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Sample records for operational life estimation

  1. The essence of reliability estimation during operational life for achieving high system dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    System dependability has become important for critical applications in recent years as technology is moving towards smaller dimensions. Achieving high dependability can be supported by reliability estimations during the operational life. In addition this requires a workflow for regularly monitoring

  2. The essence of reliability estimation during operational life for achieving high system dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    System dependability has become important for critical applications in recent years as technology is moving towards smaller dimensions. Achieving high dependability can be supported by reliability estimations during the operational life. In addition this requires a workflow for regularly monitoring

  3. An indirect technique for estimating reliability of analog and mixed-signal systems during operational life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Reliability of electronic systems has been thoroughly investigated in literature and a number of analytical approaches at the design stage are already available via examination of the circuit-level reliability effects based on device-level models. Reliability estimation during operational life of an

  4. An indirect technique for estimating reliability of analog and mixed-signal systems during operational life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Reliability of electronic systems has been thoroughly investigated in literature and a number of analytical approaches at the design stage are already available via examination of the circuit-level reliability effects based on device-level models. Reliability estimation during operational life of an

  5. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi; Gao Zhanbao; Tang Diyin; Li Baoan

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL) for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically moni-tored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific oper-ational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC). The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with exist-ing methods for the same dataset.

  6. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically monitored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific operational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC. The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with existing methods for the same dataset.

  7. Operational life prediction on gating image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-hui; Shen, Zhi-guo; Li, Zhong-li

    2009-07-01

    Operational life is one of the important parameters to evaluate second and super second generation image intensifiers. It can be used not only to monitor manufacturing technique in product line, then the technology on photocathode processing, MCP degassing and MCP producing can be adjusted promptly, but also to eliminate the image intensifiers which have hidden risk on operational life as early as possible. Recently gating image intensifiers are used widely, method to estimate the operational life of gating image intensifier related to its practical operate mode and working condition need to be established urgently. The least square method to analyze the operational life test data in product line was introduced in this paper. Now the data can be analyzed with convenient statistic analyze function on Excel. Using "worksheet function" and "chart wizard" and "data analysis" on Excel to do the least square method calculation, spreadsheets are established to do complex data calculation with worksheet functions. Based on them, formulas to monitor the technology parameters were derived, and the conclusion that the operational life was only related to the decrease slope of photocathode exponential fit curve was made. The decrease slope of photocathode sensitivity exponential fit curve and the decrease percent of the exponential fit photocathode sensitivity can be used to evaluate the qualification of the operational life rapidly. The mathematic models for operational life prediction on image intensifier and gating image intensifier are established respectively based on the acceptable values of the decrease percent of the exponential fit photocathode sensitivity and the expecting signal to noise ratio. The equations predicting the operational life related to duty cycle and input light level on gating image intensifier were derived, and the relationship between them were discussed too. The theory foundation were made herein, so the user can select proper gating image

  8. Operator estimates in homogenization theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhikov, V. V.; Pastukhova, S. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper gives a systematic treatment of two methods for obtaining operator estimates: the shift method and the spectral method. Though substantially different in mathematical technique and physical motivation, these methods produce basically the same results. Besides the classical formulation of the homogenization problem, other formulations of the problem are also considered: homogenization in perforated domains, the case of an unbounded diffusion matrix, non-self-adjoint evolution equations, and higher-order elliptic operators. Bibliography: 62 titles.

  9. Cable historical operating temperature estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de, F.; St-Roch, P.; Beauregard, C. [Cyme International, St-Bruno, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A tool designed to accurately determine the thermal age of underground cables was described. The cable historical operating temperature estimate (CHOTE) is a software application designed to identify which cables have exceeded their normal and emergency operating temperatures. CHOTE is also capable of predicting when cables are likely to reach their maximum design temperature in the future. The system operates by processing archived loading information from data acquisition systems in order to automatically analyze all the thermal sections of a system. Cables that exceed their emergency and normal temperatures for the longest amount of time are ranked first, and outputs display when and where the hot spots have occurred. CHOTE is also able to study the impact of the addition of new cables and to determine the remaining ampacity of cables installed in a given duct bank. It was concluded that the CHOTE system can help in the efficient management of cable repairs and installations. 28 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Analysis of capacitive effect and life estimation of hydrodynamic journal bearings on repeated starts and stops of a machine operating under the influence of shaft voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Har; Rao, K. N.

    1994-07-01

    A theoretical analysis has been carried out to study the capacitive effect and life estimation of hydrodynamic journal bearings on repeated starts and stops of a machine operating under the influence of shaft voltages. The analysis gives the time required for the charge accumulation and increase of charge with time on the liner surface of a journal bearing based on bearing capacitance, resistance of film thickness, and the shaft voltage. Also, it investigates the effect of gradual leakage of the accumulated charges with time as the shaft voltage falls when the power supply to the machine is switched off. This paper gives an approach to determine the ratio of the number of shaft revolutions required for charge accumulation and gradual discharge of the accumulated charges on the liner surface of a bearing depending on bearing-to-shaft voltage. Also, the number of repeated starts and stops before initiation of craters on the liner surface of a hydrodynamic journal bearing is established to restrict deterioration and damage of the liner. The diagnosis has the potential to study the transient effect of the shaft voltages on a journal bearing during the start and stop cycle of a machine.

  11. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  12. Operation of ULCS - real life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the real life operation of ULCS (Ultra Large Container Ships is presented from the point of view of shipmasters. The paper provides interpretation of results of questionnaire filled by masters of large container ships during Tools for Ultra Large Container Ships (TULC EUI FP7 project. This is done in a way that results of questionnaire are further reviewed and commented by experienced master of ULCS. Following phenomena are subject of questionnaire and further discussed in the paper: parametric rolling, slamming, whipping, springing, green water and rogue waves. Special attention is given to the definition of rough sea states as well as to measures that ship masters take to avoid them as well as to the manoeuvring in heavy seas. The role of the wave forecast and weather routing software is also discussed.

  13. Weighted Estimates for Toeplitz Operators Related to Pseudodifferential Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors establish the weighted Lp estimates for a class of pseudodifferential operators for both cases 1estimates for the Toeplitz operators related to pseudodifferential operators are also obtained. As their special cases, the corresponding results for the commutators of pseudodifferential operators can be deduced.

  14. Borosonic inspection and remaining useful operational life estimation of steam turbine rotors; Inspeccion borosonica y estimacion de vida remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero P, Jose A; Dorantes G, Oscar; Munoz Q, Rodolfo; Serrano R, Luis E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The turbo-generators used in the electric power generation frequently go through transitory operations (start ups, shut downs or power changes). Such actions cause that certain critical components of the turbines, such as rotors and casings, are put under cycles of repetitive stresses, which consume its useful life. The frequency whereupon these transitory thermal cycles happen result in the presence of high thermo-mechanical stresses that produce fatigue (damage) in the rotor material. With time, at the increase of the material fatigue, fissures form that can inclusively lead to severe, catastrophic faults. The borosonic inspection consists in introducing and positioning an automatic probe in the central drill of the rotor, this allows the non-destructive inspection with longitudinal ultrasonic beam, ultrasonic cross-sectional and ultrasonic superficial. This way, it is possible to detect and locate geometric discontinuities (superficial and volumetric), in at least 100 mm of depth from the drill surface in its entire periphery and throughout the rotor length. [Spanish] Los turbogeneradores empleados en la generacion de energia electrica con frecuencia realizan operaciones transitorias (arranques, paros o cambios de potencia). Acciones tales, provocan que ciertos componentes criticos de las turbinas, como los rotores y carcasas, sean sometidos a ciclos de esfuerzos repetitivos, lo que consume su vida util. La frecuencia con que ocurren estos ciclos termicos transitorios da como resultado la presencia de altos esfuerzos termomecanicos que producen una fatiga (dano) en el material del rotor. Con el tiempo, al incrementarse la fatiga del material, se forman fisuras que pueden conducir a fallas severas, catastroficas inclusive. La inspeccion borosonica consiste en introducir y posicionar una sonda automatica en el barreno central del rotor, ello permite la inspeccion no destructiva con haz ultrasonico longitudinal, haz ultrasonico transversal y haz ultrasonico

  15. Pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    As a new technique it is shown how general pseudo-differential operators can be estimated at arbitrary points in Euclidean space when acting on functions u with compact spectra. The estimate is a factorisation inequality, in which one factor is the Peetre–Fefferman–Stein maximal function of u...

  16. Pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    As a new technique it is shown how general pseudo-differential operators can be estimated at arbitrary points in Euclidean space when acting on functions u with compact spectra.The estimate is a factorisation inequality, in which one factor is the Peetre–Fefferman–Stein maximal function of u...

  17. Parameter estimation in LISA Pathfinder operational exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Nofrarias, Miquel; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Armano, M; Diaz-Aguilo, M; Grynagier, A; Hewitson, M

    2011-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder data analysis team has been developing in the last years the infrastructure and methods required to run the mission during flight operations. These are gathered in the LTPDA toolbox, an object oriented MATLAB toolbox that allows all the data analysis functionalities for the mission, while storing the history of all operations performed to the data, thus easing traceability and reproducibility of the analysis. The parameter estimation methods in the toolbox have been applied recently to data sets generated with the OSE (Off-line Simulations Environment), a detailed LISA Pathfinder non-linear simulator that will serve as a reference simulator during mission operations. These operational exercises aim at testing the on-orbit experiments in a realistic environment in terms of software and time constraints. These simulations, so called operational exercises, are the last verification step before translating these experiments into tele-command sequences for the spacecraft, producing therefore ve...

  18. Life Estimation of Hip Joint Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, C.; Hirani, H.; Chawla, A.

    2014-11-01

    Hip joint is one of the largest weight-bearing structures in the human body. In the event of a failure of the natural hip joint, it is replaced with an artificial hip joint, known as hip joint prosthesis. The design of hip joint prosthesis must be such so as to resist fatigue failure of hip joint stem as well as bone cement, and minimize wear caused by sliding present between its head and socket. In the present paper an attempt is made to consider both fatigue and wear effects simultaneously in estimating functional-life of the hip joint prosthesis. The finite element modeling of hip joint prosthesis using HyperMesh™ (version 9) has been reported. The static analysis (load due to the dead weight of the body) and dynamic analysis (load due to walking cycle) have been described. Fatigue life is estimated by using the S-N curve of individual materials. To account for progressive wear of hip joint prosthesis, Archard's wear law, modifications in socket geometry and dynamic analysis have been used in a sequential manner. Using such sequential programming reduction in peak stress has been observed with increase in wear. Finally life is estimated on the basis of socket wear.

  19. Exponential decay estimates for Singular Integral operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz-Caraballo, Carmen; Rela, Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    The following subexponential estimate for commutators is proved |[|\\{x\\in Q: |[b,T]f(x)|>tM^2f(x)\\}|\\leq c\\,e^{-\\sqrt{\\alpha\\, t\\|b\\|_{BMO}}}\\, |Q|, \\qquad t>0.\\] where $c$ and $\\alpha$ are absolute constants, $T$ is a Calder\\'on--Zygmund operator, $M$ is the Hardy Littlewood maximal function and $f$ is any function supported on the cube $Q$. It is also obtained \\[|\\{x\\in Q: |f(x)-m_f(Q)|>tM_{1/4;Q}^#(f)(x) \\}|\\le c\\, e^{-\\alpha\\,t}|Q|,\\qquad t>0,\\] where $m_f(Q)$ is the median value of $f$ on the cube $Q$ and $M_{1/4;Q}^#$ is Str\\"omberg's local sharp maximal function. As a consequence it is derived Karagulyan's estimate \\[|\\{x\\in Q: |Tf(x)|> tMf(x)\\}|\\le c\\, e^{-c\\, t}\\,|Q|\\qquad t>0,\\] improving Buckley's theorem. A completely different approach is used based on a combination of "Lerner's formula" with some special weighted estimates of Coifman-Fefferman obtained via Rubio de Francia's algorithm. The method is flexible enough to derive similar estimates for other operators such as multilinear Calder\\'on--Z...

  20. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  1. Quantum Estimates of Alpha Emitter Life Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum estimates of several alpha radioactive life time have been made using the probability of quantum tunneling through the nuclear potential barrier. It is assumed that for a given nucleus with mass number A and isotopic number Z, there exists an alpha particle moving freely back and forth in the nucleus with mass and isotopic numbers A -4 and Z-2. If the probability of penetrating the nuclear potential barrier is Τ, then after N times (N=1/Τ hitting the barrier an alpha particle is emitted. To obtain the elapsed time for emitting an alpha particle requires N times τ0, where τ0 is the time travel for alpha across the nuclear diameter, which is dependent on alpha energy. It is assumed here that this kinetic energy is the same as the emitted energy. The emitting alpha kinetic energies here are calculated by the difference of the masses of the parent and daughter nuclei and the alpha particles. They are in closed agreement with the experimental observations. While the alpha radioactive life time are not the same order of magnitudes but give the same linearity on the logarithmic scale as function of the inverse square root of energy.

  2. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  3. Scalable Noise Estimation with Random Unitary Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Emerson, J; Zyczkowski, K; Emerson, Joseph; Alicki, Robert; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2005-01-01

    We describe a scalable stochastic method for the experimental measurement of generalized fidelities characterizing the accuracy of the implementation of a coherent quantum transformation. The method is based on the motion reversal of random unitary operators. In the simplest case our method enables direct estimation of the average gate fidelity. The more general fidelities are characterized by a universal exponential rate of fidelity loss. In all cases the measurable fidelity decrease is directly related to the strength of the noise affecting the implementation -- quantified by the trace of the superoperator describing the non--unitary dynamics. While the scalability of our stochastic protocol makes it most relevant in large Hilbert spaces (when quantum process tomography is infeasible), our method should be immediately useful for evaluating the degree of control that is achievable in any prototype quantum processing device. By varying over different experimental arrangements and error-correction strategies a...

  4. Scalable noise estimation with random unitary operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Joseph [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Alicki, Robert [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 57, PL 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Zyczkowski, Karol [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    We describe a scalable stochastic method for the experimental measurement of generalized fidelities characterizing the accuracy of the implementation of a coherent quantum transformation. The method is based on the motion reversal of random unitary operators. In the simplest case our method enables direct estimation of the average gate fidelity. The more general fidelities are characterized by a universal exponential rate of fidelity loss. In all cases the measurable fidelity decrease is directly related to the strength of the noise affecting the implementation, quantified by the trace of the superoperator describing the non-unitary dynamics. While the scalability of our stochastic protocol makes it most relevant in large Hilbert spaces (when quantum process tomography is infeasible), our method should be immediately useful for evaluating the degree of control that is achievable in any prototype quantum processing device. By varying over different experimental arrangements and error-correction strategies, additional information about the noise can be determined.

  5. Estimation of fuel cell operating time for predictive maintenance strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onanena, R. [FC LAB, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); FEMTO-ST (UMR CNRS 6174), ENISYS department, University of Franche-Comte (France); INRETS - LTN, ' ' Le Descartes 2' ' , 2 rue de la butte verte, 93166 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); Oukhellou, L. [INRETS - LTN, ' ' Le Descartes 2' ' , 2 rue de la butte verte, 93166 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); CERTES Universite Paris 12, 61 avenue du Gal. de Gaulle, 94100 Creteil (France); Candusso, D. [FC LAB, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); INRETS - LTN, ' ' Le Descartes 2' ' , 2 rue de la butte verte, 93166 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); Same, A.; Aknin, P. [INRETS - LTN, ' ' Le Descartes 2' ' , 2 rue de la butte verte, 93166 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); Hissel, D. [FC LAB, Techn' Hom, rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); FEMTO-ST (UMR CNRS 6174), ENISYS department, University of Franche-Comte (France)

    2010-08-15

    Durability is one of the limiting factors for spreading and commercialization of fuel cell technology. That is why research to extend fuel cell durability is being conducted world wide. A pattern-recognition approach aiming to estimate fuel cell operating time based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements is presented here. It is based on extracting the features from the impedance spectra. For that purpose, two approaches have been investigated. In the first one, particular points of the spectrum are empirically extracted as features. In the second approach, a parametric modeling is performed to extract features from both the real and the imaginary parts of the impedance spectrum. In particular, a latent regression model is used to automatically split the spectrum into several segments that are approximated by polynomials. The number of segments is adjusted taking into account the a priori knowledge about the physical behavior of the fuel cell components. Then, a linear regression model using different subsets of extracted features is employed for an estimate of the fuel cell operating time. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated on an experimental dataset. Allowing the estimation of the fuel cell operating time, and consequently its remaining duration life, these results could lead to interesting perspectives for predictive fuel cells maintenance policy. (author)

  6. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  7. Estimating life expectancies for US small areas: a regression framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of area mortality variations and estimation of area life tables raise methodological questions relevant to assessing spatial clustering, and socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Existing small area analyses of US life expectancy variation generally adopt ad hoc amalgamations of counties to alleviate potential instability of mortality rates involved in deriving life tables, and use conventional life table analysis which takes no account of correlated mortality for adjacent areas or ages. The alternative strategy here uses structured random effects methods that recognize correlations between adjacent ages and areas, and allows retention of the original county boundaries. This strategy generalizes to include effects of area category (e.g. poverty status, ethnic mix), allowing estimation of life tables according to area category, and providing additional stabilization of estimated life table functions. This approach is used here to estimate stabilized mortality rates, derive life expectancies in US counties, and assess trends in clustering and in inequality according to county poverty category.

  8. Power system operations: State estimation distributed processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Mohammad Reza

    We present an application of a robust and fast parallel algorithm to power system state estimation with minimal amount of modifications to existing state estimators presently in place using the Auxiliary Problem Principle. We demonstrate its effectiveness on IEEE test systems, the Electric Reliability Counsel of Texas (ERCOT), and the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) systems. Since state estimation formulation may lead to an ill-conditioned system, we provide analytical explanations of the effects of mixtures of measurements on the condition of the state estimation information matrix. We demonstrate the closeness of the analytical equations to condition of several test case systems including IEEE RTS-96 and IEEE 118 bus systems. The research on the condition of the state estimation problem covers the centralized as well as distributed state estimation.

  9. ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan Jiao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,some mapping properties are considered for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator whose kernel satisfies certain minimum regularity condition.It is proved that certain uniform local estimate for doubly truncated operators implies the LP(Rn)(1estimate for the corresponding maximal operator.

  10. Velocity Estimation in Medical Ultrasound [Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the application of signal processing in medical ultrasound velocity estimation. Special emphasis is on the relation among acquisition methods, signal processing, and estimators employed. The description spans from current clinical systems for one-and two-dimensional (1-D an...

  11. Origins of life: An operational definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischaker, Gail Raney

    1990-03-01

    Two very different models are used for the scientific study of life's origins: in the Troland-Muller model, life is molecular and its defining characteristic is gene function; in the Oparin-Haldane model, life is cellular and its defining characteristic is metabolic function. While each of these models implicitly defines the living, neither provides criteria by which theemergence of life could be recognized in the laboratory. Anoperational definition of the living makes explicit the system logic of metabolic self-production: (1) that whatever form it may take, life is a function of its biochemical processes; (2) that no single biochemical process has integrity apart from an entire network of processes; (3) that a network of processes can have continuity only by being enclosed within a boundary structure, i.e., by the selective partition of a microenvironment as a domain for the bioenergetic-biosynthetic network; and (4) that life is a single phenomenon, distinct in its continuity of capture and storage of energy in such networks, driving the processes that produce its material constituents. This paper presentsautopoiesis as life-defining and discusses the utility of its criteria in our search for the origins of life on Earth. Enactment of the autopoietic criteria would result in aminimal cell and would demonstrate the experimental recapitulation of life's Archaean origins.

  12. Estimating the Value Added Product Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gedikoglu, Haluk; Parcell, Joseph L.; Patterson, David J.; Randle, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzes factors affecting product and profit life-cycles for new value added products. The methodology used shows how sales and profits evolve and how exogenous factors affecting sales and profits. Results indicate that producers can increase the level of sales and profits over time through initial marketing efforts.

  13. Weighted BMO Estimates for Toeplitz Operators on Weighted Lebesgue Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors establish the weighted BMO estimates for a class of Toeplitz operators related to strongly singular Calderón-Zygmund operators on weighted Lebesgue spaces. Moreover, the corresponding result for the Toeplitz operators related to classical Calderón-Zygmund operators can be deduced.

  14. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelate...

  15. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

  16. Spectral estimates for periodic fourth order operators

    CERN Document Server

    Badanin, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    We consider the operator $H={d^4dt^4}+{ddt}p{ddt}+q$ with 1-periodic coefficients on the real line. The spectrum of $H$ is absolutely continuous and consists of intervals separated by gaps. We describe the spectrum of this operator in terms of the Lyapunov function, which is analytic on a two-sheeted Riemann surface. On each sheet the Lyapunov function has the standard properties of the Lyapunov function for the scalar case. We describe the spectrum of $H$ in terms of periodic, antiperiodic eigenvalues, and so-called resonances. We prove that 1) the spectrum of $H$ at high energy has multiplicity two, 2) the asymptotics of the periodic, antiperiodic eigenvalues and of the resonances are determined at high energy, 3) for some specific $p$ the spectrum of $H$ has an infinite number of gaps, 4) the spectrum of $H$ has small spectral band (near the beginner of the spectrum) with multiplicity 4 and its asymptotics are determined as $p\\to 0, q=0$.

  17. Oil development-operating cost estimates, 1955-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, M.A.; Shahi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Few if any published oil production cost estimates can be verified as to method and basic data. Using US drilling costs and some assumptions explained in the text, this paper estimates development-operating costs in 41 oil-producing nations, from 1955 to 1985, from publicly available data on drilling. Estimation methods are described in detail so that anyone with access to better information on any item can substitute it to arrive at a better estimate.

  18. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  19. Quality of life of nurses in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Murano Alfaia dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the quality of life of operating room nurses and collect their opinions as to the influence their professional activity exerts on their quality of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on a sample of 24 nurses that work in the operating room of a large private hospital in the city of São Paulo. Two questionnaires were applied; one was designed by the authors of this research project, and the other was the Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF. Rresults: As to quality of life, the environment domain obtained the highest score, while the psychological domain obtained the lowest. When asked if their professional activity in the operating room influenced their quality of life, most responded affirmatively. Regarding the justifications offered by the nurses for the influence of their professional activity on their quality of life, 50% mentioned environment-related stress, responsibilities, duties, risk situations, relationships with the multiprofessional team, and the type of work carried out in the operating room. Cconclusions: The psychological domain obtained the lowest score in the nurse quality of life evaluation, pointing out the need to facilitate and/or encourage nurses to seek psychological support. As to the influence of their professional activity on their quality of life, the nurses mentioned stress related to their work environment and professional activities in the operating room. This highlights the importance of managers in this area, paying greater attention to the individual and collective needs of their employees.

  20. An Assessment of Uncertainty in Remaining Life Estimation for Nuclear Structural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Fricke, Jacob M.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several operating US light-water nuclear power reactors (LWRs) have moved to extended-life operations (from 40 years to 60 years), and there is interest in the feasibility of extending plant life to 80 years. Operating experience suggests that material degradation of structural components in LWRs (such as the reactor pressure vessel) is expected to be the limiting factor for safe operation during extended life. Therefore, a need exists for assessing the condition of LWR structural components and determining its remaining useful life (RUL). The ability to estimate RUL of degraded structural components provides a basis for determining safety margins (i.e., whether safe operation over some pre-determined time horizon is possible), and scheduling degradation management activities (such as potentially modifying operating conditions to limit further degradation growth). A key issue in RUL estimation is calculation of uncertainty bounds, which are dependent on current material state, as well as past and future stressor levels (such as time-at-temperature, pressure, and irradiation). This paper presents a preliminary empirical investigation into the uncertainty of RUL estimates for nuclear structural materials.

  1. Models for estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurenkov, Vladimir I.; Kucherov, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of estimation of land remote sensing satellites operational efficiency. Appropriate mathematical models have been developed. Some results obtained with the help of the software worked out in Delphi programming support environment are presented.

  2. Estimation of pump operational state with model-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, Tero; Tamminen, Jussi; Ahola, Jero; Viholainen, Juha; Aranto, Niina [Institute of Energy Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Kestilae, Juha [ABB Drives, P.O. Box 184, FI-00381 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    Pumps are widely used in industry, and they account for 20% of the industrial electricity consumption. Since the speed variation is often the most energy-efficient method to control the head and flow rate of a centrifugal pump, frequency converters are used with induction motor-driven pumps. Although a frequency converter can estimate the operational state of an induction motor without external measurements, the state of a centrifugal pump or other load machine is not typically considered. The pump is, however, usually controlled on the basis of the required flow rate or output pressure. As the pump operational state can be estimated with a general model having adjustable parameters, external flow rate or pressure measurements are not necessary to determine the pump flow rate or output pressure. Hence, external measurements could be replaced with an adjustable model for the pump that uses estimates of the motor operational state. Besides control purposes, modelling the pump operation can provide useful information for energy auditing and optimization purposes. In this paper, two model-based methods for pump operation estimation are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimation methods are analyzed. The applicability of the methods is verified by laboratory measurements and tests in two pilot installations. Test results indicate that the estimation methods can be applied to the analysis and control of pump operation. The accuracy of the methods is sufficient for auditing purposes, and the methods can inform the user if the pump is driven inefficiently. (author)

  3. Diffusion Estimation from Multiscale Data by Operator Eigenpairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, D.T.; Vanden-Eijnden, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new procedure for the estimation of diffusion processes from discretely sampled data. It is based on the close relation between eigenpairs of the diffusion operator L and those of the conditional expectation operator Pt, a relation stemming from the semigroup structure Pt

  4. The Role of Estimation on Construction Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Antohie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimates serve a number of different functions in the construction industry. The reason for estimating is to provide the most realistic prediction possible of time and cost at any given stage in a project. Over the life of a project the estimator should be able to produce a series of estimates, from an early estimate at beginning, to the final account, in which the increasing accuracy of the estimate is reflected in the decreasing extent of risk and uncertainty. All estimates take the form of base estimates, plus allowances for uncertainties and specific contingencies as required. The role of the estimator or practitioner in cost engineering is vital to the success of a construction project. The estimators are responsible for predicting the most economic costs for construction in a way that is both clear and consistent. Although an estimator will have a feel for the prices in the marketplace, it is the responsibility of management to add an amount for general overheads, assess the risks and turn the estimate into tender.

  5. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost, operati

  6. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost,

  7. The hip and knee replacement operation: an extensive life event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Birgitta Åkesdotter; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Ponzer, Sari; Heikkilä, Kristiina

    2010-12-01

    A total hip replacement and a total knee replacement have shown to effectively reduce pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee joint despite associated risks. Even though the intervention primarily concerns older people with additional health problems, the patients stand on their feet the day after the operation and are discharged a few days later. Previous research indicates that reflections about life are related to the operation. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of reflections related to hip and knee replacement surgery. A phenomenological hermeneutical approach with a longitudinal design was chosen in order to study the participants' experiences of the hip and knee replacement intervention across the entire perioperative period. Four themes emerged from the structural analysis; choosing the challenge, past memories connect to the current situation, moving from happiness to ordinary everyday life and moving from despair towards reluctant acceptance of unexpected bad conditions for everyday life. There was inner negotiations about having surgery or not, and existential anxiety that reminded people that life cannot be taken for granted. Our findings indicate the operation was seen as an extensive life event including reflections about life and death and about hope and fear. Previous bad experiences of care seemed to influence the way patients dealt with fear and hope. Fear had to be overcome by inner negotiations about undergoing surgery or not. Relief was expressed about surviving the actual operation, but soon after fears arose about how to manage on the actual road to recovery. Hope for a good life grew either stronger or weaker, depending on the progress following the operation. The outcome eventually generated a transition from happiness to ordinary everyday life, or a transition from despair towards reluctant acceptance of unfulfilled expectations. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences

  8. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  9. Estimation of operative temperature in buildings using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-Mohseni, M.; Fahlen, P. [Department of Building Services Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Thomas, B. [Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Campus Lindholmen, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    In this article, the problem how to obtain models for estimation of the operative temperature in rooms and buildings is discussed. Identification experiments have been carried out in two different buildings and different linear and non-linear estimation models have been identified based on these experiments. For the buildings studied, it is shown that the operative temperature can be estimated fairly well by using variables, which are more easily measured, such as the indoor and outdoor temperatures, the electrical power use in the room, the wall temperatures, the ventilation flow rates and the time of day. It is also shown that non-linear artificial neural network models (ANN-models), in general, give better estimations than linear ARX-models. The most accurate estimation models were obtained using feed-forward ANN-models with one hidden layer of neurons and using Levenberg-Marquardt's training algorithms. In one of the buildings, it is shown that for non-linear models but not for linear, the estimations are improved much when using the time of day as an input signal. This shows that the time of day affects the operative temperature in a non-linear manner. (author)

  10. Service Life Estimation Technique of Oxidized XLPE Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Masaki; Nakade, Masahiko; Hirose, Takafumi; Sugimoto, Syuu; Namiki, Yukihiko

    XLPE which is the insulator of the XLPE cable will be oxidized by heat. But, an accident caused by oxidized XLPE has hardly reported until now. Therefore, oxidization of XLPE hasn’t been regard as important. But recently we found that XLPE cable used for a long time could break down due to the oxidization of XLPE by simulation result. So, we developed the service life estimation technique of oxidized XLPE cables used FT-IR.

  11. Towards gaining renewed balance in life after operable lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missel, Malene

    Background. Studies involving groups of patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) provide valuable knowledge on symptoms, quality of life and needs using questionnaires, but knowledge of the perspective of patients diagnosed with lung cancer and the significance of the illness...... and its treatment on their daily lives is scant. Moreover qualitative evidence on patient experiences of participation in rehabilitation is lacking. Objectives. To explore the lived experiences of patients with operable lung cancer in daily life at ‘four critical moments’ during a ‘standard’ illness...... cancer. Methods. Study participants were divided into three samples of patients with operable lung cancer referred for surgery at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, the Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen. Samples I and II involved an exploration of patients’ lived experiences during...

  12. AN ENDPOINT ESTIMATE FOR MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A weak type endpoint estimate for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator T*Af(x)=supε>0|(f)(x-y)>ε (Ω(x-y)/(|x-y|(n+1)))(A(x)-A(y)-▽A(y)(x-y))f(y)dy| is established, where Ω is homogeneous of degree zero, integrable on the unit sphere and has vanishing moment of order one, and A has derivatives of order one in BMO(Rn). A regularity condition on Ω which implies an LlogL type estimate of T*A is given.

  13. Blade Bearing Friction Estimation of Operating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Blade root bearing on a wind turbine (WTG) enables pitching of blades for power control and rotor braking and is a WTG critical component. As the size of modern WTGs is constantly increasing, this leads to relatively less rigid bearings, more sensitive to deformations, thus WTG operational...... reliability can be increased by continuous monitoring of blade bearing. High blade bearing friction is undesirable, as it may be associated with excessive heating of the surfaces, damage and/or inefficient operation. Thus, continuous observation of bearing friction level is crucial for blade bearing health...... monitoring systems. A novel algorithm for online monitoring of bearing friction level is developed combining physical knowledge about pitch system dynamics with state estimator, i.e. observer theory and signal processing assuming realistic sensor availability. Results show estimation of bearing friction...

  14. Tool Wear Estimate in Milling Operation by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Many researches show that, in metal cutting process, tool wear rate depends on some cutting process parameters, such as temperature at tool face, contact pressure and relative sliding velocity at tool/chip and tool/workpiece interfaces. Finite element method(FEM) application enables the estimate of these parameters and the tool wear. A tool wear estimate program based on chip formation and heat transfer analysis is designed and compiled with Python to calculate the wear rate and volume, and update tool geometry according to the tool wear. The progressive flank and crater wears in milling operation are estimated by the program. The FEM code ABAQUS/Explicit and Standard are employed to analyze chip formation and heat transfer process.

  15. Integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sedmak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a vertical pipe turbines, Kaplan 200 MW nominal output power, produced in Russia, and built in six hydro-generation units of hydroelectric power plant „Đerdap 1” in Serbia. Fatigue and corrosion-fatigue interaction have been taken into account using experimentally obtained material properties, as well as analytical and numerical calculations of stress state, to estimate appropriate safety factors. Fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, was also calculated, indicated that internal defects of circular or elliptical shape, found out by ultrasonic testing, do not affect reliable operation of runner cover.

  16. On using available environmental data in service life estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, K.; Noren, J.; Kus, H.

    2001-07-01

    In the process of service life prediction or estimation of building and construction components and materials, data of the prevailing exposure environment, (the conditions at and around a building or construction) is required. However, most environmental data is measured by and available from meteorological and air quality research communities. This data is collected at macro and meso levels, some distance from the object studied, and raises the need to transform data in order to describe the specific, local conditions adjacent to that object. To estimate levels of degradation agents in the exposure environment, especially those close to the building or construction at local and micro levels have to be considered. This paper will show and discuss useful environmental data sources, and how to transform such data by means of available distribution models. (author)

  17. Estimated water requirements for gold heap-leach operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water necessary for conventional gold heap-leach operations. Water is required for drilling and dust suppression during mining, for agglomeration and as leachate during ore processing, to support the workforce (requires water in potable form and for sanitation), for minesite reclamation, and to compensate for water lost to evaporation and leakage. Maintaining an adequate water balance is especially critical in areas where surface and groundwater are difficult to acquire because of unfavorable climatic conditions [arid conditions and (or) a high evaporation rate]; where there is competition with other uses, such as for agriculture, industry, and use by municipalities; and where compliance with regulatory requirements may restrict water usage. Estimating the water consumption of heap-leach operations requires an understanding of the heap-leach process itself. The task is fairly complex because, although they all share some common features, each gold heap-leach operation is unique. Also, estimating the water consumption requires a synthesis of several fields of science, including chemistry, ecology, geology, hydrology, and meteorology, as well as consideration of economic factors.

  18. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail: dburchart@gig.eu; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail: afugiel@gig.eu; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail: kczaplicka@gig.eu; Turek, Marian, E-mail: mturek@gig.eu

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  19. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment.

  20. 324 Building life cycle dose estimates for planned work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsman, S.D.; Peterson, C.A.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a tool for use by organizational management teams to plan, manage, and oversee personnel exposures within their organizations. The report encompasses personnel radiation exposures received from activities associated with the B-Cell Cleanout Project, Surveillance and Maintenance Project, the Mk-42 Project, and other minor activities. It is designed to provide verifiable Radiological Performance Reports. The primary area workers receive radiation exposure is the Radiochemical Engineering Complex airlock. Entry to the airlock is necessary for maintenance of cranes and other equipment, and to set up the rail system used to move large pieces of equipment and shipping casks into and out of the airlock. Transfers of equipment and materials from the hot cells in the complex to the airlock are required to allow dose profiles of waste containers, shuffling of waste containers to allow grouting activities to go on, and to allow maintenance of in-cell cranes. Both DOE and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are currently investing in state-of-the-art decontamination equipment. Challenging goals for exposure reduction were established for several broad areas of activity. Exposure estimates and goals developed from these scheduled activities will be compared against actual exposures for scheduled and unscheduled activities that contributed to exposures received by personnel throughout the year. Included in this report are life cycle exposure estimates by calendar year for the B-Cell Cleanout project, a three-year estimate of exposures associated with Surveillance and Maintenance, and known activities for Calendar Year (CY) 1995 associated with several smaller projects. These reports are intended to provide a foundation for future dose estimates, by year, requiring updating as exposure conditions change or new avenues of approach to performing work are developed.

  1. Operational Procedures for Optimized Reliability and Component Life Estimator (ORACLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    TOTAL FAILURE RATE AND TTF Figure 1. Block diagram of the reliability predicition program routines (cross hatched boxes), the required inputs and the...in some signifi- cant way, describe and/or identify the particular piece of equipment associated with the parts or module. The maintenance of a

  2. Structural health monitoring of wind towers: residual fatigue life estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M.; Fontanari, V.; Battisti, L.

    2013-04-01

    In a recent paper (Benedetti et al 2011 Smart Mater. Struct. 20 055009), the authors investigated the possibility of detecting cracks in critical sites of onshore wind towers using a radial arrangement of strain sensors around the tower periphery in the vicinity of the base welded joint. Specifically, the strain difference between adjacent strain sensors is used as a damage indicator. The number of sensors to be installed is determined by the minimum crack size to be detected, which in turn depends on the expected extreme wind conditions and programmed inspection/repair schedule. In this companion paper, we address these issues by investigating possible strategies for residual fatigue life assessment and management of onshore wind towers once the crack has been detected. For this purpose, fracture mechanics tests are carried out using welded samples to quantify the resistance to fatigue crack growth as well as the elastic-plastic fracture toughness of the welded joint at the tower base. These material strength characteristics are used to estimate (i) the critical crack size for structural integrity on the basis of fracture toughness tests, elastoplastic finite element analyses and loading spectra under extreme wind conditions, (ii) the residual life before structural collapse, applying a frequency-domain method to typical in-service wind actions and wind directionality.

  3. Demirjian approach of dental age estimation: Abridged for operator ease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanshika Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present times have seen an alarming increase in incidence of crimes by juveniles and of mass destruction that Highlight the preponderance of individual age estimation. Of the numerous techniques employed for age assessment, dental age estimation (DAE and its correlation with chronological age (CA have been of great significance in the recent past. Demirjian system, considered as gold standard in DAE is a simple and convenient method for DAE, though,, although, referring to multiple tables make it cumbersome and less eco friendly due to excessive paper load. Aim: The present study was aimed to develop a comprehensive chart (DAEcc inclusive of all Demirjian tables and developmental stages of teeth and also to as well as to test the operator ease of 50 undergraduate dental students in performing DAE using this chart. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in two stages, wherein the first stage was aimed at formulation of the comprehensive chart (DAECC which included pictorial representation of calcification stages, the Federation Dentaire Internationale notation of the teeth, and the corresponding scores for each stage with a concluding column at the end to enter the total score. The second stage assessed the applicability of the ease of DAE by DAECC, whereby fifty 2nd year BDS students were asked to trace the calcification stages of the seven permanent left mandibular teeth on a panorex, identify the correct stage, assign the corresponding score, and to calculate the total score for subsequent dental age assessment. Results and Conclusions: showed that average time taken by the students for tracing seven mandibular teeth was 5 min and for assessment of dental age was 7 min. The total time taken for DAE was approximately 12 min, thus making the procedure less time consuming. Hence, this study proposes the use of DAEcc for age estimation due to ease in comprehension and execution of Demirjian system.

  4. Demirjian approach of dental age estimation: Abridged for operator ease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vanshika; Kapoor, Priyanka; Miglani, Ragini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Present times have seen an alarming increase in incidence of crimes by juveniles and of mass destruction that Highlight the preponderance of individual age estimation. Of the numerous techniques employed for age assessment, dental age estimation (DAE) and its correlation with chronological age (CA) have been of great significance in the recent past. Demirjian system, considered as gold standard in DAE is a simple and convenient method for DAE, though,, although, referring to multiple tables make it cumbersome and less eco friendly due to excessive paper load. Aim: The present study was aimed to develop a comprehensive chart (DAEcc) inclusive of all Demirjian tables and developmental stages of teeth and also to as well as to test the operator ease of 50 undergraduate dental students in performing DAE using this chart. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in two stages, wherein the first stage was aimed at formulation of the comprehensive chart (DAECC) which included pictorial representation of calcification stages, the Federation Dentaire Internationale notation of the teeth, and the corresponding scores for each stage with a concluding column at the end to enter the total score. The second stage assessed the applicability of the ease of DAE by DAECC, whereby fifty 2nd year BDS students were asked to trace the calcification stages of the seven permanent left mandibular teeth on a panorex, identify the correct stage, assign the corresponding score, and to calculate the total score for subsequent dental age assessment. Results and Conclusions: showed that average time taken by the students for tracing seven mandibular teeth was 5 min and for assessment of dental age was 7 min. The total time taken for DAE was approximately 12 min, thus making the procedure less time consuming. Hence, this study proposes the use of DAEcc for age estimation due to ease in comprehension and execution of Demirjian system. PMID:28123280

  5. Weak estimates for commutators of fractional integral operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Yong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Stein,E.M.,Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions,Princeton:Princeton University Press,1970.[2]Muckenhoupt,B.,Wheeden,R.L.,Weighted norm inequalities for fractional integrals,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,1974,192:261-274.[3]Taibleson,M.H.,Weiss,G.,The molecular characterization of certain Hardy spaces,Astérisque,1980,77:67-149.[4]Chanillo,S.,Watson,D.K.,Wheeden,R.L.,Some integral and maximal operators related to starlike sets,Studia Math.,1993,107:223-255.[5]Ding,Y.,Lu,S.Z.,Weighted norm inequalities for fractional integral operators with rough kernel,Canad.J.Math.,1998,50:29-39.[6]Ding,Y.,Weak type bounds for a class of rough operators with power weights,Proc.Amer.Math.Soc.,1997,125:2939-2942.[7]Chanillo,S.,A note on commutators,Indiana Univ.Math.J.,1982,31:7-16.[8]Ding,Y.,Lu,S.Z.,Higher order commutators for a class of rough operators,Ark.Mat.,1999,37:33-44.[9]Pérez,C., Endpoint estimates for commutators of singular integral operators,J.Funct.Anal.,1995,128:163-185.[10]Rao,M.M.,Ren,Z.D.,Theorey of Orlicz Spaces,New York:Marcel Dekker,1991.[11]Fefferman,C.,Stein,E.M.,Hp spaces of several variables,Acta Math.,1972,129:137-193.[12]Garcia-Cuerva,J.,Rubio de Francia,J.L.,Weighted Norm Inequalities and Related Topics, Amsterdam:North-Holland,1985.[13]Adams,D.R.,A note on Riesz potentials,Duke Math.J.,1975,42:765-778.[14]Stein,E.M.,Note on the class Llog L,Studia Math.,1969,32:305-310.[15]Pérez,C.,Weighted norm inequalities for singular integral operators,J.London Math.Soc.,1994,49:296-308.[16]Stein,E.M.,Harmonic Analysis:Real-Variable Methods,Orthogonality,and Oscillatory Integrals,Princeton:Princeton University Press,1993.[17]Pérez,C.,On sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator between weighted Lp-spaces with different weights,Proc.London Math.Soc.,1995,71:135-157.[18]Garcia-Cuerva,J.,Harboure,E.,Segovia,C.et al.,Weighted norm

  6. Extending the International Space Station Life and Operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Andrew J.; Pitts, R. Lee; Sparks, Ray N.; Wickline, Thomas W.; Zoller, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration with final assembly complete. To fully utilize ISS and extend the operational life, it became necessary to upgrade and extend the onboard systems with the Obsolescence Driven Avionics Redesign (ODAR) project. ODAR enabled a joint project between the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focused on upgrading the onboard payload and Ku-Band systems, expanding the voice and video capabilities, and including more modern protocols allowing unprecedented access for payload investigators to their on-orbit payloads. The MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) was tasked with developing a high-rate enhanced Functionally Distributed Processor (eFDP) to handle 300Mbps Return Link data, double the legacy rate, and incorporate a Line Outage Recorder (LOR). The eFDP also provides a 25Mbps uplink transmission rate with a Space Link Extension (SLE) interface. HOSC also updated the Payload Data Services System (PDSS) to incorporate the latest Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocols, most notably the use of the Internet Protocol (IP) Encapsulation, in addition to the legacy capabilities. The Central Command Processor was also updated to interact with the new onboard and ground capabilities of Mission Control Center -- Houston (MCC-H) for the uplink functionality. The architecture, implementation, and lessons learned, including integration and incorporation of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware and software into the operational mission of the ISS, is described herein. The applicability of this new technology provides new benefits to ISS payload users and ensures better utilization of the ISS by the science community

  7. Life Expectancy Estimates in the Life Care Plan: Accounting for Economic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Saunders, Lee L

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the existing scientific literature on the relationship between economic factors and life expectancy (LE) after spinal cord injury (SCI), present new data on the relationship between household income and LE, and present a revised theoretical risk model to account for the observed relationships. Data were from a prospective cohort study of 1386 participants with SCI which began in 1997. Mortality status was determined 10 years later. Person year logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of mortality and to generate LE estimates, as each year of follow-up was treated as a separate observation (rather than a single observation per person). Results indicated significant relationships between age, injury severity, household income and LE, which suggest the need for more refined models of economic factors and LE. LE estimates in life care plans need to account for economic factors in order to improve accuracy. It is important to allocate resources to meet all healthcare needs throughout the lifecycle to ensure that LE is not compromised.

  8. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis for the life extension estimate of the high flux isotope reactor vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.J.

    1997-05-01

    The state of the vessel steel embrittlement as a result of neutron irradiation can be measured by its increase in the nil ductility temperature (NDT). This temperature is sometimes referred to as the brittle-ductile transition temperature (DBT) for fracture. The life extension of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel is calculated by using the method of fracture mechanics. A new method of fracture probability calculation is presented in this paper. The fracture probability as a result of the hydrostatic pressure test (hydrotest) is used to determine the life of the vessel. The hydrotest is performed in order to determine a safe vessel static pressure. It is then followed by using fracture mechanics to project the safe reactor operation time from the time of the satisfactory hydrostatic test. The life extension calculation provides the following information on the remaining life of the reactor as a function of the NDT increase: (1) the life of the vessel is determined by the probability of vessel fracture as a result of hydrotest at several hydrotest pressures and vessel embrittlement conditions, (2) the hydrotest time interval vs the NDT increase rate, and (3) the hydrotest pressure vs the NDT increase rate. It is understood that the use of a complete range of uncertainties of the NDT increase is equivalent to the entire range of radiation damage that can be experienced by the vessel steel. From the numerical values for the probabilities of the vessel fracture as a result of hydrotest, it is estimated that the reactor vessel life can be extended up to 50 EFPY (100 MW) with the minimum vessel operating temperature equal to 85{degrees}F.

  9. Estimation of the residual life of steam-turbine condensers based on statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study aimed at estimation of the state and prediction of the residual life of steam-turbine condensers on the basis of statistical analysis. The possibility of such evaluation during the operation of steam-turbine plants with accuracy sufficient for practical purposes is demonstrated. It is shown that identification of the operating period, viz., the initial period, the normal operation period, or the period of the lifetime exhaustion, as well as determination of the condenser's operating time at the moment when the failure of an individual tube occurs, is very important for statistical evaluation of the condenser state. Two statistical models are proposed and comparative analysis of the results calculated by these models for the residual life of the condensers at the Reftinskaya SDPP has been performed. The first model can be used when comprehensive information about the condenser's operating time before the tubes have failed is available as well as a priori information—or information based on analysis of the condenser tube metal—that the condenser is in its normal operation period. In this case, the fact of exhaustion of the condenser's lifetime is established by reaching the limit of the failed condenser tubes, which is determined by technical and economic analysis of losses caused by operating the turbine with a reduced heat-exchange surface of the condenser. The distribution function for the operating time of the failed tubes is approximated by a normal distribution. In the cases when no precise information on the condenser tubes' operating time is available at the thermoelectric power plant (TEPP), the second statistical model based on censored samples is proposed for estimation of the condenser state. An expression to assess the confidence interval that determines the significant difference between the distribution functions for complete and censored operating time values has been derived. It is shown that this model

  10. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  11. Estimation of Processor Module Life in NPP's Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Pil ju; Kim, Mingyu; Han, Ilkoo [PONUTech Co. LTD, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we will estimate the probability of failure (life) for INVENSYS TRICON Main Processor used in the research reactor protection system. Life may be calculated by the Arrhenius equation, and may be calculated by applying the failure rate. In this paper, we calculate each of the independent failure probability and probability of common cause failure of the processor module(CPU Card). In this paper, we described the life estimation methodology (Arrhenius, IEC), and was estimate the lifetime of the INVENSYS TRICON processor module by IEC-61508 methodology. Life calculation result, it was the life of the processor module 1/0.1099E-06.

  12. Triebel–Lizorkin Space Estimates for Multilinear Operators of Sublinear Operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liu Lanzhe

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, we obtain the continuity for some multilinear operators related to certain non-convolution operators on the Triebel–Lizorkin space. The operators include Littlewood–Paley operator and Marcinkiewicz operator.

  13. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to:...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  14. Parental estimation of early psychological development in children operated on for single suture synostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Elisabet; Maltese, Giovanni; Tarnow, Peter; Tovetjärn, Robert; Kölby, Lars

    2012-09-01

    Impaired psychological development in children with single suture craniosynostosis is often described in the literature. The authors' own experience was that these children appeared to have normal psychological development during their first years of life. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to evaluate if parental estimation would reveal any shortcomings in psychological development. All consecutive patients operated on for non-syndromal single suture synostosis between October 2002 and June 2006 were included (n = 66). A questionnaire was filled out by the parents when the child was 3 years old. The questions concerned development of speech, motor control, personal abilities, and emotional development. The results were compared with randomly selected controls of the same age (n = 180) whose parents answered the same questionnaire. The results showed that children operated on for single suture synostosis did not show any signs of lasting disadvantages due to craniofacial surgery. The children did not in any respect suffer from a hampered psychological development up to 3 years of age. In summary the psychological development of patients operated on for single suture synostosis seems to be normal up to 3 years of age as far as parental estimation can reveal.

  15. 26 CFR 1.381(d)-1 - Operations loss carryovers of life insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operations loss carryovers of life insurance... loss carryovers of life insurance companies. For the application of part V, subchapter C, chapter 1 of the Code to operations loss carryovers of life insurance companies, see section 812(f) and §...

  16. On the assessment of biological life support system operation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, Sergey

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) can be used in long-term space missions only if well-thought-out assessment of the allowable operating range is obtained. The range has to account both permissible working parameters of BLSS and the critical level of perturbations of BLSS stationary state. Direct approach to outlining the range by statistical treatment of experimental data on BLSS destruction seems to be not applicable due to ethical, economical, and saving time reasons. Mathematical model is the unique tool for the generalization of experimental data and the extrapolation of the revealed regularities beyond empirical experience. The problem is that the quality of extrapolation depends on the adequacy of corresponding model verification, but good verification requires wide range of experimental data for fitting, which is not achievable for manned experimental BLSS. Possible way to improve the extrapolation quality of inevitably poorly verified models of manned BLSS is to extrapolate general tendency obtained from unmanned LSS theoretical-experiment investigations. Possibilities and limitations of such approach are discussed.

  17. Energy efficiency estimation of a steam powered LNG tanker using normal operating data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship’s energy efficiency performance is generally estimated by conducting special sea trials of few hours under very controlled environmental conditions of calm sea, standard draft and optimum trim. This indicator is then used as the benchmark for future reference of the ship’s Energy Efficiency Performance (EEP. In practice, however, for greater part of operating life the ship operates in conditions which are far removed from original sea trial conditions and therefore comparing energy performance with benchmark performance indicator is not truly valid. In such situations a higher fuel consumption reading from the ship fuel meter may not be a true indicator of poor machinery performance or dirty underwater hull. Most likely, the reasons for higher fuel consumption may lie in factors other than the condition of hull and machinery, such as head wind, current, low load operations or incorrect trim [1]. Thus a better and more accurate approach to determine energy efficiency of the ship attributable only to main machinery and underwater hull condition will be to filter out the influence of all spurious and non-standard operating conditions from the ship’s fuel consumption [2]. The author in this paper identifies parameters of a suitable filter to be used on the daily report data of a typical LNG tanker of 33000 kW shaft power to remove effects of spurious and non-standard ship operations on its fuel consumption. The filtered daily report data has been then used to estimate actual fuel efficiency of the ship and compared with the sea trials benchmark performance. Results obtained using data filter show closer agreement with the benchmark EEP than obtained from the monthly mini trials . The data filtering method proposed in this paper has the advantage of using the actual operational data of the ship and thus saving cost of conducting special sea trials to estimate ship EEP. The agreement between estimated results and special sea trials EEP is

  18. Fatigue life estimation procedures for the endurance of a cardiac valve prosthesis: stress/life and damage-tolerant analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, R O; Lubock, P

    1986-05-01

    Projected fatigue life analyses are performed to estimate the endurance of a cardiac valve prosthesis under physiological environmental and mechanical conditions. The analyses are conducted using both the classical stress-strain/life and the fracture mechanics-based damage-tolerant approaches, and provide estimates of expected life in terms of initial flaw sizes which may pre-exist in the metal prior to the valve entering service. The damage-tolerant analysis further is supplemented by consideration of the question of "short cracks," which represents a developing area in metal fatigue research, not commonly applied to data in standard engineering design practice.

  19. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1....... promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  20. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  1. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  2. Fatigue Life Estimation of Medium-Carbon Steel with Different Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Medium-carbon steel is commonly used for the rail, wire ropes, tire cord, cold heading, forging steels, cold finished steel bars, machinable steel and so on. Its fatigue behavior analysis and fatigue life estimation play an important role in the machinery industry. In this paper, the estimation of fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness using established S-N and P-S-N curves is presented. To estimate the fatigue life, the effect of the average surface roughness on the fatigue life of medium-carbon steel has been investigated using 75 fatigue tests in three groups with average surface roughness (Ra: 0.4 μm, 0.8 μm, and 1.6 μm, respectively. S-N curves and P-S-N curves have been established based on the fatigue tests. The fatigue life of medium-carbon steel is then estimated based on Tanaka-Mura crack initiation life model, the crack propagation life model using Paris law, and material constants of the S-N curves. Six more fatigue tests have been conducted to validate the presented fatigue life estimation formulation. The experimental results have shown that the presented model could estimate well the mean fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness.

  3. APPLICATION OF MULTIBODY SIMULATION FOR FATIGUE LIFE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In automobile design, the safety of passengers is of prime concern to the manufacturers. Suspension is one of the safety-related automotive systems which is responsible for maintaining traction between the road and tires, and offers a comfortable ride experience to the passengers by absorbing disturbances. One of the critical components of the suspension system is the knuckle, which constantly faces cyclic loads subjecting it to fatigue failure. This paper presents an evaluation of the fatigue characteristics of a knuckle using a gravel road profile acquired using a data acquisition system and standard SAE profiles for the suspension (SAESUS, bracket (SAEBRAKT and transmission (SAETRN. The gravel road profile was applied as the input to a multi body simulation (MBS, and the load history for various mounting points of the knuckle is extracted. Fatigue life is predicted using the strain-life method. The instantaneous stress distributions and maximum principal stress are used for fatigue life predictions. From the results, the strut connection is found to be the critical region for fatigue failure. The fatigue life from loading extracted from gravel road MBS agreed well with the life prediction when standard SAE profiles were used. This close agreement shows the effectiveness of the load extraction technique from MBS. This method can also be effectively used for more complex loading conditions that occur during real driving environments.

  4. One method for life time estimation of a bucket wheel machine for coal moving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Rehabilitation of outdated equipment with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance and assessing the residual lifetime. The bucket wheel machine for coal constitute basic machine within deposits of coal of power plants. The estimate of remaining life can be done by checking the loading on the most stressed subassembly by Finite Element Analysis on a welding detail. The paper presents step-by-step the method of calculus applied in order to establishing the residual lifetime of a bucket wheel machine for coal moving using non-destructive methods of study (fatigue cracking analysis + FEA). In order to establish the actual state of machine and areas subject to study, was done FEA of this mining equipment, performed on the geometric model of mechanical analyzed structures, with powerful CAD/FEA programs. By applying the method it can be calculated residual lifetime, by extending the results from the most stressed area of the equipment to the entire machine, and thus saving time and money from expensive replacements.

  5. [Live longer and better? Estimates of healthy life expectancy in the Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed differences in healthy life expectancy in the elderly based on three health dimensions in Brazil from 1998 to 2008: disability-free life expectancy, healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health, and chronic disease-free life expectancy. The Sullivan method was used, combining life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and interval estimates of the prevalence of functional disability, self-rated health, and chronic diseases according to the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD, 1998 and 2008). Besides the increase in life expectancy, the study showed significant and similar increases in disability-free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health at almost all ages. Women had higher life expectancies than men, but expected to live longer with poor health, regardless of the indicator used to measure health. Although the studies measured health differently (making comparisons difficult), women showed a consistent disadvantage in healthy life expectancy.

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report IX. Operating cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Operating costs are normally broken into three major categories: variable costs including raw materials, annual catalyst and chemicals, and utilities; semi-variable costs including labor and labor related cost; and fixed or capital related charges. The raw materials and utilities costs are proportional to production; however, a small component of utilities cost is independent of production. The catalyst and chemicals costs are also normally proportional to production. Semi-variable costs include direct labor, maintenance labor, labor supervision, contract maintenance, maintenance materials, payroll overheads, operation supplies, and general overhead and administration. Fixed costs include local taxes, insurance and the time value of the capital investment. The latter charge often includes the investor's anticipated return on investment. In determining operating costs for financial analysis, return on investment (ROI) and depreciation are not treated as cash operating costs. These costs are developed in the financial analysis; the annual operating cost determined here omits ROI and depreciation. Project Annual Operating Costs are summarized in Table 1. Detailed supporting information for the cost elements listed below is included in the following sections: Electrical, catalyst and chemicals, and salaries and wages.

  7. In-Service Aircraft Engine System Life Monitor Using Advanced Life-Estimating Technique Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop an accurate in-service aircraft engine life monitor system for the prediction of remaining component and system life for aircraft engines....

  8. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one.

  9. WEIGHTED ESTIMATES FOR COMMUTATORS OF POTENTIAL OPERATORS ON SPACES OF HOMOGENEOUS TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenming Li; Xiaowu Yu; Xuefang Yan

    2009-01-01

    We derive some strong type and weak type weighted norm estimates which relate the commutators of potential integral operators to the corresponding maximal operators in the context of spaces of homogeneous type.

  10. Maximum likelihood estimation for life distributions with competing failure modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    The general model for the competing failure modes assuming that location parameters for each mode are expressible as linear functions of the stress variables and the failure modes act independently is presented. The general form of the likelihood function and the likelihood equations are derived for the extreme value distributions, and solving these equations using nonlinear least squares techniques provides an estimate of the asymptotic covariance matrix of the estimators. Monte-Carlo results indicate that, under appropriate conditions, the location parameters are nearly unbiased, the scale parameter is slightly biased, and the asymptotic covariances are rapidly approached.

  11. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  12. Blade Bearing Friction Estimation of Operating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Blade root bearing on a wind turbine (WTG) enables pitching of blades for power control and rotor braking and is a WTG critical component. As the size of modern WTGs is constantly increasing, this leads to relatively less rigid bearings, more sensitive to deformations, thus WTG operational...... reliability can be increased by continuous monitoring of blade bearing. High blade bearing friction is undesirable, as it may be associated with excessive heating of the surfaces, damage and/or inefficient operation. Thus, continuous observation of bearing friction level is crucial for blade bearing health...

  13. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to estimate compositions of materials in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in a remotely operated nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH provides estimates of the steady-state composition of materials residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimations, the results are determined for the cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent materials collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for materials previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple performance models to estimate material holdup and distribution within unit operations. In simulated run-testing, NUMATH typically produced estimates within 5% of the measured inventories for uranium and within 8% of the measured inventories for thorium during steady-state process operation.

  14. Wind Turbine Blade Life-Time Assessment Model for Preventive Planning of Operation and Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Florian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair and replacement activities as well as large revenue losses, mainly in the case of offshore wind farms. The recent development and evolution of condition monitoring techniques, as well as the fact that an increasing number of installed turbines are equipped with online monitoring systems, offers a large amount of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law approach. The model is used within a risk-based maintenance decision framework to optimize maintenance planning for the blades lifetime.

  15. Estimation of the Biological Half-Life of Methylmercury Using a Population Toxicokinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongil Jo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury is well known for causing adverse health effects in the brain and nervous system. Estimating the elimination constant derived from the biological half-life of methylmercury in the blood or hair is an important part of calculating guidelines for methylmercury intake. Thus, this study was conducted to estimate the biological half-life of methylmercury in Korean adults. We used a one-compartment model with a direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in the blood and daily dietary intake of methylmercury. We quantified the between-person variability of the methylmercury half-life in the population, and informative priors were used to estimate the parameters in the model. The population half-life of methylmercury was estimated to be 80.2 ± 8.6 days. The population mean of the methylmercury half-life was 81.6 ± 8.4 days for men and 78.9 ± 8.6 days for women. The standard deviation of the half-life was estimated at 25.0 ± 8.6 days. Using the direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in blood and methylmercury intake, the biological half-life in this study was estimated to be longer than indicated by the earlier studies that have been used to set guideline values.

  16. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  17. On The Estimation of Survival Function and Parameter Exponential Life Time Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel S. Al-Kutubi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study and research of survival or reliability or life time belong to the same area of study but they may belong to a different area of application. In survival analysis one can use several life time distribution, exponential distribution with mean life time θ is one of them. To estimate this parameter and survival function we must be used estimation procedures with less MSE and MPE. Approach: The only statistical theory that combined modeling inherent uncertainty and statistical uncertainty is Bayesian statistics. The theorem of Bayes provided a solution to how learn from data. Bayes theorem was depending on prior and posterior distribution and standard Bayes estimator depends on Jeffery prior information. In this study we annexed Jeffery prior information to get the modify Bayes estimator and then compared it with standard Bayes estimator and maximum likelihood estimator to find the best (less MSE and MPE. Results: when we derived Bayesian and Maximum likelihood of the scale parameter and survival functions. Simulation study was used to compare between estimators and Mean Square Error (MSE and Mean Percentage Error (MPE of estimators are computed. Conclusion: The new proposed estimator of modify Bayes estimator in parameter and survival function was the best estimator (less MSE and MPE when we compared it with standard Bayes and maximum likelihood estimator.

  18. Man-hour Estimation Model based on Standard Operation Unit for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhenggeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In flexible manufacturing system, the estimation of man-hour is a difficult problem because of its production-diversity. To explore a more effective method, this paper tried to estimate man-hour from the perspective of operation`s character by establishing standard operation unit (SOU in this paper. A method of parameterizing the SOU is proposed, and a new man-hour estimation model is established on the basis of SOU. At last, this paper verified the effectiveness of this method by the operation of large-scale welding parts.

  19. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  20. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  1. An Examination of Operational Availability in Life Cycle Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Systems. Kenneth E. Marks, H. Garrison Massey, and Brent D. Bradley. Rand No. R-2287-AF. Santa Monica CA: The Rand Corporation, October 1978. AD...AFB OH, September 1982. AD A123045. Bryan, Noreen S.; Jacqueline J. Rosen; and Nancey T. Marland. "A New Life Cycle Cost Model: Flexible, Interactive

  2. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the

  3. Stable, inflatable life raft for high seas rescue operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F.; Marak, R.; Radnofsky, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Raft is easily deployed and highly maneuverable in water. It has false bottom of water ballast containers attached to underside, making it exceptionally stable platform from which swimmers can operate. Raft is attachable to external moorings.

  4. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the util

  5. Subjective estimation of the quality of life in relation to neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić, Jasminka

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that personality variables have a relatively consistent influence on the subjective estimation of different situations in everyday life and the way people react to them. The aim of this review was to summarise our previously published findings on the relationship between subjective estimation of one's quality of life and the personality trait neuroticism-emotional stability. We used the WHO Quality of Life--BREF or SF-36 questionnaires for the assessment of the quality of life, Cornell Index for the assessment of neuroticism, and The Social Readjustment Rating Scale for the evaluation of common stressors. Our results have shown that more emotionally stable participants (lower neuroticism) perceive their life better in quality and are more satisfied with their work environment. In addition, our results support the findings from other studies that women have higher neuroticism and lower quality of life scores than men.

  6. Development of a life cycle cost estimating framework for oil refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Okafor, Okechukwu Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with the understanding of some vital features of various life cycle costing methodologies and tools. Integrating these features with the refinery technical processes would assist in the development of a life cycle costing framework for oil refineries. The aim of this research is to develop a comprehensive life cycle cost estimating framework for the evaluation of not only the total cost and system effectiveness of new refineries but also the revamping, and maintenance ...

  7. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  8. Estimating the cost of operating cancer registries: Experience in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Esther; Pardo, Constanza; Arias, Nelson; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Navarro, Edgar; Uribe, Claudia; Yepez, María Clara; Jurado, Daniel; Garci, Luz Stella; Piñeros, Marion; Edwards, Patrick; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Tangka, Florence; Subramanian, Sujha

    2016-12-01

    Maintaining population-based registries requires adequate and sustained resources; however, to date there has been no systematic evaluation to identify the resource needs for cancer registration in most countries, including Colombia. A systematic assessment of the costs can quantify the funding required and identify processes to improve efficiency of cancer registries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) International Registry Costing Tool (IntRegCosting Tool) was tailored specifically for the Colombian registries and was used to collect resource use data from five regional population-based cancer registries: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cali, Manizales, and Pasto. The registries provided cost data for the year 2013 and cancer cases corresponding to the year 2010. We identified an almost threefold variation in the average cost per case (77,932 to 214,082 Colombian pesos or US $41 to US $113 in 2013) across the registries, but there were also substantial differences in data collection approaches, types of data collected, and activities performed. Cost per inhabitant varied between 95 and 415 Colombian pesos (US $0.05 to US $0.22). Between 20% and 45% of the total cost was due to fixed cost activities. The detailed economic information presented in this study constitutes a valuable source of activity-based cost data that registries can use to compare operations, assess key factors that lead to differences in cost per case, and identify potential approaches to improve efficiencies. Furthermore, the knowledge gained from studying the Colombian registries can help inform the planning and operations of other registries in the region. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Weighted estimates for powers and smoothing estimates of Schrödinger operators with inverse-square potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, The Anh; D'Ancona, Piero; Duong, Xuan Thinh; Li, Ji; Ly, Fu Ken

    2017-02-01

    Let La be a Schrödinger operator with inverse square potential a | x|-2 on Rd, d ≥ 3. The main aim of this paper is to prove weighted estimates for fractional powers of La. The proof is based on weighted Hardy inequalities and weighted inequalities for square functions associated to La. As an application, we obtain smoothing estimates regarding the propagator e itLa.

  10. Estimating soil carbon change and biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions with economic, ecosystem and life-cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Z.; Dunn, J.; Kwon, H. Y.; Mueller, S.; Wander, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use change (LUC) resulting from biofuel feedstock production can alter soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of lands producing those crops and the crops they displace, possibly resulting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. LUC GHG emissions included in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) have at times been estimated to be so great that biofuels did not offer a greenhouse gas reduction compared to conventional fossil fuels. To improve the accuracy of emissions estimates, SOC changes must be considered at a finer spatial resolution and take into account climate, soil, land use and management factors. This study reports on the incorporation of global LUC as predicted by a computable general equilibrium model (i.e., GTAP) and spatially-explicit modeled SOC estimates (using surrogate CENTURY) for various biofuel feedstock scenarios into a widely-used LCA model (i.e., GREET). Resulting estimates suggest: SOC changes associated with domestic corn production might contribute 2-6% or offset as much as 5% of total corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions. On the other hand, domestic LUC GHG emissions for switchgrass ethanol have the potential offset up to 60% of GHG emissions in the fuel's life cycle. Further, large SOC sequestration is predicted for Miscanthus feedstock production, enabling Miscanthus-based ethanol systems to offset all life-cycle GHG emissions and create a net carbon sink. LUC GHG emissions for ethanol derived from corn stover are small compared to other sources. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm soil) were estimated to be 59-66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -7 - -0.6 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  11. EXPERIENCES OF OPERATING AND STUDYING IN SECOND LIFE: STUDYING IN SECOND LIFE:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta LISKI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Educational Association Citizens´ Forum SKAF ry is an educational institution for non-formal education. The Citizens’ Forum has been an active Second Life participant since 2007, researching its potential and challenges in educational use and non-governmental organisation activities. The first training sessions were organised in 2008 on a block of land rented from EduFinland I island. Later, ownership was acquired of the Suomi ry (Finland ry island, which was customised to serve Finnish organisations and non-governmental organisations (further NGO. The Citizens’ Forum’s training courses have covered training in Second Life and the organisation of cooperative meetings and various other events in Second Life. The overall length of training sessions has been one month. Each course has consisted of 3-5. 1.5 hour meetings in Second Life and interim tasks completed either individually or in small groups. In addition to Second Life, Moodle, an online learning environment, has been employed in which tasks, experiences and feedback have been gathered and which has also contained written summaries of what was learned during the Second Life meetings. The Second Life environment has also been regularly utilised in Citizens’ Forum staff and various other work group work related meetings.Funding and ventures 2008: Ministry of Education special funding, Initiation of Second Life courses and construction of environment 2009-2010: ESF programme Open Learning Environments-AVO venture, development and implementation of Second Life educational programmes.This article is based on practical experiences gained from Ø suitability of cooperative educational processes for Second LifeØ constructing a Second Life environment for educational useØ suitability of Second Life technology and tools for education and team workØ practical methods related to educational situations .

  12. Mortality Salience Effects on the Life Expectancy Estimates of Older Adults as a Function of Neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Maxfield

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death.

  13. Estimation of the Residual Fatigue Life of Laminated Composites Under a Multistage Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhius, V.

    2016-11-01

    Problems on estimation of the residual fatigue life of laminated composites under a multistage regular cyclic loading (with a constant amplitude at each loading stage) are among the most frequently ones encountered in the practice of fatigue life estimations of laminated composites. There are several methods for solving these problems, but their use not always gives results of acceptable accuracy. To improve the accuracy of such estimations for the type of cyclic loading mentioned, a special model of nonlinear accumulation of fatigue damage is proposed.

  14. Heritability Estimates of Endophenotypes of Long and Health Life: The Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteini, Amy M; Fallin, M Daniele; Kammerer, Candace M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of gene variants that contribute to exceptional survival may provide critical biologic information that informs optimal health across the life span. METHODS: As part of phenotype development efforts for the Long Life Family Study, endophenotypes that represent exceptional......3 was made up of cognitive measures (h(2) = 36%). PC4 and PC5 contained measures of blood pressure and cholesterol, respectively (h(2) = 25% and 16%). CONCLUSIONS: These PCs analysis-derived endophenotypes may be used in genetic association studies to help identify underlying genetic mechanisms...

  15. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  16. Estimation of failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    For most food products, shelf life is determined by changes in their sensory characteristics. A predetermined increase or decrease in the intensity of a sensory characteristic has frequently been used to signal that a product has reached the end of its shelf life. Considering all attributes change simultaneously, the concept of multivariate shelf life allows a single measurement of deterioration that takes into account all these sensory changes at a certain storage time. The aim of the present work was to apply survival analysis to estimate failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using two case studies, hamburger buns and orange juice, by modelling the relationship between consumers' rejection of the product and the deterioration index estimated using PCA. In both studies, a panel of 13 trained assessors evaluated the samples using descriptive analysis whereas a panel of 100 consumers answered a "yes" or "no" question regarding intention to buy or consume the product. PC1 explained the great majority of the variance, indicating all sensory characteristics evolved similarly with storage time. Thus, PC1 could be regarded as index of sensory deterioration and a single failure criterion could be estimated through survival analysis for 25 and 50% consumers' rejection. The proposed approach based on multivariate shelf life testing may increase the accuracy of shelf life estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Absolute Monotonicity of Functions Related To Estimates of First Eigenvalue of Laplace Operator on Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors find the absolute monotonicity and complete monotonicity of some functions involving trigonometric functions and related to estimates the lower bounds of the first eigenvalue of Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds.

  18. Two methods for estimating aeroelastic damping of operational wind turbine modes from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Thomsen, Kenneth; Fuglsang, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    on stochastic subspace identification, where a linear model of the turbine is estimated alone from measured response signals by assuming that the ambient excitation from turbulence is random in time and space. Although the assumption is not satisfied, this operational modal analysis method can handle......The theory and results of two experimental methods for estimating the modal damping of a wind turbine during operation are presented. Estimations of the aeroelastic damping of the operational turbine modes (including the effects of the aerodynamic forces) give a quantitative view of the stability...... characteristics of the turbine. In the first method the estimation of modal damping is based on the assumption that a turbine mode can be excited by a harmonic force at its natural frequency, whereby the decaying response after the end of excitation gives an estimate of the damping. Simulations and experiments...

  19. Spacecraft Proximity Operations Used to Estimate the Dynamical & Physical Properties of a Resident Space Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Document, 2006. 26. D. Mehrholz, W. Flury R. Jehn H. Klinkrad M. Landgraf, L. Leushacke. “De- tecting, Tracking and Imaging Space Debris ”. Eurpean Space ...SPACECRAFT PROXIMITY OPERATIONS USED TO ESTIMATE THE DYNAMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A RESIDENT SPACE OBJECT THESIS Abraham Franz Brunner, First...OPERATIONS USED TO ESTIMATE THE DYNAMICAL & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A RESIDENT SPACE OBJECT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and

  20. Carleman estimates and unique continuation property for the anisotropic differential-operator equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veli B SHAKHMUROV

    2008-01-01

    The unique continuation theorems for the anisotropic partial differential-operator equations with variable coefficients in Banach-valued Lp-spaces are studied. To obtain the uniform maximal regularity and the Carleman type estimates for parameter depended differential-operator equations, the sufficient conditions are founded. By using these facts, the unique continuation properties are established. In the application part, the unique continuation properties and Carleman estimates for finite or infinite systems of quasielliptic partial differential equations are studied.

  1. An Estimation of Operator's Diagnostic Time for Feed-And-Bleed Operation under Various Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    In order to assess realistic safety of plant, effects of interactions between components, operator, and plant condition are needed to be considered in the PSA model. One of the important issues to estimate the CDF is the estimation of human error probability (HEP). When an accident occurs, operators follow the emergency operating procedure and check various alarm, parameters, and signals. In the conventional Korean PSA model, the Korean standard HRA (K-HRA) method is used. In this method, the HEP is the sum of diagnosis error probability and execution error probability. A diagnosis error probability is expressed by the available time for diagnosis and adjusting performance shaping factors, and an execution error probability is a function of task type and stress level. Available time for diagnosis is very important factor of HEP. If the available time for diagnosis is short, the HEP becomes high. In order to obtain the realistic risk assessment results, we first focus on the estimation of HEP considering the plant dynamics under various scenarios. Target operation and scenarios are feed-and bleed operation (F and B operation) and total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident with/without loss of coolant accident (LOCA). One of the highest HEP is HEP of FnB operation. In additional, Scenarios, which are related to combination secondary heat removal failure and primary heat removal failure, are most critical core damage scenario of the combined accident except scenarios related to station black out (SBO). In these scenarios, the FnB operation is last resort to prevent core damage. To estimate available operator diagnosis time, we identify the relationship between accidents, mitigation function, and plant condition. Distribution of available time of diagnosis was estimated using the MOSAIQUE. The variables are break size, break timing, trip timing of RCP, and availability of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump under the TLOFW accident with LOCA. For Type 1 accident

  2. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-05

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  3. Strichartz Estimates for the Schrödinger Propagator for the Laguerre Operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kumar Sohani

    2013-11-01

    We obtain homogeneous Strichartz estimate for the Schrödinger propagator $e^{-itL_}$ for the Laguerre operator $L_$ on $\\mathbb{R}^n_+$. We follow regularization technique as introduced in J. Funct. Anal. 224(2) (2005) 371–385. We also establish inhomogeneous Strichartz estimates for different admissible pairs.

  4. MRS/IS facility co-located with a repository: preconceptual design and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    A program is described to examine the various alternatives for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and interim storage (IS) of spent nuclear fuel, solidified high-level waste (HLW), and transuranic (TRU) waste until appropriate geologic repository/repositories are available. The objectives of this study are: (1) to develop a preconceptual design for an MRS/IS facility that would become the principal surface facility for a deep geologic repository when the repository is opened, (2) to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facility, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such a facility, and (3) to estimate the life cycle costs of the facility when operated in response to a set of scenarios which define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, which generally span the years from 1990 until 2016. The life cycle costs estimated in this study include: the capital expenditures for structures, casks and/or drywells, storage areas and pads, and transfer equipment; the cost of staff labor, supplies, and services; and the incremental cost of transporting the waste materials from the site of origin to the MRS/IS facility. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life cycle costs of the MRS/IS facility. In the first scenario, HLW canisters are stored, starting in 1990, until the co-located repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at various intervals. In the second scenario, spent fuel is stored, starting in 1990, because the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but no HLW is stored because the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, HLW is stored, starting in 1990, because the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  5. Estimation of Fatigue-life of Electronic Packages Subjected to Random Vibration Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Sakri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Random vibration is being specified for acceptance tests, screening tests, and qualification tests by manufacturers of electronic equipment meant for military applications, because it has been shown that random vibration more closely represents the true environment in which the electronic equipment must operate. In this paper, the methodology of testing an electronic package subjected to random vibration load is illustrated using Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council’s (JEDEC JESD22-B103B standard. The electronic package mounted at the centre of the printed circuit board was subjected to vibration, variable frequency condition ‘D’ of JEDEC standard for 30 min. After 30 min of random vibration test, the component lead-wires, solderjoints, and PCB were thoroughly inspected for failure. From the observations, it was found that no failure occurred during the test period. The fatigue life of the component, estimated using analytical method, was found to be 96.48 hours.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(1, pp.58-62, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1486

  6. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options.

  7. Estimating the loss in expectation of life due to cancer using flexible parametric survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Dickman, Paul W; Eloranta, Sandra; Lambe, Mats; Lambert, Paul C

    2013-12-30

    A useful summary measure for survival data is the expectation of life, which is calculated by obtaining the area under a survival curve. The loss in expectation of life due to a certain type of cancer is the difference between the expectation of life in the general population and the expectation of life among the cancer patients. This measure is used little in practice as its estimation generally requires extrapolation of both the expected and observed survival. A parametric distribution can be used for extrapolation of the observed survival, but it is difficult to find a distribution that captures the underlying shape of the survival function after the end of follow-up. In this paper, we base our extrapolation on relative survival, because it is more stable and reliable. Relative survival is defined as the observed survival divided by the expected survival, and the mortality analogue is excess mortality. Approaches have been suggested for extrapolation of relative survival within life-table data, by assuming that the excess mortality has reached zero (statistical cure) or has stabilized to a constant. We propose the use of flexible parametric survival models for relative survival, which enables estimating the loss in expectation of life on individual level data by making these assumptions or by extrapolating the estimated linear trend at the end of follow-up. We have evaluated the extrapolation from this model using data on four types of cancer, and the results agree well with observed data.

  8. Estimating radiological workload in operating robins; Estimacion de carga de trabajo radiologica en quirofanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Espizua, F. J.; Maneru Camara, F.; Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Forner Forner, A.

    2011-07-01

    The study of the shielding necessary in operating rooms which are used in X-ray arcs requires a knowledge of workload that is usually difficult to estimate. The national and international recommendations in this regard reflect conditions of use radiological rooms, which is far from the real-time fluoroscopy in the operating room. A realistic estimate of the workload ja crucial, especially considering that the walls of These units are built with leas and leas aLtenuaLing materials. The work consists of a collection of workload in operating rooms that are carried out interventions.

  9. Extended Aging Theories for Predictions of Safe Operational Life of Critical Airborne Structural Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Chen, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The previously developed Ko closed-form aging theory has been reformulated into a more compact mathematical form for easier application. A new equivalent loading theory and empirical loading theories have also been developed and incorporated into the revised Ko aging theory for the prediction of a safe operational life of airborne failure-critical structural components. The new set of aging and loading theories were applied to predict the safe number of flights for the B-52B aircraft to carry a launch vehicle, the structural life of critical components consumed by load excursion to proof load value, and the ground-sitting life of B-52B pylon failure-critical structural components. A special life prediction method was developed for the preflight predictions of operational life of failure-critical structural components of the B-52H pylon system, for which no flight data are available.

  10. A Venus Rover Capable of Long Life Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Shirley, J. H.; Abelson, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    Access to the surface of Venus would allow planetary scientists to address a number of currently open questions. Among these are the elemental and mineralogical composition of the surface; the interaction of the surface with the atmosphere; the atmospheric composition, especially isotope ratios of key species; the nature of the planetary volcanism (present activity, emissions to the atmosphere, and composition); planetary seismicity; the local surface meteorology (winds and pressure variability); and the surface geology and morphology at particular locations on the surface. A long lived Venus rover mission could be enabled by utilizing a novel Stirling engine system for both cooling and electric power. Previous missions to the Venus surface, including the Pioneer Venus and Venera missions, survived for only a few hours. The rover concept described in the present study is designed for a surface lifetime of 60 days, with the potential of operating well beyond that. A Thermo-Acoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) would convert the high-temperature (~1200 °C) heat from General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into acoustic power which then drives a linear alternator and a pulse tube cooler to provide electric power and remove the large environmental heat load. The "cold" side of the engine would be furnished by the ambient atmosphere at 460 °C. This short study focused on the feasibility of using the TASHE system in this hostile environment to power a ~650 kg rover that would provide a mobile platform for science measurements. The instrument suite would collect data on atmospheric and surface composition, surface stratigraphy, and subsurface structure. An Earth-Venus-Venus trajectory would be used to deliver the rover to a low entry angle allowing an inflated ballute to provide a low deceleration and low heat descent to the surface. All rover systems would be housed in a pressure vessel in vacuum with the internal temperature maintained by the TASHE below 50 °C. No

  11. Global Burden of Leptospirosis: Estimated in Terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonosis, occurs in diverse epidemiological settings and affects vulnerable populations, such as rural subsistence farmers and urban slum dwellers. Although leptospirosis can cause life-threatening disease, there is no global burden of disease estimate in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs available.We utilised the results of a parallel publication that reported global estimates of morbidity and mortality due to leptospirosis. We estimated Years of Life Lost (YLLs from age and gender stratified mortality rates. Years of Life with Disability (YLDs were developed from a simple disease model indicating likely sequelae. DALYs were estimated from the sum of YLLs and YLDs. The study suggested that globally approximately 2.90 million DALYs are lost per annum (UIs 1.25-4.54 million from the approximately annual 1.03 million cases reported previously. Males are predominantly affected with an estimated 2.33 million DALYs (UIs 0.98-3.69 or approximately 80% of the total burden. For comparison, this is over 70% of the global burden of cholera estimated by GBD 2010. Tropical regions of South and South-east Asia, Western Pacific, Central and South America, and Africa had the highest estimated leptospirosis disease burden.Leptospirosis imparts a significant health burden worldwide, which approach or exceed those encountered for a number of other zoonotic and neglected tropical diseases. The study findings indicate that highest burden estimates occur in resource-poor tropical countries, which include regions of Africa where the burden of leptospirosis has been under-appreciated and possibly misallocated to other febrile illnesses such as malaria.

  12. Certain issues about unexpected ejection of gas and life saving operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristian, B.; Szazados, I.

    1984-01-01

    Prerequisites for sudden ejections of methane are examined, along with measures to prevent its spread along mine drifts in the coal mines of Hungary (VNR). Light is shed on the problems of saving people who end up in dangerous zones and for organizing operations to prepare and train miners in life saving operations. Experience in the organization of such operations in the mines of the Mechek coal basin showed their practical expedience.

  13. Traveling-wave tube reliability estimates, life tests, and space flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Speck, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Infant mortality, useful life, and wearout phase of twt life are considered. The performance of existing developmental tubes, flight experience, and sequential hardware testing are evaluated. The reliability history of twt's in space applications is documented by considering: (1) the generic parts of the tube in light of the manner in which their design and operation affect the ultimate reliability of the device, (2) the flight experience of medium power tubes, and (3) the available life test data for existing space-qualified twt's in addition to those of high power devices.

  14. Estimating Intergenerational Persistence of Lifetime Earnings with Life Course Matching: Evidence from PSID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouskova, Elena; Chiteji, Ngina; Stafford, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Why do estimates of the intergenerational persistence in earnings vary so much for the United States? Recent research suggests that life-cycle bias may be a major factor (Haider and Solon 2006; Grawe 2006). In this paper we estimate the intergenerational correlation in lifetime earnings by using sons' and fathers' earnings at similar ages in order to account for lifecycle bias. Our estimate based on earnings measured at 35-44 for both fathers and sons is similar to that for the age range 45-54.

  15. On Monitoring Physical and Chemical Degradation and Life Estimation Models for Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Rezasoltani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms for lubricating grease are categorized and described. An extensive survey of the available empirical and analytical grease life estimation models including degradation monitoring standards and methods are presented. A summary of the important contributions on grease degradation is presented.

  16. Estimation of quality of labour life of personnel: method and possibilities of its application

    OpenAIRE

    Kompaniets, V.

    2009-01-01

    An author offers of principle a new method of estimation of level of quality of labour life of personnel, which takes into account sotsiokulturniy approach. It is based on vision of necessities of man and realization of them in labour from point of christianity, on the basis of which mentality was formed of our peoples, its economic culture.

  17. Loss of life estimation in flood risk assessment; theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    The flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005 showed the world the catastrophic consequences of large-scale floods. This dissertation presents a method for the estimation of loss of life caused by the flooding of low-lying delta areas. It also includes a preliminary analysis

  18. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-01

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The SRS is proceeding with closure of the 22 tanks located in F-Area. Closure consists of removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. A performance assessment is being performed in support of closure of the F-Tank Farm. Initially, the carbon steel construction materials of the high level waste tanks will provide a barrier to the leaching of radionuclides into the soil. However, the carbon steel liners will degrade over time, most likely due to corrosion, and no longer provide a barrier. The tank life estimation in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. The tank life estimation in support of the F-Tank Farm closure performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. Consumption of the tank steel encased in grouted conditions was determined to occur either due to carbonation of the concrete leading to low pH conditions, or the chloride-induced de-passivation of the steel leading to accelerated corrosion. A deterministic approach was initially followed to estimate the life of the tank liner in grouted conditions or in soil conditions. The results of this life estimation are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 for grouted and soil conditions respectively. The tank life has been estimated under conservative assumptions of diffusion rates. However, the same process of

  19. Estimation of the effects of ambient air pollution on life expectancy of urban residents in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Zhou, Xiaodan; Chen, Renjie; Duan, Xiaoli; Kuang, Xingya; Kan, Haidong

    2013-12-01

    The air quality in China's cities has improved in recent years, but its impact on public health has rarely been investigated. This study was aimed at estimating the potential effects of air quality on life expectancy between 2003 and 2010 in China. We collected annual average concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in 113 key cities, covering all provinces in China, along with the national average age-specific mortality from 2003 to 2010. We constructed a cause-eliminated life table after excluding premature deaths attributable to PM10. The annual average PM10 levels in these cities decreased from 125.3 μg m-3 in 2003 to 88.3 μg m-3 in 2010. As the result, life expectancy loss due to PM10 decreased from 2.13 years in 2003 to 1.30 years in 2010. The estimated life expectancy increase due to PM10 mitigation accounted for 34% of the total increase in life expectancy in the same period. Our results suggested that air quality might have contributed substantially to life expectancy in China.

  20. Modelling complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of particle-size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Sam; Weltje, Gert Jan

    2014-05-01

    Estimates of particle-size made by operators in the field and laboratory represent a vast and relatively untapped data archive. The wide spatial distribution of particle-size estimates makes them ideal for constructing geological models and soil maps. This study uses a large data set from the Netherlands (n = 4837) containing both operator estimates of particle size and complete particle-size distributions measured by laser granulometry. This study introduces a logit-based constrained-cubic-spline (CCS) algorithm to interpolate complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates. The CCS model is compared to four other models: (i) a linear interpolation; (ii) a log-hyperbolic interpolation; (iii) an empirical logistic function; and (iv) an empirical arctan function. Operator estimates were found to be both inaccurate and imprecise; only 14% of samples were successfully classified using the Dutch classification scheme for fine sediment. Operator estimates of sediment particle-size encompass the same range of values as particle-size distributions measured by laser analysis. However, the distributions measured by laser analysis show that most of the sand percentage values lie between zero and one, so the majority of the variability in the data is lost because operator estimates are made to the nearest 1% at best, and more frequently to the nearest 5%. A method for constructing complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of sediment texture using a logit constrained cubit spline (CCS) interpolation algorithm is presented. This model and four other previously published methods are compared to establish the best approach to modelling particle-size distributions. The logit-CCS model is the most accurate method, although both logit-linear and log-linear interpolation models provide reasonable alternatives. Models based on empirical distribution functions are less accurate than interpolation algorithms for modelling particle-size distributions in

  1. A comparison of some methods to estimate the fatigue life of plain dents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Ricardo R.; Noronha Junior, Dauro B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This paper describes a method under development at PETROBRAS R and D Center (CENPES) to estimate the fatigue life of plain dents. This method uses the API Publication 1156 as a base to estimate the fatigue life of dome shaped plain dents and the Pipeline Defect Assessment Manual (PDAM) approach to take into account the uncertainty inherent in the fatigue phenomenon. CENPES method, an empirical and a semi-empirical method available in the literature were employed to estimate the fatigue lives of 10 plain dents specimens of Year 1 of an ongoing test program carried out by BMT Fleet Technology Limited, with the support of the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI). The results obtained with the different methods are presented and compared. Furthermore some details are given on the numerical methodology proposed by PETROBRAS that have been used to describe the behavior of plain dents. (author)

  2. Operational plans for life science payloads - From experiment selection through postflight reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccollum, G. W.; Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Key features of operational plans developed in a study of the Space Shuttle era life science payloads program are presented. The data describes the overall acquisition, staging, and integration of payload elements, as well as program implementation methods and mission support requirements. Five configurations were selected as representative payloads: (a) carry-on laboratories - medical emphasis experiments, (b) mini-laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (c) seven-day dedicated laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (d) 30-day dedicated laboratories - Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) with selected life science experiments, and (e) Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) - extended duration primate (Type I) and small vertebrate (Type II) missions. The recommended operational methods described in the paper are compared to the fundamental data which has been developed in the life science Spacelab Mission Simulation (SMS) test series. Areas assessed include crew training, experiment development and integration, testing, data-dissemination, organization interfaces, and principal investigator working relationships.

  3. Operational plans for life science payloads - From experiment selection through postflight reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccollum, G. W.; Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Key features of operational plans developed in a study of the Space Shuttle era life science payloads program are presented. The data describes the overall acquisition, staging, and integration of payload elements, as well as program implementation methods and mission support requirements. Five configurations were selected as representative payloads: (a) carry-on laboratories - medical emphasis experiments, (b) mini-laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (c) seven-day dedicated laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (d) 30-day dedicated laboratories - Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) with selected life science experiments, and (e) Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) - extended duration primate (Type I) and small vertebrate (Type II) missions. The recommended operational methods described in the paper are compared to the fundamental data which has been developed in the life science Spacelab Mission Simulation (SMS) test series. Areas assessed include crew training, experiment development and integration, testing, data-dissemination, organization interfaces, and principal investigator working relationships.

  4. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries - Volume 1: Concepts and Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Serot, D.E. (D/E/S Research, Richland, WA (USA)); Kellogg, M.A. (ERCE, Inc., Portland, OR (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner to allow evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key nonmanufacturing sectors. This volume lays out the general concepts and methods used to develop the emergency operating estimates. The historical analysis of capacity extends from 1974 through 1986. Some nonmanufacturing industries are included. In addition to mining and utilities, key industries in transportation, communication, and services were analyzed. Physical capacity and efficiency of production were measured. 3 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  5. Operator functional state estimation based on EEG-data-driven fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Yang, Shaozeng; Wang, Rubin

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposed a max-min-entropy-based fuzzy partition method for fuzzy model based estimation of human operator functional state (OFS). The optimal number of fuzzy partitions for each I/O variable of fuzzy model is determined by using the entropy criterion. The fuzzy models were constructed by using Wang-Mendel method. The OFS estimation results showed the practical usefulness of the proposed fuzzy modeling approach.

  6. Heat kernel estimates and spectral properties of a pseudorelativistic operator with magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.

    2008-03-01

    Based on the Mehler heat kernel of the Schrödinger operator for a free electron in a constant magnetic field, an estimate for the kernel of EA=∣α(p-eA)+βm∣ is derived, where EA represents the kinetic energy of a Dirac electron within the pseudorelativistic no-pair Brown-Ravenhall model. This estimate is used to provide the bottom of the essential spectrum for the two-particle Brown-Ravenhall operator, describing the motion of the electrons in a central Coulomb field and a constant magnetic field, if the central charge is restricted to Z ⩽86.

  7. APPLICATIONS OF THE BERNSTEIN-DURRMEYER OPERATORS IN ESTIMATING THE NORM OF MERCER KERNEL MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunping Zhang; Baohuai Sheng; Zhixiang Chen

    2008-01-01

    The paper is related to the norm estimate of Mercer kernel matrices.The lower and upper bound estimates of Rayleigh entropy numbers for some Mercer kernel matrices on[0,1]×[0,1]based on the Bernstein-Durrmeyer operator kernel ale obtained,with which and the approximation property of the Bernstein-Durrmeyer operator the lower and upper bounds of the Rayleigh entropy number and the l2-norm for general Mercer kernel matrices on[0,1]×[0,1]are provided.

  8. Carleman estimates and unique continuation property for the anisotropic differential-operator equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veli; B; SHAKHMUROV

    2008-01-01

    The unique continuation theorems for the anisotropic partial differential-operator equations with variable coeffcients in Banach-valued Lp-spaces are studied.To obtain the uniform maximal regularity and the Carleman type estimates for parameter depended differential-operator equations,the suffcient conditions are founded.By using these facts,the unique continuation properties are established.In the application part,the unique continuation properties and Carleman estimates for finite or infinite systems of quasielliptic partial differential equations are studied.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  10. Estimation model of life insurance claims risk for cancer patients by using Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukono; Suyudi, M.; Islamiyati, F.; Supian, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discussed the estimation model of the risk of life insurance claims for cancer patients using Bayesian method. To estimate the risk of the claim, the insurance participant data is grouped into two: the number of policies issued and the number of claims incurred. Model estimation is done using a Bayesian approach method. Further, the estimator model was used to estimate the risk value of life insurance claims each age group for each sex. The estimation results indicate that a large risk premium for insured males aged less than 30 years is 0.85; for ages 30 to 40 years is 3:58; for ages 41 to 50 years is 1.71; for ages 51 to 60 years is 2.96; and for those aged over 60 years is 7.82. Meanwhile, for insured women aged less than 30 years was 0:56; for ages 30 to 40 years is 3:21; for ages 41 to 50 years is 0.65; for ages 51 to 60 years is 3:12; and for those aged over 60 years is 9.99. This study is useful in determining the risk premium in homogeneous groups based on gender and age.

  11. New spectral estimations for a class of integral-difference operators and generalisation to higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Yuri B.

    2016-09-01

    Quadratic form approach allows for new results in the analysis of a class of integral-difference operators in finite domains: non-negativity, spectral estimations, a new property of Legendre polynomials, and establishing links with weighted mean-square deviation functionals and with infinite Jacobi matrices with not-bounded coefficients. Generalisation of integral-difference operators to higher dimensions is provided and application to matter relaxation in a field is considered. A new class of special functions naturally appears.

  12. Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing for operational water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Tzabiras, John; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-06-01

    An integrated modeling system, developed in the framework of "Hydromentor" research project, is applied to evaluate crop water requirements for operational water resources management at Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The framework includes coupled components for operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and estimation of agricultural water demands at several spatial scales using remote sensing. The study area was sub-divided into irrigation zones based on land use maps derived from Landsat 5 TM images for the year 2007. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat TM imagery. Agricultural water needs were estimated using the FAO method for each zone and each control node of the system for a number of water resources management strategies. Two operational strategies of hydro-technical project development (present situation without operation of the reservoir and future situation with the operation of the reservoir) are coupled with three water demand strategies. In total, eight (8) water management strategies are evaluated and compared. The results show that, under the existing operational water resources management strategies, the crop water requirements are quite large. However, the operation of the proposed hydro-technical projects in Lake Karla watershed coupled with water demand management measures, like improvement of existing water distribution systems, change of irrigation methods, and changes of crop cultivation could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area.

  13. Evaluation of damping estimates in the presence of closely spaced modes using operational modal analysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajric, Anela; Brincker, Rune; Thöns, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques provide in most cases reasonably accurate estimates of structural frequencies and mode shapes. They are however known to produce erroneous structural damping estimates, which are presumably thought to be due to inherent random- or bias errors......). The evaluation is based on identification using random response from white noise loading of a three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) system numerically established from specified modal parameters for a range of natural frequencies. The numerical model provides comparisons of the effectiveness of damping estimation...

  14. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Serot, D.E. (D/E/S Research, Richland, WA (USA)); Kellogg, M.A. (ERCE, Inc., Portland, OR (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner that allows evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key non-manufacturing sectors. This volume presents tabular and graphical results of the historical analysis and projections for each SIC industry. (JF)

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Slop Water Management in Challenging Offshore Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Okiemute, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generates slop water, which are formed when wastewater originating from multiple sources becomes contaminated with drilling fluid components and have to be disposed or treated prior to discharge in compliance with local discharge regulations. The logistics and treatment of slop water have been suggested to represent a significant part of the life-cycle environmental footprint of offshore drilling operations but poorly understood due to lac...

  16. Evaluation of an algorithm for estimating a patient's life threat risk from an ambulance call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriwaki Yoshihiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilizing a computer algorithm, information from calls to an ambulance service was used to calculate the risk of patients being in a life-threatening condition (life threat risk, at the time of the call. If the estimated life threat risk was higher than 10%, the probability that a patient faced a risk of dying was recognized as very high and categorized as category A+. The present study aimed to review the accuracy of the algorithm. Methods Data collected for six months from the Yokohama new emergency system was used. In the system, emergency call workers interviewed ambulance callers to obtain information necessary to assess triage, which included consciousness level, breathing status, walking ability, position, and complexion. An emergency patient's life threat risk was then estimated by a computer algorithm applying logistic models. This study compared the estimated life threat risk occurring at the time of the emergency call to the patients' state or severity of condition, i.e. death confirmed at the scene by ambulance crews, resulted in death at emergency departments, life-threatening condition with occurrence of cardiac and/or pulmonary arrest (CPA, life-threatening condition without CPA, serious but not life-threatening condition, moderate condition, and mild condition. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of the algorithm for categorizing A+ were calculated. Results The number of emergency dispatches over the six months was 73,992. Triage assessment was conducted for 68,692 of these calls. The study targets account for 88.8% of patients who were involved in triage calls. There were 2,349 cases where the patient had died or had suffered CPA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the algorithm at predicting cases that would result in a death or CPA were 80.2% (95% confidence interval

  17. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, S R

    1991-08-01

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Applications of operational calculus: equations for the five-point rectangle and robust center point estimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, Gary L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Equations for interpolating five data in rectangular array are seldom encountered in textbooks. This paper describes a new method that renders polynomial and exponential equations for the design. Operational center point estimators are often more more resistant to the effects of an outlying datum than the mean.

  19. Analysis on Service Life of Hot-end Components of Gas Turbine Using Equivalent Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the gas turbine depends on the technical status and the maintenance level of the hot-end components in a large part.The three main factors influencing on the service life of the hot-end components of the gas turbine were analyzed first.On this basis,various common service life assessment methods for gas turbine were discussed in detail.Aiming at the features of the M701F gas-steam combined cycle unit in Huizhou LNG power plant,a gas turbine life assessment method based on equivalent operation time analysis was put forward.The calculation result of an example shows that the equivalent operation time analysis method is a simple and practical assessment method.

  20. Experimental modeling of Wiener filters estimated on an operating diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, Julie; Leclère, Quentin; Parizet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Sound source separation in diesel engines can be implemented using a Wiener filter, or spectrofilter, that can extract the combustion contribution in the overall noise. In this study this filter characterizes the transfer function between a cylinder pressure and a measurement point. An engine is characterized by several filters (one for each cylinder) which are estimated for many operating conditions (engine speed and load). The purpose of this work is to obtain an averaged spectrofilter allowing the synthesis of combustion noise in all operating conditions. This synthesis should be accurate enough to be used in perceptive studies. In order to refine the spectrofilter estimation in the medium frequency band, this paper consists in taking advantage of the multitude of information given by the estimations from different operating conditions. To do this, an experimental model is adopted so modal parameters are extracted from a great number of measured filters. Different procedures such as the ESPRIT method or the LSCE method (modal analysis) are used to decompose the impulse responses on a complex exponential basis. The spectrofilters estimated from different operating conditions are analyzed and compared in this reduced basis, in order to identify the underlying structural parameters. These parameters are compared to the results of an experimental characterization of the stopped engine. The accuracy of the synthesis (number of components of the filter) is an important issue because these filters will be used in perceptive applications, extracting combustion noises. This paper is an extended version of the work initially presented at the conference Surveillance 6 in November 2011 in Compiègne, France [1] (J. Drouet, Quentin Leclere, Etienne Parizet. Experimental modeling of Wiener filters estimated on an operating diesel engine, in: Proceedings of the Surveillance, vol. 6, Compi'egne, France, 2011.).

  1. Green procurement of buildings: estimation of environmental impact and life-cycle cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sterner, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on environmental impact reduction and life-cycle cost estimations in building procurement. The aim for the work presented in this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of whether costs and environmental impact of a building can be integrated in a, from the users perspective, practical model applied for tender evaluation. The model should also be able to use as a base of evaluating different solutions in the design phase. Specifically this means to: Increase knowledg...

  2. [DOPPS estimate of patient life years attributable to modifiable hemodialysis practices in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaud, Bernard; Combe, Christian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Eichleay, Margaret A; Pisoni, Ronald L; Port, Friedrich K

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we used a prevalent cross-sectional sample of French hemodialysis patients from Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) 2 (2002-2004) to determine the percentage of patients whose values failed to meet targets in six different areas of hemodialysis practice (dialysis dose, anemia, serum phosphorus (PO(4)), serum calcium (Ca), serum albumin and catheter use for vascular access). Cox survival models, with adjustments for patient characteristics, were used for these analyses to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HR). Based on the mortality HR, the fraction of patients outside each target and the total HD population in France, we estimated the number of patient life years that could potentially be gained if every chronic, in-center hemodialysis patient in France who is currently outside of the specified target was able to achieve it. The proportion of patients failing to meet one of the six practice targets in France varied from 15% (dialysis dose) to 75% (albumin) while the percentage of patients complying with all six targets was restricted to 1.2%. The relative risk of mortality (RR) associated with being outside these targets varied from 1.12 to 1.46. Based on these two measures the life-years survival was estimated. The projected number of patients and life years potentially gained from adherence to the six targets was estimated close to 10,600 years-patient. In conclusion, this study suggests large opportunities to improve hemodialysis patient care in France still exist. Compliance with two major practice targets, such as albumin and restriction of catheter use will save highly significant life years of hemodialysis patient. Implementing and strict adherence to national and international guidelines should serve as a basic inspiration for continual improvement of hemodialysis patient care.

  3. What are the elements required to improve exposure estimates in life cycle assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim to identify and discuss priority elements required to improve exposure estimates in Life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA aims at guiding decision-support to minimize damages on resources, humans, and ecosystems which incur via providing society with products and services. Potential...... human toxicity and ecosystem toxicity of chemicals posed by different product life cycle stages are characterized in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. Exposure and effect quantification as part of LCIA toxicity characterization faces numerous challenges related to inventory analysis (e.......g. number and quantity of chemicals emitted), substance-specific modelling (e.g. organics, inorganics, nano-materials) in various environments and time horizons, human and ecosystem exposure quantification (e.g. exposed organisms and exposure pathways), and toxicity end-points (e.g. carcinogenicity...

  4. Integrating Optimal Heterogeneous Sensor Deployment and Operation Strategies for Dynamic Origin-Destination Demand Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Senlai; Guo, Yuntao; Chen, Jingxu; Li, Dawei; Cheng, Lin

    2017-08-02

    Most existing network sensor location problem (NSLP) models are designed to identify the number of sensors with fixed costs and installation locations, and sensors are assumed to be installed permanently. However, sometimes sensors are carried by individuals to collect traffic data measurements manually at fixed locations. Hence, their duration of operation for which traffic data measurements are collected is limited, and their costs are not fixed as they are correlated with the duration of operation. This paper proposes a NSLP model that integrates optimal heterogeneous sensor deployment and operation strategies for the dynamic O-D demand estimates under budget constraints. The deployment strategy consists of the numbers of link and node sensors and their installation locations. The operation strategy includes sensors' start time and duration of operation, which has not been addressed in previous studies. An algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model. Numerical experiments performed on a network from a part of Chennai, India show that the proposed model can identify the optimal heterogeneous sensor deployment and operation strategies with the maximum dynamic O-D demand estimation accuracy.

  5. Life Expectancy by Education, Income and Occupation in Germany: Estimations Using the Longitudinal Survival Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Luy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates for differences in life expectancy (LE by socio-economic position (SEP, that can be assessed in an international context and are comprehensive in terms of considering different SEP dimensions, are missing for the German population so far. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap by providing estimates for differences in LE by education, household income, work status and vocational class. The lack of national mortality data by SEP required an innovative methodological approach to estimate LE from survey data with a mortality follow-up. The main strengths of the method are the low demand on the data, its simple applicability and the estimation of a set of age-specific probabilities of dying. We employed the method to the German Life Expectancy Survey and estimated period life tables for 45 male and 32 female SEP subpopulations. The results show striking differences in LE across all analysed SEP indicators. Among men, LE at age 40 ranges by more than five years between the lowest and highest household income quartiles, more than six years between individuals with low and high education, around ten years across the work status groups, and almost 15 years across the vocational classes. The proportion of those who reach the classic pension age of 65 years also varies considerably, as does the remaining LE at this age. The corresponding differences among women are smaller, yet still notable. The results yield an interesting finding for the ongoing discussion about the various consequences of an increased pension age. Moreover, they provide policy-makers, doctors, researchers and public health workers with insights into Germany’s most disadvantaged SEP subpopulations and the potential extent of their disadvantages in terms of longevity and mortality.

  6. Uncertainty quantification metrics for whole product life cycle cost estimates in aerospace innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, O.; Shehab, E.; Erkoyuncu, J.

    2015-08-01

    The lack of defensible methods for quantifying cost estimate uncertainty over the whole product life cycle of aerospace innovations such as propulsion systems or airframes poses a significant challenge to the creation of accurate and defensible cost estimates. Based on the axiomatic definition of uncertainty as the actual prediction error of the cost estimate, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of metrics used for the uncertainty quantification of cost estimates based on a literature review, an evaluation of publicly funded projects such as part of the CORDIS or Horizon 2020 programs, and an analysis of established approaches used by organizations such NASA, the U.S. Department of Defence, the ESA, and various commercial companies. The metrics are categorized based on their foundational character (foundations), their use in practice (state-of-practice), their availability for practice (state-of-art) and those suggested for future exploration (state-of-future). Insights gained were that a variety of uncertainty quantification metrics exist whose suitability depends on the volatility of available relevant information, as defined by technical and cost readiness level, and the number of whole product life cycle phases the estimate is intended to be valid for. Information volatility and number of whole product life cycle phases can hereby be considered as defining multi-dimensional probability fields admitting various uncertainty quantification metric families with identifiable thresholds for transitioning between them. The key research gaps identified were the lacking guidance grounded in theory for the selection of uncertainty quantification metrics and lacking practical alternatives to metrics based on the Central Limit Theorem. An innovative uncertainty quantification framework consisting of; a set-theory based typology, a data library, a classification system, and a corresponding input-output model are put forward to address this research gap as the basis

  7. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperature (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  8. Pebble Bed Reactor Power Systems for Lunar Outposts: Long Operation Life and End-of Life Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Schriener, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    The Pellet Bed Reactor(PeBR) and power system for supporting future lunar outposts offer many desirable design, operation and safety features and address post operation storage of spent nuclear fuel. In addition to its long, full power operation life of 66 year, the PeBR is launched without fuel and loaded after placement below grade on the lunar surface with spherical fuel pellets, designed to fully contain fission products. The fuel pellets(~1.0 cm dia.) are launched separately in subcritical canisters. The post-operation PeBR is stored below grade for > 300 year to allow the radioactivity in the spent fuel to decay to a sufficiently low level. The PeBR power system, designed for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion, nominally generates ~100 kWe at a thermal efficiency of ~ 21%. In addition to the sectored reactor core, it uses three Closed Brayton Cycle loops with centrifugal flow turbo-machines for energy conversion and He-Xe(40 g/mol) binary gas mixture working fluid and reactor coolant.

  9. Support vector machine based estimation of remaining useful life: current research status and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Li, Yan Feng; Zhang, Longlong; Liu, Zhiliang [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2015-01-15

    Estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) is helpful to manage life cycles of machines and to reduce maintenance cost. Support vector machine (SVM) is a promising algorithm for estimation of RUL because it can easily process small training sets and multi-dimensional data. Many SVM based methods have been proposed to predict RUL of some key components. We did a literature review related to SVM based RUL estimation within a decade. The references reviewed are classified into two categories: improved SVM algorithms and their applications to RUL estimation. The latter category can be further divided into two types: one, to predict the condition state in the future and then build a relationship between state and RUL; two, to establish a direct relationship between current state and RUL. However, SVM is seldom used to track the degradation process and build an accurate relationship between the current health condition state and RUL. Based on the above review and summary, this paper points out that the ability to continually improve SVM, and obtain a novel idea for RUL prediction using SVM will be future works.

  10. Estimating truck operating costs for domestic trips – case studies from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoukopoulos Eleftherios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector represents a vital component of national economies and has significant impacts on productivity and social welfare. In 2012, the transport sector in Europe was estimated to account for 3.7% of the European Gross Domestic Product (GDP and 5.1% for employment. Road transport proves to be the predominant mode for moving goods within Europe holding a share of approximately 45.8% in 2012 (in ton-kms. In Greece, the share of road freight transport is significantly higher (98% indicating the importance of this sector for the Greek economy. To this end and considering the existing needs of road freight transport operators in Greece, the objective of this research is to establish an analytical and documented basis for estimating the operating cost of a truck on specific urban or national freight transport routes. To achieve this goal, an extended literature review has been conducted resulting in the identification of the main components comprising the total truck operating cost, which were then updated and validated through a series of personal interviews with selected road freight transport professionals. An excel-based application tool was also developed in order to facilitate operating cost estimates for different cases, through selection of the proper values of the relevant parameters. The resulting tool was used to analyse four test cases, which demonstrate the tool’s usability and applicability. Results from this analysis have been also validated by industry experts and they reflect real-world transport scenarios.

  11. Ensemble Kalman Filtering with Residual Nudging: An Extension to State Estimation Problems with Nonlinear Observation Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is an efficient algorithm for many data assimilation problems. In certain circumstances, however, divergence of the EnKF might be spotted. In previous studies, the authors proposed an observation-space-based strategy, called residual nudging, to improve the stability of the EnKF when dealing with linear observation operators. The main idea behind residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the distances (misfits) between the real observations and the simulated ones of the state estimates, in the hope that by doing so one may be able to obtain better estimation accuracy. In the present study, residual nudging is extended and modified in order to handle nonlinear observation operators. Such extension and modification result in an iterative filtering framework that, under suitable conditions, is able to achieve the objective of residual nudging for data assimilation problems with nonlinear observation operators. The 40-dimensional Lorenz-96 model is used to illustrate the performance of the iterative filter. Numerical results show that, while a normal EnKF may diverge with nonlinear observation operators, the proposed iterative filter remains stable and leads to reasonable estimation accuracy under various experimental settings.

  12. An innovative multivariate tool for fuel consumption and costs estimation of agricultural operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Guerrieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of operating costs of agricultural and forestry machineries is a key factor in both planning agricultural policies and farm management. Few works have tried to estimate operating costs and the produced models are normally based on deterministic approaches. Conversely, in the statistical model randomness is present and variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions. In this study, for the first time, a multivariate statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS was adopted to predict the fuel consumption and costs of six agricultural operations such as: ploughing, harrowing, fertilization, sowing, weed control and shredding. The prediction was conducted on two steps: first of all few initial selected parameters (time per surface-area unit, maximum engine power, purchase price of the tractor and purchase price of the operating machinery were used to estimate the fuel consumption; then the predicted fuel consumption together with the initial parameters were used to estimate the operational costs. Since the obtained models were based on an input dataset very heterogeneous, these resulted to be extremely efficient and so generalizable and robust. In details the results show prediction values in the test with r always ≥ 0.91. Thus, the approach may results extremely useful for both farmers (in terms of economic advantages and at institutional level (representing an innovative and efficient tool for planning future Rural Development Programmes and the Common Agricultural Policy. In light of these advantages the proposed approach may as well be implemented on a web platform and made available to all the stakeholders.

  13. Pointwise estimates of the Green's function of a second order differential operator with the variable coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Tetikoglu, Fatih Sabahattin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the Green's function of the second order differential operator Ax defined by the formula Axu =-a (x )ux x(x )+δ u (x ), δ ≥0 , a (x )=a (x +2 π ), x ∈ℝ1 with domain D (Ax)={ u (x ):u (x ),u '(x ),u″(x )∈C (ℝ1),u (x )=u (x +2 π ), x ∈ℝ1,∫0 2 π u (x )d x =0 } is presented. The estimates for the Green's function and it's derivative are obtained. The positivity of the operator Ax is proved.

  14. Wind turbine blade life-time assessment model for preventive planning of operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M) practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair...

  15. Wind Turbine Blade Life-Time Assessment Model for Preventive Planning of Operation and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M) practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair...

  16. Estimation of Remaining Useful Life of Bearings Based on Nested Dichotomy Classifier – A Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Satishkumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rolling element bearings play a vital role for maintaining the reliability metrics in all rotating machineries. The downtime due to these bearing failures are now in increasing trend. In general manufacturing environment most of the time the bearings are replaced only after an indication or symptom due to the complexities of deployments for condition monitoring techniques. This paper emphasis on estimating the remaining useful life of bearing using Nested dichotomy classifier. Vibration signals were acquired for a bearing from day one of its operation till it fails naturally through a piezoelectric accelerometer and the features are extracted using the defined statistical features. The best contributing features are selected and classified using the Nested dichotomy, data near balanced nested dichotomy and class balanced nested dichotomy classifiers. The effectiveness of these classifiers was analyzed and compared.

  17. Environmental Control and Life Support Integration Strategy for 6-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Tressler, Chad H.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) crew complement has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members. In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the t OS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station

  18. A priori estimates for nonvariational operators modeled on Hörmander's vector fields with drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bramanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For a nonvariational operator structured on Hörmander's vector fields with drift, where the matrix of coffiecients is real, symmetric and uniformly positive, we prove local a priori estimates on the second order derivatives with respect to the vector fields, in Hölder spaces if the coecients are Holder continuous, in Lp spaces if the coefficients are bounded, measurable and locally VMO.

  19. A priori estimates for nonvariational operators modeled on Hörmander's vector fields with drift

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Bramanti

    2013-01-01

    For a nonvariational operator structured on Hörmander's vector fields with drift, where the matrix of coffiecients is real, symmetric and uniformly positive, we prove local a priori estimates on the second order derivatives with respect to the vector fields, in Hölder spaces if the coecients are Holder continuous, in Lp spaces if the coefficients are bounded, measurable and locally VMO.

  20. Estimating the Value of Life, Injury, and Travel Time Saved Using a Stated Preference Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroomand, Naghmeh; Jenkins, Glenn P

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fatality over the period 2010-2014 from automobile accidents in North Cyprus is 2.75 times greater than the average for the EU. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments will need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. The objective of this study is to provide local estimates of the value of a statistical life and injury along with the value of time savings. These are among the parameter values needed for the evaluation of the change in the expected incidence of automotive accidents and time savings brought about by such projects. In this study we conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of automobile drivers in North Cyprus for improved travel times, travel costs, and safety. The choice of route was examined using mixed logit models to obtain the marginal utilities associated with each attribute of the routes that consumers choose. These estimates were used to assess the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid fatalities and injuries and to save travel time. We then used the results to obtain community-wide estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) saved, the value of injury (VI) prevented, and the value per hour of travel time saved. The estimates for the VSL range from €315,293 to €1,117,856 and the estimates of VI from € 5,603 to € 28,186. These values are consistent, after adjusting for differences in incomes, with the median results of similar studies done for EU countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating Quantile Families of Loss Distributions for Non-Life Insurance Modelling via L-Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W. Peters

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different classes of loss models in non-life insurance settings. It then overviews the class of Tukey transform loss models that have not yet been widely considered in non-life insurance modelling, but offer opportunities to produce flexible skewness and kurtosis features often required in loss modelling. In addition, these loss models admit explicit quantile specifications which make them directly relevant for quantile based risk measure calculations. We detail various parameterisations and sub-families of the Tukey transform based models, such as the g-and-h, g-and-k and g-and-j models, including their properties of relevance to loss modelling. One of the challenges that are amenable to practitioners when fitting such models is to perform robust estimation of the model parameters. In this paper we develop a novel, efficient, and robust procedure for estimating the parameters of this family of Tukey transform models, based on L-moments. It is shown to be more efficient than the current state of the art estimation methods for such families of loss models while being simple to implement for practical purposes.

  2. High-dimensional Sparse Precision Matrix Estimation via Sparse Column Inverse Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for estimating sparse precision matrices in the high dimensional setting. This procedure applies a novel Sparse Column-wise Inverse Operator (SCIO) to modified sample covariance matrices. We establish the convergence rates of this procedure under various matrix norms. Under the Frobenius norm loss, we prove theoretical guarantees on using cross validation to pick data-driven tunning parameters. Another important advantage of this estimator is its efficient computation for large-scale problems, using a path-following coordinate descent algorithm we provide. Numerical merits of our estimator are also illustrated using simulated and real datasets. In particular, this method is found to perform favorably on analyzing an HIV brain tissue dataset and an ADHD resting fMRI dataset.

  3. Estimating Periodic Software Rejuvenation Schedules under Discrete-Time Operation Circumstance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazuki; Dohi, Tadashi; Kaio, Naoto

    Software rejuvenation is a preventive and proactive solution that is particularly useful for counteracting the phenomenon of software aging. In this article, we consider periodic software rejuvenation models based on the expected cost per unit time in the steady state under discrete-time operation circumstance. By applying the discrete renewal reward processes, we describe the stochastic behavior of a telecommunication billing application with a degradation mode, and determine the optimal periodic software rejuvenation schedule minimizing the expected cost. Similar to the earlier work by the same authors, we develop a statistically non-parametric algorithm to estimate the optimal software rejuvenation schedule, by applying the discrete total time on test concept. Numerical examples are presented to estimate the optimal software rejuvenation schedules from the simulation data. We discuss the asymptotic behavior of estimators developed in this paper.

  4. Cash flows: The Gap Between Reported and Estimated Operating Cash Flow Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The FASB and the IASB recently released a joint Discussion Paper “Preliminary Views on FinancialStatement Presentation” (International Accounting Standards Board 2008, which contains a major proposalrequiring companies to report operating cash flows using the direct method and it also requires that theindirect method of calculating operating cash flows be disclosed in the notes. This is a departure from currentrules and has generated considerable debate among respondents’ comment letters on the Discussion Paper.This paper adds to this debate by providing some evidence as to the size of the gap users confront when usingthe indirect method to estimate the major operating cash flow elements, such as cash collected fromcustomers and cash paid to suppliers. Using a sample of Australian companies which reported operating cashflows using the direct method, and presented the indirect method in the notes, we find significant differencesbetween reported and estimated figures for both cash collected from customers and cash paid to suppliers.These findings support the discussion paper’s proposal that companies be required to report cash flows usingboth the direct and indirect methods.

  5. Estimation of the laser cutting operating cost by support vector regression methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Radović, Aleksandar; Šarkoćević, Živče; Petković, Dalibor; Alizamir, Meysam

    2016-09-01

    Laser cutting is a popular manufacturing process utilized to cut various types of materials economically. The operating cost is affected by laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, nozzle diameter and focus point position as well as the workpiece material. In this article, the process factors investigated were: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. The aim of this work is to relate the operating cost to the process parameters mentioned above. CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel of medical grade AISI316L has been investigated. The main goal was to analyze the operating cost through the laser power, cutting speed, air pressure, focal point position and material thickness. Since the laser operating cost is a complex, non-linear task, soft computing optimization algorithms can be used. Intelligent soft computing scheme support vector regression (SVR) was implemented. The performance of the proposed estimator was confirmed with the simulation results. The SVR results are then compared with artificial neural network and genetic programing. According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved through the SVR compared to other soft computing methodologies. The new optimization methods benefit from the soft computing capabilities of global optimization and multiobjective optimization rather than choosing a starting point by trial and error and combining multiple criteria into a single criterion.

  6. Characteristics of fishing operations, environment and life history contributing to small cetacean bycatch in the northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Brown

    Full Text Available Fisheries bycatch is a key threat to cetacean species globally. Managing the impact requires an understanding of the conditions under which animals are caught and the sections of the population affected. We used observer data collected on an albacore tuna gillnet fishery in the northeast Atlantic, to assess operational and environmental factors contributing to bycatch of common and striped dolphins, using generalised linear models and model averaging. Life history demographics of the captured animals were also investigated. In both species, young males dominated the catch. The age ratio of common dolphins was significantly different from that estimated for the population in the region, based on life tables (G = 17.1, d.f. = 2, p = 0.002. Skewed age and sex ratios may reflect varying vulnerability to capture, through differences in behaviour or segregation in populations. Adult females constituted the second largest portion of the bycatch for both species, with potential consequences for population sustainability. Depth was the most important parameter influencing bycatch of both species and reflected what is known about common and striped dolphin habitat use in the region as the probability of catching common dolphins decreased, and striped dolphins increased, with increasing depth. Striped dolphin capture was similarly influenced by the extent to which operations were conducted in daylight, with the probability of capture increasing with increased operations in the pre-sunset and post-sunrise period, potentially driven by increased ability of observers to record animals during daylight operations, or by diurnal movements increasing contact with the fishery. Effort, based on net length and soak time, had little influence on the probability of capturing either species. Our results illustrate the importance of assessing the demographic of the animals captured during observer programmes and, perhaps more importantly, suggest that effort

  7. Estimation of social value of statistical life using willingness-to-pay method in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Rational decision making regarding the safety related investment programs greatly depends on the economic valuation of traffic crashes. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the social value of statistical life in the city of Nanjing in China. A stated preference survey was conducted to investigate travelers' willingness to pay for traffic risk reduction. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at stations, shopping centers, schools, and parks in different districts in the urban area of Nanjing. The respondents were categorized into two groups, including motorists and non-motorists. Both the binary logit model and mixed logit model were developed for the two groups of people. The results revealed that the mixed logit model is superior to the fixed coefficient binary logit model. The factors that significantly affect people's willingness to pay for risk reduction include income, education, gender, age, drive age (for motorists), occupation, whether the charged fees were used to improve private vehicle equipment (for motorists), reduction in fatality rate, and change in travel cost. The Monte Carlo simulation method was used to generate the distribution of value of statistical life (VSL). Based on the mixed logit model, the VSL had a mean value of 3,729,493 RMB ($586,610) with a standard deviation of 2,181,592 RMB ($343,142) for motorists; and a mean of 3,281,283 RMB ($505,318) with a standard deviation of 2,376,975 RMB ($366,054) for non-motorists. Using the tax system to illustrate the contribution of different income groups to social funds, the social value of statistical life was estimated. The average social value of statistical life was found to be 7,184,406 RMB ($1,130,032).

  8. Application of Mathematica Software for Estimate the Fatigue Life Time Duration of Mechanical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Florin Minda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present how we can use Mathematica to solve the equations types usually used to determinate the maximum stress cycles that can be support by a mechanical system until he will be out of use. To illustrate the type of equations used in specialized literature to estimate fatigue life time duration was chosen a specific case of mechanical structure applied to fatigue. It is about lever button of runner blade mechanism of Kaplan turbine, that in function support a very intensive alternative strain.

  9. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY lost in 2006 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnamoorthy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: During 2006, chikungunya emerged as a major ever known epidemic in India. Disability adjusted life years (DALY is an appropriate summary measure of population health to express epidemiological burden of diseases. We estimated the burden due to suspected chikungunya using DALYs for the first time and compared between the states and also with the burden due to other vector-borne diseases in India. The economic burden was also assessed in terms of productivity loss.Methods: Data on the reported cases of fever/suspected cases of chikungunya from different states during 2006 in India were used. Years lived with disability (YLD were calculated for non-fatal cases to estimate DALY. Since the disability weight for chikungunya is not available, the weights available for rheumatic arthritis, comparable to the disease outcome of chikungunya were used for the estimation. The burden was estimated for both acute and chronic cases. It is considered that about 11.5% of cases were reported to have extended morbidity with persisting arthralgia. For acute disease, the average duration of illness was considered to be nine days and for chronic cases it was six months on an average. The productivity loss due to income foregone by the working class was calculated using minimum official wage.Results: National burden of chikungunya was estimated to be 25,588 DALYs lost during 2006 epidemic, with an overall burden of 45.26 DALYs per million. It varied from 0.01 to 265.62 per million in different states. Karnataka alone contributed as high as 55% of the national burden. Persistent arthralgia was found to impose heavy burden, accounting for 69% of the total DALYs. The productivity loss in terms of income foregone was estimated to be a minimum of Rs. 391 million. Interpretation & conclusion: The chikungunya epidemic in the year 2006 imposed heavy epidemiological burden and productivity loss to the community. The burden of chikungunya in terms of

  10. Phase Space Similarity as a Signature for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis and Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction from vibration signal is still a challenge in the area of fault diagnosis and remaining useful life (RUL estimation of rotary machine. In this paper, a novel feature called phase space similarity (PSS is introduced for health condition monitoring of bearings. Firstly, the acquired signal is transformed to the phase space through the phase space reconstruction (PSR. The similar vibration always exists in the phase space due to the comparable evolution of the dynamics that are characteristic of the system state. Secondly, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC is employed to calculate the PSS between bearing data with different states. Based on the PSS, a fault pattern recognition algorithm, a bearing fault size prediction algorithm, and a RUL estimation algorithm are introduced to analyze the experimental signal. Results have shown the effectiveness of the PSS as it can better grasp the nature and regularity of the signals.

  11. Variability of exposure and estimation of cumulative exposure in a manually operated coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuya, S.H.D.; Bratveit, M.; Mwaiselage, J.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Center for International Health

    2006-10-15

    This study aims at estimating variability in exposure to respirable dust and assessing whether the a priori grouping by job team is appropriate for an exposure-response study on respiratory effects among workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania. Furthermore, estimated exposure levels were used to calculate cumulative exposure. Full-shift personal respirable dust samples (n = 204) were collected from 141 randomly chosen workers at underground and surface work sites. The geometric mean exposure for respirable dust varied from 0.07 mg m{sup -3} for office workers to 1.96 mg m{sup -3} for the development team. The analogous range of respirable quartz exposure was 0.006-0.073 mg m{sup -3}. Variance components were estimated using random effect models. For most job teams the within-worker variance component was considerably higher than the between-worker variance component. For respirable dust the estimated attenuation of the linear exposure-response relationship was low (5.9%) when grouping by job team. Grouping by job team was considered appropriate for studying the association between current dust exposure and respiratory effects. Based on the estimated worker-specific mean exposure in the job teams, the arithmetic mean cumulative exposure for the 299 workers who participated in the epidemiological part of the study was 38.1 mg. yr m{sup -3} for respirable dust and 2.0 mg. yr m{sup -3} for quartz.

  12. Pose estimation quality assessment for intra-operative image guidance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Adrian; Kleinszig, Gerhard; John, Adrian; Fernandez, Alberto; Cardelino, Juan

    2013-03-01

    In trauma and orthopedic surgery screw assessment and trajectory prediction using two-dimensional X-ray images is very difficult due to projected 3D information. However screw assessment can be done with multiple X-ray images. If the X-ray image contains the projected implant geometry it can be used as global coordinate reference. Thereby multiple independent X-ray images can be synchronized by estimating the implant pose in each single image. Consequently high accuracy pose estimation is fundamental. To measure the outcome quality an evaluation process has been designed. The evaluation process investigates in its first step several clinical intra-operative anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) X-ray images which have been analyzed using a manual pose estimation method. With the manual method the six 3D parameters of the implant pose are estimated. These parameters define as well the camera pose relative to the implant. Based on the pose parameters of all clinical cases the capturing range for typical AP and ML images is statistically defined. The implant was attached to a phantom with 16 steel balls which allows to calculate the ground truth pose. Afterwards several X-ray images of the phantom are taken within the statistically defined capturing range. With the known ground truth different pose estimation methods can be compared. For each method the estimation quality can be calculated. In addition this error calculation can be used to adjust the initial manually determined capturing range. This paper explains the error evaluation process and describes how to validate pose estimation methods for clinical applications.

  13. Estimating the value of life and injury for pedestrians using a stated preference framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroomand, Naghmeh; Jenkins, Glenn P

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of pedestrian death over the period 2010 to 2014 per 1000,000 in North Cyprus is about 2.5 times that of the EU, with 10.5 times more pedestrian road injuries than deaths. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. We conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of pedestrians in North Cyprus for improved walking times, pedestrian costs, and safety. The choice of route was examined using mixed logit models to obtain the marginal utilities associated with each attribute of the routes that consumers chose. These were used to estimate the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to save walking time and to avoid pedestrian fatalities and injuries. We then used the results to obtain community-wide estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) saved, the value of an injury (VI) prevented, and the value per hour of walking time saved. The estimate of the VSL was €699,434 and the estimate of VI was €20,077. These values are consistent, after adjusting for differences in incomes, with the median results of similar studies done for EU countries. The estimated value of time to pedestrians is €7.20 per person hour. The ratio of deaths to injuries is much higher for pedestrians than for road accidents, and this is completely consistent with the higher estimated WTP to avoid a pedestrian accident than to avoid a car accident. The value of time of €7.20 is quite high relative to the wages earned. Findings provide a set of information on the VRR for fatalities and injuries and the value of pedestrian time that is critical for conducing ex ante appraisals of investments to improve pedestrian safety. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  15. Functional Status and Quality of Life in Survivors of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation After the Norwood Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland-Little, Joshua M; Uzark, Karen; Yu, Sunkyung; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C

    2017-06-01

    Infants who require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after a Norwood operation are at increased risk for early and late death compared with patients who do not require ECMO post-Norwood. Little is known about the effect that ECMO post-Norwood has on functional status and quality of life among long-term survivors. We prospectively evaluated functional status and health-related quality of life in 12 surviving patients (cases) and 19 corresponding patients (controls) from a previous retrospective case-control assessment of long-term survival in patients requiring ECMO post-Norwood. Functional status was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II, and health-related quality of life was assessed with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) core and cardiac modules. There were no differences in demographics, extracardiac or genetic anomalies, or age at follow-up assessment between ECMO cases and non-ECMO controls. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II scores were comparable between groups, with both groups demonstrating function in the normal range in all four domains tested. The only difference in PedsQL scores between cases and controls was perceived physical appearance, which was lower among ECMO survivors by both patient and proxy report. PedsQL scores of both groups were comparable to published scores for patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease but generally lower than scores for the healthy population. The requirement for ECMO support after a Norwood operation does not appear to significantly affect functional status or quality of life among the subset of patients who achieve long-term survival. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Wegner Estimate and the Integrated Density of States for some Random Operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J M Combes; P D Hislop; Frédéric Klopp; Shu Nakamura

    2002-02-01

    The integrated density of states (IDS) for random operators is an important function describing many physical characteristics of a random system. Properties of the IDS are derived from the Wegner estimate that describes the influence of finite-volume perturbations on a background system. In this paper, we present a simple proof of the Wegner estimate applicable to a wide variety of random perturbations of deterministic background operators. The proof yields the correct volume dependence of the upper bound. This implies the local Hölder continuity of the integrated density of states at energies in the unperturbed spectral gap. The proof depends on the -theory of the spectral shift function (SSF), for ≥ 1, applicable to pairs of self-adjoint operators whose difference is in the trace ideal $\\mathcal{I}_p$, for 0 < ≤ 1. We present this and other results on the SSF due to other authors. Under an additional condition of the single-site potential, local Hölder continuity is proved at all energies. Finally, we present extensions of this work to random potentials with nonsign definite single-site potentials.

  17. Pain from the life cycle perspective: Evaluation and Measurement through psychophysical methods of category estimation and magnitude estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Silva, Talita de Cássia Raminelli da; Siqueira, Hilze Benigno de Oliveira Moura; Saltareli, Simone; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; Hortense, Priscilla

    2016-08-18

    to describe acute and chronic pain from the perspective of the life cycle. participants: 861 people in pain. The Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (MPES) was used. in the category estimation method the highest descriptors of chronic pain for children/ adolescents were "Annoying" and for adults "Uncomfortable". The highest descriptors of acute pain for children/adolescents was "Complicated"; and for adults was "Unbearable". In magnitude estimation method, the highest descriptors of chronic pain was "Desperate" and for descriptors of acute pain was "Terrible". the MPES is a reliable scale it can be applied during different stages of development. descrever a dor aguda e a crônica na perspectiva do ciclo vital. Métodos: participaram 861 pessoas com dor. Foi utilizada a Escala Multidimensional de Avaliação da Dor (EMADOR). Resultados: no método da estimação de categoria o descritor da dor crônica de maior atribuição para crianças e adolescentes foi "Chata" e para adultos foi "Desconfortável". Os descritores de maior atribuição para dor aguda em crianças e adolescentes foram "Complicada" e em adultos "Insuportável". No método de estimação de magnitude, o descritor de maior atribuição na dor crônica foi "Atormentadora" e na dor aguda foi "Terrível". a EMADOR é uma escala confiável e pode ser utilizada nas diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento humano. la descripción del dolor agudo y crónico desde las perspectiva del ciclo de vida. participaron 861 personas con dolor. Se utilizó la Escala Multidimensional de Evaluación del Dolor (EMEDOR). en el método de estimación de categoría el descriptor de dolor crónico más alto para niños y adolescentes fue de Molesto y para adultos fue Incómodo. Los descriptores mayores de dolor agudo para niños y adolescentes fueron Complejo y para adultos Insoportable. En el método de estimación de magnitud, el mayor descriptor de dolor crónico fueron Atormentador y el mayor de dolor agudo fue Terrible

  18. FEA Based Tool Life Quantity Estimation of Hot Forging Dies Under Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Schäfer, F.; Hadifi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hot forging dies are exposed during service to a combination of cyclic thermo-mechanical, tribological and chemical loads. Besides abrasive and adhesive wear on the die surface, fatigue crack initiation with subsequent fracture is one of the most frequent causes of failure. In order to extend the tool life, the finite element analysis (FEA) may serve as a means for process design and process optimisation. So far the FEA based estimation of the production cycles until initial cracking is limited as tool material behaviour due to repeated loading is not captured with the required accuracy. Material models which are able to account for cyclic effects are not verified for the fatigue life predictions of forging dies. Furthermore fatigue properties from strain controlled fatigue tests of relevant hot work steels are to date not available to allow for a close-to-reality fatigue life prediction. Two industrial forging processes, where clear fatigue crack initiation has been observed are considered for a fatigue analysis. For this purpose the relevant tool components are modelled with elasto-plastic material behaviour. The predicted sites, where crack initiation occurs, agree with the ones observed on the real die component.

  19. Estimation of intra-operative brain shift based on constrained Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarami, M; Suratgar, A A; Talebi, H A

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the problem of estimation of brain shift is addressed by which the accuracy of neuronavigation systems can be improved. To this end, the actual brain shift is considered as a Gaussian random vector with a known mean and an unknown covariance. Then, brain surface imaging is employed together with solutions of linear elastic model and the best estimation is found using constrained Kalman filter (CKF). Moreover, a recursive method (RCKF) is presented, the computational cost of which in the operating room is significantly lower than CKF, because it is not required to compute inverse of any large matrix. Finally, the theory is verified by the simulation results, which show the superiority of the proposed method as compared to one existing method. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Projected metastable Markov processes and their estimation with observable operator models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao, E-mail: hao.wu@fu-berlin.de; Prinz, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: jan-hendrik.prinz@fu-berlin.de; Noé, Frank, E-mail: frank.noe@fu-berlin.de [DFG Research Center Matheon, Free University Berlin, Arnimallee 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-10-14

    The determination of kinetics of high-dimensional dynamical systems, such as macromolecules, polymers, or spin systems, is a difficult and generally unsolved problem — both in simulation, where the optimal reaction coordinate(s) are generally unknown and are difficult to compute, and in experimental measurements, where only specific coordinates are observable. Markov models, or Markov state models, are widely used but suffer from the fact that the dynamics on a coarsely discretized state spaced are no longer Markovian, even if the dynamics in the full phase space are. The recently proposed projected Markov models (PMMs) are a formulation that provides a description of the kinetics on a low-dimensional projection without making the Markovianity assumption. However, as yet no general way of estimating PMMs from data has been available. Here, we show that the observed dynamics of a PMM can be exactly described by an observable operator model (OOM) and derive a PMM estimator based on the OOM learning.

  1. The Effect of Infrastructure Sharing in Estimating Operations Cost of Future Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace industry are extremely serious about reducing the cost and improving the performance of launch vehicles both manned or unmanned. In the aerospace industry, sharing infrastructure for manufacturing more than one type spacecraft is becoming a trend to achieve economy of scale. An example is the Boeing Decatur facility where both Delta II and Delta IV launch vehicles are made. The author is not sure how Boeing estimates the costs of each spacecraft made in the same facility. Regardless of how a contractor estimates the cost, NASA in its popular cost estimating tool, NASA Air force Cost Modeling (NAFCOM) has to have a method built in to account for the effect of infrastructure sharing. Since there is no provision in the most recent version of NAFCOM2002 to take care of this, it has been found by the Engineering Cost Community at MSFC that the tool overestimates the manufacturing cost by as much as 30%. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess the impact of infrastructure sharing so that better operations cost estimates may be made.

  2. E2CAV, Pavement layer thickness estimation system based on image texture operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Barrios Arcila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Public roads are an essential part of economic progress in any country; they are fundamental for increasing the efficiency on transportation of goods and are a remarkable source of employment. For its part, Colombia has few statistics on the condition of its roads; according with INVIAS the state of the roads in Colombia can be classified as “Very Good” (21.1%, “Good” (34.7%, and “Regular” or “Bad” (43.46%. Thus, from the point of view of pavement rehabilitation, it is worth securing the quality of those roads classified as “Regular” or “Bad”. Objective: In this paper we propose a system to estimate the thickness of the pavement layer using image segmentation methods. The pavement thickness is currently estimated using radars of terrestrial penetration, extraction of cores or making pips; and it is part of structural parameters in the systems of evaluation of pavement. Method: The proposed system is composed of a vertical movement control unit, which introduces a video scope into a small hole in the pavement, then the images are obtained and unified in a laptop. Finally, this mosaic is processed through texture operators to estimate the thickness of the pavement. Users can select between the Otsu method and Gabor filters to process the image data. Results: The results include laboratory and field tests; these tests show errors of 5.03% and 11.3%, respectively, in the thickness of the pavement. Conclusion: The proposed system is an attractive option for local estimation of pavement thickness, with minimal structural damage and less impact on mobility and number of operators.

  3. Atmospheric conditions affecting seeing at St. Catherine: Estimation of operational time for NRIAG new telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhaimr, Sayed A.

    2017-06-01

    The study of the prevailing atmospheric conditions is an essential part of any site testing for a new telescope establishment. In this article, the meteorological parameters that affect the astronomical seeing at St. Catherine region, where a two candidate sites are located, are studied based on the available climate data. The complex topographical features of the region cause some differences between the weather at the nearest meteorological station and that at the candidate sites. This issue is illustrated through high resolution atmospheric modeling for short period (six days) as a case study. Finally, a preliminary estimation of operational hours for the telescope at the candidate sites is calculated.

  4. Fleet size estimation for spreading operation considering road geometry, weather and traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I-Jy Chien

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions(i.e. snow storm in winter time have caused significant travel disruptions and increased delay and traffic accidents. Snow plowing and salt spreading are the most common counter-measures for making our roads safer for motorists. To assist highway maintenance authorities with better planning and allocation of winter maintenance resources, this study introduces an analytical model to estimate the required number of trucks for spreading operation subjective to pre-specified service time constraints considering road geometry, weather and traffic. The complexity of the research problem lies in dealing with heterogeneous road geometry of road sections, truck capacities, spreading patterns, and traffic speeds under different weather conditions and time periods of an event. The proposed model is applied to two maintenance yards with seven road sections in New Jersey (USA, which demonstrates itself fairly practical to be implemented, considering diverse operational conditions.

  5. Nonparametric Fine Tuning of Mixtures: Application to Non-Life Insurance Claims Distribution Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardet, Laure; Patilea, Valentin

    When pricing a specific insurance premium, actuary needs to evaluate the claims cost distribution for the warranty. Traditional actuarial methods use parametric specifications to model claims distribution, like lognormal, Weibull and Pareto laws. Mixtures of such distributions allow to improve the flexibility of the parametric approach and seem to be quite well-adapted to capture the skewness, the long tails as well as the unobserved heterogeneity among the claims. In this paper, instead of looking for a finely tuned mixture with many components, we choose a parsimonious mixture modeling, typically a two or three-component mixture. Next, we use the mixture cumulative distribution function (CDF) to transform data into the unit interval where we apply a beta-kernel smoothing procedure. A bandwidth rule adapted to our methodology is proposed. Finally, the beta-kernel density estimate is back-transformed to recover an estimate of the original claims density. The beta-kernel smoothing provides an automatic fine-tuning of the parsimonious mixture and thus avoids inference in more complex mixture models with many parameters. We investigate the empirical performance of the new method in the estimation of the quantiles with simulated nonnegative data and the quantiles of the individual claims distribution in a non-life insurance application.

  6. 3D global estimation and augmented reality visualization of intra-operative X-ray dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Nicolas Loy; Padoy, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The growing use of image-guided minimally-invasive surgical procedures is confronting clinicians and surgical staff with new radiation exposure risks from X-ray imaging devices. The accurate estimation of intra-operative radiation exposure can increase staff awareness of radiation exposure risks and enable the implementation of well-adapted safety measures. The current surgical practice of wearing a single dosimeter at chest level to measure radiation exposure does not provide a sufficiently accurate estimation of radiation absorption throughout the body. In this paper, we propose an approach that combines data from wireless dosimeters with the simulation of radiation propagation in order to provide a global radiation risk map in the area near the X-ray device. We use a multi-camera RGBD system to obtain a 3D point cloud reconstruction of the room. The positions of the table, C-arm and clinician are then used 1) to simulate the propagation of radiation in a real-world setup and 2) to overlay the resulting 3D risk-map onto the scene in an augmented reality manner. By using real-time wireless dosimeters in our system, we can both calibrate the simulation and validate its accuracy at specific locations in real-time. We demonstrate our system in an operating room equipped with a robotised X-ray imaging device and validate the radiation simulation on several X-ray acquisition setups.

  7. Local error estimates for adaptive simulation of the reaction-diffusion master equation via operator splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Andreas; Lawson, Michael J.; Drawert, Brian; Petzold, Linda

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of exact simulation methods for the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is severely limited by the large number of diffusion events if the mesh is fine or if diffusion constants are large. Furthermore, inherent properties of exact kinetic-Monte Carlo simulation methods limit the efficiency of parallel implementations. Several approximate and hybrid methods have appeared that enable more efficient simulation of the RDME. A common feature to most of them is that they rely on splitting the system into its reaction and diffusion parts and updating them sequentially over a discrete timestep. This use of operator splitting enables more efficient simulation but it comes at the price of a temporal discretization error that depends on the size of the timestep. So far, existing methods have not attempted to estimate or control this error in a systematic manner. This makes the solvers hard to use for practitioners since they must guess an appropriate timestep. It also makes the solvers potentially less efficient than if the timesteps were adapted to control the error. Here, we derive estimates of the local error and propose a strategy to adaptively select the timestep when the RDME is simulated via a first order operator splitting. While the strategy is general and applicable to a wide range of approximate and hybrid methods, we exemplify it here by extending a previously published approximate method, the diffusive finite-state projection (DFSP) method, to incorporate temporal adaptivity.

  8. Local error estimates for adaptive simulation of the Reaction–Diffusion Master Equation via operator splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Andreas; Lawson, Michael J; Drawert, Brian; Petzold, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of exact simulation methods for the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is severely limited by the large number of diffusion events if the mesh is fine or if diffusion constants are large. Furthermore, inherent properties of exact kinetic-Monte Carlo simulation methods limit the efficiency of parallel implementations. Several approximate and hybrid methods have appeared that enable more efficient simulation of the RDME. A common feature to most of them is that they rely on splitting the system into its reaction and diffusion parts and updating them sequentially over a discrete timestep. This use of operator splitting enables more efficient simulation but it comes at the price of a temporal discretization error that depends on the size of the timestep. So far, existing methods have not attempted to estimate or control this error in a systematic manner. This makes the solvers hard to use for practitioners since they must guess an appropriate timestep. It also makes the solvers potentially less efficient than if the timesteps are adapted to control the error. Here, we derive estimates of the local error and propose a strategy to adaptively select the timestep when the RDME is simulated via a first order operator splitting. While the strategy is general and applicable to a wide range of approximate and hybrid methods, we exemplify it here by extending a previously published approximate method, the Diffusive Finite-State Projection (DFSP) method, to incorporate temporal adaptivity. PMID:26865735

  9. Estimation of multi-state life table functions and their variability from complex survey data using the SPACE Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Cai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The multistate life table (MSLT model is an important demographic method to document life cycle processes. In this study, we present the SPACE (Stochastic Population Analysis for Complex Events program to estimate MSLT functions and their sampling variability. It has several advantages over other programs, including the use of microsimulation and the bootstrap method to estimate the sampling variability. Simulation enables researchers to analyze a broader array of statistics than the deterministic approach, and may be especially advantageous in investigating distributions of MSLT functions. The bootstrap method takes sample design into account to correct the potential bias in variance estimates.

  10. From bioterrorism exercise to real-life public health crisis: lessons for emergency hotline operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Bookbinder, Sylvia H; Miro, Suzanne; Burke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although public health agencies routinely operate hotlines to communicate key messages to the public, they are rarely evaluated to improve hotline management. Since its creation in 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services' Emergency Communications Center has confronted two large-scale incidents that have tested its capabilities in this area. The influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 and the April 2005 TOPOFF 3 full-scale bioterrorism exercise provided both real-life and simulated crisis situations from which to derive general insights into the strengths and weaknesses of hotline administration. This article identifies problems in the areas of staff and message management by analyzing call volume data and the qualitative observations of group feedback sessions and semistructured interviews with hotline staff. It also makes recommendations based on lessons learned to improve future hotline operations in public health emergencies.

  11. Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test - Test Plan and Standard Operating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Refractory metal heat pipes developed during this project shall be subjected to various operating conditions to evaluate life-limiting corrosion factors. To accomplish this objective, various parameters shall be investigated, including the effect of temperature and mass fluence on long-term corrosion rate. The test series will begin with a performance test of one module to evaluate its performance and to establish the temperature and power settings for the remaining modules. The performance test will be followed by round-the-clock testing of 16 heat pipes. All heat pipes shall be nondestructively inspected at 6-month intervals. At longer intervals, specific modules will be destructively evaluated. Both the nondestructive and destructive evaluations shall be coordinated with Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the processing, setup, and testing of the heat pipes, standard operating procedures shall be developed. Initial procedures are listed here and, as hardware is developed, will be updated, incorporating findings and lessons learned.

  12. OMNIITOX - operational life-cycle impact assessment models and information tools for practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, S; Lidholm, Peter; Schowanek, Diederik

    2004-01-01

    of this case study-driven project are briefly presented and put in relation to the aims of contributing to an operational life cycle-impact assessment (LCIA) model for impacts of toxicants. The present situation has been characterised by methodological difficulties, both regarding choice......This article is the preamble to a set of articles describing initial results from an on-going European Commission funded, 5th Framework project called OMNIITOX, Operational Models aNd Information tools for Industrial applications of eco/TOXicological impact assessments. The different parts...... of the characterisation model(s) and limited input data on chemical properties, which often has resulted in the omission of toxicants from the LCIA, or at best focus on well characterised chemicals. The project addresses both problems and integrates models, as well as data, in an information system – the OMNIITOX IS...

  13. S∧4 Reactor: Operating Lifetime and Estimates of Temperature and Burnup Reactivity Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    The S∧4 reactor has a sectored, Mo-14%Re solid core for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion. The reactor is loaded with UN fuel, cooled with a He-Xe gas mixture at ~1200 K and operates at steady thermal power of 550 kW. Following a launch abort accident, the axial and radial BeO reflectors easily disassemble upon impact so that the bare reactor is subcriticial when submerged in wet sand or seawater and the core voids are filled with seawater. Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) additives have been shown to increase the UN fuel enrichment and significantly reduce the total mass of the reactor. This paper investigates the effects of SSA additions on the temperature and burnup reactivity coefficients and the operational lifetime of the S∧4 reactor. SSAs slightly decrease the temperature reactivity feedback coefficient, but significantly increase the operating lifetime by decreasing the burnup reactivity coefficient. With no SSAs, fuel enrichment is only 58.5 wt% and the estimated operating lifetime is the shortest (7.6 years) with the highest temperature and burnup reactivity feedback coefficients (-0.2709 ¢/K and -1.3470 $/atom%). With europium-151 and gadolinium-155 additions, the enrichment (91.5 and 94 wt%) and operating lifetime (9.9 and 9.8 years) of the S∧4 reactor are the highest while the temperature and burnup reactivity coefficients (-0.2382 and -0.2447 ¢/K -0.9073 and 0.8502 $/atom%) are the lowest.

  14. Time and frequency domain models for multiaxial fatigue life estimation under random loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carpinteri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering structures and components are often subjected to random fatigue loading produced, for example, by wind turbulences, marine waves and vibrations. The methods available in the literature for fatigue assessment under random loading are formulated in time domain or, alternatively, in frequency domain. The former methods require the knowledge of the loading time history, and a large number of experimental tests/numerical simulations is needed to obtain statistically reliable results. The latter methods are generally more advantageous with respect to the time domain ones, allowing a rapid fatigue damage evaluation. In the present paper, a multiaxial criterion formulated in the frequency-domain is presented to estimate the fatigue lives of smooth metallic structures subjected to combined bending and torsion random loading. A comparison in terms of fatigue life prediction by employing a time domain methods, previously proposed by the authors, is also performed.

  15. Estimates for the number of visible galaxy-spanning civilizations and the cosmological expansion of life

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, S Jay

    2015-01-01

    If advanced civilizations appear in the universe with a desire to expand, the entire universe can become saturated with life on a short timescale, even if such expanders appear but rarely. Our presence in an untouched Milky Way thus constrains the appearance rate of galaxy-spanning Kardashev type III (K3) civilizations, if it is assumed that some fraction of K3 civilizations will continue their expansion at intergalactic distances. We use this constraint to estimate the appearance rate of K3 civilizations for 81 cosmological scenarios by specifying the extent to which humanity could be a statistical outlier. We find that in nearly all plausible scenarios, the distance to the nearest visible K3 is cosmological. In searches where the observable range is limited, we also find that the most likely detections tend to be expanding civilizations who have entered the observable range from farther away. An observation of K3 clusters is thus more likely than isolated K3 galaxies.

  16. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, B S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the detector used in the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, muons and missing transverse energy from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It covers the central part of the ATLAS detector (|η|<1.6). The energy deposited by the particles is read out by approximately 5,000 cells, with double readout channels. The signal provided by the readout electronics for each channel is digitized at 40 MHz and its amplitude is estimated by an optimal filtering algorithm, which expects a single signal with a well-defined shape. However, the LHC luminosity is expected to increase leading to signal pile-up that deforms the signal of interest. Due to limited resources, the current DSP-based hardware setup does not allow the implementation of sophisticated energy estimation methods that deal with the pile-up. Therefore, the technique to be employed for online energy estimation in TileCal for next LHC operation period must be based on fast filters such as the M...

  17. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, B S; The ATLAS collaboration; Cerqueira, A S; Seixas, J M

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a study on the TileCal online energy estimation for the next LHC operation period (Run2). Due to hardware limitation, the algorithm that performs the online energy estimation must remain based on the linear and fast Optimal Filter (OF) technique, which envisages the use of the background covariance matrix in its design. During Run1, TileCal made use of an identity matrix to describe and the background covariance matrix, which showed to be a reasonable approximation for the low luminosity scenario. Under such conditions, the background for most of its cells comprised mainly electronic noise which can be approximated as a uncorrelated Gaussian process. However, as the pile-up introduces a non-Gaussian component to the background, the OF method presents larger variance and it becomes biased. The use of the background covariance matrix in the design of the OF weights is expected to improve the energy estimation performance. The results for the scenario considered show that for high occupancy ce...

  18. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in U.S. manufacturing industries: 1994--2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1997-02-01

    To develop integrated policies for mobilization preparedness, planners require estimates and projections of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. This report develops projections of national emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 458 US manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. These measures are intended for use in planning models that are designed to predict the demands for detailed industry sectors that would occur under conditions such as a military mobilization or a major national disaster. This report is part of an ongoing series of studies prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to support mobilization planning studies of the Federal Emergency Planning Agency/US Department of Defense (FEMA/DOD). Earlier sets of EOC estimates were developed in 1985 and 1991. This study presents estimates of EOC through 2005. As in the 1991 study, projections of capacity were based upon extrapolations of equipment capital stocks. The methodology uses time series regression models based on industry data to obtain a response function of industry capital stock to levels of industrial output. The distributed lag coefficients of these response function are then used with projected outputs to extrapolate the 1994 level of EOC. Projections of industrial outputs were taken from the intermediate-term forecast of the US economy prepared by INFORUM (Interindustry Forecasting Model, University of Maryland) in the spring of 1996.

  19. Operational evapotranspiration estimates from SEVIRI in support of sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Ireland, Gareth; Lamine, Salim; Griffiths, Hywel M.; Ghilain, Nicolas; Anagnostopoulos, Vasileios; North, Matthew R.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Georgopoulou, Hro

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of the evapotranspiration (ET) operational estimates from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) at a range of selected ecosystems in Europe. For this purpose in-situ eddy covariance measurements were used, acquired from 7 selected experimental sites belonging to the CarboEurope ground observational network over 2 full years of observations (2010-2011). Appraisal of ET accuracy was also investigated with respect to land cover, season and each site(s) degree of heterogeneity, the latter being expressed by the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) operational product of SEVIRI. Results indicated a close agreement between the operational product's ET estimates and the tower based in-situ ET measurements for all days of comparison, showing a satisfactory correlation (r of 0.709) with accuracies often comparable to previous analogous studies. For all land cover types, the grassland and cropland sites exhibited the closest agreement (r from 0.705 to 0.759). In terms of seasons the strongest correlations were observed during the summer and autumn (r of 0.714 & 0.685 respectively), and with FVC the highest correlation of 0.735 was observed for the class FVC 0.75-1 when compared against the observed values for the complete monitoring period. Our findings support the potential value of the SEVIRI ET product for regional to mesoscale studies and corroborate its credibility for usage in many practical applications. The latter is of particular importance for water limiting environments, such as those found in the Mediterranean basin, as accurate information on ET rates can provide tremendous support in sustainable water resource management as well as policy and decision making in those areas.

  20. Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D; Blosnich, John R; Farmer, Grant W; Adams, Brian J

    2014-03-01

    Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as "not sure" also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations.

  1. Life table estimates of the invasive snail Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805, occurring in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Chilka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The life table characteristics of the invasive snail Physa acuta were assessed in the laboratory using the individuals occurring in a newly colonised area in Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Using the changes in the shell length and the body weight of the snails as surrogate, the population growth of the snails was estimated along with longevity and the fecundity schedule. The cohort of P. acuta lived for a maximum of 22 weeks with a life expectancy (ex of 7.27 weeks and the age-specific survivorship being 0.825. Increment of the shell length of the snails complied with the von Bertalanffy growth equation, lt = 11.75(1 − exp−0.17(t−0.06, and the observed and the expected data of the length at time t (lt did not vary significantly (z score = 0.230; P = 0.818; n=20 pairs. Following attainment of sexual maturity between 28 and 42 days, oviposition continued till 20 weeks time, with 0.1-10 eggs laid by each individual. The eggs present per capsule remained between 01 and 11, whilst the net reproductive rate (R0, intrinsic rate of increase (rm and the finite rate of increase (λ were 116.07, 0.1 and 1.11, respectively. The observations are similar to those made earlier on the same species but from African and South American continents. The results of the present observation are pioneer in providing the initial studies about the life history of the invasive snail P. acuta in Indian context. Using the present information as a basis, further studies including long-term population monitoring should be initiated to understand the effects of the invasive snail P. acuta in the freshwater ecosystem of West Bengal, India.

  2. Incorporating denitrification-decomposition method to estimate field emissions for Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yelin; Paraskevas, Dimos; Cao, Shi-Jie

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for flax cultivation in Northern France. Nitrogen related field emissions are derived both from a process-oriented DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) method and the generic Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method. Since the IPCC method is synthesised from field measurements at sites with various soil types, climate conditions, and crops, it contains significant uncertainties. In contrast, the outputs from the DNDC method are considered as more site specific as it is built according to complex models of soil science. As it is demonstrated in this paper the emission factors from the DNDC method and the recommended values from the IPCC method exhibit significant variations for the case of flax cultivation. The DNDC based emission factor for direct N2O emission, which is a strong greenhouse gas, is 0.25-0.5%, significantly lower than the recommend 1% level derived from the IPCC method. The DNDC method leads to a reduction of 17% in the impact category of climate change per kg retted flax straw production from the level obtained from the IPCC method. Much higher reductions are recorded for particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, and marine eutrophication impact categories. Meanwhile, based on the DNDC and IPCC methods, a comparative LCA per kg flax straw is presented. For both methods sensitivity analysis as well as comparison of uncertainties parameterisation of the N2O estimates via Monte-Carlo analysis are performed. The DNDC method incorporates more relevant field emissions from the agricultural life cycle phase, which can also improve the quality of the Life Cycle Inventory as well as allow more precise uncertainty calibration in the LCA inventory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Approximations for Estimating Change in Life Expectancy Attributable to Air Pollution in Relation to Multiple Causes of Death Using a Cause Modified Life Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, David M; Judek, Stan; Brand, Kevin; Burnett, Richard T; Shin, Hwashin H

    2015-08-01

    There is considerable debate as to the most appropriate metric for characterizing the mortality impacts of air pollution. Life expectancy has been advocated as an informative measure. Although the life-table calculus is relatively straightforward, it becomes increasingly cumbersome when repeated over large numbers of geographic areas and for multiple causes of death. Two simplifying assumptions were evaluated: linearity of the relation between excess rate ratio and change in life expectancy, and additivity of cause-specific life-table calculations. We employed excess rate ratios linking PM2.5 and mortality from cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, and lung cancer derived from a meta-analysis of worldwide cohort studies. As a sensitivity analysis, we employed an integrated exposure response function based on the observed risk of PM2.5 over a wide range of concentrations from ambient exposure, indoor exposure, second-hand smoke, and personal smoking. Impacts were estimated in relation to a change in PM2.5 from 19.5 μg/m(3) estimated for Toronto to an estimated natural background concentration of 1.8 μg/m(3) . Estimated changes in life expectancy varied linearly with excess rate ratios, but at higher values the relationship was more accurately represented as a nonlinear function. Changes in life expectancy attributed to specific causes of death were additive with maximum error of 10%. Results were sensitive to assumptions about the air pollution concentration below which effects on mortality were not quantified. We have demonstrated valid approximations comprising expression of change in life expectancy as a function of excess mortality and summation across multiple causes of death.

  4. Oxidative stability and estimate of the shelf life of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sacha inchi oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids that may rust, limiting their shel flife. The Rancimat method is official, for evaluations of oxidative stability accelerated in oils. Industrially conventional techniques based on physical and chemical indicators are used; there are no studies of correlation between them and Rancimat. This work has for objective correlate the oxidative stability index (OSI Sacha inchi oil obtained by Rancimat at temperatures of 80°, 90°, 100° and 110 °C under an air flow of 15 L/h, with the values of physic-chemical indicators such as Index peroxide, p-anisidine, totox and density. Also estimated by mathematical extrapolation, the shelf life of sacha inchi oil to usual storage temperatures. OSI values were: 0.493 ± 0.01 h at 110 ºC, 1.590 ± 0.06 h at 100 ºC, 4.645 ± 0.1 h at 90 ºC and 20.512 ± 0.02 h at 80 ºC. High correlation has been established between values of OSI vs physicochemical quality indices (0.9322 < r < 0.9965. The activation energy was found 137.90 kJ/mol, which explains the high oxidative stability for the oil, estimating a lifetime of 3.29, 1.79 and 0.79 years at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively.

  5. A new tool for life cycle inventories of agricultural machinery operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lovarelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in environmental assessments about agricultural processes is fast growing and asking for new tools for accurate impact evaluations. The methodology commonly used to go through these studies is the life cycle assessment, of which the inventory phase (life cycle inventory, LCI is an essential step. For studies focusing on agricultural productions, the completion of LCI is particularly complex: taking into account the pedo-climatic and mechanical operative variability is evidently difficult. However, the prediction of the environmental impact of mechanical operations caused by the agricultural sector is essential to quantify the impact categories for which it is responsible. A new tool, ENVIAM, was developed to complete LCI to guarantee the availability of local data that describe the mechanical and pedo-climatic conditions occurring in the Po Valley area and widely applicable as well. It calculates mechanical power requests, directly consumed inputs (i.e., fuel, lubricant and material consumption of a productive system by taking into account soil texture, specific machinery operations and coupling solutions as defined by the user. A subdivision of working time and defined engine load have been considered to calculate fuel consumption; with regard to outputs, exhaust gases emissions from internal combustion engines have been assessed by evaluating the emissive stages of belonging as stated by the EU Directive. A case study was also performed to highlight the differences that occur when an analysis is fulfilled in a context with features different from the average, and resulted in significant variations for the inventory. In more details, a comparison was carried out both with Ecoinvent database and within ENVIAM. With regard to fuel consumption, by changing the soil texture, the analysis showed a range between 64%-184% for sandy and clay soils, respectively, if compared with medium texture ones. With this tool, local contexts defined

  6. Beam Size Estimation from Luminosity Scans at the LHC During 2015 Proton Physics Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hostettler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As a complementary method for measuring the beam size for high-intensity beams at 6.5 TeV flat-top energy, beam separation scans were done regularly at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during 2015 proton physics operation. The luminosities measured by the CMS experiment during the scans were used to derive the convoluted beam size and orbit offset bunch-by-bunch. This contribution will elaborate on the method used to derive plane-by-plane, bunch-by-bunch emittances from the scan data, including uncertainties and corrections. The measurements are then compared to beam size estimations from absolute luminosity, synchrotron light telescopes, and wire scanners. In particular, the evolution of the emittance over the course of several hours in collisions is studied and bunch-by-bunch differences are highlighted.

  7. Schauder estimates for parabolic nondivergence operators of Hörmander type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Marco; Brandolini, Luca

    Let X,X,…,X be a system of real smooth vector fields satisfying Hörmander's rank condition in a bounded domain Ω of R. Let A={a(t,x)}i,j=1q be a symmetric, uniformly positive definite matrix of real functions defined in a domain U⊂R×Ω. For operators of kind H=∂-∑i,j=1qa(t,x)XX-∑i=1qb(t,x)X-c(t,x) we prove local a-priori estimates of Schauder-type, in the natural (parabolic) C(U) spaces defined by the vector fields X and the distance induced by them. Namely, for a, b, c∈C(U) and U⋐U, we prove ‖u‖⩽c{‖Hu‖+‖u‖}.

  8. Development of an operator`s mental model acquisition system. 1. Estimation of a physical mental model acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichirou [Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a technical survey of acquisition method of an operator`s understanding for functions and structures of his target nuclear plant. This method is to play a key role in the information processing framework to support on-training operators in forming their knowledge of the nuclear plants. This kind of technical framework is aiming at enhancing human operator`s ability to cope with anomaly plant situations which are difficult to expect from preceding experiences or engineering surveillance. In these cases, cause identifications and responding operation selections are desired to made not only empirically but also based on thoughts about possible phenomena to take place within the nuclear plant. This report focuses on a particular element technique, defined as `explanation-based knowledge acquisition`, as the candidate technique to potentially be extended to meet the requirement written above, and discusses about applicability to the learning support system and about necessary improvements, to identify future technical developments. (author)

  9. Operational energy in the life cycle of residential dwellings: The experience of Spain and Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Oscar [University of Rovira i Virgili, Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, Av. Paisos Catalanes 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); University of Pamplona, Department of Industrial Engineering, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona, N de S (Colombia); Castells, Francesc [University of Pamplona, Department of Industrial Engineering, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona, N de S (Colombia); Sonnemann, Guido [University of Rovira i Virgili, Visiting Senior Research Fellow, AGA Group (AGA) (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been applied within the residential building sector of two buildings, one in each a developed (Spain) and a developing (Colombia) country. The main goal of this paper involves the environmental loads and also brings together the operational energy for activities during the operation phase such as HVAC, domestic hot water, electrical appliances, cooking and illumination. The present research compares two real scenarios: Situation 1, where 100% of the dwelling's energy is supplied with electricity only and Situation 2, where dwellings can be operated with natural gas plus electricity. The results for the environmental impacts using natural gas plus electricity show that of the Spanish environmental impacts air conditioning had the highest impact with approximately 27-42% due to the electricity used to power it. In Colombian results showed that electrical appliances had the highest environmental impacts in the same order of magnitude with approximately 60% and cooking had the best reduction of emissions due to the use of natural gas, from 10% down to less than 2%. The origin of the energy source used in each Country plays an important role to minimize environmental impacts, as was demonstrated by the environmental impacts of its use in Colombia where 78% of the electricity came from hydroelectric plants whereas in Spain it is more mixed, fossil fuels represented 55%, nuclear 18% and wind 9%. In summary, LCA has been applied because this methodology supports the decision making to concern environmental sustainability. (author)

  10. Optimisation of battery operating life considering software tasks and their timing behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipskoch, Henrik

    2010-02-19

    Users of mobile embedded systems have an interest in long battery operating life. The longer a system can operate without need for recharge or battery replacement, the more will maintenance cost and the number of faults due to insufficient power supply decrease. Operating life is prolonged by saving energy, which may reduce available processing time. Mobile embedded systems communicating with other participants like other mobiles or radio stations are subject to time guarantees ensuring reliable communication. Thus, methods that save energy by reducing processing time are not only subject to available processing time but subject to the embedded system's time guarantees. To perform parameter optimisations offline, decisions can be taken early at design time, avoiding further computations at run-time. Especially, to compute processor shutdown durations offline, no extra circuitry to monitor system behaviour and to wake up the processor needs to be designed, deployed, or power supplied: only a timer is required. In this work, software tasks are considered sharing one processor. The scheduling algorithm earliest deadline first is assumed, and per-task, a relative deadline is assumed. Tasks may be instantiated arbitrarily as long as this occurrence behaviour is given in the notion of event streams. Scaling of the processor's voltage and processor shutdown are taken into account as methods for saving energy. With given per task worst-case execution times and the tasks' event streams, the real-time feasibility of the energy optimised solutions is proven. The decision which energy saving solution provides longest operating life is made with the help of a battery model. The used real-time feasibility test has the advantage that it can be approximated: this yields an adjustable number of linear optimisation constraints. Reducing the processor's voltage reduces processor frequency, therefore, execution times increase. The resulting slowdown becomes the

  11. Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France); Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States); Prud' homme, Pascal [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

  12. An Operational System for Estimating Road Traffic Information from Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Leitloff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that ground stationary infrastructures for traffic monitoring are barely able to handle everyday traffic volumes, there is a risk that they could fail altogether in situations arising from mass events or disasters. In this work, we present an alternative approach for traffic monitoring during disaster and mass events, which is based on an airborne optical sensor system. With this system, optical image sequences are automatically examined on board an aircraft to estimate road traffic information, such as vehicle positions, velocities and driving directions. The traffic information, estimated in real time on board, is immediately downlinked to a ground station. The airborne sensor system consists of a three-head camera system, a real-time-capable GPS/INS unit, five industrial PCs and a downlink unit. The processing chain for automatic extraction of traffic information contains modules for the synchronization of image and navigation data streams, orthorectification and vehicle detection and tracking modules. The vehicle detector is based on a combination of AdaBoost and support vector machine classifiers. Vehicle tracking relies on shape-based matching operators. The processing chain is evaluated on a large number of image sequences recorded during several campaigns, and the data quality is compared to that obtained from induction loops. In summary, we can conclude that the achieved overall quality of the traffic data extracted by the airborne system is in the range of 68% and 81%. Thus, it is comparable to data obtained from stationary ground sensor networks.

  13. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: the case study of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polák, Miloš; Drápalová, Lenka

    2012-08-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets targets on collection and recycling of WEEE in general, but no specific collection target for EoL mobile phone exists. In the year 2010 only about 3-6% of Czech EoL mobile phones were collected for recovery and recycling. If we make similar estimation using an estimated average EU value, then within the next 10 years about 1.3 billion of EoL mobile phones would be available for recycling in the EU. This amount contains about 31 tonnes of gold and 325 tonnes of silver. Since Europe is dependent on import

  14. A general procedure for estimating dynamic displacements using strain measurements and operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte, Anders; Aenlle, Manuel L.; Brincker, Rune

    2016-02-01

    Measurement systems are being installed in more and more civil structures with the purpose of monitoring the general dynamic behavior of the structure. The instrumentation is typically done with accelerometers, where experimental frequencies and mode shapes can be identified using modal analysis and used in health monitoring algorithms. But the use of accelerometers is not suitable for all structures. Structures like wind turbine blades and wings on airplanes can be exposed to lightning, which can cause the measurement systems to fail. Structures like these are often equipped with fiber sensors measuring the in-plane deformation. This paper proposes a method in which the displacement mode shapes and responses can be predicted using only strain measurements. The method relies on the newly discovered principle of local correspondence, which states that each experimental mode can be expressed as a unique subset of finite element modes. In this paper the technique is further developed to predict the mode shapes in different states of the structure. Once an estimate of the modes is found, responses can be predicted using the superposition of the modal coordinates weighted by the mode shapes. The method is validated with experimental tests on a scaled model of a two-span bridge installed with strain gauges. Random load was applied to simulate a civil structure under operating condition, and strain mode shapes were identified using operational modal analysis.

  15. Comparison between Unknown Input Estimation of a System Using Projection Operator Approach and Generalized Matrix Inverse Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis De

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a detailed comparison between the estimation results of unknown inputs of a linear time invariant system using projection operator approach and using the method of generalized matrix inverse have been discussed. The full order observer constructed using projection operator approach has been extended and implemented for this purpose.

  16. Estimation of Remained defects in a Safety-Critical Software using Bayesian Belief Network of Software Development Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Jung, Wondea Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Some researchers recognized Bayesian belief network (BBN) method to be a promising method of quantifying software reliability. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) comprehensively reviewed various quantitative software reliability methods to identify the most promising methods for use in probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) of digital systems of NPPs against a set of the most desirable characteristics developed therein. BBNs are recognized as a promising way of quantifying software reliability and are useful for integrating many aspects of software engineering and quality assurance. The method explicitly incorporates important factors relevant to reliability, such as the quality of the developer, the development process, problem complexity, testing effort, and the operation environment. In this work, a BBN model was developed to estimate the number of remained defects in a safety-critical software based on the quality evaluation of software development life cycle (SDLC). Even though a number of software reliability evaluation methods exist, none of them can be applicable to the safety-critical software in an NPP because software quality in terms of PDF is required for the PSA.

  17. Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy Spaces Associated with Operators Satisfying Reinforced Off-Diagonal Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui The Anh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Let X be a metric space with doubling measure and L a one-to-one operator of type ω having a bounded H∞ -functional calculus in L2(X satisfying the reinforced (pL; qL off-diagonal estimates on balls, where pL ∊ [1; 2 and qL ∊ (2;∞]. Let φ : X × [0;∞ → [0;∞ be a function such that φ (x;· is an Orlicz function, φ(·;t ∊ A∞(X (the class of uniformly Muckenhoupt weights, its uniformly critical upper type index l(φ ∊ (0;1] and φ(·; t satisfies the uniformly reverse Hölder inequality of order (qL/l(φ′, where (qL/l(φ′ denotes the conjugate exponent of qL/l(φ. In this paper, the authors introduce a Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space Hφ;L(X, via the Lusin-area function associated with L, and establish its molecular characterization. In particular, when L is nonnegative self-adjoint and satisfies the Davies-Gaffney estimates, the atomic characterization of Hφ,L(X is also obtained. Furthermore, a sufficient condition for the equivalence between Hφ,L(ℝn and the classical Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space Hv(ℝn is given. Moreover, for the Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space Hφ,L(ℝn associated with the second order elliptic operator in divergence form on ℝn or the Schrödinger operator L := −Δ + V with 0 ≤ V ∊ L1loc(ℝn, the authors further obtain its several equivalent characterizations in terms of various non-tangential and radial maximal functions; finally, the authors show that the Riesz transform ∇L−1/2 is bounded from Hφ,L(ℝn to the Musielak-Orlicz space Lφ(ℝn when i(φ ∊ (0; 1], from Hφ,L(ℝn to Hφ(ℝn when i(φ ∊ (; 1], and from Hφ,L(ℝn to the weak Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space WHφ(ℝn when i(φ=is attainable and φ(·; t ∊ A1(X, where i(φ denotes the uniformly critical lower type index of φ

  18. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  19. Estimating years of life lost from cardiovascular mortality related to air pollution in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Song, Yu-Feng; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies have mainly used mortality or morbidity as the health outcome to examine the air pollution-health association. Little evidence is available on relationships between air pollutants and years of life lost (YLL). We aimed to estimate the YLL from cardiovascular mortality due to air pollution. Daily data on weather and air pollutants and individual data of all registered deaths for years 2004-2007 were obtained in Guangzhou, China. The generalized additive model was used to assess the YLL associated with 10μg/m(3) increases in NO2, SO2 and PM10. We found that the mean daily YLL was 248, 87.5 and 73.7 for deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke and ischemic heart disease (IHD), respectively. A significant linear correlation was observed between air pollution and YLL due to cardiovascular disease. The effects of air pollutants on YLL were immediate and lasted for two days. A 10μg/m(3) increase above the corresponding threshold of 55.6μg/m(3), 40.4μg/m(3) and 0μg/m(3) in NO2, PM10 and SO2 was related to YLL increase of 1.8 (95% CI: 0.8-2.9), 2.8 (1.7-3.8) and 2.6 (1.2-4.0) years at lag 0-1days for CVD, respectively. The estimates of YLL associated with NO2 and PM10 were higher in men than women. The air pollutants-related YLL was higher among young people and those with low education level, compared to the elderly and those with high education level, respectively. These findings confirmed YLL provides a complementary strategy for assessing the health effect of air pollution. This study underscores the necessity of the reduction of air pollution benefiting public health.

  20. New method for estimating current and future transport aircraft operating economics. Contractor report, Jan 1976--Oct 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A methodology was developed by which the operating cost associated with variations in aircraft design and technology characteristics can be assessed. This methodology addresses aircraft related operating cost elements and is based on an in-depth examination of airline operating experiences and relevant operating data. The assessment method produces a base line estimate of the operating cost elements relating to such design specification features as seat capacity, avionic equipment, design range, and design definition features such as maximum takeoff gross weight, and number of engines. Means for determining the deviations from this base line of the design or technological difference at the specific ATA System level are provided. The methodology was applied to assess the operating cost of one potential future advanced technology transport aircraft. An analysis was included to show the relative sensitivity of the operating cost to design parameters. Areas of potential future research on operating cost related technologies are identified.

  1. Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.

  2. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Value estimation of end of life vehicles as a source of competitive advantage for dismantling station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kosacka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available   Background: End of Life vehicles become an emerging problem because of the type of waste which they are. Each country is creating own recycling network where ELVs are well secured and recycled. Poland is a country where the system is not working correct because of a high absorption of ELVs by illegal dismantling entities which are more competitive than legal elements of recycling network. The problem is well known but there is still lack of solution. The purpose of this article is to present the concept of tools for the valuation of ELVs in order to improve the competitiveness of disassembly stations. Methods: The research methodology consists of a literature review as well as observations, surveys, BPMN and UML diagrams. On the basis of literature review and observations the problem was identified. The surveys were elaborated in order to identify requirements for the concept of the tool. BPMN and UML diagrams were used to model the processes in dismantling station and the information flow between the user and the tool. Results: There was established a concept of the tool - ELV's Calculator which support decisions of ELV's value estimation. Conclusions: Improving competitiveness of legal dismantling station is extremely important issue in order to provide safe for Environment and People and economically justified ELVs' management. Legal entities have to follow the law what makes their business cost higher. This paper provides a solution of encouraging people to return ELVs to legal dismantlers by offering them price adequate to market demand.    

  4. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  5. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  6. Using operational data to estimate the reliable yields of water-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misstear, Bruce D. R.; Beeson, Sarah

    The reliable yield of a water-supply well depends on many different factors, including the properties of the well and the aquifer; the capacities of the pumps, raw-water mains, and treatment works; the interference effects from other wells; and the constraints imposed by ion licences, water quality, and environmental issues. A relatively simple methodology for estimating reliable yields has been developed that takes into account all of these factors. The methodology is based mainly on an analysis of water-level and source-output data, where such data are available. Good operational data are especially important when dealing with wells in shallow, unconfined, fissure-flow aquifers, where actual well performance may vary considerably from that predicted using a more analytical approach. Key issues in the yield-assessment process are the identification of a deepest advisable pumping water level, and the collection of the appropriate well, aquifer, and operational data. Although developed for water-supply operators in the United Kingdom, this approach to estimating the reliable yields of water-supply wells using operational data should be applicable to a wide range of hydrogeological conditions elsewhere. Résumé La productivité d'un puits capté pour l'adduction d'eau potable dépend de différents facteurs, parmi lesquels les propriétés du puits et de l'aquifère, la puissance des pompes, le traitement des eaux brutes, les effets d'interférences avec d'autres puits et les contraintes imposées par les autorisations d'exploitation, par la qualité des eaux et par les conditions environnementales. Une méthodologie relativement simple d'estimation de la productivité qui prenne en compte tous ces facteurs a été mise au point. Cette méthodologie est basée surtout sur une analyse des données concernant le niveau piézométrique et le débit de prélèvement, quand ces données sont disponibles. De bonnes données opérationnelles sont particuli

  7. Subjective Estimation of the Quality of Life in Relation to Neuroticism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bobić, Jasminka

    2012-01-01

    .... We used the WHO Quality of Life - BREF or SF-36 questionnaires for the assessment of the quality of life, Cornell Index for the assessment of neuroticism, and The Social Readjustment Rating Scale...

  8. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi) with host-fish determination and fecundity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We described the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus jonesi and compared methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on this conglutinate-producing mussel species. Glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate 90% for ≥5 d. Feeding conglutinates directly to fishes allowed us to estimate seminatural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts in an inoculation bath. Regressions based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment were the most practical method used to estimate fecundity. Species distribution information, early life-history description, and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  9. Lagged life cycle structures for food products: Their role in global marketing, their determinants and some problems in their estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.

    cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...

  10. DETERMINATION OF MAIN OUTPUT PARAMETERS FOR HYDROFICATED CONSTRUCTION AND ROAD-BUILDING MACHINES AT OPERATIONAL STAGE OF THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Maximenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage efficiency of mechanical engineering products is determined by level of their operating capability. Expenses connected with provision of operating capability for the whole operational period exceed initial cost of the products by 6-10-fold. Moreover , while being used the expenses have a tendency to increase with reduction of output parameters that ensure product application efficiency for its intended purpose. It is necessary to take into account these changes at manufacturing stages of mechanical engineering products. Maximum efficiency can be obtained at the operational stage of the product life cycle only as a result of complex and interrelated measures during designing, manufacturing and usage of the specific product for its intended purpose with due account of its output parameter dynamics. While using the product an analysis of its output parameter dynamics will make it possible to determine maximum value of the operating capability, operational expenses and best practices for obtaining maximum profit per operating time unit.Taking hydroficated excavators of the 5th grade as an example the paper presents dynamics of main output parameters at the operational stage of their life cycle; reveals the main factor influencing on intensity of hydroficated machine operating capability reduction; substantiates an expediency of taking into account output parameter dynamics while evaluating efficiency of its usage; proposes a methodology for determination of or a pay-off time period for recoupment of expenses pertaining to machine procurement and optimum time period for operational stage, its life cycle that corresponds to obtaining maximum profit.Nowadays constant values of main output parameters (operating capability, self cost of machine-hour corresponding to the beginning of operation are to be taken into account while determining expediency of machine creation. Practically they significantly change in the process of machine operation this

  11. Operator Splitting Methods for Degenerate Convection-Diffusion Equations I: Convergence and Entropy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth H.; Lie, Knut-Andreas

    1999-10-01

    We present and analyze a numerical method for the solution of a class of scalar, multi-dimensional, nonlinear degenerate convection-diffusion equations. The method is based on operator splitting to separate the convective and the diffusive terms in the governing equation. The nonlinear, convective part is solved using front tracking and dimensional splitting, while the nonlinear diffusion equation is solved by a suitable difference scheme. We verify L{sup 1} compactness of the corresponding set of approximate solutions and derive precise entropy estimates. In particular, these results allow us to pass to the limit in our approximations and recover an entropy solution of the problem in question. The theory presented covers a large class of equations. Important subclasses are hyperbolic conservation laws, porous medium type equations, two-phase reservoir flow equations, and strongly degenerate equations coming from the recent theory of sedimentation-consolidation processes. A thorough numerical investigation of the method analyzed in this paper (and similar methods) is presented in a companion paper. (author)

  12. Procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use.

  13. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-06-26

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01 M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B203 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 flowsheet to additions of B203 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of

  14. An approach to operational risk modeling and estimation of safety levels for deep water work class remotely operated vehicle—A case study with reference to ROSUB 6000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedachalam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative approach to operational risk modeling and estimation of safety integrity levels, required for the deep water electric work class remotely operated vehicle with reference to ROSUB6000 developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology, India. ROSUB6000 is used for carrying out bathymetric surveys, gas hydrate surveys, poly-metallic nodule exploration, salvage operations, and meeting emergency response situations. The system is expected to be in operation for a period of 300h per year, and has to be extremely safe and reliable. Methods and models for the quantitative assessment of operational safety and estimation of safety integrity levels for ROV are seldom available in the deep water intervention industry. The safety instrumented functions implemented in the ROV should be able to meet the SIL requirements of specific mission. This study indicates that the required safety factors are implemented into the design of the state-of-the-art ROV ROSUB 6000, considering IEC 61508/61511 recommendations on Health, Safety and Environment and it is found that the system is able to meet the required SIL for seven identified functions. This paper gives the design and safety engineers in the ROV industry, an overview of the numerical operational risk assessment methods and safety-centered ROV engineering.

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT OVER QUALITY OF LIFE IN POST OPERATIVE GYNAECOLOGICAL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponmathi .P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gynaecological surgeries refer to surgery on the female reproductive system. Woman may undergo a Gynaecological surgery for different reasons, including; Uterine prolapse, Cancer of the uterus, cervix, or ovaries, Endometriosis, Bleeding, Adenomyosis etc.Gynaecological surgeries includes procedures such as hysterectomy, oopherectomy, salphingectomy, myomectomy, ovarin cystectomy, etc. The Physiotherapy referral is essential in such cases but most of time the patients are not referred for Physiotherapy. Hence the current study was undertaken. Thus the objective is to find out the Effectiveness of Physiotherapy management over quality of life in post-operative Gynaecological patients. Methods: 32 females who underwent Gynecological surgery were taken into the study and divided conveniently into Group A and Group B consisting of 16 females each. Physiotherapy intervention given to Group A includes- Breathing exercises, Coughing techniques, Circulatory exercises, Knee rolling, log rolling, patient made to sit, Abdominal exercises, Pelvic tilting, Getting in and out of the bed, Pelvic floor exercises and mobilization inside the ward, outside the ward and stair climbing where as conventional treatment which includes Breathing exercises and Back care were given to Group B for a period of 5 days. Outcome measures used were VAS (Visual Analog Scale and ASIS (Abdominal Surgery Impact Scale. Results: There was a significant difference in post test score of VAS (p=0.0001 and ASIS (p=0.0001 in Group A as compared to Group B. Conclusion: This study revealed that physiotherapy intervention performed immediately after Gynecological surgery improves quality of life of the patients and a scheduled exercise program benefits the patient more than conventional Physiotherapy management and it should be emphasized to all the post Gynecological surgery Patients.

  16. Estimation of biological half-life of tritium in coastal region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Pai, R K; Veerender, D D; Vishnu, M S; Vijayan, P; Managanvi, S S; Badiger, N M; Bhat, H R

    2010-12-01

    The present study estimates biological half-life (BHL) of tritium by analysing routine bioassay samples of radiation workers. During 2007-2009 year, 72,100 urine bioassay samples of the workers were analysed by liquid scintillation counting technique for internal dose monitoring for tritium. Two hundred and two subjects were taken for study with minimum 3 μCiL(-1) tritium uptake in their body fluid. The BHL of tritium of subjects ranges from 1 to 16 d with an average of 8.19 d. Human data indicate that the biological retention time ranges from 4 to 18 d with an average of 10 d. The seasonal variations of the BHL of tritium are 3.09 ± 1.48, 6.87 ± 0.58 and 5.73 ± 0.76 d (mean ± SD) for summer, winter and rainy seasons, respectively, for free water tritium in the coastal region of Karnataka, India, which shows that the BHL in summer is twice that of the winter season. Also three subjects showed the BHL of 101.73-121.09 d, which reveals that organically bound tritium is present with low tritium uptake also. The BHL of tritium for all age group of workers is observed independent of age and is shorter during April to May. The distribution of cumulative probability vs. BHL of tritium shows lognormal distribution with a geometric mean of 9.11 d and geometric standard deviation of 1.77 d. The study of the subjects is fit for two-compartment model and also an average BHL of tritium is found similar to earlier studies.

  17. Lagged life cycle structures for food products: Their role in global marketing, their determinants and some problems in their estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.

    The sales of a food product category are usually assumed, over time, to follow the pattern of a product life cycle. Between countries, the product life cycles of a given product category may be lagged, depending on economic and other variations be the countries (type I lag). In addition, life...... cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...... are demonstrated for three pork products. Evidence for both types of lags was found. It can also be shown that economic factors explain only part of variance in the sale of the products in various parts of the world, and that cultural, distributional, and other non-economic factors can explain part...

  18. Optimisation of battery operating life considering software tasks and their timing behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipskoch, Henrik

    2010-02-19

    Users of mobile embedded systems have an interest in long battery operating life. The longer a system can operate without need for recharge or battery replacement, the more will maintenance cost and the number of faults due to insufficient power supply decrease. Operating life is prolonged by saving energy, which may reduce available processing time. Mobile embedded systems communicating with other participants like other mobiles or radio stations are subject to time guarantees ensuring reliable communication. Thus, methods that save energy by reducing processing time are not only subject to available processing time but subject to the embedded system's time guarantees. To perform parameter optimisations offline, decisions can be taken early at design time, avoiding further computations at run-time. Especially, to compute processor shutdown durations offline, no extra circuitry to monitor system behaviour and to wake up the processor needs to be designed, deployed, or power supplied: only a timer is required. In this work, software tasks are considered sharing one processor. The scheduling algorithm earliest deadline first is assumed, and per-task, a relative deadline is assumed. Tasks may be instantiated arbitrarily as long as this occurrence behaviour is given in the notion of event streams. Scaling of the processor's voltage and processor shutdown are taken into account as methods for saving energy. With given per task worst-case execution times and the tasks' event streams, the real-time feasibility of the energy optimised solutions is proven. The decision which energy saving solution provides longest operating life is made with the help of a battery model. The used real-time feasibility test has the advantage that it can be approximated: this yields an adjustable number of linear optimisation constraints. Reducing the processor's voltage reduces processor frequency, therefore, execution times increase. The resulting slowdown becomes the

  19. Estimating diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in Mexico and seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Flavia

    2009-07-01

    To estimate diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean, plus Mexico as a whole. Data from the Survey on Health, Well-being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (n = 10 602) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (n = 6 953) on individuals 60 or more years of age were used in this study. Estimates of diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy were obtained by applying the Sullivan method. Diabetes life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Mexico City (4.5 years) and Bridgetown (3.4 years), and lowest in Havana (1.3 years). Diabetes-free life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Santiago (17.6 years) and lowest in Bridgetown (14.2 years) and São Paulo (14.3 years). For women, diabetes life expectancy was highest in Bridgetown (5.4 years), followed by Mexico City and Havana; but these three cities also had the lowest diabetes-free life expectancy. Women 60 years of age in Buenos Aires had the lowest diabetes life expectancy (2.5 years), and in Santiago, the highest, with a diabetes-free life expectancy of 20.7 years. Older individuals in Latin America and the Caribbean can expect to live a large proportion of their remaining lives with diabetes. There were also important differences across settings; in particular, the pronounced diabetes burden in Barbados and Mexico and among women. Given the fast growth of the elderly population in these societies, it is crucial to promote healthy eating and exercise as a way of reducing the burden of diabetes.

  20. Dynamic estimator for determining operating conditions in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li; Larimore, Jacob

    2016-01-05

    Methods and systems are provided for estimating engine performance information for a combustion cycle of an internal combustion engine. Estimated performance information for a previous combustion cycle is retrieved from memory. The estimated performance information includes an estimated value of at least one engine performance variable. Actuator settings applied to engine actuators are also received. The performance information for the current combustion cycle is then estimated based, at least in part, on the estimated performance information for the previous combustion cycle and the actuator settings applied during the previous combustion cycle. The estimated performance information for the current combustion cycle is then stored to the memory to be used in estimating performance information for a subsequent combustion cycle.

  1. USING OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST OF ACCOUSTIC EMISSION FOR PROLONGING THE OPERATION LIFE OF COMPOSITE PRESSURE CYLINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk CÁB1

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial crisis in the years 2008 to 2013 had a negative effects also in a state administration, and as well in a purchase, renewing and services of technical means of fire protection. Under the terms of School educational and vocational establishment of the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech republic (FRS CR, center in Frydek - Mistek, this condition was fully displayed at the FRS CR at the state of composite pressure cylinders (PCs, that are from the point of view of operation of the breathing apparatuses, and other technical means such as bags, sealing means, means for works on water, that are inevitable for their operability. In this article prolongation of an operation life of PCs is described, on the basis of supplementary nondestructive acoustic emission testing (AT, that is a part of hydraulic pressure test. In conclusion it is written the state of PCs after the operation life having been prolonged and before their final decommissioning.

  2. FORMATION OF ESTIMATED CONDITIONS FOR LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of this research is to substantiate the technical limits of the railway track (under reliability status for the formation the regulatory framework for reliability and functional safety of the railway track in Ukraine. Methodology.In order to achieve the goal of research analysis methods of the technical states of elements and trackforms that are typical of operation conditions of the railways in Ukraine were used. Findings.Technical states accordance of elements and trackforms to reliability status under existing regulations was defined. These conditions are based on the track assessments in accordance with the dimensional tape results. The status of each element of the track design affects its deformation work, but the rules are still absent that would connect state of track elements with the state of the track by estimation of the dimensional tape. The reasons on which the limits are not set were established. It was found out which researches are necessary to conduct for their installation. Originality. The classification of the reliability state of a railway track for permitted deviation at the track laying and maintenance was developed. The regulation importance the technical states of ballast section and subgrade for the developed classification was established. Practical value. Ukrzaliznytsia (UZ is a founding member of the Council for Railway Transport of the Commonwealth. This body issued interstate standard State Standard 32192-2013 «Reliability of railway equipment. Basic concepts, terms and definitions». On this basis developed a new interstate standard «Security functional of railway equipment. Terms and definitions». At the same time UZ is a member of the cooperation of railways in International Union of Railway Transport where rules with reliable and safe operation of railways are established in all transport branches. This study will help implement these standards on the railways of Ukraine, improve the

  3. Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected a slaughterhouse population of 954 Chadian cattle to single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT testing and two recently developed fluorescence polarization assays (FPA. Using a Bayesian modeling approach we computed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of each diagnostic test, the true disease prevalence in the sampled population and the disease status of all sampled animals in the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the sampled animals. In our Chadian setting, SICCT performed better if the cut-off for positive test interpretation was lowered from >4 mm (OIE standard cut-off to >2 mm. Using this cut-off, SICCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 89%, respectively. Both FPA tests showed sensitivities below 50% but specificities above 90%. The true disease prevalence was estimated at 8%. Altogether, 11% of the sampled animals showed gross visible tuberculous lesions. However, modeling of the BTB disease status of the sampled animals indicated that 72% of the suspected tuberculosis lesions detected during standard meat inspections were due to other pathogens than Mycobacterium bovis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for BTB diagnosis in a high incidence sub-Saharan African setting and demonstrate the practicability of our Bayesian approach for

  4. An assessment of quality of life of operated cases of esophageal atresia in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshjeet Singh Bal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the outcome of the operated children of esophageal atresia (EA focusing on their early and late morbidity and mortality and quality of life (QoL of survivors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional follow-up with retrospective analysis of available medical and surgical records of children who underwent repair for EA. Materials and Methods: The medical records of the children who underwent repair for EA during the period from 2000 to 2011 at the Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, were collected retrospectively. Patients with parents were invited to visit the hospital for follow-up and nutritional status, digestive and respiratory symptoms, status of associated anomalies and QoL assessment of children done. QoL assessment was done using the PedsQL™ 4.0 generic core scales questionnaire comprising 4 scale scores: physical, emotional, social functioning, and school functioning. Mean scores are calculated based on a 5-point response scale for each item and transformed to a 0-100 scale with a higher score representing better QoL. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16 using Chi-square or Fisher′s exact test. Results: Of 79 patients operated during the said period, there were 10 deaths and a total of 69 (87% children survived. Of the 66 patients available for follow-up, we interviewed 30 parents and children while for the remaining 36 children, out-patients charts were reviewed retrospectively. Mean follow-up duration was 3.56 years. The height and weight for age measurement showed 47% and 56% of children respectively as below the 5 th percentile. Main problems faced by operated EA children were of the respiratory (26% and gastroesophageal (36% tracts. In spite of the mentioned problems faced, the overall QoL of this group appeared good. In 23 of 30 patients, who answered PedsQL™ , more than 70% had scores >85 out of 100 in QoL scoring. Conclusions: While survivals of the

  5. Preventive maintenance and life time assessment with respect to cyclic operation; Foerebyggande underhaall och livslaengdsbedoemning med avseende paa cyklisk drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan

    2011-03-15

    Procedures that may be used for the life time assessments and growth laws for failure mechanisms with respect to cyclic operation has been compiled. Experience and analyzes of the effects of cyclical operation of steam drums, steam boxes, steam accumulators and valves has been compiled. For the strain-induced corrosion cracking in steam drums a correlation between the voltage level and the crack growth rate has been developed.

  6. Reduction of CO2 Emissions Due to Wind Energy - Methods and Issues in Estimating Operational Emission Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Millgan, Michael; Pineda, Ivan; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Orths, Antje; Wolfgang, Ove

    2015-10-05

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. Estimates based on historical data have more pitfalls in methodology than estimates based on dispatch simulations. Taking into account exchange of electricity with neighboring regions is challenging for all methods. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. Wind power will reduce emissions for about 0.3-0.4 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly gas and up to 0.7 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly coal powered generation. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions from power system operation phase, but long term impacts are shortly discussed.

  7. A kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation for the turbofan engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Feng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life estimation of the prognostics and health management technique is a complicated and difficult research question for maintenance. In this article, we consider the problem of prognostics modeling and estimation of the turbofan engine under complicated circumstances and propose a kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation method for such aircraft engine. We first analyze the output data created by the turbofan engine thermodynamic simulation that is based on the kernel principal component analysis method and then distinguish the qualitative and quantitative relationships between the key factors. Next, we build a degradation model for the engine fault based on the following assumptions: the engine has only had constant failure (i.e. no sudden failure is included, and the engine has a Wiener process, which is a covariate stand for the engine system drift. To predict the remaining useful life of the turbofan engine, we built a health index based on the degradation model and used the method of maximum likelihood and the data from the thermodynamic simulation model to estimate the parameters of this degradation model. Through the data analysis, we obtained a trend model of the regression curve line that fits with the actual statistical data. Based on the predicted health index model and the data trend model, we estimate the remaining useful life of the aircraft engine as the index reaches zero. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this prediction method that we propose. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this proposed method, the precision of the method can reach to 98.9% and the average precision is 95.8%.

  8. Analytical Method to Estimate Fatigue Life Time Duration in Service for Runner Blade Mechanism of Kaplan Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana – Maria Budai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present an analytical method that can be used to determianted fatigue life time duration in service for runner blade mechanism of Kaplan turbines. The study was made for lever button of runer blade mechanism using two analytical relation to calculate the maximum number of stress cycles whereupon the mechanism work without any damage. To estimate fatigue life time duration will be used a formula obtained from one of most comon cumulative damage methodology taking in consideration the real exploatation conditions of a specified Kapaln turbine.

  9. Energy-Efficient Through-Life Smart Design, Manufacturing and Operation of Ships in an Industry 4.0 Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hock Ang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an important factor in the marine industry to help reduce manufacturing and operational costs as well as the impact on the environment. In the face of global competition and cost-effectiveness, ship builders and operators today require a major overhaul in the entire ship design, manufacturing and operation process to achieve these goals. This paper highlights smart design, manufacturing and operation as the way forward in an industry 4.0 (i4 era from designing for better energy efficiency to more intelligent ships and smart operation through-life. The paper (i draws parallels between ship design, manufacturing and operation processes, (ii identifies key challenges facing such a temporal (lifecycle as opposed to spatial (mass products, (iii proposes a closed-loop ship lifecycle framework and (iv outlines potential future directions in smart design, manufacturing and operation of ships in an industry 4.0 value chain so as to achieve more energy-efficient vessels. Through computational intelligence and cyber-physical integration, we envision that industry 4.0 can revolutionise ship design, manufacturing and operations in a smart product through-life process in the near future.

  10. Estimating a preference-based index for a menopause specific health quality of life questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platts Maria

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to develop a menopause-specific, preference-based health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL index reflecting both menopausal symptoms and potential side-effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT. Methods The study had three phases: the development of a health state classification, a prospective valuation survey and the estimation of a model to interpolate HRQoL indices for all remaining health states as defined by the classification. A menopausal health state classification was developed with seven dimensions: hot flushes, aching joints/muscles, anxious/frightened feelings, breast tenderness, bleeding, vaginal dryness and undesirable androgenic signs. Each dimension contains between three and five levels and defines a total of 6,075 health states. A sample of 96 health states was selected for the valuation survey. These states were valued by a sample of 229 women aged 45 to 60, randomly selected from 6 general practice lists in Sheffield, UK. Respondents were asked to complete a time trade-off (TTO task for nine health states, resulting in an average of 16.5 values for each health state. Results Mean health states valued range from 0.48 to 0.98 (where 1.0 is full health and zero is for states regarded as equivalent to death. Symptoms, as described by the classification system, can be rank-ordered in terms of their impact (from high to low on menopausal HRQoL as follows: aching joints and muscles, bleeding, breast tenderness, anxious or frightened feelings, vaginal dryness, androgenic signs. Hot flushes did not significantly contribute to model fit. The preferred model produced a mean absolute error of 0.053, but suffered from bias at both ends of the scale. Conclusion This article presents an attempt to directly value a condition specific health state classification. The overall fit was disappointing, but the results demonstrate that menopausal symptoms are perceived by patients to have a significant

  11. Interior Lp-estimates for elliptic and parabolic Schr\\"odinger type operators and local Ap-weights

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Isolda; Viola, Pablo; Viviani, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Let Omega be a non-empty open proper and connected subset of R^n. Consider p elliptic Schr\\"odinger type operator L_{E}u=A_{E}u+V in Omega, and the linear parabolic operator L_{P}u=A_{P}u+Vu in Omega x (0,T), where the coefficients of A_{E} and A_{P} are in VMO and the potential V satisfies a reverse-H\\"older condition. The aim of this paper is to obtain a priori estimates for the operators L_{E} and L_{P} in weighted Sobolev spaces involving the distance to the boundary and weights in a loca...

  12. The need for operating guidelines and a decision making framework applicable to the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; Randolph, Richard O.

    While formal principles have been adopted for the eventuality of detecting intelligent life in our galaxy (SETI Principles), no such guidelines exist for the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life within the solar system. Current scientifically based planetary protection policies for solar system exploration address how to undertake exploration, but do not provide clear guidance on what to do if and when life is detected. Considering that martian life could be detected under several different robotic and human exploration scenarios in the coming decades, it is appropriate to anticipate how detection of non-intelligent, microbial life could impact future exploration missions and activities, especially on Mars. This paper discusses a proposed set of interim guidelines based loosely on the SETI Principles and addresses issues extending from the time of discovery through future handling and treatment of extraterrestrial life on Mars or elsewhere. Based on an analysis of both scientific and ethical considerations, there is a clear need for developing operating protocols applicable at the time of discovery and a decision making framework that anticipates future missions and activities, both robotic and human. There is growing scientific confidence that the discovery of extraterrestrial life in some form is nearly inevitable. If and when life is discovered beyond Earth, non-scientific dimensions may strongly influence decisions about the nature and scope of future missions and activities. It is appropriate to encourage international discussion and consideration of the issues prior to an event of such historical significance.

  13. Estimating numerical errors due to operator splitting in global atmospheric chemistry models: Transport and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana, Mauricio; Zhang, Lin; Yantosca, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present upper bounds for the numerical errors introduced when using operator splitting methods to integrate transport and non-linear chemistry processes in global chemical transport models (CTM). We show that (a) operator splitting strategies that evaluate the stiff non-linear chemistry operator at the end of the time step are more accurate, and (b) the results of numerical simulations that use different operator splitting strategies differ by at most 10%, in a prototype one-dimensional non-linear chemistry-transport model. We find similar upper bounds in operator splitting numerical errors in global CTM simulations.

  14. Impact of work-related cancers in Taiwan-Estimation with QALY (quality-adjusted life year) and healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hung, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-12-01

    This study estimates the annual numbers of eight work-related cancers, total losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and lifetime healthcare expenditures that possibly could be saved by improving occupational health in Taiwan. Three databases were interlinked: the Taiwan Cancer Registry, the National Mortality Registry, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. Annual numbers of work-related cancers were estimated based on attributable fractions (AFs) abstracted from a literature review. The survival functions for eight cancers were estimated and extrapolated to lifetime using a semi-parametric method. A convenience sample of 8846 measurements of patients' quality of life with EQ-5D was collected for utility values and multiplied by survival functions to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALEs). The loss-of-QALE was obtained by subtracting the QALE of cancer from age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics. The lifetime healthcare expenditures were estimated by multiplying the survival probability with mean monthly costs paid by the National Health Insurance for cancer diagnosis and treatment and summing this for the expected lifetime. A total of 3010 males and 726 females with eight work-related cancers were estimated in 2010. Among them, lung cancer ranked first in terms of QALY loss, with an annual total loss-of-QALE of 28,463 QALYs and total lifetime healthcare expenditures of US$36.6 million. Successful prevention of eight work-related cancers would not only avoid the occurrence of 3736 cases of cancer, but would also save more than US$70 million in healthcare costs and 46,750 QALYs for the Taiwan society in 2010.

  15. Estimates for derivatives of the Green functions for the noncoercive differential operators on homogeneous manifolds of negative curvature, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Urban

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Green functions for second order non-coercive differential operators on homogeneous manifolds of negative curvature, being a semi-direct product of a nilpotent Lie group $N$ and $A=mathbb{R}^+$. We obtain estimates for the mixed derivatives of the Green functions that complements a previous work by the same author [17].

  16. An ideal point method adopting grey relational entropy to estimate life cycle cost with effectiveness of torpedo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qing-wei; SONG Bao-wei

    2008-01-01

    To making the decision of the developing blue prints, ideal point method was selected to estimate the life cycle cost with effectiveness of torpedo. At the same time, the concept of grey relational entropy of the grey system theory was adopted to compute the distance between each blue print and the ideal point (or negative ide-al point). The blue print, nearest to the ideal point and farthest to the negative ideal point, is the best one. As an example, four blue prints of torpedo were estimated. The result indicates the practical value of this method.

  17. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.

    2013-08-14

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence

  18. COMPARATIVE ESTIMATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH CHOROIDAL MELANOMA AFTER DIFFERENT TREATMENT OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ye. Panova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes quality-of-life indicators in patients with choroidal melanoma after organ-removing and organ-saving treatments. Their quality of life after different treatments was found to have no statistically significant differences. Enucleation in patients with choroidal melanoma ensured higher values in the block of emotional well-being after surgery. After organ-saving treatment, the patients showed a significant reduction in quality of life as a total score in the late follow-up period. 

  19. Application of Small Sample Analysis in Life Estimation of Aeroengine Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Ting

    2010-01-01

    The samples of fatigue life tests for aeroengine components are usually less than 5, so the evaluation of these samples belongs to small sample analysis. The Weibull distribution is known to describe the life data accurately, and the Weibayes method (developed from Bayesian method) expands on the experiential data in the small sample analysis of fatigue life in aeroengine. Based on the Weibull analysis, a program was developed to improve the efficiency of the reliability analysis for aeroengine compgnents. This program has complete cycle fatigue life was evaluated by this program. From the results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a) that this program could be used for the engineering applications, and (b) while a lack of former test data lowered the validity of evaluation results, the Weibayes method ensured the results of small sample analysis did not deviate from the truth.

  20. Model-based prognostics for batteries which estimates useful life and uses a probability density function

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This invention develops a mathematical model to describe battery behavior during individual discharge cycles as well as over its cycle life. The basis for the form...

  1. Junction temperature estimation method for a 600 V, 30A IGBT module during converter operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Blaabjerg, F.; Iannuzzo, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an accurate method to estimate the junction temperature using the on-state collector-emitter voltage at high current. By means of the proposed method, the estimation error which comes from the different temperatures of the interconnection materials in the module is compensated...

  2. A New Estimate on the Rate of Convergence of Durrmeyer-Bézier Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain an estimate on the rate of convergence of Durrmeyer-Bézier operaters for functions of bounded variation by means of some probabilistic methods and inequality techniques. Our estimate improves the result of Zeng and Chen (2000.

  3. Estimating the ROI on an ERP for Naval aviation operations using market comparables

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, David W.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Navy aviation squadrons conduct a variety of flight operations in peace and wartime environments. At the heart of these operations is the flight scheduling that occurs to command and control the squadron's assets to ensure the actors and processes carry out the squadron's operations seamlessly and meet the squadron's mission requirements. This research and case study demonstrates how the Knowledge Value Added Methodology (KVA) and Business Process Reengineering (BPR) can be applied to t...

  4. An operational method for the evaluation of resource use and environmental impacts of dairy farms by life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Hayo M G; Kanyarushoki, Claver; Corson, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes and applies EDEN-E, an operational method for the environmental evaluation of dairy farms based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) conceptual framework. EDEN-E requires a modest amount of data readily available on-farm, and thus can be used to assess a large number of farms at a reasonable cost. EDEN-E estimates farm resource use and pollutant emissions mostly at the farm scale, based on-farm-gate balances, amongst others. Resource use and emissions are interpreted in terms of potential impacts: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, terrestrial toxicity, non-renewable energy use and land occupation. The method distinguishes for each total impact a direct component (impacts on the farm site) and an indirect component (impacts associated with production and supply of inputs used). A group of 47 dairy farms (41 conventional and six organic) was evaluated. Expressed per 1000kg of fat-and-protein-corrected milk, total land occupation was significantly larger for organic than for conventional farms, while total impacts for eutrophication, acidification, climate change, terrestrial toxicity, and non-renewable energy use were not significantly different for the two production modes. When expressed per ha of land occupied all total impacts were significantly larger for conventional than organic farms. This study largely confirms previously published findings concerning the effect of production mode on impacts of dairy farms. However, it strikingly reveals that, for the set of farms examined, the contribution of production mode to overall inter-farm variability of impacts was minor relative to inter-farm variability within each of the two production modes examined. The mapping of impact variability through EDEN-E opens promising perspectives to move towards sustainable farming systems by identifying the structural and management characteristics of the farms presenting the lowest impacts.

  5. EXPERIENCES OF OPERATING AND STUDYING IN SECOND LIFE: Conclusions for Training Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta LISKI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Educational Association Citizens´ Forum SKAF ry is an educational institution for non-formal education. The Citizens’ Forum has been an active Second Life participant since 2007, researching its potential and challenges in educational use and non-governmental organisation activities. The first training sessions were organised in 2008 on a block of land rented from EduFinland I island. Later, ownership was acquired of the Suomi ry (Finland ry island, which was customised to serve Finnish organisations and non-governmental organisations (further NGO. The citizens’ Forum’s training courses have covered training in Second Life and the organisation of cooperative meetings and various other events in Second Life. The overall length of training sessions has been one month. Each course has consisted of 3-5. 1.5 hour meetings in Second Life and interim tasks completed either individually or in small groups. In addition to Second Life, Moodle, an online learning environment, has been employed in which tasks, experiences and feedback have been gathered and which has also contained written summaries of what was learned during the Second Life meetings. The Second Life environment has also been regularly utilised in Citizens’ Forum staff and various other work group work related meetings.Funding and ventures 2008: Ministry of Education special funding, Initiation of Second Life courses and construction of environment 2009-2010: ESF programme Open Learning Environments-AVO venture, development and implementation of Second Life educational programmes.This article is based on practical experiences gained from Ø suitability of cooperative educational processes for Second LifeØ constructing a Second Life environment for educational useØ suitability of Second Life technology and tools for education and team workØ practical methods related to educational situations .

  6. Sharp Weighted Estimates for a Class of n-dimensional Hardy-Steklov Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG QING-YU; SHI SHAO-GUANG; Ji You-qing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we study one class of n-dimensional Hardy-Steklov operators which has important applications in the technical analysis in equity markets.We establish their weighted boundedness and the corresponding operator norms on both Lp(Rn) and BMO(Rn).

  7. Using a survey to estimate health expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy to assess inequalities in health and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brendan

    2013-06-01

    There has been a policy debate in the United Kingdom about moving beyond traditional measures of life expectancy and economic output to developing more meaningful ways of measuring national well-being. To test whether quality adjusted life expectancy (QALE) was a useful indicator of health inequalities. EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire data from a well-being survey was combined with actuarial life expectancy (LE) data to estimate healthy LE (HLE), that is, years of life lived in good health, and QALE, that is, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lived for Wirral, a borough in the north west of England. The gap between Wirral and the most deprived areas was 4.45 years for LE, 5.34 for QALE, and 7.55 for HLE. The gap in QALE was 20% greater than the gap in LE, while the gap in HLE was 70% greater. The fact that the QALE gap value lies between the HLE value and the LE value suggests that QALE is a more sensitive indicator than HLE, as in this study QALE is derived from 243 possible EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire profiles whereas HLE is based only on whether or not an individual rates his or her health as good, a binary variable. This study discusses how QALE could be a useful indicator for measuring health inequalities in future, especially as cost utility and QALYs are seen as the gold standard used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom to measure outcomes for health interventions in England, and discusses how a monetary valuation of QALYs could be used to put a societal cost on health inequalities. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating end of life liabilities for plant licensing and financial planning for similarly configured stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, G. [TLG Services, Inc. an Entergy Nuclear Co. (United States); Kennard, J. [Ontario Power Generation Inc. (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is required to update estimated waste management and decommissioning costs on a 5-year cycle within the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) regulatory framework and provide a decommissioning cost update and provisions funds status to the Province of Ontario on a similar five-year cycle under the terms of the Ontario Nuclear Funds Agreement (ONFA). The following is an overview of the important steps used to develop OPG's nuclear power station decommissioning cost estimates, including a discussion of the responsibilities of both the owner (OPG) and estimating services vendor (TLG Services). This presentation is related to decommissioning estimating for multi-unit stations; therefore the discussion will be focused on identifying those activities that may be particularly impacted by multi-unit configuration or multiple stations. It should be noted that simultaneously developing decommissioning estimates for multiple multi-unit stations creates the opportunity to achieve economies of scale to more efficiently produce the estimates, and enables the owner and vendor to compare results between stations to identify inconsistencies. However, without careful attention to detail at the planning and execution stage, it also creates the potential liability of backtracking and developing the estimate multiple times, should significant assumptions be revised in mid-project. (authors)

  9. Model-based prognostics for batteries which estimates useful life and uses a probability density function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention develops a mathematical model to describe battery behavior during individual discharge cycles as well as over its cycle life. The basis for the form of the model has been linked to the internal processes of the battery and validated using experimental data. Effects of temperature and load current have also been incorporated into the model. Subsequently, the model has been used in a Particle Filtering framework to make predictions of remaining useful life for individual discharge cycles as well as for cycle life. The prediction performance was found to be satisfactory as measured by performance metrics customized for prognostics for a sample case. The work presented here provides initial steps towards a comprehensive health management solution for energy storage devices.

  10. Outer measures and weak type estimates of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasawa Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the times modified centered and uncentered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on nonhomogeneous spaces for . We will prove that the times modified centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is weak type bounded with constant when if the Radon measure of the space has "continuity" in some sense. In the proof, we will use the outer measure associated with the Radon measure. We will also prove other results of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on homogeneous spaces and on the real line by using outer measures.

  11. Estimating the number of eigenvalues of linear operators on Banach spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Michael; Hanauska, Franz; Hansmann, Marcel; Katriel, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Let $L_0$ be a bounded operator on a Banach space, and consider a perturbation $L=L_0+K$, where $K$ is compact. This work is concerned with obtaining bounds on the number of eigenvalues of $L$ in subsets of the complement of the essential spectrum of $L_0$, in terms of the approximation numbers of the perturbing operator $K$. Our results can be considered as wide generalizations of classical results on the distribution of eigenvalues of compact operators, which correspond to the case $L_0=0$....

  12. Estimation of intra-operative brain shift using a tracked laser range scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Siyi; Miga, Michael I; Thompson, Reid C; Dumpuri, Prashanth; Cao, Aize; Dawant, Benoit M

    2007-01-01

    Intra-operative brain shift limits the usefulness of image-guided neurosurgery systems (IGNS), which are based on pre-operative images. Methods that are being developed to address this problem need intra-operative measurements as input. In this work, we present an intra-operative surface shift measurement technique that relies on a tracked 3D laser range scanner. This scanner acquires both 3D range data and 2D images, which are co-registered. We compare two methods to derive displacements at every point in the field of view. The first one relies on the registration of the 2D images; the second relies on the direct 3D registration of the 3D range data. Our results, based on five data sets, show that the 2D method is preferable.

  13. Estimate of -Functionals and Modulus of Smoothness Constructed by Generalized Spherical Mean Operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M El Hamma; R Daher

    2014-05-01

    Using a generalized spherical mean operator, we define generalized modulus of smoothness in the space $L^2_k(\\mathbb{R}^d)$. Based on the Dunkl operator we define Sobolev-type space and -functionals. The main result of the paper is the proof of the equivalence theorem for a -functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on $\\mathbb{R}^d$.

  14. Perturbation determinants in Banach spaces - with an application to eigenvalue estimates for perturbed operators

    OpenAIRE

    Hansmann, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we provide a self-contained introduction to (regularized) perturbation determinants for operators in Banach spaces. In the second part, we use these determinants to derive new bounds on the discrete eigenvalues of compactly perturbed operators, broadly extending some recent results by Demuth et al. In addition, we also establish new bounds on the discrete eigenvalues of generators of $C_0$-semigroups.

  15. Estimation of the burden of active and life-time epilepsy: A meta-analytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Sander, Josemir W; Newton, Charles R

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the burden of lifetime epilepsy (LTE) and active epilepsy (AE) and examine the influence of study characteristics on prevalence estimates. Methods We searched online databases and identified articles using prespecified criteria. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate the median prevalence in developed countries and in urban and rural settings in developing countries. The impact of study characteristics on prevalence estimates was determined using meta-regression models. Results The median LTE prevalence for developed countries was 5.8 per 1,000 (5th–95th percentile range 2.7–12.4) compared to 15.4 per 1,000 (4.8–49.6) for rural and 10.3 (2.8–37.7) for urban studies in developing countries. The median prevalence of AE was 4.9 per 1,000 (2.3–10.3) for developed countries and 12.7 per 1,000 (3.5–45.5) and 5.9 (3.4–10.2) in rural and urban studies in developing countries. The estimates of burden for LTE and AE in developed countries were 6.8 million (5th–95th percentile range 3.2–14.7) and 5.7 million (2.7–12.2), respectively. In developing countries these were 45 (14–145) million LTE and 17 (10–133) million AE in rural areas and 17 (5–61) million LTE and 10 (5–17) million AE in urban areas. Studies involving all ages or only adults showed higher estimates than pediatric studies. Higher prevalence estimates were also associated with rural location and small study size. Conclusions This study estimates the global burden of epilepsy and the proportions with AE, which may benefit from treatment. There are systematic differences in reported prevalence estimates, which are only partially explained by study characteristics. PMID:20067507

  16. Estimates for the Green's function and parameters of exponential dichotomy of a hyperbolic operator semigroup and linear relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskakov, A G [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    By applying Lyapunov's equation, the method of similar operators, and the methods of harmonic analysis, we obtain estimates for the parameters of exponential dichotomy and for the Green's function constructed for a hyperbolic operator semigroup and a hyperbolic linear relation. Estimates are obtained using quantities which are determined by the resolvent of the infinitesimal operator of the operator semigroup and of the linear relation. Bibliography: 51 titles.

  17. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Rawlings, James B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) for a complete spray drying plant with multiple stages. In the E-NMPC the initial state is estimated by an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with noise covariances estimated by an autocovariance least...... squares method (ALS). We present a model for the spray drying plant and use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single-shooting method combined with a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic programming (SQP...

  18. Ocean Frontal Areas. Phytoplankton Enumeration and Biomass Estimates -- Operation Guiding Light (April-May 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    TUPS) SAMPLE VOLUME 50rril NUMBER OF AVERAGE BIOMA ~SS CELLS/L CELL SIZE ESTIMATE DIATOMS m 3 xl ~ m 3 x162 Bacteriastrum delicatulurr Chaetoceros...DATE 5/09/85 :long 70 27.64W TIME 1209 GMT VOLUME FILTERED 0.5L DEPTH 2m SAMPLE VOLUME 50mI NUMBER OF AVERAGE BIOMA ~SS CELLS/L CELL SIZE ESTIMATE...Directorate PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT NSTL, MS 39529-5004 ELEMENT NO, NO. NO. No. 61153NI ll.TITtAteaWSc@CaaCA"OdnhOcear. rona Areas hytoplankton

  19. An investigation of the effects of traffic induced local dynamics on global damping estimates using operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewick, P. T.; Smyth, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of estimating the modal damping on a bridge from hour-long records of traffic loading were conducted by combining physics-based finite element modeling and signal processing. The finite element method was used to model a bridge consisting of a series of stringer beams resting atop a larger girder. The traffic loads were separated into trains and cars, with the trains modeled as partially distributed moving masses traveling along the girder and the cars modeled as point loads moving along the stringers. From the acceleration time histories, different operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques were used to find estimates for the modal coefficients of damping. The results demonstrated that a quasi-periodic component in the traffic loading introduces significant error to the damping estimates. This error could be observed in the distortion of the peaks for the power spectral densities (PSD) generated from the responses to the traffic simulations. The main OMA technique explored for the damping estimates was Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD), but it could not compensate or correct for any alterations to the PSD. Other techniques such as the Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSID) method and curve-fitting frequency domain analysis were evaluated, but they produced comparable damping ratio estimates to EFDD and similarly resulted in large errors for the distorted modes. The influence of quasi-periodic loads was perceptible, which means that for certain cases, the nature of traffic loads may result in damping estimates that are considerably inaccurate no matter what OMA technique is chosen.

  20. Estimation of Lifetime Duration for a Lever Pin of Runner Blade Operating Mechanism using a Graphic – analytic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Budai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented a graphic - analytic method that can be used to estimate the fatigue lifetime duration for an operating mechanism lever pin to a Kaplan turbine. The presented calculus algorithm is adapted from the one used by Fuji Electric to made strength calculus in order to refurbish a Romanian hydropower plant, equipped with a Kaplan turbine. The graphic part includes a 3D fatigue diagram for rotating bending stress designed by Fuji Electric specialists.

  1. Estimation of Energy Consumption in COREX Process Using a Modified Rist Operating Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-long ZHAN; Keng WU; Zhi-jun HE; Qi-hang LIU; Xiao-juan WU

    2015-01-01

    Fuel consumption in the COREX-3000 process run in Baosteel is currently higher than the design index. Therefore,mass and heat balance equations for the COREX process were established using the basic principles in-cluded in the Rist operating diagram for blast furnace (BF)as a reference.Thermodynamic calculations were then used to modify the Rist operating diagram so that it was suitable for the COREX process.The modified Rist operating dia-gram was then applied for the evaluation of metallization rate (MR)and fuel structure to reduce the energy consump-tion in the COREX process.The modified Rist operating diagram for the shaft furnace (SF)provided a nearly ideal value for the restriction point W when the metallization rate was increased,while the point P on the operating line for the melter gasifier (MG)moved upward due to reduction in the heat required in hearth.The feasibility of reduc-ing the energy consumption during the COREX process by changing the fuel structure was also demonstrated.

  2. Phenix reactor: a review of 35 year long operating life; Le reacteur Phenix: bilan de 35 ans de fonctionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.; Dall' Ava, D.; Rochwerger, D.; Goux, D. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Guidez, J.; Martin, Ph.; Seran, J.L. [CEA Saclay 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Sauvage, J.F.; Prele, G.; Guihard, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bernardin, B.; Vanier, M.; Zaetta, A.; Latge, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Fontaine, B.; Jolly, J.A.; Gros, J.; Pepe, D. [CEA Marcoule, Centrale Phenix, 30 (France); Pelletier, M.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Escaravage, C.; Gelineau, O.; Dupraz, R.; Dirat, J.F.; Giraud, M. [AREVA NP, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Michaille, P. [CEA Dam, DP2I, Mar (France)

    2009-01-15

    Phenix reactor that was commissioned in 1973, had its final shutdown during the beginning of 2009. This series of articles presents the main contributions of Phenix over its 35 years of operating life in material sciences, the handling of sodium, the design of fast reactors, core physics and reactor safety. Other articles recall the feedback experience on particular components like sodium pumps, steam generators or intermediate heat exchangers and about reactor maintenance. This power plant was first an experimental reactor that, with its hot cells, has performed important irradiation programs concerning mainly fast reactor technology and transmutation as a tool for burning actinides. One article reviews the environmental impact of this reactor over its operating life in terms of waste production and dosimetry. (A.C.)

  3. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  4. Sensory shelf life estimation of minimally processed lettuce considering two stages of consumers' decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the influence of context, particularly the stage of the decision-making process (purchase vs consumption stage), on sensory shelf life of minimally processed lettuce. Leaves of butterhead lettuce were placed in common polypropylene bags and stored at 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Periodically, a panel of six assessors evaluated the appearance of the samples, and a panel of 40 consumers evaluated their appearance and answered "yes" or "no" to the questions: "Imagine you are in a supermarket, you want to buy a minimally processed lettuce, and you find a package of lettuce with leaves like this, would you normally buy it?" and "Imagine you have this leaf of lettuce stored in your refrigerator, would you normally consume it?". Survival analysis was used to calculate the shelf lives of minimally processed lettuce, considering both decision-making stages. Shelf lives estimated considering rejection to purchase were significantly lower than those estimated considering rejection to consume. Therefore, in order to be conservative and assure the products' quality, shelf life should be estimated considering consumers' rejection to purchase instead of rejection to consume, as traditionally has been done. On the other hand, results from logistic regressions of consumers' rejection percentage as a function of the evaluated appearance attributes suggested that consumers considered them differently while deciding whether to purchase or to consume minimally processed lettuce.

  5. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60 data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60 and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for each group. Results: Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion: Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care.

  6. Operational space synchronization of two robot manipulators through a virtual velocity estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Kyrkjebø

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two robot manipulators are synchronized in a leader-follower scheme where only joint position measurements of the leader are available. A virtual manipulator is designed to provide a velocity estimate of the unknown leader velocity to the control law of the follower. The closed-loop errors are shown to be uniformly globally practically asymptotically stable.

  7. A dispersive estimate for the Schr\\"odinger operator in star-shaped networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmeti, Felix Ali; Nicaise, Serge

    2012-01-01

    We prove time decay $L^1 ({\\cal R}) \\rightarrow L^\\infty ({\\cal R}),$ where ${\\cal R}$ is an infinite star-shaped network, estimates for the Schr\\"odinger group $e^{it(- \\frac{d^2}{dx^2} + V)}$ for real-valued potentials $V$ satisfy some regularity and decay assumptions.

  8. A general procedure for estimating dynamic displacements using strain measurements and operational modal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Anders; Aenlle, Manuel L.; Brincker, Rune

    2016-01-01

    measuring the in-plane deformation. This paper proposes a method in which the displacement mode shapes and responses can be predicted using only strain measurements. The method relies on the newly discovered principle of local correspondence, which states that each experimental mode can be expressed....... The method is validated with experimental tests on a scaled model of a two-span bridge installed with strain gauges. Random load was applied to simulate a civil structure under operating condition, and strain mode shapes were identified using operational modal analysis....

  9. Estimation of optimum operating point for thrust magnetic bearing with solid magnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙首群; 田育民

    2003-01-01

    A carrying capacity-temperature rise analysis model has been established for analysis of the carrying capacity, temperature rise and carrying capacity-temperature rise characteristic of a thrust magnetic bearing with solid magnet. The results indicate that there must be an optimal operating point for the thrust magnetic beating with solid magnet. The main factors having effect on carrying capacity-temperature rise include static gap and/or ampere-turns. With proper static gap chosen, the bearing can be run near the optimal operating point by adjhusting ampere-turns, thereby optimizing the bearing properties.

  10. Fatigue life estimation for different notched specimens based on the volumetric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of notch radius for different notched specimens has been studied on the values of stress concentration factor, notch strength reduction factor, and fatigue life duration of the specimens. The material which has been selected for this investigation is Al 2024T3 . Volumetric approach has been applied to obtain the values of notch strength reduction factor and results have been compared with those obtained from the Neuber and Peterson methods. Load controlled fatigue tests of mentioned specimens have been conducted on the 250kN servo-hydraulic Zwick/Amsler fatigue testing machine with the frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue lives of the specimens have also been predicted based on the available smooth S-N curve of Al2024-T3 and also the amounts of notch strength reduction factor which have been obtained from volumetric, Neuber and Peterson methods. The values of stress and strain around the notch roots are required to predict the fatigue life of notched specimens, so Ansys finite element code has been used and non-linear analyses have been performed to obtain the stress and strain distributions around the notches. The plastic deformations of the material have been simulated using multi-linear kinematic hardening and cyclic stress-strain relation. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job for predicting the fatigue life of the notched specimens.

  11. A Predictive Task Network Model for Estimating the Effectiveness of Decision Aids for Sonar Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    METHOD 2.1 Building the model Using existing task analyses of navy sonar systems (Matthews, Greenley and Webb, 1991) and with the assistance of...Critical Operator Tasks. DRDC Toronto Report # CR-2003-131 Matthews, M.L., Greenley , M. and Webb, R.D.G (1991). Presentation of Information from Towed

  12. Operational Implementation of Sea Ice Concentration Estimates from the AMSR2 Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter N.; Stewart, J. Scott; Liu, Yinghui; Key, Jeffrey; Miller, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    An operation implementation of a passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithm to support NOAA's operational mission is presented. The NASA team 2 algorithm, previously developed for the NASA advanced microwave scanning radiometer for the Earth observing system (AMSR-E) product suite, is adapted for operational use with the JAXA AMSR2 sensor through several enhancements. First, the algorithm is modified to process individual swaths and provide concentration from the most recent swaths instead of a 24-hour average. A latency (time since observation) field and a 24-hour concentration range (maximum-minimum) are included to provide indications of data timeliness and variability. Concentration from the Bootstrap algorithm is a secondary field to provide complementary sea ice information. A quality flag is implemented to provide information on interpolation, filtering, and other quality control steps. The AMSR2 concentration fields are compared with a different AMSR2 passive microwave product, and then validated via comparison with sea ice concentration from the Suomi visible and infrared imaging radiometer suite. This validation indicates the AMSR2 concentrations have a bias of 3.9% and an RMSE of 11.0% in the Arctic, and a bias of 4.45% and RMSE of 8.8% in the Antarctic. In most cases, the NOAA operational requirements for accuracy are met. However, in low-concentration regimes, such as during melt and near the ice edge, errors are higher because of the limitations of passive microwave sensors and the algorithm retrieval.

  13. Operating characteristics of sample size re-estimation with futility stopping based on conditional power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, John M

    2006-10-15

    Various methods have been described for re-estimating the final sample size in a clinical trial based on an interim assessment of the treatment effect. Many re-weight the observations after re-sizing so as to control the pursuant inflation in the type I error probability alpha. Lan and Trost (Estimation of parameters and sample size re-estimation. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association Biopharmaceutical Section 1997; 48-51) proposed a simple procedure based on conditional power calculated under the current trend in the data (CPT). The study is terminated for futility if CPT or = CU, or re-sized by a factor m to yield CPT = CU if CL stopping for futility can balance the inflation due to sample size re-estimation, thus permitting any form of final analysis with no re-weighting. Herein the statistical properties of this approach are described including an evaluation of the probabilities of stopping for futility or re-sizing, the distribution of the re-sizing factor m, and the unconditional type I and II error probabilities alpha and beta. Since futility stopping does not allow a type I error but commits a type II error, then as the probability of stopping for futility increases, alpha decreases and beta increases. An iterative procedure is described for choice of the critical test value and the futility stopping boundary so as to ensure that specified alpha and beta are obtained. However, inflation in beta is controlled by reducing the probability of futility stopping, that in turn dramatically increases the possible re-sizing factor m. The procedure is also generalized to limit the maximum sample size inflation factor, such as at m max = 4. However, doing so then allows for a non-trivial fraction of studies to be re-sized at this level that still have low conditional power. These properties also apply to other methods for sample size re-estimation with a provision for stopping for futility. Sample size re-estimation procedures should be used with caution

  14. Estimation of the operational reliability determined with Weibull modulus based on the abrasive wear in a cylinder-piston ring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the study was to determine methodology for estimation of the operational reliability based on the statistical results of abrasive wear testing.Design/methodology/approach: For research, a traditional tribological system, i.e. a friction pair of the AlSi17CuNiMg silumin in contact with the spheroidal graphite cast iron of EN-GJN-200 grade, was chosen. Conditions of dry friction were assumed. This system was chosen based on mechanical cooperation between the cylinder (silumin and piston rings (spheroidal graphite cast iron in conventional internal combustion piston engines with spark ignition.Findings: Using material parameters of the cylinder and piston rings, nominal losses qualifying the cylinder for repair and the maximum weight losses that can be smothered were determined. Based on the theoretical number of engine revolutions to repair and stress acting on the cylinder bearing surface, the maximum distance that the motor vehicle can travel before the seizure of the cylinder occurs was calculated. These results were the basis for statistical analysis carried out with the Weibull modulus, the end result of which was the estimation of material reliability (the survival probability of tribological system and the determination of a pre-operation warranty period of the tribological system.Research limitations/implications: The analysis of Weibull distribution modulus will estimate the reliability of a tribological cylinder-ring system enabled the determination of an approximate theoretical time of the combustion engine failure-free running.Originality/value: The results are valuable statistical data and methodology proposed in this paper can be used to determine a theoretical life time of the combustion engine.

  15. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  16. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  17. Optimal heat kernel estimates for Schroedinger operators with magnetic fields in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (United States). School of Mathematics; Thaller, B. [Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    1997-06-01

    Sharp smoothing estimates are proven for magnetic Schroedinger semigroups in two dimensions under the assumption that the magnetic field is bounded below by some positive constant B{sub 0}. As a consequence the L{sup {infinity}} norm of the associated integral kernel is bounded by the L{sup {infinity}} norm of the Mehler kernel of the Schroedinger semigroup with the constant magnetic field B{sub 0}. (orig.)

  18. APPROACH TO ESTIMATION OF THE MARKET VOLUME FOR COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE B2B SEGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla B. Kochergina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the approach for estimating amount of alive enterprises inRussia. The main focus is on the way of detecting an business-active companiesusing the formal signs. The author proposes some signs for indicating of thebusiness activity. The developed model allows to clarify the amount of active enterprises in stages using those signs. The author provides the approach how to applythis model for different markets.

  19. A Monocular SLAM Method to Estimate Relative Pose During Satellite Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    HOMER video sequence in Figure 17) provides the relative rotation and translation required from the perspective of the camera for successful...shows the SLAM results, with the camera models representing the relative pose estimates of the camera on the arm. Figure 40 shows another perspective of...ensures initialization is performed with adequate relative motion. If no additional perspective information is obtained in an initialization attempt, a

  20. Creep life management system for a turbine engine and method of operating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Miller, Harold Edward; Badami, Vivek Venugopal; Vittal, Sameer; Sexton, Daniel White

    2016-11-15

    A creep life management system includes at least one sensor apparatus coupled to a first component. The at least one sensor apparatus is configured with a unique identifier. The creep life management system also includes at least one reader unit coupled to a second component. The at least one reader unit is configured to transmit an interrogation request signal to the at least one sensor apparatus and receive a measurement response signal transmitted from the at least one sensor apparatus. The creep life management system further includes at least one processor programmed to determine a real-time creep profile of the first component as a function of the measurement response signal transmitted from the at least one sensor apparatus.

  1. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - 9310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K; Bruce Wiersma, B; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-01-12

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground carbon steel storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The underground tanks will be closed by removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations, and severing/sealing external penetrations. The life of the carbon steel materials of construction in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to grouted conditions. A stochastic approach was followed to estimate the distributions of failures based upon mechanisms of corrosion accounting for variances in each of the independent variables. The methodology and results used for one-type of tank is presented.

  2. An estimation of fatigue life for a carbon fibre/poly ether ether ketone hip joint prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, M; Aslan, N

    1995-01-01

    A fracture mechanics approach was applied to estimate the life of a prosthesis injection moulded from short carbon fibre reinforced poly ether ether ketone. Flexural modulus and strength, fracture toughness, fatigue endurance limit, fatigue crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity factor were determined. The dimensions of the test pieces were selected to yield fibre orientation and fibre length distributions similar to those obtained in the prosthesis. Stress levels generated in the prosthesis under different activities were estimated by conducting three-dimensional finite element analysis. It was shown by a fracture mechanics approach that a fatigue failure due to the propagation of an embedded elliptical slit, under these stresses, would be unlikely for a crack length smaller than 1.85 mm. However, the cement would fail under the same conditions, irrespective of the type of the prosthesis employed.

  3. Quality of Life Assessment:an Outcome Estimation of Chinese Medical Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利; 陈金泉

    2003-01-01

    @@ At present, quality of life (QOL) has become a relevant measure of efficacy in clinical trials. Its use is spreading, and its importance is growing as a valid indicator of effectiveness of a treatment(1). In 1985, QOL, recommended by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is one of the primary efficacy parameters as a basis for approval of anticancer drugs. Some scholars in China are also interested in establishing a related parameter for measuring efficacy of new drugs in view of QOL(2). Without question, to improve QOL is one of the main goals in health care and social work.

  4. Effect of the Length of Traffic Flow Records on the Estimate of a Bridge Service Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krejsa Jan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The service life of bridges is significantly affected by fatigue of used material induced by heavy vehicles. Therefore, precise determination of the vehicle weight is of crucial importance for the calculation of fatigue damage and the prediction of the bridge serviceability. This paper investigates accuracy of the determination of fatigue depending on the length of traffic flow recording. The presented data were obtained from the measurements carried out on a bridge of the Prague Highway Ring. The analysis reveals that the optimal length of traffic recording is about 30 days.

  5. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance. PMID:24302503

  6. IPO operational algorithm teams throughout the life cycle of NPOESS environmental satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, James L.; Emch, Pamela G.

    2004-09-01

    The tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO) created Operational Algorithm Teams (OATs) in 1997 to provide scientific advice for managing the development and operation of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The scientific advice focuses on (1) assuring sound science in instrument and systems design in addition to (2) assuring development and implementation of sound scientific algorithms. This paper outlines the role of IPO operational algorithm teams from mission conception, through instrument design and development, algorithm science code development and conversion to operational code, data processing system implementation, calibration, validation, and, finally, operational data and products distribution to a range of users for weather, national security, and climate science. The composition of the algorithm science teams changes substantially as the sensors and algorithms are developed, tested, integrated, launched, become operational, and age on-orbit. The concept of leveraging our heritage scientists has proven successful with many tangible benefits to the government, the contractor teams, and, ultimately, the nation's taxpayers.

  7. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  8. Machine and Component Residual Life Estimation through the Application of Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, M A; Heyns, P S

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the use of neural networks for predicting the residual life of machines and components. In addition, the advantage of using condition-monitoring data to enhance the predictive capability of these neural networks was also investigated. A number of neural network variations were trained and tested with the data of two different reliability-related datasets. The first dataset represents the renewal case where the failed unit is repaired and restored to a good-as-new condition. Data was collected in the laboratory by subjecting a series of similar test pieces to fatigue loading with a hydraulic actuator. The average prediction error of the various neural networks being compared varied from 431 to 841 seconds on this dataset, where test pieces had a characteristic life of 8,971 seconds. The second dataset was collected from a group of pumps used to circulate a water and magnetite solution within a plant. The data therefore originated from a repaired system affected by reliability degradation. W...

  9. The QOL-DASS Model to Estimate Overall Quality of Life and General Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mazaheri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: In order to find how rating the WHOQOL-BREF and DASS scales are combined to produce an overall measure of quality of life and satisfaction with health rating, a QOL-DASS model was designed ; and the strength of this hypothesized model was examined using the structural equation modeling "n "nMethod: Participants included a sample of 103 voluntary males who were divided into two groups of unhealthy (N=55 and healthy (N=48. To assess satisfaction and negative  emotions of depression, anxiety and stress among the participants, they were asked to fill out the WHOQOLBREF and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42. "nResults: Our findings on running the hypothesized model of QOL-DASS indicated that the proposed model of QOL-DASS fitted the data well for the both healthy and unhealthy groups "nConclusion: Our findings with CFA to evaluate the hypothesized model of QOL-DASS indicated that the different satisfaction domain ratings and the negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress as the observed variables can represent the underlying constructs of general health and quality of life on both healthy and unhealthy groups.

  10. Quality of life estimate in stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients in a hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Muhong; Lan, Yanhong; Luo, Shali

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome and coping patterns of patients with stomach, colon, and rectal cancer in a hospital in China. Health-related quality of life was assessed in 118 stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China, using the generic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (QOL) Questionnaire Core 30 Items, Self-rated Anxiety Scores (SAS), Self-rated Depression Scores (SDS), Medical Coping Modes of Questionnaire (MCMQ), and Social Support Requirement Scale (SSRS) questionnaires. The overall QOL was 50.7 ± 6.5, 48.1 ± 7.7, and 47.6 ± 6.4, respectively, for stomach, colon, and rectal cancer groups. Correlations between QOL and SAS and SDS in stomach cancer patients were significantly higher than observed in the cohort of colon or rectal cancer patients (Spearman coefficient of 0.366 and 0.129, respectively). Cluster analysis of MCMQ data revealed four identifiable patterns (resign, confront, avoid-confront, and avoid-resign) of coping in the study group. Subjective support was significantly higher than objective support (p Stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients had anxiety and depression stemming from their cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis treatment, and sex dependency was prevalent in SSRS response. Coping patterns were reliable indicators of psychosocial side effects in patients with stomach, colon, and rectal cancers.

  11. Estimating the biological half-life for radionuclides in homoeothermic vertebrates: a simplified allometric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Lancaster Environment Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    The application of allometric, or mass-dependent, relationships within radioecology has increased with the evolution of models to predict the exposure of organisms other than man. Allometry presents a method of addressing the lack of empirical data on radionuclide transfer and metabolism for the many radionuclide-species combinations which may need to be considered. However, sufficient data across a range of species with different masses are required to establish allometric relationships and this is not always available. Here, an alternative allometric approach to predict the biological half-life of radionuclides in homoeothermic vertebrates which does not require such data is derived. Biological half-life values are predicted for four radionuclides and compared to available data for a range of species. All predictions were within a factor of five of the observed values when the model was parameterised appropriate to the feeding strategy of each species. This is an encouraging level of agreement given that the allometric models are intended to provide broad approximations rather than exact values. However, reasons why some radionuclides deviate from what would be anticipated from Kleiber's law need to be determined to allow a more complete exploitation of the potential of allometric extrapolation within radioecological models. (orig.)

  12. Estimating the influence of life satisfaction and positive affect on later income using sibling fixed effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Oswald, Andrew J

    2012-12-04

    The question of whether there is a connection between income and psychological well-being is a long-studied issue across the social, psychological, and behavioral sciences. Much research has found that richer people tend to be happier. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether happier individuals perform better financially in the first place. This possibility of reverse causality is arguably understudied. Using data from a large US representative panel, we show that adolescents and young adults who report higher life satisfaction or positive affect grow up to earn significantly higher levels of income later in life. We focus on earnings approximately one decade after the person's well-being is measured; we exploit the availability of sibling clusters to introduce family fixed effects; we account for the human capacity to imagine later socioeconomic outcomes and to anticipate the resulting feelings in current well-being. The study's results are robust to the inclusion of controls such as education, intelligence quotient, physical health, height, self-esteem, and later happiness. We consider how psychological well-being may influence income. Sobel-Goodman mediation tests reveal direct and indirect effects that carry the influence from happiness to income. Significant mediating pathways include a higher probability of obtaining a college degree, getting hired and promoted, having higher degrees of optimism and extraversion, and less neuroticism.

  13. A Further Examination of Operational Availability in Life Cycle Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    supportabil i t/, where opePational availability acti: as a measurable surrogate for supportabil ’ty. The modified model uses the DOD’s fAIG approved...of Opep ational I Availabiiity in Life Cycle Cost Modelsthe orientatisn process was greatly simpi ified. in that earl i er ef ort the ku thor had

  14. Dams life. Dams in operation; La vie des barrages. Barrages en exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  15. Lithium Battery Electrolytes for Long Cycle Life and Wide Operating Temperature Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New lithium battery electrolytes must be developed if these they are to be successfully deployed on NASA Platforms operating at -100oC to +100oC. Giner, Inc. has...

  16. Rolling element bearing defect diagnosis under variable speed operation through angle synchronous averaging of wavelet de-noised estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C.; Samantaray, A. K.; Chakraborty, G.

    2016-05-01

    Rolling element bearings are widely used in rotating machines and their faults can lead to excessive vibration levels and/or complete seizure of the machine. Under special operating conditions such as non-uniform or low speed shaft rotation, the available fault diagnosis methods cannot be applied for bearing fault diagnosis with full confidence. Fault symptoms in such operating conditions cannot be easily extracted through usual measurement and signal processing techniques. A typical example is a bearing in heavy rolling mill with variable load and disturbance from other sources. In extremely slow speed operation, variation in speed due to speed controller transients or external disturbances (e.g., varying load) can be relatively high. To account for speed variation, instantaneous angular position instead of time is used as the base variable of signals for signal processing purposes. Even with time synchronous averaging (TSA) and well-established methods like envelope order analysis, rolling element faults in rolling element bearings cannot be easily identified during such operating conditions. In this article we propose to use order tracking on the envelope of the wavelet de-noised estimate of the short-duration angle synchronous averaged signal to diagnose faults in rolling element bearing operating under the stated special conditions. The proposed four-stage sequential signal processing method eliminates uncorrelated content, avoids signal smearing and exposes only the fault frequencies and its harmonics in the spectrum. We use experimental data1

  17. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Estimated wind speed feed forward control for wind turbine operation optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Hooft, E.L.; Van Engelen, T.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    For a pitch controlled variable speed wind turbine, a feed forward control structure based on the estimation of rotor averaged wind speed has been developed and analyzed. The additional control action will accelerate ordinary rotor speed feedback control to resist disturbances of wind speed turbulence and wind gusts. Wind speed estimation is based on reconstruction of aerodynamic torque from measurements and a priori knowledge of rotor behaviour. The theoretical base arises from the energy balance between captured aerodynamic energy from wind on the one hand and extracted electric energy (generator), stored kinetic energy (rotor inertia) and losses on the other hand. A tabular implementation for use in real-time control has been derived and evaluated by time domain simulations, stability analysis and parametric uncertainty studies. Without stability drawbacks, the proposed method has shown to be a powerful for reduction of rotor speed variations (30-40%) and wind gust suppression. Energy yield increase is feasible (0.9%) if temporarily torque excesses are not allowed.

  19. Fundamental tone estimates for elliptic operators in divergence form and geometric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório P. Bessa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We establish a method for giving lower bounds for the fundamental tone of elliptic operators in divergence form in terms of the divergence of vector fields. We then apply this method to the Lr operator associated to immersed hypersurfaces with locally bounded (r + 1-th mean curvature Hr + 1 of the space forms Nn+ 1(c of constant sectional curvature c. As a corollary we give lower bounds for the extrinsic radius of closed hypersurfaces of Nn+ 1(c with Hr + 1 > 0 in terms of the r-th and (r + 1-th mean curvatures. Finally we observe that bounds for the Laplace eigenvalues essentially bound the eigenvalues of a self-adjoint elliptic differential operator in divergence form. This allows us to show that Cheeger's constant gives a lower bounds for the first nonzero Lr-eigenvalue of a closed hypersurface of Nn+ 1(c.Estabelecemos um método para obter limites inferiores para o tom fundamental de operadores elípticos em forma divergente em termos do divergente de campos de vetores. Aplicamos esse método para os operadores Lr associados a hipersuperfícies imersas nas formas espaciais Nn(c de curvatura seccional constante c com (r + 1-curvatura média Hr + 1 localmente limitada. Obtemos como corolário limites inferiores para o raio extrínseco de hipersuperfícies compactas das formas espaciais Nn(c com Hr + 1 > 0 em termos das r-ésima e r + 1-ésima curvatura médias. Finalmente, observamos que limites para os autovalores do Laplaciano essencialmente limitam os autovalores dos operadores elípticos em forma divergente. Isso permite mostrar que a constante de Cheeger limita inferiormente o primeiro autovalor não-nulo dos operadores Lr em hypersuperfícies compactas de Nn(c.

  20. Estimating contemporary early life-history dispersal in an estuarine fish: integrating molecular and otolith elemental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, I R; Campana, S E; Bentzen, P

    2008-03-01

    Dispersal during the early life history of the anadromous rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax, was examined using assignment testing and mixture analysis of multilocus genotypes and otolith elemental composition. Six spawning areas and associated estuarine nurseries were sampled throughout southeastern Newfoundland. Samples of adults and juveniles isolated by > 25 km displayed moderate genetic differentiation (F(ST) ~ 0.05), whereas nearby (nursery samples displayed low differentiation (F(ST) 80% self-assignment) with nearby runs self-assigning at rates between 50 % and 70%. Assignment and mixture analysis of juveniles using adult baselines indicated high local recruitment at several locations (70-90%). Nearby (estuaries at the head of St Mary's Bay showed mixtures of individuals (i.e. 20-40% assignment to adjacent spawning location). Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry transects across otoliths of spawning adults of unknown dispersal history were used to estimate dispersal among estuaries across the first year of life. Single-element trends and multivariate discriminant function analysis (Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca) classified the majority of samples as estuarine suggesting limited movement between estuaries (juveniles evident in the genetic data at nearby sites and a lack of evidence of straying in the otolith data support a hypothesis of selective mortality of immigrants. If indeed selective mortality of immigrants reduces the survivorship of dispersers, estimates of dispersal in marine environments that neglect survival may significantly overestimate gene flow.

  1. Compulsive buying and quality of life: An estimate of the monetary cost of compulsive buying among adults in early midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; De La Rosa, Mario; Brook, David W

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the associations between compulsive buying and quality of life and to estimate the monetary cost of compulsive buying for a cohort of men and women at mean age 43. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in two New York counties (N=548). The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean age of participants at the most recent interview was 43.0 (SD=2.8). Fifty five percent of the participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. Linear regression analyses showed that compulsive buying was significantly associated with quality of life, despite controlling for relevant demographic and psychosocial factors. The estimated monetary cost of compulsive buying for this cohort was significant. The fact that the monetary cost of CB is not trivial suggests that individuals are both consciously and unconsciously plagued by their CB. The findings are important for interventionists and clinicians for cost-effective intervention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Green's function estimates for lattice Schrodinger operators and applications (AM-158)

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgain, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This book presents an overview of recent developments in the area of localization for quasi-periodic lattice Schrödinger operators and the theory of quasi-periodicity in Hamiltonian evolution equations. The physical motivation of these models extends back to the works of Rudolph Peierls and Douglas R. Hofstadter, and the models themselves have been a focus of mathematical research for two decades. Jean Bourgain here sets forth the results and techniques that have been discovered in the last few years. He puts special emphasis on so-called ""non-perturbative"" methods and the important role of

  3. Operational Modal Analysis for Estimating the Dynamic Properties of a Stadium Structure during a Football Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Peeters

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During a football game, the ambient vibrations at the roof of a football stadium were recorded. A very large data set consisting of 4 hours of data, sampled at 80 Hz, is available. By a data reduction procedure, the complete data set could be analysed at once in a very short time. The data set was also split in shorter segments corresponding to certain events before, during and after the game to investigate the influence of varying operational conditions on the dynamic properties.

  4. Semiclassical resolvent estimates for Schrödinger matrix operators with eigenvalues crossing.

    CERN Document Server

    Jecko, T

    2001-01-01

    For semiclassical Schrödinger matrix operators, we investigate the semiclassical Mourre theory to derive semiclassical bounds for the boundary values of the resolvent. We concentrate on the case where the eigenvalues of the symbol cross. Under the non-trapping condition on the eigenvalues of the symbol and under a condition on its matricial structure, we obtain the desired bounds for codimension one crossings. For codimension two crossings, we show that a geometrical condition at the crossing must hold to get the existence of a global escape function, required by the usual semiclassical Mourre theory.

  5. Estimation of local planetary gravity fields using line of sight gravity data and an integral operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, J. P.; Balmino, G.

    1992-09-01

    A novel method is presented for mapping line-of-sight gravity data (LOSGD) joining planetary probes and observers during Doppler tracking operations, with a view to geodetic and geophysical applications. LOSGD are in this case mapped as gravity anomalies along a radial direction, at constant altitude, using an inversion procedure in conjunction with a Tikhonov-Arsenine regularization method. The application of different regularization-parameter choices to a synthetic case is followed by application to the real case of Pioneer-Venus orbiter data for Venus' Gula Mons.

  6. L^p and Schauder estimates for nonvariational operators structured on H\\"ormander vector fields with drift

    CERN Document Server

    Bramanti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We consider linear second order nonvariational partial differential operators of the kind a_{ij}X_{i}X_{j}+X_{0}, on a bounded domain of R^{n}, where the X_{i}'s (i=0,1,2,...,q, n>q+1) are real smooth vector fields satisfying H\\"ormander's condition and a_{ij} (i,j=1,2,...,q) are real valued, bounded measurable functions, such that the matrix {a_{ij}} is symmetric and uniformly positive. We prove that if the coefficients a_{ij} are H\\"older continuous with respect to the distance induced by the vector fields, then local Schauder estimates on X_{i}X_{j}u, X_{0}u hold; if the coefficients belong to the space VMO with respect to the distance induced by the vector fields, then local L^{p} estimates on X_{i}_{j}u, X_{0}u hold. The main novelty of the result is the presence of the drift term X_{0}, so that our class of operators covers, for instance, Kolmogorov-Fokker-Planck operators.

  7. Estimation of quality of life in Cypriot patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukka, Maria; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Lavranos, Giagkos; Charalambous, George

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients suffering with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS The Greek validated version of the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire was used for evaluating the quality of life of IBD patients. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 consecutive patients suffering from IBD and presenting for a clinic appointment at the endoscopy unit of Larnaca General Hospital during the period from October to November 2012. The criteria for participating in this study were constituted by the documented diagnosis of either ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) after endoscopy and histologic examination at least 6 months before the study, adult patients (18 years old or older), the capability of verbal communication and the patient’s written consent for attending this study. The majority of the questionnaires were completed by a nurse practitioner who specializes in IBD patient care. RESULTS Regarding the physical dimension in patients with UC, males scored significantly higher than females (4.2 vs 3.4, P = 0.023). Higher scores were also observed in UC patients younger than 35 or older than 50 years (4.0 and 4.2 vs 3.2, respectively, P = 0.021). The psychological dimension revealed similar results in patients with UC, with males, and older ages scoring higher (5.0 vs 3.0, P = 0.01 and 4.7 vs 2.7, P HRQoL. Increased risks are age and gender in patients with UC and family status in patients with CD.

  8. Life estimation by varying the critical plane orientation in the modified Carpinteri-Spagnoli criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ronchei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The modified Carpinteri-Spagnoli (C-S criterion is a multiaxial high-cycle fatigue criterion based on the critical plane approach. According to such a criterion, the orientation of the critical plane is linked to both the averaged directions of the principal stress axes and the fatigue properties of the material. The latter dependence is taken into account through a rotational angle, . Then, the multiaxial fatigue strength estimation is performed by computing an equivalent stress amplitude on the critical plane. In the present paper, some modifications of the original  expression are implemented in the modified C-S criterion. More precisely, such modified expressions of  depend on the ratio between the fatigue limit under fully reversed shear stress and that under fully reversed normal stress (in accordance with the original expression, and can be employed for metals ranging from mild to very hard fatigue behaviour. Some experimental data available in the literature are compared with the theoretical results in order to verify if the modified expressions are able to improve the fatigue strength estimation capability of the modified C-S criterion

  9. Contribution of complementary food nutrients to estimated total nutrient intakes for urban Guatemalan infants in the second semester of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Liza; Campos, Raquel; Enneman, Anke; Soto-Méndez, Maria José; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2011-01-01

    Complementary foods (CF) are introduced earlier or later than appropriate in developing societies. They often contribute poorly to overall adequate micronutrient intake during the critical period for growth and development, which constitutes the period from 6 to 12 months of life. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of the CF nutrients to the total estimated nutrient intake in infants in the second semester of life. Three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls interviews were conducted with mothers of 64 infants, aged 6-12 months on enrolment, from a convenience sample in a marginal urban settlement in Guatemala City. Retrospective recording of early introduction of pre- and post-lacteal feeding and introduction of first foods and beverages was included. Human milk intakes were estimated by a model based on assumptions that human milk plus CF exactly satisfied the infant's daily energy needs. The WHO/FAO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) were the standards for adequate nutrient consumption. Instances of exclusive breast feeding to 6 months were rare, with the introduction of CF earlier than recommended. Baby food in jars was mentioned most frequently as the first food offered. The contribution of CF increased with age through the second semester of life. CF contributed more of a nutrient than human milk in all instances. However,CF nutrient density for Ca, Fe, and Zn fell below international standard. Fortified sugar contributed excessive amounts of Vitamin A to the diets. We conclude that for most nutrients, intakes reached or exceeded recommendation levels, unusual within the CF experience in scientific literature.

  10. An operational model to estimate hourly and daily crop evapotranspiration in hilly terrain: validation on wheat and oat crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Gianfranco; Katerji, Nader; Ferrara, Rossana M.; Martinelli, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present an operational model to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET) of crops cultivated on hilly terrains. This new model has the following three characteristics: (1) ET modelling is based on a Penman-Monteith (PM) type equation (Monteith 1965) where canopy resistance is simulated by following an approach already illustrated by Katerji and Perrier (Agronomie 3(6):513-521, 1983); (2) the estimation of ET, by means of the PM equation, is made by using meteorological variables simulated on sloped sites as input; (3) these variables are simulated by using simple relationships linking the variables measured at a reference site on plane to the topographic characteristics of the site (slope, orientation, altitude as difference between reference, and sloped sites). This approach presents two advantages if compared with previously proposed models: Not only computation steps are greatly simplified but also error sources due to the simulation of climatic variables in sloped sites and the ET estimation are well distinguished. This model was validated at hourly and daily scales at four sites cultivated with wheat and oats offering a wide range of slope and orientation values: a reference site on plane, site 1 (9° sloping, NW orientation, 7 m from the reference site in plane), site 2 (6°, SE, 12 m) and site 3 (1°, SE, 18 m). At hourly scale, the new model performed well at all sites studied. The observed slope of the linear relationships between estimated and measured ET values ranged between 0.93 and 1.03, with coefficients of determination, r 2, between 0.80 and 0.98. At daily scale, the slopes of the linear relationships between measured and estimated ET for the sites on plane and the sloped sites were practically the same (0.98 ± 0.01); however, the coefficient of determination r 2 observed in the site on plane was clearly greater (0.98) than that observed in the sloped sites (0.83). The presented analysis does not show any significant

  11. On the Aleksandrov-Bakel'man-Pucci Estimate for Some Elliptic and Parabolic Nonlinear Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiolas, Roberto; Charro, Fernando; Peral, Ireneo

    2011-12-01

    In this work we prove the Aleksandrov-Bakel'man-Pucci estimate for (possibly degenerate) nonlinear elliptic and parabolic equations of the form -div left( Fleft( nabla u(x)right) right) =fleft(xright) quad in Ω subset mathbb{R}n and ut(x,t)-div left( Fleft( nabla u(x,t)right) right) =fleft( x,tright) quad in Qsubset mathbb{R}^{n+1} for F a {fancyscript{C}^1} monotone field under some suitable conditions. Examples of applications such as the p-Laplacian and the Mean Curvature Flow are considered, as well as extensions of the general results to equations that are not in divergence form, such as the m-curvature flow.

  12. An Optimal Operating Strategy for Battery Life Cycle Costs in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact on petroleum based vehicles on the environment, cost, and availability of fuel has led to an increased interest in electric vehicle as a means of transportation. Battery is a major component in an electric vehicle. Economic viability of these vehicles depends on the availability of cost-effective batteries. This paper presents a generalized formulation for determining the optimal operating strategy and cost optimization for battery. Assume that the deterioration of the battery is stochastic. Under the assumptions, the proposed operating strategy for battery is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem considering reliability and failure number. And an explicit expression of the average cost rate is derived for battery lifetime. Results show that the proposed operating strategy enhances the availability and reliability at a low cost.

  13. High-Precision Lunar Ranging and Gravitational Parameter Estimation With the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan H.

    This dissertation is concerned with several problems of instrumentation and data analysis encountered by the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation. Chapter 2 considers crosstalk between elements of a single-photon avalanche photodiode detector. Experimental and analytic methods were developed to determine crosstalk rates, and empirical findings are presented. Chapter 3 details electronics developments that have improved the quality of data collected by detectors of the same type. Chapter 4 explores the challenges of estimating gravitational parameters on the basis of ranging data collected by this and other experiments and presents resampling techniques for the derivation of standard errors for estimates of such parameters determined by the Planetary Ephemeris Program (PEP), a solar-system model and data-fitting code. Possible directions for future work are discussed in Chapter 5. A manual of instructions for working with PEP is presented as an appendix.

  14. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Boel [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Section, Bergen (Norway); Boye, Kjetil [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paediatric Section, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement [University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Section, Bergen (Norway); Biermann, Martin [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-01-15

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  15. A new scenario-based approach to damage detection using operational modal parameter estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. B.; Brincker, R.; López-Aenlle, M.; Overgaard, C. F.; Kloborg, K.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper a vibration-based damage localization and quantification method, based on natural frequencies and mode shapes, is presented. The proposed technique is inspired by a damage assessment methodology based solely on the sensitivity of mass-normalized experimental determined mode shapes. The present method differs by being based on modal data extracted by means of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) combined with a reasonable Finite Element (FE) representation of the test structure and implemented in a scenario-based framework. Besides a review of the basic methodology this paper addresses fundamental theoretical as well as practical considerations which are crucial to the applicability of a given vibration-based damage assessment configuration. Lastly, the technique is demonstrated on an experimental test case using automated OMA. Both the numerical study as well as the experimental test case presented in this paper are restricted to perturbations concerning mass change.

  16. Life estimation of carbon steel heat exchanger tubes in cooling water system; Reikyakusui shiyo no tansoko seinetsu kokanki no jumyo yosoku no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, F. [Japan Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes the control of carbon steel heat exchanger tubes in a cooling water system. Because heat exchanger tubes have their inner and outer sides exposed to different pressures, temperatures and fluid components, damages can occur at the greatest degree. Water quality control has critical significance from viewpoints of impediments and corrosion due to contamination, and control should be performed in a way that criteria can be satisfied. Scale is solute dissolved in water, which has been precipitated due to change in temperature and pH, and deposited on metal surface. Slime is a substance generated from microorganisms and contaminants in water, deposited and accumulated on the tube surface. Typical damage patterns due to these factors are represented by entire corrosion, local corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and erosion, which may result in the danger of leakage and reduction in thermal efficiency. A large number of anticorrosives have been developed and used in water quality control. Flow rate and temperature control is important in the operational aspect. Remaining life may be estimated by estimating maximum corrosion depth from site data by using the ultimate value statistics method, which is applied to specific patterns of corrosion progress. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  17. ESTIMATION MODEL OF RESIDUAL LIFE-TIME OF LOCOMOTIVE FRAME BOGIE WITH ALLOWANCE FOR CREEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Skalskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of determining the residual life of frame bogie elements of locomotives is a great importance for predicting their work safely and avoidance potential failures on the track. This especially concern cases when such elements have creep-fatigue cracks which grow under action of cyclic loading with excerpts T1 in the cycle and reach their critical size. Here the question of the propagation of such defects (cracks arises, their kinetics and about the period of subcritical cracks growth. The aim is to develop a calculation model for determination the period of subcritical creep-fatigue cracks growth in the bogies frames of electric locomotive. The model takes into account the basic parameters of load, geometry of the construction element and cracks. Methodology. The calculation model for determination the period of subcritical creep-fatigue cracks growth in structural elements of frame under conditions of variable load time has been formulated. It is based on the first law of thermodynamics concerning to mechanics of solids slow fracture at low temperature creep and variable loadings. It is assumed that the period of unsteady creep dominates here (the first section of the creep curve. Low-temperature creep is creep of materials at temperatures T0 < 0,5Tmp, where Tmp − the melting point of the material. Findings. The analytical formula for the determination of the stress intensity factor of truck bolster with technological hole has been obtained. It is shown that by experimentally established constants of the material using the proposed analytical relations can easily determine residual resource of the bogie frame elements. Originality. The new mathematical model for describing the kinetics of creep-fatigue cracks growth in the frames bogies of electric locomotive under variable in time loadings with various time excerpts and on this base the period determination of subcritical crack growth has been proposed. Practical value

  18. An operational method for the disaggregation of land surface temperature to estimate actual evapotranspiration in the arid region of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Guerra, L.; Mattar, C.; Merlin, O.; Durán-Alarcón, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.; Fuster, R.

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring evapotranspiration in arid and semi-arid environments plays a key role in water irrigation scheduling for water use efficiency. This work presents an operational method for evapotranspiration retrievals based on disaggregated Land Surface Temperature (LST). The retrieved LSTs from Landsat-8 and MODIS data were merged in order to provide an 8-day composite LST product at 100 × 100 m resolution. The method was tested in the arid region of Copiapó, Chile using data from years 2013-2014 and validated using data from years 2015-2016. In-situ measurements from agrometeorological stations such as air temperature and potential evapotranspiration (ET0) estimated at the location were used in the ET estimation method. The disaggregation method was developed by taking into account (1) the spatial relationship between Landsat-8 and MODIS LST, (2) the spatial relationship between LST and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at high spatial resolution (Landsat-8), and (3) the temporal variations along the year of both relationships aforementioned. The comparison between disaggregated LST at 100 m resolution and in situ LST measurements presents a coefficient of determination (r2), in average, equal to 0.70 and a RMSE equal to 3.6 K. The disaggregated LST was used in an operational model to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ETa). The ETa shows good results in terms of seasonal variations and in comparison to the evapotranspiration estimated by using crop coefficients (kc). The comparison between remotely sensed and in situ ETa presents an overall r2 close to 0.67 and a RMSE equal to 0.6 mm day-1 for both crops. These results are important for further improvements in water use sustainability in the Copiapó valley, which is currently affected by high water demand.

  19. Estimation of doses received by operators in the 1958 RB reactor accident using the MCNP5 computer code simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical simulation of the radiological consequences of the RB reactor reactivity excursion accident, which occurred on October 15, 1958, and an estimation of the total doses received by the operators were run by the MCNP5 computer code. The simulation was carried out under the same assumptions as those used in the 1960 IAEA-organized experimental simulation of the accident: total fission energy of 80 MJ released in the accident and the frozen positions of the operators. The time interval of exposure to high doses received by the operators has been estimated. Data on the RB1/1958 reactor core relevant to the accident are given. A short summary of the accident scenario has been updated. A 3-D model of the reactor room and the RB reactor tank, with all the details of the core, created. For dose determination, 3-D simplified, homogenised, sexless and faceless phantoms, placed inside the reactor room, have been developed. The code was run for a number of neutron histories which have given a dose rate uncertainty of less than 2%. For the determination of radiation spectra escaping the reactor core and radiation interaction in the tissue of the phantoms, the MCNP5 code was run (in the KCODE option and “mode n p e”, with a 55-group neutron spectra, 35-group gamma ray spectra and a 10-group electron spectra. The doses were determined by using the conversion of flux density (obtained by the F4 tally in the phantoms to doses using factors taken from ICRP-74 and from the deposited energy of neutrons and gamma rays (obtained by the F6 tally in the phantoms’ tissue. A rough estimation of the time moment when the odour of ozone was sensed by the operators is estimated for the first time and given in Appendix A.1. Calculated total absorbed and equivalent doses are compared to the previously reported ones and an attempt to understand and explain the reasons for the obtained differences has been made. A Root Cause Analysis of the accident was done and

  20. Prediction and warning system of SEP events and solar flares for risk estimation in space launch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rigo, Alberto; Núñez, Marlon; Qahwaji, Rami; Ashamari, Omar; Jiggens, Piers; Pérez, Gustau; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Hilgers, Alain

    2016-07-01

    A web-based prototype system for predicting solar energetic particle (SEP) events and solar flares for use by space launch operators is presented. The system has been developed as a result of the European Space Agency (ESA) project SEPsFLAREs (Solar Events Prediction system For space LAunch Risk Estimation). The system consists of several modules covering the prediction of solar flares and early SEP Warnings (labeled Warning tool), the prediction of SEP event occurrence and onset, and the prediction of SEP event peak and duration. In addition, the system acquires data for solar flare nowcasting from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-based techniques (GNSS Solar Flare Detector, GSFLAD and the Sunlit Ionosphere Sudden Total Electron Content Enhancement Detector, SISTED) as additional independent products that may also prove useful for space launch operators.

  1. Automatic Synthetic Aperture Radar based oil spill detection and performance estimation via a semi-automatic operational service benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Suman; Vespe, Michele; Trieschmann, Olaf

    2013-08-15

    Today the health of ocean is in danger as it was never before mainly due to man-made pollutions. Operational activities show regular occurrence of accidental and deliberate oil spill in European waters. Since the areas covered by oil spills are usually large, satellite remote sensing particularly Synthetic Aperture Radar represents an effective option for operational oil spill detection. This paper describes the development of a fully automated approach for oil spill detection from SAR. Total of 41 feature parameters extracted from each segmented dark spot for oil spill and 'look-alike' classification and ranked according to their importance. The classification algorithm is based on a two-stage processing that combines classification tree analysis and fuzzy logic. An initial evaluation of this methodology on a large dataset has been carried out and degree of agreement between results from proposed algorithm and human analyst was estimated between 85% and 93% respectively for ENVISAT and RADARSAT.

  2. Premium cost optimization of operational and maintenance of green building in Indonesia using life cycle assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Budiman, Rachmat; Riswanto

    2017-06-01

    Building has a big impact on the environmental developments. There are three general motives in building, namely the economy, society, and environment. Total completed building construction in Indonesia increased by 116% during 2009 to 2011. It made the energy consumption increased by 11% within the last three years. In fact, 70% of energy consumption is used for electricity needs on commercial buildings which leads to an increase of greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. Green Building cycle costs is known as highly building upfront cost in Indonesia. The purpose of optimization in this research improves building performance with some of green concept alternatives. Research methodology is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches through questionnaire surveys and case study. Assessing the successful of optimization functions in the existing green building is based on the operational and maintenance phase with the Life Cycle Assessment Method. Choosing optimization results were based on the largest efficiency of building life cycle and the most effective cost to refund.

  3. Estimation of the impact of genital warts on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall, S; Ramsey, T; Cai, C; Crouch, S; Jit, M; Birks, Y; Edmunds, W J; Newton, R; Lacey, C J N

    2008-06-01

    One of the two new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines protects against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause over 95% of genital warts, in addition to protecting against HPV types 16 and 18. In anticipation of HPV vaccine implementation, the impact of genital warts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured to assess the potential benefits of the quadrivalent over the bivalent vaccine. Genitourinary medicine clinic patients aged 18 years and older with a current diagnosis of genital warts were eligible; 81 consented and were interviewed by a member of the research team. A generic HRQoL questionnaire, the EQ-5D (comprising EQ-5D index and EQ visual analogue scale (VAS) scores) and a disease-specific HRQoL instrument, the CECA10, were administered. Previously established UK population norms were used as a control group for EQ-5D comparisons. Cases (with genital warts) had lower EQ VAS and EQ-5D index scores than controls. After adjusting for age a mean difference between cases and controls 30 years of age and under (n = 70) of 13.9 points (95% CI 9.9 to 17.6, pHPV vaccination should be considered in decisions about which HPV vaccine to implement in the United Kingdom.

  4. Post operative radiation therapy in endometrial carcinoma : reducing overtreatment and improving quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, Remi Abubakar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of the first en second Post Operative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC) trials. The 15-year results of PORTEC-1 confirm the importance of the prognostic factors age, grade and depth of myometrial invasion for selection of patients with

  5. Non-linear parameter estimation for the LTP experiment: analysis of an operational exercise

    CERN Document Server

    Congedo, G; Ferraioli, L; Hueller, M; Vitale, S; Hewitson, M; Nofrarias, M; Monsky, A; Armano, M; Grynagier, A; Diaz-Aguilo, M; Plagnol, E; Rais, B

    2011-01-01

    The precursor ESA mission LISA-Pathfinder, to be flown in 2013, aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the free-fall, necessary for LISA, the upcoming space-born gravitational wave observatory. LISA Technology Package (LTP) is planned to carry out a number of experiments, whose main targets are to identify and measure the disturbances on each test-mass, in order to reach an unprecedented low-level residual force noise. To fulfill this plan, it is then necessary to correctly design, set-up and optimize the experiments to be performed on-flight and do a full system parameter estimation. Here we describe the progress on the non-linear analysis using the methods developed in the framework of the \\textit{LTPDA Toolbox}, an object-oriented MATLAB Data Analysis environment: the effort is to identify the critical parameters and remove the degeneracy by properly combining the results of different experiments coming from a closed-loop system like LTP.

  6. Estimation of f-validity of Geometrical Objects with OWA Operator Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of sophisticated crimes and terrorism, there is a requirement to develop a perception based multi criteria decision making system that can reveal the hidden clues in the environment of uncertainty. The crime has no fixed dimension to be carried out in. But, still there remain some imprecise clues for the crime site investigation team and precise interpretation of these clues is impossible. That is the place where role of proposed extended fuzzy logic (FLe comes into play. Moreover, for decision making, crime site investigation team has to consider multi criteria with different weights under the uncertainty. So, Extended Fuzzy Logic and Ordered weighted Averaging (OWA may be taken together as a double folded milestone in revealing the uncertainty in the world of computational forensic. The concept of unprecisiated fuzzy logic (Flu was introduced by Zadeh. When a perfect solution cannot be given or process falls excessively costly then the role of concept of Flu comes into play. This novel concept provides the basis for FLe. In order to have a better understanding of Flu, the concept of fuzzy geometry (f-geometry is introduced. The proposed work is based on Sketching with Word technique. We have introduced some fuzzy theorems (f-theorems in proposed work. These f-theorems can be used for estimating the membership value of fuzzy objects in f-geometry. These f-objects may play vital role for identifying clues in computational forensic.

  7. Disparities between Ophthalmologists and Patients in Estimating Quality of Life Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate and compare the utility values associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR in a sample of Chinese patients and ophthalmologists.Utility values were evaluated by both the time trade-off (TTO and rating scale (RS methods for 109 eligible patients with DR and 2 experienced ophthalmologists. Patients were stratified by Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA in the better-seeing eye. The correlations between the utility values and general vision-related health status measures were analyzed. These utility values were compared with data from two other studies.The mean utility values elicited from the patients themselves with the TTO (0.81; SD 0.10 and RS (0.81; SD 0.11 methods were both statistically lower than the mean utility values assessed by ophthalmologists. Significant predictors of patients' TTO and RS utility values were both LogMAR BCVA in the affected eye and average weighted LogMAR BCVA. DR grade and duration of visual dysfunction were also variables that significantly predicted patients' TTO utility values. For ophthalmologists, patients' LogMAR BCVA in the affected eye and in the better eye were the variables that significantly predicted both the TTO and RS utility values. Patients' education level was also a variable that significantly predicted RS utility values. Moreover, both diabetic macular edema and employment status were significant predictors of TTO and RS utility values, whether from patients or ophthalmologists. There was no difference in mean TTO utility values compared to our American and Canadian patients.DR caused a substantial decrease in Chinese patients' utility values, and ophthalmologists substantially underestimated its effect on patient quality of life.

  8. South African Weather Service operational satellite based precipitation estimation technique: applications and improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Coning

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather related to heavy or more frequent precipitation events seem to be a likely possibility for the future of our planet. While precipitation measurements can be done by means of rain gauges, the obvious disadvantages of point measurements are driving meteorologists towards remotely sensed precipitation methods. In South Africa more sophisticated and expensive nowcasting technology such as radar and lightning networks are available, supported by a fairly dense rain gauge network of about 1500 gauges. In the rest of southern Africa rainfall measurements are more difficult to obtain. The availability of the local version of the Unified Model and the Meteosat Second Generation satellite data make these products ideal components of precipitation measurement in data sparse regions such as Africa. In this article the local version of the Hydroestimator (originally from NOAA/NESDIS is discussed as well as its applications for precipitation measurement in this region. Hourly accumulations of the Hydroestimator are currently used as a satellite based precipitation estimator for the South African Flash Flood Guidance system. However, the Hydroestimator is by no means a perfect representation of the real rainfall. In this study the Hydroestimator and the stratiform rainfall field from the Unified Model are both bias corrected and then combined into a new precipitation field which can feed into the South African Flash Flood Guidance system. This new product should provide a more accurate and comprehensive input to the Flash Flood Guidance systems in South Africa as well as southern Africa. In this way the southern African region where data is sparse and very few radars are available can have access to more accurate flash flood guidance.

  9. Virtualization of Legacy Instrumentation Control Computers for Improved Reliability, Operational Life, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan E

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories tend to be amenable environments for long-term reliable operation of scientific measurement equipment. Indeed, it is not uncommon to find equipment 5, 10, or even 20+ years old still being routinely used in labs. Unfortunately, the Achilles heel for many of these devices is the control/data acquisition computer. Often these computers run older operating systems (e.g., Windows XP) and, while they might only use standard network, USB or serial ports, they require proprietary software to be installed. Even if the original installation disks can be found, it is a burdensome process to reinstall and is fraught with "gotchas" that can derail the process-lost license keys, incompatible hardware, forgotten configuration settings, etc. If you have running legacy instrumentation, the computer is the ticking time bomb waiting to put a halt to your operation.In this chapter, I describe how to virtualize your currently running control computer. This virtualized computer "image" is easy to maintain, easy to back up and easy to redeploy. I have used this multiple times in my own lab to greatly improve the robustness of my legacy devices.After completing the steps in this chapter, you will have your original control computer as well as a virtual instance of that computer with all the software installed ready to control your hardware should your original computer ever be decommissioned.

  10. Comparison of Three Operative Models for Estimating the Surface Water Deficit Using ASTER Reflective and Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puigdefábregas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three operative models with minimum input data requirements for estimatingthe partition of available surface energy into sensible and latent heat flux using ASTERdata have been evaluated in a semiarid area in SE Spain. The non-evaporative fraction(NEF is proposed as an indicator of the surface water deficit. The best results wereachieved with NEF estimated using the “Simplified relationship” for unstable conditions(NEFSeguin and with the S-SEBI (Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index modelcorrected for atmospheric conditions (NEFS-SEBIt, which both produced equivalent results.However, results with a third model, NEFCarlson, that estimates the exchange coefficient forsensible heat transfer from NDVI, were unrealistic for sites with scarce vegetation cover.These results are very promising for an operative monitoring of the surface water deficit,as validation with field data shows reasonable errors, within those reported in the literature(RMSE were 0.18 and 0.11 for the NEF, and 29.12 Wm-2 and 25.97 Wm-2 for sensible heatflux, with the Seguin and S-SEBIt models, respectively.

  11. MITRA Virtual laboratory for operative application of satellite time series for land degradation risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nole, Gabriele; Scorza, Francesco; Lanorte, Antonio; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to present the development of a tool to integrate time series from active and passive satellite sensors (such as of MODIS, Vegetation, Landsat, ASTER, COSMO, Sentinel) into a virtual laboratory to support studies on landscape and archaeological landscape, investigation on environmental changes, estimation and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic risks. The virtual laboratory is composed by both data and open source tools specifically developed for the above mentioned applications. Results obtained for investigations carried out using the implemented tools for monitoring land degradation issues and subtle changes ongoing on forestry and natural areas are herein presented. In detail MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat time series were analyzed comparing results of different statistical analyses and the results integrated with ancillary data and evaluated with field survey. The comparison of the outputs we obtained for the Basilicata Region from satellite data analyses and independent data sets clearly pointed out the reliability for the diverse change analyses we performed, at the pixel level, using MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat TM data. Next steps are going to be implemented to further advance the current Virtual Laboratory tools, by extending current facilities adding new computational algorithms and applying to other geographic regions. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project PO FESR Basilicata 2007/2013 - Progetto di cooperazione internazionale MITRA "Remote Sensing tecnologies for Natural and Cultural heritage Degradation Monitoring for Preservation and valorization" funded by Basilicata Region Reference 1. A. Lanorte, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and

  12. Analysis of Wave Predictions from the Coastal Model Test Bed using Operationally Estimated Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, S.; Smith, J. M.; Hesser, T.; Bryant, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Near-coast wave models are generally validated with relatively small data sets that focus on analytical solutions, specialized experiments, or intense storms. Prior studies have compiled testbeds that include a few dozen experiments or storms to validate models (e.g., Ris et al. 2002), but few examples exist that allow for continued model evaluation in the nearshore and surf-zone in near-realtime. The limited nature of these validation sets is driven by a lack of high spatial and temporal resolution in-situ wave measurements and the difficulty in maintaining these instruments on the active profile over long periods of time. The US Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF) has initiated a Coastal Model Test-Bed (CMTB), which is an automated system that continually validates wave models (with morphological and circulation models to follow) utilizing the rich data set of oceanographic and bathymetric measurements collected at the FRF. The FRF's cross-shore wave array provides wave measurements along a cross-shore profile from 26 m of water depth to the shoreline, utilizing various instruments including wave-rider buoys, AWACs, aquadopps, pressure gauges, and a dune-mounted lidar (Brodie et al. 2015). This work uses the CMTB to evaluate the performance of a phase-averaged numerical wave model, STWAVE (Smith 2007, Massey et al. 2011) over the course of a year at the FRF in Duck, NC. Additionally, from the BathyDuck Experiment in October 2015, the CMTB was used to determine the impact of applying the depth boundary condition for the model from monthly acoustic bathymetric surveys in comparison to hourly estimates using a video-based inversion method (e.g., cBathy, Holman et al. 2013). The modeled wave parameters using both bathymetric boundary conditions are evaluated using the FRF's cross-shore wave array and two additional cross-shore arrays of wave measurements in 2 to 4 m water depth from BathyDuck in Fall, 2015.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of a package type IFAS reactor during construction and operational phases: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study. The results showed that among all the inputs, the use of stainless steel in the construction phase caused the highest impact on environment, followed by electricity consumption in raw materials production. The impact of the construction phase on toxicity impact indicators was found to be significant compared to all operational phases. Among the seven operational phases of this study, the dissolved oxygen phase III, having a concentration of ∼4.5 mg/L, showed the highest impact on abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water eco-toxicity, marine aquatic eco-toxicity, terrestrial eco-toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. However, better effluent quality in this phase reduced the eutrophication load on environment.

  14. A national hypertension treatment program in Germany and its estimated impact on costs, life expectancy, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Stock, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Almost 15 million Germans may suffer from untreated hypertension. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a national hypertension treatment program compared to no program. A Markov decision model from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) was built. All data were taken from secondary sources. The target population consists of hypertensive male and female patients at high or low risk for cardiovascular events at different age groups (40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years). The analysis shows fairly moderate cost-effectiveness ratios even for low-risk groups (less than 12,000 euros per life year gained). In women at high risk antihypertensive treatment even leads to savings. This suggests that a national hypertension treatment program provides good value for money. Given the considerable costs of the program itself, any savings from avoiding long-term consequences of hypertension are likely to be offset, however.

  15. Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life During Rehabilitation in Patients With Operable Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Maja S.; Trier, Karen; Vibe-Petersen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    comprised supervised group exercise program, 2 hours weekly for 12 weeks, combined with individual counseling. The study endpoints were self-reported HRQoL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung, European Organization for Research and Treatment in Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire-QLQ-C30, Short......-Form-36) and self-reported distress, anxiety, depression, and social support (National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), measured presurgery, postintervention, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery....... RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 73% of whom completed rehabilitation. Results on emotional well-being (P mental health component score (P = .0004) showed an overall statistically significant improvement during the study. CONCLUSION: This feasibility...

  16. The Job Satisfaction-Life Satisfaction Relationship Revisited: Using the Lewbel Estimation Technique to Estimate Causal Effects Using Cross-Sectional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Mishra; Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth; Alex Newman

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a novel identification strategy proposed by Lewbel (2012, J. Bus. Econ. Stat.) to illustrate how causation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction can be established with cross-sectional data. In addition to examining the relationship between composite job satisfaction and life satisfaction, we consider the relationship between life satisfaction and different facets of job satisfaction. We find evidence of bidirectional causality between job satisfaction and life satisf...

  17. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE RELIABILITY AND OPERATING LIFE OF SMALL-SIZE ELECTROMAGNETIC VALVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii Zaionchkovskyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main ways of improving the reliability and durability of small-size electromagnetic valves. Major changes in the technical state of the valve components under dynamic operating loads were revealed using the results of resource tests of two-position valves with polarized electromagnetic actuator. Aneffective way for reducing the dynamic loads has proved to be the introduction of the damping element into the kinematic scheme of the electromagnetic valve actuator. Damping elements efficiency in reducing dynamic loads has been confirmed experimentally.

  18. Changes in quality of life and perceptions of general health before and after operation of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Leila; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen; Majowicz, Shannon; Gohari, Mahmood; Waterhouse, Ryan

    2016-09-01

    Ontario is Canada's provincial leader in wind energy, with over 4000 MW of installed capacity supplying approximately five percent of the province's electricity demand. Wind energy is now one of the fastest-growing sources of renewable power in Canada and many other countries. However, its possible negative impact on population health, as a new source of environmental noise, has raised concerns for people living in proximity to wind turbines (WTs). The aims of this study were to assess the effect of individual differences and annoyance on the self-reported general health and health-related quality of life (QOL) of nearby residents, using a pre- and post-exposure design. Prospective cohort data were collected before and after WT operations, from the individuals (n = 43) in Ontario, Canada. General health and QOL metrics were measured using standard scales, such as SF12, life satisfaction scales developed by Diener (SWLS) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-SWL). The mean values for the Mental Component Score of SF12 (p = 0.002), SWLS (p < 0.001), and CCHS-SWL (p = 0.044) significantly worsened after WT operation for those participants who had a negative attitude to WTs, who voiced concerns about property devaluation, and/or who reported being visually or noise annoyed.

  19. Cell death, cell proliferation, and estimates of hair cell life spans in the vestibular organs of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, J; Warchol, M E; Corwin, J T

    1997-12-01

    We have examined the level of on-going cell death in the chick vestibular epithelia using the TUNEL method and compared this to the rate of on-going cell proliferation. Utricles contained 22.6 +/- 6.8 TUNEL-labeled cells (mean +/- s.e.m.) while saccules contained 15.1 +/- 4.0, with approximately 90% being labeled hair cells. In separate experiments, chicks were given a single injection of BrdU and killed 2 h later. Utricles contained 116.9 +/- 6.5 BrdU-labeled cells (mean +/- s.e.m.) and saccules contained 41.0 +/- 2.2. After 24 h in culture, utricles treated with 1 mM neomycin contained 115.5 +/- 38.9 TUNEL-labeled cells, an increase of 270% over controls. After 48 h, neomycin-treated saccules contained 40.9 +/- 7.8, an increase of 152% over controls. The majority of labeled cells were in the hair cell layer. Thus, neomycin exposure results in an apoptotic death of hair cells. The in vivo data measured here were used to estimate that the average life span of utricular hair cells in young chickens is approximately 20 days, in sharp contrast to the life spans assumed for hair cells in humans.

  20. Integration of remote lidar and in-situ measured data to estimate particulate flux and emission from tillage operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Bingham, Gail E.; Wojcik, Michael; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Martin, Randal S.; Marchant, Christian; Moore, Kori; Bradford, Bill

    2010-10-01

    Agriculture, through wind erosion, tillage and harvest operations, burning, diesel-powered machinery and animal production operations, is a source of particulate matter emissions. Agricultural sources vary both temporally and spatially due to daily and seasonal activities and inhomogeneous area sources. Conventional point sampling methods originally designed for regional, well mixed aerosols are challenged by the disrupted wind flow and by the small mobile source of the emission encountered in this study. Atmospheric lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) technology provides a means to derive quantitative information of particulate spatial and temporal distribution. In situ point measurements of particulate physical and chemical properties are used to characterize aerosol physical parameters and calibrate lidar data for unambiguous lidar data processing. Atmospheric profiling with scanning lidar allows estimation of temporal and 2D/3D spatial variations of mass concentration fields for different particulate fractions (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP) applicable for USEPA regulations. This study used this advanced measurement technology to map PM emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions, allowing for accurate comparisons of the Conservation Management Practice (CMP) under test. The purpose of this field study was to determine whether and how much particulate emission differs from the conventional method of agricultural fall tillage and combined CMP operations.

  1. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; García-Ceballos, Raúl; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P; Mendoza-Cano, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to rank the leading causes of premature death. A cross-sectional study took place (2010-2014) and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF), YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL). Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health.

  2. Estimation of Muscle Mass by Ultrasonography Differs between Observers and Life States of Models in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Boutin, Pascal; Cortés, Pablo A; Milbergue, Myriam; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has proven to be a valuable noninvasive method of measure of muscle size in birds, but validation of its use in birds as small as black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; 11 g) is scarce. The effect of observers and life state (dead or alive) of models used for calibration on measurement quality is also poorly documented. Using 31 dead and 22 live chickadees, linear regressions between ultrasound and dissection measurements of pectoral and thigh muscles were fitted and compared between five different observers. R(2) values varied greatly between observers and were generally weaker in live birds, ranging between 0.02 and 0.59, despite high repeatability of measurement. Using equations calculated from dead birds to estimate muscle mass of live birds yielded much higher measurement errors (9%-18%) than when using equations calculated from live birds (5%-8%). Our results suggest that with careful training and using only calibration from live birds, ultrasonography can be a useful but limited tool to estimate muscle size of birds as small as the black-capped chickadee.

  3. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; García-Ceballos, Raúl; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P.; Mendoza-Cano, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. Objective To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to rank the leading causes of premature death. Design A cross-sectional study took place (2010–2014) and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF), YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. Results The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL). Conclusions Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health. PMID:27606969

  4. Artificial neural networks incorporating cost significant Items towards enhancing estimation for (life-cycle costing of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayedh Alqahtani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial application of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA is somewhat limited, with techniques deemed overly theoretical, resulting in a reluctance to realise (and pass onto the client the advantages to be gained from objective (LCCA comparison of (subcomponent material specifications. To address the need for a user-friendly structured approach to facilitate complex processing, the work described here develops a new, accessible framework for LCCA of construction projects; it acknowledges Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs to compute the whole-cost(s of construction and uses the concept of cost significant items (CSI to identify the main cost factors affecting the accuracy of estimation. ANNs is a powerful means to handle non-linear problems and subsequently map between complex input/output data, address uncertainties. A case study documenting 20 building projects was used to test the framework and estimate total running costs accurately. Two methods were used to develop a neural network model; firstly a back-propagation method was adopted (using MATLAB SOFTWARE; and secondly, spread-sheet optimisation was conducted (using Microsoft Excel Solver. The best network was established as consisting of 19 hidden nodes, with the tangent sigmoid used as a transfer function of NNs model for both methods. The results find that in both neural network models, the accuracy of the developed NNs model is 1% (via Excel-solver and 2% (via back-propagation respectively.

  5. Regional-level estimation of expected years of life lost attributable to overweight and obesity among Mexican adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrén Murillo-Zamora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. Objective: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL, and to rank the leading causes of premature death. Design: A cross-sectional study took place (2010–2014 and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF, YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. Results: The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health.

  6. Operational Phase Life Cycle Assessment of Select NASA Ground Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Marshall, Timothy J.; McGinnis, Sean

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) is responsible for many large, high-energy ground test facilities that accomplish the nation s most advanced aerospace research. In order to accomplish these national objectives, significant energy and resources are consumed. A select group of facilities was analyzed using life-cycle assessment (LCA) to determine carbon footprint and environmental impacts. Most of these impacts stem from electricity and natural gas consumption, used directly at the facility and to generate support processes such as compressed air and steam. Other activities were analyzed but determined to be smaller in scale and frequency with relatively negligible environmental impacts. More specialized facilities use R-134a, R-14, jet fuels, or nitrogen gas, and these unique inputs can have a considerable effect on a facility s overall environmental impact. The results of this LCA will be useful to ATP and NASA as the nation looks to identify its top energy consumers and NASA looks to maximize research output and minimize environmental impact. Keywords: NASA, Aeronautics, Wind tunnel, Keyword 4, Keyword 5

  7. Evaluating life cycle costs of perpetual pavements in China using operational pavement management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway transportation is considered as vital factor in China’s economic growth; many high grade highways have been constructed in China during the last decades. The research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology have been deployed in China since 2000. The semi-rigid pavement has been normally considered as typical pavement of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different Chinese perpetual pavements using operational pavement management system and to examine its suitability for use in the design and construction of more economical and durable pavements. It has been found that the use of thin asphalt layers over semi-rigid pavement foundation in PP structure will create more sustainable, economical, and durable PP structures in comparison with typical thick asphalt layers PP structures.

  8. IT - OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill hazard associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; martins, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    Every year, 270,000 tonnes of oil are estimated to be spilled in the ocean by vessel operations (e.g. tank washing, leakage of lubricants) and the so called operational spills are typically associated with small volumes and high occurrence rate. Vessel-related accidental spills (e.g. collisions, explosions) seldom occur and usually involve high volumes of oil, accounting for about 100,000 tonnes/year. The occurrence of accidental spills and their impacts have been well documented in the available literature. On the other hand, occurrence rates of operational spills and the effects they have on the marine and coastal environments remain very uncertain due to insufficient sampling effort and methodological limitations. Trying to foresee when and where an oil spill will occur in a certain area, its characteristics and impacts is, at present, impossible. Oil spill risk assessments (OSRAs) have been employed in several parts of the globe in order to deal with such uncertainties and protect the marine environment. In the present work, we computed the oil spill risk applying ensemble oil spill simulations following an ISO-31000 compliant OSRA methodology (Sepp Neves et al. , 2015). The ensemble experiment was carried out for the Algarve coast (southern Portugal) generating a unique data set of 51,200 numerical oil spill simulations covering the main sources of uncertainties (i.e. where and when the spill will happen and oil spill model configuration). From the generated data set, the risk due to accidental and operational spills was mapped for the Algarve municipalities based on the frequency and magnitude (i.e. concentrations) of beaching events and the main sources of risk were identified. The socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of the risk were treated separately. Seasonal changes in the risk index proposed due to the variability of meteo-oceanographic variables (i.e. currents and waves) were also quantified.

  9. An application of a probabilistic fertility model to estimate some female family life cycle stages in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1994-01-01

    Women's life cycle involves reproduction, labor force, and inactivity. In developing countries with inadequate data, mathematical models can be used to analyze economic behavior of individuals and families in different stages of the life cycle. This study described a model and empirically tested the model on data from Paraguay. The model provided estimates of the mean age of women at first birth, the mean age of women at last birth, time spent in reproduction, and mean life after the birth of the last child for 1950-55, 1980-85, and projection to 2020-25. Values were generated from age-specific mortality and fertility rates. Simulations were performed with varying mortality and fertility schedules. The method was based on techniques developed by Krishnamoorty, who based his methods on models proposed by Hoem and Goodman, Keyfitz, and Pullum. The method was based on an assumption of a stable population with a fixed age pattern of mortality and fertility. An assumption was also that more and less fertile women had the same mortality risks, and fertility and mortality at any one age was applicable to all ages. The total and net fertility rates and life expectancy followed a linear pattern. Application of the method showed that the net fertility rate declined by 27% from 6.15 during 1950-55 to 4.49 during 1980-85, but the time spent in reproduction declined only by 15%, from 15.7 years to 15.9 years. The cause of fertility decline was not a shortened reproductive period, but birth spacing. Projections to 2020-25 showed a decline in the reproductive period of 7 years and a net fertility rate of 3.0 children per woman. When a simulation of one of the 8 UN models of fertility age structure was used to project future fertility, the results showed the reproductive period declined from 11.8 years to 9.7 years. When fertility was assumed to be 2.3, which was considerably lower than 4.49 during 1980-85, the results showed replacement level fertility during 2020-25 and an early

  10. An operational two-layer remote sensing model to estimate surface flux in regional scale: Physical background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Renhua; SUN; Xiaomin; WANG; Weimin; XU; Jinping; ZH

    2005-01-01

    Based on the improved interaction mechanism of two-layer model, this paper proposed Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA) and theoretically positioning algorithm, estimated the true temperature of mixed pixel in four extreme points in combination with the measurements of dry and wet points in calibration fields and improved the reliability of positioning dry and wet line. A new two-layer energy-separation algorithm was proposed,which was simple and direct without resistance network parameters for each pixel. We also proposed a new thought about the effect of advection. The albedo of mixed pixel was also separated with PCACA. In combination with two-layer energy-separation algorithm, the net radiation of mixed pixel was separated to overcome the uncertainty of conventional energy-separation algorithm using Beer's Law. Through the validation of retrieval result, this method is proved to be feasible and operational. At the same time, the uncertainty of this algorithm was objectively analyzed.

  11. Enhancement of the life of refractories through the operational experience of plasma torch melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Young Pyo [Technology Institute, Korea Radioactive waste Agency (KORAD), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jaang Young [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The properties of wastes for melting need to be considered to minimize the maintenance of refractory and to discharge the molten slags smoothly from a plasma torch melter. When the nonflammable wastes from nuclear facilities such as concrete debris, glass, sand, etc., are melted, they become acid slags with low basicity since the chemical composition has much more acid oxides than basic oxides. A molten slag does not have good characteristics of discharge and is mainly responsible for the refractory erosion due to its low liquidity. In case of a stationary plasma torch melter with a slant tapping port on the wall, a fixed amount of molten slags remains inside of tapping hole as well as the melter inside after tapping out. Nonmetallic slags keep the temperature higher than melting point of metal because metallic slags located on the bottom of melter by specific gravity difference are simultaneously melted when dual mode plasma torch operates in transferred mode. In order to minimize the refractory erosion, the compatible refractories are selected considering the temperature inside the melter and the melting behavior of slags whether to contact or noncontact with molten slags. An acidic refractory shall not be installed in adjacent to a basic refractory for the resistibility against corrosion.

  12. Improvement in operating conditions of coke oven batteries with long service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertenev, V.N.; Bondarchuk, P.N.; Krut' ko, I.G.; Sheptovitskii, M.S.; Kaftan, Yu.S.; Shul' ga, I.V.; Vol' fovskii, A.G. (Mariupol' skii Koksokhimicheskii Zavod (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    Discusses operation of the coke oven battery No 1 in the Mariupol' coking plant constructed in 1949. Twenty-five of 69 coke oven chambers had liners deformed due to wear. In 1988-1989 a number of failures occurred due to accumulation of pyrolysis products and tar on coke oven walls. Excessive liner wear negatively influenced coking conditions (e.g. reducing the bulk density of charged coal, increasing the buildup on coke oven walls, increasing the density and viscosity of coal tar and content of solid particles in the tar). Increased viscosity and content of solid particles in the tar increased failure rates of a tar transport system. Coal tar properties in the Mariupol' plant and 8 other plants in the USSR are comparatively evaluated. Specific properties of coal tar from the Mariupol' plant and their causes were determined. On the basis of the evaluations coal tar properties were controlled by changing coal mixture composition (content of gas coal was reduced to 32% of G and GZh types). Reducing content of gas coal in the mixtures reduced coke oven failure rate, increased coke compression strength by 0.6% and reduced coke abrasion by 0.25%. 5 refs.

  13. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  14. Battery Internal Temperature Estimation for LiFePO4 Battery Based on Impedance Phase Shift under Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An impedance-based temperature estimation method is investigated considering the electrochemical non-equilibrium with short-term relaxation time for facilitating the vehicular application. Generally, sufficient relaxation time is required for battery electrochemical equilibrium before the impedance measurement. A detailed experiment is performed to investigate the regularity of the battery impedance in short-term relaxation time after switch-off current excitation, which indicates that the impedance can be measured and also has systematical decrement with the relaxation time growth. Based on the discussion of impedance variation in electrochemical perspective, as well as the monotonic relationship between impedance phase shift and battery internal temperature in the electrochemical equilibrium state, an exponential equation that accounts for both measured phase shift and relaxation time is established to correct the measuring deviation caused by electrochemical non-equilibrium. Then, a multivariate linear equation coupled with ambient temperature is derived considering the temperature gradients between the active part and battery surface. Equations stated above are all identified with the embedded thermocouple experimentally. In conclusion, the temperature estimation method can be a valuable alternative for temperature monitoring during cell operating, and serve the functionality as an efficient implementation in battery thermal management system for electric vehicles (EVs and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs.

  15. Improving the Operability of the Cosmic-ray Neutron Soil Moisture Method: An Estimation of Lattice Water using Global Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbiner, C. E.; Avery, W. A.; Kuzila, M.; Munoz-Arriola, F.; Franz, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, global trends in consumptive water-use indicate an increasing and unsustainable reliance on groundwater resources. Each year approximately 60% of water used for agriculture is wasted through inadequate water conservation, losses in distribution, and inappropriate times and rates of irrigation. Therefore, in order to coordinate a strategy to accomplish the agricultural demands of our global community we must maintain a stable global food and water trade while increasing crop yield and efficiency. This research aims to improve the operability of the recently developed and promising cosmic-ray neutron method for estimating field scale soil moisture. The sensor works by passively counting above ground low-energy neutrons which correlate to the total water in the sensor measurement volume (a sphere with radius of ~300 m and vertical soil depth of ~30 cm). Because the sensor responds to different forms of water (sources of hydrogen), estimates of background water in the mineral soil need to be accounted for in order to minimize measurement error. Here we compared field-scale estimates of soil mineral water with readily available global datasets. Using the newly compiled 1km resolution Global Soil Dataset (GSDE), we were able to investigate the correlation between soil mineral water and clay content for various soil taxonomic orders. Preliminary results suggest statistically significant linear relationships for Aridisol, Mollisol and Ultisol soil orders. Incorporation of this dataset will allow for real-time soil moisture mapping of hundreds of center-pivots using the mobile cosmic-ray probe without the need for time-consuming in-situ soil sampling. Integrating this technique into soil moisture management has the potential to increase the efficiency of irrigation water used in agriculture.

  16. Estimating cancer risk in relation to tritium exposure from routine operation of a nuclear-generating station in Pickering, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, S; Holowaty, E; Jiang, H; Norwood, T A; Pietrusiak, M A; Brown, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence suggests that current levels of tritium emissions from CANDU reactors in Canada are not related to adverse health effects. However, these studies lack tritium-specific dose data and have small numbers of cases. The purpose of our study was to determine whether tritium emitted from a nuclear-generating station during routine operation is associated with risk of cancer in Pickering, Ontario. A retrospective cohort was formed through linkage of Pickering and north Oshawa residents (1985) to incident cancer cases (1985-2005). We examined all sites combined, leukemia, lung, thyroid and childhood cancers (6-19 years) for males and females as well as female breast cancer. Tritium estimates were based on an atmospheric dispersion model, incorporating characteristics of annual tritium emissions and meteorology. Tritium concentration estimates were assigned to each cohort member based on exact location of residence. Person-years analysis was used to determine whether observed cancer cases were higher than expected. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether tritium was associated with radiation-sensitive cancers in Pickering. Person-years analysis showed female childhood cancer cases to be significantly higher than expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.38). The issue of multiple comparisons is the most likely explanation for this finding. Cox models revealed that female lung cancer was significantly higher in Pickering versus north Oshawa (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.46) and that tritium was not associated with increased risk. The improved methodology used in this study adds to our understanding of cancer risks associated with low-dose tritium exposure. Tritium estimates were not associated with increased risk of radiationsensitive cancers in Pickering.

  17. Improving the Operability of the Cosmic-ray Neutron Soil Moisture Method: Estimation of Soil Calibration Parameters Using Global Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbiner, C. E.; Avery, W. A.; Franz, T. E.; Munoz-Arriola, F.; Rosolem, R.

    2014-12-01

    Despite its critical importance to global food security, approximately 60% of water used for agriculture is wasted each year through inadequate water conservation, losses in distribution, and inefficient irrigation. Therefore, in order to coordinate a strategy to accomplish the agricultural demands in the future we must maintain a stable global food and water trade while increasing crop yield and efficiency. This research aims to improve the operability of the novel cosmic-ray neutron method used for estimating field scale soil moisture. The sensor works by passively counting the above ground low-energy neutrons which correlates to the amount of water in the measurement volume (a circle with radius of ~300 m and vertical depth of ~30 cm). Because the sensor responds to different forms of water (sources of hydrogen), estimates of background water in the mineral soil and soil organic matter must be accounted in order to minimize measurement error. Here we compared field-scale estimates of soil mineral water and soil organic matter with readily available global datasets. Using the newly compiled 1 km resolution Global Soil Dataset (GSDE), we investigate the correlation between (1) soil mineral water and clay content and (2) in-situ soil organic material. Preliminary results of in-situ samples from forty study sites around the globe suggest the GSDE dataset has sufficiently low bias and uncertainty (~ within 0.01 g/g of water equivalent) to better isolate the soil moisture signal from the neutron count information. Incorporation of this dataset will allow for real-time soil moisture mapping of hundreds of center-pivots using the mobile cosmic-ray sensor without the need of time-consuming in-situ soil sampling. The incorporation of this novel technique for soil moisture management has the potential to increase the efficiency of irrigation water use.

  18. Tool Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prognostic Based on a Wireless Sensor in Dry Milling Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming; Jin, Hong

    2016-05-31

    Tool breakage causes losses of surface polishing and dimensional accuracy for machined part, or possible damage to a workpiece or machine. Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) is considerably vital in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, an indirect TCM approach is introduced with a wireless triaxial accelerometer. The vibrations in the three vertical directions (x, y and z) are acquired during milling operations, and the raw signals are de-noised by wavelet analysis. These features of de-noised signals are extracted in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The key features are selected based on Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (PCC). The Neuro-Fuzzy Network (NFN) is adopted to predict the tool wear and Remaining Useful Life (RUL). In comparison with Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN), the results show that the NFN has the best performance in the prediction of tool wear and RUL.

  19. ESTIMATION OF LONG-TERM INVESTMENT PROJECTS WITH ENERGY-EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE COSTS INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The starting stage of the tender procedures in Russia with the participation of foreign suppliers dictates the feasibility of the developments for economical methods directed to comparison of technical solutions on the construction field. The article describes the example of practical Life Cycle Cost (LCC evaluations under respect of Present Value (PV determination. These create a possibility for investor to estimate long-term projects (indicated as 25 years as commercially profitable, taking into account inflation rate, interest rate, real discount rate (indicated as 5 %. For economic analysis air-blower station of WWTP was selected as a significant energy consumer. Technical variants for the comparison of blower types are: 1 - multistage without control, 2 - multistage with VFD control, 3 - single stage double vane control. The result of LCC estimation shows the last variant as most attractive or cost-effective for investments with economy of 17,2 % (variant 1 and 21,0 % (variant 2 under adopted duty conditions and evaluations of capital costs (Cic + Cin with annual expenditure related (Ce+Co+Cm. The adopted duty conditions include daily and seasonal fluctuations of air flow. This was the reason for the adopted energy consumption as, kW∙h: 2158 (variant 1,1743...2201 (variant 2, 1058...1951 (variant 3. The article refers to Europump guide tables in order to simplify sophisticated factors search (Cp /Cn, df, which can be useful for economical analyses in Russia. Example of evaluations connected with energy-efficient solutions is given, but this reference involves the use of materials for the cases with resource savings, such as all types of fuel. In conclusion follows the assent to use LCC indicator jointly with the method of determining discounted cash flows, that will satisfy the investor’s need for interest source due to technical and economical comparisons.

  20. Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life: a new metric to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, Wayne C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linker, David T;

    2009-01-01

    in the COMET trial, in which carvedilol vs. metoprolol tartrate resulted in 17% lower mortality over 4.8 years. A multivariate Cox model was used to predict survival. Remaining years of life were estimated using the mortality-life-table method. At trial-end, survival was 9% higher in the carvedilol arm....... Assuming that patients remained on the same therapy post-trial, the average total years of life for carvedilol vs. metoprolol were 10.63 +/- 0.19 vs. 9.48 +/- 0.18 (P

  1. Development of a nomogram to estimate the quality of life in asthmatic children using the Childhood Asthma Control Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Laura; Cilluffo, Giovanna; Gentile, Manuel; Ferrante, Giuliana; Malizia, Velia; Cibella, Fabio; Viegi, Giovanni; Passalacqua, Giovanni; La Grutta, Stefania

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) provides detailed information on QoL in asthmatic children, whereas Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) Questionnaire is the most validated instrument for asthma control. No study assessed the relationship between C-ACT and QoL in children by means of those instruments. The aim of this study was to determine whether a QoL estimation is possible using the C-ACT questionnaire in asthmatic children. Medical history, spirometry, C-ACT, and PAQLQ were assessed in 144 (60% male) outpatient asthmatic children from September 2011 to November 2014. A generalized linear model (GLM) for the prediction of PAQLQ was obtained through a stepwise procedure starting from a full model with all C-ACT items, and predictive nomograms were created. Fifty-five (38%) well-controlled (WC) asthma, 37 (26%) partially controlled (PC) asthma, and 52 (36%) uncontrolled asthma (UA) patients were enrolled. Persistent asthmatics (PA) were significantly more uncontrolled (p children in usual clinical care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  3. Tactical increases in operating room block time based on financial data and market growth estimates from data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Liam; Dexter, Franklin

    2007-02-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is an established technique that hospitals and anesthesia groups can use to understand their potential to grow different specialties of inpatient surgery. Often related decisions such as recruitment of new physicians are made promptly. A practical challenge in using DEA in practice for this application has been the time to obtain access to and preprocess discharge data from states. A case study is presented to show how results of DEA are linked to financial analysis for purposes of deciding which surgical specialties should be provided more resources and institutional support, including the allocation of additional operating room (OR) block time on a tactical (1 yr) time course. State discharge abstract databases were used to study how to perform and present the DEA using data from websites of the United States' (US) Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPNet) and Census Bureau (American FactFinder). DEA was performed without state discharge data by using census data with federal surgical rates adjusted for age and gender. Validity was assessed based on multiple criteria, including: satisfaction of statistical assumptions, face validity of results for hospitals, differentiation between efficient and inefficient hospitals on other measures of how much surgery is done, and correlation of estimates of each hospital's potential to grow the workload of each of eight specialties with estimates obtained using unrelated statistical methods. A hospital can choose specialties to target for expanded OR capacity based on its financial data, its caseloads for specific specialties, the caseloads from hospitals previously examined, and surgical rates from federal census data.

  4. Estimation of hysteretic losses for MgB2 tapes under the operating conditions of a generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Llanos, Carlos Roberto; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Sanz, Santiago; Trillaud, Frederic; Grilli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Hysteretic losses in the MgB2 wound superconducting coils of a 550 kW synchronous hybrid scaled generator were estimated as part of the European project SUPRAPOWER led by the Spanish Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation. Particular interest was given to the losses caused by the magnetic flux ripples in the rotor coils originating from the conventional stator during nominal operation. To compute these losses, a 2D finite element analysis was conducted and Maxwell’s equations written in the H-formulation were solved considering the nonlinear material properties of the conductor materials. The modeled tapes are made of multiple MgB2 filaments embedded in a Ni matrix and soldered to a high purity copper strip and insulated with Dacron braid. Three geometrical models of single tape cross sections of decreasing complexity were studied: (1) the first model reproduced closely the actual cross section obtained from tape micrographs. (2) The second model was obtained from the computed elasto-plastic deformation of a round Ni wire. (3) The third model was based on a simplified cross section with the superconducting filaments bundled in a single elliptical bulky structure. The last geometry allowed the validation of the modeling technique by comparing numerical losses with results from well-established analytical expressions. Additionally, the following cases of filament transpositions of the multi-filamentary tape were studied: no transposition, partial and full transposition; thereby improving understanding of the relevance of the tape fabrication process on the magnitude of the determination of ac losses. Finally, choosing the right level of geometrical detail, the following operational regimes of the machine and its impact on individual superconducting tape losses in the rotor were studied: bias-dc current, ramping current under ramping background field and magnetic flux ripples under dc background current and field.

  5. Depression of the Thoracolumbar Posterior Vertebral Body on the Estimation of Cement Leakage in Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Jia, Pu; Bao, Li; Feng, Fei; Yang, He; Li, Jin-Jun; Tang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cross-section of thoracolumbar vertebral body is kidney-shaped with depressed posterior boundary. The anterior wall of the vertebral canal is separated from the posterior wall of the vertebral body on the lateral X-ray image. This study was designed to determine the sagittal distance between the anterior border of the vertebral canal and the posterior border of the vertebral body (DBCV) and to analyze the potential role of DBCV in the estimation of cement leakage during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). Methods: We retrospectively recruited 233 patients who had osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and were treated with PVP or PKP. Computed tomography images of T11–L2 normal vertebrae were measured to obtain DBCV. The distance from cement to the posterior wall of the vertebral body (DCPW) of thoracolumbar vertebrae was measured from C-arm images. The selected vertebrae were divided into two groups according to DCPW, with the fracture levels, fracture grades and leakage rates of the two groups compared. A relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to determine whether the DCPW difference can be used to estimate the degree of cement leakage. The data were processed by statistical software SPSS version 21.0 using independent sample t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The maximum DBCV was 6.40 mm and the average DBCV was 3.74 ± 0.95 mm. DBCV appeared to be longer in males than in females, but the difference was not statistically significant. The average DCPW of type-B leakage vertebrae (2.59 ± 1.20 mm) was shorter than that of other vertebrae (7.83 ± 2.38 mm, P 6.40 mm for type-C and type-S, but much higher for type-B. ROC curve revealed that DCPW only has a predictive value for type-B leakage (area under the curve: 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95–0.99, P < 0.001), and when the cut-off value was 4.05 mm, the diagnostic sensitivity and the specificity were 94.87% and 93

  6. Fatigue in high speed aluminium craft: Evaluating a design methodology for estimating the fatigue life using large scale tests and full scale trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drummen, I.; Schiere, M.; Tuitman, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Within the VOMAS project, a methodology has been developed to estimate the fatigue life of high-speed aluminium crafts. This paper presents the large scale test and full scale trials which were done to acquire data for evaluating the developed methodology and presents results of this evaluation. Dur

  7. A Proficiency Based Stepwise Endovascular Curricular Training (PROSPECT) Program Enhances Operative Performance in Real Life: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, H; Aggarwal, R; Moreels, N; Vermassen, F; Van Herzeele, I

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare evolution requires optimisation of surgical training to provide safe patient care. Operating room performance after completion of proficiency based training in vascular surgery has not been investigated. A randomised controlled trial evaluated the impact of a Proficiency based Stepwise Endovascular Curricular Training program (PROSPECT) on the acquisition of endovascular skills and the transferability of these skills to real life interventions. All subjects performed two endovascular interventions treating patients with symptomatic iliac and/or superficial femoral artery stenosis under supervision. Primary outcomes were technical performances (Global Rating Scale [GRS]; Examiner Checklist), operative metrics, and patient outcomes, adjusted for case difficulty and trainee experience. Secondary outcomes included knowledge and technical performance after 6 weeks and 3 months. Thirty-two general surgical trainees were randomised into three groups. Besides traditional training, the first group (n = 11) received e-learning and simulation training (PROSPECT), the second group (n = 10) only had access to e-learning, while controls (n = 11) did not receive supplementary training. Twenty-nine trainees (3 dropouts) performed 58 procedures. Trainees who completed PROSPECT showed superior technical performance (GRS 39.36 ± 2.05; Checklist 63.51 ± 3.18) in real life with significantly fewer supervisor takeovers compared with trainees receiving e-learning alone (GRS 28.42 ± 2.15; p = .001; Checklist 53.63 ± 3.34; p = .027) or traditional education (GRS 23.09 ± 2.18; p = .001; Checklist 38.72 ± 3.38; p = .001). Supervisors felt more confident in allowing PROSPECT trained physicians to perform basic (p = .006) and complex (p = .003) procedures. No differences were detected in procedural parameters (such as fluoroscopy time, DAP, procedure time, etc.) or complications. Proficiency levels were maintained up to 3 months. A structured

  8. “Not Just an Apartment Building”: Residents’ Quality of Life in a Social Housing Co-operative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Eileen Wisniewski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact that two social housing complexes have had on their residents' quality of life. These two complexes, known as Tannery Court Co-operative Ltd., target a specific segment of the affordable housing market: non-elderly singles. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the quality of life of residents. The data collection strategy used semi-structured interviews conducted with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 43 interviews were completed at the two building sites. Analysis of interview and questionnaire data identified six areas of improvement in residents' quality of life. These are life in general (an overarching dimension, housing (the focus of the Tannery Court intervention, neighbourhood (including safety and appearance, food, self-confidence (an enabling dimension for future development of projects and goals among the residents, and financial situation (a key dimension because of its multiple impacts on other aspects of life. / L'objectif de cette recherche était d'évaluer l'impact des deux complexes de logements coopératifs Tannery Court sur la qualité de vie des résidants. Ces complexes ciblent un segment particulier du marché du logement social, les célibataires d'âge actif et vivant en deçà du seuil de la pauvreté. Cette étude utilise une méthodologie mixte pour évaluer la situation et la qualité de vie des résidants. La stratégie de cueillette de données s'appuie sur des entrevues semi-dirigées effectuées à l'aide d'un questionnaire. Au total, nous avons complété 43 entrevues. Six aspects de la qualité de vie se sont améliorés de façon significative. Il s'agit de la vie en général (une dimension globale, le logement (l'objectif premier visé par l'équipe de Tannery Court, le quartier de résidence (dimensions importantes de la localisation d'un complexe comme la sécurité et l'apparence la confiance en soi (une dimension clé pour le d

  9. An applicable method for efficiency estimation of operating tray distillation columns and its comparison with the methods utilized in HYSYS and Aspen Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza

    2015-10-01

    Developing general methods that rely on column data for the efficiency estimation of operating (existing) distillation columns has been overlooked in the literature. Most of the available methods are based on empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods may not be sufficiently accurate when applied to industrial columns. In this paper, an applicable and accurate method was developed for the efficiency estimation of distillation columns filled with trays. This method can calculate efficiency as well as mass and heat transfer coefficients without using any empirical mass transfer or hydraulic correlations and without the need to estimate operational or hydraulic parameters of the column. E.g., the method does not need to estimate tray interfacial area, which can be its most important advantage over all the available methods. The method can be used for the efficiency prediction of any trays in distillation columns. For the efficiency calculation, the method employs the column data and uses the true rates of the mass and heat transfers occurring inside the operating column. It is highly emphasized that estimating efficiency of an operating column has to be distinguished from that of a column being designed.

  10. Design, construction, and operation of a life-cycle test system for the evaluation of flue gas cleanup processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Yeh, James T.; Hoffman, J.S. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Longton, E.J.; Vore, P.A.; Resnik, K.P.; Gromicko, F.N. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has designed, constructed, and operated a Life-Cycle Test Systems (LCTS) that will be used primarily for the investigation of dry, regenerable sorbent flue gas cleanup processes. Sorbent continuously cycles from an absorber reactor where the pollutants are removed from the flue gas, to a regenerator reactor where the activity of the spent sorbent is restored and a usable by-product stream of gas is produced. The LCTS will initially be used to evaluate the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process by determining the effects of various process parameters on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removals. The purpose of this paper is to document the design rationale and details, the reactor/component/instrument installation, and the initial performance of the system. Although the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process will be investigated initially, the design of the LCTS evolved to make the system a multipurpose, versatile research facility. Thus, the unit can be used to investigate various other processes for pollution abatement of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, air toxics, and/or other pollutants.

  11. SMART marine goals, targets and management - Is SDG 14 operational or aspirational, is 'Life Below Water' sinking or swimming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Roland; Elliott, Michael

    2017-08-02

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), adopted in September 2015, are accompanied by targets which have to be met individually and collectively by the signatory states. SDG14 Life Below Water aims to lay the foundation for the integrated and sustainable management of the oceans. However, any environmental management has to be based around targets which are SMART - specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bounded - otherwise it is not possible to determine whether management actions are successful and achieve the desired aims. The discussion here shows that many of the targets adopted for SDG14, and especially a detailed analysis of Target 1, are aspirational rather than fully quantified. In order to move towards making the targets operational, we advocate merging the language of environmental management with that used by industry for linking risks to the environment, management performance and ensuing controls. By adopting an approach which uses Key Performance Indicators ('KPIs'), Key Risk Indicators ('KRIs') and Key Control Indicators ('KCIs'), we advocate that a degree of rigour leading to defendable actions can be brought to marine management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in early life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the dynamic energy budget theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Chris; Nordtug, Trond; Tamis, Jacqueline E

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for cod specific DEB-parameters. Furthermore, we explored the relevance of Fathead minnow DEB-parameters as surrogate by comparing LC50 values calculated from DEB-parameters with literature. Cod specific DEB-parameters could not be estimated based on available literature. LC50 values calculated from Fathead minnow DEB-parameters were higher than literature LC50 for early life stages of fish. Applying an extrapolation factor of 50 to the DEB-parameters resulted in LC50 values that were below literature irrespective of life stage. Therefore, we propose to use the last as an estimate for early life stages in cod and recommend relevant experiments with individual petroleum substances on cod. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maximum likelihood estimator of operational modal analysis for linear time-varying structures in time-frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Si-Da; Heylen, Ward; Sas, Paul; Liu, Li

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of modal parameter estimation of time-varying structures under unknown excitation. A time-frequency-domain maximum likelihood estimator of modal parameters for linear time-varying structures is presented by adapting the frequency-domain maximum likelihood estimator to the time-frequency domain. The proposed estimator is parametric, that is, the linear time-varying structures are represented by a time-dependent common-denominator model. To adapt the existing frequency-domain estimator for time-invariant structures to the time-frequency methods for time-varying cases, an orthogonal polynomial and z-domain mapping hybrid basis function is presented, which has the advantageous numerical condition and with which it is convenient to calculate the modal parameters. A series of numerical examples have evaluated and illustrated the performance of the proposed maximum likelihood estimator, and a group of laboratory experiments has further validated the proposed estimator.

  14. A Model to Estimate the Operating and Maintenance (O&M) Costs of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    September 28, 2010 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/mrap-var.htm Heizer , J., & Render, B. (2008). Operations Management ...Visibility & Management of Operation & Support Cost xv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The role of High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) in the United... Operating and Support Management Information System (OSMIS) and the Marine Corps’ Visibility and Management of Operating and Support Costs (VAMOSC

  15. Coupling Computer-Aided Process Simulation and Estimations of Emissions and Land Use for Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology is described for developing a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a chemical manufacturing process to support the application of life cycle assessment in the design and regulation of sustainable chemicals. The inventories were derived by first applying proces...

  16. Refinements on the age-dependent half-life model for estimating child body burdens of polychlorodibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Leung, Hon-Wing; Scott, Paul K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-04-01

    We modified our prior age-dependent half-life model to characterize the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens associated with dietary and environmental exposure to polychlorodibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Several exposure scenarios were evaluated. Infants were assumed to be either breast-fed or formula-fed from birth to 6 months of age. They then received intakes of PCDD/Fs through age 7 from foods based on weighted means estimates [JECFA, 2001. Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives. Fifty-seventh meeting, Rome, June 5-14 , 2001, pp. 24-40], and with or without exposures (ingestion and dermal) to urban residential soils at 1ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). A one-compartment (adipose volume) toxicokinetic model for TCDD described by Kreuzer [Kreuzer, P.F., Csanady, Gy.A., et al., 1997. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and congeners in infants. A toxicokinetic model of human lifetime body burden by TCDD with special emphasis on its uptake by nutrition. Arch. Toxicol. 71, 383-400] was expanded to include the key non-TCDD congeners in human breast milk and adipose tissues, and two model parameter refinements were examined: (1) use of updated and more detailed age-correlated body fat mass data [CDC, 2000. Centers for Disease Control. CDC Growth Charts: United States. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Number 314, December 2000]; (2) use of breast milk PCDD/F concentration data from sampling completed in 2000-2003 [Wittsiepe, J., Fürst, P., et al., 2004. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers. Organohalogen Compd. 66, 2865-2872]. The updated body fat mass data nearly halved the predicted peak body burden for breast-feeding and lowered the time-weighted average (TWA) body burdens from ages 0-7 by 30-40% for breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Combined use of the updated breast milk PCDD/F concentration and body fat

  17. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallo, F. A.

    1979-09-01

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated.

  18. Assessing the Possibility of Biological Complexity on Other Worlds, with an Estimate of the Occurrence of Complex Life in the Milky Way Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis N. Irwin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rational speculation about biological evolution on other worlds is one of the outstanding challenges in astrobiology. With the growing confirmation that multiplanetary systems abound in the universe, the prospect that life occurs redundantly throughout the cosmos is gaining widespread support. Given the enormous number of possible abodes for life likely to be discovered on an ongoing basis, the prospect that life could have evolved into complex, macro-organismic communities in at least some cases merits consideration. Toward that end, we here propose a Biological Complexity Index (BCI, designed to provide a quantitative estimate of the relative probability that complex, macro-organismic life forms could have emerged on other worlds. The BCI ranks planets and moons by basic, first-order characteristics detectable with available technology. By our calculation only 11 (~1.7% of the extrasolar planets known to date have a BCI above that of Europa; but by extrapolation, the total of such planets could exceed 100 million in our galaxy alone. This is the first quantitative assessment of the plausibility of complex life throughout the universe based on empirical data. It supports the view that the evolution of complex life on other worlds is rare in frequency but large in absolute number.

  19. How Radiation Oncologists Evaluate and Incorporate Life Expectancy Estimates Into the Treatment of Palliative Cancer Patients: A Survey-Based Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Yolanda D., E-mail: ydtseng@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Krishnan, Monica S. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sullivan, Adam J. [Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Jones, Joshua A. [Harvard Palliative Medicine Fellowship Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chow, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Balboni, Tracy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We surveyed how radiation oncologists think about and incorporate a palliative cancer patient’s life expectancy (LE) into their treatment recommendations. Methods and Materials: A 41-item survey was e-mailed to 113 radiation oncology attending physicians and residents at radiation oncology centers within the Boston area. Physicians estimated how frequently they assessed the LE of their palliative cancer patients and rated the importance of 18 factors in formulating LE estimates. For 3 common palliative case scenarios, physicians estimated LE and reported whether they had an LE threshold below which they would modify their treatment recommendation. LE estimates were considered accurate when within the 95% confidence interval of median survival estimates from an established prognostic model. Results: Among 92 respondents (81%), the majority were male (62%), from an academic practice (75%), and an attending physician (70%). Physicians reported assessing LE in 91% of their evaluations and most frequently rated performance status (92%), overall metastatic burden (90%), presence of central nervous system metastases (75%), and primary cancer site (73%) as “very important” in assessing LE. Across the 3 cases, most (88%-97%) had LE thresholds that would alter treatment recommendations. Overall, physicians’ LE estimates were 22% accurate with 67% over the range predicted by the prognostic model. Conclusions: Physicians often incorporate LE estimates into palliative cancer care and identify important prognostic factors. Most have LE thresholds that guide their treatment recommendations. However, physicians overestimated patient survival times in most cases. Future studies focused on improving LE assessment are needed.

  20. Control Technology for Depainting Operations: Estimation of Life-Cycle Costs of Controlling Methylene Chloride in Aircraft-Depainting Operations Versus Alternative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    contained in this MSDS is based on information bolioved (o b« accurate «I Ihij dato Eldorado Cnemirm Cu . Inc mokus nu ouurnntou or warranty c In...Force Base FL 32403-5323 NOTICES This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither...manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto. This technical report has been reviewed by the Public Affairs Office

  1. Life Cycle Payback Estimates of Nanosilver Enabled Textiles under Different Silver Loading, Release, And Laundering Scenarios Informed by Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Andrea L; Gilbertson, Leanne M; Yamani, Jamila S; Theis, Thomas L; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2015-07-07

    Silver was utilized throughout history to prevent the growth of bacteria in food and wounds. Recently, nanoscale silver has been applied to consumer textiles (nAg-textiles) to eliminate the prevalence of odor-causing bacteria. In turn, it is proposed that consumers will launder these items less frequently thus, reducing the life cycle impacts. While previous studies report that laundering processes are associated with the greatest environmental impacts of these textiles, there is no data available to support the proposed shift in consumer laundering behavior. Here, the results from a comprehensive literature review of nAg-textile life cycle studies are used to inform a cradle-to-grave life cycle impact assessment. Rather than assuming shifts in consumer behavior, the impact assessment is conducted in such a way that considers all laundering scenarios to elucidate the potential for reduced laundering to enable realization of a net life cycle benefit. In addition to identifying the most impactful stages of the life cycle across nine-midpoint categories, a payback period and uncertainty analysis quantifies the reduction in lifetime launderings required to recover the impacts associated with nanoenabling the textile. Reduction of nAg-textile life cycle impacts is not straightforward and depends on the impact category considered.

  2. Neuro-fuzzy computing for vibration-based damage localization and severity estimation in an experimental wind turbine blade with superimposed operational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Fueled by increasing demand for carbon neutral energy, erections of ever larger wind turbines (WTs), with WT blades (WTBs) with higher flexibilities and lower buckling capacities lead to increasing operation and maintenance costs. This can be counteracted with efficient structural health monitoring (SHM), which allows scheduling maintenance actions according to the structural state and preventing dramatic failures. The present study proposes a novel multi-step approach for vibration-based structural damage localization and severity estimation for application in operating WTs. First, partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) are estimated from vibrational responses. Second, principal component analysis is applied to PACCs from the healthy structure in order to calculate scores. Then, the scores are ranked with respect to their ability to differentiate different damage scenarios. This ranking information is used for constructing hierarchical adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (HANFISs), where cross-validation is used to identify optimal numbers of hierarchy levels. Different HANFISs are created for the purposes of structural damage localization and severity estimation. For demonstrating the applicability of the approach, experimental data are superimposed with signals from numerical simulations to account for characteristics of operational noise. For the physical experiments, a small scale WTB is excited with a domestic fan and damage scenarios are introduced non-destructively by attaching small masses. Numerical simulations are also performed for a representative fully functional small WT operating in turbulent wind. The obtained results are promising for future applications of vibration-based SHM to facilitate improved safety and reliability of WTs at lower costs.

  3. Factors influencing the departure of South African advanced life support paramedics from pre-hospital operational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Hackland

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Whilst the job of an ALS paramedic is difficult and demanding, it was not operational factors that appeared to cause the majority of ALS paramedics to leave operational practice, but rather organisational and career-based factors. These factors should be addressed in order to improve job satisfaction, with the objective of retaining more operational paramedics for longer.

  4. Pay-load estimation of a 2DOF flexible link robot using a delta-operator technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Rostgaard; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    2001-01-01

    the applied principle might be general in nature, the paper is applied to the well-known problem of identifying a pay-load of a moving flexible robot. This problem is almost impossible to solve by measurements, so an estimation technique must be applied. The presented method benefits from the close...... correspondence with the continuous-time representation to allow a scalar and implicit adaptive technique which based on flexibility measurements leads to the online estimation of the pay-load....

  5. Potential for bias and low precision in molecular divergence time estimation of the Canopy of Life: an example from aquatic bird families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eVan Tuinen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in divergence time estimation is rarely studied from the perspective of phylogenetic node age. If available models fail to completely account for rate heterogeneity, substitution saturation and incompleteness of the fossil record, uncertainty in divergence time estimation may increase with node age. While many studies have stressed this concern with regard to deep nodes in the Tree of Life, the inference that molecular divergence time estimation of shallow nodes is less sensitive to erroneous model choice has not been tested explicitly in a Bayesian framework. Because of available divergence time estimation methods that permit fossil priors across any phylogenetic node and the present increase in efficient, cheap collection of species-level genomic data, insight is needed into the performance of divergence time estimation of shallow (<10MY nodes. Here, we performed multiple sensitivity analyses in a multi-locus data set of aquatic birds with six fossil constraints. Comparison across divergence time analyses that varied taxon and locus sampling, number and position of fossil constraint and shape of prior distribution showed various insights. Deviation from node ages obtained from a reference analysis was generally highest for the shallowest nodes but determined more by temporal placement than number of fossil constraints. Calibration with only the shallowest nodes significantly underestimated the aquatic bird fossil record, indicating the presence of saturation. Although joint calibration with all six priors yielded ages most consistent with the fossil record, ages of shallow nodes were overestimated. This bias was found in both mtDNA and nDNA regions. Thus, divergence time estimation of shallow nodes may suffer from bias and low precision, even when appropriate fossil priors and best available substitution models are chosen. Much care must be taken to address the possible ramifications of substitution saturation across the entire

  6. Potential for bias and low precision in molecular divergence time estimation of the Canopy of Life: an example from aquatic bird families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuinen, Marcel; Torres, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty in divergence time estimation is frequently studied from many angles but rarely from the perspective of phylogenetic node age. If appropriate molecular models and fossil priors are used, a multi-locus, partitioned analysis is expected to equally minimize error in accuracy and precision across all nodes of a given phylogeny. In contrast, if available models fail to completely account for rate heterogeneity, substitution saturation and incompleteness of the fossil record, uncertainty in divergence time estimation may increase with node age. While many studies have stressed this concern with regard to deep nodes in the Tree of Life, the inference that molecular divergence time estimation of shallow nodes is less sensitive to erroneous model choice has not been tested explicitly in a Bayesian framework. Because of available divergence time estimation methods that permit fossil priors across any phylogenetic node and the present increase in efficient, cheap collection of species-level genomic data, insight is needed into the performance of divergence time estimation of shallow (position of fossil constraint and shape of prior distribution showed various insights. Deviation from node ages obtained from a reference analysis was generally highest for the shallowest nodes but determined more by temporal placement than number of fossil constraints. Calibration with only the shallowest nodes significantly underestimated the aquatic bird fossil record, indicating the presence of saturation. Although joint calibration with all six priors yielded ages most consistent with the fossil record, ages of shallow nodes were overestimated. This bias was found in both mtDNA and nDNA regions. Thus, divergence time estimation of shallow nodes may suffer from bias and low precision, even when appropriate fossil priors and best available substitution models are chosen. Much care must be taken to address the possible ramifications of substitution saturation across the entire Tree

  7. A comparative study on methods for loss of life estimation: Applications to case studies in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Maaskant, B.; Kolen, B.; Zethof, M.; Lehman, W.P.; Needham, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, USA and other countries methods for the analysis of loss of life and evacuation associated with flooding are used in flood risk management. This paper compares the methods from the US and Netherlands in this field and considers both methodological principles as well as the

  8. A software tool for estimation of burden of infectious diseases in Europe using incidence-based disability adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, E. (Edoardo); A. Cassini (Alessandro); D. Lewandowski (Daniel); M.J.J. Mangen; Plass, D. (Dietrich); S.A. McDonald (Scott); R.A.W. Van Lier (Rene A. W.); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); Maringhini, G. (Guido); Pini, A. (Alessandro); P Kramarz (Piotr); M.E.E. Kretzschmar (Mirjam)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this met

  9. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, Edoardo; Cassini, Alessandro; Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam EE

    2017-01-01

    The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology pose

  10. A software tool for estimation of burden of infectious diseases in Europe using incidence-based disability adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, E. (Edoardo); A. Cassini (Alessandro); D. Lewandowski (Daniel); M.J.J. Mangen; Plass, D. (Dietrich); S.A. McDonald (Scott); R.A.W. Van Lier (Rene A. W.); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); Maringhini, G. (Guido); Pini, A. (Alessandro); P Kramarz (Piotr); M.E.E. Kretzschmar (Mirjam)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this

  11. A software tool for estimation of burden of infectious diseases in Europe using incidence-based disability adjusted life years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzani, Edoardo; Cassini, Alessandro; Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie Josee J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217293964; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075187981

    2017-01-01

    The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability- Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology

  12. A comparative study on methods for loss of life estimation: Applications to case studies in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Maaskant, B.; Kolen, B.; Zethof, M.; Lehman, W.P.; Needham, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, USA and other countries methods for the analysis of loss of life and evacuation associated with flooding are used in flood risk management. This paper compares the methods from the US and Netherlands in this field and considers both methodological principles as well as the outcom

  13. Standard Operating Procedure for Using the NAFTA Guidance to Calculate Representative Half-life Values and Characterizing Pesticide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of the degradation kinetics project and describes a general approach for calculating and selecting representative half-life values from soil and aquatic transformation studies for risk assessment and exposure modeling purposes.

  14. Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Saydah, Benjamin; Eranki, Pragnya; Colosi, Lisa M; Greg Mitchell, B; Rhodes, James; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used widely to estimate the environmental implications of deploying algae-to-energy systems even though no full-scale facilities have yet to be built. Here, data from a pilot-scale facility using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is used to estimate the life cycle profiles at full scale. Three scenarios (lab-, pilot-, and full-scale) were defined to understand how development in the industry could impact its life cycle burdens. HTL-derived algae fuels were found to have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum fuels. Algae-derived gasoline had significantly lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol. Most algae-based fuels have an energy return on investment between 1 and 3, which is lower than petroleum biofuels. Sensitivity analyses reveal several areas in which improvements by algae bioenergy companies (e.g., biocrude yields, nutrient recycle) and by supporting industries (e.g., CO2 supply chains) could reduce the burdens of the industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of different quantum feedback operator types on the parameter precision of detection efficiency in optimal quantum estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shao-Qiang; Zhu, Han-Jie; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2017-04-01

    The effects of different quantum feedback types on the estimation precision of the detection efficiency are studied. It is found that the precision can be more effective enhanced by a certain feedback type through comparing these feedbacks and the precision has a positive relation with detection efficiency for the optimal feedback when the system reach the state of dynamic balance. In addition, the bigger the proportion of |1> is the higher the precision is and we will not obtain any information about the parameter to be estimated if |0> is chosen as initial state for the feedback type λσz.

  16. Effect of co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering on estimates of three parameters AVA inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh R Nair; Suresh Ch Kandpal

    2010-04-01

    We determine the degree of variation of model fitness,to a true model based on amplitude variation with angle (AVA)methodology for a synthetic gas hydrate model,using co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering,constrained to a rock physics model.When a homogeneous starting model is used,with only traditional least squares optimization scheme for inversion,the variance of the parameters is found to be comparatively high.In this co-operative methodology,the output from the least squares inversion is fed as an input to the fuzzy scheme.Tests with co-operative inversion using fuzzy c-means with damped least squares technique and constraints derived from empirical relationship based on rock properties model show improved stability,model fitness and variance for all the three parameters in comparison with the standard inversion alone.

  17. Model-based statistical estimation of Sandia RF ohmic switch dynamic operation form stroboscopic, x-ray imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegert, Carl F.

    2006-12-01

    We define a new diagnostic method where computationally-intensive numerical solutions are used as an integral part of making difficult, non-contact, nanometer-scale measurements. The limited scope of this report comprises most of a due diligence investigation into implementing the new diagnostic for measuring dynamic operation of Sandia's RF Ohmic Switch. Our results are all positive, providing insight into how this switch deforms during normal operation. Future work should contribute important measurements on a variety of operating MEMS devices, with insights that are complimentary to those from measurements made using interferometry and laser Doppler methods. More generally, the work opens up a broad front of possibility where exploiting massive high-performance computers enable new measurements.

  18. Inconsistencies in place definition: How different operational place definitions affect estimates of adolescent smoking and drinking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Joanne E; Weitzman, Beth C

    2007-06-01

    We find that estimates of the prevalence of teenage smoking and drinking in "urban," "suburban," and "rural" areas vary with different definitions of these types of geographic units. Given the salience of youth risk behavior to the public debate, we urge researchers to purposefully choose their definitions of geographic areas and to be explicit about those choices.

  19. Depression of the Thoracolumbar Posterior Vertebral Body on the Estimation of Cement Leakage in Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Depression of the thoracolumbar posterior vertebral body may be informative for the estimation of cement location on C-arm images. To reduce type-B leakage, DCPW should be made longer than DBCV on C-arm images for safety during PVP or PKP.

  20. Rearing and estimation of life-cycle parameters of the tubicifid worm Branchiura sowerbyi: application to ecotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Péry, Alexandre R R; Quéau, Hervé; Mons, Raphaël; Lafont, Michel; Garric, Jeanne

    2007-10-01

    This paper provides original collection, acclimatizing, rearing and toxicity test methods for the freshwater worm Branchiura sowerbyi, an alternative species to Tubifex tubifex for ecotoxicity evaluation of sediments. Influence of the substrate, type of food, and feeding level on individual performances was assessed in short-term tests, in order to set up optimal culture and test conditions. Low-size particles and high organic matter content favoured the growth and reproduction of B. sowerbyi. The relative contribution of sediments and fish food to the individual food intake was assessed using a foraging efficiency model based upon the dynamic energy budget theory. Individual performances were optimal when the substrate plus fish food provided the energy equivalent to 5 mg Tetramin per worm per day, which is the ad libitum food level for adults at 21 degrees C. The life-cycle of the worm was fully characterized using a life-cycle test conducted under the previously defined optimal conditions. Hatching rates were low (32%), whereas newborn and juveniles exhibited high survival (>80%) and growth (2.4 mg/day in juveniles) rates. Age at puberty was low (60 days) when compared to the maximal life span (1100 days) as predicted using a Weibull model. Adults reproduced every other month with a constant fecundity (0.16 cocoon/worm/day). The mean values of the life-cycle parameters and their variability and reproducibility among laboratory studies were discussed in order to identify relevant endpoints to be used in ecotoxicity tests. Survival, juvenile growth, and fecundity may constitute suitable test endpoints, whereas hatching rate and adult growth should not be used as endpoints in B. sowerbyi.

  1. Estimation of the impurity levels in polyimide foils and the life-time of the foils irradiated by charged projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskóła, M.; Korman, A.; Stolarz, A.

    2008-06-01

    The life-time of thin polyimide foils (prepared by in-situ polymerisation) in beams of 2.0 MeV helium ions and 1.5 MeV protons has been studied, irradiating foils with beams of different intensities. The impurity levels of the foils measured by PIXE and RBS were found to be in order of ng/cm 2.

  2. Semiempirical Methodology for Estimating the Service Life of Concrete Deck Panels Strengthened with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon-Kyoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of concrete bridge decks affects their durability, safety, and function. It is therefore necessary to conduct structural rehabilitation of damaged concrete decks by strengthening them with fiber-reinforced polymer. Of the recent studies on the strengthened structures, most have focused on static behavior; only a few studies have investigated fatigue behavior. Accurate analysis of fatigue in concrete deck performance requires a more realistic simulated moving load. This study developed a theoretical live-load model to reflect the effect of moving vehicle loads, based on a statistical approach to the measurement of real traffic loads over various time periods in Korea. It assessed the fatigue life and strengthening effect of bridge decks strengthened with either carbon fiber sheets or grid carbon fiber polymer plastic using probabilistic and reliability analyses. It used extrapolations and simulations to derive maximum load effects for time periods ranging from 1 day to 75 years. Limited fatigue tests were conducted and probabilistic and reliability analyses were carried out on the strengthened concrete bridge deck specimens to predict the extended fatigue life. Analysis results indicated that strengthened concrete decks provide sufficient resistance against increasing truck loads during the service life of a bridge.

  3. Development and validation of an automated operational modal analysis algorithm for vibration-based monitoring and tensile load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainieri, Carlo; Fabbrocino, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    In the last few decades large research efforts have been devoted to the development of methods for automated detection of damage and degradation phenomena at an early stage. Modal-based damage detection techniques are well-established methods, whose effectiveness for Level 1 (existence) and Level 2 (location) damage detection is demonstrated by several studies. The indirect estimation of tensile loads in cables and tie-rods is another attractive application of vibration measurements. It provides interesting opportunities for cheap and fast quality checks in the construction phase, as well as for safety evaluations and structural maintenance over the structure lifespan. However, the lack of automated modal identification and tracking procedures has been for long a relevant drawback to the extensive application of the above-mentioned techniques in the engineering practice. An increasing number of field applications of modal-based structural health and performance assessment are appearing after the development of several automated output-only modal identification procedures in the last few years. Nevertheless, additional efforts are still needed to enhance the robustness of automated modal identification algorithms, control the computational efforts and improve the reliability of modal parameter estimates (in particular, damping). This paper deals with an original algorithm for automated output-only modal parameter estimation. Particular emphasis is given to the extensive validation of the algorithm based on simulated and real datasets in view of continuous monitoring applications. The results point out that the algorithm is fairly robust and demonstrate its ability to provide accurate and precise estimates of the modal parameters, including damping ratios. As a result, it has been used to develop systems for vibration-based estimation of tensile loads in cables and tie-rods. Promising results have been achieved for non-destructive testing as well as continuous

  4. A 205 Hour Krypton Propellant Life Test of the SPT-100 Operating at 3 kW

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) led efforts to transfer SPT technology to the United States so that western spacecraft could benefit from their...the performance of the SPT-100 operating on krypton was characterized using an inverted pendulum thrust stand over a wide range of thruster operating

  5. Municipal solid waste conversion to transportation fuels: a life-cycle estimation of global warming potential and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Aziz, Tarek N.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    of default assumptions, the model estimates that 1 Mg of MSW entering the RDF facility yields 123 L of gasoline, 57 L of diesel, 79 kg of other FT products, and 193 kWh of gross electricity production. For each Mg of MSW, the conversion process consumes 4.4 GJ of primary energy while creating fuels...

  6. Improvement of a Vertical Falling Ball Viscometer for Measuring Engine Oil Properties using 532nm diode laser, with Estimation of the Concentration of operated Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood O. Altaify

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an improvement of falling ball viscometer was presented using laser beam. Several parameters such as viscosity, shear stress, shear rate, Reynolds number and drag coefficient were calculated for a sample of unused engine oil. In the other words, during the operation of engine, the variation of viscosity occurs due to the increasing in the engine temperature and may in the increasing of the concentration of engine body particles inside the oil due to friction force even with existing the oil filter there are tiny particles that pass through the oil filter, therefore a Lambert’s law was used to estimate the particles concentrations of the operated oil, the resulted graphs show increasing of the impurities concentration with operation time.

  7. Multivariate dynamic linear models for estimating the effect of experimental interventions in an evolutionary operations setup in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, Anna Helena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Kristensen, Troels

    2017-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to construct a tool to assess the intervention effect on milk production in an evolutionary operations setup. The method used for this purpose was a dynamic linear model (DLM) with Kalman filtering. The DLM consisted of parameters describing milk yield in a herd, individual cows...

  8. Development of a constitutive model for the plastic deformation and creep of copper and its use in the estimate of the creep life of the copper canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Kjell [Matsafe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    A previously developed model for the plastic deformation and creep of copper (included as an Appendix to the present report) has been used as the basis for a discussion on the possibility of brittle creep fracture of the copper canister during long term storage of nuclear waste. Reported creep tests on oxygen free (OF) copper have demonstrated that copper can have an extremely low creep ductility. However with the addition of about 50 ppm phosphorus to the copper it appears as if the creep brittleness problem is avoided and that type of copper (OFP) has consequently been chosen as the canister material. It is shown in the report that the experiments performed on OFP copper does not exclude the possibility of creep brittleness of OFP copper in the very long term. The plasticity and creep model has been used to estimate creep life under conditions of intergranular creep cracking according to a model formulated by Cocks and Ashby. The estimated life times widely exceed the design life of the canister. However the observations of creep brittleness in OF copper indicate that the Cocks-Ashby model probably does not apply to the OF copper. Thus additional calculations have been done with the plasticity and creep model in order to estimate stress as a function of time for the probably most severe loading case of the canister with regard to creep failure, an earth quake shear. Despite the fact that the stress in the canister will remain at the 100 MPa level for thousands of years after an earth quake the low temperature, about 50 deg C or less, will make the solid state diffusion process assumed to control the brittle cracking process, too slow to lead to any significant brittle creep cracking in the canister.

  9. Estimation method for random sonic fatigue life of thin-walled structure of a combustor liner based on stress probability distribution%Estimation method for random sonic fatigue life of thin-walled structure of a combustor liner based on stress probability distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Yun-dong; GUO Xiao-peng; LIAO Lian-fang; XIE Li-juan

    2011-01-01

    As to the sonic fatigue problem of an aero-engine combustor liner structure under the random acoustic loadings, an effective method for predicting the fatigue life of a structure under random loadings was studied. Firstly, the probability distribution of Von Mises stress of thin-walled structure under random loadings was studied, analysis suggested that probability density function of Von Mises stress process accord approximately with two-parameter Weibull distribution. The formula for calculating Weibull parameters were given. Based on the Miner linear theory, the method for predicting the random sonic fatigue life based on the stress probability density was developed, and the model for fatigue life prediction was constructed. As an example, an aero-engine combustor liner structure was considered. The power spectrum density (PSD) of the vibrational stress response was calculated by using the coupled FEM/BEM (finite element method/boundary element method) model, the fatigue life was estimated by using the constructed model. And considering the influence of the wide frequency band, the calculated results were modified. Comparetive analysis shows that the estimated results of sonic fatigue of the combustor liner structure by using Weibull distribution of Von Mises stress are more conservative than using Dirlik distribution to some extend. The results show that the methods presented in this paper are practical for the random fatigue life analysis of the aeronautical thin-walled structures.

  10. Estimate of Solar Maximum Using the 1-8 Angstrom Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites X-Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    TYPE Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 Oct 2014 – 30 Nov 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estimate of Solar Maximum Using the 1–8 Å...predict the intensity and date of the solar maximum of the current solar cycle. The solar cycle 24 prediction panel3 (Biesecker & Prediction Panel 2007...statement of the solar cycle 24 prediction panel is available at http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/SolarCycle/SC24/. 2. DETERMINATION OF THE SOLAR CYCLE

  11. 胃癌术后患者生活质量研究%STUDY OF QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH GASTRIC CANCER AFTER OPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 曹淑红; 张晓峰; 庞艳玲; 宋春惠; 闫继霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]调查胃癌术后患者生活质量(QOL),探讨影响QOL的相关因素.[方法]用胃癌患者生活质量问卷(QLQ-STO22)和生活质量核心问卷(QLQ-C30)组合问卷对116例胃癌术后1年的患者(胃癌组)进行调查,选择同期行胃部手术的非胃癌患者50例作为对照. [结果] (1)胃癌组生活质量评分高于对照组. (2)单因素比较显示QOL在不同年龄、家庭收入、营养锻炼、定期复查保健、职业性质、UICC-TNM分期、手术方式、根治度、联合脏器切除和术后化疗方面存在差异,P< 0.05. (3)多因素Logistic回归进入主效应模型的变量是:年龄,营养锻炼,定期复查保健,手术方式、根治度、联合脏器切除和术后化疗.[结论]胃癌术后患者的QOL较差,年龄、手术方式、根治度、联合脏器切除、术后化疗、营养锻炼和定期复查是影响QOL的强相关因素.%[Objective] To investigate the quality of life (QOL) and the main influencing factors in patients with gastric cancer after operation. [Methods] 116 patients with gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) were investigated by using Quality of life Questionnaire of Stomach 22 (QLQ-STO22) and Quality of life Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) in one years after operation, and control group was 50 gastric operation cases without gastric cancer. [ Results] ( 1) The gastric cancer group score of quality of life were higher than those of control group. (2) Univariate analysis indicated that quality of life was related to age, family income, pay attention to nutrition and physical exercise, regular re-examination and care, job, UICC-TNM stage, operation method, extent of tumor resection, combined multiple organ resection and postoperative chemotherapy (P < 0.05). (3) Age, nutrition and physical exercise, regular re-examination and care, operation method, extent of tumor resection, combined multiple organ resection and postoperative chemotherapy entered multivariate logistic regression

  12. The Accuracy Estimation of the Numerical Solution of the Spectra Problem with the Operator Depending on the Eigenvalue

    CERN Document Server

    Zhidkov, E P; Solovieva, T M

    2001-01-01

    The spectral problems with the eigenvalue-depending operator usually appear when the relative variants of the Schroedinger equation are considered in the impulse space. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions calculation error caused by the numerical solving of such equations is the sum of the error entering the approximation of a continuous equation by the discrete equations systems with the help of the Bubnov-Galerkine method and the iterative method one. It is shown that the iterative method error is one-two order smaller than the problem of the discretisation one. Hence, the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions calculation accuracy of the spectral problem with the eigenvalue-depending operator is not worse than the linear spectral problem solution accuracy.

  13. Estimates of Some Integral Operators with Bounded Variable Kernels on the Hardy and Weak Hardy Spaces over Rn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce Lσ 1-(log L)σ 2 conditions satisfied by the variable kernelsΩ (x, z) for 0 ≤ σ 1 ≤ 1 and σ 2 ≥ 0. Under these new smoothness conditions, we will prove the boundedness properties of singular integral operators TΩ , fractional integrals TΩ ,α and parametric Marcinkiewicz integralsμρΩ with variable kernels on the Hardy spaces Hp(Rn) and weak Hardy spaces WHp(Rn). Moreover, by using the interpolation arguments, we can get some corresponding results for the above integral operators with variable kernels on Hardy–Lorentz spaces Hp,q(Rn) for all p

  14. Status and Perspectives of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Life Extension up to 60 Years Operation in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.

    2009-09-15

    The scope of this report involves a safety evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against neutron embrittlement, in the most severely irradiation region (belt line) and in the event of a pressurized thermal shock. The irreplaceable RPV is considered to be the most critical component for lifetime considerations of the nuclear power plant. However, an application for operation extension will also depend upon a number of additional considerations, including the technical assessment of other plant components, as well as non-technical arguments (e.g. political, environmental, economical, strategical that are outside the scope this report. In the hypothesis of a request for operation extension, it is the responsibility of the utilities to provide the safety authorities with an exhaustive dossier demonstrating that safe extended operation is guaranteed. The role of the safety authorities is to critically evaluate the safety dossier for eventually granting the operation extension.

  15. Dynamics of Weeds in the Soil Seed Bank: A Hidden Markov Model to Estimate Life History Traits from Standing Plant Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgy, Benjamin; Reboud, Xavier; Peyrard, Nathalie; Sabbadin, Régis; Gaba, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the population dynamics of annual plants is a challenge due to their hidden seed banks in the field. However, such predictions are highly valuable for determining management strategies, specifically in agricultural landscapes. In agroecosystems, most weed seeds survive during unfavourable seasons and persist for several years in the seed bank. This causes difficulties in making accurate predictions of weed population dynamics and life history traits (LHT). Consequently, it is very difficult to identify management strategies that limit both weed populations and species diversity. In this article, we present a method of assessing weed population dynamics from both standing plant time series data and an unknown seed bank. We use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain estimates of over 3,080 botanical records for three major LHT: seed survival in the soil, plant establishment (including post-emergence mortality), and seed production of 18 common weed species. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches were complementarily used to estimate LHT values. The results showed that the LHT provided by the HMM enabled fairly accurate estimates of weed populations in different crops. There was a positive correlation between estimated germination rates and an index of the specialisation to the crop type (IndVal). The relationships between estimated LHTs and that between the estimated LHTs and the ecological characteristics of weeds provided insights into weed strategies. For example, a common strategy to cope with agricultural practices in several weeds was to produce less seeds and increase germination rates. This knowledge, especially of LHT for each type of crop, should provide valuable information for developing sustainable weed management strategies.

  16. Estimating initial contaminant mass based on fitting mass-depletion functions to contaminant mass discharge data: Testing method efficacy with SVE operations data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainhagu, J.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2016-09-01

    The mass of contaminant present at a site, particularly in the source zones, is one of the key parameters for assessing the risk posed by contaminated sites, and for setting and evaluating remediation goals and objectives. This quantity is rarely known and is challenging to estimate accurately. This work investigated the efficacy of fitting mass-depletion functions to temporal contaminant mass discharge (CMD) data as a means of estimating initial mass. Two common mass-depletion functions, exponential and power functions, were applied to historic soil vapor extraction (SVE) CMD data collected from 11 contaminated sites for which the SVE operations are considered to be at or close to essentially complete mass removal. The functions were applied to the entire available data set for each site, as well as to the early-time data (the initial 1/3 of the data available). Additionally, a complete differential-time analysis was conducted. The latter two analyses were conducted to investigate the impact of limited data on method performance, given that the primary mode of application would be to use the method during the early stages of a remediation effort. The estimated initial masses were compared to the total masses removed for the SVE operations. The mass estimates obtained from application to the full data sets were reasonably similar to the measured masses removed for both functions (13 and 15% mean error). The use of the early-time data resulted in a minimally higher variation for the exponential function (17%) but a much higher error (51%) for the power function. These results suggest that the method can produce reasonable estimates of initial mass useful for planning and assessing remediation efforts.

  17. An operational weather radar-based Quantitative Precipitation Estimation and its application in catchment water resources modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xin; Vejen, Flemming; Stisen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    of precipitation compared with rain-gauge-based methods, thus providing the basis for better water resources assessments. The radar QPE algorithm called ARNE is a distance-dependent areal estimation method that merges radar data with ground surface observations. The method was applied to the Skjern River catchment...... reliable simulations of stream flow and water balance. The potential of using radar-based precipitation was found to be especially high at a smaller scale, where the impact of spatial resolution was evident from the stream discharge results. Also, groundwater recharge was shown to be sensitive...

  18. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  19. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  20. A new magnetotelluric monitoring network operating in Agri Valley (Southern Italy: study of stability of apparent resistivity estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Telesca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Variations detected in geophysical, especially electromagnetic, parameters in seismic active areas have been sometimes attributed to modifications of the stress field. Among the different geophysical methods, magnetotellurics (MT could be one of the most effective because it allows us to explore down to seismogenic depths. Continuous MT recording could allow us to evaluate whether possible variations are significantly correlated with the seismic activity of investigated area. To assess the significance of such observations we must be able to say how well an apparent resistivity curve should be reproduced when measurements are repeated at a later time. To do this properly it is essential to know that the estimated error bars accurately represent the true uncertainties in comparing the transfer functions. In this work we will show the preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the data coming from the new MT monitoring network installed in Agri Valley. This analysis gives us the possibility: i to better study the temporal stability of the signals, ii to better discriminate the noise affecting the measures by remote reference estimation. The performed analysis disclosed a relatively low degree of noise in the investigated area, which is a promising condition for monitoring.

  1. Derivation of water quality criteria of phenanthrene using interspecies correlation estimation models for aquatic life in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangyue; Liu, Zhengtao; Yan, Zhenguang; Yi, Xianliang

    2015-06-01

    Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method has been widely used to derive water quality criteria (WQC). However, the toxicity data of some environmental pollutants are not easily accessible, especially for endangered and threatened species. Thus, it would be very desirable and economical to predict the toxicity of those species not subjected to toxicity test with the aid of a mathematical model. The interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) model (developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)) uses the initial toxicity estimate for one species to produce correlated toxicity values for multiple species, and it can be utilized to develop SSD and HC5 (hazardous concentration, 5th percentile). In this study, we explored the applicability of ICE to predict toxicity of phenanthrene to various species. ICE-based SSDs were generated using three surrogate species (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Lepomis macrochirus, and Daphnia magna) and compared with the metrical-based SSD. The corresponding HC5 of both models were also compared. The results showed there were no significant differences between HC5 derived from measured acute and ICE-based predicted values. The ICE model was verified as a valid approach for generating SSDs with limited toxicity data and deriving WQC for phenanthrene.

  2. Life Expectancy Among U.S.-born and Foreign-born Older Adults in the United States: Estimates From Linked Social Security and Medicare Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T; Engelman, Michal; Lauderdale, Diane S; Kestenbaum, Bert M

    2016-08-01

    In recent decades, the geographic origins of America's foreign-born population have become increasingly diverse. The sending countries of the U.S. foreign-born vary substantially in levels of health and economic development, and immigrants have arrived with distinct distributions of socioeconomic status, visa type, year of immigration, and age at immigration. We use high-quality linked Social Security and Medicare records to estimate life tables for the older U.S. population over the full range of birth regions. In 2000-2009, the foreign-born had a 2.4-year advantage in life expectancy at age 65 relative to the U.S.-born, with Asian-born subgroups displaying exceptionally high longevity. Foreign-born individuals who migrated more recently had lower mortality compared with those who migrated earlier. Nonetheless, we also find remarkable similarities in life expectancy among many foreign-born subgroups that were born in very different geographic and socioeconomic contexts (e.g., Central America, western/eastern Europe, and Africa).

  3. Remaining Life Analysis of Boiler Tubes on Behalf of Hoop Stresses Produced During Operation of Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Zeeshan Gauri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Boiler tube material plays an important role in efficient power generation from a fossil fuel power plant. In order to meet out the gap between fluids to increase heat available per unit mass flow of steam. Waste heat utilization phenomenon is a big challenge on fossil fuel power plants as after use of high grade coal in thermal power plants the efficiency of power plants is not at the level of required value. Clean and efficient power generation with economical aspects is the basic need of growing power generation plants to justify the quality of power and clean power generation. Life analysis technique to calculate remaining life of boiler tubes at critical zones of high temperature requires much attention and is an important hypothesis in research field. Generation of repetitive and fluctuating stress during flow of high temperature and pressure fluid require proper attention on the methodology to be used to calculate the efficiency of system and absorption efficiency of tube material. In this paper complete mathematical analysis of boiler tubes is conducted for calculation of remaining life of boiler tubes, Hoop stress values are calculated and used with mathematical tool to calculate the efficiency. Hoop stress based calculation of efficiency is more reliable and may give more accurate and practical aspects based results.

  4. An estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sharmista; Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The technique adopted here is based on an evaluation of the 'lost work' within each functional unit of the subsystem. Pertinent information for our analysis is obtained from a user interactive integrated model of an ECLSS. The model was developed using ASPEN. A potential benefit of this analysis is the identification of subsystems with high entropy generation as the most likely candidates for engineering improvements. This work has been motivated by the fact that the design objective for a long term mission should be the evaluation of existing ECLSS technologies not only the basis of the quantity of work needed for or obtained from each subsystem but also on the quality of work. In a previous study Brandhorst showed that the power consumption for partially closed and completely closed regenerable life support systems was estimated as 3.5 kw/individual and 10-12 kw/individual respectively. With the increasing cost and scarcity of energy resources, our attention is drawn to evaluate the existing ECLSS technologies on the basis of their energy efficiency. In general the first law efficiency of a system is usually greater than 50 percent. From literature, the second law efficiency is usually about 10 percent. The estimation of second law efficiency of the system indicates the percentage of energy degraded as irreversibilities within the process. This estimate offers more room for improvement in the design of equipment. From another perspective, our objective is to keep the total entropy production of a life support system as low as possible and still ensure a positive entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings. The reason for doing so is as the entropy production of the system increases, the entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings decreases, and the

  5. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cassini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC point prevalence survey (PPS of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs.The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP, healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI, surgical site infection (SSI, healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI, healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI. The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA. The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease. HAP and HA primary BSI were

  6. Potential relevance of pre-operative quality of life questionnaires to identify candidates for surgical treatment of genital prolapse: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvin Christian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate prolapse-related symptoms, quality of life and sexuality of patients with validated questionnaires before and after surgery for genital prolapse and assess relevance of such an evaluation to select women for surgery. Methods From November 2009 to April 2010, 16 patients operated on for genital prolapse of grade greater than or equal to 2 (POP-Q classification were evaluated prospectively by three questionnaires of quality of life Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7 and Pelvic Organ Prolaps/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12. Data were collected the day before surgery and 6 weeks postoperatively. Results Eleven patients had laparoscopic surgery and five vaginal surgery. There was a significant decrease in pelvic heaviness, vaginal discomfort and urinary symptoms after surgery. The score of symptoms of prolapse, the PFDI-20 score was 98.5 preoperatively and 31.8 postoperatively (p Conclusions This study suggests that surgery improves quality of life of patients with genital prolapse. Quality of life questionnaires could help select good candidates for surgery. Further studies are required to determine threshold to standardize indications of surgery.

  7. Estimation of operational parameters for a direct injection turbocharged spark ignition engine by using regression analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosun Erdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at estimating the variation of several engine control parameters within the rotational speed-load map, using regression analysis and artificial neural network techniques. Duration of injection, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas at turbine inlet, and within the catalytic converter brick were chosen as the output parameters for the models, while engine speed and brake mean effective pressure were selected as independent variables for prediction. Measurements were performed on a turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with gasoline. A three-layer feed-forward structure and back-propagation algorithm was used for training the artificial neural network. It was concluded that this technique is capable of predicting engine parameters with better accuracy than linear and non-linear regression techniques.

  8. Estimation of Extreme Response and Failure Probability of Wind Turbines under Normal Operation using Probability Density Evolution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Liu, W. F.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of extreme response and failure probability of structures subjected to ultimate design loads is essential for structural design of wind turbines according to the new standard IEC61400-1. This task is focused on in the present paper in virtue of probability density evolution method (PDEM......), which underlies the schemes of random vibration analysis and structural reliability assessment. The short-term rare failure probability of 5-mega-watt wind turbines, for illustrative purposes, in case of given mean wind speeds and turbulence levels is investigated through the scheme of extreme value...... distribution instead of any other approximate schemes of fitted distribution currently used in statistical extrapolation techniques. Besides, the comparative studies against the classical fitted distributions and the standard Monte Carlo techniques are carried out. Numerical results indicate that PDEM exhibits...

  9. An operational procedure for precipitable and cloud liquid water estimate in non-raining conditions over sea Study on the assessment of the nonlinear physical inversion algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Nativi, S; Mazzetti, P

    2004-01-01

    In a previous work, an operative procedure to estimate precipitable and liquid water in non-raining conditions over sea was developed and assessed. The procedure is based on a fast non-linear physical inversion scheme and a forward model; it is valid for most of satellite microwave radiometers and it also estimates water effective profiles. This paper presents two improvements of the procedure: first, a refinement to provide modularity of the software components and portability across different computation system architectures; second, the adoption of the CERN MINUIT minimisation package, which addresses the problem of global minimisation but is computationally more demanding. Together with the increased computational performance that allowed to impose stricter requirements on the quality of fit, these refinements improved fitting precision and reliability, and allowed to relax the requirements on the initial guesses for the model parameters. The re-analysis of the same data-set considered in the previous pap...

  10. A GIS-based model to estimate flood consequences and the degree of accessibility and operability of strategic emergency response structures in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.; Mancusi, L.

    2014-11-01

    Efficient decision-making regarding flood risk reduction has become a priority for authorities and stakeholders in many European countries. Risk analysis methods and techniques are a useful tool for evaluating costs and benefits of possible interventions. Within this context, a methodology to estimate flood consequences was developed in this paper that is based on GIS, and integrated with a model that estimates the degree of accessibility and operability of strategic emergency response structures in an urban area. The majority of the currently available approaches do not properly analyse road network connections and dependencies within systems, and as such a loss of roads could cause significant damages and problems to emergency services in cases of flooding. The proposed model is unique in that it provides a maximum-impact estimation of flood consequences on the basis of the operability of the strategic emergency structures in an urban area, their accessibility, and connection within the urban system of a city (i.e. connection between aid centres and buildings at risk), in the emergency phase. The results of a case study in the Puglia region in southern Italy are described to illustrate the practical applications of this newly proposed approach. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that it allows for defining a hierarchy between different infrastructure in the urban area through the identification of particular components whose operation and efficiency are critical for emergency management. This information can be used by decision-makers to prioritize risk reduction interventions in flood emergencies in urban areas, given limited financial resources.

  11. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2008-04-01

    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  12. Different Multimorbidity Measures Result in Varying Estimated Levels of Physical Quality of Life in Individuals with Multimorbidity: A Cross-Sectional Study in the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ramond-Roquin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multimorbidity adversely affects health-related quality of life. Methodological factors may impact the magnitude of this relationship. Objective. To evaluate how physical health-related quality of life varies in individuals with multimorbidity depending on the length of the list of candidate conditions considered. Methods. Secondary analysis from PRECISE, a cohort study of the general adult population of Quebec, Canada. Multimorbidity was measured using the 21-chronic condition list from the Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment, and physical health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary (PCS of SF-12v2. The PCS was calculated, (a using 2 or more conditions from the 21-condition list (MM2+, 21 and then from a reduced 6-condition list (MM2+, 6 and (b using three or more conditions from each list (MM3+, 21, and MM3+, 6. Results. The analysis included 1,710 individuals (mean age 51.3, 40.5% men. Multimorbidity prevalence ranged from 63.8% (MM2+, 21 conditions to 3.8% (MM3+, 6 conditions. The mean [95% CI] PCS dropped from 45.7 [CI: 45.0–46.3] (MM2+, 21 to 40.2 [CI: 38.7–41.8] (MM2+, 6 and from 44.2 [CI: 43.4–44.9] (MM3+, 21 to 34.8 [CI: 31.9–37.6] (MM3+, 6. Conclusion. The length of the list of candidate conditions considered has a great impact on the estimations of physical health-related quality of life.

  13. Estimation of life expectancy of patients diagnosed with the most common cancers in the Valparaiso Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasco, C; Figueroa, K; Lazo, Y; Demongeot, J

    2017-01-01

    Background The 1000s of people who die from cancer each year have become one of the leading causes of death among the Chilean population, placing it as the second cause of death in the region of Valparaiso between 1997 and 2003. Statistics have provided different measures regarding the life expectancy of cancer patients which have resulted in being useful to establish courses of action for prevention and treatment plans to follow. Methods Data was extracted from the cancer module of the Epidemiology Assistance System (SADEPI for its initials in Spanish) which stores information about cancer cases in the provinces of Valparaiso and Petorca. The survival period is defined as the difference in days between the date of occurrence and the date of death of the patient by separating the data into quartiles. Results The more frequent cancers in the region of Valparaiso behave similarly to global behaviours of the disease. The majority of affected patients are around 65 years of age which progressively lowers its occurrence in younger adults under the age of 45. Conclusions Further efforts are required for early detection and timely access to treatment for cancer patients. Statistics are an important support in achieving this. PMID:28144287

  14. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Agüera

    Full Text Available Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O

  15. Parameter Estimations of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Model over the Life History of a Key Antarctic Species: The Antarctic Sea Star Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Antonio; Collard, Marie; Jossart, Quentin; Moreau, Camille; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms in Antarctica are adapted to an extreme ecosystem including extremely stable temperatures and strong seasonality due to changes in day length. It is now largely accepted that Southern Ocean organisms are particularly vulnerable to global warming with some regions already being challenged by a rapid increase of temperature. Climate change affects both the physical and biotic components of marine ecosystems and will have an impact on the distribution and population dynamics of Antarctic marine organisms. To predict and assess the effect of climate change on marine ecosystems a more comprehensive knowledge of the life history and physiology of key species is urgently needed. In this study we estimate the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model parameters for key benthic Antarctic species the sea star Odontaster validus using available information from literature and experiments. The DEB theory is unique in capturing the metabolic processes of an organism through its entire life cycle as a function of temperature and food availability. The DEB model allows for the inclusion of the different life history stages, and thus, becomes a tool that can be used to model lifetime feeding, growth, reproduction, and their responses to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. The DEB model presented here includes the estimation of reproduction handling rules for the development of simultaneous oocyte cohorts within the gonad. Additionally it links the DEB model reserves to the pyloric caeca an organ whose function has long been ascribed to energy storage. Model parameters described a slowed down metabolism of long living animals that mature slowly. O. validus has a large reserve that-matching low maintenance costs- allow withstanding long periods of starvation. Gonad development is continuous and individual cohorts developed within the gonads grow in biomass following a power function of the age of the cohort. The DEB model developed here for O. validus allowed us to

  16. Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Diodato, A.; de Leonibus, L.; Zauli, F.; Biron, D.; Melfi, D.

    2009-04-01

    Operational Estimation of Accumulated Precipitation using Satellite Observation, by Eumetsat Satellite Application facility in Support to Hydrology (H-SAF Consortium). Cap. Attilio DI DIODATO(*), T.Col. Luigi DE LEONIBUS(*), T.Col Francesco ZAULI(*), Cap. Daniele BIRON(*), Ten. Davide Melfi(*) Satellite Application Facilities (SAFs) are specialised development and processing centres of the EUMETSAT Distributed Ground Segment. SAFs process level 1b data from meteorological satellites (geostationary and polar ones) in conjunction with all other relevant sources of data and appropriate models to generate services and level 2 products. Each SAF is a consortium of EUMETSAT European partners lead by a host institute responsible for the management of the complete SAF project. The Meteorological Service of Italian Air Force is the host Institute for the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). HSAF has the commitment to develop and to provide, operationally after 2010, products regarding precipitation, soil moisture and snow. HSAF is going to provide information on error structure of its products and validation of the products via their impacts into Hydrological models. To that purpose it has been structured a specific subgroups. Accumulated precipitation is computed by temporal integration of the instantaneous rain rate achieved by the blended LEO/MW and GEO/IR precipitation rate products generated by Rapid Update method available every 15 minutes. The algorithm provides four outputs, consisting in accumulated precipitation in 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, delivered every 3 hours at the synoptic hours. These outputs are our precipitation background fields. Satellite estimates can cover most of the globe, however, they suffer from errors due to lack of a direct relationship between observation parameters and precipitation, the poor sampling and algorithm imperfections. For this reason the 3 hours accumulated precipitation is

  17. Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from geostationary satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.

    2012-12-01

    In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the geostationary IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases

  18. [The parameters of estimation of the quality of life of patients with chronic pancreatitis and concomitant diabetes mellitus in outpatient practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchuk, U M; Babinets', L S; Krys'kiv, O I

    2014-11-01

    It was estimated quality of life of 62 of patients with chronic pancreatitis, depending on the presence of concomitant diabetes mellitus by SF-36 survey and the classification of M-ANNHEIM. It was established that these indicators in the chronic pancreatitis compared with the control group were significantly lower according to the SF-36 scale on 27.3% by the physical health component, on 12.8% by the mental health, and with diabetes, respectively--on 37.9% and 23.8% to those in chronic pancreatitis. The severity of chronic pancreatitis with concomitant diabetes was deeper than in the patients without endocrine failure: respectively, the average severity (S) prevailed in 72.7% of patients vs 25%, the cases of expressed and severe severity appeared.

  19. Reconstruction of the ionospheric 3D electron density distribution by assimilation of ionosonde measurements and operational TEC estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzen, Tatjana; Wilken, Volker; Jakowski, Norbert; Hoque, Mainul M.

    2013-04-01

    New methods to generate maps of the F2 layer peak electron density of the ionosphere (NmF2) and to reconstruct the ionospheric 3D electron density distribution will be presented. For validation, reconstructed NmF2 maps will be compared with peak electron density measurements from independent ionosonde stations. The ionosphere is the ionized part of the upper Earth's atmosphere lying between about 50 km and 1000 km above the Earth's surface. From the applications perspective the electron density, Ne, is certainly one of the most important parameters of the ionosphere because of its strong impact on radio signal propagation. Especially the critical frequency, foF2, which is related to the F2 layer peak electron density, NmF2, according to the equation NmF2-m3 = 1.24 ? 1010(foF2-MHz)2 and builds the lower limit for the maximum usable frequency MUF, is of particular interest with regard to the HF radio communication applications. In a first order approximation the ionospheric delay of transionospheric radio waves of frequency f is proportional to 1-f2 and to the integral of the electron density (total electron content - TEC) along the ray path. Thus, the information about the total electron content along the receiver-to-satellite ray path can be obtained from the dual frequency measurements permanently transmitted by GNSS satellites. As data base for our reconstruction approaches we use the vertical sounding measurements of the ionosonde stations providing foF2 and routinely generated TEC maps in SWACI (http://swaciweb.dlr.de) at DLR Neustrelitz. The basic concept of our approach is the following one: To reconstruct NmF2 maps we assimilate the ionosonde data into the global Neustrelitz F2 layer Peak electron Density Model (NPDM) by means of a successive corrections method. The TEC maps are produced by assimilating actual ground based GPS measurements providing TEC into an operational version of Neustrelitz TEC Model (NTCM). Finally, the derived NmF2 and TEC maps in

  20. Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

    2003-06-06

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

  1. 一种基于形态学运算的指纹方向场计算方法%Fingerprint Orientation Estimation Based on Morphological Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官群健; 祝恩; 殷建平; 梁小龙; 赵建民

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most popular methods for biometric authentication. In the process of recognition, the ridge orientation estimation is the most important step,since it serves for segmentation,enhancement,minutiae extraction and matching. We proposed a method for orientation estimation based on morphological operation to regulate the orientation field. The experience shows that this method can correctly and robustly estimate the fingerprint orientation field for low quality images, especially for those with creases.%指纹识别是生物认证技术中应用最为广泛的技术之一,其中指纹方向场计算是自动指纹识别系统中最关键的步骤,指纹图像预处理、特征提取和匹配的过程都以方向场为基础.因此提出一种基于对指纹图像方向场进行形态学运算的方向场计算方法.实验证明,该方法可以正确有效地计算低质量指纹图像,特别是褶皱类型指纹图像的方向场.

  2. DISTANCE ESTIMATION TO THE INTERPHASE-FAULT LOCATION IN THE DISTRIBUTIVE AIR-LINE GRIDS BASED ON ANALYSIS OF THE HARMONIC COMPONENT PARAMETERS OF THE OPERATING EMERGENCY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kalentionok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most techniques of the fault location based on the one-side measurement of the emergency mode characteristics use the short-circuit steady-regime parameters in the fundamental mode frequency. This approach compels to seek additional devices for tuning out the loadings of transformer-substations. Besides, it is susceptible to the nonlinearity effect of closed-circuit arc in the fault location which significantly reduces the accuracy of the remote location of the failure.For estimating the distance to the location of interphase failure on the aerial distributive transmission lines the article proposes a new technique employing the harmonic components of the operating emergency parameters. The algorithm of the present method realization includes: taking down oscillograms of the emergency-mode parameter values (e. g. in doublephase failure – the short-circuit current, the linear voltage between the faulty phases with necessary discretization interval; expansion of the operating emergency parameters in a Fourier series (realized with a quick Fourier expansion algorithm; estimating the distance to the fault location by the analytical expression; performing the statistical analysis of a row of distance values and finding the most probable distance to the fault location.For effectiveness investigation of the proposed method of trapping harmonic components the paper considers a 10 kV distributive electrical grid feeding nine transformer substations. The authors performed calculation of normal and emergency modes utilizing computer program MatLab in dynamic simulating environment Simulink. The arc is represented by a block describing the linearized dynamic volt-ampere characteristic of the arc. The built characteristic curves demonstrate dependence of the fault-location distance value from the frequency at which this value is obtained and the number if its reiterations. Based on the calculations, the authors establish that the accuracy of the distance

  3. Estimate of Impact on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Older Thai People by the Provision of Dentures through the Royal Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharawan Srisilapanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate the impact of the provision of dentures to Thai older people by the Royal Project on their oral health-related quality of life. Methods. A purposive cross-sectional study of a sample of 812 subjects was conducted. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP measure was used to assess the oral health-related quality of life. Results. Four groups of older people with different tooth types were studied. 216 (26.6% had natural teeth (NT. 189 (23.3% had natural and replaced teeth (NRT. 167 (20.6% had below the minimum number of teeth but had no dentures (Edent and 240 were edentate with complete dentures provided by the Royal Project (ECD (29.6%. Overall, 36.5% had at least one oral impact. Eating was the most affected oral impact. When compared to the group with natural teeth (NT, the Edent group was significantly more likely to report having impacts on eating OR = 6.5 (3.9–10.9, speaking clearly OR = 43.7 (12.7–15.07, emotional stability OR = 16.5 (6.0–45.6, and social contacts OR = 4.6 (2.2–9.5 (p<0.001. Conclusion. Those who are edentulous are much more likely to have an oral impact on their daily performances than those provided dentures. Provision of dentures may lead to improvement of considerable oral impacts.

  4. Increment Estimation and Operation Optimization for Recovery of Tail Gas%尾气回收的增量测算与操作优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春生

    2011-01-01

    In allusion to problems encountered after process adjustment for gas plant of coal and occurred for increment variation of basic parameters in air blowing gas recovery system,author has estimated the increment recovered from air blowing gas tail gas;has analyzed the efficiency of change of load,air quantity,flue gas quantity,evaporation quantity and enthalpy on the productive operation;has presented the idea for economic operation of air blowing gas recovery device and the countermeasures for operation adjustment.%针对煤气化装置工艺调整后出现的吹风气回收系统基础参数发生增量变化的问题,测算了吹风气尾气回收的增量;分析了负荷、空气量、烟气量、蒸发量、热焓的改变对生产操作的影响;提出了吹风气回收装置的经济运行思路和操作调整对策。

  5. A Global Strategy to Clear the "Space Protected Zones" from the Spacecrafts, at their End of Operative Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduccini, M.; Portelli, C.

    2009-03-01

    The increasing number of orbiting spacecrafts is "pushing-up" the problem of controlling the risk of collision with orbital debris. Several European Space Agencies (ASI, BNSC, CNES, DLR and ESA) recently decided to adopt a common "European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation". This paper focuses on the Code Requirement relevant to clear the space volume around Geosyncronous Earth Orbit (GEO) at the satellite end of life, as well as the one that imposes a maximum residual orbital life of 25 years to defunct Spacecrafts (S/C) orbiting up to 2000 Km of altitude. The optimal technical solution to meet such requirements is significantly different basing on mission and S/C characteristics, namely the orbit altitude, the S/C dimensions and ballistic coefficient, the dry mass, the on board propulsion type. This paper intends to help the S/C designers to identify the most promising technical solutions that guarantee the compliance with the Space Debris Mitigation Code requirements, and minimise the impact on their S/C. After an introduction, where the Code Requirements are recalled and commented, the paper defines the orbit altitude ranges for which an homogeneous debris control strategy can be efficiently developed. Then, the core part of the paper is constituted by the analysis of each orbital ranges above, and to the consequent definition of the most promising approach for clearing the orbit after the End Of Service (EOS). Such approaches include: a)"do nothing" where Code Requirements will be met by any S/C original design, b) utilise aero-brakes to accelerate the natural de-orbiting, c) utilise a propulsion module to de-orbit from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or, d) to increase orbital altitude above the LEO protected one, e) utilise the S/C own propulsion to perform the graveyard firing of GEO satellites, supported by the use of an accurate, and reliable, residual propellant gauging system that assures the availability of the propellant for the manoeuvre. In addition

  6. Breathing exercises improve post-operative pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Ying-Li; Gao, Cai-Xiang; Shang, Zuo; Ning, Li-Juan; Liu, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has shown that breathing exercises may improve the prognosis and health status in patients with lung cancer by enhancing pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL). However, individually published results are inconclusive. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical value of breathing exercises on post-operative pulmonary function and QOL in patients with lung cancer. A literature search of Pubmed, Embase, the Web of Science and CBM databases was conducted from their inception through to October 2012. Crude standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the effect of breathing exercises. A total of eight clinical studies were ultimately included with 398 lung cancer patients. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, there was a significant difference between the pre-intervention and post-intervention results of breathing exercises on post-operative pulmonary function; forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1): SMD, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.97-4.77; Pintervention with breathing exercises; there were significant differences between the pre-intervention and post-intervention results on the ability of self-care in daily life (SMD, -1.00; 95% CI, -1.467 to -0.52; P<0.001), social activities (SMD, -0.94; 95% CI, -1.73 to -0.15; P=0.02), symptoms of depression (SMD, -0.91; 95% CI, -1.25 to -0.57; P<0.001) and symptoms of anxiety (SMD, -0.91; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.63; P<0.001). Results from the present meta-analysis suggest that breathing exercises may significantly improve post-operative pulmonary function and QOL in patients with lung cancer.

  7. Capital and operating cost estimates. Volume I. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This Deliverable No. 18b - Capital and Operating Cost Estimates includes a detailed presentation of the 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant from the standpoint of capital, preoperations, start-up and operations cost estimation. The base capital cost estimate in June 1982 dollars was prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company under the direction of Grace. The escalated capital cost estimate as well as separate estimates for preoperations, startup and operations activities were developed by Grace. The deliverable consists of four volumes. Volume I contains details of methodology used in developing the capital cost estimate, summary information on a base June 1982 capital cost, details of the escalated capital cost estimate and separate sections devoted to preoperations, start-up, and operations cost. The base estimate is supported by detailed information in Volumes II, III and IV. The degree of detail for some units was constrained due to proprietary data. Attempts have been made to exhibit the estimating methodology by including data on individual equipment pricing. Proprietary details are available for inspection upon execution of nondisclosure and/or secrecy agreements with the licensors to whom the data is proprietary. Details of factoring certain pieces of equipment and/or entire modules or units from the 50,000 BPD capital estimate are also included. In the case of the escalated capital estimate, Grace has chosen to include a sensitivity analysis which allows for ready assessment of impacts of escalation rates (inflation), contingency allowances and the construction interest financing rates on the escalated capital cost. Each of the estimates associated with bringing the plant to commercial production rates has as a basis the schedule and engineering documentation found in Deliverable No. 14b - Process Engineering and Mechanical Design Report, No. 28b - Staffing Plans, No. 31b - Construction Plan, and No. 33b - Startup and Operation Plan.

  8. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  9. 40 CFR 267.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dollars, or by using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator for Gross... active life of the facility, the owner or operator must adjust the closure cost estimate for inflation... closure cost estimate must be updated for inflation within 30 days after the close of the firm's fiscal...

  10. Cycle-life testing of 100-Ah class lithium-ion battery in a simulated geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianming; Sone, Yoshitsugu; Naito, Hitoshi; Yamada, Chisa; Segami, Go; Kibe, Koichi [Institute of Aerospace Technology, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba Space Center, Sengen 2-1-1, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2006-09-29

    In this paper, we review our work on cycle-life testing of a 100-Ah class lithium-ion battery in a simulated geosynchronous-Earth-orbit (GEO) satellite operation. The battery consists of ten 100-Ah lithium-ion (10) cells in a series, with a high energy density exceeding 100Whkg{sup -1} at the battery level. We simulate the eclipse period in real-time testing with five depth-of-discharge (DOD) patterns at an ambient temperature of 15{sup o}C. We also simulate a sun-shine period in 8-day thermally accelerated full-charge storage at an ambient temperature of 25{sup o}C, which in our experience corresponds to full-charge storage of a half-year operation at 0{sup o}C. Eighteen eclipse seasons have presently been completed, corresponding to 9 years of GEO operation. The battery maintained a high voltage near 3.4V at the end of the discharge, even when the DOD was set at 70%. The voltage dispersion of 10 cells was also sufficiently small in the range of 48mV. The cell temperature reached a maximum of 29{sup o}C and maintained minimal dispersion smaller than 4{sup o}C even when the battery was discharged at a high DOD of 70%. (author)

  11. Preliminary analysis of modeling of Pars and steam injectors to support long-term operation of LWR passive ECCS using a best estimate thermal-hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales S, J. B.; Sanchez J, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: jaimebmoraless@gmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In order to control the amount of hydrogen produced, during the chemical reaction of steam and strongly overheated zirconium in a LWR severe accident, several control methos have been proposed. In a considerable number of nuclear power plants the initial preferred solution was either the use of an inert containment atmosphere or the use of igniters. However, the use of Pars (Passive autocatalytic recombiners) has been considered an important addition to this set of H{sub 2} controls. Pars have appealing features such as, low maintenance, do not require active components to start operation, and can initiate the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} recombination at low concentrations. However, under certain conditions these Pars may trigger H{sub 2} ignition leading to deflagration s with possible containment damages. Combustions, poisons and liquid may inhibit or reduce the Pars operation. Advanced LWR designs (generation III + and IV) are also considering the use of Pars as a supporting system to the long term operation of their passive ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling Systems) because they may transport the energy of containment H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gases to external sinks. Even when the ECCS of modern nuclear power plants are designed to maintain containment conditions under established limits, there are small amounts of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} produced mainly by H{sub 2}O radiolysis, and after several days of containment isolation, these gases may accumulate in places where the possibility of a H{sub 2} deflagration increases. Therefore, the use of Pars looks initially as an interesting solution to long-term H{sub 2} control during a Dba. However, the H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} recombination is an exothermic process resulting in additional steam and energy releases to the containment. In order to avoid a direct deposition of the steam and energy (Pars produced) into the containment atmosphere, we propose to use them to operate steam injectors that can bring cold water to replenish ECCS

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Quality of Life, Estimated by Questionnaires of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) after Rectal Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslyankov, S; Penchev, D; Todorov, G; Vladov, N

    2015-01-01

    Rectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers on a global scale. Although there were major improvements in its treatment during the last two decades, surgery is still the only curative method. However, is often complicated and can cause disorder of different aspects of the patients self-perception of health. The aim of this study is performing ofa meta-analysis for evaluation and comparison of the quality of liferesults after rectal cancer treatment. Search of relevant articles, which were published between 2000 and 2015, was performed. The outcomes of abdominoperineal resection and anterior resection were analyzed with the EORTC's quality of life measuring instruments - quality-of-life questionnaire C30 (QLQ-C30)and quality-of-life questionnaire CR38 (QLQ-CR38). The assessment score, appropriate for the survey, was established at least one year after radical surgery. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) package of IBM Statistics, version 19 was used for the statistical analyses. 13 studies, published between 2001 and 2015, have been presented in this meta-analysis. Data from 1805 patients,with a mean age of 64.7 years, have been included. When comparing Miles extirpation and sphincter-sparing operations,statistical significance was detected for the following variables:social functioning (74.6 ± 8.5 vs. 83.4 ± 8.6, P = 0.045),constipation (11 ± 8.4 vs. 22.6 ± 8.3, P = 0.032), and body image (67.9 ± 14 vs. 82.5 ± 9.1, P= 0.01). Preservation of the sphincter is a better treatment option that should be carefully considered. Dependently registered differences, our conviction for the rectal cancer care concern needs individualization of the approach in this surgery.It is essential that the policy of avoidance of abdominoperineal resection (APR) cannot currently be justified on the grounds of quality-of-life (QoL) results alone. Celsius.

  13. Studies on the power output of a MADE AE-30 operating on complex terrain. Annual Energy Production estimation and Multivariable analysis. A case of multi-stall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-12-01

    The main need of the EWTS-II Sub-project IV group is to have a suitable data-base which allows it to reach proper conclusions on the characteristics of power performance of wind turbines in complex terrain. With this aim, this document presents an analysis on the power output of the MADE AE-30 Wind turbine operating at Tarifa (also data from flat terrain are enclosed as a reference). An application of the bin method and AEP estimation for energy production method, in the two last issues a directional analysis and an study for two different turbulence intensity ranges are enclosed. Finally the Stepwise multirregression method is applied on the measurements to identify the stored parameters that have influence on the power output. A brief description of multi stall effect is enclosed. (Author)

  14. Estimating wetland vegetation abundance from Landsat-8 operational land imager imagery: a comparison between linear spectral mixture analysis and multinomial logit modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenji; Pu, Ruiliang; Liu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mapping vegetation abundance by using remote sensing data is an efficient means for detecting changes of an eco-environment. With Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) imagery acquired on July 31, 2013, both linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) and multinomial logit model (MNLM) methods were applied to estimate and assess the vegetation abundance in the Wild Duck Lake Wetland in Beijing, China. To improve mapping vegetation abundance and increase the number of endmembers in spectral mixture analysis, normalized difference vegetation index was extracted from OLI imagery along with the seven reflective bands of OLI data for estimating the vegetation abundance. Five endmembers were selected, which include terrestrial plants, aquatic plants, bare soil, high albedo, and low albedo. The vegetation abundance mapping results from Landsat OLI data were finally evaluated by utilizing a WorldView-2 multispectral imagery. Similar spatial patterns of vegetation abundance produced by both fully constrained LSMA algorithm and MNLM methods were observed: higher vegetation abundance levels were distributed in agricultural and riparian areas while lower levels in urban/built-up areas. The experimental results also indicate that the MNLM model outperformed the LSMA algorithm with smaller root mean square error (0.0152 versus 0.0252) and higher coefficient of determination (0.7856 versus 0.7214) as the MNLM model could handle the nonlinear reflection phenomenon better than the LSMA with mixed pixels.

  15. The SENSE-Isomorphism Theoretical Image Voxel Estimation (SENSE-ITIVE) model for reconstruction and observing statistical properties of reconstruction operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Iain P; Karaman, M Muge; Rowe, Daniel B

    2012-10-01

    The acquisition of sub-sampled data from an array of receiver coils has become a common means of reducing data acquisition time in MRI. Of the various techniques used in parallel MRI, SENSitivity Encoding (SENSE) is one of the most common, making use of a complex-valued weighted least squares estimation to unfold the aliased images. It was recently shown in Bruce et al. [Magn. Reson. Imag. 29(2011):1267-1287] that when the SENSE model is represented in terms of a real-valued isomorphism,it assumes a skew-symmetric covariance between receiver coils, as well as an identity covariance structure between voxels. In this manuscript, we show that not only is the skew-symmetric coil covariance unlike that of real data, but the estimated covariance structure between voxels over a time series of experimental data is not an identity matrix. As such, a new model, entitled SENSE-ITIVE, is described with both revised coil and voxel covariance structures. Both the SENSE and SENSE-ITIVE models are represented in terms of real-valued isomorphisms, allowing for a statistical analysis of reconstructed voxel means, variances, and correlations resulting from the use of different coil and voxel covariance structures used in the reconstruction processes to be conducted. It is shown through both theoretical and experimental illustrations that the miss-specification of the coil and voxel covariance structures in the SENSE model results in a lower standard deviation in each voxel of the reconstructed images, and thus an artificial increase in SNR, compared to the standard deviation and SNR of the SENSE-ITIVE model where both the coil and voxel covariances are appropriately accounted for. It is also shown that there are differences in the correlations induced by the reconstruction operations of both models, and consequently there are differences in the correlations estimated throughout the course of reconstructed time series. These differences in correlations could result in meaningful

  16. Operating Mode of Low Carbon Buildings in Full Life Cycle%低碳建筑全寿命周期内的运行模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 贾广征

    2011-01-01

    At present, low-carbon building market is lack of effective support of policy, economy, technology and so on in China, and the condition of market operation needs to be improved. Based on the analysis of the status of low-carbon buildings, investigating to running of low-carbon buildings from the low carbon building life cycle.%目前,我国低碳建筑市场在运行过程中缺乏政策、经济、技术等方面的有效支撑,还需进一步改善.本文在分析我国低碳建筑现状的基础上,从全寿命周期角度出发,对各阶段低碳建筑的运行进行探讨.

  17. Estimation of future levels and changes in profitability: The effect of the relative position of the firm in its industry and the operating-financing disaggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Amor-Tapia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how the relative position of a firm's Return on Equity (ROE in industries affects the predictability of the next-year ROE levels, and the ROE changes from year to year. Using Nissim and Penman breakdown into operating and financing drivers, the significant role of the industry factor is established, although changes in signs suggest subtle non-linear relations in the drivers. Our study avoids problems originating from negative signs by analyzing sorts and by making new regressions with disaggregated second-order drivers by signs. This way, our results provide evidence of some different patterns in the influence of the first-level drivers of ROE (the operating factor and the financing factor, and the second-level drivers (profit margin, asset turnover, leverage and return spread on future profitability, depending on the industry spread. The results on the role of contextual factors to improve the estimation of future profitability remain consistent for small and large firms, although adding some nuances.

  18. STRATEGY FOR MAINTAINING AND RECOVERY OF WORKING ABILITY OF BUILDING AND ROAD-BUILDING MACHINERY WITH DUE ACCOUNT OF CHANGES IN OUTPUT PARAMETERS AT STAGE OF THEIR LIFE CYCLE OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Мaksimenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a strategy for maintaining and recovery of machinery working ability with due account of changes in technical and economic indicators (TEI in the process of its operation. Productivity, working cost of machine hour, operating efficiency ratio, inter-shift operating efficiency,  and other TEI are changing in the process of machine operation. While operating building and road-building machinery it is possible to obtain maximum effect only with the help of complex interacting events at stages of life cycle of a concrete machine and with due account of TEI dynamics in the process of its usage. 

  19. A cost effective and operational methodology for wall to wall Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and carbon stocks estimation and mapping: Nepal REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H., Sr.; Ganguly, S.; Zhang, G.; Koju, U. A.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Nemani, R. R.; Manandhar, U.; Thapa, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nepal is a landlocked country with 39% forest cover of the total land area (147,181 km2). Under the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and implemented by the World Bank (WB), Nepal chosen as one of four countries best suitable for results-based payment system for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+) scheme. At the national level Landsat based, from 1990 to 2000 the forest area has declined by 2%, i.e. by 1467 km2, whereas from 2000 to 2010 it has declined only by 0.12% i.e. 176 km2. A cost effective monitoring and evaluation system for REDD+ requires a balanced approach of remote sensing and ground measurements. This paper provides, for Nepal a cost effective and operational 30 m Above Ground Biomass (AGB) estimation and mapping methodology using freely available satellite data integrated with field inventory. Leaf Area Index (LAI) generated based on propose methodology by Ganguly et al. (2012) using Landsat-8 the OLI cloud free images. To generate tree canopy height map, a density scatter graph between the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) estimated maximum height and Landsat LAI nearest to the center coordinates of the GLAS shots show a moderate but significant exponential correlation (31.211*LAI0.4593, R2= 0.33, RMSE=13.25 m). From the field well distributed circular (750m2 and 500m2), 1124 field plots (0.001% representation of forest cover) measured which were used for estimation AGB (ton/ha) using Sharma et al. (1990) proposed equations for all tree species of Nepal. A satisfactory linear relationship (AGB = 8.7018*Hmax-101.24, R2=0.67, RMSE=7.2 ton/ha) achieved between maximum canopy height (Hmax) and AGB (ton/ha). This cost effective and operational methodology is replicable, over 5-10 years with minimum ground samples through integration of satellite images. Developed AGB used to produce optimum fuel wood scenarios using population and road

  20. Analytical results and effective dose estimation of the operational Environmental Monitoring Program for the radioactive waste repository in Abadia de Goias from 1998 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Edison, E-mail: edison@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil); Tauhata, Luiz, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Eugenia dos Santos, Eliane, E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil); Silveira Correa, Rosangela da, E-mail: rcorrea@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program for the Radioactive waste repository of Abadia de Goias, which was originated from the accident of Goiania, conducted by the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-CO) of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN), from 1998 to 2008. The results are related to the determination of {sup 137}Cs activity per unit of mass or volume of samples from surface water, ground water, depth sediments of the river, soil and vegetation, and also the air-kerma rate estimation for gamma exposure in the monitored site. In the phase of operational Environmental Monitoring Program, the values of the geometric mean and standard deviation obtained for {sup 137}Cs activity per unit of mass or volume in the analyzed samples were (0.08 {+-} 1.16) Bq.L{sup -1} for surface and underground water, (0.22 {+-} 2.79) Bq.kg{sup -1} for soil, and (0.19 {+-} 2.72) Bq.kg{sup -1} for sediment, and (0.19 {+-} 2.30) Bq.kg{sup -1} for vegetation. These results were similar to the values of the pre-operational Environmental Monitoring Program. With these data, estimations for effective dose were evaluated for public individuals in the neighborhood of the waste repository, considering the main possible way of exposure of this population group. The annual effective dose obtained from the analysis of these results were lower than 0.3 mSv.y{sup -1}, which is the limit established by CNEN for environmental impact in the public individuals indicating that the facility is operating safely, without any radiological impact to the surrounding environment. - Research highlights: {yields} A stolen capsule of Cesium 137 was opened in the city of Goiania, generating some 6000 tons of debris which were stored in the Repository area built for this purpose. {yields} The activity of cesium 137 of the surface water, underground water, depth sediments of river, soil, vegetation, and air, inside and surround the Repository area. {yields