may be collocated with distributed actuators, are particularly desirable. Such electronic system would obviate the need for complex, centralized, control processing and power distribution components that will eliminate the weight associated with lengthy wiring and cabling networks. Several small and lightweight power amplifiers ranging from 300V pp to 650V pp have been designed using off the shelf components for different applications. In this paper, the design and testing of these amplifiers will be presented under various electrical loads.

  16. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  17. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  18. Ultrafast dynamics in semiconductor optical amplifiers and all-optical processing: Bulk versus quantum dot devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Berg, Tommy Winther; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the dynamical properties of semiconductor optical amplifiers and the importance for all-optical signal processing. In particular, the dynamics of quantum dot amplifiers is considered and it is suggested that these may be operated at very high bit-rates without significant patterning...... effects, as opposed to quantum well or bulk devices....

  19. Development of Cryogenic Enhancement-Mode Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T.; Okazaki, T.; Obara, K.; Yano, H.; Ishikawa, O.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the technical details of the development of a low-temperature amplifier for nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of superfluid {}^3He in very confined geometries. The amplifier consists of commercially available enhancement-mode pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor devices and temperature-insensitive passive components with an operating frequency range of 0.2-6 MHz.

  20. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaxing Liu; Wei Wang; Zhaohua Wang; Zhiguo Lv; Zhiyuan Zhang; Zhiyi Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition ra...

  1. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and simulated waveforms of a prototype amplifier are presented. (au)

  2. On the Theory of the Modulation Instability in Optical Fiber and Laser Amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Turitsyn, S K; Fedoruk, M P

    2010-11-03

    The modulation instability (MI) in optical fiber amplifiers and lasers with anomalous dispersion leads to CW beam breakup and the growth of multiple pulses. This can be both a detrimental effect, limiting the performance of amplifiers, and also an underlying physical mechanism in the operation of MI-based devices. Here we revisit the analytical theory of MI in fiber optical amplifiers. The results of the exact theory are compared with the previously used adiabatic approximation model, and the range of applicability of the latter is determined. The same technique is applicable to the study of spatial MI in solid state laser amplifiers and MI in non-uniform media.

  3. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and simulated waveforms of a prototype amplifier are presented. (au)

  4. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self......-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and experimental results from prototype amplifier...

  5. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  6. European Research on THz Vacuum Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, F.; Cojocarua, C.-S.; de Rossi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the main players of the Eu...... of the European research, academy and industry in vacuum electronics. This paper describes the status of the project and progress towards the THz amplifier realization....

  7. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk;

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  8. European Research on THz Vacuum Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, F.; Cojocarua, C.-S.; de Rossi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the main players of the Eu...... of the European research, academy and industry in vacuum electronics. This paper describes the status of the project and progress towards the THz amplifier realization....

  9. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  10. low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2003-01-01

    Designs of low pump power optical amplifiers, based on photonic crystal fibres are presented. The potential of these fibre amplifiers is investigated, and it is demonstrated that such amplifiers may deliver gains of more than 15 dB at 1550 nm with less than 1 mW of optical pump power....

  11. Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers - Physics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the physics and applications of quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers based on numerical simulations. These devices possess a number of unique properties compared with other types of semiconductor amplifiers, which should allow enhanced performance of semiconductor...... devices in communication systems in the future. The basic properties of quantum dot devices are investigated, especially regarding the potential of realizing amplification and signal processing without introducing pattern dependence. Also the gain recovery of a single short pulse is modeled...... and an explanation for the fast gain recovery observed experimentally is given. The properties of quantum dot amplifiers operating in the linear regime are investigated. The devices are predicted to show high device gain, high saturated output power, and low noise figure, resulting in a performance, that in some...

  12. Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina

    and can operate with a potentially low noise figure with respect to erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and Raman amplifiers, when working in phase-sensitive configurations. A characterization of the signal distortion mechanisms introduced by FOPAs is relevant for investigating the applicability of FOPAs......Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...

  13. Efficiency Optimization in Class-D Audio Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new power efficiency optimization routine for designing Class-D audio amplifiers. The proposed optimization procedure finds design parameters for the power stage and the output filter, and the optimum switching frequency such that the weighted power losses are minimized under...... the given constraints. The optimization routine is applied to minimize the power losses in a 130 W class-D audio amplifier based on consumer behavior investigations, where the amplifier operates at idle and low power levels most of the time. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization method can...... lead to around 30 % of efficiency improvement at 1.3 W output power without significant effects on both audio performance and the efficiency at high power levels....

  14. Development of High Power Amplifiers for Space and Ground-based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carlos Cilla

    and the Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits. The research work presented here focuses on practical realization and demonstration of these two types of amplifiers. The design and experimental performance assessment of 50W Solid State C-band High Power Amplifier using European Monolithic Microwave Integrated......-based amplifiers. They are efficient and provide very high power levels operating at low duty cycles. But they have a questionable longterm reliability, large footprints and they are not suitable for modern equipment with a decentralized transmitter, like a phase array system. Solid State Power Amplifier......D dissertation lies in the development of nonlinear design methodologies, manufacturing, and efficient testing of Solid State High Power Amplifier modules, with special focus on GaN state of the art technology. It is possible to identify two types of GaN Solid State High Power Amplifiers: the Hybrids...

  15. Note: Development of a wideband amplifier for cryogenic scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Jeon, Hoyeon; Oh, Myungchul; Lee, Minjun; Kim, Sungmin; Yi, Sunwouk; Lee, Hanho; Zoh, Inhae; Yoo, Yongchan; Kuk, Young

    2017-06-01

    A wideband cryogenic amplifier has been developed for low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The amplifier consisting of a wideband complementary metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors operational amplifier together with a feedback resistor of 100 kΩ and a capacitor is mounted within a 4 K Dewar. This amplifier has a wide bandwidth and is successfully applied to scanning tunneling microscopy applications at low temperatures down to ˜7 K. The quality of the designed amplifier is validated by high resolution imaging. More importantly, the amplifier has also proved to be capable of performing scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements, showing the detection of the Shockley surface state of the Au(111) surface and the superconducting gap of Nb(110).

  16. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  17. Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-30

    A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 Multiplication-Sign 25 mm and a {approx}40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 {mu}s. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass {approx}3.2, the linear gain {approx}0.031 cm{sup -1} with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm{sup -3}. The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4{lambda} ({lambda} = 0.63 {mu}m is the probing radiation wavelength).

  18. Update on Waveguide-Embedded Differential MMIC Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Schleht, Erich

    2010-01-01

    There is an update on the subject matter of Differential InP HEMT MMIC Amplifiers Embedded in Waveguides (NPO-42857) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 9 (September 2009), page 35. To recapitulate: Monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers of a type now being developed for operation at frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz contain InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in a differential configuration. The MMICs are designed integrally with, and embedded in, waveguide packages. The instant work does not mention InP HEMTs but otherwise reiterates part of the subject matter of the cited prior article, with emphasis on the following salient points: An MMIC is mounted in the electric-field plane ("E-plane") of a waveguide and includes a finline transition to each differential-amplifier stage. The differential configuration creates a virtual ground within each pair of transistor-gate fingers, eliminating the need for external radio-frequency grounding. This work concludes by describing a single-stage differential submillimeter-wave amplifier packaged in a rectangular waveguide and summarizing results of tests of this amplifier at frequencies of 220 and 305 GHz.

  19. A digitally assisted, signal folding neural recording amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Basu, Arindam; Liu, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Dawe, Gavin Stewart; Je, Minkyu

    2014-08-01

    A novel signal folding and reconstruction scheme for neural recording applications that exploits the 1/f(n) characteristics of neural signals is described in this paper. The amplified output is 'folded' into a predefined range of voltages by using comparison and reset circuits along with the core amplifier. After this output signal is digitized and transmitted, a reconstruction algorithm can be applied in the digital domain to recover the amplified signal from the folded waveform. This scheme enables the use of an analog-to-digital convertor with less number of bits for the same effective dynamic range. It also reduces the transmission data rate of the recording chip. Both of these features allow power and area savings at the system level. Other advantages of the proposed topology are increased reliability due to the removal of pseudo-resistors, lower harmonic distortion and low-voltage operation. An analysis of the reconstruction error introduced by this scheme is presented along with a behavioral model to provide a quick estimate of the post reconstruction dynamic range. Measurement results from two different core amplifier designs in 65 nm and 180 nm CMOS processes are presented to prove the generality of the proposed scheme in the neural recording applications. Operating from a 1 V power supply, the amplifier in 180 nm CMOS has a gain of 54.2 dB, bandwidth of 5.7 kHz, input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms and power dissipation of 2.52 μW leading to a NEF of 3.1 in spike band. It exhibits a dynamic range of 66 dB and maximum SNDR of 43 dB in LFP band. It also reduces system level power (by reducing the number of bits in the ADC by 2) as well as data rate to 80% of a conventional design. In vivo measurements validate the ability of this amplifier to simultaneously record spike and LFP signals.

  20. An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. The amplifier is constructed in a fully differential topology to maximize noise rejection. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved....... A continuous-time current-steering offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize the noise contribution and to minimize dynamic impact on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0...

  1. Experimental performance of semiconductor optical amplifiers and praseodymium-doped fiber amplifiers in 1310-nm dense wavelength division multiplexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorchos, Lukasz; Turkiewicz, Jaroslaw P.

    2017-04-01

    One of the key optical transmission components is optical amplifiers. Studies on the amplification properties of the 1310-nm optical amplifiers are presented. The evaluated optical amplifiers are semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA). The study is aimed at the dynamic operation in single- and multiwavelength domains with high rate signals. The maximum obtained gain was 25.0 dB for SOA and 20.9 dB for PDFA. For the SOAs, the minimum achieved value of the receiver sensitivity was -11.5 dBm for a single channel and -11.5 dBm for a dense wavelength division multiplexing case while for PDFA those values were -11.0 dBm and -10.9, respectively. The main advantage of the PDFA in comparison to the measured SOAs is its higher saturation power. The SOAs proved to be viable candidates for high-speed amplification in the 1310-nm wavelength domain.

  2. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  3. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  4. Performance analysis and comparison of multipump Raman and hybrid erbium-doped fiber amplifier + Raman amplifiers using nondominated sorting genetic algorithm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Helder R. de O.; Benincá, Matheus O. L.; Castellani, Carlos E. S.; Pontes, Maria J.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Silva, Jair A. L.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of optimized multipump Raman and hybrid erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) + Raman amplifiers, operating simultaneously at conventional (C) and long (L) bands, using multiobjective optimization based on evolutionary elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm. The amplifiers performance was measured in terms of on-off gain, ripple, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and noise figure (NF), after propagating over 90 and 180 km of single-mode fiber (SMF). Numerical simulation results of the first analysis show that only three pumps are necessary to generate optimal gains in both amplifiers. Comparing the results of the second performance analysis, we conclude that, after 90 km SMF, the two amplifiers has the same on-off gain, if the total pump power (1807.1 mW) of the Raman amplifier is approximately double (100+994.7 mW) of the hybrid amplifier, when the EDFA is operating at 1480 nm with 5 m of doped fiber. Furthermore, the Raman amplifier needs a single laser with at most 741.1 mW, against 343.9 mW of the distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) pump in the hybrid system. Finally, the results of the last analysis, which considers only the EDFA + Raman amplifier, shows that with on-off gain of 26.14 dB, ripple close to 1.54 dB over a bandwidth of 66 nm and using three pumps lasers in the DRA the achieved OSNR was 39.6 dB with an NF lower than 3.3 dB, after 90 km of SMF.

  5. The cascaded amplifier and saturable absorber (CASA) all-optical switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilliger, E.; Berger, J.; Weber, H. G.

    2001-01-01

    The cascaded amplifier and saturable absorber is presented as a new all-optical switching scheme for optical signal processing applications. First demultiplexing experiments demonstrate the principle of operation of this scheme....

  6. W-band Solid State Power Amplifier for Remote Sensing Radars Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High power, compact, reliable and affordable power amplifiers operating in the W-band (94 GHz region) are critical to realizing transmitters for many NASA missions...

  7. The cascaded amplifier and saturable absorber (CASA) all-optical switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilliger, E.; Berger, J.; Weber, H. G.

    2001-01-01

    The cascaded amplifier and saturable absorber is presented as a new all-optical switching scheme for optical signal processing applications. First demultiplexing experiments demonstrate the principle of operation of this scheme....

  8. MMIC for High-Efficiency Ka-BAnd GaN Power Amplifiers (2007043) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for high-efficiency, high-output power amplifiers operating in the Ka-band frequencies. For space communications, the power...

  9. Pump-to-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer in Saturated- Gain Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in saturated degenerate FOPAs is numerically investigated over the whole gain bandwidth. The intensity modulation transfer decreases and the OSNR improves when the amplifier operates in the saturation regime....

  10. Orbital performance of communication satellite microwave power amplifiers (MPAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents background data on the performance of microwave power amplifiers (MPAs) used as transmitters in currently operating commercial communication satellites. Specifically aspects of two competing MPA types are discussed. These are well known TWTA (travelling wave tube amplifier) and the SSPA (solid state power amplifier). Extensive in-orbit data has been collected from over 2000 MPAs in 1991 and 1993. The study in 1991 invovlved 75 S/C (spacecraft) covering 463 S/C years. The 1993 'second-look' study encompassed a slightly different population of 72 S/C with 497 S/C years of operation. A surprising result of both studies was that SSPAs, although quite reliable, did not achieve the reliability of TWTAs were one-third more reliable in the 1993 study. This was at C-band with comparable power amplifiers, e.g. 6-16W of RF output power and similar gains. Data at K(sub u)-band is for TWTAs only since there are no SSPAs in the current S/C inventory. The other complementary result was that the projected failure rates used as S/C payload design guidelines were, on average, somewhat higher for TWTAs than the actual failure rates uncovered by this study. SSPA rates were as projected.

  11. Synthesis of a Novel Low-Component Programmable Sinusoidal Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel circuit is presented for realizing a sinusoidal oscillator. The proposed circuit, developed through a true synthesis approach, uses one current-feedback operational amplifier (CFOA, one operational transconductance amplifier (OTA, three grounded capacitors and one floating resistor. The proposed circuit enjoys several attractive features. Practical results, in excellent agreement with the presented theory, are included.

  12. Extinction Ratio and Gain Optimization of Dual- Pump Degenerate-Idler Phase Sensitive Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Seoane, Jorge;

    2011-01-01

    Numerical optimization of dual-pump degenerateidler phase sensitive amplifiers is performed for Al-doped and standard highly nonlinear fibers. Design considerations for operating the PSAs at an optimum combination of gain and extinction ratio are discussed.......Numerical optimization of dual-pump degenerateidler phase sensitive amplifiers is performed for Al-doped and standard highly nonlinear fibers. Design considerations for operating the PSAs at an optimum combination of gain and extinction ratio are discussed....

  13. High Power Combiner/Divider Design for Dual Band RF Power Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Flattery, Kyle; Amin, Shoaib; Rönnow, Daniel; Mahamat, Yaya; Eroglu, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Design of low loss with an enhanced thermal profile power divider/combiner for high power dual-band Radio Frequency (RF) power amplifier applications is given. The practical implementation, low loss and substrate characteristics make this type of combiner ideal for high power microwave applications.  The combiner operational frequencies are chosen to operate at 900 MHz and 2.14 GHz, which are common frequencies for concurrent dual band RF power amplifiers. The analytical results are verified ...

  14. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  15. Quantum Noise in Amplifiers and Hawking/Dumb-Hole Radiation as Amplifier Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Unruh, W G

    2011-01-01

    The quantum noise in a linear amplifier is shown to be thermal noise. The theory of linear amplifiers is applied first to the simplest, single or double oscillator model of an amplifier, and then to linear model of an amplifier with continuous fields and input and outputs. Finally it is shown that the thermal noise emitted by black holes first demonstrated by Hawking, and of dumb holes (sonic and other analogs to black holes), arises from the same analysis as for linear amplifiers. The amplifier noise of black holes acting as amplifiers on the quantum fields living in the spacetime surrounding the black hole is the radiation discovered by Hawking. For any amplifier, that quantum noise is completely characterized by the attributes of the system regarded as a classical amplifier, and arises out of those classical amplification factors and the commutation relations of quantum mechanics.

  16. YANG-MILLS FIELD AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the Yang-Mills amplifier. Amplifier model is a multilayer spherical shell with increasing density towards the center. In the center of the amplifier is the core of high-density material. It is shown that in such a system, the amplitude of the Yang-Mills waves rises from the periphery to the center of several orders of magnitude. The role of the Yang-Mills field in the processes occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, stars and planets is discussed. The data modeling to strengthen the Yang-Mills field in the bowels of the planet, with an atomic explosion, and in some special devices such as the voltaic pile. To describe the mechanism of amplification chromodynamics field used as accurate results in Yang-Mills theory and numerical models developed based on an average and the exact equations as well. Among the exact solutions of the special role played by the centralsymmetric metric describing the contribution of the Yang-Mills field in the speed of recession of galaxies. Among the approximate numerical models can be noted the eight-scalar model we have developed for the simulation of non-linear color oscillations and chaos in the Yang-Mills theory. Earlier models were investigated spatio-temporal oscillations of the YangMills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three by five colors or vice versa. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. In the present study, we found that amplification chromodynamic field leads to a sharp increase in the amplitude of the suppressed color, which can lead to an increase in entropy, excitation of nuclear

  17. Locoregional MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales La Madrid, Andres; Volchenboum, Samuel; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Pyatt, Robert; Liu, Don; Pytel, Peter; Lavarino, Cinzia; Rodriguez, Eva; Cohn, Susan L

    2012-10-01

    MYCN-amplification is strongly associated with other high-risk prognostic factors and poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Infrequently, amplification of MYCN has been identified in localized tumors with favorable biologic features. Outcome for these children is difficult to predict and optimal treatment strategies remain unclear. We report a 5-month-old who presented with an MYCN-amplified INSS stage 3, pelvic neuroblastoma. The tumor had favorable histology, hyperdiploidy, and lacked 1p36 and 11q23 aberrations. Although the patient met the criteria for high-risk neuroblastoma, because of the discordant prognostic markers we elected to treat her according to an intermediate-risk protocol. She remains event-free more than 18 months.

  18. Single Ion Quantum Lock-In Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Kotler, Shlomi; Glickman, Yinnon; Keselman, Anna; Ozeri, Roee

    2011-01-01

    We report on the implementation of a quantum analog to the classical lock-in amplifier. All the lock-in operations: modulation, detection and mixing, are performed via the application of non-commuting quantum operators on the electronic spin state of a single trapped Sr+ ion. We significantly increase its sensitivity to external fields while extending phase coherence by three orders of magnitude, to more than one second. With this technique we measure magnetic fields with sensitivity of 25 pT/sqrt(Hz) and light shifts with an uncertainty below 140 mHz after 1320 seconds of averaging. These sensitivities are limited by quantum projection noise and, to our knowledge, are more than two orders of magnitude better than with other single-spin probe technologies. In fact, our reported sensitivity is sufficient for the measurement of parity non-conservation, as well as the detection of the magnetic field of a single electronic-spin one micrometer from an ion-detector with nanometer resolution. As a first application ...

  19. Physics of vertically integrated waveguide photodetectors and amplifiers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, E.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the efforts supported by LLNL under the Subcontract No. B239593 at the University of Arizona during the Fiscal Year 1992. A solid physical foundation has been developed for understanding the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors and amplifiers. This has been achieved through a combination of numerical simulation and development of simple coupled-mode theories. Coupled-mode theory has been used to elucidate the physics underlying the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors. In particular, the relation between the spatial transients observed in experiments and numerical simulations, and the non-power orthogonality of the underlying modes has been clarified. The coupled-mode theory has been extended to the case of coupled waveguide-amplifiers.

  20. Dynamics of Soliton Cascades in Fiber Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga-Sierra, F R; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the formation of cascading solitons when femtosecond optical pulses are launched into a fiber amplifier with less energy than required to form a soliton of equal duration. As the pulse is amplified, cascaded fundamental solitons are created at different distances, without soliton fission, as each fundamental soliton moves outside the gain bandwidth through the Raman-induced spectral shifts. As a result, each input pulse creates multiple, temporally separated, ultrashort pulses of different wavelengths at the amplifier output. The number of pulses depends not only on the total gain of the amplifier but also on the width of input pulses.

  1. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann;

    2012-01-01

    study of a 1 QW photonic crystal amplifier. Net gain is achieved which enables laser oscillation in photonic crystal micro cavities. The ability to freely tailor the dispersion in a semiconductor optical amplifier makes it possible to raise the optical gain considerably over a certain bandwidth......We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission...

  2. Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

  3. A New CMOS Current-Mode Folding Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Al-Absi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode folding amplifier is proposed. The circuit is designed using MOSFETs operating in strong inversion. The design produces a nearly ideal saw-tooth input-output characteristic which is a mandatory requirement in folding analog-to-digital converters. The functionality of the proposed circuit was confirmed using Tanner simulation tools in 0.35 µm CMOS technology. Simulation results are in excellent agreement with the theory.

  4. Asymmetric underlap spacer layer enabled nanoscale double gate MOSFETs for design of ultra-wideband cascode amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debapriya; Biswas, Abhijit

    2017-10-01

    Using extensive numerical analysis we investigate effects of asymmetric sidewall spacers on various device parameters of 20-nm double gate MOSFETs associated with analog/RF applications. Our studies show that the device with underlap drain-side spacer length LED of 10 nm and source-side spacer length LES of 5 nm shows improvement in terms of the peak value of transconductance efficiency, voltage gain Av, unity-gain cut-off frequency fT and maximum frequency of oscillations fMAX by 8.6%, 51.7%, 5% and 10.3%, respectively compared to the symmetric 5 nm underlap spacer device with HfO2 spacer of dielectric constant k = 22. Additionally, a higher spacer dielectric constant increases the peak Av while decreasing both peak fT and fMAX. The detailed physical insight is exploited to design a cascode amplifier which yields an ultra-wide gain bandwidth of 2.48 THz at LED = 10 nm with a SiO2 spacer.

  5. A Mixed Mode Cochlear Amplifier Including Neural Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Matthew R.; Holmes, W. Harvey

    2011-11-01

    The mixed mode cochlear amplifier (MMCA) model is derived from the physiology of the cochlea. It is comprised of three main elements of the peripheral hearing system: the cochlear mechanics, hair cell motility, and neurophysiology. This model expresses both active compression wave and active traveling wave modes of operation. The inclusion of a neural loop with a time delay, and a new paradigm for the mechanical response of the outer hair cells, are believed to be unique features of the MMCA. These elements combine to form an active feedback loop to constitute the cochlear amplifier, whose input is a passive traveling wave vibration. The result is a cycle-by-cycle amplifier with nonlinear response. This system can assume an infinite number of different operating states. The stable state and the first few amplitude-limited unstable (Hopf-bifurcated) states are significant in describing the operation of the peripheral hearing system. A hierarchy of models can be constructed from this concept, depending on the amount of detail included. The simplest model of the MMCA is a nonlinear delay line resonator. It was found that even this simple MMCA version can explain a large number of hearing phenomena, at least qualitatively. This paper concentrates on explaining the fractional octave shift from the living to postmortem response in terms of the new model. Other mechanical, hair cell and neurological phenomena can also be accounted for by the MMCA, including two-tone suppression behavior, distortion product responses, otoacoustic emissions and neural spontaneous rates.

  6. Ping-pong auto-zero amplifier with glitch reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mark R [Maple Grove, MN

    2008-01-22

    A ping-pong amplifier with reduced glitching is described. The ping-pong amplifier includes a nulling amplifier coupled to a switching network. The switching network is used to auto-zero a ping amplifier within a ping-pong amplifier. The nulling amplifier drives the output of a ping amplifier to a proper output voltage level during auto-zeroing of the ping amplifier. By being at a proper output voltage level, glitches associated with transitioning between a ping amplifier and a pong amplifier are reduced or eliminated.

  7. Prototype Small Footprint Amplifier for Piezoelectric Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, Kris; Herriot, Glen; Niebergal, Joel; Zielinski, Adam

    2011-09-01

    AO subsystems of the ELT observatories will incorporate deformable mirrors with an order of magnitude larger number of piezoelectric actuators than the AO systems currently deployed. Simply scaling up the drive electronics that are presently available commercially would substantially drive up the AO cost, pose unacceptably high demands for the supply power and heat dissipation, and occupy large physical volume. We have set out to prototype a high voltage amplifier that is compact enough to allow packaging 100 amplifier channels on a single 6U Eurocard with the goal to have a DM drive channel density of 1200 per 6U VME crate. Individual amplifier circuits should be driven by a multichannel A/D converter, consume no more than 0.5W from the +/-400V power supply, be slew rate limited in hardware, and be short-circuit protected. The component cost should be an order of magnitude less than the integrated circuit high voltage amplifiers currently on the market. We started out with modeling candidate circuits in SPICE, then built physical prototypes using inexpensive off the shelf components. In this paper we present experimental results of exposing several prototype circuits to both normal operating conditions and foreseeable fault conditions. The performance is evaluated against the AO requirements for the output range and bandwidth and the DM actuator safety requirements.

  8. Low-Noise MMIC Amplifiers for 120 to 180 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Peralta, Alejandro; Bayuk, Brian; Grundbacher, Ron; Oliver, Patricia; Cavus, Abdullah; Liu, Po-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Three-stage monolithic millimeter-wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers capable of providing useful amounts of gain over the frequency range from 120 to 180 GHz have been developed as prototype low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to be incorporated into instruments for sensing cosmic microwave background radiation. There are also potential uses for such LNAs in electronic test equipment, passive millimeter- wave imaging systems, radar receivers, communication receivers, and systems for detecting hidden weapons. The main advantage afforded by these MMIC LNAs, relative to prior MMIC LNAs, is that their coverage of the 120-to-180-GHz frequency band makes them suitable for reuse in a wider variety of applications without need to redesign them. Each of these MMIC amplifiers includes InP transistors and coplanar waveguide circuitry on a 50- mthick chip (see Figure 1). Coplanar waveguide transmission lines are used for both applying DC bias and matching of input and output impedances of each transistor stage. Via holes are incorporated between top and bottom ground planes to suppress propagation of electromagnetic modes in the substrate. On the basis of computational simulations, each of these amplifiers was expected to operate with a small-signal gain of 14 dB and a noise figure of 4.3 dB. At the time of writing this article, measurements of noise figures had not been reported, but on-chip measurements had shown gains approaching their simulated values (see Figure 2).

  9. A Peltier cooled single pass amplifier for Titanium:Sapphire laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, A.; Schneider, W.; Najafi, F.; Hänsch, T. W.; Udem, Th.; Hommelhoff, P.

    2010-05-01

    We report on a Peltier cooled single pass amplifier for high repetition rate Titanium:sapphire laser pulses. Pumped with 14 W and seeded with around 400 mW, the output reaches 1.1 W with good beam quality. This amplifier is very user-friendly, easy to maintain and set up and thus represents a device situated between more complicated liquid-nitrogen cooled amplifiers that can operate at higher pump power, and very simple near to room temperature amplifiers that can only be pumped with less power. In addition, we show the results of a finite element simulation on the temperature distribution in a liquid nitrogen cooled amplifier setup designed for highest output powers.

  10. Triple-mode single-transistor graphene amplifier and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuebei; Liu, Guanxiong; Balandin, Alexander A; Mohanram, Kartik

    2010-10-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a triple-mode single-transistor graphene amplifier utilizing a three-terminal back-gated single-layer graphene transistor. The ambipolar nature of electronic transport in graphene transistors leads to increased amplifier functionality as compared to amplifiers built with unipolar semiconductor devices. The ambipolar graphene transistors can be configured as n-type, p-type, or hybrid-type by changing the gate bias. As a result, the single-transistor graphene amplifier can operate in the common-source, common-drain, or frequency multiplication mode, respectively. This in-field controllability of the single-transistor graphene amplifier can be used to realize the modulation necessary for phase shift keying and frequency shift keying, which are widely used in wireless applications. It also offers new opportunities for designing analog circuits with simpler structure and higher integration densities for communications applications.

  11. Study of the evanescent wave coupled semiconductor quantum dot amplifying fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke-xin; WANG Ting-yun; PANG Fu-fei

    2007-01-01

    Based on the character of semiconductors and the structure of optical fiber coupler,a new amplifying fiber,coupled semiconductor quantum dot amplifying fiber (CSQDAF),has been presented. A simplified model of PbS quantum dot amplifying fiber is built on the energy band structure of semiconductor quantum dots,and a simple expression deduced from the two-level rate equations and light propagation equations is shown in this paper,by which the gain of quantum dot amplifying fiber can be calculated. A gain of approximately 4.5 dB has been measured in this coupled semiconductor quantum dot amplifying fiber at a wavelength of 1310 nm,when the fiber is pumped by a laser operating at a wavelength of 980 nm with power of 30 mW.

  12. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition rate of 100 kHz pumped by continuous wave laser diodes was obtained. Compact, stable and high power DPSS laser amplifier systems with good beam qualities are excellent picosecond sources for high power optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA and high-efficiency laser processing.

  13. Analysis and Compensation of the AM-AM and AM-PM Distortion for CMOS Cascode Class-E Power Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen An Tsou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and compensation methodology of the AM-AM and AM-PM distortion of cascode class-E power amplifiers are presented. A physical-based model is proposed to illustrate that the nonlinear capacitance and transconductance cause the AM-AM and AM-PM distortion when modulating the supply voltage of the PA. A novel methodology that can reduce the distortion is also proposed. By degenerating common-gate transistor into a resistor, the constant equivalent impedance is obtained so that the AM-AM and AM-PM distortion is compensated. An experimental prototype of 2.6 GHz cascode class-E power amplifier with the AM-AM and AM-PM compensation has been integrated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology, occupies a total die area of 1.6 mm2. It achieves a drain efficiency of 17.8% and a power-added efficiency of 16.6% while delivering 12 dBm of linear output power and drawing 31 mA from a 1.8 V supply. Finally, a co-simulation result demonstrated that, when the distortion of the PA has been compensated, the EVM is improved from −17 dB to −19 dB with an IEEE802.11a-like signal source.

  14. Distributed feedback laser amplifiers combining the functions of amplifiers and channel filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Durhuus, T.; Mikkelsen, Benny;

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic model for distributed feedback amplifiers, including the mode coupled equations and the carrier rate equation, is established. The presented mode coupled equations have taken into account the interaction between fast changing optical signal and the waveguide with corrugations. By showin...... the possibility of amplifying 100 ps pulses without pulse broadening, we anticipate that a distributed feedback amplifier can be used as a combined amplifier and channel filter in high bit rate transmission systems....

  15. Amplified spontaneous emission and its restraint in a terawatt Ti:sapphire amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and its restraint in a femtosecond Ti: sapphire chirped_pulse amplifier were investigated. The noises arising from ASE were effectively filtered out in the spatial, temporal and spectral domain. Pulses as short as 38 fs were amplified to peak power of 1.4 TW. The power ratio between the amplified femtosecond pulse and the ASE was higher than 106:1.

  16. Polarization Maintaining, Very-Large-Mode Area, Er Fiber Amplifier for High Energy Pulses at 1572.3 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholoson, J. W.; DeSantolo, A.; Yan, M. F.; Wisk, P.; Mangan, B.; Puc, G.; Yu, A.; Stephen, M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first polarization maintaining, very-large-mode-area Er-doped fiber amplifier with 1000 square micron effective area. The amplifier is core pumped by a Raman fiber laser and is used to generate single frequency one microsecond pulses with pulse energy of 368 microJoules, M2 of 1.1, and polarization extinction greater than 20 dB. The amplifier operates at 1572.3 nm, a wavelength useful for trace atmospheric CO2 detection.

  17. Self-pulsation in Raman fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated.......Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated....

  18. BROADBAND TRAVELLING WAVE SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...

  19. Design and performance of the beamlet amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandson, A.C.; Rotter, M.D.; Frank, M.D.; McCracken, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    In future laser systems, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), multi-segment amplifiers (MSAs) will be used to amplify the laser beam to the required levels. As a prototype of such a laser architecture, the authors have designed, built, and tested flash-lamp-pumped, Nd:Glass, Brewster-angle slab MSAs for the Beamlet project. In this article, they review the fundamentals of Nd:Glass amplifiers, describe the MSA geometry, discuss parameters that are important in amplifier design, and present our results on the characterization of the Beamlet MSAs. In particular, gain and beam steering measurements show that the Beamlet amplifiers meet all optical performance specifications and perform close to model predictions.

  20. Amplified OTDR systems for multipoint corrosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Jehan F; Silva, Marcionilo J; Coêlho, Isnaldo J S; Cipriano, Eliel; Martins-Filho, Joaquim F

    2012-01-01

    We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations.

  1. Amplified OTDR Systems for Multipoint Corrosion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim F. Martins-Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations.

  2. Detection of Non-Amplified Genomic DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Corradini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a state-of-the-art overview on non amplified DNA detection methods and provides chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists and material scientists with an introduction to these methods. In fact all these fields have dedicated resources to the problem of nucleic acid detection, each contributing with their own specific methods and concepts. This book will explain the basic principles of the different non amplified DNA detection methods available, highlighting their respective advantages and limitations. The importance of non-amplified DNA sequencing technologies will be also discussed. Non-amplified DNA detection can be achieved by adopting different techniques. Such techniques have allowed the commercialization of innovative platforms for DNA detection that are expected to break into the DNA diagnostics market. The enhanced sensitivity required for the detection of non amplified genomic DNA has prompted new strategies that can achieve ultrasensitivity by combining specific materials with specifi...

  3. Design of an 1800 nm Raman Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    , also extended band amplifiers are required. As a solution to the latter challenge, Raman amplifiers are suggested as promising candidates. The main hurdle when designing a long wavelength Raman amplifier is the increased intrinsic fiber attenuation which as a consequence leads to an increase...... in the pump power requirement and deteriorated noise properties. Here we demonstrate a Raman amplifier designed for signal wavelengths around 1800 nm. The amplification fiber is an OFS PM Raman fiber, and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser emitting at 1680 nm [4]. The amplifier was pumped co......-polarized and backward, with respect to the singal. In Fig. 2 a measured Raman on/off gain exceeding 9 dB for 285 mW of injected pump power is obtained in a 4.35 km long fiber. A broadband supercontinuum source was used as a signal from 1700 nm to 1900 nm....

  4. An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved. A continuous-time offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize impact...... on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0.5 μm CMOS single poly, n-well process. The prototype amplifier features a gain of 80 dB over a 3.6 kHz bandwidth, a CMRR of more than 87 dB and a PSRR...

  5. Implementation of Maintenance System Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Hermetic Inline Amplifiers in CATV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Naito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cable television (CATV systems generally consist of a headend, trunk cables, distribution cables in the neighborhood, drop cables to a home and in-house wiring, and terminal equipment. Coaxial cables bring a CATV signal to customer premises through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. Hermetic inline amplifiers are used to amplify the attenuated CATV signal due to propagation loss or splitting the coaxial cable. They are usually installed on utility poles. Therefore, maintenance methods for inline amplifiers on utility poles are important issues in CATV operations. This paper proposes a new maintenance system for inline amplifiers in CATV systems, and develops a prototype implementation. The proposed system consists of an amplifier gain analyser to measure amplification performance of inline amplifiers, a special smartphone application, and a cloud server. The proposed amplifier gain analyser is composed of three functions: a generation of high frequency signals for testing, measurement of the test signal gain, and wireless communication based on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE. We develop a signal generation circuit for a test signal and a smoothing circuit for converting the high frequency test signals into DC signals. The amplifier gain analyser can evaluate an amplifier gain by comparing an input test signal from the signal generation circuit and an output test signal from an inline amplifier. The measurement function uses Nordic nRF51822, which is a System on Chip (SoC for BLE because Nordic nRF51822 has some AD converter ports for evaluating the DC signals. The smartphone application employs BLE communication function to collect the measured amplifier gain from the amplifier gain analyser. Therefore, we developed a special data collection application for iOS. The data collection application has a central function of BLE, and can find a target peripheral device that is the amplifier gain analyser in this paper. Therefore, technicians

  6. OFCC based voltage and transadmittance mode instrumentation amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Deva; Pandey, Neeta; Pandey, Rajeshwari; Tripathi, Prateek; Gola, Prashant

    2017-07-01

    The operational floating current conveyor (OFCC) is a versatile active block due to the availability of both low and high input and output impedance terminals. This paper addresses the realization of OFCC based voltage and transadmittance mode instrumentation amplifiers (VMIA and TAM IA). It employs three OFCCs and seven resistors. The transadmittance mode operation can easily be obtained by simply connecting an OFCC based voltage to current converter at the output. The effect of non-idealities of OFCC, in particular finite transimpedance and tracking error, on system performance is also dealt with and corresponding mathematical expressions are derived. The functional verification is performed through SPICE simulation using CMOS based implementation of OFCC.

  7. Improving the Quality of Heisenberg Back-Action of Qubit Measurements made with Parametric Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Katrina

    The quantum back-action of the measurement apparatus arising from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is both a fascinating phenomenon and a powerful way to apply operations on quantum systems. Unfortunately, there are other effects which may overwhelm the Heisenberg back-action. This thesis focuses on two effects arising in the dispersive measurement of superconducting qubits made with two ultra-low-noise parametric amplifiers, the Josephson bifurcation amplifier (JBA) and the Josephson parametric converter (JPC). The first effect is qubit dephasing due to excess photons in the cavity coming from rogue radiation emitted by the first amplifier stage toward the system under study. This problem arises primarily in measurements made with the JBA, where a strong resonant pump tone is traditionally used to provide the energy for amplification. Replacing the single strong pump tone with two detuned pump tones minimized this dephasing to the point where the Heisenberg back-action of measurements made with the JBA could be observed. The second effect is reduced measurement efficiency arising from losses between the qubit and the parametric amplifier. Most commonly used parametric amplifiers operate in reflection, requiring additional lossy, magnetic elements known as circulators both to separate input from output, and to protect the qubits from dephasing due to the amplified reflected signal. This work presents two alternative directional elements, the Josephson circulator, which is both theoretically loss-less and does not rely upon the strong magnetic fields needed for traditional circulators, and the Josephson directional amplifier which does not send any amplified signal back toward the qubit. Both of these elements achieve directionality by interfering multiple parametric processes inside a single JPC, allowing for in-situ switching between the two modes of operation. This brings valuable experimental flexibility, and also makes these devices strong candidates for

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M.B. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with DC SQUID amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, M. B.

    1990-11-01

    The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al2O3/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 x 10(exp 17) in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO3 crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

  10. Clinical application of an active electrode using an operational amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, S; Tomita, Y; Horiuchi, T

    1992-10-01

    An active electrode (d10 mm, t6 mm) is presented, that functions as an impedance transformer (an input impedance > 10 G omega, an output impedance < 1 omega) by means of which we can derive surface EMG without any skin preparation and paste. This electrode was compared with a conventional one, and it was ascertained that the electrode could be replaced with the conventional one, and, moreover, it was preferable because it required less preparation time, and was less affected by environmental noise.

  11. Immunity modeling of the lm2902 operational amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op 't Land, Sjoerd; Lafon, Fr´ed´eric; de Daran, Francois; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Drissi, M'hamed; Ramdani, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Component models that predict functional failure are necessary for predicting the immunity of systems to electromagnetic interference (EMI). A method to extract these models using measurements on integrated circuits (ICs) already exists. This measurement method for ICs with single-ended connections

  12. Status Report on the Energy Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    0ne year after its first presentation,the Energy Amplifier (EA) Project holds its promises for a environmentally acceptable form of energy extraction from nuclei, namely to eliminate or at least greatly reduce(i) the environmental impact of the long-lived highly radioactive waste;(ii) the possibility of diversions toward military applications;(iii) the risks of an accidental divergence related to the critical operation of the chain reaction and (iv) make a more efficient use of a fuel which is less radio-toxic to extract and more abundant on Earth than Uranium. In these respects the EA (or equivalent scenarios from Los Alamos and elsewhere) is comparable in performance to Thermonuclear Fusion. Bot h approches offer pratically unl;imited fuel resources: the energetic content of Lithium on the Earth's crust needed by Fusion is estimated to be seven times the one of Thorium and they are both adequate for millions of years of very intensived utilisation.However the EA can be built economically,in a variety of siz...

  13. Chemically amplified resist modeling in OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Huang, Jason; Kuo, Fred; Kazarian, Aram; Chin, Fook; Fan, Yongfa

    2009-03-01

    The mechanism of chemically amplified resist plays a critical role in the modeling of the latent image. To achieve a practical model which can fit into the time frame of OPC, some simplifications and assumptions have to be made. We introduced regression kernels that take into account best exposure focus difference between isotropic pitch, dense, and line end features for the evaluation of image intensity. It compares the image intensity (signal) over small changes above and/or below the regressed "nominal" image position, which in principle corresponds to evaluating the intensity signal at various depths of a fixed resist profile thus can also be regressed for optimization during model development. Our calibration has shown that the model brought a great improvement in prediction for difficult structures such as dense features at or near the optical resolution limit and 2-dimensional features, which are the limiter of the overall model fitting accuracy for 45nm node and below. By replacing other existing techniques, total number of output kernels used for OPC operation is actually reduced with improvement of model accuracy. This model is proven to be a very effective yet accurate addition to the current OPC technology.

  14. Low-distortion switched-capacitor event-driven analogue to-digital converter

    OpenAIRE

    Majidzadeh Bafar, Vahid; Schmid, Alexandre; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    An event-driven analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) architecture is proposed. The proposed architecture has less sensitivity to amplifier and DAC nonlinearity, and reduces the swing and dynamic common-mode range requirement of the operational transconductance amplifier and comparators, respectively. The efficiency of the ADC is confirmed by detailed circuit simulations.

  15. Power Parameters and Efficiency of Class B Audio Amplifiers in Real-World Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhivomirov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer audio amplifiers are intended to op¬erate with various loudspeaker loads, i.e. the load imped¬ance profile of the audio amplifier is a priori unknown. We propose the power parameters analysis of the class B audio amplifiers to be carried out in the realistic worst-case (RWC scenario of operation with the minimal value of the impedance and a RWC type of signal, instead of the nominal impedance of the loudspeaker and a sine-wave signal. Experimental validation, carried out for different types of signals and loudspeaker loads, demonstrate the advantages of the proposed RWC-based power parameters estimation. Furthermore, we provide a way of assessing the safe-operating area (SOA boundaries, based on the output I-V loci of the amplifier and by means of an equi¬valent load line (ELL.

  16. Numerical Simulation of High-Energy, Ytterbium-Doped Amplifier Tunability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of wavelength tunability for the gain media Yb:CaF2 and Yb:YAG in a regenerative amplifier configuration, was performed by using a simulation code previously benchmarked with real data. The results demonstrate that both materials have potential for amplifying pulses up to the milijoule level for wavelengths around 1048–1049 nm. In light of this, we propose and evaluate their performance as gain media in the pre-amplifier of a hybrid chain operating at 1053 nm.

  17. Off-axis multipass amplifier as a large aperture driver stage for fusion lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J E; Downs, D C; Hunt, J T; Hermes, G L; Warren, W E

    1981-03-01

    A multipass amplifier configuration is described which has potential as a large aperture, high gain driver stage for fusion laser systems. We avoid the present limitations of large aperture switches by using an off-angle geometry that does not require an optical switch. The saturated gain characteristics of this multipass amplifier are optimized numerically. Three potential problems are investigated experimentally, self-lasing, output beam quality, and amplified spontaneous emission output. The results indicate comparable cost for comparable performance to a linear chain, with some operational advantage for the multipass driver stage.

  18. Particle simulation of a ka-band gyrotron traveling wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shouxi; Liu Pukun; Zhang Shichang; Du Chaohai; Xue Qianzhong; Geng Zhihui; Su Yinong [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2652, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-08-15

    The design of a ka-band gyrotron traveling wave (gyro-TWT) amplifier is presented. The gyro-TWT amplifier with a severed structure operates in the fundamental harmonic TE{sub 01} circular electric mode. The beam-wave interaction is studied by using a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The simulations predict that the amplifier can produce an output peak power of over 155 kW, 22% efficiency, 23 dB gain, and a 3 dB bandwidth of 2 GHz for a 70 kV, 10 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread {Delta}v{sub z}/v{sub z}=5%.

  19. Combined Yb/Nd driver for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailovas, Kirilas; Baltuska, Andrius; Pugzlys, Audrius; Smilgevicius, Valerijus; Michailovas, Andrejus; Zaukevicius, Audrius; Danilevicius, Rokas; Frankinas, Saulius; Rusteika, Nerijus

    2016-09-19

    We report on the developed front-end/pump system for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers. The system is based on a dual output fiber oscillator/power amplifier which seeds and assures all-optical synchronization of femtosecond Yb and picosecond Nd laser amplifiers operating at a central wavelength of 1030 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. At the central wavelength of 1030 nm, the fiber oscillator generates partially stretched 4 ps pulses with the spectrum supporting a scaling currently is prevented by limited dimensions of the diffraction gratings, which, because of the fast progress in MLD grating manufacturing technologies is only a temporary obstacle.

  20. Effective amplifier noise for an optical receiver based on linear mode avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1989-01-01

    The rms noise charge induced by the amplifier for an optical receiver based on the linear-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) was analyzed. It is shown that for an amplifier with a 1-pF capacitor and a noise temperature of 100 K, the rms noise charge due to the amplifier is about 300. Since the noise charge must be small compared to the signal gain, APD gains on the order of 1000 will be required to operate the receiver in the linear mode.

  1. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power amplifiers. It is shown that the total integration of the power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact direct converter can simplify design, increase efficiency and integration level, reduce product volume and lower its cost. As an example, the principle of operation and the measurements made on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp are presented. (au)

  2. On the Theory of the Modulation Instability in Optical Fibre Amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turitsyn, S K; Rubenchik, A M; Fedoruk, M P

    2010-05-10

    The modulation instability (MI) in optical fiber amplifiers and lasers with anomalous dispersion leads to CW radiation break-up and growth of multiple pulses. This can be both a detrimental effect limiting the performance of amplifiers, and also an underlying physical mechanism in the operation of MI-based devices. Here we revisit the analytical theory of MI in fiber optical amplifiers. The results of the exact theory are compared with the previously used adiabatic approximation model and the range of applicability of the later is determined.

  3. Supermode emission in four-core optical fiber amplifier doped with Yb3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yehui; Wang, Yibo; Liao, Lei; Luo, Xing; Hu, Xiongwei; Zhang, Fangfang; Li, Haiqing; Peng, Jinggang; Yang, Lvyun; Li, Jinyan

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate a high power four-core Yb-doped fiber amplifier both theoretically and experimentally. An all-fiber MOPA structure without mode selection components was utilized to amplify the 12 m long four-core fiber. An in-phase supermode laser operation was realized in this fiber. The laser slope efficiency is greater than 56.7% with a maximum output power of 11.47 W. The measured M 2 factor of the amplified beam is 1.58, showing the high potential of the fiber.

  4. Measuring Optimal Length of the Amplifying Fiber in Different Working Conditions of the Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Poboril

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight possible unwanted behaviour of an EDFA optical amplifier during temperature changes. After a brief introduction dealing with amplifiers and doped fibers in general we focus on the assembly of our own EDFA amplifier with standard construction and the IsoGain I-6 amplifying fiber, and on the parameters of its individual components. Since an erbium doped fiber has usually no direct thermal stabilization, temperature changes can affect performance of the entire amplifier. The next part of the article therefore describes the impacts of such changes on behaviour of our amplifier. At the very end we performed a measurement of the amplifier deployed in the actual WDM-PON the description of which can be found in the last chapter.

  5. Higher-order nonlinear effects in a Josephson parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Fedorov, Arkady

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinearity of the current-phase relationship of a Josephson junction is the key resource for a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) as well as for a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier, the only devices in which the quantum limit for added noise has so far been approached at microwave frequencies. A standard approach to describe JPA takes into account only the lowest order (cubic) nonlinearity resulting in a Duffing-like oscillator equation of motion or in a Kerr-type nonlinearity term in the Hamiltonian. In this paper we derive the quantum expression for the gain of JPA including all orders of the Josephson junction nonlinearity in the linear response regime. We then analyze gain saturation effect for stronger signals within a semiclassical approach. Our results reveal nonlinear effects of higher orders and their implications for operation of a JPA.

  6. Graphene-based side-polished optical fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Vahid; Ghezelsefloo, Masoud

    2016-12-20

    We demonstrate a novel design for optical fiber amplifiers, utilizing side-polished fibers with a single-layer graphene overlay as the active medium and carrier injection in the graphene layer to provide the required inversion. We study the effects of an electrically induced graphene p-i-n heterojunction in the forward bias regime on optical modes of side-polished fibers and show that gain values of 0.51, 1.81, and 1.79 dB/cm for wavelengths 1064, 1330, and 1550 nm can be obtained for single-mode side-polished fibers. Our results show that in multi-mode side-polished fibers, higher order modes experience higher values of gain, and gain can be increased by increasing polished depth. The proposed system is a tunable wideband optical amplifier that can operate for wavelengths larger than 1000 nm.

  7. High power Ka band TWT amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.; Wang, P.; Schachter, L.

    1999-07-01

    Two high power 35 GHz TWT amplifiers driven by a relativistic pencil, 850 kV, 200A electron beam have been assembled and tested. The first had a dielectric slow wave structure and was primarily used to develop diagnostics, and to gain experience in working with high power systems in Ka band. The source of the input power for the amplifier was a magnetron producing a 30 kW, 200ns long pulse of which 10 kW as delivered to the experiment. The 30 cm long dielectric (Teflon) amplifier produced output power levels of about 1 MW with a gain of about 23 dB. These results are consistent with expectations from PIC code simulations for this arrangement. The second amplifier, which is a single stage disk loaded slow wave structure, has been designed. It consists of one hundred uniform cells with two sets of ten tapered calls at the ends to lower the reflection coefficient. The phase advance per cell is {pi}/2. The amplifier passband extends from 28 to 40 GHz. It is designed to increase the output power to about 20 MW. The amplifier is in construction and will be tested in the near future. Details of the design of both systems will be provided and initial results from the new amplifier presented.

  8. Generation of sub-50 fs pulses from a high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yujun; Chien, Ching-Yuan; Fidric, Bernard G; Kafka, James D

    2009-11-15

    We demonstrate the generation of 48 fs pulses with 18 W average power and 226 nJ of pulse energy from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier. The system uses a simple stretcher-free single-stage amplifier configuration operating in the parabolic pulse regime. The gain fiber length and pump wavelength are chosen in order to reduce the gain per unit length and generate both shorter pulses and higher pulse energy.

  9. A fast large dynamic range shaping amplifier for particle detector front-end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Angelo [INFN-Sezione di Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: rivetti@to.infn.it; Delaurenti, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale-Universita di Turin (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    The paper describes a fast shaping amplifier with rail-to-rail output swing. The circuit is based on a CMOS operational amplifier with a class AB output stage. A baseline holder, incorporating a closed-loop unity gain buffer with slew rate limitation, performs the AC coupling with the preamplifier and guarantees a baseline shift smaller than 3 mV for unipolar output pulses of 3 V and 10 MHz rate.

  10. A Carbon Nanotube-based NEMS Parametric Amplifier for Enhanced Radio Wave Detection and Electronic Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mickelson, W, E-mail: azettl@berkeley.edu [Center of Integrated Nanomechanical Systems, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-07-20

    We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.

  11. Effect of Soliton Propagation in Fiber Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of optical solitons in fiber amplifiers is discussed by considering a model that includes linear high order dispersion, two-photon absorption, nonlinear high-order dispersion, self-induced Ramam and five-order nonlinear effects. Based on travelling wave method, the solutions of the nonlinear Schrdinger equations, and the influence on soliton propagation as well as high-order effect in the fiber amplifier are discussed in detail. It is found that because of existing five-order nonlinear effect, the solution is not of secant hyperbola type, but shows high gain state of the fiber amplifier which is very favourable to the propagation of solitons.

  12. Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellbaum, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000.

  13. Quantum electronics maser amplifiers and oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 2: Maser Amplifiers and Oscillators deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of maser amplifiers and oscillators which are based on the principles of quantum electronics. It shows how the concepts and equations used in quantum electronics follow from the basic principles of theoretical physics.Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the elements of the theory of quantum oscillators and amplifiers working in the microwave region, along with the practical achievements in this field. Attention is paid to two-level paramagnetic ma

  14. High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier (HEMPA) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, W. Herbert

    2004-01-01

    This paper will focus on developing an exotic switching technique that enhances the DC-to-RF conversion efficiency of microwave power amplifiers. For years, switching techniques implemented in the 10 kHz to 30 MHz region have resulted in DC-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 90-95-percent. Currently amplifier conversion efficiency, in the 2-3 GHz region approaches, 10-20-percent. Using a combination of analytical modeling and hardware testing, a High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier was built that demonstrated conversion efficiencies four to five times higher than current state of the art.

  15. Fundamentals of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder J

    2009-01-01

    A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, design, packaging, and thermal and fabrication considerations. Through a unique integration of theory and practice, readers will learn to solve amplifier-related design problems ranging from matching networks to biasing and stability. More than 240 problems are included to help read

  16. An Envelope Hammerstein Model for Power Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Dong Wang; Song-Bai He; Jing-Fu Bao; Zheng-De Wu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an envelope Hammerstein(EH) model is introduced to describe dynamic inputoutput characteristics of RF power amplifiers. In the modeling approach, we use a new truncation method and an established nonlinear time series method to determine model structure. Then, we discuss the process of model parameter extraction in detailed. Finally, a 2 W WCDMA power amplifier is measured to verify the performance of EH model, and good agreement between model output and measurement result shows our model can accurately predict output characteristic of the power amplifier.

  17. Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral density of the random phase φ(t) is Sφ(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor. Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback (regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.) are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and

  18. The 30 GHz solid state amplifier for low cost low data rate ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Y. C.; Quijije, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    This report details the development of a 20-W solid state amplifier operating near 30 GHz. The IMPATT amplifier not only met or exceeded all the program objectives, but also possesses the ability to operate in the pulse mode, which was not called for in the original contract requirements. The ability to operate in the pulse mode is essential for TDMA (Time Domain Multiple Access) operation. An output power of 20 W was achieved with a 1-dB instantaneous bandwidth of 260 MHz. The amplifier has also been tested in pulse mode with 50% duty for pulse lengths ranging from 200 ns to 2 micro s with 10 ns rise and fall times and no degradation in output power. This pulse mode operation was made possible by the development of a stable 12-diode power combiner/amplifier and a single-diode pulsed driver whose RF output power was switched on and off by having its bias current modulated via a fast-switching current pulse modulator. Essential to the overall amplifier development was the successful development of state-of-the-art silicon double-drift IMPATT diodes capable of reproducible 2.5 W CW output power with 12% dc-to-RF conversion efficiency. Output powers of as high as 2.75 W has been observed. Both the device and circuit design are amenable to low cost production.

  19. Spatial Power Combining Amplifier for Ground and Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, J. E.; Taylor, M.

    2016-11-01

    Vacuum-tube amplifiers such as klystrons and traveling-wave tubes are the workhorses of high-power microwave radiation generation. At JPL, vacuum tubes are extensively used in ground and flight missions for radar and communications. Vacuum tubes use electron beams as the source of energy to achieve microwave power amplification. Such electron beams operate at high kinetic energies and thus require high voltages to function. In addition, vacuum tubes use compact cavity and waveguide structures that hold very intense radio frequency (RF) fields inside. As the operational frequency is increased, the dimensions of these RF structures become increasingly smaller. As power levels and operational frequencies are increased, the highly intense RF fields inside of the tubes' structures tend to arc and create RF breakdown. In the case of very high-power klystrons, electron interception - also known as body current - can produce thermal runaway of the cavities that could lead to the destruction of the tube. The high voltages needed to power vacuum tubes tend to require complicated and cumbersome power supplies. Consequently, although vacuum tubes provide unmatched high-power microwaves, they tend to arc, suffer from thermal issues, and require failure-prone high-voltage power supplies. In this article, we present a new concept for generating high-power microwaves that we refer to as the Spatial Power Combining Amplifier (SPCA). The SPCA is very compact, requires simpler, lower-voltage power supplies, and uses a unique power-combining scheme wherein power from solid-state amplifiers is coherently combined. It is a two-port amplifier and can be used inline as any conventional two-port amplifier. It can deliver its output power to a coaxial line, a waveguide, a feed, or to any microwave load. A key feature of this new scheme is the use of higher-order-mode microwave structures to spatially divide and combine power. Such higher-order-mode structures have considerably larger cross

  20. Self-pulsation in Raman fiber amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated.

  1. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  2. Three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a regenerative amplifier free-electron laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, H.P.; Nguyen, D.C.; Sprangle, P.; Slot, van der P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Free-electron lasers have been designed to operate over virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum from microwaves through x rays and in a variety of configurations including amplifiers and oscillators. Oscillators typically operate in the low-gain regime where the full spectral width is ð !=!Þ

  3. CMOS current amplifiers : speed versus nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with analogue integrated circuit design using various types of current-mode amplifiers. These circuits are analysed and realised using modern CMOS integration technologies. The dynamic nonlinearities of these circuits are discussed in detail as in the literature only linear nonidealities and static nonlinearities are conventionally considered. For the most important open-loop current-mode amplifier, the second-generation current-conveyor (CCII), a macromodel is derived tha...

  4. Quantum cloning with an optical fiber amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Fasel, S; Ribordy, G; Scarani, V; Zbinden, H; Fasel, Sylvain; Gisin, Nicolas; Ribordy, Gregoire; Scarani, Valerio; Zbinden, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown theoretically that a light amplifier working on the physical principle of stimulated emission should achieve optimal quantum cloning of the polarization state of light. We demonstrate close-to-optimal universal quantum cloning of polarization in a standard fiber amplifier for telecom wavelengths. For cloning $1\\to 2$ we find a fidelity of 0.82, the optimal value being ${5/6}=0.83$.

  5. Efficient Power Amplifier for Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Pulse-width-modulated amplifier supplies high current as efficiently as low current needed for starting and running motor. Key to efficiency of motor-control amplifier is V-channel metal-oxide/semiconductor transistor Q1. Device has low saturation resistance. However, has large gate input capacitance and small margin between its turn-on voltage and maximum allowable gate-to-source voltage. Circuits for output stages overcome limitations of VMOS device.

  6. Some Notes on Wideband Feedback Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V.

    1949-03-16

    The extension of the passband of wideband amplifiers is a highly important problem to the designer of electronic circuits. Throughout the electronics industry and in many research programs in physics and allied fields where extensive use is made of video amplifiers, the foremost requirement is a passband of maximum width. This is necessary if it is desired to achieve a more faithful reproduction of transient wave forms, a better time resolution in physical measurements, or perhaps just a wider band gain-frequency response to sine wave signals. The art of electronics is continually faced with this omnipresent amplifier problem. In particular, the instrumentation techniques of nuclear physics require amplifiers with short rise times, a high degree of gain stability, and a linear response to high signal levels. While the distributed amplifier may solve the problems of those seeking only a wide passband, the requirements of stability and linearity necessitate using feedback circuits. This paper considers feedback amplifiers from the standpoint of high-frequency performance. The circuit conditions for optimum steady-state (sinusoidal) and transient response are derived and practical circuits (both interstage and output) are presented which fulfill these conditions. In general, the results obtained may be applied to the low-frequency end.

  7. First pulse effect self-suppression picosecond regenerative amplifier (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haitao; Chang, Liang; Zhang, Yi; Yao, Siyi; Lu, Wei; Yang, Xiaohong

    2017-03-01

    First pulse effect, commonly seen in nanosecond cavity-dumped lasers and picosecond regenerative amplifiers, not only leads to degradation of processing quality, but also acts as potential threat to optical switching elements. Several methods have been developed to suppress that effect, including electronic controls, polarization controls, and diffraction controls. We present a new way for first pulse self-suppression without any additional components. By carefully arranging the cavity mirror of a regenerative amplifier, we realized `parasitic lasing like' radiation. When the regenerative amplifier works in `operation ready' status, the parasitic lasing occurs and prevents the gain crystal from saturation. When the regenerative amplifier starts working and amplifying pulses, the first pulse in a pulse train will not get much more gain and energy than pulses following it. As parasitic lasing disappears at the same time, the average output power of the amplifier does not significantly reduce. This cost effective method does not require any additional component. In addition, as it is not polarization dependent, this method is widely suitable for different kinds of regenerative amplifiers. It's the easiest and cheapest way to suppress first pulse effect, to the best of our knowledge.

  8. Low Noise Optically Pre-amplified Lightwave Receivers and Other Applications of Fiber Optic Parametric Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    noise performance, optical gain bandwidth, and power efficiency. An interesting alternative to the mature Erbium-doped fiber amplifier ( EDFA ) is the...fibers (HNLF) and high power booster EDFAs . The FOPA can provide a very wide gain bandwidth [2], very high gain (70 dB was demonstrated in [3]), and...amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise in EDFAs is also generated. It is sometimes referred to as amplified quantum noise. Maximum gain (at the gain

  9. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  10. Optical-fiber laser amplifier for ultrahigh-speed communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, T.; Xie, Ping; Cockroft, N.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to develop a praseodymium-based 1.31-{mu}m fiber amplifier that can be optically pumped with off-the-shelf semiconductor diode lasers. Development of optical amplifiers for the 1.31-{mu}m communications window is motivated by the push towards ``all-optical`` networks that will support multigigabits per second communication rates. Our approach exploited radiationless energy transfer from optically pumped Yb{sup 3+} ions co-doped with Pr{sup 3+} into a fluorozirconate glass (ZBLAN). We obtained a gain of approximately 10 on a 1.31-{mu}m amplifier, a value too low for practical applications. In two spin- off applications, all-solid-state operation at all four output wavelengths was achieved in the development of a four-color visible laser, and laser cooling of a solid material was demonstrated for the first time in the development of a fluorescent cryogenic refrigerator.

  11. F-band, High-Efficiency GaN Power Amplifier for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder and SOFIA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuinStar Technology proposes to develop a 4-watt Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA) operating at F-band (106-114 GHz) with a power-added efficiency (PAE) of greater...

  12. High-Efficiency, Ka-band Solid-State Power Amplifier Utilizing GaN Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuinStar Technology proposes to develop an efficient, solid-state power amplifier (SSPA), operating at Ka-band frequencies, for high data rate, long range space...

  13. High-power, 1-ps, all-Yb:YAG thin-disk regenerative amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Hanieh; Alismail, Ayman; Wang, Haochuan; Brons, Jonathan; Pronin, Oleg; Buberl, Theresa; Vámos, Lénárd; Arisholm, Gunnar; Azzeer, Abdallah M; Krausz, Ferenc

    2016-03-15

    We report a 100 W, 20 mJ, 1-ps, all-Yb:YAG thin-disk regenerative amplifier seeded by a microjoule-level Yb:YAG thin-disk Kerr-lens mode-locked oscillator. The regenerative amplifier is implemented in a chirped pulse amplification system and operates at an ambient temperature in air, delivering ultrastable output pulses at a 5 kHz repetition rate and with a root mean square power noise value of less than 0.5%. Second harmonic generation of the amplifier's output in a 1.5 mm-thick BBO crystal results in more than 70 W at 515 nm, making the system an attractive source for pumping optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges.

  14. Copper bromide vapor brightness amplifiers with 100 kHz pulse repetition frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigub, M. V.; Evtushenko, G. S.; Torgaev, S. N.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Evtushenko, T. G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a laser monitor with 10 μs time-resolution based on a high-frequency copper bromide vapor brightness amplifier. A sync circuit has been designed for single-pulse imaging. The analysis of amplifying characteristics of the active elements and active optical system (laser monitor) parameters allowed to determine the optimal concentration of HBr at which the images can be obtained with minimum distortions. For the active element operating at high frequencies (more than 50 kHz) as a brightness amplifier, the concentration of HBr must be lower than that needed for obtaining the maximum output power. The limiting brightness temperature of the background radiation which does not affect the image quality is determined. The potential feasibility of using a proposed brightness amplifier for visualizing processes blocked from viewing by the background radiation with the brightness temperature up to 8000 K is demonstrated.

  15. Hysteretic self-oscillating bandpass current mode control for Class D audio amplifiers driving capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    A hysteretic self-oscillating bandpass current mode control (BPCM) scheme for Class D audio amplifiers driving capacitive transducers are presented. The scheme provides excellent stability margins and low distortion over a wide range of operating conditions. Small-signal behavior of the amplifier...... the rules of electrostatics have been known as very interesting alternatives to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. When driving capacitive transducers from a Class D audio amplifier the high impedance nature of the load represents a key challenge. The BPCM control scheme ensures a flat...... is analysis through transfer function based linear control methodology. Measurements are performed on a single-ended ± 300 V half-bridge amplifier driving a capacitive load of 100 nF. Total Harmonic Distortion plus noise (THD+N) below 0.1 % are reported. Transducers representing a capacitive load and obeying...

  16. Strong environmental coupling in a Josephson parametric amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O' Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M., E-mail: martinis@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States); Megrant, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States); Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sundqvist, K. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    We present a lumped-element Josephson parametric amplifier designed to operate with strong coupling to the environment. In this regime, we observe broadband frequency dependent amplification with multi-peaked gain profiles. We account for this behavior using the “pumpistor” model which allows for frequency dependent variation of the external impedance. Using this understanding, we demonstrate control over the complexity of gain profiles through added variation in the environment impedance at a given frequency. With strong coupling to a suitable external impedance, we observe a significant increase in dynamic range, and large amplification bandwidth up to 700 MHz giving near quantum-limited performance.

  17. Displacement of microwave squeezed states with Josephson parametric amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Ling; Baust, Alexander; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Menzel, Edwin; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Betzenbichler, Martin; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Haeberlein, Max; Eder, Peter; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Huebl, Hans; Deppe, Frank [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Propagating quantum microwaves are promising building blocks for quantum communication. Interestingly, such itinerant quantum microwaves can be generated in the form of squeezed photon states by Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA). We employ a specific ''dual-path'' setup for both state reconstruction and JPA characterization. Displacement operations are performed by using a directional coupler after the squeezing. We compare our results with theory predictions. In particular, we discuss our experiments in the context of remote state preparation and quantum teleportation with propagating microwaves.

  18. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  19. Study of drilling muds on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier in directional drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-fu He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to some drawbacks of conventional drilling methods and drilling tools, the application of hydraulic hammers with a fluidic amplifier have been extensively popularized since its emergence in recent years. However, the performance life of a fluidic amplifier is still unsatisfactory in oil and gas wells drilling, especially the heavy wear or erosion of the fluidic amplifier leads to the reduction of service life time of hydraulic hammers, which is derived from the incision of drilling muds with high speed and pressure. In order to investigate the influence of drilling muds, such as particle size, solid content and jet velocity, on the antierosion property of a fluidic amplifier, several groups of drilling muds with different performance parameters have been utilized to numerical simulation on basis of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Simulation results have shown that the jet nozzle of fluidic amplifiers is primarily abraded, afterwards are the lateral plates and the wedge of the fluidic amplifier, which shows extraordinary agreement with the actual cases of fluidic amplifier in drilling process. It can be concluded that particle size, solid content and jet velocity have a great influence on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier, and the erosion rate linearly varies with the particle size of drilling muds, nevertheless exponentially varies with solid content and jet velocity of drilling muds. As to improve the service life time of a fluidic amplifier, the mud purification system or low solid clay-free mud system is suggested in the operation of directional well drilling

  20. Semiconductor laser amplifier and its optoelectronic properties for application in lightwave communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, V. V.; Eliseev, Petr G.; Man'ko, M. A.; Tsotsoriya, M. V.

    1992-12-01

    Output power and fiber-to-fiber gain along with infernal gain of the active element and optoelectronic signal curves at different values of input power versus pumping current are measured for the amplifier modules on the base of AR-coated InGaAsP/InP BH diodes. It is shown that diagnostics of the amplifier module oper''ation regime may be performed by voltage measurements and the optoelectronic signal can be used to monitor optical information passage in the regenerator device or for the distributed access the data transmitted in the lightwave comrnunicat ion systems. I.

  1. The OPTHER Project: Progress toward the THz Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, C; Brunetti, F; Di Carlo, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the OPTHER (OPtically driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project and progress toward the THz amplifier realization. This project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within th...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier and conditioner is a device used to provide the excitation energy for the transducer and to amplify or condition...

  3. Implementation of a nondeterministic optical noiseless amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyrol, Franck; Barbieri, Marco; Blandino, Rémi; Fossier, Simon; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2010-03-26

    Quantum mechanics imposes that any amplifier that works independently on the phase of the input signal has to introduce some excess noise. The impossibility of such a noiseless amplifier is rooted in the unitarity and linearity of quantum evolution. A possible way to circumvent this limitation is to interrupt such evolution via a measurement, providing a random outcome able to herald a successful-and noiseless-amplification event. Here we show a successful realization of such an approach; we perform a full characterization of an amplified coherent state using quantum homodyne tomography, and observe a strong heralded amplification, with about a 6 dB gain and a noise level significantly smaller than the minimal allowed for any ordinary phase-independent device.

  4. Design Of A Doherty Power Amplifier For GSM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Wasmi Osman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Doherty power amplifier. The Doherty amplifier is used in  a base station for mobile system because of its high efficiency. The class AB power amplifier used in the configuration of the main and auxiliary amplifier. The result obtained shows that the Doherty power amplifier can be used on a wide band spectrum, the amplifier works at 900MHz and has very good power added efficiency (PAE and gain. The amplifier can also work at 1800MHz at input power greater than 20dBm. 

  5. A CHI wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment: Wiggler characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccetti, J.M.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 35 GHz CHI (Coaxial Hybrid Iron) wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment is under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory. The CHI wiggler configuration has the potential of generating high wiggler magnetic fields at short periods with excellent beam focusing and transport properties. This makes it a desirable configuration for the generation of high power coherent radiation in relatively compact systems. The CHI wiggler consists of alternating rings of magnetic and non-magnetic materials concentric with a central rod of similar alternating design but shifted along the axis by half a period. Once inserted in a solenoidal magnetic field, the CHI structure deforms the axial field to create a radial field oscillating with the same periodicity as the rings. An annular electron beam is propagated through the coaxial gap where the oscillating radial field imparts an azimuthal wiggle motion. The principal goals of the experiment are to investigate the performance tradeoffs involved in the CHI configuration for high frequency amplifiers operating at low voltages with small wiggler periods. The nominal design parameters are a center frequency of 35 GHz, wiggler period of 0.75 cm, and beam voltage of approximately 150 kV. Calculations have shown an intrinsic (untapered) efficiency of {approximately} 7% when operating at 6.3 kG axial field (wiggler field, B{sub w}{approximately}1270 G). The calculated gain was 36 dB, saturating at a distance of 46 cm. These parameters yield an instantaneous amplifier bandwidth of {approximately} 25%. There appears to be room for further improvement in efficiency, a matter which will be scrutinized more closely in the final design. A prototype CHI wiggler is presently being fabricated for use in conjunction with an existing 30 kG superconducting solenoid. The performance properties of the prototype will be characterized and compared with linear and non-linear calculations.

  6. Implementation of Digital Lock-in Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sabyasachi; Nasir Ahmed, Ragib; Bijoy Purkayastha, Basab; Bhattacharyya, Kaustubh

    2016-10-01

    The recovery of signal under the presence of noise is utmost essential for proper communication. The signals corrupted due to noise can be recovered using various techniques. However the weak signals are more prone to noise and hence they can be easily degraded due to noise. In such cases, a digital lock-in amplifier becomes an essential device for recovery of such weak signals. Keeping the cost, speed and other considerations, we will present the implementation of digital lock-in amplifier and how it recovers the weak signal under extreme noisy conditions.

  7. Linear Amplifier Model for Optomechanical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Botter, Thierry; Brahms, Nathan; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2011-01-01

    We model optomechanical systems as linear optical amplifiers. This provides a unified treatment of diverse optomechanical phenomena. We emphasize, in particular, the relationship between ponderomotive squeezing and optomechanically induced transparency, two foci of current research. We characterize the amplifier response to quantum and deliberately applied fluctuations, both optical and mechanical. Further, we apply these results to establish quantum limits on external force sensing both on and off cavity resonance. We find that the maximum sensitivity attained on resonance constitutes an absolute upper limit, not surpassed when detuning off cavity resonance. The theory can be extended to a two-sided cavity with losses and limited detection efficiency.

  8. Analysis of bipolar and CMOS amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Sodagar, Amir M

    2007-01-01

    The classical approach to analog circuit analysis is a daunting prospect to many students, requiring tedious enumeration of contributing factors and lengthy calculations. Most textbooks apply this cumbersome approach to small-signal amplifiers, which becomes even more difficult as the number of components increases. Analysis of Bipolar and CMOS Amplifiers offers students an alternative that enables quick and intuitive analysis and design: the analysis-by-inspection method.This practical and student-friendly text demonstrates how to achieve approximate results that fall within an acceptable ran

  9. Double Clad Er-doped Fiber Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yong-jun; MAO Xiang-qiao; WEI Huai; LI jian

    2007-01-01

    Presented is a theoretical study of double-clad Er-doped fiber power amplifier(EDFA). Two kinds of double clad fibers(DCF) with rectangular and "flower" inner clad shapes are studied, and these fibers have different coupling constants and propagation losses. We calculate the effective pump power absorption ratio along the fiber with different coupling constants from the first cladding to the doped core and with different propagation losses for the power in the inner cladding. Then the gains of the double clad Er-doped fiber amplifiers versus fiber lengths are calculated using the EDFA model based on propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous, two-level medium.

  10. Optimization of Pr3+:ZBLAN fiber amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, B.; Miniscalco, J. W.; Quimby, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental parameters have been measured and used in a quantitative model of Pr3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifiers. The optimum cutoff wavelength was determined to be 800 nm and the gain for 400 mW of pump was found to increase from 12 to 34 dB if the NA was increased from 0.15 to 0.25. Lengthening the metastable state lifetime from 110 to 300 μs would significantly improve amplifier performance while concentration quenching can appreciably degrade it

  11. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  12. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach.......Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...

  13. Gain recovery in a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier and corresponding pattern effects in amplified optical signals at 1.5 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Jang, Y D; Baek, J S; Kim, N J; Yee, K J; Lee, H; Lee, D; Pyun, S H; Jeong, W G; Kim, J

    2012-03-12

    Fast gain recovery observed in quantum-dot semiconductor-optical-amplifiers (QDSOAs) is useful for amplifying high-speed optical signals. The small but finite slow recovery component can deteriorate the signal amplification due to the accumulation of gain saturation during 10 Gb/s operation. A study of the gain recoveries and pattern effects in signals amplified using a 1.5 μm InAs/InGaAsP QDSOA reveals that the gain recovery is always fast, and pattern-effect-free amplification is observed at the ground state. However, at the excited state, the slow component increases with the current, and significant pattern effects are observed. Simulations of the pattern effects agreed with the observed experimental trends.

  14. A CMOS variable gain amplifier for PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter and RICH energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Palmer, R.L.; Moscone, C.G.; Jackson, R.G. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A variable gain amplifier (VGA) has been developed equalizing the gains of integrating amplifier channels used with multiple photomultiplier tubes operating from common high-voltage supplies. The PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter will operate in that manner, and gain equalization is needed to preserve the dynamic range of the analog memory and ADC following the integrating amplifier. The VGA is also needed for matching energy channel gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5-bit digital control, and the risetime is held between 15 and 23 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. An additional feature is gated baseline restoration. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2-{mu}m Orbit CMOS are presented.

  15. Pulse shape distortion in a 2-stage all-fiber Er-doped amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, M.; Mamajek, M.

    2013-07-01

    The issue of temporal pulse distortion occurring during amplification process in a 2-stage, fiber amplifier, operating in the eye-safe spectral region, is discussed. The amplifier was built in a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) configuration and seeded by a distributed feedback (DFB) laser providing nanosecond pulses at a repetition rate of 20 kHz. It operated at a wavelength of 1549.13 nm and generated over 200 mW of output power with a slope efficiency of up to 28%. The comparison between the calculated and measured results on saturation-induced pulse shape deformation, for ~300-ns pulses, is presented. The analyzed pulse shapes embraced rectangle, Gaussian, triangle and "M" letter.

  16. Inverse class-f power amplifier using slot resonators as a harmonic filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassokhina Yu. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors proposed and experimentally verified the power amplifier circuit of inverse class F (F–1 based on GaN transistor NPTB00004, operating at 1,7 GHz. The novelty of this scheme is the application of a three-layer structure based on slot rectangular shaped resonators in the ground plane of the microstrip transmission line as a filter of higher harmonics. To control the levels of the second and third harmonics in the output signal spectrum and simultaneously to match the 50 ohm load at the operating frequency of the amplifier, a planar periodic structure is used, consisting of two slot resonators of different lengths. Power added efficiency for experimental model of the amplifier is 60% at an output power of 3.9 W and a gain factor of 13 dB.

  17. Lumped-element Josephson parametric amplifier at 650 MHz for nano-calorimeter readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Visa; Saira, Olli-Pentti; Räisänen, Ilmo; Möttönen, Mikko; Grönberg, Leif; Pekola, Jukka; Hassel, Juha

    2017-08-01

    We design a sub-gigahertz Josephson parametric amplifier for the readout of nanoscale calorimeters which consist of normal-metal-superconductor heterostructures. We characterize the amplifier performance at two operating points, 605 and 655 MHz, corresponding to reproducible local frequency maxima with respect to the applied magnetic flux. At the 655 MHz operating point, the device displays its maximum small-signal gain of 32 dB and gain-bandwidth product of 2π × 3.3 {MHz}. The gain remains above 20 dB for incident powers up to -119 dBm. The added noise of the amplifier, determined by the hot/cold source method, assumes a minimum value of 0.2 K.

  18. High efficiency class-Ⅰ audio power amplifier using a single adaptive supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhenfei; Yang Shanshan; Feng Yong; Liu Yang; Hong Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    A high efficiency class-Ⅰ linear audio power amplifier (PA) with an adaptive supply is presented.Its efficiency is improved by a dynamic supply to reduce the power transistors' voltage drop.A gain compression technique is adopted to make the amplifier accommodate a single positive supply.Circuit complicity and chip area are reduced because no charge pump is necessary for the negative supply.A common shared mode voltage and a symmetric layout pattern are used to minimize the non-linearity.A peak efficiency of 80% is reached at peak output power.The measured THD+N before and after the supply switching point are 0.01% and 0.05%,respectively.The maximum output power is 410 mW for an 8 Ω speaker load.Unlike switching amplifiers,the class-Ⅰ amplifier operates as a linear amplifier and hence has a low EMI.The advantage of a high efficiency and low EMI makes the class-Ⅰ amplifier suitable for portable and RF sensitive applications.

  19. An X-band four-way combined GaN solid-state power amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Chi; Hao Yue; Feng Hui; Gu Wenping; Li Zhiming; Hu Shigang; Ma Teng, E-mail: ccachi@163.co [National Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-01-15

    An X-band four-way combined GaN solid-state power amplifier module is fabricated based on a self-developed AlGaN/GaN HEMT with 2.5-mm gate width technology on SiC substrate. The module consists of an AlGaN/GaN HEMT, Wilkinson power hybrids, a DC-bias circuit and microstrip matching circuits. For the stability of the amplifier module, special RC networks at the input and output, a resistor between the DC power supply and a transistor gate at the input and 3{lambda}/4 Wilkinson power hybrids are used for the cancellation of low frequency self-oscillation and crosstalk of each amplifier. Under V{sup ds} = 27 V, V{sup gs} = -4.0 V, CW operating conditions at 8 GHz, the amplifier module exhibits a line gain of 5 dB with a power added efficiency of 17.9%, and an output power of 42.93 dBm; the power gain compression is 2 dB. For a four-way combined solid-state amplifier, the power combining efficiency is 67.5%. It is concluded that the reduction in combining efficiency results from the non-identical GaN HMET, the loss of the hybrid coupler and the circuit fabricating errors of each one-way amplifier. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Optimization of Pr3+:ZBLAN fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B.; Miniscalco, J. W.; Quimby, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental parameters have been measured and used in a quantitative model of Pr3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifiers. The optimum cutoff wavelength was determined to be 800 nm and the gain for 400 mW of pump was found to increase from 12 to 34 dB if the NA was increased from 0.15 to 0...

  1. CMOS SiPM with integrated amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Alexander; Brockherde, Werner; Hosticka, Bedrich J.; Vogt, Holger

    2017-02-01

    The integration of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and frontend electronics in a suitable optoelectronic CMOS process is a promising approach to increase the versatility of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)-based singlephoton detectors. By integrating readout amplifiers, the device output capacitance can be reduced to minimize the waveform tail, which is especially important for large area detectors (>10 × 10mm2). Possible architectures include a single readout amplifier for the whole detector, which reduces the output capacitance to 1:1 pF at minimal reduction in detector active area. On the other hand, including a readout amplifier in every SiPM cell would greatly improve the total output capacitance by minimizing the influence of metal routing parasitic capacitance, but requiring a prohibitive amount of detector area. As tradeoff, the proposed detector features one readout amplifier for each column of the detector matrix to allow for a moderate reduction in output capacitance while allowing the electronics to be placed in the periphery of the active detector area. The presented detector with a total size of 1.7 ♢ 1.0mm2 features 400 cells with a 50 μm pitch, where the signal of each column of 20 SiPM cells is summed in a readout channel. The 20 readout channels are subsequently summed into one output channel, to allow the device to be used as a drop-in replacement for commonly used analog SiPMs.

  2. Holographic preamplifier for a quantum amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, K.I.; Kazarian, M.A.; Orlova, N.G.; Liuksiutov, S.F.; Odulov, S.G.

    1988-08-01

    Successive amplification of a weak optical signal was realized experimentally in holographic and quantum amplifiers. The signal was a coherent one with an intensity less than the actual noise of the copper-vapor active medium; the technique involved the use of a coherent holographic preamplifier based on a lithium niobate/sodium photorefractive crystal. 8 references.

  3. Modeling Power Amplifiers using Memory Polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present measured in- and output data of a power amplifier (PA). We compare this data with an AM-AM and AM-PM model. We conclude that a more sophisticated PA model is needed to cope with severe memory effects. We suggest to use memory polynomials and introduce two approaches to

  4. A THEORY FOR BROADBAND VARACTOR PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    design and synthesis of broadband varactor parametric amplifiers. The circuit considered in this thesis is that of linear variable capacitors embedded...second and more important inherent property is that, due to the frequency-coupling action of the variable capacitor , the scattering coefficient at the

  5. Offset Correction Techniques for Voltage Sense Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, S.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with offset correction techniques for voltage sense amplifiers and is divided into two different parts: 1) mismatch and 2) offset correction techniques. First a literature study is done on the subject mismatch with specially focus on the future. Mismatch of a transistor is determin

  6. A compact high efficiency 8 kW 325 MHz power amplifier for accelerator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Singh, P.

    2014-11-01

    A solid state RF power amplifier (SSRFPA) has been designed and developed for 8 kW RF power at 325 MHz. The work was carried out to achieve high efficiency (over 70% efficiency), high gain and compact size for the amplifier module. The sub-components of this amplifier like a 1 kW amplifier module at 325 MHz, an 8-way RF power combiner rated for 8 kW RF power and a micro-strip based power divider have been designed and developed in-house. The size of the amplifier is miniaturized by incorporating innovative design techniques and proper selection of the substrate material in the input/output matching networks. Measured power gain and conversion efficiency of the solid state RF power amplifier module at 1.06 kW output is 21.7 dB and 73.2%, respectively. A coaxial line based 8-way Wilkinson power combiner has been designed and developed. Return loss of the combiner at the output (combined) port is 26.4 dB at 325 MHz. Transmission parameters of the combiner from each input (splitting) port to output port are 9.1 dB±0.15 dB. This amplifier uses a pre-driver of 20 W and a driver amplifier of 150 W. Total power gain and efficiency of 8 kW SSRFPA have been 92.3 dB (including the driver stages) and 68.3%, respectively. The harmonic content in the RF output is less than -50 dBc for all the harmonics. Main features of this development are high power density (kW/cm3), large value for kW/module, high efficiency (68.3%) for 8 kW SSRFPA at 325 MHz and rugged operation.

  7. A compact high efficiency 8 kW 325 MHz power amplifier for accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar, E-mail: jkmishra@barc.gov.in; Ramarao, B.V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Singh, P.

    2014-11-11

    A solid state RF power amplifier (SSRFPA) has been designed and developed for 8 kW RF power at 325 MHz. The work was carried out to achieve high efficiency (over 70% efficiency), high gain and compact size for the amplifier module. The sub-components of this amplifier like a 1 kW amplifier module at 325 MHz, an 8-way RF power combiner rated for 8 kW RF power and a micro-strip based power divider have been designed and developed in-house. The size of the amplifier is miniaturized by incorporating innovative design techniques and proper selection of the substrate material in the input/output matching networks. Measured power gain and conversion efficiency of the solid state RF power amplifier module at 1.06 kW output is 21.7 dB and 73.2%, respectively. A coaxial line based 8-way Wilkinson power combiner has been designed and developed. Return loss of the combiner at the output (combined) port is 26.4 dB at 325 MHz. Transmission parameters of the combiner from each input (splitting) port to output port are 9.1 dB±0.15 dB. This amplifier uses a pre-driver of 20 W and a driver amplifier of 150 W. Total power gain and efficiency of 8 kW SSRFPA have been 92.3 dB (including the driver stages) and 68.3%, respectively. The harmonic content in the RF output is less than −50 dBc for all the harmonics. Main features of this development are high power density (kW/cm{sup 3}), large value for kW/module, high efficiency (68.3%) for 8 kW SSRFPA at 325 MHz and rugged operation.

  8. Operational Amplifer Integrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    2003-01-01

    An integrator circuit comprises an operational amplifier which has a transistor stage (1) with an input terminal (4) and an output terminal (3), a feedback capacitor (2) connected between the input terminal (4) and the output terminal (3), and a resistor (5) connected to the input terminal (4), and

  9. High efficiency RF amplifier development over wide dynamic range for accelerator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Joshi, Gopal; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Pitamber

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting (SC) cavities in an accelerating section are designed to have the same geometrical velocity factor (βg). For these cavities, Radio Frequency (RF) power needed to accelerate charged particles varies with the particle velocity factor (β). RF power requirement from one cavity to other can vary by 2-5 dB within the accelerating section depending on the energy gain in the cavity and beam current. In this paper, we have presented an idea to improve operating efficiency of the SC RF accelerators using envelope tracking technique. A study on envelope tracking technique without feedback is carried out on a 1 kW, 325 MHz, class B (conduction angle of 180 degrees) tuned load power amplifier (PA). We have derived expressions for the efficiency and power output for tuned load amplifier operating on the envelope tracking technique. From the derived expressions, it is observed that under constant load resistance to the device (MOSFET), optimum amplifier efficiency is invariant whereas output power varies with the square of drain bias voltage. Experimental results on 1 kW PA module show that its optimum efficiency is always greater than 62% with variation less than 5% from mean value over 7 dB dynamic range. Low power amplifier modules are the basic building block for the high power amplifiers. Therefore, results for 1 kW PA modules remain valid for the high power solid state amplifiers built using these PA modules. The SC RF accelerators using these constant efficiency power amplifiers can improve overall accelerator efficiency.

  10. A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstov, Sergei V.; Alyshev, Sergey V.; Riumkin, Konstantin E.; Khopin, Vladimir F.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Melkumov, Mikhail A.; Dianov, Evgeny M.

    2016-06-01

    It is now almost twenty-five years since the first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) was demonstrated. Currently, the EDFA is one of the most important elements widely used in different kinds of fiber-optic communication systems. However, driven by a constantly increasing demand, the network traffic, growing exponentially over decades, will lead to the overload of these systems (“capacity crunch”) because the operation of the EDFA is limited to a spectral region of 1530–1610 nm. It will require a search for new technologies and, in this respect, the development of optical amplifiers for new spectral regions can be a promising approach. Most of fiber-optic amplifiers are created using rare-earth-doped materials. As a result, wide bands in shorter (1150–1530 nm) and longer wavelength (1600–1750 nm) regions with respect to the gain band of Er-doped fibers are still uncovered. Here we report on the development of a novel fiber amplifier operating in a spectral region of 1640–1770 nm pumped by commercially available laser diodes at 1550 nm. This amplifier was realized using bismuth-doped high-germania silicate fibers fabricated by MCVD technique.

  11. Integration & Validation of LCU with Different Sub-systems for Diacrode based amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnish, Kumar; Verma, Sriprakash; Soni, Dipal; Patel, Hriday; Suthar, Gajendra; Dalicha, Hrushikesh; Dhola, Hitesh; Patel, Amit; Upadhayay, Dishang; Jha, Akhil; Patel, Manoj; Trivedi, Rajesh; Machchhar, Harsha; Singh, Raghuraj; Mukherjee, Aparajita

    2017-04-01

    ITER-India is responsible to deliver nine (8+1 spare) ICH & CD Power Sources to ITER. Each power source is capable to deliver 2.5 MW at 35 to 65 MHz frequency range with a load condition up to VSWR 2:1. For remote operation of different subsystems, Local Control Unit (LCU) is developed. LCU is developed using PXI hardware and Schneider PLC with Lab VIEW-RT developmental environment. All the protection function of the amplifier is running on PXI 7841 R module that ensures hard wired protection logic. There are three level of protection function- first by power supply itself that detects overcurrent/overvoltage and trips itself and generate trip signal for further action. There are some direct hardwired signal interfaces between power supplies to protect the amplifier. Second level of protection is generated through integrated controller of amplifier i.e. Command Control Embedded (CCE) against arc and Anode over current. Third level of Protection is through LCU where different fault signals are received and processed to generate off command for different sub-systems. Before connecting different subsystem with High power RF amplifiers (Driver & Final stage), each subsystem is individually tested through LCU. All protection functions are tested before hooking up the subsystems with main amplifier and initiating RF operation.

  12. Testing methodologies and systems for semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckowski, Michael

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's) are gaining increased prominence in both optical communication systems and high-speed optical processing systems, due primarily to their unique nonlinear characteristics. This in turn, has raised questions regarding their lifetime performance reliability and has generated a demand for effective testing techniques. This is especially critical for industries utilizing SOA's as components for system-in-package products. It is important to note that very little research to date has been conducted in this area, even though production volume and market demand has continued to increase. In this thesis, the reliability of dilute-mode InP semiconductor optical amplifiers is studied experimentally and theoretically. The aging characteristics of the production level devices are demonstrated and the necessary techniques to accurately characterize them are presented. In addition, this work proposes a new methodology for characterizing the optical performance of these devices using measurements in the electrical domain. It is shown that optical performance degradation, specifically with respect to gain, can be directly qualified through measurements of electrical subthreshold differential resistance. This metric exhibits a linear proportionality to the defect concentration in the active region, and as such, can be used for prescreening devices before employing traditional optical testing methods. A complete theoretical analysis is developed in this work to explain this relationship based upon the device's current-voltage curve and its associated leakage and recombination currents. These results are then extended to realize new techniques for testing semiconductor optical amplifiers and other similarly structured devices. These techniques can be employed after fabrication and during packaged operation through the use of a proposed stand-alone testing system, or using a proposed integrated CMOS self-testing circuit. Both methods are capable

  13. Femtosecond Ti:sapphire cryogenic amplifier with high gain and MHz repetition rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Laurat, Julien; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate high gain amplification of 160-femtosecond pulses in a compact double-pass cryogenic Ti:sapphire amplifier. The setup involves a negative GVD mirrors recompression stage, and operates with a repetition rate between 0.2 and 4 MHz with a continuous pump laser. Amplification factors...

  14. SiC/Si diode trigger circuit provides automatic range switching for log amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    SiC/Si diode pair provides automatic range change to extend the operating range of a logarithmic amplifier-conversion circuit and assures stability at or near the range switch-over point. the diode provides hysteresis for a trigger circuit that actuates a relay at the desired range extension point.

  15. A low noise, low residial offset chopped amplifier for mixed level applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanduleanu, M.A.T.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Wassenaar, R.F.; Lammers, M.C.; Wallinga, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the principle and the design of a CMOS low noise, low residual offset, chopped amplifier with a class AB output stage for noise and offset reduction in mixed analog digital applications. The operation is based on chopping and dynamic element matching to reduce noise and offset,

  16. A High-Efficiency 4x45W Car Audio Power Amplifier using Load Current Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, C.H.J.; Mensink, C.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Mostert, F.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2010-01-01

    A 4x45W (EIAJ) monolithic car audio power amplifier is presented that achieves a power dissipation decrease of nearly 2x over standard class AB operation by sharing load currents between loudspeakers. Output signals are conditioned using a common-mode control loop to allow switch placement between l

  17. A High-Efficiency 4x45W Car Audio Power Amplifier using Load Current Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, C.H.J.; Mensink, C.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Mostert, F.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2010-01-01

    A 4x45W (EIAJ) monolithic car audio power amplifier is presented that achieves a power dissipation decrease of nearly 2x over standard class AB operation by sharing load currents between loudspeakers. Output signals are conditioned using a common-mode control loop to allow switch placement between

  18. The warm, rich sound of valve guitar amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2017-03-01

    Practical solid state diodes and transistors have made glass valve technology nearly obsolete. Nevertheless, valves survive largely because electric guitar players much prefer the sound of valve amplifiers to the sound of transistor amplifiers. This paper discusses the introductory-level physics behind that preference. Overdriving an amplifier adds harmonics to an input sound. While a moderately overdriven valve amplifier produces strong even harmonics that enhance a sound, an overdriven transistor amplifier creates strong odd harmonics that can cause dissonance. The functioning of a triode valve explains its creation of even and odd harmonics. Music production software enables the examination of both the wave shape and the harmonic content of amplified sounds.

  19. Amplified spontaneous emission spectrum and gain characteristic of a two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hanchao; Huang Lirong; Shi Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    A two-electrode multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier is designed and fabricated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain were measured and analyzed. It is shown that the ASE spectrum and gain characteristic are greatly influenced by the distribution of the injection current density. By changing the injection current density of two electrodes, the full width at half maximum, peak wavelength, peak power of the ASE spectrum and the gain characteristic can be easily controlled.

  20. Investigation of Energy Consumption and Sound Quality for Class-D Audio Amplifiers using Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Schneider, Henrik; Knott, Arnold;

    2015-01-01

    The main advantage of Class-D audio amplifiers is high efficiency which is often stated to be more than 90 % but at idle or low power levels the efficiency is much lower. The waste energy is an environmental concern, a concern in mobile applications where long battery operation is required...... power supply tracking and its influence on power losses, audio performance and environmental impact for a 130 W class-D amplifier prototype as well as a commercialized class-D amplifier. Both modeled and experimental results verify that a large improvement of efficiency can be achieved. The total...