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Sample records for operation modes dinamika

  1. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...

  2. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...

  3. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...

  4. Operating Modes Of Chemical Reactors Of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruyert Berdieva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the work the issues of stable technological modes of operation of main devices of producing polysterol reactors have been researched as well as modes of stable operation of a chemical reactor have been presented, which enables to create optimum mode parameters of polymerization process, to prevent emergency situations of chemical reactor operation in industrial conditions.

  5. Komposisi Karawitan ‘Dinamika Rumah Tangga’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiran -

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available “The Dinamika Rumah Tangga” Karawitan Music Composition. ’Household Dynamics’. The purpose ofthis creation is transforming the household dynamics in the form of karawitan musical composition. Dynamics embodiedin the form of rhythm, tempo, vocal, harmony, the arrangement of the stage, lighting, sound, costume andpuppet performances. Puppet performances are intended to enhance the audience’s imagination based on the musicalatmosphere, the lyrics and the fl ow of rhetoric. The composition is motivated by the story of Begawan Wisrawa,Danaraja and Goddess Lokati in a play ”Bedhahing Lokapala”. This work was inspired by the arrogant behavior,jealousy, hate, anger, lies, prejudice, exclusion of human rights and confl ict between characters.

  6. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  7. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand...

  8. Dinamika Ketidakpercayaan terhadap Politisi : Suatu Pendekatan Psikologi Indigenous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Muhammad Agung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kepercayaan memiliki peran penting dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat dan bernegara. Politisi sebagai satu elemen dalam negara demokrasi menjadi sorotan utama dimasyarakat khususnya terkait dengan perilaku politisi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan dinamika ketidapercayaan terhadap politisi serta alasannya kenapa mahasiswa kurang atau tidak percaya terhadap politisi Partisipan penelitian adalah mahasiswa UIN Suska Riau yang berjumlah 219 (53 pria dan 164 wanita, mising 2. Instrumen menggunakan pertanyaan terbuka dan tertutp dengan analisis psikologi indigenous. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara umum mahasiswa kurang/tidak percaya terhadap politisi. Ada empat alasan utama, pertama lemahnya integritas (71,7%, faktor internal (8,2%, situasional (7,3%, dan kompetensi (4,1%. Dinamika sosial psikologis ketidakpercayaan terhadap politisi akan dibahas dalam artikel ini.

  9. A CMOS current-mode operational amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A fully differential-input, differential-output, current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...... current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain-bandwidth product of 3 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 μA (signal range ±700 μA), and a (theoretically) unlimited slew rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2...

  10. CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...... current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 ¿A (signal-range ±700¿A) and a (theoretically) unlimited slew-rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2...

  11. Operational Characteristics of Para-transit Modes in Akure, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operational Characteristics of Para-transit Modes in Akure, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Data on the cogent indices of metering operations, attributes of operators and patrons of para-transit modes were ...

  12. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator's task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools...... for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many...... configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative...

  13. Tenisa bumbas dinamikas modelēšana atlēciena brīdī

    OpenAIRE

    Lokmanis, Viesturs

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „Tenisa bumbas dinamikas modelēšana atlēciena brīdī” apskatīti un definēti tenisa bumbas vertikālais un horizontālais elastības koeficients un to noteikšanas metodes, vertikālā elastības koeficienta atkarība no bumbas ātruma. Analizēti virsmas reakcijas spēks un berzes spēks, to saistība un bumbas mijiedarbība ar atlēciena virsmu. Darbā iztirzāti matemātiskie atlēciena modeļi un ar modeļiem prognozētie rezultāti salīdzināti ar eksperimentālajiem. H. Brodija bumbas atlēciena mo...

  14. Representing Operational Modes for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Operating complex plants is an increasingly demanding task for human operators. Diagnosis of and reaction to on-line events requires the interpretation of real time data. Vast amounts of sensor data as well as operational knowledge about the state and design of the plant are necessary to deduct reasonable reactions to abnormal situations. Intelligent computational support tools can make the operator’s task easier, but they require knowledge about the overall system in form of some model. While tools used for fault-tolerant control design based on physical principles and relations are valuable tools for designing robust systems, the models become too complex when considering the interactions on a plant-wide level. The alarm systems meant to support human operators in the diagnosis of the plant-wide situation on the other hand fail regularly in situations where these interactions of systems lead to many related alarms overloading the operator with alarm floods. Functional modelling can provide a middle way to reduce the complexity of plant-wide models by abstracting from physical details to more general functions and behaviours. Based on functional models the propagation of failures through the interconnected systems can be inferred and alarm floods can potentially be reduced to their root-cause. However, the desired behaviour of a complex system changes due to operating procedures that require more than one physical and functional configuration. In this paper a consistent representation of possible configurations is deduced from the analysis of an exemplary start-up procedure by functional models. The proposed interpretation of the modelling concepts simplifies the functional modelling of distinct modes. The analysis further reveals relevant links between the quantitative sensor data and the qualitative perspective of the diagnostics tool based on functional models. This will form the basis for the ongoing development of a novel real-time diagnostics system based

  15. ANALISIS DINAMIKA KELOMPOK TANI NELAYAN DI PESISIR KOTA BONTANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Haqiqiansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji tingkat dinamika kelompok tani nelayan di Pesisir Kota Bontang. Pengumpulan data dengan metode survei, yaitu melakukan pengamatan langsung di lapangan dan melakukan wawancara dengan responden. Responden yang diambil sebanyak 30 orang, yang tergabung dalam kelompok tani nelayan. Data yang terkumpul diolah, ditabulasi dan dianalisis secara diskriptif dengan menggunakan teknik skor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari aspek dinamika kelompok, hasil analisis diperoleh nilai skor relatif tinggi, dengan rata-rata skor tercapai sebesar 89,85 (skor 75,1–97,5. Hal ini memberi indikasi bahwa kelompok tani nelayan relatif dinamis, yang berarti anggota kelompok menunjukkan kerjasama yang baik ABSTRACT This purpose of research is to assess the level of dynamics farmer group of fishermen at Coastal in Bontang. Collected data with survey methods, namely direct observation and interviews with respondents. Respondents were taken as many as 30 people who are members of farmer groups of fishermen. The data obtained were processed, tabulated and analyzed descriptively and using scoring techniques. The results showed that from the aspect of group dynamics analysis that the scores achieved relatively high, with the average score achieved by 89.85 (scores range from 75.1 to 97.5 .This suggests that groups of fishermen are relatively dynamic, meaning fellow members of farmers fishermen able to foster good cooperation.

  16. ANALISIS DINAMIKA KELOMPOK TANI NELAYAN DI PESISIR KOTA BONTANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Haqiqiansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji tingkat dinamika kelompok tani nelayan di Pesisir Kota Bontang. Pengumpulan data dengan metode survei, yaitu melakukan pengamatan langsung di lapangan dan melakukan wawancara dengan responden. Responden yang diambil sebanyak 30 orang, yang tergabung dalam kelompok tani nelayan. Data yang terkumpul diolah, ditabulasi dan dianalisis secara diskriptif dengan menggunakan teknik skor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari aspek dinamika kelompok, hasil analisis diperoleh nilai skor relatif tinggi, dengan rata-rata skor tercapai sebesar 89,85 (skor 75,1–97,5. Hal ini memberi indikasi bahwa kelompok tani nelayan relatif dinamis, yang berarti anggota kelompok menunjukkan kerjasama yang baik ABSTRACT This purpose of research is to assess the level of dynamics on farmer group of fishermen at Coastal in Bontang. Data collection was with survey methods, namely direct observation and interviews with respondents. Respondents were taken as many as 30 people who are members of farmer groups of fishermen. The data obtained were processed, tabulated and analyzed descriptively by using scoring techniques. The results showed that by the side of the aspect of group dynamics, the scores achieved was relatively high, with the average score achieved was 89.85 (scores range from 75.1 to 97.5 .This indicates that groups of fishermen are relatively dynamic, which fishermen able to foster good cooperation.

  17. An integrated operation mode for green logistics of enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chengxue; Wu Chunyou; Fan Yu

    2006-01-01

    The integrated operation mode of green logistics is a new enterprise's logistics operation and management mode concerning environment issues based on the traditional integrated mode. Through comparative study on the integrated operation mode of logistics based on self-operation, the operation mode of an integrated logistics of enterprises based on TPL, the green-supply chain management, and the operation mode of eco-industrial park (EIP), a relatively complete objective system structure is put forward for the integrated operation mode of green logistics of enterprises. Furthermore, the correspondent practical mode is also set up to help enterprises, especially for the manufacturing companies, not only improve the environment effectively, but support the technological framework for the enterprise's economic performance and social benefits in order to realize economic, social and environmental benefits are concerned.

  18. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  19. DINAMIKA PENULARAN MALARIA DI KABUPATEN BIAK NUMFOR PROVINSI PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Biak Numfor merupakan salah satu Kabupaten di kawasan Timur Indonesia yang mendapat bantuan Proyek lntensifikasi Pemberantasan Penyakit Menular - 4 Global Fund (IPM-4 GF. Bantuan proyek diarahkan untuk memberdayakan daerah dalam pengendalian malaria sehingga dapat menurunkan angka kesakitan dan kematian di wilayah tersebut. Diharapkan pada tahun 2005 kasus malaria menurun lebih dari 25% dibandingkan pada tahun 2002.Masalah malaria di Kabupaten Biak selama kurun waktu 3 tahun terahir menunjukkan angka cukup tinggi, dilihat dari angka malaria klinis pada tahun 2001 (17.334 kasus, 2002 (13.423 kasus, dan 2003 (10.016kasus.Upaya untuk mengatasi malaria di wilayah Biak Numfor sudah banyak dilakukan, baik dengan penemuan penderita melalui kader Pos Malaria Desa maupun upaya pemberantasan vektor dengan penyemprotan rumah dan kelambunisasi. Namun demikian malaria masih menjadi masalah serius di wilayah tersebut. Oleh karena itu untuk mengatasi masalah malaria perlu dilakukan survei secara komphrehensif guna menentukan pemilihan kegiatan intervensi pemberantasan vektor yang tepat guna, berhasil guna dan berdaya guna. Sehingga pepatah orang Papua yang mengatakan "Bukan orangPapua kalau tidak terkena malaria" akan dapat dihilangkan dari konsep tersebut.Pola penularan malaria ditiap satuan epidemiologi/ekologi berbeda-beda. Hal ini dipengaruhi oleh perbedaan lingkungan, jenis dan perilaku nyamuk penular (vektor, perilaku penduduk dan mutu pelayanan kesehatan setempat. Secara umum wilayah epidemiologi/ ekologi kabupaten Biak Numfor terbagi menjadi wilayah pantai dan sebagian kecil merupakan perbukitan. Oleh karena itu penentuan/pemilihan kegiatan intervensi pemberantasan vektor harus dibedakan sesuai kondisi epidemiologi/ekologi wilayah tersebut. Disamping itu perlu dikaji pola penularan malaria di setiap satuan epidemiologi/ekologi melalui Survei Dinamika Penularan.Dinamika Penularan Malaria adalah pola penularan malaria di satuan wilayah

  20. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition...... of the process plant, its function and its structural elements. The paper explains how the means-end concepts of MFM can be used to provide formalized definitions of plant operation modes. The paper will introduce the mode types defined by MFM and show how selected operation modes can be represented...

  1. Operating modes of superconducting tunnel junction device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, Keisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    In the Electrotechnical Laboratory, an Nb type superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) device with 200 x 200 sq. micron in area and super high quality was manufactured. By using 55-fe source, response of this large area STJ to X-ray was measured. In this measurement, two action modes with different output wave height from front amplifier were observed. Then, in this study, current-voltage feature of the element in each action mode was analyzed to elucidate a mechanism to form such two action modes. The feature was analyzed by using first order approximate solution on cavity resonance mode of Sine-Gordon equation. From the analytical results, it could be supposed that direction and magnitude of effective magnetic field penetrating into jointed area changed by an induction current effect owing to impressing speed of the magnetic field, which brings two different current-voltage features to make possible to observe two action modes with different pulse wave height. (G.K.)

  2. Formalism of operators for Laguerre-Gauss modes

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, A L F; Pazetti, M; Lopes, C E F

    2011-01-01

    In this work apply the algebra of operators of quantum mechanics in the Helmholtz wave equation in cylindrical coordinates in paraxial approximation to describe the raising and lowering operators for the Laguerre-Gauss modes.

  3. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelate...

  4. Operating mode of high pressure straws with high spatial resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Davkov, K I; Peshekhonov, V D; Cholakov, V D

    2013-01-01

    The article presents results of studying the operating mode of thin-walled drift tubes (straws) at flushing it with a high-pressure gas mixture, which allowed obtaining extremely high spatial resolution for straw detectors. The results of studying the radiation ageing of straws operating in this mode are also described.

  5. Dynamics of Foreign Operations Modes and Their Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    Companies’ choice of foreign operation modes (FOM) has been a core subject of international business studies basically from its beginning (Hymer, 1960 [1976]; Root, 1964). A halfcentury of research has brought us a set of established perspectives on companies’ foreign operation mode choices...

  6. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-08-01

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  7. Optimal modes of operation of two idealized magnetohydrodynamic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okulov, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A conduction channel and a conduction cylinder, idealized devices, which model the operation of conduction magnetohydrodynamic (MGD) generators (pump) and magnetohydrodynamic propulsion devices, are examined. It is shown that it is sufficient to know the operational characteristics in the idle (kh.kh.) and short circuiting (KZ) modes alone in order to determine the operational characteristics of a conduction channel in the optimal mode, that is, in a mode of most complete energy conversion. The mode with which the required speed of movement is supported with minimal expenditures of energy is called the optimal mode of operation of a conduction cylinder. It is established that the characteristics of the corresponding optimal movement are expressed through the characteristics of the so called basis movements, whose number is one less than the number of electrodes.

  8. Scheduling reconstruction operations with modes of execution

    OpenAIRE

    A D Chaney; R F Deckro; Moore, J T

    2013-01-01

    Since the decline of the Cold War, the risk of major conflict between powerful, industrialized nations has decreased. Insecurities in the 21st century are more apt to arise from the debris of imploding states. Such situations may require intervention—military or otherwise—by concerned states. To meet this new operational challenge, nations must adapt their planning procedures to account for Security, Stabilization, Transition, and Reconstruction Operations (SSTRO). This paper develops a proje...

  9. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Mor; Debangsu Roy; Moty Schultz; Lior Klein

    2016-01-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make ...

  10. Study on Organization and Operation Mode of SMT-MG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunquan; YU Tao; ZHOU Dejian

    2006-01-01

    SMT-MG is a typical application of grid in electric product manufacturing. The organization and operation mode are key problems in SMT-MG. In this paper, SMT-MG is taken as research object. Its mesh three-dimensional matrix organization mode is presented. Meanwhile from operation foundation, process, environment and target four aspects, operation principles are explored. Operation mechanisms of SMT-MG such as adaptive evolution, PUSH/PULL driving, cooperation and game, feedback, regulation/control, coordination, impetus mechanism and so on are studied. Finally, the operation flow of SMT-MG is introduced.

  11. Operational modes, health, and status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Corrie

    2016-08-01

    System Engineers must fully understand the system, its support system and operational environment to optimise the design. Operations and Support Managers must also identify the correct metrics to measure the performance and to manage the operations and support organisation. Reliability Engineering and Support Analysis provide methods to design a Support System and to optimise the Availability of a complex system. Availability modelling and Failure Analysis during the design is intended to influence the design and to develop an optimum maintenance plan for a system. The remote site locations of the SKA Telescopes place emphasis on availability, failure identification and fault isolation. This paper discusses the use of Failure Analysis and a Support Database to design a Support and Maintenance plan for the SKA Telescopes. It also describes the use of modelling to develop an availability dashboard and performance metrics.

  12. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...... for the Japanese fast breeder reactor plant MONJU....

  13. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...

  14. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  15. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Mor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  16. Dinamika Pertunjukan Topeng pada Budaya Ngarot di Lelea Indramayu1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Sulaeman

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRAK   Berdasarkan riset yang telah dilakukan beberapa tahun yang lalu, tentang dinamika per- tunjukan Topeng dalam upacara adat Ngarot, yaitu sebuah kegiatan atau praktik kultural ten- tang upacara adat bagi masyarakat Indramayu untuk mencapai pertemuan transedental. Ke- berangkatan penelitian ini mendorong  keingintahuan atas fenomena yang terjadi pada objek yang akan diteliti, maka dapat diidentifikasikan beberapa masalah yang akan dijadikan dasar untuk mengetahui lebih jauh tentang fenomena tersebut yaitu ada perubahan nilai-nilai filoso- fis, fungsi dan peran pertunjukan topeng dalam budaya Ngarot, yang jadi problematikanya adalah bagaimana wujud transformasi tari topeng dalam Ngarot dari masa ke masa? Masalah utama yang akan diungkapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah perubahan dilihat dari asfek nilai- nilai filosofis, fungsi dan peran.  Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif,  karena ma- salah-masalah penelitian ini ada dalam wilayah ruang seni yang sempit, variabel sederhana namun rumit dalam tataran konten, mempersoalkan makna, dan mempertanyakan fenomena. Sedangkan pendekatan yang diterapkan adalah multidisiplin dengan menggunakan pendeka- tan seni, pendekatan budaya, dan pendekatan sosiologi. Target luaran yang ingin dicapai dari penelitian ini menghasilkan konsep pendalaman makna, dan atau menginovasikan tari Topeng untuk masyarakat. Konsep yang dihasilkan dapat dijadikan salah satu panduan juga untuk berkreasi/berkarya dalam upaya merevitalisasi dan menginovasi tari Topeng lainnya.   Kata kunci: Pertunjukan Topeng, ngarot, transformasi, perubahan

  17. Eksistensi Gula Gending di dalam Dinamika Budaya Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Triyanuartha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap eksistensi gula gending di dalam dinamika budaya yang terjadi di Lombok. Gula gending merupakan sebuah pertunjukan musik yang dimainkan ketika pedagang harum manis mepromosikan barang dagangannya untuk menarik perhatian calon pembeli. Seiring dengan perjalanan waktu, pertunjukan musik ini menjadi langka dan jarang ditemukan di dalam masyarakat. Kini gula gending muncul kembali dengan beberapa perkembangan yang menyertainya. Analisis dilakukan terhadap fakta musikal yang meliputi dimensi sonorik, dimensi visual dan dimensi kinestetik. Untuk membahas mengenai penyebab dan hasil dari perkembangan akan digunakan konsep music and cutural dynamic.   This research aims to gasp the exsistence of gula gending in cultural dynamic which occurs in Lombok. Gula gending was a music performance played when the arbanat seller was promoting their goods to attract the customers’ attention. As the time goes by, this music performance becomes rare, so we seldom find its existence in society. In spite of the fact, nowdays gula gending reappears along with few following developments. An analysis has been done to the musical facts which may include among athers are sonoric dimention, visual dimention, and kinesthetic dimention. To gain the explanation about the causes and results of the development, music and cultural dynamic concepts are conducted.

  18. Proving Chaotic Behavior of CBC Mode of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Abdessalem; Wang, Qianxue; Bouallegue, Belgacem; Machhout, Mohsen; Guyeux, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The cipher block chaining (CBC) mode of operation was invented by IBM (International Business Machine) in 1976. It presents a very popular way of encrypting that is used in various applications. In this paper, we have mathematically proven that, under some conditions, the CBC mode of operation can admit a chaotic behavior according to Devaney. Some cases will be properly studied in order to provide evidence for this idea.

  19. Process for Operating a Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J. (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  20. Energy and Exergy Performance of three FPSO Operational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Yamid Alberto Carranza; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira; da Silva, Julio Augusto Mendes;

    2015-01-01

    by the FPSO operator. Energy and exergy criteria have been applied to evaluate and compare the performance of components and systems of the three operational modes of the FPSO. The processing and utilities plants have been modeled and simulated by using Aspen HYSYS®. Results indicate that higher oil content...

  1. Thermoneutral Operation of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells in Potentiostatic Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Xiufu; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2017-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis based on solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) is a promising technology for energy storage and synthetic fuel production. In recent years extensive efforts have been devoted to improving performance and durability of SOEC cells and stacks. Due to historical reasons...... and the convenience of doing constant current tests, (almost) all the reported SOEC tests have been galvanostatic. In this work, we report test results on two types of SOEC cells operated for electrolysis of steam in potentiostatic mode at 1.29 V. Both cells are Ni/YSZ fuel electrode supported type with different...... cause of the degradation. Operation strategies were further proposed for electrolysis operation in potentiostatic mode....

  2. New theorem relating two-mode entangled tomography to two-mode Fresnel operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Chuan-Mei; Fan Hong-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Fan-Hu's formalism,i.e.,the tomogram of two-mode quantum states can be considered as the module square of the states' wave function in the intermediate representation,which is just the eigenvector of the Fresnel quadrature phase,we derive a new theorem for calculating the quantum tomogram of two-mode density operators,i.e.,the tomogram of a two-mode density operator is equal to the marginal integration of the classical Weyl correspondence function of F+2pF2,where F2 is the two-mode Fresnel operator. An application of the theorem in evaluating the tomogram of an optical chaotic field is also presented.

  3. Characterization of Novel Operation Modes for Secondary Emission Ionization Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiras, Emrah; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Ogul, Hasan; Snyder, Christina; Bilki, Burak; Onel, Yasar; Winn, David

    2017-01-01

    Secondary Emission (SE) Ionization Calorimetry is a novel technique to measure electromagnetic showers in high radiation environments. We have developed new operation modes by modifying the bias of the conventional PMT circuits. Hamamatsu single anode R7761 and multi-anode R5900-00-M16 Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) with modified bases are used as SE detector modules in our SE calorimetry prototype. In this detector module, the first dynode is used as the active media as opposed to photocathode. Here, we report the technical design of new modes and characterization measurements for both SE and PMT modes.

  4. Pulse mode operation of Love wave devices for biosensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, MI; McHale, G; Martin, F; Gizeli, E.; Melzak, KA

    2001-01-01

    In this work we present a novel pulse mode Love wave biosensor that monitors both changes in amplitude and phase. A series of concentrations of 3350 molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solutions are used as a calibration sequence for the pulse mode system using a network analyzer and high frequency oscilloscope. The operation of the pulse mode system is then compared to the continuous wave network analyzer by showing a sequence of deposition and removal of a model mass layer of palmi...

  5. SURVEI DINAMIKA PENULARAN MALARIA DI DESA BANJARETNO, KECAMATAN KAJORAN, KABUPATEN MAGELANG, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyanto Ristiyanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam rangka menurunkan angka endemisilas malaria di Kabupaten Magelang telah dilakukan studi dinamika penularan. Tujuan survei dinamika penularan ini adalah mengetahui proses terjadinya penularan malaria dan faktor-faktor risiko kejadian malaria. Lokasi survei di Desa Banjaretno, Kecamatan Kajorun, Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah, Juni 2004. Metode survei adalah metode survei dinamika penularan yang telah distandardkan dalam pelatihan ICDC. Hasil survei parasit malaria menunjukkan bahwa 5 orang (5,10% dari 98 orang mengandung parasit Plasmodium falciparum. Hasil survei entomologi di liga rumah kasus malaria diperoleh angka man baiting rate (MBR nyamuk Anopheles aconitus di dalam rumah 0,5/jam/orang dan di luar rumah 1,08/jam/orang. Parity rate nyamuk tersebut 0%. Tempat perindukan di sekitar rumah kasus malaria adalah sawah, kolam, dan saluran irigasi. Penanaman padi tidak serempak, sehingga, tempat perindukan An. aconitus tersedia sepanjang tahun. Kepadatan larva nyamuk An. aconitus berkisar antara 0,3-2,1 perciduk. Hasil survei perilaku pada 31 responden (5 kasus malaria dan 26 orang tetangga kasus malaria diketahui bahwa pengetahuan, dan sikap responden mendukung untuk melakukan pencegahan penularan malaria (80% dari 31 responden, tetapi tidak diikuti dengan tindakan mencegah malaria (39,76% dari 31 responden. Semua rumah kasus malaria berdinding kayu atau bambu, belum menggunakan langit-langit, jendela dan ventilasi belum rapat nyamuk (100% rumah kasus malaria. Kebiasaan pada malam hari (5 kasus malaria yang mendukung penularan malaria adalah kebiasaan menonton TV bersama-sama pada malam hari dengan keadaan pintu dan jendela terbuka. Pelayanan kesehatan oleh Puskesmas tidak melakukan kunjungan rutin ke daerah endemis malaria karena tidak ada JMD. Hasil survei dinamika penularan ini memperlihatkan bahwa penularan malaria di Desa Banjaretno. Kecamatan Kajoran, Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah terjadi pada musim kemarau, di dalam rumah pada

  6. Distributed Generation using Indirect Matrix Converter in Boost Operating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    , reverse power flow operation of IMC can be implemented to meet voltage boost requirement, where the input ac source is connected to the converter's voltage source side and the output utility grid or load is connected to the current source side. This paper proposes control schemes of IMC under reverse...... power flow operation for both grid-connected and isolated modes with distributed generation suggested as a potential application. In grid-connected mode, the commanded power must be extracted from the input ac source to the grid, in addition to guarantee sinusoidal input/output waveforms, unity input...

  7. Distributed Generation using Indirect Matrix Converter in Boost Operating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    , reverse power flow operation of IMC can be implemented to meet voltage boost requirement, where the input ac source is connected to the converter's voltage source side and the output utility grid or load is connected to the current source side. This paper proposes control schemes of IMC under reverse...... power flow operation for both grid-connected and isolated modes with distributed generation suggested as a potential application. In grid-connected mode, the commanded power must be extracted from the input ac source to the grid, in addition to guarantee sinusoidal input/output waveforms, unity input...

  8. Oxidizer heat exchangers for rocket engine operation in idle modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.

    1987-01-01

    The heat exchanger concept is discussed together with its role in rocket engine operation in idle modes. Two heat exchanger designs (low and high heat transfer) utilizing different approaches to achieve stable oxygen vaporization are presented as well as their performance test results. It is concluded that compact and lightweight heat exchangers can be used in a stable manner under the 'idle' operating conditions expected with the RL10 rocket engine.

  9. Zero-modes of the QED Neuberger Dirac operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Bernd A.; Heller, Urs M.; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer; Sakuler, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    We consider 4 d compact lattice QED in the quenched approximation. First, we briefly summarize the spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator and its connection with random matrix theory. Afterwards we present results for the low-lying eigenmodes of the Neuberger overlap-Dirac operator. In the strong coupling phase we find exact zero-modes. Subsequently we discuss possibly related topological excitations of the U(1) lattice gauge theory.

  10. Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachev, N. N., E-mail: bgniknik@yandex.ru; Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.

  11. OPERATION MODES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PLASMA DIPOLE ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nikolaevich Bogachev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Existence modes of  surface electromagnetic wave on a plasma cylinder, operating modes and characteristics of the plasma antenna were studied in this paper. Solutions of the dispersion equation of surface wave were obtained for a plasma cylinder with finite radius for different plasma density values. Operation modes of the plasma asymmetric dipole antenna with finite length and radius were researched by numerical simulation. The electric field distributions of  the plasma antenna in near antenna field and the radiation pattern were obtained. These characteristics were compared to characteristics of the similar metal antenna. Numerical models verification was carried out by comparing of the counted and measured metal antenna radiation patterns.

  12. Dinamika Penduduk Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiani Hardiani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dinamika penduduk pada kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Jambi yang mencakup kondisi dan perkembangan kuantitas penduduk (jumlah, komposisi dan distribusinya serta kualitas penduduk (pendidikan, kesehatan dan kemiskinan. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif kuantitatif dan kualitatif, dengan memanfaatkan indikator-indikator kependudukan. Hasil penelitian menemukan: 1 Jumlah penduduk Provinsi Jambi relatif sedikit dengan tingkat kepadatan yang rendah tetapi dengan ketimpangan tinggi dari distribusi penduduk antar kabupaten/kota; 2 Provinsi Jambi merupakan salah satu daerah di Indonesia dengan pertumbuhan penduduk yang relatif tinggi; 3 Struktur umur penduduk di Provinsi Jambi sudah tidak tergolong lagi pada struktur umur muda, tetapi belum memenuhi kategori struktur umur tua; 4 Membandingkan dengan provinsi-provinsi lainnya di Indonesia, kondisi pendidikan dan kesehatan penduduk Provinsi Jambi sudah relatif memadai; 5 Tingkat kemiskinan di Provinsi Jambi ini relatif rendah dibandingkan secara nasional, dengan penurunan yang juga relatif lebih cepat. Kata kunci : Pendidikan, Kesehatan, Kemiskinan.     Abstract This study aims to analyze the dynamics of the population in the district / city in the province of Jambi which include the condition and development of the population quantity (amount, composition and distribution as well as the quality of the population (education, health and poverty. Data were analyzed by descriptive quantitative and qualitative, using indicators of population. The results found: 1 The population of the province of Jambi relatively little with low density but with high inequality of the distribution of population among districts / cities; 2 Jambi Province is one of the areas in Indonesia with a relatively high population growth; 3 the age structure of the population in the province of Jambi is no longer belong to the young age structure, but do not meet the age structure of the

  13. The asymptotic limits of zero modes of massless Dirac operators

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    Asymptotic behaviors of zero modes of the massless Dirac operator $H=\\alpha\\cdot D + Q(x)$ are discussed, where $\\alpha= (\\alpha_1, \\alpha_2, \\alpha_3)$ is the triple of $4 \\times 4$ Dirac matrices, $ D=\\frac{1}{i} \

  14. DINAMIKA PENANAMAN NILAI-NILAI BELA NEGARA KADET MAGUWO DALAM PERSPEKTIF HISTORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianto Hadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi, mengetahui, memahami, dan menemukan: 1 formulasi nilai-nilai bela negara yang terkandung dalam peristiwa Serangan Fajar dan jatuhnya pesawat Dakota VT-CLA pada tanggal 29 Juli 1947; 2 dinamika interpretasi tokoh  dan pejabat TNI AU terhadap bela negara; 3 rumusan dinamika proses penanaman nilai-nilai bela negara di Sekbang; 4 faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap dinamika penanaman nilai-nilai bela negara di Sekbang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang menggunakan kombinasi dari berbagai pendekatan dan metode penelitian. Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah: 1 core value bela negara Kadet Maguwo yang masih relevan; sesuai dengan landasan historis dan landasan filosofis pendidikan meliputi nilai-nilai kesetiaan dan kecintaan terhadap negara Indonesia dengan tetap didasari nilai-nilai ketuhanan, ketulusan, kekuatan tekad, kesatria, moralitas, keteladanan, integritas, profesionalitas, dan kedisiplinan; 2 bela negara awalnya bersifat filosofis, dan diperkuat secara ideologis untuk mengembangkan eksistensinya yang mengutamakan keberanian dengan integritas dan profesionalitas; 3 penanaman nilai diawali secara sederhana dengan landasan filosofis yang penuh makna, berlanjut dengan intensitas yang tinggi untuk pemantapan ideologis, dan psikologis, kemudian mengarah ke sosiologis yang intensitasnya menuru; 4 dinamika penanaman nilai-nilai bela negara dipengaruhi oleh faktor ekonomi, politik, zaman, dan budaya yang berada pada empat tingkatan, yaitu nasional/internasional, departemen, unit pelaksana, dan individu siswa. Proses penanaman nilai-nilai bela negara yang berpola behavioristik dan melibatkan kesadaran siswa untuk turut aktif dalam proses pendidikan akan berdampak sangat dalam, merasuk kedalam jiwa dan menjadi sikap hidup sepanjang hayat siswa, karena telah mencapai pada tataran titik kesadaran integral. Kata kunci: penanaman nilai, nilai bela negara

  15. Selection of efficient operating modes of combines depending on operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshits, Ya.I.; Konovalov, V.I.; Osokin, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is presented for selecting the efficient operating modes, determining the permissible velocities for movement and productivity of combines and complexes depending on their operating conditions and types of electric motors used. Parameters are presented for efficient operating modes of the coal-recovery combine 2 K52M under different conditions when it is completed by high-momentum electric motor of the type EDK04-5U5 or the motor EDK04-4MU5. Results are presented of experimental operation in the mines of the combines 2K52 with high-momentum electric motors.

  16. The Asymptotic Limits of Zero Modes of Massless Dirac Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitō, Yoshimi; Umeda, Tomio

    2008-01-01

    Asymptotic behaviors of zero modes of the massless Dirac operator H = α · D + Q( x) are discussed, where α = (α1, α2, α3) is the triple of 4 × 4 Dirac matrices, D = 1/i nabla_x, and Q( x) = ( q jk ( x)) is a 4 × 4 Hermitian matrix-valued function with | q jk ( x) | ≤ C -ρ, ρ > 1. We shall show that for every zero mode f, the asymptotic limit of | x|2 f ( x) as | x| → + ∞ exists. The limit is expressed in terms of the Dirac matrices and an integral of Q( x) f ( x).

  17. Dinamika Peran Negara dalam Proses Liberalisasi dan Privatisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Ma'arif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberalization and privatization are often associated with global demands for termination of state interference in business. The policy often result in dispute between neoliberalism and socialism. Neoliberalism perceives state interference in economic area as bad, damaging, an inefficient to economic life. State, which conduct the operation in political power logic, is perceived less or even not give the place for the expanding of healthy market structure and competitive. While socialism perceived state as central figure of economic with the centralized planning instrument and the ownership be on the hand of state. As economic system, socialism can be understood as an economic system in which the means of production, distribution, and exchange are publicly owned and operate. Since socialism assumes state as the most representative organization, so the meaning of owned and operated by public means the power of ownership and the mode of operation be on the hand of state. As political ideology, in its connection wit the economic control, socialism believe that the state should develop the economic planning and control on market operation. This paper prove that neoliberalism and the philosophy demands for termination of state role, in the reality, suffer a kind of paradox. On one hand, it trust market excellence so much over state. But on the other hand, it requires the active role of state to return the free market idea.

  18. Two-Mode Operation Engine Mount Design for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tikani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic engine mounts are applied to the automotive applications to isolate the chassis from the high frequency noise and vibration generated by the engine as well as to limit the engine shake motions resulting at low frequencies. In this paper, a new hydraulic engine mount with a controllable inertia track profile is proposed and its dynamic behavior is investigated. The profile of the inertia track is varied by applying a controlled force to a cylindrical rubber disk, placed in the inertia track. This design provides a hydraulic engine mount design with an adjustable notch frequency location and also damping characteristics in shake motions. By using a simple control strategy, the efficiency of the proposed hydraulic engine mount in two-mode operation meaning isolating mode in the highway driving condition and damping mode in the shock motions, is investigated.

  19. Pulse mode operation of Love wave devices for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, M I; McHale, G; Martin, F; Gizeli, E; Melzak, K A

    2001-12-01

    In this work we present a novel pulse mode Love wave biosensor that monitors both changes in amplitude and phase. A series of concentrations of 3350 molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solutions are used as a calibration sequence for the pulse mode system using a network analyzer and high frequency oscilloscope. The operation of the pulse mode system is then compared to the continuous wave network analyzer by showing a sequence of deposition and removal of a model mass layer of palmitoyl-oleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine (POPC) vesicles. This experimental apparatus has the potential for making many hundreds of measurements a minute and so allowing the dynamics of fast interactions to be observed.

  20. Dual-mode operation of a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell by switching between dynamic and memory modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong Han; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Jung-Wook; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2011-06-01

    We propose a twisted nematic liquid crystal device that can be operated in dynamic or memory mode, based on the information content to be displayed at that time. +90°-twisted and -90°-twisted states are used as two stable states for operation in the memory mode. A vertical electric field is applied to realize gray levels for operation in the dynamic mode. The proposed device has a memory retention time of over a month for the memory mode and a response time of 12 ms for the dynamic mode. Contrast ratios of over 500∶1 can be obtained in both the dynamic and memory modes.

  1. Efficient potassium diode pumped alkali laser operating in pulsed mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Boris V; Rotondaro, Matthew D; Shaffer, Michael K; Knize, Randall J

    2014-07-14

    This paper presents the results of our experiments on the development of an efficient hydrocarbon free diode pumped alkali laser based on potassium vapor buffered by He gas at 600 Torr. A slope efficiency of more than 50% was demonstrated with a total optical conversion efficiency of 30%. This result was achieved by using a narrowband diode laser stack as the pump source. The stack was operated in pulsed mode to avoid limiting thermal effects and ionization.

  2. Power transmission line operating modes calculation with controllable phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The article contains the analysis of the influence of the phase shifter (PS) on the energy processes in the power transmission line in terms of the two-unit model of the electric network. The approach to synthesis of the models regulated by the phase shifter providing for both calculation of the steady operation modes of the electric networks with the phase shifters and research of the electromagnetic processes and designing of the device itself is offered.

  3. Contacting mode operation of work function energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpula, A.; Laakso, S. J.; Havia, T.; Kyynäräinen, J.; Prunnila, M.

    2014-11-01

    The work function energy harvester (WFEH) is a variable capacitance vibration energy harvester where the charging of the capacitor electrodes is driven by the work function difference of the electrode materials. In this work, we investigate operation modes of the WFEH by utilizing a macroscopic parallel plate capacitor with Cu and Al electrodes and varying plate distance. We show that by charging the electrodes of the WFEH by letting the electrode plates touch during the operation a significant output power enhancement can be achieved in comparison to the case where the electrodes are charged and discharged only through a load resistor.

  4. Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirba J.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force or angle ε (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.

  5. Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.

    2017-04-01

    The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force) or angle ɛ (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis) is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.

  6. Operation of a tokamak reactor in the radiative improved mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, D. Kh.; Mavrin, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The operation of a nuclear fusion reactor has been simulated within a model based on experimental results obtained at the TEXTOR-94 tokamak and other facilities in which quasistationary regimes were achieved with long confinement times, high densities, and absence of the edge-localized mode. The radiative improved mode of confinement studied in detail at the TEXTOR-94 tokamak is the most interesting such regime. One of the most important problems of modern tokamaks is the problem of a very high thermal load on a divertor (or a limiter). This problem is quite easily solved in the radiative improved mode. Since a significant fraction of the thermal energy is reemitted by an impurity, the thermal loading is significantly reduced. As the energy confinement time τ E at high densities in the indicated mode is significantly larger than the time predicted by the scaling of ITERH-98P(y, 2), ignition can be achieved in a facility much smaller than the ITER facility at plasma temperatures below 20 keV. The revealed decrease in the degradation of the confinement time τ E with an increase in the introduced power has been analyzed.

  7. Optimal Protection Coordination for Microgrid under Different Operating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant consequences result when a microgrid is connected to a distribution system. This study discusses the impacts of bolted three-phase faults and bolted single line-to-ground faults on the protection coordination of a distribution system connected by a microgrid which operates in utility-only mode or in grid-connected mode. The power system simulation software is used to build the test system. The linear programming method is applied to optimize the coordination of relays, and the relays coordination simulation software is used to verify if the coordination time intervals (CTIs of the primary/backup relay pairs are adequate. In addition, this study also proposes a relays protection coordination strategy when the microgrid operates in islanding mode during a utility power outage. Because conventional CO/LCO relays are not capable of detecting high impedance fault, intelligent electrical device (IED combined with wavelet transformer and neural network is proposed to accurately detect high impedance fault and identify the fault phase.

  8. Some questions of variable operational modes of an MHD generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belikov, V.V.; Breyev, V.V.; Gubarev, A.V.; Zotov, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A Faraday MHD generator with solid electrodes is analyzed for the case of a variable load and three circuit configurations: series, parallel and independent excitation of the generator. The equivalent circuits are drawn along with the current-voltage and load characteristics (power and voltage at the load terminals as a function of generator current) for the series and parallel excitation cases. With independent excitation, the current-voltage characteristic is linear since the magnetic field induction in the generator channel at small magnetic Reynolds numbers does not depend on the generator current. The influence of the counterpressure at the channel outlet in a supersonic MHD generator is discussed in qualitative terms. Two modes are defined: when the pressure in the receiver following the channel is less than a certain value below the critical cross-section of the supersonic nozzle ahead of the channel (normal flow); and when the receiver pressure exceeds this specified value (anomalous flow), which leads to density jumps in the supersonic nozzle and subsonic flow in the interaction region. These concepts are employed in a discussion of the stability of steady-state flow and transient modes. Analytical expressions are derived for the excitation current and the load current in an MHD generator with a parallel configuration of the excitation winding, and these are plotted as a function of time. Transient operational modes of the generator with a series winding configuration of the magnet system are also shown, with the current plotted as a function of time. Expressions are derived for characteristic parameters which specify stable operational modes.

  9. Security-constrained unit commitment with flexible operating modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo

    The electricity industry throughout the world, which has long been dominated by vertically integrated utilities, is facing enormous challenges. To enhance the competition in electricity industry, vertically integrated utilities are evolving into a distributed and competitive industry in which market forces drive the price of electricity and possibly reduce the net cost of supplying electrical loads through increased competition. To excel in the competition, generation companies (GENCOs) will acquire additional generating units with flexible operating capability which allows a timely response to the continuous changes in power system conditions. This dissertation considers the short-term scheduling of generating units with flexible modes of operation in security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC). Among the units considered in this study are combined cycle units, fuel switching/blending units, photovoltaic/battery system, pumped-storage units, and cascaded hydro units. The proposed security-constrained unit commitment solution will include a detailed model of transmission system which could impact the short-term scheduling of units with flexible operation modes.

  10. Development of Cassava Grating Machine: A Dual-Operational Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed B. NDALIMAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of a Cassava grating machine which has two modes of operation was made. It can be powered either electrically or manually. It takes care of power failure problems, and can be used in rural settlements where electricity supply is not in existence. Cassava is fed with the Machine through the hopper made of metal sheet to the granting drum, which rotates at a constant speed. This process grates the cassava into cassava pulp. The chute constructed of metal sheet accepts the pulp and send it out because of its inclination which operated manually, the efficiency of the machine was found to be 92.4%, which the efficiency of the electrically powered machine was found to be 91.9%.

  11. Higher Order Mode Coupler Heating in Continuous Wave Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyak, N.; Awida, M.; Hocker, A.; Khabibobulline, T.; Lunin, A.

    Electromagnetic heating due to higher order modes (HOM) propagation is particularly a concern for continuous wave (CW) particle accelerator machines. Power on the order of several watts could flow out of the cavity's HOM ports in CW operations. The upgrade of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS-II) at SLAC requires a major modification of the design of the higher order mode (HOM) antenna and feed through of the conventional ILC elliptical 9-cell cavity in order to utilize it for LCLS-II. The HOM antenna is required to bear higher RF losses, while relatively maintaining the coupling level of the higher order modes. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the heating expected in the HOM coupler with a thorough thermal quench study in comparison with the conventional ILC design. We discuss also how the heat will be removed from the cavity through RF cables with specially designed cooling straps. Finally, we report on the latest experimental results of cavity testing in vertical and horizontal cryostats.

  12. Hospital bed ventilation: impact of operation mode on exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Barova, Mariya

    2014-01-01

    Full-scale measurements were performed in a climate chamber set as a two-bed hospital room with overhead ventilation. Air temperature was kept constant at 22 °C. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to mimic a sick patient lying sideways in one of the beds and a doctor. A thermal dummy mimicked...... a second patient lying in the other bed. The doctor stood up 0.55 m from the bed facing the sick patient. Two pairs of localized ventilation units were attached near the heads of both patients alongside the beds to capture, clean and release the captured exhaled air from the lying patients. When the bed...... and droplet nuclei of less than 3 μm aerodynamic diameter. Two modes of operation of the bed incorporated ventilation unit were tested: releasing the cleaned air upwards (pull mode) or supplying it sideways over the lying patient (“push and pull” mode). The strategy to exhaust pollutants close o release...

  13. Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey P. Koplow; Dahv A. V. Kliner; Lew Goldberg

    2000-01-19

    The authors report a new approach to obtain single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier, in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. They have demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 {micro}m and NA of {minus}0.1 (V {approx} 7.4). When operated as an ASE source, the output beam had an M{sup 2} value of 1.09 {+-} 0.09; when seeded at 1,064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique does not require exotic fiber designs or increase system complexity and is inexpensive to implement. It will allow scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality.

  14. An experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    Results obtained from an experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode are presented. The obtained empirical dependence for calculating the power of heat exchangers operating in the steam condensation mode is presented.

  15. Corrugated waveguide mode purifier for TEM output in a dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Zhang, Dian

    2017-01-01

    A coaxial corrugated waveguide mode purifier is designed for a dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator. With the purifier, the mixed TEM and TM01 modes output are purified into a pure TEM mode. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation shows that the purifier would not decrease the total output power of the generator, and plays an independent role to the upstream structure. Effects of mode composition ratio and phase difference on the purification ability of the purifier are also researched by both electromagnetism and PIC simulations, which show that the purifier has a certain tolerance for both the mode composition ratio and phase difference.

  16. Measurement of electron particle transport coefficients in different operational modes of DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. R.; Wade, M. R.; Jackson, G. L.; Maingi, R.; Stockdale, R. E.; de Grassie, J. S.; Groebner, R. J.; Forest, C. B.; Porter, G. D.; DIII-D Team

    1998-04-01

    Electron transport coefficients have been obtained for different operational modes on the DIII-D tokamak. The operational modes are: double null diverted (DND) low confinement (L mode), DND high confinement (H mode) without edge localized modes (ELM-free), single null diverted (SND) ELM-free H mode and pumped SND ELMing H mode. Various values of plasma current and safety factor (q) profiles were investigated. For the L mode and ELMing H mode, the coefficients were obtained by a modulated puff of deuterium gas at the edge. For the ELM-free modes, the coefficients were obtained by analysing the temporal evolution of the electron density profile immediately after the L-H transition. The results show clearly that the radial profile of the electron diffusion coefficient depends on the operational mode of DIII-D. The difference in the radial dependences of the transport coefficients between the different tokamak operational modes is significant. In the L mode and the ELMing H mode, the diffusion coefficient increases with radius. In ELMing H mode, the diffusion coefficient increases with the edge value of q. The value at the edge for L mode is about twice that for ELMing H mode. In ELM-free H mode, the diffusion coefficient decreases rapidly outside a normalized radius of about 0.8. Within the (relatively large) error bars for ELM-free H mode, there is no measurable difference in diffusion coefficient between the DND and SND plasmas.

  17. Three operation modes of the vitamin-D-biodosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenetskaya, Irina P.

    2016-04-01

    The original UV biodosimeter for an in situ monitoring of the vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight and/or artificial UV sources is based on the same photoreaction in vitro by which vitamin D is synthesized in human skin from initial provitamin D via photo- and thermo-induced monomolecular isomerizations. Therefore, targets for UV photons in the biodosimeter are the provitamin D molecules embedded in specially designed UV transparent and stable matrix. The dosimeter response to UV radiation is photoinduced conversion of provitamin D into previtamin D which is immediate precursor of vitamin D. Thus, biological `antirachitic' UV dose is determined by the amount of accumulated previtamin D. To follow the photoreaction course in real time three operation modes of varying complexity have been developed.

  18. Study of potassium DPAL operation in pulsed and CW mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Boris V.; Rotondaro, Matthew D.; Schaffer, Michael K.; Knize, Randall J.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the results of our experiments on development of the efficient hydrocarbon free Diode Pumped Alkali Laser based on potassium vapor buffered by He gas at 600 Torr. We studied the performance of this laser operating in pulsed mode with pulses up to 5 ms long at different pulse energies and cell temperatures. A slope efficiency of more than 50% was demonstrated with total optical efficiency about 30% for the pump pulses with duration about 30 μs. For the longer pump pulses the DPAL efficiency degraded in time with a characteristic time in the range from 0.5 ms to 4.5 ms depending on the pump pulse energy and cell temperature. The recorded spectrum of the side fluorescence indicates that multi-photon excitation, energy pooling collisions and ionization may be strong candidates for explaining the observed performance degradation.

  19. Design of current mirror integration ROIC for snapshot mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker Gupta, Hari; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Shojaei Baghini, M.; Chakrabarti, Subhananda; Mehta, Sanjeev; Chowdhury, Arup Roy; Sharma, Dinesh K.

    2016-10-01

    Current mirror integration (CMI) read out integrated circuit (ROIC) topology provides a low input impedance to photo-detectors and provides large injection efficiency, large charge handling capacity and snapshot mode operation without in-pixel opamps. The ROIC described in this paper has been implemented with a modified current mirror circuit, with matched PMOS pairs for detector input stage and its biasing. The readout circuit has been designed for 30 × 30 μm2 pixel size, 4 × 4 array size, variable frame rate, 5 Mega pixel per second (Mpps). Experimental performance of the test chip has achieved 15 Me charge handling capacity, a high dynamic range of 83 dB, 99.8% linearity and 99.96% injection efficiency. The ROIC design has been fabricated in 3.3 V 1P6M UMC 180 nm CMOS process and tested up to 5 MHz pixel rate at room and at cryogenic temperature.

  20. A Four-Quadrant Operation Diagram for Thermoelectric Modules in Heating-Cooling Mode and Generating Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimchavee, W.

    2011-05-01

    The operation of a thermoelectric module in heating-cooling mode, generating mode, and regenerating mode can be discussed in terms of power, cooling load, and current. A direct current machine in motoring mode and generating mode and an induction motor in motoring mode and regenerating mode are analogous to thermoelectric modules. Therefore, the first objective of this work is to present the four-quadrant (4-Q) operation diagram and the 4-Q equivalent circuits of thermoelectric modules in heating-cooling mode and generating mode. The second objective is to present the cooling and regenerating curves of a thermoelectric module in cooling mode and regenerating mode. The curves are composed from the cooling powers and the generating powers, the input and output current, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger, and the different temperatures that exist between the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric module. The methodology used to present the data involved drawing analogies between the mechanical system, the electrical system, and the thermal system; an experimental setup was also used. The experimental setup was built to test a thermoelectric module (TE2) in cooling mode and regenerating mode under conditions in which it was necessary to control the different temperatures on the hot and cold sides of TE2. Two thermoelectric modules were used to control the temperature. The cold side was controlled by a thermoelectric module labeled TE1, whereas the hot side was controlled by a second thermoelectric module labeled TE3. The results include the power, the cooling load, and the current of the thermoelectric module, which are analogous to the torque, the power, the speed, and the slip speed of a direct current machine and an induction motor. This 4-Q operation diagram, the 4-Q equivalent circuits, and the cooling and regenerating curves of the thermoelectric module can be used to analyze the bidirectional current and to select appropriate operating conditions in

  1. Symplectic Group Representation of the Two-Mode Squeezing Operator in the Coherent State Basis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; CHEN Jun-Hua

    2003-01-01

    We find that the coherent state projection operator representation of the two-mode squeezing operator constitutes a loyal group representation of symplectic group, which is a remarkable property of the coherent state. As a consequence, the resultant effect of successively applying two-mode squeezing operators are equivalent to a single squeezing in the two-mode Fock space. Generalization of this property to the 2n-mode case is also discussed.

  2. ANALYSIS OF OPTIMUM OPERATING MODES OF POWER TRANSFORMERS UNDER OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khomenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study of parallel operation optimal modes of transformer equipment for a variety of operating conditions: same or different types of transformers, with or without reactive power flows. Methodology. Losses of energy in transformers make 30 % of all losses. Therefore the choice of the economically justified parallel operation of transformers is effective action to reduce losses. Typically, in the calculations of reactive power flows in the transformers are not taken into account. It is interesting to analyze the optimal operating conditions of transformers with and without reactive power flows. Results. Calculations for transformers in distribution networks showed that the inclusion of reactive power flows in transformers significant impact on the calculated optimum regimes of transformers.

  3. The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance edge localized mode-stable operation in future burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, A. M., E-mail: garofalo@fusion.gat.com; Burrell, K. H.; Meneghini, O.; Osborne, T. H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Eldon, D.; Grierson, B. A.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, New York 10027-6900 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Liu, F.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, P.O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    For the first time, DIII-D experiments have achieved stationary quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) operation for many energy confinement times at simultaneous ITER-relevant values of beta, confinement, and safety factor, in an ITER-like shape. QH-mode provides excellent energy confinement, even at very low plasma rotation, while operating without edge localized modes (ELMs) and with strong impurity transport via the benign edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). By tailoring the plasma shape to improve the edge stability, the QH-mode operating space has also been extended to densities exceeding 80% of the Greenwald limit, overcoming the long-standing low-density limit of QH-mode operation. In the theory, the density range over which the plasma encounters the kink-peeling boundary widens as the plasma cross-section shaping is increased, thus increasing the QH-mode density threshold. The DIII-D results are in excellent agreement with these predictions, and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic analysis of reconstructed QH-mode equilibria shows unstable low n kink-peeling modes growing to a saturated level, consistent with the theoretical picture of the EHO. Furthermore, high density operation in the QH-mode regime has opened a path to a new, previously predicted region of parameter space, named “Super H-mode” because it is characterized by very high pedestals that can be more than a factor of two above the peeling-ballooning stability limit for similar ELMing H-mode discharges at the same density.

  4. Operation of autotracking system in various video playback modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshnikov, V. G.; Fridlyand, G. V.; Fridlyand, L. V.

    1984-08-01

    Video tape recorders using oblique line scanning heads have the capability of accelerating or slowing down the playback relative to the nominal speed. The video signal quality is determined to a considerable extent by the operation of the autotracking system. The basis of the ATS is the circuitry which matches the trajectory of the magnetic playback head on the tape surface with the recorded line at the nominal playback speed. This so-called nominal playback matching circuit must incorporate additional devices to speed up or slow down the playback. The development of a video tape recorder with the autotracking system (ATS) is discussed. Block diagrams of the system and its components are supplemented with traces of the various control voltages and circuit responses, as well as a drawing of the trajectories of the magnetic head for various special effect modes. A piezoelectric transducer is used to shift the head relative to the record track to produce stop-field, stop-frame or other special effects. It is indicated that such VTR ATS circuits are capable of slowing or accelerating the playback by a factor of 5 to 10 times the nominal speed.

  5. DINAMIKA POPULASI IKAN TENGGIRI (Scomberomorus commerson DI PERAIRAN TELUK KWANDANG, LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegoeh Noegroho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tenggiri merupakan komoditas penting yang pengusahaannya telah dilakukan secara intensif untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar, baik dalam negeri  maupun ekspor.Belum adanya kontrol baik penangkapan dan biologi terhadap pemanfaatannya dapat membahayakan keberlanjutan perikanan ikan tenggiri. Penelitian telah dilakukan pada Februari-Desember 2012 di Kwandang, Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara yang potensial sebagai daerah produsen ikan tenggiri. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis parameter dinamika populasi seperti laju pertumbuhan, tingkat kematian, tingkat eksploitasi, dan pola rekrutmen ikan tenggiri (Scomberomorus commerson. Sampel ukuran ikan tenggiri diambil secara acak dari hasil tangkapan kapalpurse seine(pajeko dan pancing ulur (handline. Data ukuran ikan yang diperoleh digunakan untuk perhitungan frekuensi panjang, hubungan panjang berat, dan dinamika populasi. Beberapa parameter dinamika populasi diestimasi dengan menggunakan program FISAT II. Dari parameter pertumbuhan Von Bertalanffy diperoleh L∞ (cm dan laju pertumbuhan (K masing-masing 142,3 cm dan 0,81/ tahun. Laju mortalitas total (Z sebesar 1,19 per tahun. Tingkat kematian karena penangkapan (F sebesar 0,53/tahun lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan tingkat kematian alami (M sebesar 0,66/tahun. Tingkat eksploitasi (E ikan tenggiri di Teluk Kwandang adalah 0,39/tahun, yang artinya dalam kondisi hampir fullexsploited (Eoptimalsebesar 0,40/tahun. Pola rekrutmen ikan tenggiri terjadi dua kali, puncak pertama terjadi pada Maret-Juli (76,37%, dan yang kedua pada September-Oktober (23,63%. Narrow barred spanish mackerel is an an important commodity that has commercialized intensively to fulfill needs of the market, both domestic and exports. A research has been conducted in February-December 2012 in Kwandang, North Gorontalo regency. The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamics of population parameters such as growth rate, mortality rate, exploitation rates, and recruitment

  6. Based on Intelligent Robot of E-business Distribution Center Operation Mode Research

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    According to E-business distribution center operation mode in domestic and advanced experience drawing lessons at home and abroad, this paper based on intelligent robot researches E-business distribution center operation mode. And it proposes the innovation logistics storage in E-business and sorting integration system, and elaborates its principle, characteristics, as well as studies its business mode and logistics process, and its parameters and working mode of AGV equipment.

  7. VR-based Operating Modes and Metaphors for Collaborative Ergonomic Design of Industrial Workstations

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Huyen; Pontonnier, Charles; Hilt, Simon; Duval, Thierry; Dumont, Georges

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to evaluate two new operating design modes and their collaborative metaphors enabling two actors, a design engineer and an end-user, to work jointly in a collabora-tive virtual environment for workstation design. The two operating design modes that correspond to two different design paradigms include : direct design mode (the design engineer manipulates objects while the end-user specifies their activity constraints) and supervised design mode ...

  8. Modal sensitivity analysis for single mode operation in large mode area fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, Benoit; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Garneau, Marc; Faucher, Mathieu; Lizé, Yannick Keith; Holehouse, Nigel

    2008-02-01

    Most of the current large mode area (LMA) fibers are few-moded designs using a large, low numerical aperture (N.A.) core, which promotes mode coupling between core modes and increases bending losses (coupling with claddingmodes), which is undesirable both in terms ofmode area and beamquality. Furthermore, short LMA fiber lengths and small cladding diameters are needed to minimize nonlinear effects and maximize pump absorption respectively in high-power pulsed laser systems. Although gain fiber coiling is a widely used technique to filter-out unwanted modes in LMA fibers, coupling between modes can still occur in component leads and relay fibers. In relay fiber, light coupled into higher-order modes can subsequently be lost in the coiling or continue as higher-order modes, which has the overall effect of reducing the effective transmission of the LP 01 mode and degrading the beam quality. However, maximum transmission of the LP 01 mode is often required in order to have the best possible beam quality (minimal M2). Launching in an LMA fiber with a mode field adapter (MFA)1 provides an excellent way of ensuring maximum LP 01 coupling, but preservation of this mode requires highmodal stability in the output fiber. Small cladding, low N.A. LMA fibers have the disadvantage of being extremely sensitive to external forces in real-life applications, which is unwanted for systems where highly sensitive mode coupling can occur. In this paper, we present a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of mode coupling sensitivity in LMA fibers as a function of fiber parameters such as N.A., core diameter and cladding diameter. Furthermore, we present the impact of higher N.A. as a solution to increase mode stability in terms of its effect on peak power, effective mode area and coupling efficiency.

  9. GENERAL: Mode shift and stability control of a current mode controlled buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with ramp compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bo-Cheng; Xu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Zhong

    2009-11-01

    By establishing the discrete iterative mapping model of a current mode controlled buck-boost converter, this paper studies the mechanism of mode shift and stability control of the buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with a ramp compensation current. With the bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, time-domain waveform and parameter space map, the performance of the buck-boost converter circuit utilizing a compensating ramp current has been analysed. The obtained results indicate that the system trajectory is weakly chaotic and strongly intermittent under discontinuous conduction mode. By using ramp compensation, the buck-boost converter can shift from discontinuous conduction mode to continuous conduction mode, and effectively operates in the stable period-one region.

  10. Mode shift and stability control of a current mode controlled buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with ramp compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Xu Jian-Ping; Liu Zhong

    2009-01-01

    By establishing the discrete iterative mapping model of a current mode controlled buck-boost converter, this paper studies the mechanism of mode shift and stability control of the buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with a ramp compensation current. With the bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, timedomain waveform and parameter space map, the performance of the buck-boost converter circuit utilizing a compensating ramp current has been analysed. The obtained results indicate that the system trajectory is weakly chaotic and strongly intermittent under discontinuous conduction mode. By using ramp compensation, the buck-boost converter can shift from discontinuous conduction mode to continuous conduction mode, and effectively operates in the stable period-one region.

  11. Analisis Kinerja Sistem Cluster Terhadapa Aplikasi Simulasi Dinamika Molekular NAMD Memanfaatkan Pustaka CHARM++

    CERN Document Server

    Mutiara, A B

    2008-01-01

    Tingkat kompleksitas dari program simulasi dinamika molekular membutuhkan mesin pemroses dengan kemampuan yang sangat besar. Mesin-mesin paralel terbukti memiliki potensi untuk menjawab tantangan komputasi ini. Untuk memanfaatkan potensi ini secara maksimal, diperlukan suatu program paralel dengan tingkat efisiensi, efektifitas, skalabilitas, dan ekstensibilitas yang maksimal pula. Program NAMD yang dibahas pada penulisan ini dianggap mampu untuk memenuhi semua kriteria yang diinginkan. Program ini dirancang dengan mengimplementasikan pustaka Charm++ untuk pembagian tugas perhitungan secara paralel. NAMD memiliki sistem automatic load balancing secara periodik yang cerdas, sehingga dapat memaksimalkan penggunaan kemampuan mesin yang tersedia. Program ini juga dirancang secara modular, sehingga dapat dimodifikasi dan ditambah dengan sangat mudah. NAMD menggunakan banyak kombinasi algoritma perhitungan dan tehnik-tehnik numerik lainnya dalam melakukan tugasnya. NAMD 2.5 mengimplementasikan semua tehnik dan pers...

  12. Low-bending loss and single-mode operation in few-mode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Wang, Hua; Chen, Ming-Yang; Wei, Jin; Cai, Zhi-Min; Li, Lu-Ming; Yang, Ji-Hai; Zhu, Yuan-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The technique of eliminating the higher-order modes in a few-mode optical fiber is proposed. The fiber is designed with a group of defect modes in the cladding. The higher-order modes in the fiber can be eliminated by bending the fiber to induce strong coupling between the defect modes and the higher-order modes. Numerical simulation shows the bending losses of the LP01 mode are lower than 1.5×10-4 dB/turn for the wavelength shorter than 1.625 μm. The proposed fiber can be bent multiple turns at small bending radius which are preferable for FTTH related applications.

  13. Research of Operation Modes of Heat Storage Tank in CHP Plant Using Numerical Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streckiene, Giedre; Miseviciute, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    ... ________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 6 Re search of Operation Modes of Heat Storage Tank in CHP Plant Using Numerical Simulation Giedre Streckiene 1 , Violeta Miseviciute 2 , 1 - 2 Department...

  14. DINAMIKA LARVA IKAN SEBAGAI DASAR OPSI PENGELOLAAN SUMBER DAYA IKAN DI LAGUNA PULAU PARI KEPULAUAN SERIBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Puspasari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Proses rekruitmen populasi ikan sangat ditentukan oleh kelangsungan hidup larva ikan yang ada di daerah pemijahan/asuhan. Laguna Pulau Pari merupakan daerah pemjahan bagi banyak jenis larva ikan karang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji dinamika kelimpahan dan komposisi dari larva ikan di laguna Pulau Pari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelimpahan larva ikan yang ditemukan berkisar antara 1,0 x103 – 14,7 x 103 individu/m3. Puncak kelimpahan tertinggi terjadi pada bulan Juli dan Oktober. Larva ikan ditemukan tersebar di semua lokasi pengamatan. Larva pada fase perkembangan pre flexion ditemukan dalam presentase yang paling tinggi. Selama masa pengamatan ditemukan 79 famili larva ikan yang didominasi oleh Pomacentridae, Aulostomidae, Blenniidae, Engraulidae dan Pinguipedidae. Dinamika yang terjadi pada larva ikan dapat dijadikan dasar bagi pengelolaan perikanan di wilayah Laguna Pulau Pari dengan cara memperluas daerah perlindungan laut dan rehabilitasi ekosistem Laguna Pulau Pari, sehingga peran dan fungsinya sebagai pemasok rekrut bagi stok ikan di perairan sekitarnya terjaga.   Fish Recruitment is, in turn, thought to be directly related to the survival of the early life stages in the spawning/nursery ground. Pulau Pari Laguna is considered as a spawning ground for many reef fishes. The aims of the research were to investigate the dynamic of abundance and composition of fish larvae in Pulau Pari lagune. The Results show, fish larvae abundance range between 1,0 x 103 – 14,7 x 103 ind/m3. Highest larval abundance occurred on July and October, which predicted as the month of fish larvae production seasons. Fish larvae were distributed in all part of the lagune. Larvae in the pre flexion stage found in the highest precentation compare to other. Totally 79 families of reef fish larvae were found during June – November 2010 dominated by Pomacentridae, Aulostomidae, Blenniidae, Engraulidae and Pinguipedidae.

  15. Loosen Couple Workflow Mode of Lean Operator Improvement Based on Positive Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the core competitive power for telecom operating enterprises to face market fine operation, this article compares the ECTA mode (Extension Case Transmission Mode and the LCA mode (Loosen Couple Mode, both of which are promoted by WfMC. By comparing these two modes, the suitable situations for these two modes are determined. We also carry out empirical analysis based on the customization mode of mobile phones between China telecom and mobile phone manufacturers and to expound the ascension effect of mechanism based on the agile telecom loose coupling workflow with positive feedback to the telecom enterprises. Finally, on the basis of positive feedback system, the task complexity and information transparency of LCA mode are improved, so that the semantics of public flow mode is kept unchanged and the sub workflow is optimized when modifying the sub workflow.

  16. ANALISIS KERENTANAN JENIS IKAN PELAGIS KECIL DI PERAIRAN SELAT BALI DAN SELAT MAKASSAR TERHADAP DINAMIKA SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Puspasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kondisi oseanografi Indonesia dipengaruhi oleh dinamika proses oseanografi global. Salah satu proses tersebut adalah Arlindo yang menghantarkan massa air bersuhu hangat dari Samudera Pasifik ke Samudera Hindia melalui Selat Makassar. Dinamika suhu perairan akan mempengaruhi kondisi sumberdaya ikan di perairan tersebut. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak dinamika suhu permukaan laut terhadap empat jenis ikan pelagis yaitu ikan layang biru (Decapterus macarellus, kembung (Ratrelliger kanagurta, lemuru (Sardinella lemuru dan tongkol (Auxis thazard.  Penelitian dilakukan pada tahun 2015 dengan membuat profil biologis setiap jenis ikan, kemudian dilakukan penilaian oleh para ahli mengenai kerentanan setiap jenis ikan terhadap paparan dinamika SPL.  Hasil penilaian para ahli kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode kerentanan jenis yang digunakan oleh NOAA.  Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa empat jenis ikan pelagis yang dianalisis mempunyai tingkat kerentanan yang rendah terhadap paparan dinamika suhu permukaan laut.  Tingkat kerentanan ikan pelagis kecil di perairan Selat Bali lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan Selat Makassar.   Oceanographic condition of Indonesian waters is highly influenced by global oceanographic processes. Indonesian through flow is one of the global oceanographic processes that affect the oceanographic condition in Indonesia waters, it delivers warm water from Pacific Ocean to Indian Ocean through the strait of Makassar. Therefore, the dynamic of sea water temperature will affect the fish resources condition. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the dynamic of sea surface temperature to pelagic fishes such as mackerel scad (Decapterus macarellus, Indian mackerel (Ratrelliger. kanagurta, Bali sardine (Sardinella. lemuru and frigate tuna (Auxis. thazard. The study was conducted in 2015 consists of three phases of process, describing biological profile of the species, then scoring based on

  17. Production of Heavy Ion Beams by Operating Serse in DC Mode and Afterglow Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S; Celona, L; Girard, A; Hitz, D; Melin, G

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting ECR ion source SERSE is going to be coupled to a 28 GHz generator, in order to achieve higher current of intermediate and high charge states of heavy ions. Some preliminary tests have been carried out to $9 demonstrate the capability to produce currents of heavy ion beams in the order of hundreds emA in dc mode and afterglow mode. In particular, the latter tests in afterglow mode ùay play a relevant role in the design of the new source $9 for the LHC heavy ion injector.

  18. MIMO Channel Capacity for Handsets in Data Mode Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2010-01-01

    The current paper concerns realistic evaluation of the capacity of the MIMO channel between a BS and handheld device, such as a PDA or smart phone, held in front of the user’s body (data mode). The work is based on measurements of the MIMO channel between two widely separated BSs in a micro...

  19. MIMO Channel Capacity for Handsets in Data Mode Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2010-01-01

    The current paper concerns realistic evaluation of the capacity of the MIMO channel between a BS and handheld device, such as a PDA or smart phone, held in front of the user’s body (data mode). The work is based on measurements of the MIMO channel between two widely separated BSs in a micro-cellular...

  20. Theoretical Investigation of Operation Modes of MHD Generators for Energy-bypass Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingfeng Tang; Nan Li; Daren Yu

    2014-01-01

    A MHD generator with different arrangements of electromagnetic fields will lead the generator working in three modes.A quasi-one-dimensional approximation is used for the model of the MHD generator to analyze the inner mechanism of operation modes.For the MHD generator with a uniform constant magnetic field,a specific critical electric field Ecr is required to decelerate a supersonic entrance flow into a subsonic exit flow.Otherwise,the generator works in a steady mode with a larger electric field than Ecr in which a steady supersonic flow is provided at the exit,or the generator works in a choked mode with a smaller electric field than Ecr in which the supersonic entrance flow is choked in the channel.The detailed flow field characteristics in different operation modes are discussed,demonstrating the relationship of operation modes with electromagnetic fields.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Induction Through-Heater in Dynamic Operation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCURTU Gheorghe Lucian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The numeric model used in this paper is based on the finite element method and is aiming an inductive heating in volume of a cylindrical structure in a dynamic operation mode. Nowadays the inductionthrough-heaters are usually designed to provide the required characteristics in “quasi” steady-state operation mode mainly. However, in industrial practice the heaters can operate under various disturbances more than half of time, so the transient process playsignificant role in effectiveness and quality of the heating. Investigation of dynamic characteristics of the heaters in dynamic modes can be only done by numerical modeling based on special algorithms providing a time loop additionally to coupling betweenelectromagnetic and thermal analysis. Such numerical models have been developed and used for investigation of dynamic modes for heating billets. The results of numerical simulation can be used for design ofinduction through-heaters and improvement of their characteristics in dynamic operation modes.

  2. Influence of Missile Fusillade Engagement Mode on Operation Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Xian-jin; REN Yi-guang; SHA Ji-chang

    2008-01-01

    Shoot efficiency is one of the most important evaluation indexes of the operation efficiency of weapon system. In this paper, based on definitions of the probability and the expected number of missed attacking missiles, the expected numbers of anti-missiles and attacking missiles hit by single anti-missile, fusillade mechanism of multi-missile is analyzed systematically. The weapon operation efficiency in various engagement patterns is also studied. The results show that double missiles fusillade is the most feasible manner for increasing the weapon operation efficiency.

  3. Dinamika Kerukunan Intern Umat Islam Dalam Relasi Etnisitas Dan Agama Di Kalteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAgama Islam dianut oleh sebagian besar penduduk Kalimantan Tengah yang terdiri dari berbagai etnis seperti Dayak, Banjar, Jawa, Madura, dan lainnya. Penelitian ini mengkaji dinamika hubungan intern umat Islam dalam konteks relasi etnisitas dan agama di Kalimantan Tengah. Permasalahannya adalah bagaimana dinamika hubungan inten umat Islam, faktor pendukung kerukunan, dan strategi adaptasi membangun harmoni di Kalimanta Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pendekatan kualitatif dimana pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara, observasi, Focus Group Discussion (FGD, dan telaah dokumen. Hubungan intern umat Islam di Kalimantan Tengah diwarnai dengan tanggapan terhadap konflik etnistahun 2001 antara Etnis Dayak dan Madura. Faktor yang mendukung kerukunan yang tercapai saat ini antara lain adanya daya tawar budaya, simbiosisme ekonomi, peran tokoh masyarakat, dan peran pemerintah. Adapun strategi adaptasi yang dilakukan untuk memelihara harmoni dilakukan secara kultural dengan revitalisasidan akulturasi budaya dan nilai-nilai lokal, serta secara struktural dengan politik uniformitas baik yang dilakukan oleh pranata Adat Dayak maupun pemerintah Kalimantan Tengah.Kata kunci: Kerukunan, Budaya Dominan, Politik Uniformitas, Strategi Adaptasi AbstractIslam is professed by the majority of people in Central Kalimantan who consists of various ethnic groups such as the Dayak, Banjar, Javanese, Madurese, and others. This study discusses about the dynamics of internal relationship among Muslim in the context of the relationship of ethnicity and religion in Central Kalimantan. The problems are how the dynamics of the internal relationship amongst Muslims in CentralKalimantan and what factors are supporting to the reconciliation and adaptation strategies to build harmony amongst them. This research was carried out with the qualitative approach in which data were collected through interviews, observation, Focus Group

  4. Active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers operating in external ring cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Revin, D G; Wang, Y; Cockburn, J W; Belyanin, A

    2015-01-01

    Stable ultrashort light pulses and frequency combs generated by mode-locked lasers have many important applications including high-resolution spectroscopy, fast chemical detection and identification, studies of ultrafast processes, and laser metrology. While compact mode-locked lasers emitting in the visible and near infrared range have revolutionized photonic technologies, the systems operating in the mid-infrared range where most gases have their strong absorption lines, are bulky and expensive and rely on nonlinear frequency down-conversion. Quantum cascade lasers are the most powerful and versatile compact light sources in the mid-infrared range, yet achieving their mode locked operation remains a challenge despite dedicated effort. Here we report the first demonstration of active mode locking of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser. The laser operates in the mode-locked regime at room temperature and over the full dynamic range of injection currents of a standard commercial laser chip.

  5. Characterization of photomultiplier tubes in a novel operation mode for Secondary Emission Ionization Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiras, E.; Dilsiz, K.; Ogul, H.; Southwick, D.; Bilki, B.; Wetzel, J.; Nachtman, J.; Onel, Y.; Winn, D.

    2016-10-01

    Hamamatsu single anode R7761 and multi-anode R5900-00-M16 Photomultiplier Tubes have been characterized for use in a Secondary Emission (SE) Ionization Calorimetry study. SE Ionization Calorimetry is a novel technique to measure electromagnetic shower particles in extreme radiation environments. The different operation modes used in these tests were developed by modifying the conventional PMT bias circuit. These modifications were simple changes to the arrangement of the voltage dividers of the baseboard circuits. The PMTs with modified bases, referred to as operating in SE mode, are used as an SE detector module in an SE calorimeter prototype, and placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W, etc.). Here, the technical design of different operation modes, as well as the characterization measurements of both SE modes and the conventional PMT mode are reported.

  6. Investigations on the transition between column and micropinch mode of plasma focus operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert, R.; Engel, A.; Neff, W.

    1995-12-01

    X-ray emission from pinch plasma devices with pinch currents ranging from 200 to 400 kA operated with pure high-Z gases are investigated with temporal spatial and spectral resolution. If operated using elements Zneon) K-shell emission is observed from column-like volumes several 100 μm in diameter and several mm in length (bulk or column mode). For Z≳18 (e.g., krypton or xenon) emission with hν≳1 keV is only observed from micropinches. For argon (Z=18) both modes of operation can be observed. The occurrence of a specific mode depends on the initial gas pressure. In this paper the transition regime between column and micropinches is investigated with particular regard to argon. A criterion is proposed to decide whether column mode or micropinch mode is expected.

  7. FDNS CFD Code Benchmark for RBCC Ejector Mode Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James B.; Ruf, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results are compared with benchmark quality test data from the Propulsion Engineering Research Center's (PERC) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) experiments to verify fluid dynamic code and application procedures. RBCC engine flowpath development will rely on CFD applications to capture the multi-dimensional fluid dynamic interactions and to quantify their effect on the RBCC system performance. Therefore, the accuracy of these CFD codes must be determined through detailed comparisons with test data. The PERC experiments build upon the well-known 1968 rocket-ejector experiments of Odegaard and Stroup by employing advanced optical and laser based diagnostics to evaluate mixing and secondary combustion. The Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code was used to model the fluid dynamics of the PERC RBCC ejector mode configuration. Analyses were performed for both Diffusion and Afterburning (DAB) and Simultaneous Mixing and Combustion (SMC) test conditions. Results from both the 2D and the 3D models are presented.

  8. The mode of operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergelson Boris R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of calculations for CANDU reactor operation in the thorium fuel cycle. The calculations were performed to estimate feasibility of operation of a heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in the self-sufficient thorium cycle. The parameters of the active core and the scheme of fuel reloading were considered to be the same as for the standard operation in the uranium cycle. Two modes of operation are discussed in the paper: the mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U and the mode of operation in the self-sufficient cycle. For calculations for the mode of accumulation of 233U, it was assumed that plutonium was used as the additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. Plutonium was placed in fuel channels, while 232Th was located in target channels. The maximum content of 233U in the target channels was about 13 kg/t of ThO2. This was achieved by six year irradiation. The start of reactor operation in the self-sufficient mode requires content of 233U not less than 12 kg/t. For the mode of operation in the self-sufficient cycle, it was assumed that all the channels were loaded with the identical fuel assemblies containing ThO2 and a certain amount of 233U. It was shown that the non-uniform distribution of 233U in a fuel assembly is preferable.

  9. Effect of operating modes on simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Zheng, Ping; Qaisar, Mahmood; Xing, Yajuan

    2014-05-01

    The effect of operating modes on the simultaneous sulfide and nitrate removal were studied in two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The batch and continuous operating modes were compared and evaluated in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation. Upon gradual increase in the influent sulfide concentration from 60 to 1,020 S mg L(-1), and the hydraulic retention time decrease from 17.2 to 6 h, the MFC accomplished a good substrate removal efficiency whereby nitrogen and sulfate were the main end products. The removal efficiency of the MFC in the continuous mode was much higher than that in the batch mode, and its current densities in the continuous mode were more stable and higher than in the batch mode, which could be explained by the linear relationship between electrons released by the substrates and accepted on the electrodes. The electricity output in the continuous mode of the MFC was higher than that in the batch mode. MFC's operation in the continuous mode was a better strategy for the simultaneous treatment of sulfide and nitrate.

  10. NERVA-Derived Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Dual Mode Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Hundal, Rolv

    1994-07-01

    Generation of electrical power using the nuclear heat source of a NERVA-derived nuclear thermal rocket engine is presented. A 111,200 N thrust engine defined in a study for NASA-LeRC in FY92 is the reference engine for a three-engine vehicle for which a 50 kWe capacity is required. Processes are described for energy extraction from the reactor and for converting the energy to electricity. The tie tubes which support the reactor fuel elements are the source of thermal energy. The study focuses on process systems using Stirling cycle energy conversion operating at 980 K and an alternate potassium-Rankine system operating at 1,140 K. Considerations are given of the effect of the power production on turbopump operation, ZrH moderator dissociation, creep strain in the tie tubes, hydrogen permeation through the containment materials, requirements for a backup battery system, and the effects of potential design changes on reactor size and criticality. Nuclear considerations include changing tie tube materials to TZM, changing the moderator to low vapor-pressure yttrium hydride, and changing the fuel form from graphite matrix to a carbon-carbide composite.

  11. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  12. Properties of the Measurement Phase Operator in Dual-Mode Entangle Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shen-Yong; YANG Kuo

    2011-01-01

    @@ A class of measurement phase operators of dual-mode is defined and their properties in a class of entangle coherent states are investigated.Numerical results indicate that the entangle coherent states display some non-classical squeezed effects.%A class of measurement phase operators of dual-mode is defined and their properties in a class of entangle coherent states are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the entangle coherent states display some non-classical squeezed effects.

  13. Dinamika Leukosit Akibat Xilazin pada Anjing Lokal yang Dianestesi Ketamin secara Subkutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Sri Adiari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinamika leukosit dapat diketahui dari pemberian xilazin dengan berbagai dosis pada anjing yang dianestesi ketamin secara subkutan. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL Split In Time dengan empat perlakuan yaitu X2K10 sebagai kontrol (xilazin dosis 2 mg/kg IM, ketamin dosis 10 mg/kg IM, X4K10 (xilazin dosis 4 mg/kg SC, ketamin dosis 10 mg/kg SC, X6K10 (xilazin dosis 6 mg/kg SC, ketamin dosis 10 mg/kg SC, dan X8K10 (xilazin dosis 8 mg/kg SC, ketamin dosis 10 mg/kg SC. Tiap perlakuan menggunakan 6 ekor anjing lokal sehingga jumlah yang digunakan sebanyak 24 ekor. Pengambilan sampel darah dilakukan selama anestesi dengan selang waktu 20 menit sampai menit ke-100 untuk pemeriksaan total leukosit dan diferensial leukosit. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa terjadi peningkatan rata-rata total leukosit dan fluktuasi diferensial leukosit, namun peningkatannya berada pada rentang normal anjing lokal. Disimpulkan bahwa dosis xilazin tidak memberikan efek yang nyata (P>0,05 terhadap total dan diferensial leukosit, namun waktu pemeriksaan sampel darah menunjukkan efek sangat nyata (P0,05 terhadap basofil dan monosit.

  14. Analysis of thermionic bare tether operation regimes in passive mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, J. R.; Chen, Xin; Sánchez-Arriaga, G.

    2017-01-01

    A thermionic bare tether (TBT) is a long conductor coated with a low work-function material. In drag mode, a tether segment extending from anodic end A to a zero-bias point B, with the standard Orbital-motion-limited current collection, is followed by a complex cathodic segment. In general, as bias becomes more negative in moving from B to cathodic end C, one first finds space-charge-limited (SCL) emission covering up to some intermediate point B*, then full Richardson-Dushman (RD) emission reaching from B* to end C. An approximate analytical study, which combines the current and voltage profile equations with results from asymptotic studies of the Vlasov-Poisson system for emissive probes, is carried out to determine the parameter domain covering two limit regimes, which are effectively controlled by just two dimensionless parameters involving ambient plasma and TBT material properties. In one such limit regime, no point B* is reached and thus no full RD emission develops. In an opposite regime, SCL segment BB* is too short to contribute significantly to the current balance.

  15. Ship operation and failure mode analysis using a maneuver simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo-Morales, Miguel Angel; Molina, Rafael; de los Santos, Francisco; Camarero, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    In a ship or floating structure operation the agents that contribute to the systems behaviour are not only those derived from fluid-structure interaction, but also the ones linked to mooring-control line set-up evolution and human interaction. Therefore, the analysis of such systems is affected by boundary conditions that change during a complete operation. Frequently, monitoring techniques in laboratory (model) and field (prototype) are based in different instrumental techniques adding difficulty to data comparison and, in some cases, inducing precision and repeatability errors. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to develop the methods and tools to achieve a deep knowledge of those floating systems and obtain capabilities to optimize their operationally thresholds. This abstract presents a methodology and an instrumental system applicable both in field and laboratory: SRECMOCOS Project (Small scale REal-time Caisson MOnitoring and COntrol System). SRECMOCOS compiles three modules. For the monitoring and control of the structure it has been developed a synchronized open and modular microcontroller-based electronic system that comprises sensors, to monitor agents and reactions, and actuators to perform pertinent actions after processing the sensors' data. A secondary objective has been to design and implement a global scaled simulator (1:22), at the 3D basin of The Harbour Research Lab at Technical University of Madrid, in which climatic agents and those derived from the rig/maneuvering setup and the structural design were included. The particular case of Campamento's drydock, in Algeciras Bay (Spain), has been used to apply and validate the methodology. SRECMOCOS Project conjugates control, monitoring and wireless communication systems in a real time basis, offering the possibility to register and simulate all the parameters involved in port operations. This approach offers a step forward into a monitoring strategy to be included in monitoring

  16. The Study of Operation Modes and Control Strategies of a Multidirectional MC for Battery Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Toosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the performance of stand-alone battery based system and to achieve the continuous power transmission, the behavior of multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC has been analyzed in different operation modes. A systematic method interfacing a renewable source, a storage battery, and a load is proposed for a stand-alone battery based power system (SABBPS to utilize the MDMC as PWM converter, inverter, or PWM converter and inverter in different operation modes. In this study, the Extended Direct Duty Pulse Width Modulation (EDDPWM technique has been applied to control the power flow path between the renewable source, load, and the battery. Corresponding to generator voltage, input frequency, and loads demands, several operating states and control strategies are possible. Therefore, the boundaries and distribution of operation modes are discussed and illustrated to improve the system performance. The mathematical equation of the EDDPWM under different operation modes has been derived to achieve the maximum voltage ratio in each mode. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in simulation using MATLAB and experimental testing. Moreover, the THD, ripple, and power flow direction have been analyzed for output current to investigate the behavior of system in each operation mode.

  17. A multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible microgrid based on sliding-mode direct voltage and hierarchical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinjin; Liu, Yancheng; Zhao, Youtao; Wang, Ning

    2016-03-01

    Multi-mode operation and transient stability are two problems that significantly affect flexible microgrid (MG). This paper proposes a multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible MG based on a three-layer hierarchical structure. The proposed structure is composed of autonomous, cooperative, and scheduling controllers. Autonomous controller is utilized to control the performance of the single micro-source inverter. An adaptive sliding-mode direct voltage loop and an improved droop power loop based on virtual negative impedance are presented respectively to enhance the system disturbance-rejection performance and the power sharing accuracy. Cooperative controller, which is composed of secondary voltage/frequency control and phase synchronization control, is designed to eliminate the voltage/frequency deviations produced by the autonomous controller and prepare for grid connection. Scheduling controller manages the power flow between the MG and the grid. The MG with the improved hierarchical control scheme can achieve seamless transitions from islanded to grid-connected mode and have a good transient performance. In addition the presented work can also optimize the power quality issues and improve the load power sharing accuracy between parallel VSIs. Finally, the transient performance and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are evaluated by theoretical analysis and simulation results.

  18. Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebersdorf, A [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Lingk, C [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); De Giorgi, M [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Feldmann, J [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Sacher, J [Sacher Lasertechnik GmbH, Hannah Arendt Strasse 3-7, D-35037 Marburg (Germany); Arzberger, M [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ulbrich, C [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Boehm, G [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Amann, M-C [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Abstreiter, G [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2003-08-21

    We investigate quantum-dot (QD) lasers in an external cavity using Littrow and Littman configurations. Here, we report on a continuously tunable QD laser with a broad tuning range from 1047 to 1130 nm with high stability and efficient side mode suppression. The full-width at half-maximum of the laser line is 0.85 nm determined mainly by the quality of the external grating. This laser can be operated in a dual-mode modus, where the mode-spacing can be tuned continuously between 1.1 and 34 nm. Simultaneous emission of the two laser modes is shown by sum frequency generation experiments.

  19. Online channel operation mode: Game theoretical analysis from the supply chain power structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dual-channels have been widely used in practice, and the pricing decisions and the online channel operation mode choice have been the core problems in dual-channel supply chain management. This paper focuses on the online channel operation mode choice from the supply chain power structures based on game theoretical analysis. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes three kinds of game theoretical models to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the optimal pricing and online channel operation mode choice. Findings: Results derived in this paper indicate that when the self-price elasticity is large, the power structures have no direct impact on the decisions. However, when the self-price elasticity is small and customers’ preference for the online channel is low, then in the MS market, it is better for the retailer to operate the online channel, while in the RS market or in the VN market, it is better for the manufacturer to operate the online channel. Research limitations/implications: In this paper, we do not consider stochastic demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suit the reality. Originality/value: This paper provides a different perspective to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the pricing decisions and online channel operation mode choice. The comparison of these two online channel operation modes in this paper is also a unique point.

  20. Thermal characterization of phacoemulsification probes operated in axial and torsional modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    To analyze temperature increases and identify potential sources of heat generated when sleeved and sleeveless phacoemulsification probes were operated in axial and torsional modes using the Infiniti Vision System with the Ozil torsional handpiece. Phacodynamics Laboratory, Pasteur Ophthalmic Clinic, Santiago, Chile. Experimental study. Two computer-controlled thermal transfer systems were developed to evaluate the contribution of internal metal stress and tip-to-sleeve friction on heat generation during phacoemulsification using axial and torsional ultrasound modalities. Both systems incorporated infrared thermal imaging and used a black-body film to accurately capture temperature measurements. Axial mode was consistently associated with greater temperature increases than torsional mode whether tips were operated with or without sleeves. In tests involving bare tips, axial mode and torsional mode peaked at 51.7°C and 34.2°C, respectively. In an example using sleeved tips in which a 30.0 g load was applied for 1 second, temperatures for axial mode reached 45°C and for torsional mode, 38°C. Friction between the sleeved probe and the incisional wall contributed more significantly to the temperature increase than internal metal stress regardless of the mode used. In all experiments, the temperature increase observed with axial mode was greater than that observed with torsional mode, even when conditions such as power or amplitude and flow rate were varied. Tip-to-sleeve friction was a more dominant source of phaco probe heating than internal metal stress. The temperature increase due to internal metal stress was greater with axial mode than with torsional mode. Dr. Zacharias received research funding from Alcon Laboratories, Inc., to conduct this study. He has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Demand and supply-based operating modes--a framework for analyzing health care service production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

    2010-12-01

    The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply-based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  2. Scaling of mode shapes from operational modal analysis using harmonic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A.; Berardengo, M.; Manzoni, S.; Cigada, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a new method for scaling mode shapes obtained by means of operational modal analysis. The method is capable of scaling mode shapes on any structure, also structures with closely coupled modes, and the method can be used in the presence of ambient vibration from traffic or wind loads, etc. Harmonic excitation can be relatively easily accomplished by using general-purpose actuators, also for force levels necessary for driving large structures such as bridges and highrise buildings. The signal processing necessary for mode shape scaling by the proposed method is simple and the method can easily be implemented in most measurement systems capable of generating a sine wave output. The tests necessary to scale the modes are short compared to typical operational modal analysis test time. The proposed method is thus easy to apply and inexpensive relative to some other methods for scaling mode shapes that are available in literature. Although it is not necessary per se, we propose to excite the structure at, or close to, the eigenfrequencies of the modes to be scaled, since this provides better signal-to-noise ratio in the response sensors, thus permitting the use of smaller actuators. An extensive experimental activity on a real structure was carried out and the results reported demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method. Since the method utilizes harmonic excitation for the mode shape scaling, we propose to call the method OMAH.

  3. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  4. Assessment of body mapping sportswear using a manikin operated in constant temperature mode and thermoregulatory model control mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Del Ferraro, Simona; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Morrissey, Matthew; Rossi, René

    2014-09-01

    Regional sweating patterns and body surface temperature differences exist between genders. Traditional sportswear made from one material and/or one fabric structure has a limited ability to provide athletes sufficient local wear comfort. Body mapping sportswear consists of one piece of multiple knit structure fabric or of different fabric pieces that may provide athletes better wear comfort. In this study, the 'modular' body mapping sportswear was designed and subsequently assessed on a 'Newton' type sweating manikin that operated in both constant temperature mode and thermophysiological model control mode. The performance of the modular body mapping sportswear kit and commercial products were also compared. The results demonstrated that such a modular body mapping sportswear kit can meet multiple wear/thermal comfort requirements in various environmental conditions. All body mapping clothing (BMC) presented limited global thermophysiological benefits for the wearers. Nevertheless, BMC showed evident improvements in adjusting local body heat exchanges and local thermal sensations.

  5. High temperature brushless DC motor system and its operation mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹继斌; 胡建辉; 徐永向

    2001-01-01

    The high temperature ( 175 ℃ ) operation of a motor spells out special requirements for control algorithms, materials and elements. The stability of motor characteristic is guaranteed by the digital control strategy. Constant velocity operation is achieved by phase-locked loop ( PLL), and constant power operation is achieved by a current-restricting circuit. A motor for constant speed and constant power operation has been built and the speed control system is tuned by MATLAB simulation. Experimental and simulation results for operation mode control of brushless DC motor are presented.

  6. Performance Analysis of Sleep Mode Operation in IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sangkyu; Son, Jung Je; Choi, Bong Dae

    We mathematically analyze the sleep mode operation of IEEE 802.16m. The sleep mode operation for downlink traffic is modeled as a 3-dimensional discrete time Markov chain. We obtain the average power consumption of a mobile station and the average delay of a message. Numerical results match simulations very well. Numerical results show that there is a tradeoff between power consumption and message delay. We find the optimal lengths of sleep cycle and close-down time that minimize the power consumption while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) constraint on message delay. The power consumption of the sleep mode in IEEE 802.16m is better than that of sleep modes in legacy IEEE 802.16e standard under the same delay bound.

  7. EFEKTIVITAS PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM DINAMIKA KELOMPOK DENGAN METODE OUTBOUND PADA DIKLAT FUNGSIONAL AUDITOR DI PUSDIKLATWAS BPKP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Palupi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the implementation effectiveness of the group dynamic program using outbound method.  The training is organized by Pusdklatwas BPKP and attended by all the government internal auditors in Indonesia.  The research uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with Partial Least Square approach.  The effectiveness of the program is scored using Kirkpatrick’s Four Level Training Evaluation model by measuring the participant’s perception on the implemented training, the learning process, and the benefit that can be obtained from the training.  The result shows that as an output, the training influences the participants learning process positively and significantly (trust, openness, responsibility, interdependency, self confidence, & stress management.  In addition, as a short term result the training also gives a positive and significant impact to the learning condition and for the medium term result is the adaptive performance of the participants.Keywords: audit, employee, performance, psychology, SEM AbstrakTujuan dari penelian ini adalah menganalisis efektivitas pelaksanaan program dinamika kelompok dengan metode outbound yang diselenggarakan oleh Pusdiklatwas BPKP untuk seluruh auditor internal pemerintah dari seluruh Indonesia.  Penelitian ini dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modeling (SEM dengan pendekatan Partial Least Square (PLS. Efektivitas program dinilai dengan menggunakan teori evaluasi pelatihan empat level yang dikemukakan oleh Kirkpatrick, dengan mengukur persespi peserta program tentang pelaksanaan program, serta pembelajaran dan manfaat yang dirasakan oleh peserta program.  Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa program efektif pada setiap tahapan evaluasi.  Hasil menunjukkan bahwa program ini secara positif dan signifikan berpengaruh terhadap pembelajaran peserta (trust, openness, responsibility, interdependency, self confidence, & stress management sebagai output

  8. Totem-Pole Power-Factor-Correction Converter under Critical-Conduction-Mode Interleaved Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Eka; Tomioka, Satoshi; Abe, Seiya; Shoyama, Masahito; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    This paper proposes a new power-factor-correction (PFC) topology, and explains its operation principle, its control mechanism, related application problems followed by experimental results. In this proposed topology, critical-conduction-mode (CRM) interleaved technique is applied to a bridgeless PFC in order to achieve high efficiency by combining benefits of each topology. This application is targeted toward low to middle power applications that normally employs continuous-conduction-mode boost converter.

  9. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma def...

  10. CALCULATION OF OPERATION MODE OF OUTDOOR LIGHTING LINE WITH BILATERAL SUPPLY. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kozlovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical outdoor lighting grids are formed with a regard for their functional purpose. The present article draws the attention to the specific features of operation mode of an outdoor lighting line with a bilateral supply. This mode of operation is characteristic for main streets and circular roads. The article presents the method of calculating of the mode of such kind and the calculation itself that has been fulfilled on behalf of the outdoor lighting line with a bilateral supply described in the article. Luminaries with high pressure sodium lamps connected through electromagnetic ballasts were used as sources of light. The accuracy of parameters under calculation depends on the completeness of the source data. The calculations were implemented with the use of a program realized in MathCad. For each line phase the following mode parameters were defined: voltage in the circuit points, power, current, power loss and voltage drop on all segments of the line. The calculated data can be used for various purposes. Power magnitudes were determined for two points of supply and one can determine the power consumption provided that the time of operation of electric lighting is known. Estimation of the efficiency the mode on the basis of ensuring the necessary level of voltage at the luminaires was implemented. Active and reactive power of a luminary is determined by the voltage at the terminals of the luminaires. Magnitudes of power of luminaires located at different distances from the power source differ from each other. The voltage value has a significant effect on the electricity consumption values and on operating characteristics of a light source. With the use of the abovementioned program a line of outdoor lighting with a bilateral supply of any configuration can be simulated and different operation modes of a grid, viz. evening, night, dimming and other modes can be calculated.

  11. Extracting fundamental transverse mode operation in broad area quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, R.; Luong, S.; Yang, C.; Lu, C.; Newell, T. C.; Bate, T.

    2016-11-01

    Power scaling in broad area quantum cascade lasers results in the operation of high order transverse modes with a far-field profile consisting of two lobes propagating at large angles relative to the optical axis. We report a method of suppressing the high order transverse modes that can extract the fundamental mode and provide emission along the optical axis. By generating a lateral constriction in the waveguide in the form of short trenches defined by the focused ion beam milling technique, we report broad area devices in which most of the power is contained in a near diffraction-limited beam that provides high brightness.

  12. Commissioning of two RF operation modes for RF negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Chen, D.; Liu, K.; Zhao, P.; Zuo, C.; Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, L.

    2017-08-01

    An RF-driven negative ion source experimental setup, without a cesium oven and an extraction system, has been built at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The working gas is hydrogen, and the typical operational gas pressure is 0.3 Pa. The RF generator is capable of delivering up to 20 kW at 0.9 - 1.1 MHz, and has two operation modes, the fixed-frequency mode and auto-tuning mode. In the fixed-frequency mode, it outputs a steady RF forward power (Pf) at a fixed frequency. In the auto-tuning mode, it adjusts the operating frequency to seek and track the minimum standing wave ratio (SWR) during plasma discharge. To achieve fast frequency tuning, the RF signal source adopts a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). To withstand high SWR during the discharge, a tetrode amplifier is chosen as the final stage amplifier. The trend of maximum power reflection coefficient |ρ|2 at plasma ignition is presented at the fixed frequency of 1.02 MHz with the Pf increasing from 5 kW to 20 kW, which shows the maximum |ρ|2 tends to be "steady" under high RF power. The experiments in auto-tuning mode fail due to over-current protection of screen grid. The possible reason is the relatively large equivalent anode impedance caused by the frequency tuning. The corresponding analysis and possible solution are presented.

  13. Concurrent operational modes and enhanced current sensitivity in heterostructure of magnetoelectric ring and piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengyao; Ming Leung, Chung; Kuang, Wei; Wing Or, Siu; Ho, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    A heterostructure possessing two concurrent operational modes: current sensing (CS) mode and current transduction (CT) mode and an enhanced current sensitivity associated with the CT mode is proposed by combining a magnetoelectric ring (MER) with a piezoelectric transformer (PET). The MER is a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate having an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic ring sandwiched between two circumferentially magnetized, inter-magnetically biased Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet/epoxy three-phase magnetostrictive composite rings, while the PET is a Rosen-type PZT piezoelectric ceramic transformer. The current sensitivity (SI) and magnetoelectric voltage coefficient (αV) of the heterostructure in the two operational modes are evaluated theoretically and experimentally. The CS mode provides a large SI of ˜10 mV/A over a flat frequency range of 10 Hz-40 kHz with a high resonance SI of 157 mV/A at 62 kHz. The CT mode gives a 6.4-times enhancement in resonance SI, reaching 1000 mV/A at 62 kHz, as a result of the amplified vortex magnetoelectric effect caused by the vortex magnetoelectric effect in the MER, the matching of the resonance frequencies between the MER and the PET, and the resonance voltage step-up effect in the PET.

  14. Performance Assessment of Single Electrode-Supported Solid Oxide Cells Operating in the Steam Electrolysis Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X. Zhang; J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; N. Petigny

    2011-11-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm{sup 2} per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes ({approx}10 {mu}m thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes ({approx}1400 {mu}m thick), and modified LSM or LSCF air-side electrodes ({approx}90 {mu}m thick). The purpose of the present study is to document and compare the performance and degradation rates of these cells in the fuel cell mode and in the electrolysis mode under various operating conditions. Initial performance was documented through a series of voltage-current (VI) sweeps and AC impedance spectroscopy measurements. Degradation was determined through long-term testing, first in the fuel cell mode, then in the electrolysis mode. Results generally indicate accelerated degradation rates in the electrolysis mode compared to the fuel cell mode, possibly due to electrode delamination. The paper also includes details of an improved single-cell test apparatus developed specifically for these experiments.

  15. Status and new operation modes of the versatile VLT/NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Julien H V; Quanz, Sascha P; Kenworthy, Matthew A; Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Schödel, Rainer; Gallenne, Alexandre; Gillessen, Stefan; Huerta, Nicolas; Kervella, Pierre; Kornweibel, Nick; Lenzen, Rainer; Mérand, Antoine; Montagnier, Guillaume; O'Neal, Jared; Zins, Gérard; IOT, the NACO; 10.1117/12.856799

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at giving an update on the most versatile adaptive optics fed instrument to date, the well known and successful NACO . Although NACO is only scheduled for about two more years at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), it keeps on evolving with additional operation modes bringing original astronomical results. The high contrast imaging community uses it creatively as a test-bench for SPHERE and other second generation planet imagers. A new visible wavefront sensor (WFS) optimized for Laser Guide Star (LGS) operations has been installed and tested, the cube mode is more and more requested for frame selection on bright sources, a seeing enhancer mode (no tip/tilt correction) is now offered to provide full sky coverage and welcome all kind of extragalactic applications, etc. The Instrument Operations Team (IOT) and Paranal engineers are currently working hard at maintaining the instrument overall performances but also at improving them and offering new capabilities, providing the community with a well tu...

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of Dual-Mode Scramjet Engine Operation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, David; Tacket, Regan; Taylor, Trent; Auslender, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Recent analytical advances in understanding the performance continuum (the thermodynamic spectrum) for air-breathing engines based on fundamental second-law considerations have clarified scramjet and ramjet operation, performance, and characteristics. Second-law based analysis is extended specifically in this work to clarify and describe the performance characteristics for dual-mode scramjet operation in the mid-speed range of flight Mach 4 to 7. This is done by a fundamental investigation of the complex but predictable interplay between heat release and irreversibilities in such an engine; results demonstrate the flow and performance character of the dual mode regime and of dual mode transition behavior. Both analytical and computational (multi-dimensional CFD) studies of sample dual-mode flow-fields are performed in order to demonstrate the second-law capability and performance and operability issues. The impact of the dual-mode regime is found to be characterized by decreasing overall irreversibility with increasing heat release, within the operability limits of the system.

  17. DC motor operation controlled from a DC/DC power converter in pulse mode with low duty cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Goce; Kukuseva, Maja; Citkuseva Dimitrovska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper pulse mode of operation of DC motor controlled by DC/DC power converter is analyzed. DC motor operation with time intervals in which the motor operates without output load is of interest. In this mode it is possible the motor to restore energy. Also, in the paper are represented calculations for the amount of the restored energy in the pulse mode operation of the motor for different duty cycles.

  18. The experimental studies of operating modes of a diesel-generator set at variable speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Surkov, M. A.; Sumarokova, L. P.

    2017-02-01

    A diesel generator set working at variable speed to save fuel is studied. The results of experimental studies of the operating modes of an autonomous diesel generator set are presented. Areas for regulating operating modes are determined. It is demonstrated that the transfer of the diesel generator set to variable speed of the diesel engine makes it possible to improve the energy efficiency of the autonomous generator source, as well as the environmental and ergonomic performance of the equipment as compared with general industrial analogues.

  19. Open-phase operating modes of power flow control topologies in a Smart Grid Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The power flow regulating circuit node in an alternating current system is reviewed. The circuit node is accomplished based on a thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) with controlled thyristor switch. Research results of the individual phase control of the output voltage for the TCPAR are presented. Analytical expressions for the overvoltage factor calculation in the thyristor switch circuit for open-phase operating modes are received. Based on evaluation of overvoltage in operational and emergency modes, the implementability conditions of the individual phase control of the output voltage are determined. Under these conditions, maximal performance and complete controllability are provided.

  20. High-power, surface-emitting quantum cascade laser operating in a symmetric grating mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, C.; Sigler, C.; Kirch, J. D.; Botez, D.; Mawst, L. J., E-mail: mawst@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Lindberg, D. F.; Earles, T. [Intraband, LLC, Madison, Wisconsin 53726 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Grating-coupled surface-emitting (GCSE) lasers generally operate with a double-lobed far-field beam pattern along the cavity-length direction, which is a result of lasing being favored in the antisymmetric grating mode. We experimentally demonstrate a GCSE quantum-cascade laser design allowing high-power, nearly single-lobed surface emission parallel to the longitudinal cavity. A 2nd-order Au-semiconductor distributed-feedback (DFB)/distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) grating is used for feedback and out-coupling. The DFB and DBR grating regions are 2.55 mm- and 1.28 mm-long, respectively, for a total grating length of 5.1 mm. The lasers are designed to operate in a symmetric (longitudinal) grating mode by causing resonant coupling of the guided optical mode to the antisymmetric surface-plasmon modes of the 2nd-order metal/semiconductor grating. Then, the antisymmetric modes are strongly absorbed by the metal in the grating, causing the symmetric mode to be favored to lase, which, in turn, produces a single-lobed beam over a range of grating duty-cycle values of 36%–41%. Simulations indicate that the symmetric mode is always favored to lase, independent of the random phase of reflections from the device's cleaved ends. Peak pulsed output powers of ∼0.4 W were measured with nearly single-lobe beam-pattern (in the longitudinal direction), single-spatial-mode operation near 4.75 μm wavelength. Far-field measurements confirm a diffraction-limited beam pattern, in agreement with simulations, for a source-to-detector separation of 2 m.

  1. Controlling the mode of operation of organic transistors through side-chain engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Giovannitti, Alexander

    2016-10-11

    Electrolyte-gated organic transistors offer low bias operation facilitated by direct contact of the transistor channel with an electrolyte. Their operation mode is generally defined by the dimensionality of charge transport, where a field-effect transistor allows for electrostatic charge accumulation at the electrolyte/semiconductor interface, whereas an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) facilitates penetration of ions into the bulk of the channel, considered a slow process, leading to volumetric doping and electronic transport. Conducting polymer OECTs allow for fast switching and high currents through incorporation of excess, hygroscopic ionic phases, but operate in depletion mode. Here, we show that the use of glycolated side chains on a thiophene backbone can result in accumulation mode OECTs with high currents, transconductance, and sharp subthreshold switching, while maintaining fast switching speeds. Compared with alkylated analogs of the same backbone, the triethylene glycol side chains shift the mode of operation of aqueous electrolyte-gated transistors from interfacial to bulk doping/transport and show complete and reversible electrochromism and high volumetric capacitance at low operating biases. We propose that the glycol side chains facilitate hydration and ion penetration, without compromising electronic mobility, and suggest that this synthetic approach can be used to guide the design of organic mixed conductors.

  2. Effect of water vapor on the performance of glass RPCs in avalanche mode operation

    CERN Document Server

    Raveendrababu, K; Satyanarayana, B; Mukhopadhayay, S; Majumdar, N

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of water vapor on the performance of glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in the avalanche mode operation. Controlled and calibrated amount of water vapor was added to the RPC gas mixture that has C$_2$H$_2$F$_4$ as the major component. The deterioration in the performance of RPC was observed while operating with wet gas and recovered after switching to standard gas.

  3. Design Considerations for CMOS Current Mode Operational Amplifiers and Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    This dissertation is about CMOS current conveyors and current mode operational amplifiers (opamps). They are generic devices for continuous time signal processing in circuits and systems where signals are represented by currents.Substantial advancements are reported in the dissertation, both...... implementations of current mode opamps in CMOS technology are described. Also, current conveyor configurations with multiple outputs and flexible feedback connections from outputs to inputs are introduced. The dissertation includes several examples of circuit configurations ranging from simple class A and class...... AB conveyor implementations to implementations based on purely digital circuit structures and on more complex analog subsystems such as a voltage mode opamp with feedback to provide a voltage follower action. An important by-product of the investigation of current mode structures is the definition...

  4. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Enhanced Propulsion Control Modes for Emergency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan, S; Sowers, T.; Owen, A., Karl; Fulton, Christopher, E.; Chicatelli, Amy, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes piloted evaluation of enhanced propulsion control modes for emergency operation of aircraft. Fast Response and Overthrust modes were implemented to assess their ability to help avoid or mitigate potentially catastrophic situations, both on the ground and in flight. Tests were conducted to determine the reduction in takeoff distance achievable using the Overthrust mode. Also, improvements in Dutch roll damping, enabled by using yaw rate feedback to the engines to replace the function of a stuck rudder, were investigated. Finally, pilot workload and ability to handle the impaired aircraft on approach and landing were studied. The results showed that improvement in all aspects is possible with these enhanced propulsion control modes, but the way in which they are initiated and incorporated is important for pilot comfort and perceived benefit.

  5. Optimization for operating modes based on simulation of seasonal underground thermal energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun ZHAO; Yan CHEN; Xinguo LI

    2008-01-01

    A simulation was performed, which concerned the feasibility of seasonal underground thermal energy storage (UTES) in Tianjin, China. The investigated sys-tem consisted of 8 boreholes. In summer, residual solar thermal energy was emitted into the soil surrounding the borehole heat exchangers through which the stored energy was extracted in winter with a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) to provide a proper heating temperature. A simulation study was performed to study the influence of system operation modes on thermal recovery based on the experimental data of a GCHP system, local met-eorological conditions and soil properties in Tianjin. The results indicate a thermal recovery ratio of less than 67% and different temperature distributions under three modes. Finally, an operation mode was suggested based on both lower loss and better thermal recovery in the UTES.

  6. Single-Phase Microgrid with Seamless Transition Capabilities between Modes of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Microgrids are an effective way to increase the penetration of DG into the grid. They are capable of operating either in grid-connected or in islanded mode thereby increasing the supply reliability for the end user. This paper focuses on achieving seamless transitions from islanded to grid......-connected and vice versa for a single phase microgrid made up from voltage controlled voltage source inverters (VC-VSIs) and current controlled voltage source inverters (CC-VSIs) working together in both modes of operation. The primary control structures for the VC-VSIs and CC-VSIs is considered together...... with the secondary control loops that are used to synchronize the microgrid as a single unit to the grid. Simulation results are given that show the seamless transitions between the two modes without any disconnection times for the CC-VSIs and VC-VSIs connected to the microgrid....

  7. Linear Analysis of a Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) Operating in a Transverse Magnetic Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Shi-Chang

    2009-04-01

    In the fast-wave devices like gyrotron, gyro-peniotron and cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) that generate millimeter and sub-millimeter waves, the transverse dimensions of the resonator and the output cylindrical waveguide become small. In order to prevent loss of electrons and thermal loading of the rf structure, the electron beam must be kept relatively far from the walls. The latter requirement demands smaller transverse dimensions of the helical electron beam as well. In this paper linear formulation of a CARM operating in a general transverse-magnetic (TM) mode is derived, and a detailed analysis of the influences of the parameters is presented for the TM1,1 mode CARM. It is found that, compared to the TE1,1 mode which is often employed in gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) and CARM experiments, the TM1,1 mode has a greater eigen value and consequently leads to a greater waveguide radius for a given cutoff wave number, and also, allows the electron beam to be settled close to the waveguide axis to have a small transverse dimension. Results show that a TM-mode CARM can reach high power and ultrahigh gain, just as a TE-mode CARM or a TE-mode gyro-TWT does.

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance system operating in the coarse track pointing control mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance System has set new standards in pointing control capability for earth orbiting spacecraft. Two precision pointing control modes are implemented in the Fine Guidance System; one being a Coarse Track Mode which employs a pseudo-quadrature detector approach and the second being a Fine Mode which uses a two axis interferometer implementation. The Coarse Track Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to within 20 milli-arc seconds (rms) when guiding on a 14.5 Mv star. The Fine Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to less than 3 milli-arc seconds (rms). This paper addresses the HST FGS operating in the Coarse Track Mode. An overview of the implementation, the operation, and both the predicted and observed on orbit performance is presented. The discussion includes a review of the Fine Guidance System hardware which uses two beam steering Star Selector servos, four photon counting photomultiplier tube detectors, as well as a 24 bit microprocessor, which executes the control system firmware. Unanticipated spacecraft operational characteristics are discussed as they impact pointing performance. These include the influence of spherically aberrated star images as well as the mechanical shocks induced in the spacecraft during and following orbital day/night terminator crossings. Computer modeling of the Coarse Track Mode verifies the observed on orbit performance trends in the presence of these optical and mechanical disturbances. It is concluded that the coarse track pointing control function is performing as designed and is providing a robust pointing control capability for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  9. Experimental study on dielectric barrier discharge actuators operating in pulse mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsonis, M.; Veldhuis, L.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation is performed on the operation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators used as manipulators of secondary and unsteady flow structures such as boundary layer instabilities or shedding vortices. The actuators are tested mainly in pulse mode. High sample rate hot-w

  10. APPLICATION DIMENSIONAL AND SIMILARITY THEORY IN DETERMINING THE PARAMETERS AND OPERATING MODES OF SOIL CULTIVATING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shhirov V. N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of parameters and modes of operation of machines for soil cultivation. In determining the parameters and modes of operation of machinery for tillage we have applied the theory of similarity and dimensions of physical quantities. We have obtained the regularities of disclosing the relationship of the parameters from the medium to the energy characteristics of the process. As the initial data we used test protocols of machines for soil cultivation (Central - Black Earth, Kubanskaya, Sibirskaya, of North - Caucasion MIS, RosNIITiM : KPI - 3.8, AРC - 3.9, AKV - 4, AKM - 6 - V, AMP - 4 APC - 4 A, AРC - 10 APR - 4.4, APU - 6.5 APSH - 6 , CNC - 6.0, CSТ - 3.8, APC - 4. We defined the formula оf dimension parameters and modes of operation of machines for soil cultivation and properties of soil (traction resistance, depth, width, speed, hardness of the soil, acceleration. Based on dimension theory we have received similarity criteria. Based on the correlation analysis and the least squares method we determined the nature of addiction and the coefficients for it. We have also received a graph for determining the operating modes and parameters of machines for soil cultivation

  11. Large Mode Area Single Trench Fiber for 2 mu m Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Deepak; Sahu, Jayanta K.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of single trench fibers has been investigated using finite-element method at 2 mu m wavelength. Numerical investigations show that an effective single mode operation for large effective area between 3000-4000 mu m(2) and 2000-3000 mu m(2) can be achieved at similar to 40 and similar t...

  12. Optimal hysteretic control for a BMAP/SM/1/N queue with two operation modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Dudin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider BMAP/SM/1 type queueing system with finite buffer of size N. The system has two operation modes, which are characterized by the matrix generating function of BMAP-input, the kernel of the semi-Markovian service process, and utilization cost. An algorithm for determining the optimal hysteresis strategy is presented.

  13. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  14. Voltage Harmonic Compensation of a Microgrid Operating in Islanded and Grid-Connected Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Jalilian, Alireza; Vasquez, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for voltage harmonic compensation in a microgrid operating in islanded and gridconnected modes is presented. Harmonic compensation is done through proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converters. In order to achieve proper sharing of the compensation...

  15. Study of Exhaust Emissions Reduction of a Diesel Fuel Operated Heater During Transient Mode of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklánek Ľubomír

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel operated heaters (FOHs are generally used as an independent heat source for any system in which a diesel fuel and battery power is available. Based on the fact that future engines will become even more efficient and thus less waste heat will be available to heat the passenger compartment, independent heat sources will be even more necessary.

  16. AIR ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE DISCHARGERS FOR OPERATION IN HIGH-FREQUENCY SWITCHING MODE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Yevdoshenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Operation of two designs of compact multigap dischargers has been investigated in a high-frequency switching mode. It is experimentally revealed that the rational length of single discharge gaps in the designs is 0.3 mm, and the maximum switching frequency is 27000 discharges per second under long-term stable operation of the dischargers. It is shown that in pulsed corona discharge reactors, the pulse front sharpening results in increasing the operating electric field strength by 1.3 – 1.8 times.

  17. Two methods for estimating aeroelastic damping of operational wind turbine modes from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Thomsen, Kenneth; Fuglsang, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    on stochastic subspace identification, where a linear model of the turbine is estimated alone from measured response signals by assuming that the ambient excitation from turbulence is random in time and space. Although the assumption is not satisfied, this operational modal analysis method can handle......The theory and results of two experimental methods for estimating the modal damping of a wind turbine during operation are presented. Estimations of the aeroelastic damping of the operational turbine modes (including the effects of the aerodynamic forces) give a quantitative view of the stability...... characteristics of the turbine. In the first method the estimation of modal damping is based on the assumption that a turbine mode can be excited by a harmonic force at its natural frequency, whereby the decaying response after the end of excitation gives an estimate of the damping. Simulations and experiments...

  18. Internal degradation of 980nm emitting single-spatial-mode lasers during ultrahigh power operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomm, Jens W.; Hempel, Martin; Elsaesser, Thomas; Jimenez, Juan; Hortelano, Vanesa; Bettiati, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    Internal degradation of 980 nm emitting single-spatial-mode diode lasers during ultrahigh power operation is investigated for pulsed operation (2 μJ, 20 W). Analysis of the evolution of the emission nearfield with picosecond time resolution enables the observation of the transition from single- to multi-spatial-mode operation at elevated emission powers. Moreover, internal degradation events and subsequent defect propagation processes are in situ monitored by thermal imaging. Subsequently, these devices are opened and defect pattern are inspected by cathodo- and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results complete earlier findings obtained with broad-area lasers and help to establish models covering defect generation and propagation in edge-emitting devices in general.

  19. Evaluating the operational risks of biomedical waste using failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Tsai, Pei-Yi

    2017-06-01

    The potential problems and risks of biomedical waste generation have become increasingly apparent in recent years. This study applied a failure mode and effects analysis to evaluate the operational problems and risks of biomedical waste. The microbiological contamination of biomedical waste seldom receives the attention of researchers. In this study, the biomedical waste lifecycle was divided into seven processes: Production, classification, packaging, sterilisation, weighing, storage, and transportation. Twenty main failure modes were identified in these phases and risks were assessed based on their risk priority numbers. The failure modes in the production phase accounted for the highest proportion of the risk priority number score (27.7%). In the packaging phase, the failure mode 'sharp articles not placed in solid containers' had the highest risk priority number score, mainly owing to its high severity rating. The sterilisation process is the main difference in the treatment of infectious and non-infectious biomedical waste. The failure modes in the sterilisation phase were mainly owing to human factors (mostly related to operators). This study increases the understanding of the potential problems and risks associated with biomedical waste, thereby increasing awareness of how to improve the management of biomedical waste to better protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  20. Simulasi Dinamika untuk Menentukan Stabilitas Sistem Tenaga Listrik Menggunakan Thyristor Controlled Braking Resistor pada Sistem IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Taufiq

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Terdapat berbagai macam metode untuk meningkatkan stabilitas sistem  tenaga listrik. Salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan metode pengereman dinamis (dynamic braking. Generator sinkron sebagai distributed generator yang digerakkan oleh mesin diesel. Pada saat terjadi gangguan pada sistem, digunakan sebuah Thyristor Controlled Braking Resistor (TCBR untuk meredam osilasi yang terjadi. Sistem yang hendak dianalisis dinamika dan stabilitasnnya adalah IEEE 34 node test feeder. Dengan sistem ini diilustrasikan karakteristik dan keefektifan TCBR untuk meredam osilasi frekuensi rendah dan mencegah terjadinya ketidakstabilan transien sistem. Dari hasil analisis diperoleh bahwa dengan adanya penambahan TCBR (Thyristor Controlled Braking Resistor maka respon transien sistem akan menjadi lebih baik. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan adanya penurunan overshoot dan settling timenya. Dengan demikian sistem akan menuju kondisi stabil dengan lebih cepat setelah terjadi gangguan.

  1. Status and new operation modes of the versatile VLT/NaCo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H. V.; Kasper, Markus; Quanz, Sascha P.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Schödel, Rainer; Gallenne, Alexandre; Gillessen, Stefan; Huerta, Nicolas; Kervella, Pierre; Kornweibel, Nick; Lenzen, Rainer; Mérand, Antoine; Montagnier, Guillaume; O'Neal, Jared; Zins, Gérard

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims at giving an update on the most versatile Adaptive Optics fed instrument to date, the well known and successful NACO*. Although NACO is only scheduled for about two more years† at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), it keeps on evolving with additional operation modes bringing original astronomical results. The high contrast imaging community uses it creatively as a test-bench for SPHERE‡ and other second generation planet imagers. A new visible wavefront sensor (WFS) optimized for Laser Guide Star (LGS) operations has been installed and tested, the cube mode is more and more required for frame selection on bright sources, a seeing enhancer mode (no tip/tilt correction) is now offered to provide full sky coverage and welcome all kind of extragalactic applications, etc. The Instrument Operations Team (IOT) and Paranal engineers are currently working hard at maintaining the instrument overall performances but also at improving them and offering new capabilities, providing the community with a well tuned and original instrument for the remaining time it is being used. The present contribution delivers a non-exhaustive overview of the new modes and experiments that have been carried out in the past months.

  2. Relationship Between Absorber Layer Properties and Device Operation Modes For High Efficiency Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ram; Kokenyesi, Robert; Wager, John; Keszler, Douglas; CenterInverse Design Team

    2014-03-01

    A thin film solar cell (TFSC) can be differentiated into two distinct operation modes based on the transport mechanism. Current TFSCs predominantly exploit diffusion to extract photogenerated minority carriers. For efficient extraction, the absorber layer requires high carrier mobilities and long minority carrier lifetimes. Materials exhibiting a strong optical absorption onset near the fundamental band gap allows reduction of the absorber layer thickness to significantly less than 1 μm. In such a TFSC, a strong intrinsic electric field drives minority carrier extraction, resulting in drift-based transport. The basic device configuration utilized in this simulation study is a heterojunction TFSC with a p-type absorber layer. The diffusion/drift device operation modes are simulated by varying the thickness and carrier concentration of the absorber layer, and device performance between the two modes is compared. In addition, the relationship between device operation mode and transport properties, including carrier mobility and minority carrier lifetime are explored. Finally, candidate absorber materials that enable the advantages of a drift-based TFSC developed within the Center for Inverse Design are presented. School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

  3. A Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator and complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition for bearing fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaouchen, Yacine; Kedadouche, Mourad; Alkama, Rezak; Thomas, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Signal processing techniques for non-stationary and noisy signals have recently attracted considerable attentions. Among them, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) which is an adaptive and efficient method for decomposing signals from high to low frequencies into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Ensemble EMD (EEMD) is proposed to overcome the mode mixing problem of the EMD. In the present paper, the Complementary EEMD (CEEMD) is used for bearing fault detection. As a noise-improved method, the CEEMD not only overcomes the mode mixing, but also eliminates the residual of added white noise persisting into the IMFs and enhance the calculation efficiency of the EEMD method. Afterward, a selection method is developed to choose relevant IMFs containing information about defects. Subsequently, a signal is reconstructed from the sum of relevant IMFs and a Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator is tailored to extract both the amplitude and frequency modulations from the selected IMFs. This operator outperforms the conventional energy operator and the enveloping methods, especially in the presence of strong noise and multiple vibration interferences. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method improves performances for detecting the bearing faults. The method has also high computational efficiency and is able to detect the fault at an early stage of degradation.

  4. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Korolev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG in the space-rocket equipment is motivated by some advantages. That is why a lot of tests and works are actively carried out now on rocket engines using liquefied natural gas.To provide the engine tests and subsequent rocket complex operation a creation of LNG storages is demanded as a part of ground processing equipment and support for their safe operation conditions.One of LNG danger factor is its low boiling temperature, and also changing the condition, density and LNG boiling temperature at storage due to evaporation of light component, namely methane. At refill of the storages having fuel remains with a new LNG portion these factors can lead to formation of the stratified macro-layers and cause a mode of the intensive mixing that is called "rollover", with almost instant evaporation of LNG big mass and sharp pressure boost, capable to result in the storage distraction with catastrophic effects.The work objectives are formulated such as a technique development for forecasting of the LNG parameters in operating storages including the rollover mode, a comparison of calculated results of the LNG parameters with the experimental data, and a definition of possible recommendations for safe operation of LNG storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment.The paper reviews 12 publications concerning the issues and proceeding processes at operation of LNG storages, including the rollover mode.To verify the reliability of process simulation results in the LNG, represented in models by the binary methane-ethane mixture the calculated values have been compared with the experimental data for a LNG storage mode in the reservoir of a ground test complex.The reliability of developed models of the heat-mass-exchange processes in stratified on density and temperature in LNG storage with emergence of conditions for the rollover mode has been verified by comparing the settlement characteristics to the published

  5. ALS Booster Ring RF System Upgrade for Top-Off Mode of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, Slawomir

    2005-01-01

    ALS is one of the first third generation synchrotron light sources which has been operating since 1993 at Berkeley Lab. In the present ALS operation scenario 1.5GeV electron beam is injected from the booster into the storage ring every 8 hours where is accelerated to the final energy of 1.9GeV. The beam decays between fills from 400mA to 200mA with the time average current of 250mA. In order to increase the beam brighthess ALS team plans to increase the beam current to 500mA and maintain it constant during machine operation ("Top-Off" mode of operation). This operation scenario will require full energy injection from the booster ring into the storage ring and constant operation of the injector (10 bunches with the total charge of 1nC every 30 to 35 seconds). In this paper we will present the results of the ALS injector RF system analysis fo Top-Off mode of operation and describe the way we intent to implement the necessary modifications to the booster RF system.

  6. The operating mode of the two-cascade thermoelectric cooling device providing the minimum failure rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socheslav D. P.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The model of interrelation of reliability indicators and the basic significant parameters of the two-cascade thermoelectric cooling device (TED with consecutive electric connection of cascades is considered. The relations are received allowing to estimate reliability indicators, namely failure rate at construction two-cascade ТED working in current mode, providing the minimum failure rate in a wide range of temperature drops taking into account thermal loading.Possibility of use of this mode when the prevailing requirement is maintenance of the minimum failure rate and the maximum probability of non-failure operation cascade TED is shown.

  7. Analysis of Sleep-Mode Downlink Scheduling Operations in EPON Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    S. This paper proposes a novel sleep-mode downlink packet scheduling scheme in order to enhance the sleep control function. Simulation results confirm that the proposed approach offers effective power management on the basis of the traffic conditions. The trade-off between network performances and the power......Energy management strategy has been considered as an important component in the future Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs). In this paper, a sleeping mode operation is studied, and a downlink packet scheduling scheme is analyzed to preserve energy consumption and maintain the required Qo...

  8. Characteristics of switched reluctance motor operating in continuous and discontinuous conduction mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalasan Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mechanical characteristics of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM when it operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM or in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM, i.e. when the current through the phase coils (windings flows discontinuously or continuously. Firstly, in order to maximize the output power of SRM optimization of its control parameters was performed, such that the peak and RMS values of the current do not exceed the predefined values. The optimal control parameters vs. rotation speed, as well as the corresponding characteristics of torque, power and efficiency. It is shown that with CCM the machine torque (power, at high speed, can be increased.

  9. Water calorimetry with thermistor bridge operated in DC and AC mode: comparative results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, A.S.; Laitano, R.F.; Petrocchi, A. [Ist. Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA, Roma (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    An experimental study was carried out to find out the optimal conditions for measuring the output signal in a water calorimeter. To this end the thermistor bridge of the calorimeter was operated in AC and in DC mode, respectively. A comparative analysis of these two alternative methods was the made. In the AC mode measurement a lock-in amplifier based experimental assembly was used and compared to the more conventional system based on a high-sensitivty DC amplifier. The AC system resulted to be preferable as far as the short term and long term reproducibility is concerned. (orig.)

  10. Development of a modular virus clearance package for anion exchange chromatography operated in weak partitioning mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, Timothy; Sacramo, Ashley; Gallo, Chris; Godavarti, Ranga; Chen, Shuang; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Anion exchange chromatography (AEX) operated under weak partitioning mode has been proven to be a powerful polishing step as well as a robust viral clearance step in Pfizer's monoclonal antibody (mAb) platform purification process. A multivariate design of experiment (DoE) study was conducted to understand the impact of operating parameters and feedstream impurity levels on viral clearance by weak partitioning mode AEX. Bacteriophage was used initially as a surrogate for neutral and acidic isoelectric point mammalian viruses (e.g., retrovirus and parvovirus). Five different mAbs were used in the evaluation of process parameters such as load challenge (both product and impurities), load pH, load conductivity, and contact time (bed height and flow-rate). The operating ranges obtained from phage clearance studies and Pfizer's historical data were used to define an appropriate operating range for a subsequent clearance study with model retrovirus and parvovirus. Both phage and virus clearance evaluations included feedstreams containing different levels of impurities such as high molecular mass species (HMMS), host cell proteins (HCPs), and host cell DNA. For all the conditions tested, over 5 log10 of clearance for both retrovirus and parvovirus was achieved. The results demonstrated that weak partitioning mode AEX chromatography is a robust step for viral clearance and has the potential to be included as part of the modular viral clearance approach.

  11. Investigation of pulsed mode operation with the frequency tuned CAPRICE ECRIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimone, F; Tinschert, K; Endermann, M; Hollinger, R; Kondrashev, S; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Patchakui, P T; Spädtke, P

    2016-02-01

    In order to increase the intensity of the highly charged ions produced by the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs), techniques like the frequency tuning and the afterglow mode have been developed and in this paper the effect on the ion production is shown for the first time when combining both techniques. Recent experimental results proved that the tuning of the operating frequency of the ECRIS is a promising technique to achieve higher ion currents of higher charge states. On the other hand, it is well known that the afterglow mode of the ECRIS operation can provide more intense pulsed ion beams in comparison with the continuous wave (cw) operation. These two techniques can be combined by pulsing the variable frequency signal driving the traveling wave tube amplifier which provides the high microwave power to the ECRIS. In order to analyze the effect of these two combined techniques on the ion source performance, several experiments were carried out on the pulsed frequency tuned CAPRICE (Compacte source A Plusiers Résonances Ionisantes Cyclotron Electroniques)-type ECRIS. Different waveforms and pulse lengths have been investigated under different settings of the ion source. The results of the pulsed mode have been compared with those of cw operation.

  12. A square-plate ultrasonic linear motor operating in two orthogonal first bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-01-01

    A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B₁) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B₁ modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.

  13. Design Considerations for CMOS Current Mode Operational Amplifiers and Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    This dissertation is about CMOS current conveyors and current mode operational amplifiers (opamps). They are generic devices for continuous time signal processing in circuits and systems where signals are represented by currents.Substantial advancements are reported in the dissertation, both...... related to circuit implementations and system configurations and to an analysis of the fundamental limitations of the current mode technique.In the field of system configurations and circuit implementations different configurations of high gain current opamps are introduced and some of the first...... implementations of current mode opamps in CMOS technology are described. Also, current conveyor configurations with multiple outputs and flexible feedback connections from outputs to inputs are introduced. The dissertation includes several examples of circuit configurations ranging from simple class A and class...

  14. Communication: Effects of thermionic-gun parameters on operating modes in ultrafast electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Kieft

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast electron microscopes with thermionic guns and LaB6 sources can be operated in both the nanosecond, single-shot and femtosecond, single-electron modes. This has been demonstrated with conventional Wehnelt electrodes and absent any applied bias. Here, by conducting simulations using the General Particle Tracer code, we define the electron-gun parameter space within which various modes may be optimized. The properties of interest include electron collection efficiency, temporal and energy spreads, and effects of laser-pulse duration incident on the LaB6 source. We find that collection efficiencies can reach 100% for all modes, despite there being no bias applied to the electrode.

  15. CALCULATION OF OPERATION MODE OF OUTDOOR LIGHTING LINE WITH BILATERAL SUPPLY. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kozlovskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important features of outdoor lighting lines are of considerable length and the use of a large number of light sources of an average power. Under such conditions, in order to determine and maintain the optimal modes of operation of outdoor lighting networks with a bilateral supply it is necessary to choose the wire section of the line. This section should provide the required voltage levels to the light sources in all modes, but it should not be too high, in order not to increase the cost of the grid. This article demonstrates an example of the choice of the optimum conductor cross-section of the lighting line when it is working in a normal mode (bilateral power supply with voltage levels at the power items of 230 V, as well as in the mode of unilateral power (at voltage loss in the second power item with a value of the voltage of 230 V in the first item of the power supply. The method of calculation of the mode of such a line that had been presented in part 1 of the article was used. The calculation is performed with the of MathCad software. The diagrams of the voltage distribution at items of the lighting line with bilateral power under conditions of different modes of functioning are plotted for various sections of aluminum conductors. The choice of the optimal values of the cross sections of the lighting network was based on the mentioned diagrams. The specific features of different modes of operation of the lighting line with the chosen conductor cross section were analyzed. Operating parameters for each phase of the line (i.e. voltage at the items of the circuit, power, currents, power loss and voltage drop in all sections were determined. The presented data make one possible to estimate the power consumption of the lighting line taking the daily schedule of enabling and disabling of outdoor lighting networks into account. The most economical modes were determined.

  16. The operation region and MHD modes on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingxiang; Hu, Qiming; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhipeng; Zhuang, Ge

    2016-12-01

    The operation region and the parameter region of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are analyzed for J-TEXT Ohmic discharges. The operation region is described by the Hugill diagram, which combines low-q and high density limits. It is found that the operation region has expanded over the years on J-TEXT. In detail, the high density limit has increased from less than 0.5n G to 0.7n G and the low-q limit has lowered from 2.8 to 2.2; this is due to the reduced impurity content that results from coating graphite on the wall. Furthermore, the operation region has further expanded to 0.85n G and q a ~ 2.0, respectively—a result of suppressing the disruptive precursor MHD by using externally-applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). Here, n G and q a are the Greenwald density limit and edge safety factor, respectively. Corresponding to the results of the operation region, the parameter regions of MHD modes are presented. It is found that a m/n  =  2/1 tearing mode (TM) appears for a wide parameters region with 2.4  <  q a  <  4 and n e  <  3  ×  1019 m-3—here m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. Furthermore, other MHD modes such as m/n  =  5/2, 3/1, 4/1 and 7/2, appear only when their rational surfaces are close to the plasma edge or m/n ~ q a, and these MHD modes may transit to a 2/1 TM when changing the plasma parameters. In addition, correlation analysis between the amplitude and frequency of the dominant 2/1 TM for different plasma conditions reveals that there is a threshold between normal discharges and density-limit discharges, which would be a reference to predict density-limit disruptions.

  17. Application of empirical mode decomposition and Teager energy operator to EEG signals for mental task classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleem, M F; Sugavaneswaran, L; Guergachi, A; Krishnan, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for mental task classification from EEG signals using Empirical Mode Decomposition and Teager energy operator techniques on EEG data. The efficacy of these techniques for non-stationary and non-linear data has already been demonstrated, which therefore lend themselves well to EEG signals, which are also non-stationary and non-linear in nature. The method described in this paper decomposed the EEG signals (6 EEG signals per task per subject, for a total of 5 tasks over multiple trials) into their constituent oscillatory modes, called intrinsic mode functions, and separated out the trend from the signal. Teager energy operator was used to calculate the average energy of both the detrended signal and the trend. The average energy was used to construct separate feature vectors with a small number of parameters for the detrended signal and the trend. Based on these parameters, one-versus-one classification of mental tasks was performed using Linear Discriminant Analysis. Using both feature vectors, an average correct classification rate of more than 85% was achieved, demonstrating the effectiveness of the method used. Furthermore, this method used all the intrinsic mode functions, as opposed to similar studies, demonstrating that the trend of the EEG signal also contains important discriminatory information.

  18. Pulsed Mode Operation and Longitudinal Parameter Measurement of the Rossendorf SRF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Teichert, J; Buettig, H; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Xiang, R; Klemz, G; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Will, I

    2011-01-01

    The Rossendorf SRF gun with a 3½ cell cavity has been operated since 2007. It has produced CW beam with the electron energy of 3 MeV and the average current up to 16 μA. The electron beam of the gun has been successfully injected into the ELBE superconducting linac since 2010. The Nb cavity has shown constant quality during the operation and for the Cs2Te photocathode life time of months could be obtained. Recently the gun started to run in the pulsed mode with higher gradient. The longitudinal Parameters have been measured in this mode. The dark current arose from the high gradient is studied. The main field emission source has been found to be the half cell. In this paper the new status of the SRF gun will be presented, and the latest results of the beam experiments will be discussed.

  19. SF sub 6 quenched gas mixtures for streamer mode operation of RPCs at very low voltages

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Paoloni, A; Pastori, E; Santonico, R

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper we describe a search for gases that allow to reduce the energy of the electrical discharge produced in Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode, by reducing both the operating voltage and the released charge. This can be achieved, with current gas mixtures of argon, tetrafluoroethane (TFE) and isobutane, by reducing the total amount of quenching components (TFE+isobutane) down to 10-15% and compensating for the lower gas quenching power with the addition of small amounts of SF sub 6. We show here that SF sub 6 , even for concentrations as low as 1% or less, has a strong effect in reducing the delivered charge in low quenched gases and allows to achieve a proper working mode of the RPC even at voltages as low as 4-5 kV over a 2 mm gas gap.

  20. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    As the penetration of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is booming, specific grid demands are imposed on such interconnected PV systems. Therefore, achieving high reliable PV systems with high power quality is of intense interest. However, the injected current from single-phase grid-connected......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....... PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...

  1. Retrieval of original signals for superconducting quantum interference device operating in flux locked mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘当婷; 田野; 赵士平; 任育峰; 陈赓华

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a simple relation between the input and output signals of a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer operating in flux locked mode in a cosine curve approximation. According to this relation, an original fast input signal can be easily retrieved from its distorted output response. This technique can be used in some areas such as sensitive and fast detection of magnetic or metallic grains in medicine and food security checking.

  2. Modeling and control of a push-pull converter for photovoltaic microinverters operating in island mode

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo Rodríguez, César Leonardo; VELASCO DE LA FUENTE, DAVID; Figueres Amorós, Emilio; Garcerá Sanfeliú, Gabriel; Ortega, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a push-pull converter integrated into a two-stage photovoltaic microinverter operating in island mode without backup energy storage components (batteries). A push-pull small signal model is presented, from which they are derived all transfer functions needed to implement the controllers that regulate the output current, input voltage and output voltage interacting with the MPPT algorithm. A significant contribution of the paper is the proposal o...

  3. Operational condition of direct single-mode-fiber coupled FSO terminal under strong atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2011-03-01

    This paper discusses the operational condition for direct single-mode-fiber-coupling FSO terminals under the various adverse weather conditions, such as strong atmospheric turbulences and rain falls. A good correlation between the scintillation index of the intensities of beacon receiving power and the signal fading depth has been observed, which allows us to predict the signal link quality based on the beacon scintillation index provided by the classical scintillation theory and concludes that the scintillation index for the beacon beam should be less than 0.1. This paper also reports the effect of performance enhancements provided by the new adaptive controller for the stable and robust terminal operation.

  4. Kinetic instabilities in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, O., E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The occurrence of kinetic plasma instabilities is studied in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz A-electron cyclotron resonance type electron cyclotron resonance ion source. It is shown that the temporal delay between the plasma breakdown and the appearance of the instabilities is on the order of 10-100 ms. The most important parameters affecting the delay are magnetic field strength and neutral gas pressure. It is demonstrated that kinetic instabilities limit the high charge state ion beam production in the unstable operating regime.

  5. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  6. Expected properties of the radiation from VUV-FEL at DESY femtosecond mode of operation

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2004-01-01

    For the next three years the nominal "long pulse" (200 fs) mode of FEL operation at VUV-FEL, based on a linearized bunch compression, is not available due to the lack of a key element - a 3rd harmonic RF cavity. Essentially nonlinear compression leads naturally to a formation of a short high-current leading peak (spike) in the density distribution that produces FEL radiation. Such a mode of operation was successfully tested at VUV-FEL, Phase I. In this paper we present optimized parameters of the beam formation system that allow us to get a current spike which is bright enough to get SASE saturation for the VUV-FEL, Phase 2 at shortest design wavelength down to 6 nm. The main feature of the considered mode of operation is the production of short (15-50 fs FWHM) radiation pulses with GW-level peak power that are attractive for many users. Main parameters of the SASE FEL radiation (temporal and spectral characteristics, intensity distributions, etc.) are presented, too.

  7. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  8. N Reactor thermal plume characterization during Pu-only mode of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, R.M.; Thompson, F.L.; Whelan, G.

    1983-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) performed field and modeling studies -from March 1982 through June 1983 to characterize the thermal plume from the N Reactor heated water outfall while the N Reactor operated in the Pu-only mode. Part 1 of this report deals with the field studies conducted to characterize the N Reactor thermal plume while in the Pu-only mode of operation. It includes a description of the study area, a description of field tasks and procedures, and data collection results and discussion. Part 2 describes the computer simulation of the thermal plume under different flow conditions and the calibration of the model used. It includes a description of the computer model and the assumptions on which it is based, a presentation of the input data used in this application, and a discussion of modeling results. Because the field studies were restricted by the NPOES permit variance to the spring months when high Columbia River flows prevail the mathematical modeling of the N Reactor thermal plume while the reactor operates in the Pu-only mode is instrumental in characterizing the plume during low Columbia River flows.

  9. Modified Adaptive Control for Region 3 Operation in the Presence of Wind Turbine Structural Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan Alane; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Many challenges exist for the operation of wind turbines in an efficient manner that is reliable and avoids component fatigue and failure. Turbines operate in highly turbulent environments resulting in aerodynamic loads that can easily excite turbine structural modes, possibly causing component fatigue and failure. Wind turbine manufacturers are highly motivated to reduce component fatigue and failure that can lead to loss of revenue due to turbine down time and maintenance costs. The trend in wind turbine design is toward larger, more flexible turbines that are ideally suited to adaptive control methods due to the complexity and expense required to create accurate models of their dynamic characteristics. In this paper, we design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility-scale, variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine operating in Region 3. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller is to regulate generator speed, accommodate wind gusts, and reduce the excitation of structural modes in the wind turbine. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. The adaptive collective pitch controller for Region 3 was compared in simulations with a baseline classical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. The adaptive controller will demonstrate the ability to regulate generator speed in Region 3, while accommodating gusts, and reducing the excitation of certain structural modes in the wind turbine.

  10. Failure mode and effects analysis using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Liu, Long; Li, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has shown its effectiveness in examining potential failures in products, process, designs or services and has been extensively used for safety and reliability analysis in a wide range of industries. However, its approach to prioritise failure modes through a crisp risk priority number (RPN) has been criticised as having several shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to develop an efficient and comprehensive risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance (IFHWED) operator to overcome the limitations and improve the effectiveness of the traditional FMEA. The diversified and uncertain assessments given by FMEA team members are treated as linguistic terms expressed in intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs). Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA) operator is used to aggregate the FMEA team members' individual assessments into a group assessment. IFHWED operator is applied thereafter to the prioritisation and selection of failure modes. Particularly, both subjective and objective weights of risk factors are considered during the risk evaluation process. A numerical example for risk assessment is given to illustrate the proposed method finally.

  11. A novel ToF-SIMS operation mode for sub 100 nm lateral resolution: Application and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Markus; Holzlechner, Gerald; Opitz, Alexander K; Larisegger, Silvia; Hutter, Herbert; Fleig, Jürgen

    2014-01-15

    A novel operation mode for time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is described for a TOF.SIMS 5 instrument with a Bi-ion gun. It features sub 100 nm lateral resolution, adjustable primary ion currents and the possibility to measure with high lateral resolution as well as high mass resolution. The adjustment and performance of the novel operation mode are described and compared to established ToF-SIMS operation modes. Several examples of application featuring novel scientific results show the capabilities of the operation mode in terms of lateral resolution, accuracy of isotope analysis of oxygen, and combination of high lateral and mass resolution. The relationship between high lateral resolution and operation of SIMS in static mode is discussed.

  12. A novel ToF-SIMS operation mode for sub 100 nm lateral resolution: Application and performance☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Markus; Holzlechner, Gerald; Opitz, Alexander K.; Larisegger, Silvia; Hutter, Herbert; Fleig, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    A novel operation mode for time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is described for a TOF.SIMS 5 instrument with a Bi-ion gun. It features sub 100 nm lateral resolution, adjustable primary ion currents and the possibility to measure with high lateral resolution as well as high mass resolution. The adjustment and performance of the novel operation mode are described and compared to established ToF-SIMS operation modes. Several examples of application featuring novel scientific results show the capabilities of the operation mode in terms of lateral resolution, accuracy of isotope analysis of oxygen, and combination of high lateral and mass resolution. The relationship between high lateral resolution and operation of SIMS in static mode is discussed. PMID:24748701

  13. Operating modes of electrochemical H-concentration probes for tritium sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhera, E.; Colominas, S.; Abellà, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.edu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis and chemical characterization of Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}–Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3−α} proton conductor ceramic. • Evaluation of the sensor performance at different hydrogen concentrations. • Two different operating modes of the sensors: amperometric and potentiometric. • In amperometric mode sensor sensitivity can be tuned by changing the applied voltage. - Abstract: Potentiometric hydrogen sensors using different solid-state electrolytes have been designed and tested at the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS). The most promising element (Sr(Ce{sub 0.9}–Zr{sub 0.1}){sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3−α}) has been selected for this work in order to evaluate the sensor performance at different hydrogen concentrations in two different operating modes: amperometric and potentiometric. In addition, the sensor response has been evaluated at different working temperatures (500, 575 and 650 °C). The experiments performed proved that when the sensor was used in a potentiometric mode, there is a threshold hydrogen concentration that the sensor can detect depending on the working conditions; 15 mbar at 575 °C and 10 mbar 650 °C. At 500 °C the minimum working temperature of this ceramic has not been achieved, so large deviations between experimental data and theoretical calculations has been obtained. When the sensor was used in an amperometric mode the obtained currents increased as a function of the applied voltage. At a fixed potential, the higher the temperature the higher the current was. So the sensor sensitivity can be tuned by changing the applied voltage at a fixed temperature and hydrogen concentration.

  14. A HIGH PERFORMANCE FULLY DIFFERENTIAL PURE CURRENT MODE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED JAVAD AZHARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel high performance all current-mode fully-differential (FD Current mode Operational Amplifier (COA in BIPOLAR technology is presented. The unique true current mode simple structure grants the proposed COA the largest yet reported unity gain frequency while providing low voltage low power operation. Benefiting from some novel ideas, it also exhibits high gain, high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR, high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR, high output impedance, low input impedance and most importantly high current drive capability. Its most important parameters are derived and its performance is proved by PSPICE simulations using 0.8 μm BICMOS process parameters at supply voltage of ±1.2V indicating the values of 82.4 dB,52.3º, 31.5 Ω, 31.78 MΩ, 179.2 dB, 2 mW and 698 MHz for gain, phase margin, input impedance, output impedance, CMRR, power and unity gain frequency respectively. Its CMRR also shows very high frequency of 2.64 GHz at zero dB. Its very high PSRR+/PSRR- of 182 dB/196 dB makes the proposed COA a highly suitable block in Mixed-Mode (SOC chips. Most favourably it can deliver up to ±1.5 mA yielding a high current drive capability exceeding 25. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed COA, it is used to realize a constant bandwidth voltage amplifier and a high performance Rm amplifier.

  15. Investigation of switching mechanism in HfOx-ReRAM under low power and conventional operation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shima, Hisashi; Ohmori, Kenji; Akinaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    Low-power resistive random access memory (LP-ReRAM) devices have attracted increasing attention owing to their advantages of low operation power. In this study, a vertical-type LP-ReRAM consisting of TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN structure was fabricated. The switching mechanism for LP-ReRAM was elucidated as the conductive filament mechanism for conventional mode, and an interface-type switching mechanism for low power mode was proposed. The analysis of low frequency noise shows that power spectral density (PSD) is approximately proportional to 1/f for conventional operation mode. Nevertheless, for low power mode, the PSD of low resistance state (LRS) is proportional to 1/f, while that of high resistance state (HRS) is clear proportional to 1/f2. The envelope of multiple Lorentzian spectra of 1/f2 characteristics due to different traps reveals the characteristics of 1/f. For HRS of low power mode, a limited number of traps results in a characteristic of 1/f2. During the set process, the number of oxygen vacancies increases for LRS. Therefore, the PSD value is proportional to 1/f. Owing to the increase in the number of traps when the operation mode changes to conventional mode, the PSD value is proportional to 1/f. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals the different noise characteristics in the low power operation mode from that in the conventional operation mode.

  16. Radiation monitoring data of the HTTR rise-to-power test. Results up to 30 MW operation on the rated operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Rise-to-Power test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode, the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation). After that the Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode (the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC) with a thermal output of 30 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between October 20, 2001 and March 11, 2002. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode with a thermal output of 30 MW. The dose equivalent rate the radioactive air concentration in the working place where the radiation workers enter during the reactor operation were respectively the back ground level and the lower detection limit. There were no release of the radioactive gaseous effluents to the environment through the stack. These radiation monitoring showed clearly the radiation level were very low. This report also describes the part of radiation monitoring data in the HTTR first cycle operation carried out during July 6, 2002 from March 20, 2002. (author)

  17. Radiation monitoring data of the HTTR rise-to-power test. Results up to 30 MW operation on the rated operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Rise-to-Power test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode, the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation). After that the Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode (the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC) with a thermal output of 30 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between October 20, 2001 and March 11, 2002. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode with a thermal output of 30 MW. The dose equivalent rate the radioactive air concentration in the working place where the radiation workers enter during the reactor operation were respectively the back ground level and the lower detection limit. There were no release of the radioactive gaseous effluents to the environment through the stack. These radiation monitoring showed clearly the radiation level were very low. This report also describes the part of radiation monitoring data in the HTTR first cycle operation carried out during July 6, 2002 from March 20, 2002. (author)

  18. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  19. Operation Mode on Pulse Modulation in Atmospheric Radio Frequency Glow Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Huang, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Jianjun

    2016-10-01

    The discharge operation regime of pulse modulated atmospheric radio frequency (RF) glow discharge in helium is investigated on the duty cycle and frequency of modulation pulses. The characteristics of radio frequency discharge burst in terms of breakdown voltage, alpha(α)-gamma(γ) mode transition voltage and current are demonstrated by the discharge current voltage characteristics. The minimum breakdown voltage of RF discharge burst was obtained at the duty cycle of 20% and frequency of 400 kHz, respectively. The α-γ mode transition of RF discharge burst occurs at higher voltage and current by reducing the duty cycle and elevating the modulation frequency before the RF discharge burst evolving into the ignition phase, in which the RF discharge burst can operate stably in the γ mode. It proposes that the intensity and stability of RF discharge burst can be improved by manipulating the duty cycle and modulation frequency in pulse modulated atmospheric RF glow discharge. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475043 and 11375042)

  20. Frequency doubler and two-color mode of operation at free electron laser FLASH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, M.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the results of the first operation of a frequency doubler at FLASH2. The scheme uses the feature of the variable gap of the undulator. Undulator is divided in two parts. The second part of the undulator is tuned to the double frequency of the first part. Modulated electron beam enters the second part of the undulator and generates radiation at the 2nd harmonic. Depending on a balance between the gain of undulator sections, frequency doubler allows operation in a two-color mode and operation at shorter wavelengths with respect to standard SASE scheme. The shortest wavelength of 3.1 nm (photon energy 400 eV) has been achieved at FLASH2 with frequency doubler scheme, which is significantly below the design value for the standard SASE option.

  1. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  2. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  3. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  4. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsapour, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapour@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated.

  5. Trickle-Charge: a New Operational Mode for PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanecki, W.; /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay; Colocho, W.S.; Decker, F.-J.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Iverson, R.H.; O' Grady, C.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.K.; Turner, J.L.; Weaver,; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    In regular top-up-and-coast operation, PEP-II average luminosity is about 70-75% of the peak luminosity due to detector ramp-down and ramp-up times plus the time it takes to top-up both beams. We recently commissioned a new operational mode where the Low Energy Ring is injected continuously without ramping down the detector. The benefits--increased luminosity lifetime and roughly half the number of top-ups per shift--were expected to give an increase in delivered luminosity of about 15% at the same peak luminosity; this was confirmed in test runs. In routine trickle operation, however, it appears that the increase in delivered luminosity is more than twice that due to an increase in availability credited to the more stable operating conditions during trickle operation. Further gains were made when continuous injection was extended to the high energy ring as well. In this paper we will present our operational experience as well as some of the diagnostics we use to monitor and maintain tuning of the machine in order to control injection background and protect the detector.

  6. Evaluation of damping estimates in the presence of closely spaced modes using operational modal analysis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajric, Anela; Brincker, Rune; Thöns, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques provide in most cases reasonably accurate estimates of structural frequencies and mode shapes. They are however known to produce erroneous structural damping estimates, which are presumably thought to be due to inherent random- or bias errors......). The evaluation is based on identification using random response from white noise loading of a three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) system numerically established from specified modal parameters for a range of natural frequencies. The numerical model provides comparisons of the effectiveness of damping estimation...

  7. A novel single phase buck PFC converter in discontinuous capacitor voltage mode operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超平; 凌志斌; 叶芃生

    2003-01-01

    A novel single-phase Buck converter for power factor correction is proposed. It features simple control due to the constant duty ratio PWM used. It can obtain unity power factor by selecting a suitable LC filter at its input to force the voltage of capacitor to operate in discontinuous capacitor voltage mode. And by using another resonant LC filter at its output, it can not only eliminate the input current distortion at the vicinity of the zero crossing of the supply but also drastically reduce the 100 Hz output voltage ripple. The validity of analysis is confirmed by simulation results and experimental results.

  8. Novel planar Gunn diode operating in fundamental mode up to 158 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chong; Khalid, A; Holland, M C; Cumming, D S R [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Pilgrim, N; Dunn, G, E-mail: lichong@elec.gla.ac.u [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 SFX (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    We show the experimental realisation of fundamental mode operation of planar Gunn diode structures fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The electron density in the active channel is enhanced by positioning double delta-doping layers on either side. Small signal measurement shows that a typical device exhibits negative resistance up to 158 GHz. Using this device structure we have demonstrated a planar Gunn oscillator working at 115.5 GHz with an output power of -28 dBm.

  9. Novel planar Gunn diode operating in fundamental mode up to 158 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Khalid, A.; Pilgrim, N.; Holland, M. C.; Dunn, G.; Cumming, D. S. R.

    2009-11-01

    We show the experimental realisation of fundamental mode operation of planar Gunn diode structures fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The electron density in the active channel is enhanced by positioning double delta-doping layers on either side. Small signal measurement shows that a typical device exhibits negative resistance up to 158 GHz. Using this device structure we have demonstrated a planar Gunn oscillator working at 115.5 GHz with an output power of -28 dBm.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Depending upon the load modes, the common modes of discharge (MOD of a battery identified so far are Constant Power Mode (CPM, Constant Current Mode (CCM and Constant Impedance Mode (CIM. This paper comparatively analyzes the discharging behavior of batteries at an individual cell level for different load modes. The difference in discharging behavior from mode to mode represents the study of the mode-dependent behavior of the battery before its deployment in some application. Based on simulation results, optimal capacity sizing and BMS operation of battery for an assumed situation in a remote microgrid has been proposed.

  11. Time Evolution Caused by Hamiltonian Composed of Quadratic Combination of Canonical Operators and Time-Dependent Two-Mode Fresnel Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; LU Hai-Liang

    2006-01-01

    We show that the time-dependent two-mode Fresnel operator is just the time-evolutional unitary operator governed by the Hamiltonian composed of quadratic combination of canonical operators in the way of exhibiting SU(1,1)algebra. This is an approach for obtaining the time-dependent Hamiltonian from the preassigned time evolution in classical phase space, an approach which is in contrast to Lewis-Riesenfeld's invariant operator theory of treating time-dependent harmonic oscillators.

  12. Complete nuclear motion Hamiltonian in the irreducible normal mode tensor operator formalism for the methane molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michaël; Nikitin, Andrei V; Tyuterev, Vladimir G

    2012-06-28

    A rovibrational model based on the normal-mode complete nuclear Hamiltonian is applied to methane using our recent potential energy surface [A. V. Nikitin, M. Rey, and Vl. G. Tyuterev, Chem. Phys. Lett. 501, 179 (2011)]. The kinetic energy operator and the potential energy function are expanded in power series to which a new truncation-reduction technique is applied. The vibration-rotation Hamiltonian is transformed systematically to a full symmetrized form using irreducible tensor operators. Each term of the Hamiltonian expansion can be thus cast in the tensor form whatever the order of the development. This allows to take full advantage of the symmetry properties for doubly and triply degenerate vibrations and vibration-rotation states. We apply this model to variational computations of energy levels for (12)CH(4), (13)CH(4), and (12)CD(4).

  13. Adaptive Protection Scheme for a Distribution System Considering Grid-Connected and Islanded Modes of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Ates

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy-based distributed generation (DG implementation in power systems has been an active research area during the last few decades due to several environmental, economic and political factors. Although the integration of DG offers many advantages, several concerns, including protection schemes in systems with the possibility of bi-directional power flow, are raised. Thus, new protection schemes are strongly required in power systems with a significant presence of DG. In this study, an adaptive protection strategy for a distribution system with DG integration is proposed. The proposed strategy considers both grid-connected and islanded operating modes, while the adaptive operation of the protection is dynamically realized considering the availability of DG power production (related to faults or meteorological conditions in each time step. Besides, the modular structure and fast response of the proposed strategy is validated via simulations conducted on the IEEE 13-node test system.

  14. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  15. ECR-driven multicusp H^- volume source operated in pulsed or cw mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, Panayiotis

    2005-10-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) driven multicusp H^- volume hybrid source [1, 2] operates in continuous (cw) or pulsed microwave (2.45 GHz) mode up to 3 kW. The hydrogen plasma is produced between 1 and 7 mTorr by seven elementary ECR sources housed in the magnetic multipole chamber ``Camembert III'' [3]. This ECR configuration could be applied both to accelerator and fusion ion sources. Negative ion or electron extracted currents and plasma characteristics are studied in both modes with electrical measurements, electrostatic probe and photodetachment. The role of the plasma electrode bias in the values of the extracted currents is major. H^- current is maximized for a bias voltage close to plasma potential. An optimum pressure at 4-5 mTorr yields enhanced H^- density in the center of the chamber, under cw regime. Finally, the post-discharge formation of H^-, in the pulsed mode, is observed. [1] A.A. Ivanov Jr., C. Rouille, M. Bacal, Y. Arnal, S. Bechu, J. Pelletier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5), 1750 (2004) [2] M. Bacal, A.A. Ivanov Jr., C. Rouille, P. Svarnas, S. Bechu, J. Pelletier, AIP Conf. Proc. No 763 (Kiev, Ukraine) (2004) [3] C. Courteille, A.M. Bruneteau, M. Bacal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(3), 2533 (1995)

  16. Fiber laser pumped burst-mode operated picosecond mid-infrared laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏凯华; 姜培培; 吴波; 陈滔; 沈永行

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN)-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO) quasi-synchronously pumped by a fiber laser system with burst-mode operation. The pump source is a peak-power-selectable pulse-multiplied picosecond Yb fiber laser. The chirped pulses from a figure of eight-cavity mode-locked fiber laser seed are narrowed to a duration of less than 50 ps using an FBG refl ector and a circulator. The narrowed pulses are directed to pass through a pulse multiplier and to form pulse bunches, each of which is composed of 13 sub-pulses. The obtained pulse bunches are amplified by two-stage fiber pre-amplifiers:one-stage is core-pumped and the other is cladding-pumped. A fiberized acousto–optic modulator is inserted to control the pulse repetition rate (PRR) of the pulse bunches before they are power-amplified in the final amplifier stage with a large mode area (LMA) PM Yb-doped fiber. The maximum average powers from the final amplifier are 85 W, 60 W, and 45 W respectively, corresponding to the PRR of 2.72 MHz, 1.36 MHz, and 0.68 MHz. The amplified pulses are directed to pump an MgO:PPLN-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO). A maximum peak power at 3.45 µm is obtained approximately to be 8.4 kW. Detailed performance characteristics are presented.

  17. Dual mode operation, highly selective nanohole array-based plasmonic colour filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi Mahani, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Arash; Mehran, Mahdiyeh

    2017-09-01

    Taking advantage of nanostructured metal films as plasmonic colour filters (PCFs) has been evolved remarkably as an alternative to the conventional technologies of chemical colour filtering. However, most of the proposed PCFs depict a poor colour purity focusing on generating either the additive or subtractive colours. In this paper, we present dual mode operation PCFs employing an opaque aluminium film patterned with sub-wavelength holes. Subtractive colours like cyan, magenta, and yellow are the results of reflection mode of these filters yielding optical efficiencies as high as 70%–80% and full width at half maximum of the stop-bands up to 40–50 nm. The colour selectivity of the transmission mode for the additive colours is also significant due to their enhanced performance through the utilization of a relatively thick aluminium film in contact with a modified dielectric environment. These filters provide a simple design with one-step lithography in addition to compatibility with the conventional CMOS processes. Moreover, they are polarization insensitive due to their symmetric geometry. A complete palette of pure subtractive and additive colours has been realized with potential applications, such as multispectral imaging, CMOS image sensors, displays, and colour printing.

  18. Formation of multiple subpulses in a free-electron laser operating in the limit-cycle mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Mols, Rfxam; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the longitudinal pulse shape and the spectrum of the short-pulse, far-infrared free-electron laser FELIX are investigated. Depending on the amount of cavity desynchronization applied, the laser is found to operate in the stable-focus mode or in the limit-cycle mode. In the latter ca

  19. On exact and approximated formulations for scaling-mode shapes in operational modal analysis by mass and stiffness change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Aenlle, Manuel; Brincker, Rune; Pelayo, F.

    2012-01-01

    When operational modal analysis (OMA) is used to estimate modal parameters, mode shapes cannot be mass normalized. In the past few years, some equations have been proposed to scale mode shapes using the mass-change method, which consists of repeating modal testing after changing the mass at diffe...

  20. Separation of structural modes and harmonic frequencies in Operational Modal Analysis using random decrement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is used to extract modal parameters of a structure on the basis of their output response measured during operation. OMA, when applied to mechanical engineering structures is often faced with the problem of harmonics present in the output response. A complex structure may have many dominant frequency components in its response frequency spectrum. These may contain frequency components associated with resonant frequencies of the structure, which and the associated mode shapes and the damping factors represent the data of interest, but may also contain frequencies or harmonics associated with the excitation sources. Since in OMA the characteristics of the excitation sources are not known, one of the problems lies in separating the resonant frequencies from the harmonic excitation frequencies. Any error in this regard may lead to an error in modal identification with the consequence that a harmonic may be construed as a structural mode and vice versa. This issue is addressed in this paper and a method is presented for separating resonant frequencies from harmonic excitation frequencies using random decrement of the response. The principle of the method is presented using an analytical study on a single degree of freedom system. The effectiveness of the method is then demonstrated through numerical studies on a lumped parameter multi-degree of freedom system and a simulated plate structure. Detection of single and multiple harmonics in the response that are well separated as well as close to resonant frequencies are considered.

  1. The energy spread of a LaB6 cathode operated in the virtual source mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, T.; El-Gomati, M.

    2014-06-01

    The LaB6 cathode has been the brightest thermionic source used in microprobe applications requiring longer lifetime [1-2]. It is x100 lower in brightness than thermal field emitters (TFE) ca Zr/W (100) [3]. There are attractive similarities between these cathodes in terms of work function and operating temperature that are worth considering. Major differences include their respective source sizes (>10μm vs 30nm) and energy spread of 1-2 eV vs 0.6-0.7eV for the LaB6 and TFE, respectively [4,3]. We report here on the experimental measurement of the energy spread of a LaB6 cathode operated in the virtual source mode. The cathode used has an end-form measuring 15μm. Total energy spread values obtained using a dedicated electron energy analyser shows values of 0.4eV-0.7eV, significantly lower than typical values in the thermionic mode of 1-2eV.

  2. Non-Gaussian operations on bosonic modes of light: Photon-added Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabapathy, Krishna Kumar; Winter, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    We present a framework for studying bosonic non-Gaussian channels of continuous-variable systems. Our emphasis is on a class of channels that we call photon-added Gaussian channels, which are experimentally viable with current quantum-optical technologies. A strong motivation for considering these channels is the fact that it is compulsory to go beyond the Gaussian domain for numerous tasks in continuous-variable quantum information processing such as entanglement distillation from Gaussian states and universal quantum computation. The single-mode photon-added channels we consider are obtained by using two-mode beam splitters and squeezing operators with photon addition applied to the ancilla ports giving rise to families of non-Gaussian channels. For each such channel, we derive its operator-sum representation, indispensable in the present context. We observe that these channels are Fock preserving (coherence nongenerating). We then report two examples of activation using our scheme of photon addition, that of quantum-optical nonclassicality at outputs of channels that would otherwise output only classical states and of both the quantum and private communication capacities, hinting at far-reaching applications for quantum-optical communication. Further, we see that noisy Gaussian channels can be expressed as a convex mixture of these non-Gaussian channels. We also present other physical and information-theoretic properties of these channels.

  3. Kerr Lens Mode-locked Operation of Yb:KYW Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Falihati.Mejiti; V.L.Kalashnikov; I.G.Poloyko; Toran.Vajidi

    2002-01-01

    Using a modified ABCD-matrix approach accounting for nonlinear refraction in active medium,the ranges of cavity parameters that provide a mode-locking of Yb∶KYW-laser in usual z-fold cavity configuration are determined.Taking the cavity parameters that provide a most efficient mode locking and based on fluctuation model,a numerical simulation of laser operation is performed.In the calculations the side-band pump power of 6W at 982 nm is used in 1 cm length KYW crystal with 1 cm×0.005 cm beam cross section.Calculations show that self-starting operation is possible with these parameters and dispersion compensation allows for bandwidth-limited ultrashort pulse generation.The shortest pulse duration was determined to be about 200 fs with self-starting buid-up time of 130 μs.Such a built-up time is comparable and even shorter than that one for the lasers with semiconductor saturable absorbers.The region of negative dispersion provided by prism pair for a stable ultrashort pulse generation was determined to be (-17000~-42000)fs2.

  4. New active-only grounded inductance simulator employing current-mode approach suitable for wide band operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamacli, Serhan; Ozcan, Sadri; Kuntman, Hakan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an active-only grounded lossless inductance simulator operating in current-mode is presented. The circuit uses only a current operational amplifier (COA) and an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). The novelty of the proposed circuit is that it uses a COA instead of a voltage operational amplifier (VOA) to take the wider frequency operation advantage of the current-mode approach. The simulation results obtained through SPICE with 0.5 μm standard CMOS technology verify that the designed circuit can be operated up to 30 MHz, which is much higher than the operation frequency of previously reported inductance simulators utilising VOAs. The inductance value of the presented circuit can be adjusted electronically between 3.9 μH and 37 μH via the biasing current of the OTA. A parallel resonance circuit application is also given validating the operation of the proposed inductance simulator.

  5. Broadband single-mode operation of standard optical fibers by using a sub-wavelength optical wire filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yongmin; Brambilla, Gilberto; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-15

    We report the use of a sub-wavelength optical wire (SOW) with a specifically designed transition region as an efficient tool to filter higher-order modes in multimode waveguides. Higher-order modes are effectively suppressed by controlling the transition taper profile and the diameter of the sub-wavelength optical wire. As a practical example, single-mode operation of a standard telecom optical fiber over a broad spectral window (400 approximately 1700 nm) was demonstrated with a 1microm SOW. The ability to obtain robust and stable single-mode operation over a very broad range of wavelengths offers new possibilities for mode control within fiber devices and is relevant to a range of application sectors including high performance fiber lasers, sensors, photolithography, and optical coherence tomography systems.

  6. Towards a "crippled-mode" operation of an industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafnicki, Konrad; Narce, Cécile

    2006-02-01

    In house treatment of metal plating wastewater mainly involves chemical treatments performed in continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR). The inflow of these tanks is directly produced by the plating shops activity, and the storage capacity never exceeds a few hours of incoming flow. Thus, any fault on one of the CFSTR may impose a complete stop of the whole manufacturing process, which is unacceptable for the manufacturer. Another solution would be having "spare" CFSTRs ready to be used as alternative in case of any CFSTR fault or maintenance. The latter solution however implies additional costs in equipment, storage space and maintenance so as to keep this equipment fit and ready for operation. The paper presents the study of a "crippled-mode" wastewater treatment (WWT) operation which enables a sufficiently efficient working of the WWT plant during maintenance phases and failure repairing on any of the CFSTR, without any extra equipment needed. This survey has been performed on real industrial WWT plants, with a continuous influent and under industrial operation constraints. The performances of the detoxication have been analysed when a CFSTR is short-circuited and the corresponding chemical treatment is shunt in the upstream or downstream CSFTR. This work shows the possibility of satisfying the environmental regulations with a WWT plant functioning under subnormal conditions.

  7. New Operational Modes to Increase Energy Efficiency in Capacitive Deionization Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Soria, Jorge; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2016-06-07

    In order for capacitive deionization (CDI) as a water treatment technology to achieve commercial success, substantial improvements in the operational aspects of the system should be improved in order to efficiently recover the energy stored during the deionization step. In the present work, to increase the energy efficiency of the adsorption-desorption processes, we propose a new operational procedure that utilizes a concentrated brine stream as a washing solution during regeneration. Using this approach, we demonstrate that by replacing the electrolyte during regeneration for a solution with higher conductivity, it is possible to substantially increase round-trip energy efficiency. This procedure was experimentally verified in a flow cell reactor using a pair of carbon electrodes (10(2) cm geometric area) and NaCl solutions having concentrations between 50 and 350 mmol·L(-1). According to experimental data, this new operational mode allows for a better utilization of the three-dimensional structure of the porous material. This increases the energetic efficiency of the global CDI process to above 80% when deionization/regeneration currents ratio are optimized for brackish water treatment.

  8. Pulsed-mode operation and performance of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asua, E.; García-Arribas, A.; Etxebarria, V.; Feuchtwanger, J.

    2014-02-01

    The actuation capabilities and positioning performance of a single crystal ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) operated in pulsed mode are evaluated in a prototype device. It consists of two orthogonal coil pairs that produce the magnetic fields necessary for the non-contact deformation of the material. The position of the top of the crystal after actuation is measured by a capacitive sensor. A specifically designed power module drives the discharge of a set of capacitors through the coils, producing fast current pulses of large amplitudes (about 250 A), the coil pairs are driven independently to control the direction of actuation. Open-loop experiments demonstrate that successive pulses of increasing magnitude successfully produced the desired expansion and contraction of the crystal, depending on the pair of coils that is activated. The deformation achieved is maintained after the pulses, highlighting the advantageous set-and-forget operation of the device. Closed-loop experiments are performed using a double proportional-integral-derivative controller, designed to take advantage of the energy-saving quality of the set-and-forget operation. Despite the nonlinear response and hysteric response of FSMA materials, a reference position can be reached and maintained with a maximum error of 0.5 μm.

  9. Nanostethoscopy: A new mode of operation of the atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, A.; Holzrichter, J.F.; Balhorn, R.; Siekaus, W.J.

    1994-02-01

    The authors introduce a new mode of operation of the atomic force microscope (AFM). This detection scheme, a {open_quotes}Nano-Stethoscope{close_quotes}. Involves using the atomic force microscope in a novel acoustic mode not generally recognized. The Nano-Stethoscope uses the conventional scanning feature to locate a desired site, positions the AFM microscope tip over the site, holds the cantilever stationary (in x and v) and records the tip`s z-motion as a function of time. The tip/cantilever system thus functions as a micro-motion detector to respond to characteristic {open_quotes}pulsations{close_quotes}, nano-configurational chances, or any other event that influences the position of the tip as a function of time. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of using the tip of an AFM in this manner in a biological system with a measurement of the vibrations of an emerging shrimp egg nauplius ({approximately}3 {mu}m. -10 Hz) and on the Angstrom scale in a non-biological system i.e.. the thermal expansion of metal interconnect lines on a microelectronic circuit.

  10. Output feedback fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode control of underwater remotely operated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoyao; Chen, Jiawang; Gu, Linyi

    2014-01-01

    For the 4-DOF (degrees of freedom) trajectory tracking control problem of underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances, a novel output feedback fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (FO-NTSMC) technique is introduced in light of the equivalent output injection sliding mode observer (SMO) and TSMC principle and fractional calculus technology. The equivalent output injection SMO is applied to reconstruct the full states in finite time. Meanwhile, the FO-NTSMC algorithm, based on a new proposed fractional-order switching manifold, is designed to stabilize the tracking error to equilibrium points in finite time. The corresponding stability analysis of the closed-loop system is presented using the fractional-order version of the Lyapunov stability theory. Comparative numerical simulation results are presented and analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, it is noteworthy that the proposed output feedback FO-NTSMC technique can be used to control a broad range of nonlinear second-order dynamical systems in finite time.

  11. Numerical Examination of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes Operated in Charge Storage Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joseph W., Jr.; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of silicon-based avalanche photodiodes (APD's) operated in the charge storage mode is examined. In the charge storage mode, the diodes are periodically biased to a sub-breakdown voltage and then open-circuited. During this integration period, photo-excited and thermally generated carriers are accumulated within the structure. The dynamics of this accumulation and its effects upon the avalanching of the diode warrants a detailed, fully numerical analysis. The salient features of this investigation include device sensitivity to the input photo-current including the self-quenching effect of the diode and its limitations in sensing low light levels, the dependence of the response on the bulk lifetime and hence on the generation current within the device, the initial gain, transient response, dependence of the device uniformity upon performance, and the quantity of storable charge within the device. To achieve these tasks our device simulator, STEBS-2D, was utilized. A modified current-controlled boundary condition is employed which allows for the simulation of the isolated diode after the initial reset bias has been applied. With this boundary condition, it is possible to establish a steady-state voltage on the ohmic contact and then effectively remove the device from the external circuit while still including effects from surface recombination, trapped surface charge, and leakage current from the read-out electronics.

  12. Multiple-Pulse Operation and Bound States of Solitons in Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of our research on a multiple-pulse operation of passive mode-locked fiber lasers. The research has been performed on basis of numerical simulation. Multihysteresis dependence of both an intracavity energy and peak intensities of intracavity ultrashort pulses on pump power is found. It is shown that the change of a number of ultrashort pulses in a laser cavity can be realized by hard as well as soft regimes of an excitation and an annihilation of new solitons. Bound steady states of interacting solitons are studied for various mechanisms of nonlinear losses shaping ultrashort pulses. Possibility of coding of information on basis of soliton trains with various bonds between neighboring pulses is discussed. The role of dispersive wave emitted by solitons because of lumped intracavity elements in a formation of powerful soliton wings is analyzed. It is found that such powerful wings result in large bounding energies of interacting solitons in steady states. Various problems of a soliton interaction in passive mode-locked fiber lasers are discussed.

  13. A simple operator check of the effective fermion mode function during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, S P [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R P [Department of Physics, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: S.P.Miao@phys.uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu

    2008-07-21

    We present a relatively simple operator formalism which reproduces the leading infrared logarithm of the one-loop quantum gravitational correction to the fermion mode function on a locally de Sitter background. This rule may serve as the basis for an eventual stochastic formulation of quantum gravity during inflation. Such a formalism would not only effect a vast simplification in obtaining the leading powers of ln(a) at fixed loop orders, but also permit us to sum the series of leading logarithms. A potentially important point is that our rule does not seem to be consistent with any simple infrared truncation of the fields. Our analysis also highlights the importance of spin as a gravitational interaction that persists even when kinetic energy has redshifted to zero.

  14. New Voltage-Mode All-pass Filter Topology Employing Single Current Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çiçekli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage-mode all-pass filter topology based on single current operational amplifier (COA and the implementation of COA by using current conveyors are presented. The proposed topology employs three admittances and single active circuit element. COA implementation by using current conveyor blocks as sub-circuit contributes to workability of the COA employing circuits by using commercially available integrated circuits that can be employed as current conveyor. The validity of the proposed filter is verified by PSPICE simulation programme by using the MOSIS 0.35 micron CMOS process parameters. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis and the circuit achieve a good total harmonic distortion (THD performance.

  15. Characterization on Geiger-mode operation of deep diffused silicon APDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Chen, Xiao J.; McClish, Mickel; Farrell, Richard; Vanderpuye, Kofi; Christian, James

    2015-08-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) manufactured at RMD are fabricated using deep diffusion processes, resulting in a thick reach-through APD with excellent performance characteristics. These include a high quantum efficiency (Geiger behavior were dismissed. The low capacitance is conducive to developing large-area devices, and the large drift region allows for charge steering toward the high breakdown field region. These results provide initial data on the performance characteristics of RMD's APDs when operated in Geiger mode. Due to the thickness of these devices, they provide a high gain-bandwidth product for near IR single photon counting. A small area (~4 mm2) APD was biased beyond the reverse bias breakdown voltage (~1700 V at -50 C), where the device showed typical Geigermode behavior with a low dark count rate (Geiger probability at 5V excess bias was measured as 3%, which is consistent with simulations that suggest an excess bias of ~300 V is required for 100% Geiger probability.

  16. Characterization of a Rydberg atom-based streak camera operating in synchroscan mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C. W.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Noordam, L. D.

    2000-06-01

    A streak camera that operates in synchroscan mode has been developed with a spectral response throughout the infrared. A gas-phase sample of Rydberg atoms is used as a photocathode. This compact device possesses 5 ps time resolution and can be used with a total infrared energy of about 1 nJ, or 10 -7 of the total macropulse energy of the FELIX free electron laser. This combination of characteristics makes it not only an attractive device for use in a variety of infrared experiments, but also a powerful tool for the study of photo-induced electron emission in atomic systems. As an example, a Rydberg-atom based electron gun which produces about 20 pulses of electrons at a 70 GHz repetition frequency has been characterized using this synchroscan streak camera.

  17. Memristive operation mode of a site-controlled quantum dot floating gate transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, P., E-mail: patrick.maier@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Hartmann, F.; Mauder, T.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L. [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Höfling, S. [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    We have realized a floating gate transistor based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with site-controlled InAs quantum dots. By short-circuiting the source contact with the lateral gates and performing closed voltage sweep cycles, we observe a memristive operation mode with pinched hysteresis loops and two clearly distinguishable conductive states. The conductance depends on the quantum dot charge which can be altered in a controllable manner by the voltage value and time interval spent in the charging region. The quantum dot memristor has the potential to realize artificial synapses in a state-of-the-art opto-electronic semiconductor platform by charge localization and Coulomb coupling.

  18. Integrated Mode Choice, Small Aircraft Demand, and Airport Operations Model User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor); Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2004-01-01

    A mode choice model that generates on-demand air travel forecasts at a set of GA airports based on changes in economic characteristics, vehicle performance characteristics such as speed and cost, and demographic trends has been integrated with a model to generate itinerate aircraft operations by airplane category at a set of 3227 airports. Numerous intermediate outputs can be generated, such as the number of additional trips diverted from automobiles and schedule air by the improved performance and cost of on-demand air vehicles. The total number of transported passenger miles that are diverted is also available. From these results the number of new aircraft to service the increased demand can be calculated. Output from the models discussed is in the format to generate the origin and destination traffic flow between the 3227 airports based on solutions to a gravity model.

  19. Dielectric Huygens’ Metasurface for High-Efficiency Hologram Operating in Transmission Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Jiang, Huan; Liu, Bingyi; Song, Jie; Jiang, Yongyuan; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    Conventional metasurface holograms relying on metal antennas for phase manipulation suffer from strong Ohmic loss and incomplete polarization conversion. The efficiency is limited to rather small values when operating in transmission mode. Here, we implement a high-efficiency transmissive metasurface hologram by leveraging the recently developed Huygens’ metasurface to construct an electric and magnetic sheet with a transmission efficiency up to 86% and optical efficiency of 23.6%. The high-efficiency originates from the simultaneous excitations of the Mie-type electric and magnetic dipole resonances in the meta-atoms composed of silicon nanodisks. Our hologram shows high fidelity over a wide spectral range and promises to be an outstanding alternative for display applications.

  20. Dielectric Huygens' Metasurface for High-Efficiency Hologram Operating in Transmission Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Jiang, Huan; Liu, Bingyi; Song, Jie; Jiang, Yongyuan; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Conventional metasurface holograms relying on metal antennas for phase manipulation suffer from strong Ohmic loss and incomplete polarization conversion. The efficiency is limited to rather small values when operating in transmission mode. Here, we implement a high-efficiency transmissive metasurface hologram by leveraging the recently developed Huygens' metasurface to construct an electric and magnetic sheet with a transmission efficiency up to 86% and optical efficiency of 23.6%. The high-efficiency originates from the simultaneous excitations of the Mie-type electric and magnetic dipole resonances in the meta-atoms composed of silicon nanodisks. Our hologram shows high fidelity over a wide spectral range and promises to be an outstanding alternative for display applications.

  1. FDNS CFD Code Benchmark for RBCC Ejector Mode Operation: Continuing Toward Dual Rocket Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff; Ruf, Joseph H.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results are compared with benchmark quality test data from the Propulsion Engineering Research Center's (PERC) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) experiments to verify fluid dynamic code and application procedures. RBCC engine flowpath development will rely on CFD applications to capture the multi -dimensional fluid dynamic interactions and to quantify their effect on the RBCC system performance. Therefore, the accuracy of these CFD codes must be determined through detailed comparisons with test data. The PERC experiments build upon the well-known 1968 rocket-ejector experiments of Odegaard and Stroup by employing advanced optical and laser based diagnostics to evaluate mixing and secondary combustion. The Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code [2] was used to model the fluid dynamics of the PERC RBCC ejector mode configuration. Analyses were performed for the Diffusion and Afterburning (DAB) test conditions at the 200-psia thruster operation point, Results with and without downstream fuel injection are presented.

  2. Transient validation of RELAP5 model with the DISS facility in once through operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Aguilera, J. J.; Valenzuela, L.

    2016-05-01

    Thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5 has been used to model a Solar Direct Steam Generation (DSG) system. Experimental data from the DISS facility located at Plataforma Solar de Almería is compared to the numerical results of the RELAP5 model in order to validate it. Both the model and the experimental set-up are in once through operation mode where no injection or active control is regarded. Time dependent boundary conditions are taken into account. This work is a preliminary study of further research that will be carried out in order to achieve a thorough validation of RELAP5 models in the context of DSG in line-focus solar collectors.

  3. DBD plasma source operated in single-filamentary mode for therapeutic use in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Mertmann, Philipp; Bibinov, Nikita; Wandke, Dirk; Viöl, Wolfgang; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Our dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source for bio-medical application comprises a copper electrode covered with ceramic. Objects of high capacitance such as the human body can be used as the opposite electrode. In this study, the DBD source is operated in single-filamentary mode using an aluminium spike as the opposite electrode, to imitate the conditions when the discharge is ignited on a raised point, such as hair, during therapeutic use on the human body. The single-filamentary discharge thus obtained is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, numerical simulation, voltage-current measurements and microphotography. For characterization of the discharge, averaged plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density are determined. Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3) and photons reaching the treated surface are simulated. The calculated fluxes are finally compared with corresponding fluxes used in different bio-medical applications.

  4. Thermal Spray Using a High-Frequency Pulse Detonation Combustor Operated in the Liquid-Purge Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, T.; Obayashi, R.; Tajiri, T.; Kimura, K.; Morohashi, Y.; Johzaki, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Hanafusa, T.; Mizunari, S.

    2016-02-01

    Experiments on thermal spray by pulsed detonations at 150 Hz were conducted. Two types of pulse detonation combustors were used, one operated in the inert gas purge (GAP) mode and the other in the liquid-purge (LIP) mode. In both modes, all gases were supplied in the valveless mode. The GAP mode is free of moving components, although the explosive mixture is unavoidably diluted with the inert gas used for the purge of the hot burned gas. In the LIP mode, pure fuel-oxygen combustion can be realized, although a liquid-droplet injector must be actuated cyclically. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a higher spraying temperature in the LIP mode. First, the temperature of CoNiCrAlY particles heated by pulsed detonations was measured. As a result, the spraying temperature in the LIP mode was higher than that in the GAP mode by about 1000 K. Second, the temperature of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles, whose melting point was almost 2800 °C, heated by pulsed detonations in the LIP mode was measured. As a result, the YSZ particles were heated up to about 2500 °C. Finally, a thermal spray experiment using YSZ particles was conducted, and a coating with low porosity was successfully deposited.

  5. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING MODES OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE TRACTION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Bondarenko

    2017-03-01

    account operation mode of power systems and the use of software systems with imitation of instantaneous interrelated schemes of transport loads.

  6. STOMP Sparse Vegetation Evapotranspiration Model for the Water-Air-Energy Operational Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; White, Mark D.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2005-09-15

    The Water-Air-Energy (WAE) Operational Mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) numerical simulator solves the coupled conservation equations for water mass, air mass, and thermal energy in multiple dimensions. This addendum describes the theory, input file formatting, and application of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) scheme for STOMP that is based on a sparse vegetation evapotranspiration model. The SVAT scheme is implemented as a boundary condition on the upper surface of the computational domain and has capabilities for simulating evaporation from bare surfaces as well as evapotranspiration from sparsely vegetated surfaces populated with single or multiple plant species in response to meteorological forcings. With this extension, the model calculates water mass, air mass and thermal energy across a boundary surface in addition to root-water transport between the subsurface and atmosphere. This mode represents the barrier extension of the WAE mode and is designated as STOMP-WAE-B. Input for STOMP-WAE-B is specified via three input cards and include: atmospheric conditions through the Atmospheric Conditions Card; time-invariant plant species data through the Plant Properties Card; and time varying plant species data through the Boundary Conditions Card. Two optional cards, the Observed Data and UCODE Control Cards allow use of STOMP-WAE with UCODE in an inverse mode to estimate model parameters. STOMP-WAE was validated by solving a number of test problems from the literature that included experimental observations as well as analytical or numerical solutions. Several of the UNSAT-H verification problems are included along with a benchmark simulation derived from a recently published intercode comparison for barrier design tools. Results show that STOMP is able to meet, and in most cases, exceed performance of other commonly used simulation codes without having to resort to may of their simplifying assumptions. Use of the fully

  7. Message Mode Operations for Spacecraft: A Proposal for Operating Spacecraft During Cruise and Mitigating the Network Loading Crunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Ed; MacMedan, Marv; Kazz, Greg; Kallemeyn, Pieter

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a world-class spacecraft tracking facility with stations located in Spain, Australia and USA, servicing Deep Space Missions of many space agencies. The current system of scheduling spacecraft during cruise for multiple 8 hour tracking sessions per week currently leads to an overcommitted DSN. Studies indicate that future projected mission demands upon the Network will only make the loading problem worse. Therefore, a more efficient scheduling of DSN resources is necessary in order to support the additional network loading envisioned in the next few years: The number of missions is projected to increase from 25 in 1998 to 34 by 2001. In fact given the challenge of the NASA administrator, Dan Goldin, of launching 12 spacecraft per year, the DSN would be tracking approximately 90 spacecraft by 2010. Currently a large amount of antenna time and network resources are subscribed by a project in order to have their mission supported during the cruise phase. The recently completed Mars Pathfinder mission was tracked 3 times a week (8 hours/day) during the majority of its cruise to Mars. This paper proposes an innovative approach called Message Mode Operations (MMO) for mitigating the Network loading problem while continuing to meet the tracking, reporting, time management, and scheduling requirements of these missions during Cruise while occupying very short tracking times. MMO satisfies these requirements by providing the following services: Spacecraft Health and Welfare Monitoring Service Command Delivery Service Adaptive Spacecraft Scheduling Service Orbit Determination Service Time Calibration Service Utilizing more efficient engineering telemetry summarization and filtering techniques on-board the spacecraft and collapsing the navigation requirements for Doppler and Range into shorter tracks, we believe spacecraft can be adequately serviced using short 10 to 30 minute tracking sessions. This claim assumes that certain changes would

  8. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  9. Localized Modes of the Linear Periodic Schr\\"{o}dinger Operator with a Nonlocal Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Dohnal, Tomá?; Reichel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    We consider the existence of localized modes corresponding to eigenvalues of the periodic Schr\\"{o}dinger operator $-\\partial_x^2+ V(x)$ with an interface. The interface is modeled by a jump either in the value or the derivative of $V(x)$ and, in general, does not correspond to a localized perturbation of the perfectly periodic operator. The periodic potentials on each side of the interface can, moreover, be different. As we show, eigenvalues can only occur in spectral gaps. We pose the eigenvalue problem as a $C^1$ gluing problem for the fundamental solutions (Bloch functions) of the second order ODEs on each side of the interface. The problem is thus reduced to finding matchings of the ratio functions $R_\\pm=\\frac{\\psi_\\pm'(0)}{\\psi_\\pm(0)}$, where $\\psi_\\pm$ are those Bloch functions that decay on the respective half-lines. These ratio functions are analyzed with the help of the Pr\\"{u}fer transformation. The limit values of $R_\\pm$ at band edges depend on the ordering of Dirichlet and Neumann eigenvalues ...

  10. Control scheme for direct steam generation in parabolic troughs under recirculation operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, L.; Zarza, E. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, E-04120 Almeria (Spain); Camacho, E.F. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dpto. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    Electricity production using solar thermal energy is one of the main research areas at present in the field of renewable energies, these systems being characterised by the need of reliable control systems aimed at maintaining desired operating conditions in the face of changes in solar radiation, which is the main source of energy. A new prototype of solar system with parabolic trough collectors was implemented at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, South-East Spain) to investigate the direct steam generation process under real solar conditions in the parabolic solar collector field of a thermal power plant prototype. This paper presents details and some results of the application of a control scheme designed and tested for the recirculation operation mode, for which the main objective is to obtain steam at constant temperature and pressure at the outlet of the solar field, so that changes produced in the inlet water conditions and/or solar radiation will only affect the amount of steam produced by the solar field. The steam quality and consequently the nominal efficiency of the plant are thus maintained. (author)

  11. Powering low-power implants using PZT transducer discs operated in the radial mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, Ayodele; Vilches, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports experimental results that are used to compare operation characteristics of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic discs operated in the radial mode. The devices are driven to radially vibrate at their lowest fundamental resonant frequency and thus transmit and receive power when immersed in a liquid phantom. A number of 1 mm × 10 mm (thickness × diameter) PZT discs are characterized experimentally within a propagation tank and results discussed. On the basis of these measured characteristics, a novel application is developed and reported for the first time. This consists of a tuned LC resonator circuit which is used at the receiving disc to maximize sensitivity as well as a Seiko start-up IC S-882Z which is employed to charge a capacitor that drives a PIC microcontroller (μC) once the voltage exceeds 2 V DC. We show that a mean input power of 486 mW RMS results in 976 μW RMS received over a range of 80 mm and that this is sufficient to periodically (every 60 s) power the μC to directly drive a red LED for 5 ms with a current of 4.8 mA/flash. This approach is suitable for low-power, periodically activated analogue bio-implant applications.

  12. Analysis of doubly-fed induction machine operating at motoring mode subjected to voltage sag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable Speed (VS Pumped Storage Plants (PSP equipped with large asynchronous (Doubly-Fed Induction machines are emerging now in hydropower applications. Motoring mode of operation of Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM is essential and techno-economical in this application due to: (1 its uniqueness in active power controllability, (2 bulk power handing capability with less rated power converters in rotor circuit, and (3 integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper investigates the performance of two DFIMs at different power ratings (2.2 kW and 2 MW under voltage sag with different attribute. The test results are analyzed in terms of the peaks in torque, speed, power taken and transient currents in rotor and stator circuits. During sag, stable region for DFIM operation along with speed and stator side reactive power input control is also illustrated. The negative effects of voltage sag are briefly discussed. MATLAB simulation is validated with experimentation. The various observations during simulation and experimental analysis are also supported by the theoretical explanations.

  13. Mode-locked and Q-switched operation of a diode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.064 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, G. T.; Keen, S. J.; Ferguson, A. I.

    1988-10-01

    We describe the performance of a mode-locked and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.064 μm, optically pumped by a 500 mW diode laser. The cw mode-locked system provides bandwidth-limited pulses of 55 ps duration, with a corresponding peak power of 3.3 W. When Q-switched the energy within the 100 ns pulse envelope is 10 μJ giving a peak power in the largest pulse of 7 kW. Preliminary results for operation at 1.32 μm are also reported.

  14. Terahertz beat freuquency generation from two-mode lasing operation of coupled microdisk laser

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Chil-Min; Shinohara, Susumu; Kim, Sang Wook

    2012-01-01

    We propose a coupled microdisk laser as a compact and tunable laser source for the generation of a coherent continuous wave THz radiation by photomixing. Using the Schr\\"odinger-Bloch model including the nonlinear effect of active medium, we find single mode and two mode lasings depending on the pumping strength. We explain the transitions of lasing modes in terms of resonant modes which are the solutions of the Schr\\"odinger-Bloch model without active medium and nonlinear interaction. In particular, a two mode lasing is shown to generate THz oscillating frequency originating from the light beating of two nearly degenerated resonant modes with different symmetries.

  15. Multiple-bunch-length operating mode design for a storage ring using hybrid low alpha and harmonic cavity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Lin; Li, Heting

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we design a simultaneous three bunch length operating mode at the HLS-II (Hefei Light Source II) storage ring by installing two harmonic cavities and minimizing the momentum compaction factor. The short bunches (2.6 mm) presented in this work will meet the requirement of coherent millimeter-wave and sub-THz radiation experiments, while the long bunches (20 mm) will efficiently increase the total beam current. Therefore, this multiple-bunch-length operating mode allows present synchrotron users and coherent millimeter-wave users (or sub THz users) to carry out their experiments simultaneously. Since the relatively low energy characteristic of HLS-II we achieve the multiple-bunch-length operating mode without multicell superconducting RF cavities, which is technically feasible.

  16. 信息系统运行方式探讨%The Analysis of Information System Operation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新刚; 杨峥

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the safe operation of information systems risk pre-control capabilities to ensure safe and stable operation of the system,State Grid Corporation implemented information system operation management mode by drawing on the experience of power grid operation management mode,while there are differences between information systems and power grid in service objects, operating characteristics and other aspects,therefore,information system operating mode has its own features. In this article,information system operation mode and grid operation mode were compared,and the factors influencing the system programming were presented.%为了提升信息系统安全运行风险预控能力,确保系统安全稳定运行,国家电网公司借鉴电网运行管理模式,开始推行信息系统运行方式管理工作;而信息系统在服务对象、运行特点等方面与电网都有较大不同,所以信息系统运行方式有其自身的编制特点,对信息系统运行方式与电网运行方式进行了比较,提出了信息系统运行方式编制的影响因素和编制要点。

  17. Analysis and interpretation of the performance degradation of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode

    CERN Document Server

    Calcaterra, A; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Della Mea, G; Restello, S; Ferri, F; Musella, P; Redaelli, N; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tinti, G; Mannocchi, G; Trinchero, G

    2007-01-01

    The long-term stability of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with glass electrodes was studied for one year with a dedicated test station hosting about 10 m2 of detectors. RPCs were operated in streamer mode with a ternary gas mixture containing argon (27%), isobutane (9%) and tetrafluoroethane (64%). Environmental conditions were kept under control and, in particular, the water pollution in the gas, deemed responsible for the degradation of glass RPC performance, was monitored never to exceed 30 ppm in the exhaust line. Evidence for a substantial aging of the detectors was observed, resulting in a loss of efficiency correlated to an increased rate of spurious streamers. This can be ascribed to the chemical attack of the glass surface by hydrofluoric acid formed in the streamer process, as confirmed by detailed morphological and chemical analyses of the electrode surface. Our results strengthen the indication that the instability of glass RPCs in the long term is related to the use of fluorocarbons as quenching...

  18. Performance of Single Electrode-Supported Cells Operating in the Electrolysis Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; G. K. Housley; D. G. Milobar

    2009-11-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes (~10 µm thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes (~1400 µm thick), and manganite (LSM) air-side electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 – 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented.

  19. Characterization of a pixelated CdTe Timepix detector operated in ToT mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoud, T.; Leroy, C.; Papadatos, C.; Pichotka, M.; Pospisil, S.; Roux, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    A 1 mm thick CdTe sensor bump-bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode has been characterized in view of possible applications in particle and medical physics. The CdTe sensor layer was segmented into 256 × 256 pixels, with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. This CdTe Timepix device, of ohmic contact type, has been exposed to alpha-particles and photons from an 241Am source, photons from a 137Cs source, and protons of different energies (0.8–10 MeV) delivered by the University of Montreal Tandem Accelerator. The device was irradiated on the negatively biased backside electrode. An X-ray per-pixel calibration commonly used for this type of detector was done and its accuracy and resolution were assessed and compared to those of a 300 μm thick silicon Timepix device. The electron mobility-lifetime product (μeτe) of CdTe for protons of low energy has been obtained from the Hecht equation. Possible polarization effects have been also investigated. Finally, information about the homogeneity of the detector was obtained from X-ray irradiation.

  20. Low Power CMOS Operational Amplifier with Integrated Common-Mode Feedback for Data Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad S.A.Z

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development a high-performance design of analog circuits becomes increasingly challenging with the continuous trend towards reducing the voltage supply and low power consumption without neglecting the trade-off among other performance parameters. This paper presents the design and implementation of CMOS operational amplifier (op-amp with integrated common-mode feedback (CMFB circuit for data converter using 0.13-μm Silterra CMOS technology. The folded cascode topology is employed as a main op-amp design because it provides high gain and high bandwidth besides low power consumption. The simulation results indicate that the DC gain of 64.5 dB along 133.1 MHz unity gain bandwidth (UGB is achieved for a 1 pF load capacitor. The slew rate of 22.6 V/μs, the phase margin (PM of 68.4° with settling time of 72.4 ns are obtained. The power consumption of this op-amp is 0.3 mW through voltage supply of 1.8 V.

  1. Multiobjective Optimization of a Counterrotating Type Pump-Turbine Unit Operated at Turbine Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A multiobjective optimization for improving the turbine output and efficiency of a counterrotating type pump-turbine unit operated at turbine mode was carried out in this work. The blade geometry of both the runners was optimized using a hybrid multiobjective evolutionary algorithm coupled with a surrogate model. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids to analyze the flow in the pump-turbine unit. As major hydrodynamic performance parameters, the turbine output and efficiency were selected as objective functions with two design variables related to the hub profiles of both the runner blades. These objectives were numerically assessed at twelve design points selected by Latin hypercube sampling in the design space. Response surface approximation models for the objectives were constructed based on the objective function values at the design points. A fast nondominated sorting genetic algorithm for the local search coupled with the response surface approximation models was applied to determine the global Pareto-optimal solutions. The trade-off between the two objectives was determined and described with respect to the Pareto-optimal solutions. The results of this work showed that the turbine outputs and efficiencies of optimized pump-turbine units were simultaneously improved in comparison to the reference unit.

  2. Development of a numerical tool to study the mixing phenomenon occurring during mode one operation of a multi-mode ejector-augmented pulsed detonation rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joshua

    A novel multi-mode implementation of a pulsed detonation engine, put forth by Wilson et al., consists of four modes; each specifically designed to capitalize on flow features unique to the various flow regimes. This design enables the propulsion system to generate thrust through the entire flow regime. The Multi-Mode Ejector-Augmented Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine operates in mode one during take-off conditions through the acceleration to supersonic speeds. Once the mixing chamber internal flow exceeds supersonic speed, the propulsion system transitions to mode two. While operating in mode two, supersonic air is compressed in the mixing chamber by an upstream propagating detonation wave and then exhausted through the convergent-divergent nozzle. Once the velocity of the air flow within the mixing chamber exceeds the Chapman-Jouguet Mach number, the upstream propagating detonation wave no longer has sufficient energy to propagate upstream and consequently the propulsive system shifts to mode three. As a result of the inability of the detonation wave to propagate upstream, a steady oblique shock system is established just upstream of the convergent-divergent nozzle to initiate combustion. And finally, the propulsion system progresses on to mode four operation, consisting purely of a pulsed detonation rocket for high Mach number flight and use in the upper atmosphere as is needed for orbital insertion. Modes three and four appear to be a fairly significant challenge to implement, while the challenge of implementing modes one and two may prove to be a more practical goal in the near future. A vast number of potential applications exist for a propulsion system that would utilize modes one and two, namely a high Mach number hypersonic cruise vehicle. There is particular interest in the dynamics of mode one operation, which is the subject of this research paper. Several advantages can be obtained by use of this technology. Geometrically the propulsion system is fairly

  3. Energy Level of Three-Mode Harmonic Oscillator for Coordinate Operators Satisfying Cyclic Commutative Relations Obtained by IEO Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FAN Hong-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Eigenvalue-solution to those Hamiltonians involving non-commutative coordinates is not easily obtained. In this paper we apply the invariant eigen-operator (IEO) method to solving the energy spectrum of the three-mode harmonic oscillator in non-commutative space with the coordinate operators satisfying cyclic commutative relations, [X1, X2]=[X2, X3]=[X3, X1]=iθ, and this method seems effective and concise.

  4. Tunable GHz pulse repetition rate operation in high-power TEM(00)-mode Nd:YLF lasers at 1047 nm and 1053 nm with self mode locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y J; Tzeng, Y S; Tang, C Y; Huang, Y P; Chen, Y F

    2012-07-30

    We report on a high-power diode-pumped self-mode-locked Nd:YLF laser with the pulse repetition rate up to several GHz. A novel tactic is developed to efficiently select the output polarization state for achieving the stable TEM(00)-mode self-mode-locked operations at 1053 nm and 1047 nm, respectively. At an incident pump power of 6.93 W and a pulse repetition rate of 2.717 GHz, output powers as high as 2.15 W and 1.35 W are generated for the σ- and π-polarization, respectively. We experimentally find that decreasing the separation between the gain medium and the input mirror not only brings in the pulse shortening thanks to the enhanced effect of the spatial hole burning, but also effectively introduces the effect of the spectral filtering to lead the Nd:YLF laser to be in a second harmonic mode-locked status. Consequently, pulse durations as short as 8 ps and 8.5 ps are obtained at 1053 nm and 1047 nm with a pulse repetition rate of 5.434 GHz.

  5. Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Cooper, L J; Sahu, J K; Clarkson, W A

    2006-01-15

    A novel approach to achieving robust single-spatial-mode operation of cladding-pumped fiber lasers with multimode cores is reported. The approach is based on the use of a fiber geometry in which the core has a helical trajectory within the inner cladding to suppress laser oscillation on higher-order modes. In a preliminary proof-of-principle study, efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber laser with a 30 microm diameter core and a numerical aperture of 0.087 has been demonstrated. The laser yielded 60.4 W of output at 1043 nm in a beam with M2 diode stack at 976 nm. The slope efficiency at pump powers well above threshold was approximately 84%, which compares favorably with the slope efficiencies achievable with conventional straight-core Yb-doped double-clad fiber lasers.

  6. High-Precision Multi-Wave Rectifier Circuit Operating in Low Voltage + 1.5 Volt Current Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancha Burapattanasiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is present high-precision multi-wave rectifier circuit operating in low voltage +/- 1.5 Volt current modes by CMOS technology 0.5 μm, receive input and give output in current mode, respond at high frequency period. The structure compound with high-speed current comparator circuit, current mirror circuit, and CMOS inverter circuit. PSpice program used for confirmation the performance of testing. The PSpice program shows operating of circuit is able to working at maximum input current 400 μAp-p, maximum frequency responding 200 MHz, high precision and low power losses, and non-precision zero crossing output signal.Keywords-component; rectifier circuit; high-precision; low voltage; current mode;

  7. Effects of sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community diversity on H2S emission behavior in landfills with different operation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Du, Yao; Hu, Lifang; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the major contributors to offensive odors from landfills, and its concentration differs under different operation modes. This study examined the distribution of H2S emission from different landfill depths under different operation modes (anaerobic, semi-aerobic, semi-aerobic transformation, and the three operation modes with additional leachate recirculation). The microbial community (especially the sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community) was investigated using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the semi-aerobic mode could substantially lower the risks of H2S pollution in landfills, which might be because of the difference in biological processes related to sulfur metabolism driven by functional microbes. A myriad of factors are responsible for mutually shaping the sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community composition in landfills that might subsequently affect the behavior of H2S emission in landfills. The differences in abundance of the genera Acinetobacter and Paracoccus (phylum Proteobacteria) caused by environmental factors might explain the differences in H2S emission. H2S odor control could be realized if the related functional microbe diversity can be influenced by adjustments to landfill operation.

  8. Persistent Operational Synchrony within Brain Default-Mode Network and Self-Processing Operations in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concepts, we hypothesized that the spatio-temporal pattern of functional connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) should persist unchanged across a variety of different cognitive tasks or acts, thus being task-unrelated. This supposition is in contrast with current understanding…

  9. Theory and analysis of operating modes in microplasmas assisted by field emitting cathodesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2015-05-01

    Motivated by the recent interest in the development of novel diamond-based cathodes, we study microplasmas assisted by field emitting cathodes with large field enhancement factors using a simplified model and comparisons with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) simulations and experiments. The model used to determine current-voltage characteristics assumes a linearly varying electric field in the sheath and predicts transition from an abnormal glow to arc mode at moderate current densities in a 1 mm argon gap. The influence of an external circuit is also considered to show the dependence of current as a function of the applied voltage, including potential drop across external resistors. PIC-MCC simulations confirm the validity of the model and also show the significant non-equilibrium nature of these low-temperature microplasmas with electron temperatures ˜1 eV and ion temperatures ˜ 0.07 eV in the quasi-neutral region. The model is also used to explain experimental data reported for a 1 mm argon gap at a pressure of 2 Torr using three different diamond-based cathodes with superior field emitting properties. The comparison shows that operating conditions in the experiments may not result in significant field emission and the differences observed in current-voltage characteristics can be attributed to small differences in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the three cathodes. However, the model and simulations clearly indicate that field emission using novel cathodes with high field enhancement factors can be used to enhance microplasmas by significantly decreasing the power requirements to achieve a given plasma number density even in gaps at which field emission is traditionally not considered to be a dominant mechanism.

  10. MODES OF OPERATION OF THE SYSTEM OF TRACTION POWER AC USING REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Domanskyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematic analysis of existing methods of reactive power compensation. The study of operating modes of the systems external and traction power supply is carried out. The methodology for selecting promising compensation schemes and energy-saving in the traction networks AC electrified railway lines is offered. The comparative evaluation of prospective controlled compensation devices shows that use of seamlessly adjustable devices with unregulated condensing the battery and with parallel translator regulated with thyristor unit and with filters to reduce harmonics bond to the large capital investments. For traction networks of domestic railways payback period is more than 10-15 years. The most promising for traction power supply today is a stepwise adjustable devices of reactive power compensation. For the efficient allocation of investments in programs and projects of modernization of system traction power supply developed by the methodology of selecting parameters and places placement devices transverse compensation in the system traction power supply, which is based on the use of software systems with imitation of interconnected instant circuits moving loads of electric rolling stock. Based on the results of multiple calculations full factor experiment when simulating work of the systems traction power supply during the day marked the most influencing factors on energy-saving in process freight on electric traction and established the extent of their influence. These include the overflows of power, the resistance of traction network, reactive power compensation, power supply circuits and the organization of trains. Innovative technologies energy-saving railways from positions of consideration their close connection with the systems external power supply are proposed.

  11. Operational optical turbulence forecast for the service mode of top-class ground based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, Franck; Turchi, Alessio; Fini, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution we present the most relevant results obtained in the context of a feasibility study (MOSE) undertaken for ESO. The principal aim of the project was to quantify the performances of an atmospherical non-hydrostatical mesoscale model (Astro-Meso-NH code) in forecasting all the main atmospherical parameters relevant for the ground-based astronomical observations and the optical turbulence (CN2 and associated integrated astroclimatic parameters) above Cerro Paranal (site of the VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the E-ELT). A detailed analysis on the score of success of the predictive capacities of the system have been carried out for all the astroclimatic as well as for the atmospherical parameters. Considering the excellent results that we obtained, this study proved the opportunity to implement on these two sites an automatic system to be run nightly in an operational configuration to support the scheduling of scientific programs as well as of astronomical facilities (particularly those supported by AO systems) of the VLT and the E-ELT. At the end of 2016 a new project for the implementation of a demonstrator of an operational system to be run on the two ESO's sites will start. The fact that the system can be run simultaneously on the two sites is an ancillary appealing feature of the system. Our team is also responsible for the implementation of a similar automatic system at Mt.Graham, site of the LBT (ALTA Project). Our system/method will permit therefore to make a step ahead in the framework of the Service Mode for new generation telescopes. Among the most exciting achieved results we cite the fact that we proved to be able to forecast CN2 profiles with a vertical resolution as high as 150 m. Such a feature is particularly crucial for all WFAO systems that require such detailed information on the OT vertical stratification on the whole 20 km above the ground. This important achievement tells us that all the WFAO systems can rely on automatic

  12. INTEGRAL INDEX OF OPERATION QUALITY FOR EVALUATION OF IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTIVE GENERATION SOURCES ON ELECTRIC NETWORK MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro D. Lezhniuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Method of operation quality evaluation of electric network, comprising renewable sources of energy (RSE is considered. Integral index that enables to evaluate the impact of RSE on energy losses and its quality as well as balance reliability in electric network is suggested. Mathematical model is constructed, taking into account the assumption that electric network with RSE may be in various operation modes, characterized by different technical economic indices. To determine the integral index of operation quality of electric network with RSE in all possible states tools of Markov processes theory and criterial method are used.

  13. Thermo-mechanical and damage analyses of EAST carbon divertor under type-I ELMy H-mode operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.X. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Song, Y.T. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ye, M.Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Peng, X.B., E-mail: pengxb@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, S.T. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Qian, X.Y.; Zhu, C.C. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Type-I ELMy H-mode is one of the most severe operating environment in tokamak. • An actual time-history heat load has been used in thermo-mechanical analysis. • The analysis results are time-dependent during the whole discharge process. • The analysis could be very useful in evaluating the operational capability of the divertor. - Abstract: The lower carbon divertor has been used since 2008 in EAST, and many significant physical results, like the 410 s long pulse discharge and the 32 s H-mode operation, have been achieved. As the carbon divertor will still be used in the next few years while the injected auxiliary heating power would be increased gradually, it’s necessary to evaluate the operational capability of the carbon divertor under the heat loads during future operation. In this paper, an actual time-history heat load during type-I ELMy H-mode from EAST experiment, as one of the most severe operating environment in tokamak, has been used in the calculation and analysis. The finite element (FE) thermal and mechanical calculations have been carried out to analysis the stress and deformation of the carbon divertor during the heat loads. According to the results, the main impact on the overall temperature comes from the relative stable phase before and after the type-I ELMs and local peak load, and the transient thermal load such as type-I ELMy only has a significant effect on the surface temperature of the graphite tiles. The carbon divertor would work with high stress near the screw bolts in the current operational conditions, because of high preload and conservative frictional coefficient between the bolts and heatsink. For the future operation, new plasma facing materials (PFM) and divertor technology should be developed.

  14. Design and control of a prosthetic leg for above-knee amputees operated in semi-active and active modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhyuk; Yoon, Gun-Ha; Kang, Je-Won; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new prosthesis operated in two different modes; the semi-active and active modes. The semi-active mode is achieved from a flow mode magneto-rheological (MR) damper, while the active mode is obtained from an electronically commutated (EC) motor. The knee joint part of the above knee prosthesis is equipped with the MR damper and EC motor. The MR damper generates reaction force by controlling the field-dependent yield stress of the MR fluid, while the EC motor actively controls the knee joint angle during gait cycle. In this work, the MR damper is designed as a two-end type flow mode mechanism without air chamber for compact size. On other hand, in order to predict desired knee joint angle to be controlled by EC motor, a polynomial prediction function using a statistical method is used. A nonlinear proportional-derivative controller integrated with the computed torque method is then designed and applied to both MR damper and EC motor to control the knee joint angle. It is demonstrated that the desired knee joint angle is well achieved in different walking velocities on the ground ground.

  15. Zero modes of the Dirac operator on a noncompact two-dimensional surface in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitenko, Y.A. (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR (UA))

    1989-09-01

    We investigate zero modes of the two-dimensional Dirac operator on a noncompact singly connected surface in an external magnetic field. The number of square-integrable zero modes is shown to be determined by global characteristics of the external field and surface: the flux of the magnetic field through the surface and the Gauss curvature integrated over the surface. The equivalence of the square integrability condition for the noncompact surface to the conditions of the index theorem for a closed compact surface is discussed.

  16. Comparative study between conventional and diffusion-bonded Nd-doped vanadate crystals in the passively mode-locked operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y J; Huang, Y P; Liang, H C; Su, K W; Chen, Y F; Huang, K F

    2010-04-26

    We design a reliable linear three-element cavity to make a comparative study between the conventional and diffusion-bonded Nd:GdVO(4) crystals in the passively mode-locked operation. Experimental investigations reveal that the mode-locked pulse width obtained with the diffusion-bonded crystal is considerably broader than that obtained with the conventional crystal, even though the diffusion-bonded crystal can significantly reduce the thermal effects. The pulse broadening is experimentally verified to come from the length of the undoped part that brings in a reduction of the spatial-hole-burning (SHB) effect.

  17. REFINED METHOD OF COMPUTING MODES OF OPERATING OF CAPACITY-TYPE SOLAR HEATERS OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratschii Vl.V.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The refined method procedure of thermal modes of solar heaters of water of the capacity type, based on use of an electro-thermal equivalent circuit and a method of central potentials is presented.

  18. Model-Based Resource and Mode Management for Lunar Surface Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is aimed at developing a model based resource and mode management system for space robotics systems that will allow real time assessment of...

  19. Some Operational Characteristics of Glycine Release in Rat Retina: The Role of Reverse Mode Operation of Glycine Transporter Type-1 (GlyT-1) in Ischemic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuska, Adrienn; Szénási, Gábor; Albert, Mihaly; Koles, Laszlo; Varga, Agoston; Szabo, Andras; Matyus, Peter; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2016-02-01

    Rat posterior eyecups containing the retina were prepared, loaded with [(3)H]glycine and superfused in order to determine its release originated from glycinergic amacrine cells and/or glial cells. Deprivation of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs-bicarbonate buffer used for superfusion evoked a marked increase of [(3)H]glycine release, an effect that was found to be external Ca(2+)-independent. Whereas oxygen and glucose deprivation increased [(3)H]glycine release, its uptake was reduced suggesting that energy deficiency shifts glycine transporter type-1 operation from normal to reverse mode. The increased release of [(3)H]glycine evoked by oxygen and glucose deprivation was suspended by addition of the non-competitive glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor NFPS and the competitive inhibitor ACPPB further suggesting the involvement of this transporter in the mediation of [(3)H]glycine release. Oxygen and glucose deprivation also evoked [(3)H]glutamate release from rat retina and the concomitantly occurring release of the NMDA receptor agonist glutamate and the coagonist glycine makes NMDA receptor pathological overstimulation possible in hypoxic conditions. [(3)H]Glutamate release was suspended by addition of the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA. Sarcosine, a substrate inhibitor of glycine transporter type-1, also increased [(3)H]glycine release probably by heteroexchange shifting transporter operation into reverse mode. This effect of sarcosine was also external Ca(2+)-independent and could be suspended by NFPS. Energy deficiency in retina induced by ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-dependent ATPase, and by rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor added with the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose, led to increase of retinal [(3)H]glycine efflux. These effects of ouabain and rotenone/2-deoxy-D-glucose could also be blocked by NFPS pointed to the preferential reverse mode operation of glycine transporter type-1 as a consequence of

  20. H-mode pedestal and threshold studies over an expanded operating space on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Biewer, T.; Cziegler, I.; LaBombard, B.; Lin, Y.; McDermott, R.; Rice, J. E.; Rowan, W. L.; Snipes, J. A.; Terry, J. L.; Wolfe, S. M.; Wukitch, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports on studies of the edge transport barrier and transition threshold of the high confinement (H) mode of operation on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)], over a wide range of toroidal field (2.6-7.86T) and plasma current (0.4-1.7MA). The H-mode power threshold and edge temperature at the transition increase with field. Barrier widths, pressure limits, and confinement are nearly independent of field at constant current, but the operational space at high B shifts toward higher temperature and lower density and collisionality. Experiments with reversed field and current show that scrape-off-layer flows in the high-field side depend primarily on configuration. In configurations with the B ×∇B drift away from the active X-point, these flows lead to more countercurrent core rotation, which apparently contributes to higher H-mode thresholds. In the unfavorable case, edge temperature thresholds are higher, and slow evolution of profiles indicates a reduction in thermal transport prior to the transition in particle confinement. Pedestal temperatures in this case are also higher than in the favorable configuration. Both high-field and reversed-field results suggest that parameters at the L-H transition are influencing the evolution and parameters of the H-mode pedestal.

  1. Results from prototypes of environmental and health alarm devices based on gaseous detectors operating in air in counting mode

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V; Benaben, P; Charpak, G; Breuil, P

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested two prototypes of detectors of dangerous gases based on wire-type counters operating in air in avalanche mode: one is for radon (Rn) detection whereas the other one is for the detection of gases with an ionization potential less than the air components. Due to the operation in pulse counting mode these prototypes have sensitivities comparable to (in the case of the Rn detector) or much higher than (in the case of the detector for low ionization gases) the best commercial devices currently available on the market. We believe that due to their high sensitivity, simplicity and low cost such new detectors will find massive applications. One of them, discussed in this paper, could be the on-line monitoring of Rn for the prediction of earthquakes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-seeded operation of the LCLS hard X-ray FEL in the long-bunch mode

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    Self-seeding options for the LCLS baseline were recently investigated using a scheme which relies on a single-crystal monochromator in Bragg-transmission geometry. The LCLS low-charge (0.02 nC) mode of operation was considered in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme. The wakefield effects from the linac and from the undulator vacuum chamber are much reduced at such low charge, and can be ignored. In this paper we extend our previous investigations to the case of the LCLS mode of operation with nominal charge. Based on the LCLS start-to-end simulation for an electron beam charge of 0.25 nC, and accounting for the wakefields from the undulator vacuum chamber we demonstrate that the same simplest self-seeding system (two undulators with a single-crystal monochromator in between) is appropriate not only for short (few femtosecond) bunches, but for longer bunches too.

  3. Evaluation of persistent-mode operation in a superconducting MgB2 coil in solid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; See, Khay Wai; Qiu, Wenbin; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Ma, Zongqing; Kim, Seong Jun; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Maeda, Minoru; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Rindfleisch, Matt; Tomsic, Mike; Xue Dou, Shi; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a magnesium diboride (MgB2) coil and evaluate its persistent-mode operation in a system cooled by a cryocooler with solid nitrogen (SN2) as a cooling medium. The main purpose of SN2 was to increase enthalpy of the cold mass. For this work, an in situ processed carbon-doped MgB2 wire was used. The coil was wound on a stainless steel former in a single layer (22 turns), with an inner diameter of 109 mm and height of 20 mm without any insulation. The two ends of the coil were then joined to make a persistent-current switch to obtain the persistent-current mode. After a heat treatment, the whole coil was installed in the SN2 chamber. During operation, the resultant total circuit resistance was estimated to be magnetic resonance imaging application.

  4. On exact and approximated formulations for scaling-mode shapes in operational modal analysis by mass and stiffness change

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aenlle, M.; Brincker, R.; Pelayo, F.; Canteli, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    When operational modal analysis (OMA) is used to estimate modal parameters, mode shapes cannot be mass normalized. In the past few years, some equations have been proposed to scale mode shapes using the mass-change method, which consists of repeating modal testing after changing the mass at different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known. In this paper, the structural-dynamic-modification theory is used to derive a set of equations, from which all the existing formulations can be derived. It is shown that the known equations can be divided into two types, the exact and the approximated equations, where the former type does in fact fulfill the equations derived from the theory of structural modification, whereas the remaining equations do not, mainly because the change of the mode shapes of the modified structure is not properly taken into account. By simulations, the paper illustrates the large difference in accuracy between the approximate and the exact formulations. The paper provides two new exact formulations for the scaling factors, one for the non-modified structure and - for the first time in the literature - one for the modified structure. The simulations indicate the influence of errors from the measured natural frequencies and mode shapes on the estimation of the scaling factors using the two exact formulations from the literature and the new exact formulation proposed in this paper. In addition, the paper illustrates statistics of the errors on mode-shape scaling. All simulations were carried out using a plate with closely spaced modes.

  5. Performance comparison of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors in BLDC and BLAC operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štumberger, B.; Štumberger, G.; Hadžiselimović, M.; Hamler, A.; Goričan, V.; Jesenik, M.; Trlep, M.

    The paper presents a comparison of torque capability and flux-weakening performance of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors with surface and inset permanent magnets. Finite element analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor in BLDC and BLAC operation mode. It is shown that the torque capability and flux-weakening performance of surface or inset permanent magnet configuration is strongly dependent on the stator teeth number/rotor pole number combination.

  6. Performance comparison of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors in BLDC and BLAC operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumberger, B. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova ulica 17, Maribor SI-2000 (Slovenia)], E-mail: bojan.stumberger@uni-mb.si; Stumberger, G.; Hadziselimovic, M.; Hamler, A.; Gorican, V.; Jesenik, M.; Trlep, M. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor, Smetanova ulica 17, Maribor SI-2000 (Slovenia)

    2008-10-15

    The paper presents a comparison of torque capability and flux-weakening performance of three-phase flux reversal permanent magnet motors with surface and inset permanent magnets. Finite element analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor in BLDC and BLAC operation mode. It is shown that the torque capability and flux-weakening performance of surface or inset permanent magnet configuration is strongly dependent on the stator teeth number/rotor pole number combination.

  7. Efficient ways for setting up the operation of nuclear power stations in power systems in the base load mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Burdenkova, E. Yu.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2011-05-01

    The results obtained from studies of efficient ways and methods for organizing the operation of developing nuclear power stations in the base load mode are presented. We also show comparative efficiency of different scenarios for unloading condensing thermal power stations, cogeneration stations, combined-cycle power plants, nuclear power stations, and using off-peak electric energy for electricity-intensive loads: pumped-hydroelectric storage, electric-powered heat supply, and electrolysis of water for producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  8. Increased wavelength options in the visible and ultraviolet for Raman lasers operating on dual Raman modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, R P; Piper, J A

    2008-03-01

    We report increased wavelength options from Raman lasers for Raman media having two Raman modes of similar gain coefficient. For an external-cavity potassium gadolinium tungstate Raman laser pumped at 532 nm, we show that two sets of Stokes orders are generated simultaneously by appropriate orientation of the Raman crystal, and also wavelengths that correspond to sums of the two Raman modes. Up to 14 visible Stokes lines were observed in the wavelength range 555-675 nm. The increase in Stokes wavelengths also enables a much greater selection of wavelengths to be accessed via intracavity nonlinear sum frequency and difference frequency mixing. For example, we demonstrate 30 output wavelength options for a wavelength-selectable 271-321 nm Raman laser with intracavity sum frequency mixing in BBO. We also present a theoretical analysis that enables prediction of wavelength options for dual Raman mode systems.

  9. Discovery of multiple, ionization-created CS{sub 2} anions and a new mode of operation for drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Ifft, Daniel P. [Department of Physics, Occidental College, Los Angeles, California 90041 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This paper focuses on the surprising discovery of multiple species of ionization-created CS{sub 2} anions in gas mixtures containing electronegative CS{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, identified by their slightly different drift velocities. Data are presented to understand the formation mechanism and identity of these new anions. Regardless of the micro-physics, however, this discovery offers a new, trigger-less mode of operation for the drift chambers. A demonstration of trigger-less operation is presented.

  10. Improvement of the reliability graph with general gates to analyze the reliability of dynamic systems that have various operation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Ki [Div. of Research Reactor System Design, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The safety of nuclear power plants is analyzed by a probabilistic risk assessment, and the fault tree analysis is the most widely used method for a risk assessment with the event tree analysis. One of the well-known disadvantages of the fault tree is that drawing a fault tree for a complex system is a very cumbersome task. Thus, several graphical modeling methods have been proposed for the convenient and intuitive modeling of complex systems. In this paper, the reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) method, one of the intuitive graphical modeling methods based on Bayesian networks, is improved for the reliability analyses of dynamic systems that have various operation modes with time. A reliability matrix is proposed and it is explained how to utilize the reliability matrix in the RGGG for various cases of operation mode changes. The proposed RGGG with a reliability matrix provides a convenient and intuitive modeling of various operation modes of complex systems, and can also be utilized with dynamic nodes that analyze the failure sequences of subcomponents. The combinatorial use of a reliability matrix with dynamic nodes is illustrated through an application to a shutdown cooling system in a nuclear power plant.

  11. Study of the asynchronous traction drive's operating modes by computer simulation. Part 1: Problem formulation and computer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KOLPAHCHYAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problems arising from the design of electric locomotives with asynchronous traction drive (with three-phase AC induction motors are considered as including the debugging of control algorithms. The electrical circuit provides the individual (by axle control of traction motors. This allows realizing the operational disconnection/connection of one or more axles in the automatic mode, with account of actual load. In perspective, the evaluation of locomotive's energy efficiency at the realization of various control algorithms must be obtained. Another objective is to research the dynamic processes in various modes of the electric locomotive operation (start and acceleration, traction regime, coasting movement, wheel-slide protection, etc. To solve these problems, a complex computer model based on the representation of AC traction drive as controlled electromechanical system, is developed in Part 1. The description of methods applied in modeling of traction drive elements (traction motors, power converters, control systems, as well as of mechanical part and of "wheel-rail" contact, is given. The control system provides the individual control of the traction motors. Part 2 of the paper focuses on the results of dynamic processes modeling in various modes of electric locomotive operation.

  12. Zero modes for the magnetic Pauli operator in even-dimensional Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    We study the ground state of the Pauli Hamiltonian with a magnetic field in R^(2d). We consider the case where a scalar potential W is present and the magnetic field B is given by $B=2i\\partial\\bar\\partial W$. The main result is that there are no zero modes if the magnetic field decays faster than quadratically at infinity. If the magnetic field decays quadratically then zero modes may appear, and we give a lower bound for the number of them. The results in this paper partly correct a mistake in a paper from 1993.

  13. High power low-order modes operation of a multimode fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libo Li; Qihong Lou; Jun Zhou; Jingxing Dong; Yunrong Wei; Jinyan Li

    2007-01-01

    Coiling technique is used to suppress high-order modes of a large mode area (LMA) double clad multimode fiber. Output powers and beam quality factors M2 are measured under two different coiling radii. 217 W with M2 of 2.96 can be obtained for coiling radius of 165 mm and 160 W with M2 of 1.38 for 52 mm. The corresponding slope efficiencies are 60% and 48%. With smaller coiling radius, the brightness is 3.4 times as high as that of the larger one.

  14. The analysis of an operating mode of the asynchronous generator with capacitor excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postoronca S.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a symbolical method of calculation of electric circuits the analysis of features of work of the three-phase asynchronous generator with two windings on статоре and capacitor excitation is executed. Results of the analysis of influence on a phase corner of a current and voltage of a windings of excitation of the generator are submitted at change of its loading from a mode of idling up to a mode of short circuit. Recommendations on stabilization of a target voltage of the generator are formulated at change of its loading.

  15. Graphene oxide mode-locked Yb:GAGG bulk laser operating in the femtosecond regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Lou, Fei; Li, Yan-bin; Hou, Jia; He, Jing-Liang; Jia, Zhi-Tai; Liu, Jing-Quan; Zhang, Bai-Tao; Yang, Ke-Jian; Wang, Zhao-Wei; Tao, Xu-Tang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality graphene oxide saturable absorber (SA) is successfully fabricated with 1-2 layer graphene oxide. By employing this SA, we have demonstrated femtosecond pulse generation from a graphene oxide passively mode locked bulk laser for the first time to our best knowledge. With two Gires-Tournois interferometer mirrors for dispersion compensation, pulses as short as 493 fs with an average power of 500 mW are obtained at the central wavelength of 1035.5 nm. These results presented here indicate the great potential of GO for generating femtosecond mode-locked pulses in the bulk laser.

  16. Technical Note: Continuity of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data quality from full- to reduced-spectral-resolution operation mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ceccherini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding is operating on the ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT since March 2002. After two years of nearly continuous limb scanning measurements, at the end of March 2004, the instrument was stopped due to problems with the mirror drive of the interferometer. Operations with reduced maximum path difference, corresponding to both a reduced-spectral-resolution and a shorter measurement time, were resumed on January 2005. In order to exploit the reduction in measurement time, the measurement scenario was changed adopting a finer vertical limb scanning. The change of spectral resolution and of measurement scenario entailed an update of the data processing strategy. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the differences in the quality of the MIPAS ozone data acquired before and after the stop of the operations. Two sets of MIPAS ozone profiles acquired in 2003–2004 (full-resolution measurements and in 2005–2006 (reduced-resolution measurements are compared with collocated ozone profiles obtained by GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars, itself also onboard ENVISAT. The continuity of the GOMOS data quality allows to assess a possible discontinuity of the MIPAS performances. The relative bias and precision of MIPAS ozone profiles with respect to the GOMOS ones have been compared for the measurements acquired before and after the stop of the MIPAS operations. The results of the comparison show that, in general, the quality of the MIPAS ozone profiles retrieved from reduced-resolution measurements is comparable or better than that obtained from the full-resolution dataset. The only significant change in MIPAS performances is observed at pressures around 2 unit{hPa}, where the relative bias of the instruments increases by a factor of 2 from the 2003–2004 to 2005–2006 measurements.

  17. User Influence on MIMO Channel Capacity for Handsets in Data Mode Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Bonev, Ivan Bonev;

    2012-01-01

    The current paper concerns realistic evaluation of the capacity of the MIMO channel between a BS and handheld device, such as a PDA or smartphone, held in front of the user’s body (data mode). The work is based on measurements of the MIMO channel between two widely separated BSs in a micro...

  18. Programmable Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter Using Two Current Conveyors and One Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti; Azhar Quddus

    1996-01-01

    A new voltage-mode active-filter with single input and three outputs is presented. The parameters of the proposed filter are programmable and the filter uses grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit can simultaneously realize lowpass, highpass, and bandpass biquadratic filter functions and enjoys low temperature sensitivities.

  19. HOW TO ADJUST THE QUARTER WAVE LINE ON THE HALF-WAVE OPERATING MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsiuk V.I

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the equations of the established mode the closed formulas for distribution of voltage, currents and active capacity along a non-uniform line with the concentrated elements are received. Inclusion of throttles and condenser batteries in a quarter wave line is examined with the purpose of giving to it of properties half-wave.

  20. A preliminary operational classification system for nonmutagenic modes of action for carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, D; Chu, M; Rahmioglu, N; Goble, R; Verma, P; Hartman, K; Kozlak, M

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a system of categories for nonmutagenic modes of action for carcinogenesis. The classification is of modes of action rather than individual carcinogens, because the same compound can affect carcinogenesis in more than one way. Basically, we categorize modes of action as: (1) co-initiation (facilitating the original mutagenic changes in stem and progenitor cells that start the cancer process) (e.g. induction of activating enzymes for other carcinogens); (2) promotion (enhancing the relative growth vs differentiation/death of initiated clones (e.g. inhibition of growth-suppressing cell-cell communication); (3) progression (enhancing the growth, malignancy, or spread of already developed tumors) (e.g. suppression of immune surveillance, hormonally mediated growth stimulation for tumors with appropriate receptors by estrogens); and (4) multiphase (e.g., "epigenetic" silencing of tumor suppressor genes). A priori, agents that act at relatively early stages in the process are expected to manifest greater relative susceptibility in early life, whereas agents that act via later stage modes will tend to show greater susceptibility for exposures later in life.

  1. Impact of Mode of Delivery on Female Postpartum Sexual Functioning: Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery and Operative Vaginal Delivery vs. Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giussy; Pifarotti, Paola; Facchin, Federica; Cortinovis, Ivan; Dridi, Dhohua; Ronchetti, Camilla; Calzolari, Luca; Vercellini, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have explored the association between modes of delivery and postpartum female sexual functioning, although with inconsistent findings. To investigate the impact of mode of delivery on female postpartum sexual functioning by comparing spontaneous vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery, and cesarean section. One hundred thirty-two primiparous women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery, 45 who had an operative vaginal delivery, and 92 who underwent a cesarean section were included in the study (N = 269). Postpartum sexual functioning was evaluated 6 months after childbirth using the Female Sexual Function Index. Time to resumption of sexual intercourse, postpartum depression, and current breastfeeding also were assessed 6 months after delivery. Female Sexual Function Index total and domain scores and time to resumption of sexual intercourse at 6 months after childbirth. Women who underwent an operative vaginal delivery had poorer scores on arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and global sexual functioning compared with the cesarean section group and lower orgasm scores compared with the spontaneous vaginal delivery group (P < .05). The mode of delivery did not significantly affect time to resumption of sexual intercourse. Women who were currently breastfeeding had lower lubrication, more pain at intercourse, and longer time to resumption of sexual activity. Operative vaginal delivery might be associated with poorer sexual functioning, but no conclusions can be drawn from this study regarding the impact of pelvic floor trauma (perineal laceration or episiotomy) on sexual functioning because of the high rate of episiotomies. Overall, obstetric algorithms currently in use should be refined to decrease further the risk of operative vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Investigation of the Afterglow Mode with the Caprice ECRIS for the GSI Heavy-Ion-Synchrotron operation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinschert, K; Lang, R; Schulte, H; Spädtke, P

    1999-01-01

    The Caprice-type ECRIS of the High Charge State Injector (HLI) of GSI predominantly has been operated in DC mode so far to deliver high duty cycle beams for the experimental area of the LINAC (UNILAC). The increasing demand of the Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) for high intensities of heavy ion beams at very low duty cycle favours the application of the afterglow mode by pulsed operation of the ECRIS in these cases. Experiments with O, Ar, Xe and mainly with Pb were performed at the new ECR injector setup (EIS) which is a copy of the HLI injection beam line. Different RF pulse lengths and repetition rates were compared to optimise the respective afterglow intensities. For Pb two different types of ovens were investigated and modifications of the extraction system were applied. Thus peak intensities in the afterglow for 208Pb27+ of up to 200 emA could be obtained. Stable operation for time periods of several days could be achieved at reduced intensity level. Operational experiences are reported under the aspect o...

  3. Task Analytic Models to Guide Analysis and Design: Use of the Operator Function Model to Represent Pilot-Autoflight System Mode Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Mitchell, Christine M.; Chappell, Alan R.; Shafto, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Task-analytic models structure essential information about operator interaction with complex systems, in this case pilot interaction with the autoflight system. Such models serve two purposes: (1) they allow researchers and practitioners to understand pilots' actions; and (2) they provide a compact, computational representation needed to design 'intelligent' aids, e.g., displays, assistants, and training systems. This paper demonstrates the use of the operator function model to trace the process of mode engagements while a pilot is controlling an aircraft via the, autoflight system. The operator function model is a normative and nondeterministic model of how a well-trained, well-motivated operator manages multiple concurrent activities for effective real-time control. For each function, the model links the pilot's actions with the required information. Using the operator function model, this paper describes several mode engagement scenarios. These scenarios were observed and documented during a field study that focused on mode engagements and mode transitions during normal line operations. Data including time, ATC clearances, altitude, system states, and active modes and sub-modes, engagement of modes, were recorded during sixty-six flights. Using these data, seven prototypical mode engagement scenarios were extracted. One scenario details the decision of the crew to disengage a fully automatic mode in favor of a semi-automatic mode, and the consequences of this action. Another describes a mode error involving updating aircraft speed following the engagement of a speed submode. Other scenarios detail mode confusion at various phases of the flight. This analysis uses the operator function model to identify three aspects of mode engagement: (1) the progress of pilot-aircraft-autoflight system interaction; (2) control/display information required to perform mode management activities; and (3) the potential cause(s) of mode confusion. The goal of this paper is twofold

  4. Operation of RF driven negative ion source in a pure-hydrogen mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A. A.; Gusev, I.; Senkov, D.; Sanin, A.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sotnikov, O.; Kondakov, A.

    2015-04-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions in the radio-frequency driven long-pulsed source with external antenna is studied. RF drivers with various geometry of external antenna, Faraday shield and magnets at the rear flange were examined. H- beam extraction through the single emission aperture was performed in the source pure-hydrogen mode with no external seed of alkali additives. H- beam with ion emission current density up to 5 mA/cm2 and energy up to 75 keV was regularly obtained in the 1 s pulses of the pure-hydrogen mode. The regular temporal increase of H- ion production due to deposition of impurities on the plasma grid surface was recorded. The H- emission current density increased up to 9 mA/cm2 in this case.

  5. A laser ranging system operating at 1036 nm with Geiger-mode silicon avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Ren, Min; Liang, Yan; Wang, Zhiyuan; Pan, Haifeng; Zeng, Heping

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrated a laser ranging experiment obtained with a Geiger-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (Si GAPD). The Surface-to-surface resolution of 15 cm was achieved with the technique of time-correlated single-photon counting. In the experiment, a mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser at 1036 nm was applied, as the detection efficiency at 1036 nm of Si GAPDs is much higher than that at 1064nm which was widely applied in remote sensing. Due to the single-photon detector, the laser ranging system was able to measure the reflected photon pulses at single-photon level. We realized 32- m laser ranging experiment with a 135-mm diameter Newtonian telescope in daylight. And the system could measure the non-cooperated object longer than 11.3 km far away, which was tested through inserting the optical loss. It presented a potential for hundreds-of-kilometer laser ranging at low-light level.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITE FUEL ON DIESEL OPERATION IN IDLE MODE

    OpenAIRE

    Godina, E.; Ukhanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Unfavorable condition of the diesel engine is a separate idle mode, which is characterized by incomplete combustion, wasteful fuel consumption and increased emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. To evaluate the feasibility of using radish oil (RadishO) as the biological component of the diesel composite fuel (DCF) the experimental studies of tractor diesel engine D-243 at idle were conducted and the degree of the effect of different composition of radish and mineral fuel on eco...

  7. Multimode Raman light-atom interface in warm atomic ensemble as multiple three-mode quantum operations

    CERN Document Server

    Parniak, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a Raman quantum light-atom interface in long atomic ensemble and its applications as a quantum memory or two-mode squeezed state generator. We include both Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering and the effects of Doppler broadening in buffer gas assuming frequent velocity-averaging collisions. We find the Green functions describing multimode transformation from input to output fields of photons and atomic excitations. Proper mode basis is found via singular value decomposition. It reveals that triples of modes are coupled by a transformation equivalent to a combination of two beamsplitters and a two-mode squeezing operation. We analyze the possible transformations on an example of warm rubidium-87 vapor. We find that the fidelity of the mapping of a single excitation between the memory and light is strictly limited by the fractional contribution of the Stokes scattering in predominantly anti-Stokes process. The model we present bridges the gap between the Stokes only and anti-Stokes o...

  8. Multilayer graphene for Q-switched mode-locking operation in an erbium-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiteng; Zhu, Shou-En; Chen, Yu; Wu, Man; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Wen, Shuangchun

    2013-07-01

    We report the laser operation of Q-switched mode-locking (QML) in an erbium-doped fiber laser by using a multilayer graphene saturable absorber (SA), which consists of 22-layer of graphene fabricated by the chemical vapor deposition method. Based on our balanced twin detector measurement, the graphene sample is confirmed to show a saturable intensity of 3.375 MW/cm2 and an absolute modulation depth of 40.27%. It is demonstrated that this graphene SA can readily produce high quality QML pulses. At the pump power of 391.9 mW, the stable mode-locked pulse train with the Q-switched envelope repetition rate of 16.98 kHz and the envelope width of 13.84 μs are achieved. The maximal main pulse peak power can reach up to 35.89 W. This verifies that the multilayer graphene can be still applied as an effective saturable absorber for passively Q-switched mode-locked operation.

  9. Research on a Novel Exciting Method for a Sandwich Transducer Operating in Longitudinal-Bending Hybrid Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Shen, Qiangqiang; Shi, Shengjun; Deng, Jie; Chen, Weishan; Wang, Liang

    2017-06-27

    A novel exciting method for a sandwich type piezoelectric transducer operating in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes is proposed and discussed, in which the piezoelectric elements for the excitations of the longitudinal and bending vibrations share the same axial location, but correspond to different partitions. Whole-piece type piezoelectric plates with three separated partitions are used, in which the center partitions generate the first longitudinal vibration, while the upper and lower partitions produce the second bending vibration. Detailed comparisons between the proposed exciting method and the traditional one were accomplished by finite element method (FEM) calculations, which were further verified by experiments. Compared with the traditional exciting method using independent longitudinal ceramics and bending ceramics, the proposed method achieves higher electromechanical coupling factors and larger vibration amplitudes, especially for the bending vibration mode. This novel exciting method for longitudinal-bending hybrid vibrations has not changed the structural dimensions of the sandwich transducer, but markedly improves the mechanical output ability, which makes it very helpful and meaningful in designing new piezoelectric actuators operated in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes.

  10. Numerical analysis of flow features and operation characteristics of a rocket-based combined-cycle inlet in ejector mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Liu, Xiaowei; He, Guoqiang; Qin, Fei; Wei, Xianggeng; Yang, Bin; Liu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    A ready-made central strut-based rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engine was numerically investigated in the ejector mode. The flow features in the RBCC inlet and the matching characteristics between the inlet and the embedded rocket during different flight regimes were examined in detail. It was necessary to perform integrated numerical simulations in the ejector mode within considerable pressure far fields around the inlet/exhaust system. The observed flow features and operation characteristics in the RBCC inlet were strongly correlated with the flight conditions, inlet configuration, and operation of the embedded rocket. It was further found that the integrated function status of multiple factors significantly influenced the performance of the RBCC engine in the ejector mode. The two parameters that macroscopically affected the performance most were the air entrainment mass and the drag of the RBCC inlet. To improve these parameters, it is vital to employ an appropriate design of the RBCC inlet and establish the optimal flight trajectory of the flight vehicle.

  11. A Closed-Loop Model of Operator Visual Attention, Situation Awareness, and Performance Across Automation Mode Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Duda, Kevin R; Sheridan, Thomas B; Oman, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states. We define this increase in uncertainty as a reduction in situation awareness. We present a model built upon the optimal control model for state estimation, the crossover model for manual control, and the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model for visual attention. We modify the SEEV attention executive to direct visual attention based, in part, on the uncertainty in the operator's estimates of system states. The model was validated using the simulated lunar landing experimental data, demonstrating an average difference in the percentage of attention ≤3.6% for all simulator instruments. The model's predictions of mental workload and situation awareness, measured by task performance and system state uncertainty, also mimicked the experimental data. Our model supports the hypothesis that visual attention is influenced by the uncertainty in system state estimates. Conceptualizing situation awareness around the metric of system state uncertainty is a valuable way for system designers to understand and predict how reallocations in the operator's visual attention during control mode transitions can produce reallocations in situation awareness of certain states.

  12. A control approach for the operation of DG units under variations of interfacing impedance in grid-connected mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseini, S. Kazem; Pouresmaeil, E.; Hosseinnia, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    converter is highly sensitive to the impacts of this impedance changes; then, DG unit cannot inject appropriate currents. To deal with the instability problem, a control method based on fractional order active sliding mode is proposed in this paper, which is less sensitive to variations of interfacing...... impedance. A fractional sliding surface, which demonstrates the desired dynamics of system is developed and then, the controller is designed in two phases as sliding and reaching phases to keep the control loop stable. Stability issues of the control method are discussed in details and the conditions...... in which the proposed model works in a stable operating mode is defined. The proposed control method takes a role to provide high quality power injection and ensures precise references tracking and fast response despite such uncertainties. Theoretical analyses and simulation results are established...

  13. An investigation on the mitigation of end-stop impacts in a magnetorheological damper operated by the mixed mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, I. I. M.; Mazlan, S. A.; Imaduddin, F.; Zamzuri, H.; Choi, S. B.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents mitigation behaviour of magnetorheological (MR) damper operated with a mixed working modes. A combination of the shear and squeeze modes is employed in the structure of MR damper to obtain the field-dependent normal yield stress as well as strengthen the squeeze effect. The experimental evaluation shows that when the piston is squeezing the bottom gap from the stroke of 25 to 26 mm, the sudden increase of squeeze force is observed confirming the existence of the mitigation effect. It is also observed that the magnitude of mitigation force is positively correlated with the magnitude of current given to the electromagnet. The measured peak mitigation forces are ranged from 722 N to 1032 N when the electromagnet currents are varied from 0.2 A to 0.8 A, respectively. The variable mitigation effect indicates that the concept can be further discussed as a potential impact protection feature in an MR damper.

  14. Formation of multiple subpulses in a free-electron laser operating in the limit-cycle mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippels, G. M. H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Mols, R. F. X. A. M.; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1996-03-01

    The evolution of the longitudinal pulse shape and the spectrum of the short-pulse, far-infrared free-electron laser FELIX are investigated. Depending on the amount of cavity desynchronization applied, the laser is found to operate in the stable-focus mode or in the limit-cycle mode. In the latter case, autocorrelation measurements that are made with a setup that is based on second-harmonic generation in CdTe show the formation of a train of up to four subpulses. These are separated by the synchrotron length, and the corresponding sidebands in the spectrum are separated by the synchrotron frequency, in excellent agreement with theory. The measurements are made at a wavelength of 24.5 μm.

  15. Desert Rats 2011 Mission Simulation: Effects of Microgravity Operational Modes on Fields Geology Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Meyer, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) is a multi-year series of NASA tests that deploy planetary surface hardware and exercise mission and science operations in difficult conditions to advance human and robotic exploration capabilities. DRATS 2011 (Aug. 30-Sept. 9, 2011) tested strategies for human exploration of microgravity targets such as near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Here we report the crew perspective on the impact of simulated microgravity operations on our capability to conduct field geology.

  16. Effects of ethanol on combustion and emissions of a gasoline engine operating with different combustion modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ojapah, MM; Zhao, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of fuel economy and CO2 emission legislations for passenger cars in many countries and regions has spurred the research and development of more efficient gasoline engines. The pumping loss at part-load operations is a major factor for the higher fuel consumption of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines than the diesel engines. Various approaches have been identified to reduce the pumping loss at part-load operations, leading to improved fuel economy, including Early Intake Val...

  17. DFB diode seeded low repetition rate fiber laser system operating in burst mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šajn, M.; Petelin, J.; Agrež, V.; Vidmar, M.; Petkovšek, R.

    2017-02-01

    A distributed feedback (DFB) diode, gain switched to produce pulses from 60 ps at high peak power of over 0.5 W, is used in burst mode to seed a fiber amplifier chain. High seed power, spectral filtering between amplifier stages and pulsed pumping are used to mitigate amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The effect of pulse pumping synchronized with the seed on the ASE is explored for the power amplifier at low repetition. Different input and output energies at different burst repetition rates are examined and up to 85% reduction in ASE is achieved compared to continuous pumping. Finally, a numerical model is used to predict further reduction of ASE.

  18. Mean Effective Gain for Data Mode Operation of Mobile Handsets with Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2010-01-01

    and 2300 MHz). The handsets were of different types (bar, clamshell, pda), all had two antennas and were used in data (browsing) mode. All handsets were measured with twelve different users with both one-hand and two-hand grips. The body loss, the mean difference between the MEG in free space......The current paper presents statistics on the mean effective gain (MEG) for mobile handsets. The results are based on a large measurement campaign in an urban environment where the propagation channel from two different base sta- tions to seven different handsets were measured in two bands (776 MHz...

  19. User Influence on the Mean Effective Gain for Data Mode Operation of Mobile Handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2012-01-01

    and 2300 MHz). The handsets were of different types (bar, clamshell, smartphone), all had two antennas and were used in data (browsing) mode. All handsets were measured with twelve different users with both one-hand and two-hand grips. The body loss, the mean difference between the MEG in free space......The current paper presents statistics on the mean effective gain (MEG) for mobile handsets. The results are based on a large measurement campaign in an urban environment where the propagation channel from two different base stations to seven different handsets were measured in two bands (776 MHz...

  20. Hydrogen distribution in CVD diamond films prepared by DC arcjet operating at gas recycling mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and content in diamond films deposited by DC arcjet under gas recycling mode was evaluated by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometry. The NRA results show that the hydrogen content in diamond films was approximately 0.6% (substrate temperature 770℃), and strongly depended on the substrate temperature. It was that the hydrogen content increased with the increase of the substrate temperature. The possibility of hydrogen trapping in the films was also discussed.

  1. Pressure Fluctuations in the Gasostatic Bearing Supply System on Supercritical Operation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan Nikolay Vasilevich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the oscillatory mode occurring in the gap between the stator and the rotor in gas-static bearing during the outflow of under expanded gas jets out of the supply system, which interacts with the surface of the rotor. The results of studies on the oscillation regimes, their causes, mechanisms and frequency characteristics of pressure fluctuations in the working fluid supply system and the lubricating layer of gas bearing. A one-dimensional model of central shock oscillations in a gas jet leaking on a perpendicular barrier is considered. Experiments were carried out. The regions, where oscillation regimes exist are revealed.

  2. The effect of different operations modes on science capabilities during the 2010 Desert RATS test: Insights from the geologist crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey E.; Rice, James W.; Garry, W. Brent

    2013-10-01

    The 2010 Desert RATS field test utilized two Space Exploration Vehicles (prototype planetary rovers) and four crewmembers (2 per rover) to conduct a geologic traverse across northern Arizona while testing continuous and twice-per-day communications paired with operation modes of separating and exploring individually (Divide & Conquer) and exploring together (Lead & Follow), respectively. This report provides qualitative conclusions from the geologist crewmembers involved in this test as to how these modes of communications and operations affected our ability to conduct field geology. Each mode of communication and operation provided beneficial capabilities that might be further explored for future Human Spaceflight Missions to other solar system objects. We find that more frequent interactions between crews and an Apollo-style Science Team on the Earth best enables scientific progress during human exploration. However, during multiple vehicle missions, this communication with an Earth-based team of scientists, who represent "more minds on the problem", should not come at the exclusion of (or significantly decrease) communication between the crewmembers in different vehicles who have the "eyes on the ground". Inter-crew communications improved when discussions with a backroom were infrequent. Both aspects are critical and cannot be mutually exclusive. Increased vehicle separation distances best enable encounters with multiple geologic units. However, seemingly redundant visits by multiple vehicles to the same feature can be utilized to provide improved process-related observations about the development and modification of the local terrain. We consider the value of data management, transfer, and accessibility to be the most important lesson learned. Crews and backrooms should have access to all data and related interpretations within the mission in as close to real-time conditions as possible. This ensures that while on another planetary surface, crewmembers are as

  3. Monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using narrow mode operation and temperature feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristanic, Daniela; Schwarz, Benedikt; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    A method to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of a monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using a distributed feedback laser (DFB) is presented in this paper. The sensor is based on a quantum cascade laser/detector system built from the same epitaxial structure and with the same fabrication approach. The devices are connected via a dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide with a twofold function: it provides high light coupling efficiency and a strong interaction of the light with the environment (e.g., a surrounding fluid). The weakly coupled DFB quantum cascade laser emits narrow mode light with a FWHM of 2 cm-1 at 1586 cm-1. The room temperature laser threshold current density is 3 kA/cm2 and a pulsed output power of around 200 mW was measured. With the superior laser noise performance, due to narrow mode emission and the compensation of thermal fluctuations, the lower limit of detection was expanded by one order of magnitude to the 10 ppm range.

  4. Detecting magnetic field direction by a micro beam operating in different vibration modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jie; Qin Ming; Huang Qing-An

    2011-01-01

    A new method to detect the magnetic field direction by using a silicon structure is presented in this paper. The structure includes a micro beam and an in-plane coil electrode. When the electrode under a magnetic field is applied with an alternating current,the micro beam is actuated under the effect of the Lorentz forces. Magnetic fields of different directions cause different vibration profiles. The direction of the magnetic field is obtained by measuring the vibration amplitudes of the micro beam,which is driven to work at first- and second-order resonant modes. A micro structure has been fabricated using the bulk micromachined silicon process. A laser Doppler vibrometer system is implemented to measure the vibration amplitudes. The experimental results show that the amplitude of the structure,which depends on the different modes,is a sine or cosine function of the angle of the magnetic field. It agrees well with the simulation result. Currently a resolution of 100 for the magnetic field direction measurement can be obtained using the detecting principle.

  5. Monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using narrow mode operation and temperature feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristanic, Daniela; Schwarz, Benedikt, E-mail: benedikt.schwarz@tuwien.ac.at; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, Vienna 1040 (Austria)

    2015-01-26

    A method to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of a monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using a distributed feedback laser (DFB) is presented in this paper. The sensor is based on a quantum cascade laser/detector system built from the same epitaxial structure and with the same fabrication approach. The devices are connected via a dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide with a twofold function: it provides high light coupling efficiency and a strong interaction of the light with the environment (e.g., a surrounding fluid). The weakly coupled DFB quantum cascade laser emits narrow mode light with a FWHM of 2 cm{sup −1} at 1586 cm{sup −1}. The room temperature laser threshold current density is 3 kA∕cm{sup 2} and a pulsed output power of around 200 mW was measured. With the superior laser noise performance, due to narrow mode emission and the compensation of thermal fluctuations, the lower limit of detection was expanded by one order of magnitude to the 10 ppm range.

  6. Flexible Control of Small Wind Turbines With Grid Failure Detection Operating in Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    -locked loop controller is developed in order to detect the grid failure or recovery and switch the operation mode accordingly. A flexible digital signal processor (DSP) system that allows user-friendly code development and on-line tuning is used to implement and test the different control strategies. The back......-to-back power conversion configuration is chosen where the generator converter uses a built-in standard flux vector control to control the speed of the turbine shaft while the grid-side converter uses a standard pulse-width modulation active rectifier control strategy implemented in a DSP controller. The design...

  7. A novel two-stage Lagrangian decomposition approach for refinery production scheduling with operational transitions in mode switching☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Shi; Yongheng Jiang; Ling Wang; Dexian Huang

    2015-01-01

    To address large scale industrial processes, a novel Lagrangian scheme is proposed to decompose a refinery scheduling problem with operational transitions in mode switching into a production subproblem and a blending and delivery subproblem. To accelerate the convergence of Lagrange multipliers, some auxiliary constraints are added in the blending and delivery subproblem. A speed-up scheme is presented to increase the efficiency for solving the production subproblem. An initialization scheme of Lagrange multipliers and a heuristic algorithm to find feasible solutions are designed. Computational results on three cases with different lengths of time hori-zons and different numbers of orders show that the proposed Lagrangian scheme is effective and efficient.

  8. Direct Experimental Evidence for Current-Transfer Mode Operation of Nested Tungsten Wire Arrays at 16 19 MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Bliss, D. E.; Waisman, E. M.; Porter, J. L.; Stygar, W. A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.; Sarkisov, G. S.; Afeyan, B. B.

    2005-06-01

    Nested tungsten wire arrays (20-mm on 12-mm diam.) are shown for the first time to operate in a current-transfer mode at 16 19 MA, even for azimuthal interwire gaps of 0.2 mm that are the smallest typically used for any array experiment. After current transfer, the inner wire array shows discrete wire ablation and implosion characteristics identical to that of a single array, such as axially nonuniform ablation, delayed acceleration, and trailing mass and current. The presence of trailing mass from the outer and the inner arrays may play a role in determining nested array performance.

  9. Operation Mode and Optimum Design of China’s Agricultural Modern Logistics System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using comparative analysis and logical reasoning methods,in combination with traditional logistics theory and practice,and on the basis of objective demand of modern agricultural development for logistics service,we analyze features of logistics function.Besides,we discuss functional elements and service contents of agricultural modern logistics.In addition,we explore innovation model of agricultural modern logistics and systematized operation of supply chain.Finally,it is concluded that logistics development shall bring into full play all functional elements and achieve high efficient operation of the system through enhanced management measures.

  10. MTF measurements of a frame transfer CCD operating in TDI mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, P.; Gondoin, P.

    1992-01-01

    A simulation set-up, radiometrically representative of a high resolution Earth observation condition from a geosynchronous spinning spacecraft has been built. This simulation set-up is used to verify the performance of a commercially matrix CCD (THOMSON-CSF type TH7864) when operating in time delay

  11. Investigation of Low Discharge Voltage Hall Thruster Operating Modes and Ionization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    a null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand based on the NASA GRC design.11 The thruster is shown mounted to the thrust stand in Figure 3... cloud of neutral propellant. This thruster operation was studied in detail using the far-field diagnostics and characterized with variations in

  12. H- extraction from electron-cyclotron-resonance-driven multicusp volume source operated in pulsed mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Bacal, M.; Auvray, P.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2006-03-01

    H2 microwave (2.45GHz) pulsed plasma is produced from seven elementary electron cyclotron resonance sources installed into the magnetic multipole chamber "Camembert III" (École Polytechnique—Palaiseau) from which H- extraction takes place. The negative-ion and electron extracted currents are studied through electrical measurements and the plasma parameters by means of electrostatic probe under various experimental conditions. The role of the plasma electrode bias and the discharge duty cycle in the extraction process is emphasized. The gas breakdown at the beginning of every pulse gives rise to variations of the plasma characteristic parameters in comparison with those established at the later time of the pulse, where the electron temperature, the plasma potential, and the floating potential converge to the values obtained for a continuous plasma. The electron density is significantly enhanced in the pulsed mode.

  13. GRBs search results with the ARGO-YBJ experiment operated in Scaler Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Sciascio, G D

    2006-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is almost completely installed at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, P.R. China). The lower energy limit of the detector (E $\\sim$ 1 GeV) is reached with the scaler mode, i.e., recording the single particle rate at fixed time intervals. In this technique, due to its high altitude location and large area ($\\sim$ 6700 m$^2$), this experiment is the most sensitive among all present and past ground-based detectors. In the energy range under investigation, signals due to local (e.g. solar GLEs) and cosmological (e.g. GRBs) phenomena are expected as significant enhancements of the counting rate over the background. Results on the search for GRBs in coincidence with satellite detections are presented.

  14. The Influence of Various Operation Modes on Diesel Passenger Cars CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of emissions released into the atmosphere by polluting sources was significantly reduced due to the limitations introduced by the EU. Since one of the main sources affecting air quality is the car, researches regarding the influence of various factors on exhaust emissions are carried out. As CO2 is the main pollutant responsible for the greenhouse effect, the article treats the influence of vehicle load and traffic levels, running modes, the electric consumer’s utilization, and driving style on CO2 emissions for cars equipped with diesel engine. The results from the conducted study can contribute to adopt solutions in order to decrease the concentration of CO2 emissions from cars equipped with diesel engines.

  15. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, T.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  16. The high performance readout chain for the DSSC 1Megapixel detector, designed for high throughput during pulsed operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Soldat, J.; Kugel, A.; Donato, M.; Porro, M.; Fischer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The readout chain of the DSSC 1M pixel detector currently built at DESY, Hamburg for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser is described. The system operates in pulsed operation mode comparable to the new ILC. Each 0.1 seconds 800 images of 1M pixels are produced and readout by the DSSC DAQ electronics. The total data production rate of the system is about 134 Gbit/s. In order to deal with the high data rates, latest technology components like the Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGA are used to implement fast DDR3-1600 image buffers, high speed serial FPGA to FPGA communication and 10 GB Ethernet links concentrated in one 40 Gbit/s QSFP+ transceiver.

  17. The role of mental argumentation in Mathematics vis-à-vis property perception and the operational mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JΟΑΝΝΑ MΑΜΟΝΑ-DΟWNS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, mental argumentation concerning the doing of mathematics is characterized by that part of reasoning dealing with the perception of properties, in contrast to that involving an operational mode of thinking. In particular, the role of mental argumentation is argued in terms of semantics, holism, the usage of symbolism and what reasoning can be achieved without pen and paper. The discourse is based on a succession of mathematical tasks, stated in the text together with solutions and comments on how the solutions could be reached. What transpires is that there is a mutual dependence between mental argumentation and operational working, even though at first the two might seem to represent opposites. A partial account of the nature of this interaction is given.

  18. Operation modes of the FALCON ion source as a part of the AMS cluster tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girka Oleksii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the options to increase the production yield of temperature compensated surface acoustic wave (SAW devices with a defined range of operational frequencies. The paper focuses on the preparation of large wafers with SiO2 and AlN/Si3N4 depositions. Stability of the intermediate SiO2 layer is achieved by combining high power density UV radiation with annealing in high humidity environment. A uniform thickness of the capping AlN layer is achieved by local high-rate etching with a focused ion beam emitted by the FALCON ion source. Operation parameters and limitations of the etching process are discussed.

  19. Operational Method of Stem Turbine Installation under Non-Conventional Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Каshcheev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While starting turbines from cold and non-cooled-down states rotors are heated quicker than cylinders due to significantly less weight and more intensive interaction with steam and the value of their differential expansion reaches up to the rated ones in the period of 4-5 hours.The investigations have revealed that while using a swirling steam attemperator it is possible to feed steam to turbine seals of the required temperature and at the required time during its variable operational conditions. This methodology makes it possible to save 400 t of specific fuel. In addition to this operational reliability of a power block is increased and a number and cost of repairs is decreased.

  20. Negative Valve Overlap Mode of HCCI Operation Using Gasoline and Diesel Blended Fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Shaohua; CHEN Yongdong; Miroslaw Lech Wyszynski; XU Hongming

    2007-01-01

    The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy of HCCI operation was experimentally investigated on a gasoline HCCI engine operated with variable valve timing in association with the addition of diesel fuel. The experimental results show that, by using gasoline and diesel blended fuels, the required NVO interval for suitable HCCI combustion under a given engine speed and a moderate compression ratio condition could be reduced, and the HCCI combustion region was extended remarkably without substantial increase in NO, , emissions under a given inlet and exhaust valve timing due to the improvement of charge ignitability. In addition, the possible scale of NVO was extended. A substantial increase in the lean limit of excess air ratio and the upper limit of load range can be achieved because of higher volumetric efficiency, resulting from the decrease in the required NVO and the presence of less residual gases in cylinder.

  1. Operation Mode and Optimum Design of China's Agricultural Modern Logistics System

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Shi-bo

    2012-01-01

    Using comparative analysis and logical reasoning methods, in combination with traditional logistics theory and practice, and on the basis of objective demand of modern agricultural development for logistics service, we analyze features of logistics function. Besides, we discuss functional elements and service contents of agricultural modern logistics. In addition, we explore innovation model of agricultural modern logistics and systematized operation of supply chain. Finally, it is concluded ...

  2. Operating Modes and Power Considerations of Microhollow Cathode Discharge Devices with Elongated Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    of earlier MHCD designs [20,23]. The design of an elongated-trench MHCD for reforming capi- talizes on the benefits of general microchannel reactors ...both design aspects incorporated into the elon- gated trench devices. The elongated trench was conceptually based on earlier microchannel reactors ...exploring them as chemical reactors [1,3,5,43,44]. Increased understanding of the conditions that ensure stable microplasma operation is critical to

  3. Performance Of Microturbine Generation System in Grid Connected and Islanding Modes of Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaonkar, Dattatraya N.

    2010-01-01

    The Distributed generation based on microturbine technology is new and a fast growing business. These DG systems are quickly becoming an energy management solution that saves money, resources, and environment in one compact and scalable package- be it stationary or mobile, remote or interconnected with the utility grid. In this thesis the MTG system model suitable for grid connected and islanding operation has been presented.The detailed modeling of a single-shaft MTG system suitable for grid...

  4. Risk analysis of flood control operation mode with forecast information based on a combination of risk sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Risk analysis of reservoir flood control operation mode with forecast information (FCOMFI) is an important basis for the design and implementation of FCOMFI. Most of current researches on this issue are incomplete as they only consider flood forecast errors, but not many other uncertainties in reservoir routing. In order to obtain an integrated risk rate of FCOMFI, this paper analyzes four uncertainties, i.e. hydrological, hydraulic, stage-storage uncertainty and time-delay uncertainty, as well as their probability distributions. On the basis of this analysis, an integrated risk analysis model of FCOMFI for reservoirs and its lower reach is established involving the above-mentioned four uncertainties, and this model is solved by Monte Carlo simulation based on Latin hypercube sampling. The simulation results, with Baiguishan reservoir as the example, show that the integrated risk rates of FCOMFI are less than those of the flood control operation mode without forecast information. This article presents the highest limited water level that satisfies flood control safety requirements of the lower reach.

  5. Increasing the efficiency of the axial low pressure compressor in three operation modes by optimizing the shape of its blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, G. M.; Baturin, O. V.; Goriachkin, E. S.; Novikova, Yu D.; Kolmakova, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for multicriteria optimization of the low pressure compressor working process. The optimization was conducted in three engine modes, corresponding to the temperature of the air at engine inlet --15, +15, +45 °C. Parameters of the compressor were calculated in operational and stall points. The LPC modernization was performed with usage of optimization methods that implemented in the software package IOSO. To perform optimization, the LPC numerical model was created using the NUMECA FineTurbo software. Numerical models of the LPC workflow were created based on the design documentation. The coordinates of three points of a spline in a circumferential direction and a stagger angle were changed for the rotor blades. The coordinates of a mid-point and a point of the trailing edge, stagger angles, and also the position of sections in circumferential and axial directions were changed for the guide vanes. To prevent a shift of the LPC characteristics, we set restrictions for the LPC specific massflow, a minimal pressure raise and astall margin. As a result of this work, a variant of the compressor, ensuring the increase in its efficiency by 1.1% (abs.) and stall margins by 7.5% (abs.) in the primary operation mode has been found.

  6. Analysis and Assessments of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems in Various Operation Modes for a Building in China, Dalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanan Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP systems have been widely used in different kinds of buildings to make better use of fuels because of their high overall efficiency. This paper presents a mathematical analysis of a CCHP system in comparison to a Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC system. The operation strategies following electric load (FEL, thermal load (FTL and a hybrid electric-thermal load (FHL are proposed and investigated in this study. Criteria, namely primary energy saving (PES, exergy efficiency (ηexergy, and CO2 emission reduction (CER are defined to evaluate the performances of CCHP systems for a hypothetical building located in Dalian (China. The results indicate that: (1 a new mathematical foundation is established to find whether the recovered thermal energy and the amount of electricity generated by the power generation unit (PGU are enough to provide the energy required; (2 the CCHP system does not always perform better than a HVAC system from an instantaneous perspective, especially in FTL mode; (3 the CCHP system in FEL operation mode can be seen as a suitable energy system in Dalian from the annual performance perspective. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is presented in order to show how the performances vary due to the changes of various technical variables.

  7. Overvoltage Level and Influencing Factors of Yunnan-- Guangdong ± 800 kV DC Transmission Project in Islanded Operation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Hansheng; JIA Lei; CHEN Xipeng

    2012-01-01

    Overvoltage is one of the key factors influencing whether Yunnan--Guangdong UHVDC Project can be operated in Islanded Mode or not. Based on the on site test parameters of primary equipments and the actual control and protection system of the project, this paper performs calculations of the overvoltage level in islanded operation models. The influence of BLOCK process and load retard speed of Yunnan--Guangdong UHVDC on the overvoltage level in islanded mode is also studied. The results show that it is an important measure for suppressing the overvoltage level to switch off the converter transformer after ac filters have been switched off. The maximum per unit switching overvoltage is 1, 71 (reference value is 449 kV) under various fault conditions. The maximum transient overvoltage is 1.66(reference value is 318 kV), but its duration is short, The maximum transient recovery voltage across AC filter/capacitor bank circuit breakers is less than 1 300 kV. The arrester's absorption energy in the case of a bipolar BLOCK can be greatly reduced with the protection logic modified with respect to decreasing current characteristic, which was compared with the protection logic of direct load retard. It is favorable for the reduction of both, overvoltage and arrester~ s absorption energy, to lower the force retard speed in the case of bipolar ESOF command.

  8. 微网运行模式及控制策略研究%Microgrid Operation Modes and Control Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小荣; 陈鸣; 陈方林

    2012-01-01

    Microgrid technology serves as a solution to the problem of large-scale integration of distributed generation (DG) into power grid, the senior utilization mode of DG to enhance the renewable energy efficiency. This paper in- troduces the basic structure of microgrid and grid connection switch, and analyzes the microgrid operation mode, its grid connection standards, interaction with power grid, as well as islanding detection and classification in case of is- landing. Considering the different characteristics of DG operation when microgrid runs in different modes, in-depth research has been conducted on the micrcogrid control strategies.%微网技术解决了分布式发电大规模并网的问题,提高了可再生能源的效能,是分布式发电的高级利用形式。介绍了微网和并网开关的基本结构,分析了微网的运行模式,包括并网运行时微网的并网标准、微网与大电网的相互作用、孤岛运行时孤岛检测与孤岛划分。针对微网在不同运行模式下,其内部分布式电源运行特性不同的特点,对微网的控制策略展开深入的研究。

  9. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  10. Analytical expressions for chatter analysis in milling operations with one dominant mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, A.; Munoa, J.; Ciurana, J.; Dombovari, Z.; Stepan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In milling, an accurate prediction of chatter is still one of the most complex problems in the field. The presence of these self-excited vibrations can spoil the surface of the part and can also cause a large reduction in tool life. The stability diagrams provide a practical selection of the optimum cutting conditions determined either by time domain or frequency domain based methods. Applying these methods parametric or parameter traced representations of the linear stability limits can be achieved by solving the corresponding eigenvalue problems. In this work, new analytical formulae are proposed related to the parameter domains of both Hopf and period doubling type stability boundaries emerging in the regenerative mechanical model of time periodical milling processes. These formulae are useful to enrich and speed up the currently used numerical methods. Also, the destabilization mechanism of double period chatter is explained, creating an analogy with the chatter related to the Hopf bifurcation, considering one dominant mode and using concepts established by the Pioneers of chatter research.

  11. Operating modes of a hydrogen ion source based on a hollow-cathode pulsed Penning discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control System and Radioelectronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shandrikov, M. V., E-mail: shandrikov@opee.hcei.tsc.ru; Vizir, A. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    An ion source based on a hollow-cathode Penning discharge was switched to a high-current pulsed mode (tens of amperes and tens of microseconds) to produce an intense hydrogen ion beam. With molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), the ion beam contained three species: H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +}. For all experimental conditions, the fraction of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions in the beam was about 10 ÷ 15% of the total ion beam current and varied little with ion source parameters. At the same time, the ratio of H{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} depended strongly on the discharge current, particularly on its distribution in the gap between the hollow and planar cathodes. Increasing the discharge current increased the H{sup +} fraction in ion beam. The maximum fraction of H{sup +} reached 80% of the total ion beam current. Forced redistribution of the discharge current in the cathode gap for increasing the hollow cathode current could greatly increase the H{sub 3}{sup +} fraction in the beam. At optimum parameters, the fraction of H{sub 3}{sup +} ions reached 60% of the total ion beam current.

  12. More environment-friendly and safer working gas mixtures for Bakelite RPCs operated in streamer mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingmin; Lv, Zhipeng; Lv, Jinge; Zhang, Jiawen; Xu, Jilei; Ning, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents experimental results of RPCs performances with different working gas mixtures. Owing to Freon's high global warming potential, its threat to RPCs aging and its large consumption in large particle physics experiments, studies to minimize the concentration of HFC-134A, and even its complete replacement, have been undertaken. In addition, the reduction of iso-butane is also a favorable strategy, due to the flammability level of the gas mixture. Freon-less working gas mixture of Ar/HFC-134A/i-C4H10/CO2=20/0/8/72 was chosen with plateau efficiency of 86.3% and noise rate of 0.61 Hz/cm2. For working gas with lower ratio of Freon, Ar/HFC-134A/i-C4H10/CO2=20/20/8/52 was suggested with plateau efficiency of 91.0% and noise rate of 0.19 Hz/cm2, in which Freon was decreased by 22% compared to the BESIII RPC gas mixture. Furthermore, iso-butane was decreased to 6% with RPC's efficiency of 90% and noise rate of 0.20 Hz/cm2 achieved. Finally, the explanation of RPC's different performances at various working gas mixtures has been validated by the investigation of secondary streamers. This study will be helpful for RPC's application in future large particle physics experiments, in which RPCs can run in streamer mode.

  13. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  14. Dinamika Elit Lokal Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Zamroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The priyayi played a vital role in leading the Indonesian community during the colonial era. The same applies to Madura society. During the colonial era, power wielded by the priyayi was constricted on the basis of Madura culture and was strengthened by the bureaucratic power structure at both the village and district/ city level. This was manifested in such ways as serving as a klébun or bupati. However, the pattern of priyayi power, which was underpinned by feudalism waned, being replaced by Islamic religious leaders known as kiai. During the New Order regime, kiai in Madura played a very dominant role which was not only limited to the realm of religion, but also all aspects of life ranging from social, politics, economic, to culture. Nevertheless, with the dawn of the reformation era, economic elites have catapulted themselves to prominence, and there are growing signs that they are replacing the role which religious leaders used to play in Madura society in general and in the political domain in particular through forming shadow state as a tool used to exert control over Madura Political dynamics. This concise paper presents as discussion of ‘political fights’ among cultural, religious, bureaucratic, and economic elites in Madura.

  15. MODELING OF OPERATION MODES OF SHIP POWER PLANT OF COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX WITH CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Yushkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Designing of diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the ship power plant (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC for decreasing operational loss and increasing fuel efficiency with simultaneous load limiting on medium revolutions diesel generator (MRDG by criterion reducing of wear and increasing operation time between repairs. Methodology. After analyzing of ship power plant modes of CPC proposed diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the above mentioned complex. The model based on using of electronic controllers in automatic regulation and control systems for diesel and thruster which allow to actualize more complicated control algorithm with viewpoint of increasing working efficiency of ship power plant at normal and emergency modes. Results. Determined suitability of comparative computer modeling in MatLab Simulink for building of imitation model objects based on it block diagrams and mathematic descriptions. Actualized diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the ship’s power plant (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC with Azipod system in MatLab Simulink software package Ships_CPC for decreasing operational loss and increasing fuel efficiency with simultaneous load limiting on medium revolutions diesel generator (MRDG by criterion reducing of wear and increasing operation time between repairs. The function blocks of proposed complex are the main structural units which allow to investigate it normal and emergency modes. Originality. This model represents a set of functional blocks of the components SPP CPC, built on the principle of «input-output». For example, the function boxes outputs of PID-regulators of MRDG depends from set excitation voltage and rotating frequency that in turn depends from power-station load and respond that is a ship moving or dynamically positioning, and come on input (inputs of thruster rotating frequency PID-regulator models. Practical value. The results of researches planned to use in

  16. Operation modes of a liquid-crystal modal wave-front corrector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktev, Mikhail; Vdovin, Gleb; Guralnik, Igor

    2004-04-10

    Liquid-crystal modal wave-front correctors provide much better wave-front correction than do piston correctors with the same number of actuators; moreover, use of additional degrees of freedom of the driving ac voltage signals may further improve device performance. Some practical aspects of the operation of liquid-crystal modal wave-front correctors are discussed. Special attention is paid to the interference of various contact responses and to the formation of required phase shapes through wider control of signal frequencies and electric phase shifts. The study is based on an analytic approach and numerical investigation; major theoretical conclusions are verified experimentally.

  17. New mode of operating a magnetized coaxial plasma gun for injecting magnetic helicity into a spheromak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, S; Hill, D N; Stallard, B W; Bulmer, R; Cohen, B; Holcomb, C T; Hooper, E B; McLean, H S; Moller, J; Wood, R D

    2003-03-07

    By operating a magnetized coaxial plasma gun continuously with just sufficient current to enable plasma ejection, large gun-voltage spikes (approximately 1 kV) are produced, giving the highest sustained voltage approximately 500 V and highest sustained helicity injection rate observed in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment. The spheromak magnetic field increases monotonically with time, exhibiting the lowest fluctuation levels observed during formation of any spheromak (B/B>/=2%). The results suggest an important mechanism for field generation by helicity injection, namely, the merging of helicity-carrying filaments.

  18. Possible Operation Modes of Moldovan, Ukrainian and Romanian Electrical Power Systems Joint Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Types of intersystem controlled tie-lines, that may allow the joint work of power systems of Moldova, Ukraine and Romania, are proposed in this paper. The use of intersystem controlled ac transmission lines based on compact one-circuit overhead transmission lines (OHTL and two-circuit controlled self-compensated OHTL (CSCTL with phase-shifting transformers on the other hand is also stated. Two types of phase-shifting transformers are considered: the first one – with bounded range of phase angle control between the voltage vectors’ system at the output with respect to the other at the input; the second one – with circular rotation of one voltage vectors’ system with respect to the other. The first type of devices is aimed to control the power flows within the system or through the intersystem tie-lines of synchronously operating systems. The second type of phase-shifting transformers is aimed to interconnect power systems that operate non-synchronously and to control the power flows between them through connecting OHTL. The first type of devices was introduced in calculation model in 330 kV Moldavskaya GRES – Chisinau OHTL and the second one – in the OHTL that are connecting the power systems of Moldova and Romania. The dependences of power flows through power system’s and intersystems’ OHTL are established on base of performed calculations, research and analysis.

  19. Impact of MSWI Bottom Ash Codisposed with MSW on Landfill Stabilization with Different Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI bottom ash (BA codisposed with municipal solid waste (MSW on landfill stabilization according to the leachate quality in terms of organic matter and nitrogen contents. Six simulated landfills, that is, three conventional and three recirculated, were employed with different ratios of MSWI BA to MSW. The results depicted that, after 275-day operation, the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 10 (V : V in the landfill was still not enough to provide sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity for a high organic matter composition of MSW over 45.5% (w/w, while the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V could act on it. Among the six experimental landfills, leachate quality only was improved in the landfill operated with the BA addition (the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V and leachate recirculation.

  20. Impact of MSWI bottom ash codisposed with MSW on landfill stabilization with different operational modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Bing; Yao, Jun; Malik, Zaffar; Zhou, Gen-Di; Dong, Ming; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) codisposed with municipal solid waste (MSW) on landfill stabilization according to the leachate quality in terms of organic matter and nitrogen contents. Six simulated landfills, that is, three conventional and three recirculated, were employed with different ratios of MSWI BA to MSW. The results depicted that, after 275-day operation, the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 10 (V : V) in the landfill was still not enough to provide sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity for a high organic matter composition of MSW over 45.5% (w/w), while the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V) could act on it. Among the six experimental landfills, leachate quality only was improved in the landfill operated with the BA addition (the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V)) and leachate recirculation.

  1. Metal Pollution Around an Iron Smelter Complex in Northern Norway at Different Modes of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Steinnes, E; Eidhammer-Sjobakk, T; Varskog, P

    2003-01-01

    The moss biomonitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in and around the town of Mo i Rana, northern Norway, before and after closing an iron smelter and establishing alternative ferrous metal industries. Samples of Hylocomium splendens were collected from the same sites in 1989 and 1993. A combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to obtain data for 38 elements in these moss samples, and the analytical data were subjected to factor analysis. In general, the deposition was higher when the iron smelter was still in operation, in particular for Fe and for many elements normally associated with crustal matter. For Cr there was a substantially increased deposition due to the operation of a new ferrochrome smelter. Also for Ni and Au an increased deposition was observed, whereas for metals such as Mn, Co, Ag, Sb, and W there was no appreciable change. INAA proved to be a powerful tool for this kind of study. The regional di...

  2. In vitro propagation of plant virus using different forms of plant tissue culture and modes of culture operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sharon M-H; Doran, Pauline M

    2009-09-10

    Plant virus accumulation was investigated in vitro using three different forms of plant tissue culture. Suspended cells, hairy roots and shooty teratomas of Nicotiana benthamiana were infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using the same initial virus:biomass ratio. Viral infection did not affect tissue growth or morphology in any of the three culture systems. Average maximum virus concentrations in hairy roots and shooty teratomas were similar and about an order of magnitude higher than in suspended cells. Hairy roots were considered the preferred host because of their morphological stability in liquid medium and relative ease of culture. The average maximum virus concentration in the hairy roots was 0.82+/-0.14 mg g(-1) dry weight; viral coat protein represented a maximum of approximately 6% of total soluble protein in the biomass. Virus accumulation in hairy roots was investigated further using different modes of semi-continuous culture operation aimed at prolonging the root growth phase and providing nutrient supplementation; however, virus concentrations in the roots were not enhanced compared with simple batch culture. The relative infectivity of virus in the biomass declined by 80-90% during all the cultures tested, irrespective of the form of plant tissue used or mode of culture operation. Hairy root cultures inoculated with a transgenic TMV-based vector in batch culture accumulated green fluorescent protein (GFP); however, maximum GFP concentrations in the biomass were relatively low at 39 microg g(-1) dry weight, probably due to genetic instability of the vector. This work highlights the advantages of using hairy roots for in vitro propagation of TMV compared with shooty teratomas and suspended plant cells, and demonstrates that batch root culture is more effective than semi-continuous operations for accumulation of high virus concentrations in the biomass.

  3. Investigation of double-mode operation and fast fine tuning properties of a grating-coupled external cavity diode laser configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Double-mode operation and fast piezo fine tuning properties of a gain chip on a thermoelectric cooler in an external cavity are investigated. A widely course double-mode tuning range of 120 nm for the spectral range between 1470 and 1590 nm is achieved by rotating the diffraction gratings forming a double Littrow-type configuration. A fast piezo fine tuning range over 7cm-1 (1.5 nm, 210 GHz) in a single-mode operation is obtained by scanning the external cavity length with scan rates up to 0.5 kHz.

  4. Developments in plastic wire chambers operated in the limited streamer mode (LSM detectors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Mikko; Kurvinen, Kari; Orava, Risto

    1988-12-01

    We have calculated the photon detection efficiency of a wire chamber constructed with conductive nylon-66 plastic as cathode material in the photon energy range of 100 keV-1 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the results obtained with a Monte Carlo simulation using the FLUKA [1] transport code and with experimental results. We have also calculated the efficiency for copper and compared these two cathode materials. The comparison shows that wire chambers with nylon and copper cathodes are equally efficient in detecting the 100 keV-1 MeV photons. Furthermore, we have studied the different physical processes contributing to photon detection as well as the detection efficiency as a function of cathode thickness. Finally, we report some results from the first LSM detector operational tests performed with our new wire chamber testing device.

  5. Implementing batteries in electrical grids. Possible operating modes for efficient business cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittlaus, Barnabas; Schreider, Achim; Pour, Adel Hassan [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For almost two decades, there has been a global trend towards the deregulation and the liberalisation of electricity markets. Previously, national or regional monopolistic utility companies provided services along the entire supply chain of electricity supply: Beginning with the operation of power plants and thus the generation of electricity, continuing through the development and the operation of transmission and local distribution grids, to the connection points. Since all assets belonged to the utility company, they could easily access generation units in order to provide balancing power for the safe and reliable operation of the electricity networks. With the objective of a more efficient and cheaper electricity supply by enabling competition, European Directive 96/92/EC (repealed by 2003/53/EC) enacted so-called ''unbundling'' which meant the break-up of utility companies as full service suppliers into the three service oriented entities; for electricity generation, transmission and supply. Whereas previously a single utility company provided the balancing of the electricity grid with its own assets, as a consequence of the directive, markets developed for the provision of diverse technical services. As long as the utility companies provided these services on their own, technical rather than economic aspects prevailed in their investment decisions. With the establishment of open markets for primary, secondary and tertiary reserve power, commercial interfaces had been established which force the respective specialised market actor to investment decisions driven primarily by economic aspects. At nearly the same time - around two decades ago, the first renewable energy systems (RES) provided electricity to public grids. In the 1990's their share of the overall electricity mix was negligible, but since the beginning of the new millennium more and more countries recognised the ecological and economic advantages of RES and established incentive systems for their

  6. Bandwidth enhancement for parametric amplifiers operated in chirped multi-beam mode

    CERN Document Server

    Terranova, F; Pegoraro, F

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the bandwidth enhancement that can be achieved in multi-Joule OPCPA systems exploiting the tunability of parametric amplification. In particular, we consider a pair of single pass amplifiers based on DKDP, pumped by the second harmonic of Nd:glass and tuned to amplify adjacent regions of the signal spectrum. We demonstrate that a bandwidth enhancement up to 50% is possible in two configurations; in the first case, one of the two amplifiers is operated near its non-collinear broadband limit; to allow for effective recombination and recompression of the outgoing signals this configuration requires filtering and phase manipulation of the spectral tail of the amplified pulses. In the second case, effective recombination can be achieved simply by spectral filtering: in this configuration, the optimization of the parameters of the amplifiers (pulse, crystal orientation and crystal length) does not follow the recipes of non-collinear OPCPA.

  7. Adaptive variable-structure finite-time mode control for spacecraft proximity operations with actuator saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daero; Vukovich, George; Gui, Haichao

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an adaptive variable-structure finite-time control for spacecraft proximity maneuvers under parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and actuator saturation. The coupled six degrees-of-freedom dynamics are modeled for spacecraft relative motion, where the exponential coordinates on the Lie group SE(3) are employed to describe relative configuration. No prior knowledge of inertia matrix and mass of the spacecraft is required for the proposed control law, which implies that the proposed control scheme can be applied in spacecraft systems with large parametric uncertainties in inertia matrix and mass. Finite-time convergence of the feedback system with the proposed control law is established. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law for spacecraft proximity operations with actuator saturation.

  8. Detective Quantum Efficiency of a CsI-CMOS X-ray Detector for Breast Tomosynthesis Operating in High Dynamic Range and High Sensitivity Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushita; Klanian, Kelly; Gong, Zongyi; Williams, Mark B

    2012-07-01

    The spatial frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a CsI-CMOS x-ray detector was measured in two operating modes: a high dynamic range (HDR) mode and a high sensitivity (HS) mode. DQE calculations were performed using the IEC-62220-1-2 Standard. For detector entrance air kerma values between ~7 µGy and 60 µGy the DQE is similar in either HDR mode or HS mode, with a value of ~0.7 at low frequency and ~ 0.15 - 0.20 at the Nyquist frequency fN = 6.7 mm(-1). In HDR mode the DQE remains virtually constant for operation with Ka values between ~7 µGy and 119 µGy but decreases for Ka levels below ~ 7 µGy. In HS mode the DQE is approximately constant over the full range of entrance air kerma tested between 1.7 µGy and 60 µGy but kerma values above ~75 µGy produce hard saturation. Quantum limited operation in HS mode for entrance kerma as small as 1.7 µGy makes it possible to use a large number of low dose views to improve angular sampling and decrease acquisition time.

  9. PLZT block data composers operated in differential phase mode. [lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic device for digital holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M. D.; Klingler, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The use of PLZT ceramics with the 7/65/35 composition in block data composer (BDC) input devices for holographic memory systems has previously been described for operation in the strain biased, scattering, and edge effect modes. A new and promising mode of BDC operation is the differential phase mode in which each element of a matrix array BDC acts as a phase modulator. The phase modulation results from a phase difference in the optical path length between the electrically poled and depoled states of the PLZT. It is shown that a PLZT BDC can be used as a matrix-type phase modulator to record and process digital data by the differential phase mode in a holographic recording/processing system with readout contrast ratios of between 10:1 and 15:1. The differential phase mode has the advantages that strain bias is not required and that the thickness and strain variations in the PLZT are cancelled out.

  10. Long-term meditation training induced changes in the operational synchrony of default mode network modules during a resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Kallio-Tamminen, Tarja

    2016-02-01

    Using theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concept and experimental evidence on the brain default mode network (DMN) that constitutes the neural signature of self-referential processes, we hypothesized that the anterior and posterior subnets comprising the DMN should show differences in their integrity as a function of meditation training. Functional connectivity within DMN and its subnets (measured by operational synchrony) has been measured in ten novice meditators using an electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in a pre-/post-meditation intervention design. We have found that while the whole DMN was clearly suppressed, different subnets of DMN responded differently after 4 months of meditation training: The strength of EEG operational synchrony in the right and left posterior modules of the DMN decreased in resting post-meditation condition compared to a pre-meditation condition, whereas the frontal DMN module on the contrary exhibited an increase in the strength of EEG operational synchrony. These findings combined with published data on functional-anatomic heterogeneity within the DMN and on trait subjective experiences commonly found following meditation allow us to propose that the first-person perspective and the sense of agency (the witnessing observer) are presented by the frontal DMN module, while the posterior modules of the DMN are generally responsible for the experience of the continuity of 'I' as embodied and localized within bodily space. Significance of these findings is discussed.

  11. Simulation model of a variable-speed pumped-storage power plant in unstable operating conditions in pumping mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lucas, G.; Pérez-Díaz, J. I.; Sarasúa, J. I.; Cavazzini, G.; Pavesi, G.; Ardizzon, G.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulation model of a laboratory-scale pumped-storage power plant (PSPP) operating in pumping mode with variable speed. The model considers the dynamic behavior of the conduits by means of an elastic water column approach, and synthetically generates both pressure and torque pulsations that reproduce the operation of the hydraulic machine in its instability region. The pressure and torque pulsations are generated each from a different set of sinusoidal functions. These functions were calibrated from the results of a CFD model, which was in turn validated from experimental data. Simulation model results match the numerical results of the CFD model with reasonable accuracy. The pump-turbine model (the functions used to generate pressure and torque pulsations inclusive) was up-scaled by hydraulic similarity according to the design parameters of a real PSPP and included in a dynamic simulation model of the said PSPP. Preliminary conclusions on the impact of unstable operation conditions on the penstock fatigue were obtained by means of a Monte Carlo simulation-based fatigue analysis.

  12. Operational optical turbulence forecast for the Service Mode of top-class ground based telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Turchi, A; Fini, L

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present the most relevant results obtained in the context of a feasibility study (MOSE) undertaken for ESO. The principal aim of the project was to quantify the performances of a mesoscale model (Astro-Meso-NH code) in forecasting all the main atmospherical parameters relevant for the ground-based astronomical observations and the optical turbulence (CN2 and associated integrated astroclimatic parameters) above Cerro Paranal (site of the VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the E-ELT). A detailed analysis on the score of success of the predictive capacities of the system have been carried out for all the astroclimatic as well as for the atmospherical parameters. Considering the excellent results that we obtained, this study proved the opportunity to implement on these two sites an automatic system to be run nightly in an operational configuration to support the scheduling of scientific programs as well as of astronomical facilities (particularly those supported by AO systems) of the VLT a...

  13. Predator stress engages corticotropin-releasing factor and opioid systems to alter the operating mode of locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andre L; Leiser, Steven C; Snyder, Kevin; Valentino, Rita J

    2012-03-01

    The norepinephrine nucleus, locus coeruleus (LC), has been implicated in cognitive aspects of the stress response, in part through its regulation by the stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). LC neurons discharge in tonic and phasic modes that differentially modulate attention and behavior. Here, the effects of exposure to an ethologically relevant stressor, predator odor, on spontaneous (tonic) and auditory-evoked (phasic) LC discharge were characterized in unanesthetized rats. Similar to the effects of CRF, stressor presentation increased tonic LC discharge and decreased phasic auditory-evoked discharge, thereby decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensory response. This stress-induced shift in LC discharge toward a high tonic mode was prevented by a CRF antagonist. Moreover, CRF antagonism during stress unmasked a large decrease in tonic discharge rate that was opioid mediated because it was prevented by pretreatment with the opiate antagonist, naloxone. Elimination of both CRF and opioid influences with an antagonist combination rendered LC activity unaffected by the stressor. These results demonstrate that both CRF and opioid afferents are engaged during stress to fine-tune LC activity. The predominant CRF influence shifts the operational mode of LC activity toward a high tonic state that is thought to facilitate behavioral flexibility and may be adaptive in coping with the stressor. Simultaneously, stress engages an opposing opioid influence that restrains the CRF influence and may facilitate recovery toward pre-stress levels of activity. Changes in the balance of CRF:opioid regulation of the LC could have consequences for stress vulnerability.

  14. High Power Test Of A 3.9 GHz 5-cell Deflecting-mode Cavity In A Cryogenic Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    A 3.9 GHz deflecting mode (pi, TM110) cavity has been long used for six-dimensional phase-space beam manipulation tests at the A0 Photo-Injector Lab (16 MeV) in Fermilab and their extended applications with vacuum cryomodules are currently planned at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) user facility (> 50 MeV). Despite the successful test results, the cavity, however, demonstrated limited RF performance during liquid nitrogen (LN2) ambient operation that was inferior to theoretical prediction. We have been performing full analysis of the designed cavity by analytic calculation and comprehensive system simulation analysis to solve complex thermodynamics and mechanical stresses. The re-assembled cryomodule is currently under the test with a 50 kW klystron at the Fermilab A0 beamline, which will benchmark the modeling analysis. The test result will be used to design vacuum cryomodules for the 3.9 GHz deflecting mode cavity that will be employed at the ASTA facility for beam diagnostics and phase...

  15. Segmentation of a Vibro-Shock Cantilever-Type Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Operating in Higher Transverse Vibration Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Zizys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines.

  16. Pulse oximeter using a gain-modulated avalanche photodiode operated in a pseudo lock-in light detection mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Tetsuo; Araki, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    We propose a reflection-type pulse oximeter, which employs two pairs of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a gated avalanche photodiode (APD). One LED is a red one with an emission wavelength λ = 635 nm and the other is a near-infrared one with that λ = 945 nm, which are both driven with a pulse mode at a frequency f (=10 kHz). Superposition of a transistor-transistor-logic (TTL) gate pulse on a direct-current (dc) bias, which is set so as not exceeding the breakdown voltage of each APD, makes the APD work in a gain-enhanced operation mode. Each APD is gated at a frequency 2f (=20 kHz) and its output signal is fed into a laboratory-made lock-in amplifier that works in synchronous with the pulse modulation signal of each LED at a frequency f (=10 kHz). A combination of the gated APD and the lock-in like signal detection scheme is useful for the reflection-type pulse oximeter thanks to the capability of detecting a weak signal against a large background (BG) light.

  17. Segmentation of a Vibro-Shock Cantilever-Type Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Operating in Higher Transverse Vibration Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizys, Darius; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Dauksevicius, Rolanas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Daniulaitis, Vytautas

    2015-12-23

    The piezoelectric transduction mechanism is a common vibration-to-electric energy harvesting approach. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are typically mounted on a vibrating host structure, whereby alternating voltage output is generated by a dynamic strain field. A design target in this case is to match the natural frequency of the harvester to the ambient excitation frequency for the device to operate in resonance mode, thus significantly increasing vibration amplitudes and, as a result, energy output. Other fundamental vibration modes have strain nodes, where the dynamic strain field changes sign in the direction of the cantilever length. The paper reports on a dimensionless numerical transient analysis of a cantilever of a constant cross-section and an optimally-shaped cantilever with the objective to accurately predict the position of a strain node. Total effective strain produced by both cantilevers segmented at the strain node is calculated via transient analysis and compared to the strain output produced by the cantilevers segmented at strain nodes obtained from modal analysis, demonstrating a 7% increase in energy output. Theoretical results were experimentally verified by using open-circuit voltage values measured for the cantilevers segmented at optimal and suboptimal segmentation lines.

  18. HIGH POWER TEST OF A 3.9 GHZ 5-CELL DEFLECTING-MODE CAVITY IN A CRYOGENIC OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young-Min; Church, Michael

    2013-11-24

    A 3.9 GHz deflecting mode (S, TM110) cavity has been long used for six-dimensional phase-space beam manipulation tests [1-5] at the A0 Photo-Injector Lab (16 MeV) in Fermilab and their extended applications with vacuum cryomodules are currently planned at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) user facility (> 50 MeV). Despite the successful test results, the cavity, however, demonstrated limited RF performance during liquid nitrogen (LN2) ambient operation that was inferior to theoretical prediction. We have been performing full analysis of the designed cavity by analytic calculation and comprehensive system simulation analysis to solve complex thermodynamics and mechanical stresses. The re-assembled cryomodule is currently under the test with a 50 kW klystron at the Fermilab A0 beamline, which will benchmark the modeling analysis. The test result will be used to design vacuum cryomodules for the 3.9 GHz deflecting mode cavity that will be employed at the ASTA facility for beam diagnostics and phase-space control.

  19. COMPARISON OF SPECTROGRAMS OF THE MOST ACOUSTICALLY LOADED MODES OF OPERATION OF HARVESTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayda A. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the method of finite elements (MFE is a standard method of acoustic analysis. It consists in finding the solution of the function on the maximum allowable quantity of piecewise continuous functions that are determined in allowed number of subdomains. The number of sub-domains has a finite value but an unknown continuous value is approximated by the polynomial on each element that acquires specific values in the nodes. Polynomials can be various but all of them produce continuity of total value along its limits. Herewith because of technical features of the calculation process minimization of numbers of polynomials is required according to the criterion of acceptable precision. In the chosen COMSOL Multiphysics program model the range of frequencies under analysis is the result of the sum of 10 segments (sub-ranges. Such a sub-range is a minimal discrete value in certain conditions of calculation. Thus, the calculated value on this subrange can be considered as the result of calculation by means of using the band-pass filter with 35 Hz bandwidth. Because of this, we can draw a conclusion about changing the state change of the noise exposure on the combine operator with respect to the previous measurement according to the regulatory methodology. Hereinafter if the stated change of the noise exposure is found, measurements that are more precise are taken. On the basis of these measurements the head of the company receives recommendations either on verification of stated acoustic characteristics of devices and mechanisms of a harvester or on verification of acoustic ways of transmission of structural noise (noise created by devices that penetrates into the booth through the combine body, or on verification of noise isolation of the booth

  20. Deformations and Displacements of the LHC Superconducting Dipoles Induced by Standard and Non-Standard Operational Modes

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M; Gubello, G; Scandale, Walter

    2004-01-01

    A full-scale and fully-instrumented working model of the LHC lattice cell has been tested at CERN between March and December 2002. Aside of the current, pressure and temperature sensors, controlled by an industrial supervision system, a novel device has been set to monitor magnet positions with respect to the surrounding cryostat. The series of operating modes to test cryogenics, current leads and quench recovery electronics offered the chance to investigate potentially harmful deformations of the superconducting structure. In this paper we present a survey of displacements and deformations experienced by the LHC cell magnets during thermal cycles, current ramps and resistive transitions. Although the system complexity prevented from complete modeling, a preliminary phenomena explanation is given.

  1. High-power free-electron maser operated in a two-mode frequency-multiplying regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Peskov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency multiplication effects in high-power free-electron masers (FEM with Bragg cavities were studied to provide the advance of the oscillators into short-wavelength bands. Theoretical analysis of frequency-multiplying FEMs was carried out within the framework of the averaged coupled-wave approach. Proof-of-principle experiments were performed based on a moderately relativistic induction linac LIU-3000 (JINR. As a result, an FEM multiplier operated with a megawatt power level in the 6-mm and 4-mm wavelength bands at the second and third harmonics, respectively, was realized. The possibility of using two-mode bichromatic FEMs for powering a double-frequency accelerating structure was discussed.

  2. Trapping multiple dual mode centrifugal partition chromatography for the separation of intermediately-eluting components: Operating parameter selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johannes; Morley, Raena; Minceva, Mirjana

    2017-05-05

    The preparative separation of intermediately-eluting components in liquid-liquid chromatography is commonly performed with isocratic batch injections, a technique which often leads to low yield and/or purity as a result of peak overlap. Two-column trapping multiple dual mode centrifugal partition chromatography, an alternative discontinuous method for the separation of a mixture into three product fractions (early-, intermediately-, and late-eluting components) at full recovery, is presented in this work. A mathematical shortcut method based on equilibrium theory assumptions is derived for the determination of the key operating parameters (i.e., step durations and number of steps). The feasibility of the technique and the accompanying short-cut method is demonstrated by proof-of-concept experiments for the separation of two paraben model mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Computationally efficient models for simulation of non-ideal DC–DC converters operating in continuous and discontinuous conduction modes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Challa Mohana Krishna; Saritha B; Narayanan G

    2015-10-01

    This paper discusses dynamic modeling of non-isolated DC–DC converters (buck, boost and buck–boost) under continuous and discontinuous modes of operation. Three types of models are presented for each converter, namely, switching model, average model and harmonic model. These models include significant nonidealities of the converters. The switching model gives the instantaneous currents and voltages of the converter. The average model provides the ripple-free currents and voltages, averaged over a switching cycle. The harmonic model gives the peak to peak values of ripple in currents and voltages. The validity of all these models is established by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results from laboratory prototypes, at different steady state and transient conditions. Simulation based on a combination of average and harmonic models is shown to provide all relevant information as obtained from the switching model, while consuming less computation time than the latter.

  4. Ground tests of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutron instrument operation in the passive mode with a Martian soil model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. N.; Dubasov, P. V.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Krylov, A. R.; Krylov, V. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Sanin, A. B.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Zontikov, A. O.

    2017-07-01

    The results of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument ground tests in the passive mode of operation are presented in comparison with the numerical calculations. These test series were conducted to support the current surface measurements of DAN onboard the MSL Curiosity rover. The instrument sensitivity to detect thin subsurface layers of water ice buried at different depths in the analog of Martian soil has been evaluated during these tests. The experiments have been done with a radioisotope Pu-Be neutron source (analog of the MMRTG neutron source onboard the Curiosity rover) and the Martian soil model assembled from silicon-rich window glass pane. Water ice layers were simulated with polyethylene sheets. All experiments have been performed at the test facility built at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia).

  5. The effect of pH and operation mode for COD removal of slaughterhouse wastewater with Anaerobic Batch Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Octoviane Dyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of industrial wastes in large quantities was not in accordance with today's standards of waste into environmental issues that must be overcome with proper treatment. Similarly, the abattoir wastewater that contains too high organic compounds and suspended solids. The amount of liquid waste disposal Slaughterhouse (SW with high volume also causes pollution. The research aim to resolve this problem by lowering the levels of BOD-COD to comply with effluent quality standard. Anaerobic process is the right process for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment because of high content of organic compounds that can be utilized by anaerobic bacteria as a growth medium. Some research has been conducted among abattoir wastewater treatment using anaerobic reactors such as ABR, UASB and ASBR. Our research focuses on the search for the optimum results decline effluent COD levels to match the quality standards limbah and cow rumen fluid with biodigester ABR (Anaerobic Batch Reactor. The variables used were PH of 6, 7, and 8, as well as the concentration ratio of COD: N is 400:7; 450:7, and 500:7. COD value is set by the addition of N derived from urea [CO(NH2 2]. COD levels will be measured daily by water displacement technique. The research’s result for 20 days seen that optimum PH for biogas production was PH 7,719 ml. The optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6, 72.39 %. The operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal is 500:7, with the production value is 601 ml and COD removal value is 63.85 %. The research’s conclusion, the PH optimum for biogas production was PH 7, then the optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6. The optimum operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal was 500:7

  6. Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaoka, C.; Fukuda, K.; Ohya, M.; Shiba, K.; Sumino, M.; Kohmoto, S.; Naniwae, K.; Matsudate, M.; Mizuki, E.; Masumoto, I.; Kobayashi, R.; Kudo, K.; Sasaki, T.; Nishi, K. [System Devices Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 9-1, Seiran 2-chome, Otsu, Shiga 520-0833 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    We report the 1000 mW single mode operation of a planar blue-violet laser diode with inner stripe waveguide. Kink-free output surpassed 400 mW (CW) and 600 mW (50 ns pulsed, duty 50%) at temperatures up to 90 C. Precise optical field design for narrow stripe waveguide as well as damage-free stripe formation was a key to achieving watt class output. By utilizing buried AlN as optical and current confinement layers, a damage-free inner stripe as narrow as 1.0 {mu}m wide was successfully fabricated. Planar inner stripe structure also has the advantage of a small increase in the electrical resistance for such a narrow stripe, which is favorable for high power operations. The results here indicate the potential of this planar blue-violet laser diode for high power applications as the next generation of optical disc systems. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Bioremediation of anthracene contaminated soil in bio-slurry phase reactor operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, D; Venkata Mohan, S; Purushotham Reddy, B; Sarma, P N

    2008-05-01

    Bioremediation of soil-bound anthracene was studied in a series of bio-slurry phase reactors operated in periodic discontinuous/sequencing batch mode under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment using native soil microflora. Five reactors were operated for a total cycle period of 144 h (6 days) at soil loading rate of 16.66 kg soil/m(3)/day at 30 +/- 2 degrees C temperature. The performance of the bioreactors was studied at various substrate loading rates (volumetric substrate loading rate (SLR), 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3g anthracene/kg soil/day) with and without bioaugmentation (domestic sewage inoculum; 2 x 10(6) CFU/g of soil). Control reactor (without microflora) showed negligible degradation of anthracene due to the absence of biological activity. The performance of the bio-slurry system with respect to anthracene degradation was found to depend on both substrate loading rate and bioaugmentation. Application of bioaugmentation showed positive influence on the rate of degradation of anthracene. Anthracene degradation data was analysed using different kinetic models to understand the mechanism of bioremediation process in the bio-slurry phase system. Variation in pH/oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), soil microflora and oxygen consumption rate correlated well with the substrate degradation pattern observed during soil slurry phase anthracene degradation.

  8. Thermal Optimized Operation of the Single-Phase Full-Bridge PV Inverter under Low Voltage Ride-Through Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of 98% has been reported on transformer-less photovoltaic (PV) inverters and the penetration of grid-connected PV systems is booming as well. In the future, the PV systems are expected to contribute to the grid stability by means of low voltage ride-through operation and grid support....... At the same time, the target of a long service time (25 years or more) imposes new challenges to grid-connected transformer-less PV systems. Achieving more reliable PV inverters is of intense interest in recent research. As one of the most critical stresses that induce failures, the thermal stresses...... on the power devices of a single-phase full-bridge PV inverter are analyzed in different operational modes in this paper. The low voltage grid condition is specially taken into account in this paper. The analysis is demonstrated by a 3 kW single-phase full-bridge grid-connected PV system by simulations...

  9. Operating Modes and Cooling Capabilities of the Flight ADR for the SXS Instrument on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter; Kimball, Mark; DiPirro, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The microcalorimeter array on the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument on Astro-H requires cooling to 50 mK, which will be accomplished by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is surrounded by a cryogenic system consisting of a superfluid helium tank, a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler, and additional 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers that pre-cool the JT cooler and radiation shields within the cryostat. The unique ADR design allows the instrument to meet all of its science requirements using either the stored cryogen or the JT cryocooler as its heat sink, giving the instrument an unusual degree of tolerance for component failures or degradation in the cryogenic system. The flight detector assembly, ADR and dewar were integrated in early 2014, and have since been extensively characterized and calibrated. At present, the four instruments are being integrated with the spacecraft in preparation for an early 2016 launch. This presentation summarizes the operation and performance of the ADR in all of its operating modes.

  10. 论百货店自营制%On the Self-operation Mode of Department Stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department stores are now faced up with challenges brought by the economic depression and explosive growth of e-retailing.Whether the joint-operation,as a mainstream,should be replaced by the self-op-eration is a dilemma for department stores.Depending on the definition of the self-operation mode,this paper propo-ses three restrictive factors:high format elasticity,high brand elasticity and China's unbalanced market.Therefore, department stores should cultivate their own brands to get rid of self-operation constrains.%近年来电子零售业的爆发式增长使传统百货店面临严峻挑战。针对目前百货店主要实行的联营制是否应被自营制取代,理论界与实践界观点不一。基于对百货店自营制范畴的界定,发现“较高的业态弹性、较高的品牌弹性和中国市场的不平衡性”是制约百货店自营制发展的三大主要因素。为了摆脱这些因素的制约,百货店回归传统的自营制,必须加快自主品牌的建设。

  11. The effect of He-ash poisoning on L-mode and high ? operations in ITER-like plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, G.; Itoh, S. I.; Yagi, M.

    1997-11-01

    The burning performance of the self-ignited steady-state plasma is investigated based on a point model. For the ITER-like parameters, the theoretical model scaling law 0741-3335/39/11/008/img7, which could explain the characteristics of the L-mode and the high 0741-3335/39/11/008/img8 fairly well, and the effect of He-ash poisoning are introduced simultaneously. The solutions are obtained by solving the particle and energy balance equations in steady-state conditions, taking account of the effect of radiation loss due to He ash and fuel ions. Typically, there exist four solutions of the plasma current at fixed temperature. The divergence of the temperature, which is predicted by a previous study (Fukuyama et al 1995 Nucl. Fusion 35 1669) for the pure plasma in the high 0741-3335/39/11/008/img8, disappears under the influence of He ash. In the low-density limit, the L-mode branches and the high 0741-3335/39/11/008/img8 branches are well separated on the plane of the current and the temperature. On the other hand, the merging of two branches occurs at higher densities due to the nonlinear effect contained in the scaling law. Examining the constraints imposed on the core plasma (the density limit, the 0741-3335/39/11/008/img11 limit and so on), we found that the self-ignited state of the high 0741-3335/39/11/008/img8 operation would be difficult.

  12. A large-signal model for CMUT arrays with arbitrary membrane geometry operating in non-collapsed mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Sarp; Zahorian, Jaime; Degertekin, F Levent

    2013-11-01

    A large-signal, transient model has been developed to predict the output characteristics of a CMUT array operated in the non-collapse mode. The model is based on separation of the nonlinear electrostatic voltage-to-force relation and the linear acoustic array response. For modeling of linear acoustic radiation and crosstalk effects, the boundary element method is used. The stiffness matrix in the vibroacoustics calculations is obtained using static finite element analysis of a single membrane which can have arbitrary geometry and boundary conditions. A lumped modeling approach is used to reduce the order of the system for modeling the transient nonlinear electrostatic actuation. To accurately capture the dynamics of the non-uniform electrostatic force distribution over the CMUT electrode during large deflections, the membrane electrode is divided into patches shaped to match higher order membrane modes, each introducing a variable to the system model. This reduced order nonlinear lumped model is solved in the time domain using commercial software. The model has two linear blocks to calculate the displacement profile of the electrode patches and the output pressure for a given force distribution over the array. The force-to-array-displacement block uses the linear acoustic model, and the Rayleigh integral is evaluated to calculate the pressure at any field point. Using the model, the time-domain transmitted pressure can be simulated for different large drive signal configurations. The acoustic model is verified by comparison to harmonic FEA in vacuum and fluid for high- and low-aspect-ratio membranes as well as mass-loaded membranes. The overall software model is verified by comparison to transient 3-D finite element analysis and experimental results for different large drive signals, and an example for a phased array simulation is given.

  13. Comparison of emissions from on-road sources using a mobile laboratory under various driving and operational sampling modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile sources produce a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in large cities and have harmful effects on air quality at multiple spatial scales. Mobile emissions are intrinsically difficult to estimate due to the large number of parameters affecting the emissions variability within and across vehicles types. The MCMA-2003 Campaign in Mexico City has showed the utility of using a mobile laboratory to sample and characterize specific classes of motor vehicles to better quantify their emissions characteristics as a function of their driving cycles. The technique clearly identifies "high emitter" vehicles via individual exhaust plumes, and also provides fleet average emission rates. We have applied this technique to Mexicali during the Border Ozone Reduction and Air Quality Improvement Program (BORAQIP for the Mexicali-Imperial Valley in 2005. We analyze the variability of measured emission ratios for emitted NOx, CO, specific VOCs, NH3, and some primary fine particle components and properties by deploying a mobile laboratory in roadside stationary sampling, chase and fleet average operational sampling modes. The measurements reflect various driving modes characteristic of the urban fleets. The observed variability for all measured gases and particle emission ratios is greater for the chase and roadside stationary sampling than for fleet average measurements. The fleet average sampling mode captured the effects of traffic conditions on the measured on-road emission ratios, allowing the use of fuel-based emission ratios to assess the validity of traditional "bottom-up" emissions inventories. Using the measured on-road emission ratios, we estimate CO and NOx mobile emissions of 175±62 and 10.4±1.3 metric tons/day, respectively, for the gasoline vehicle fleet in Mexicali. Comparisons with similar on-road emissions data from Mexico City indicated that fleet average NO emission ratios were

  14. Comparison of emission ratios from on-road sources using a mobile laboratory under various driving and operational sampling modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile sources produce a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in large cities and have harmful effects on air quality at multiple spatial scales. Mobile emissions are intrinsically difficult to estimate due to the large number of parameters affecting the emissions variability within and across vehicles types. The MCMA-2003 Campaign in Mexico City has showed the utility of using a mobile laboratory to sample and characterize specific classes of motor vehicles to better quantify their emissions characteristics as a function of their driving cycles. The technique clearly identifies "high emitter" vehicles via individual exhaust plumes, and also provides fleet average emission rates. We have applied this technique to Mexicali during the Border Ozone Reduction and Air Quality Improvement Program for the Mexicali-Imperial Valley in 2005. In this paper we analyze the variability of measured emission ratios for emitted NOx, CO, specific VOCs, NH3, and some primary fine particle components and properties obtained during the Border Ozone Reduction and Air Quality Improvement Program for the Mexicali-Imperial Valley in 2005 by deploying a mobile laboratory in roadside stationary sampling, chase and fleet average operational sampling modes. The measurements reflect various driving modes characteristic of the urban fleets. The observed variability for all measured gases and particle emission ratios is greater for the chase and roadside stationary sampling than for fleet average measurements. The fleet average sampling mode captured the effects of traffic conditions on the measured on-road emission ratios, allowing the use of fuel-based emission ratios to assess the validity of traditional "bottom-up" emissions inventories. Using the measured on-road emission ratios, we estimate CO and NOx mobile emissions of 175±62 and 10.4±1.3 metric tons/day, respectively, for the gasoline vehicle fleet in

  15. The Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor:Ⅶ. The Unipolar Current Mode for Analog-RF Operation(Two-MOS-Gates on Pure-Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Binbin; Sah Chih-Tang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the DC steady-state current-voltage and conductance-voltage characteristics of a Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (BiFET) under the unipolar (electron) current mode of operation, with bipolar (elec-tron and hole) charge distributions considered. The model BiFET example presented has two MOS-gates on the two surfaces of a thin pure silicon base layer with electron and hole contacts on both edges of the thin base. The hole contacts on both edges of the thin pure base layer are grounded to give zero hole current. This 1-transistor analog-RF Basic Building Block nMOS amplifier circuit, operated in the unipolar current mode, complements the 1-transistor digital Basic Build Block CMOS voltage inverter circuit, operated in the bipolar-current mode just presented by us.

  16. Research on Graphical Distribution Network's Application in Arrangement of Operation Mode%配网图形化运行方式应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2014-01-01

    阐述配网图形化运方安排系统的设计理念、实现方法以及若干技术关键点,对配网图形化运行方式安排进行了应用研究。%The article elaborate the design idea of system、 implementary method and some technical key points about graphical dis-tribution network’ s Application in Arrangement of operation mode in Kunming,and research of application in graphical distribution network’ s arrangement of operation mode.

  17. Short primary linear drive designed for synchronous and induction operation mode with on-board energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Neto, Tobias Rafael

    2012-06-28

    guide way (induction rail or stationary magnets), and the energy and information should be transmitted contactless to the active vehicle. Regarding the features of the material handling application, the short or long primary topology can be used. Short primary linear drives on passive track are advantageous in material handling applications, where high precision, moderate dynamic, very long track and closed paths are required. Nevertheless, depending on the requirements of the section, the costs can be reduced considerably by using a simple induction rail at the long transporting sections, instead of permanent magnets on the track. Therefore, in this thesis a combined operation of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) and linear induction motor (LIM) is applied to operate the short primary as vehicle, avoiding adjustment or releasing of the material during the drive cycle. In summary, the passive track will consist of two section types: a high thrust force section (processing station) with PMLSM and a low thrust force section with LIM (transporting section). To the author's knowledge, using two operation modes (PMLSM / LIM) in the same drive is a new approach. A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of employing the short primary linear motor for a flexible manufacturing system, in which a contactless energy transmission provides the basic power and an ultracapacitor (UC) storage system provides the peak power. The system uses a bidirectional DC-DC converter between the ultracapacitor bank and the DC-link, to make sure that the ultracapacitor can store the braking energy and supply the peak power demanded by the active vehicle. A control strategy has been developed for controlling the ultracapacitor to deliver the peak of power, to charge, to protect against overvoltage and to recover the energy generated when the vehicle is braking. A control strategy for the transition between the two operation modes (PMLSM / LIM

  18. Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Guobao; Chen, Shuqing; Guo, Zhinan; Yu, Xuefeng; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang; Wen, Shuangchun; Tang, Dingyuan; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-05-18

    Black phosphorus (BP), an emerging narrow direct band-gap two-dimensional (2D) layered material that can fill the gap between the semi-metallic graphene and the wide-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), had been experimentally found to exhibit the saturation of optical absorption if under strong light illumination. By taking advantage of this saturable absorption property, we could fabricate a new type of optical saturable absorber (SA) based on mechanically exfoliated BPs, and further demonstrate the applications for ultra-fast laser photonics. Based on the balanced synchronous twin-detector measurement method, we have characterized the saturable absorption property of the fabricated BP-SAs at the telecommunication band. By incorporating the BP-based SAs device into the all-fiber Erbium-doped fiber laser cavities, we are able to obtain either the passive Q-switching (with maximum pulse energy of 94.3 nJ) or the passive mode-locking operation (with pulse duration down to 946 fs). Our results show that BP could also be developed as an effective SA for pulsed fiber or solid-state lasers.

  19. [Effect of operational modes on community structure of type I methanotroph in the cover soil of municipal solid waste landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; He, Pin-Jing; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-10-01

    Type I methanotroph is crucial for methane oxidization and it responses fast to the changes in environment. In this study, 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) gene fingerprint technology was applied to investigate the effect of operational modes, i. e. high-density polyethylene liner (HDPE) isolation or subsurface irrigation of landfill leachate and vegetation, on community structure and diversity of type I methanotroph in soils covering municipal solid waste landfill. 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis reveals type I methanotroph in all tested soils belongs to Methylobacter. According to Shannon-Wiener diversity index and principal component analysis, landfill leachate subsurface irrigation and vegetation have more impact on type I methanotroph community structure and diversity than HDPE liner isolation does, and they reduce type I methanotroph diversity. Leachate irrigation is supposed to inhibit the growth of Methylobacter population. Community structure of type I methanotroph in landfill cover soil isolated by HDPE, i.e. invaded by landfill gas, shifts during long-term gas interference. When cover age is 1.5 years old, Shannon-Wiener diversity index of type I methanotroph reaches its maximum.

  20. Dimensionless Model of a Thermoelectric Cooling Device Operating at Real Heat Transfer Conditions: Maximum Cooling Capacity Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Kostishin, V. G.; Alenkov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Real operating conditions of a thermoelectric cooling device are in the presence of thermal resistances between thermoelectric material and a heat medium or cooling object. They limit performance of a device and should be considered when modeling. Here we propose a dimensionless mathematical steady state model, which takes them into account. Analytical equations for dimensionless cooling capacity, voltage, and coefficient of performance (COP) depending on dimensionless current are given. For improved accuracy a device can be modeled with use of numerical or combined analytical-numerical methods. The results of modeling are in acceptable accordance with experimental results. The case of zero temperature difference between hot and cold heat mediums at which the maximum cooling capacity mode appears is considered in detail. Optimal device parameters for maximal cooling capacity, such as fraction of thermal conductance on the cold side y, fraction of current relative to maximal j' are estimated in range of 0.38-0.44 and 0.48-0.95, respectively, for dimensionless conductance K' = 5-100. Also, a method for determination of thermal resistances of a thermoelectric cooling system is proposed.

  1. Production of structured lipids by acidolysis of an EPA-enriched fish oil and caprylic acid in a packed bed reactor: analysis of three different operation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Moreno, P A; Robles Medina, A; Camacho Rubio, F; Camacho Páez, B; Molina Grima, E

    2004-01-01

    Structured triacylglycerols (ST) enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in position 2 of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone were synthesized by acidolysis of a commercially available EPA-rich oil (EPAX4510, 40% EPA) and caprylic acid (CA), catalyzed by the 1,3-specific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM. The reaction was carried out in a packed bed reactor (PBR) operating in two ways: (1) by recirculating the reaction mixture from the exit of the bed to the substrate reservoir (discontinuous mode) and (2) in continuous mode, directing the product mixture leaving the PBR to a product reservoir. By operating in these two ways and using a simple kinetic model, representative values for the apparent kinetic constants (kX) for each fatty acid (native, Li or odd, M) were obtained. The kinetic model assumes that the rate of incorporation of a fatty acid into TAG per amount of enzyme, rX (mole/(h g lipase)) is proportional to the extent of the deviation from the equilibrium for each fatty acid (i.e., the difference of concentration between the fatty acid in the triacylglycerol and the concentration of the same fatty acid in the triacylglycerol once the equilibrium of the acidolysis reaction is reached). The model allows comparing the two operating modes through the processing intensity, defined as mLt/(V[TG]0) and mL/(q[TG]0), for the discontinuous and continuous operation modes, respectively. In discontinuous mode, ST with 59.5% CA and 9.6% EPA were obtained. In contrast, a ST with 51% CA and 19.6% EPA were obtained when using the continuous operation mode. To enhance the CA incorporation when operating in continuous mode, a two-step acidolysis reaction was performed (third operation mode). This continuous two-step process yields a ST with a 64% CA and a 15% EPA. Finally, after purifying the above ST in a preparative silica gel column, impregnated with boric acid, a ST with 66.9% CA and 19.6% EPA was obtained. The analysis by reverse phase and Ag+ liquid chromatography of

  2. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M. [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  3. 一种适用电信运营商CDN网络的业务模式%A Business Mode of Content Distribution Network for Telecom Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠勋; 黄剑琪; 宋炜

    2016-01-01

    The development and characteristics of content distribution network (CDN) were analyzed, and then the value interpretation and target localization of CDN service for different operators were summarized. Combined with the structure dimension model of business mode, the establishment method of the business mode suitable for telecom operators was presented. Based on the business mode, a business mode suitable for the CDN operation of telecom operators was formed according to multi-dimensions of service value, service form, service differentiation and service settlement, which satisifes the requirements of the operation of CDN service. The proposed business mode had been applied by a certain operator and had been accepted.%通过对CDN业务发展和业务特点进行分析,梳理出不同类型的服务商对CDN业务的价值诠释和目标定位,并结合商业模式结构维度模型的分析,提出了适用于电信运营商的业务模式的建立方法。基于业务模式的建立方法,从业务价值、业务形态、业务差异化和业务结算等多个维度形成一种适用于电信运营商CDN运营的业务模式,满足CDN业务运营的需求。该业务模式在某通信运营商中试点运用并已通过验收。

  4. Direct ion speciation analysis with ion-selective membranes operated in a sequential potentiometric/time resolved chronopotentiometric sensing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahraman Afshar, Majid; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2012-10-16

    Ion-selective membranes based on porous polypropylene membranes doped with an ionophore and a lipophilic cation-exchanger are used here in a new tandem measurement mode that combines dynamic electrochemistry and zero current potentiometry into a single protocol. Open circuit potential measurements yield near-nernstian response slopes in complete analogy to established ion-selective electrode methodology. Such measurements are well established to give direct information on the so-called free ion concentration (strictly, activity) in the sample. The same membrane is here also operated in a constant current mode, in which the localized ion depletion at a transition time is visualized by chronopotentiometry. This dynamic electrochemistry methodology gives information on the labile ion concentration in the sample. The sequential protocol is established on potassium and calcium ion-selective membranes. An increase of the ionophore concentration in the membrane to 180 mM makes it possible to determine calcium concentrations as high as 3 mM by chronopotentiometry, thereby making it possible to directly detect total calcium in undiluted blood samples. Recovery times after current perturbation depend on the current amplitude but can be kept to below 1 min for the polypropylene based ion-selective membranes studied here. Plasticized PVC as membrane material is less suited for this protocol, especially when the measurement at elevated concentrations is desired. An analysis of current amplitudes, transition times, and concentrations shows that the data are described by the Sand equation and that migration effects are insignificant. A numerical model describes the experimental findings with good agreement and gives guidance on the required selectivity in order to observe a well-resolved transition time and on the expected errors due to insufficient selectivity. The simulations suggest that the methodology compares well to that of open circuit potentiometry, despite giving

  5. Relationship between composition of mixture charged and that in circulation in an auto refrigerant cascade and a J-T refrigerator operating in liquid refrigerant supply mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Bura; Nayak, H. Gurudath; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the refrigerant mixture in circulation during steady state operation of J-T and allied refrigerators is not the same as that charged due to liquid hold up in the heat exchangers and phase separators, as well as the differential solubility of different refrigerant components in the compressor lubricating oil. The performance of refrigerators/liquefiers operating on mixed refrigerant cycles is dependent on the mixture composition. It is therefore important to charge the right mixture that results in an optimum composition in circulation during steady state operation. The relationship between the charged and circulating composition has been experimentally studied in a J-T refrigerator operating in the liquid refrigerant supply (LRS) mode and an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator (with a phase separator) operating in the gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode. The results of the study are presented in this work. The results show that the method presented earlier for J-T refrigerators operating in GRS mode is also applicable in the case of refrigerators studied in this work.

  6. Formal operational reasoning modes: Predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics for students in grades nine through twelve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Betty L.

    To test the hypothesis that formal operational reasoning modes are predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics, in September 1986 the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) and in December 1986 the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) were administered to 101 rural students in Grades 9 through 12. The grades assigned by teachers were collected in May 1987. Construct and criterion-related validities and internal-consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha method were established on the GALT. On the WGCTA, content and construct validities and internal consistency reliability using the split-half procedure, coefficient of stability, and coefficient of equivalence were established. The five formal operational reasoning modes in the GALT were found to be significant predictors of critical thinking abilities and grades assigned by teachers in science and mathematics. The variance in the five critical thinking abilities attributable to the five formal operational reasoning modes ranged between 28% and 70%. The five formal operational reasoning modes explained 29% of the variance in mathematics achievement and 62% of the variance in science achievement.

  7. Battery-quick-replacement Operation Mode for Electric Taxi Vehicle%纯电动出租汽车快速更换电池运营模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 梁桂航

    2011-01-01

    提出了纯电动出租汽车快速更换电池的运营模式:每一辆纯电动出租汽车配置2组电池,电池的所有权属于独立的电池租赁公司,每次更换电池的费用按实际用电量计算,电池租赁公司实行集中充电,分散更换.指出了快速更换电池运营模式的优点,并对该运营模式进行了经济分析.该运营模式的实施,可有效促进纯电动汽车的发展.%The battery-quick-replacement operation mode for electric taxi vehicles was proposed; Each electric taxi equipped with two groups of electric battery belongs to the independent battery leasing companies. The cost of replacing battery will be calculated according to actual consumption. The battery leasing companies will charge the replaced batteries in batches and distribute the charged batteries for new replacement. The advantage of the battery-quick-replacement operation mode was explained. The economic analysis of the battery-quick-replacement operation mode was performed. The implement of this operation mode is helpful for the development of electric taxi vehicle.

  8. Analysis of Development and Operation Mode of E-commerce Logistics%电商物流发展及其运作模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡坚; 毕红秀

    2015-01-01

    介绍了我国电商物流的发展现状,指出现有的电商物流模式主要有自营物流运作模式、第三方物流运作模式及物流联盟运作模式三种类型,并对这三种类型的优缺点进行了比较分析,最后总结了我国电商物流发展的新趋势.%In this paper,we introduced the current status of the e-commerce logistics industry in China,pointed out that there existed three major e-commerce operational modes,which were the self-operated logistics operation mode,TPL operation mode and logistics alliance mode,then compared the advantages and disadvantages of the three,and at the end,summarized the new trend for the development of the e-commerce logistics in China.

  9. The Operating Modes and Implementing of Cisco IPS%Cisco IPS的工作模式及部署

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹淑玲

    2013-01-01

      入侵防御系统(Intrusion Prevention System,IPS)是在入侵检测系统(Intrusion Detection System,IDS)的基础上发展而来的,它不但具有IDS 强大的基于数据包的入侵检测功能,还具有主动、智能的防御功能。目前,IPS已经成为网络安全的一个重要研究方向,相应产品的数量也在逐年增多。首先分析了Cisco IPS产品的四种工作模式及其特点,然后根据企业网的安全需求提出入侵防御解决方案,通过将Cisco IPS安全设备串联在互联网出入口,实时拦截数据流量中各种类型的恶意攻击流量,把攻击拦截在企业网络之外,保护了企业的信息资产。%Intrusion prevention system is a new network security technology based on intrusion detection system. An IPS has the capability to detect and prevent misuse and abuse of, and unauthorized access to, network resources. In networking today, IPS is one of the important researches in network security, and IPS product quantity is increasing year by year. This paper analyzes the four operating modes of cisco IPS products, and then illustrates a typical network IPS deployment, The Cisco IPS is deployed at the network entry point and protect the company resources in real time.

  10. Discussing of Operational Command Mode Based on Internet of Thing%基于物联网的作战指挥方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭豪; 王文发; 杨文军

    2011-01-01

    为促进物联网(the internet of things)的发展,对基于物联网的作战指挥方式进行探讨.介绍物联网的概念及特点,主要分析物联网对作战指挥的影响,并在此基础上研讨基于物联网新模式下网络化指挥方式、自适应指挥方式和分布式指挥方式的运用.结果表明:该方法能实现战场信息的荻取、传输、处理和运用,可对作战指挥的研究提供一定的参考.%The article discuss about operational command mode that base on the internet of things for advance its development. After the introduction of the concept and characteristics of internet of things, based on the analysis of things primarily on the impact of operational command, and on this basis, discuss the internet of things the new model based on networked command mode, adaptive command mode and distributed command mode the use of means. Result indicate, this way can actualize battlefield information acquire, transmit, transact, exert, and can afford praxis, reference for research operational command.

  11. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

  12. 服务型制造模式与运行框架研究%Research on Service-oriented Manufacturing Mode and Operational Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武晓青; 杨明顺; 高新勤; 巴黎

    2011-01-01

    With more complex environment and the fiercer competition of manufacturing industry, the service-oriented manufacturing mode integrating manufacture and service had become the inevitable trend. According to introducing producer services and product-service system to manufacturing industry at different stages, this trend was expounded. Compared with traditional manufacturing mode in value-add, running mode, organizational mode and operational mode, a conceptual model of service-oriented manufacturing mode was proposed, which characteristics were outlined from three stages of manufacturing process. In order to reflect operational mode of service-oriented manufacturing mode more directly,an operational framework of it was established on the base of its conceptual model, and operational features of manufacturing enterprises were analyzed.%制造环境的复杂化和制造业竞争的激烈化,使融合制造与服务的服务型制造模式成为当前制造业发展的必然趋势.根据制造业引进生产性服务和产品服务系统的不同阶段,对这种趋势进行了阐述.通过与传统制造模式在价值增值、运作方式、组织模式和运作模式方面的对比,提出了一种服务型制造模式的概念模型,从制造过程上、中、下游三个阶段概括了该概念模型的特点.为了更加直观地反映服务型制造运行方式,基于概念模型构建了一个服务型制造模式的运行框架,并分析了在该框架下制造企业的运行特点.

  13. Single-mode operation of an injection-seeded alexandrite ring laser for application in water-vapor and temperature differential absorption lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V; Bösenberg, J

    1996-08-01

    A major improvement of a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for measurements of tropospheric water vapor and temperature is introduced. A Q-switched unidirectional alexandrite ring laser is injection seeded by a cw Ti:sapphire ring laser. Using an especially developed single-mode electronic, one starts the Q switch when the slave resonator is in resonance with the frequency of the Ti:sapphire laser. Long-term single-mode operation of the alexandrite laser is achieved. A single-shot spectral linewidth of system in the near infrared is presented.

  14. An analysis and study of decision tree induction operating under adaptive mode to enhance accuracy and uptime in a dataset introduced to spontaneous variation in data attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many methods exist for the purpose of classification of an unknown dataset. Decision tree induction is one of the well-known methods for classification. Decision tree method operates under two different modes: nonadaptive and adaptive mode. The non adaptive mode of operation is applied when the data set is completely mature and available or the data set is static and their will be no changes in dataset attributes. However when the dataset is likely to have changes in the values and attributes leading to fluctuation i.e., monthly, quarterly or annually, then under the circumstances decision tree method operating under adaptive mode needs to be applied, as the conventional non-adaptive method fails, as it needs to be applied once again starting from scratch on the augmented dataset. This makes things expensive in terms of time and space. Sometimes attributesare added into the dataset, at the same time number of records also increases. This paper mainly studies the behavioral aspects of classification model particularly, when number of attr bute in dataset increase due to spontaneous changes in the value(s/attribute(s. Our investigative studies have shown that accuracy of decision tree model can be maintained when number of attributes including class increase in dataset which increases thenumber of records as well. In addition, accuracy also can be maintained when number of values increase in class attribute of dataset. The way Adaptive mode decision tree method operates is that it reads data instance by instance and incorporates the same through absorption to the said model; update the model according to valueof attribute particular and specific to the instance. As the time required to updating decision tree can be less than introducing it from scratch, thus eliminating the problem of introducing decision tree repeatedly from scratch and at the same time gaining upon memory and time.

  15. The single-longitudinal-mode operation of a ridge waveguide laser based on two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hua-Yong; Xu Xing-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    An electrically driven,single-longitudinal-mode GaAs based photonic crystal (PC) ridge waveguide (RWG) laser emitting at around 850 nm is demonstrated.The single-longitudinal-mode lasing characteristic is achieved by introducing the PC to the RWG laser.The triangle PC is etched on both sides of the ridge by photolithography and inductive coupled plasma (ICP) etching.The lasing spectra of the RWG lasers with and without the PC are studied,and the result shows that the PC purifies the longitudinal mode.The power per facet versus current and current-voltage characteristics have also been studied and compared.

  16. Feasibility of macromolecular structure experiments operating at the 3W1 beamline of BSRF in the parasitic mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Ju; D.C.Xian

    2001-01-01

    Parameters for the 3W1 source at BSRF were determined in both the dedicated and parasitic mode and their suitability for protein crystallography beamline at BSRF were realized.It is discussed that the physics motivation and the design of the 3W1 is compared with similar experimental stations at the Brazilian Light Sourec(1.37Gev) and Max-II in Sweden(1.5GeV).The photon flux from the 3W1 sourcd is about 2×1011 photon/smA in the wavelength range of 2.0-0.9A in parasitic mode and 50-80 times higher in the dedicated mode.Both the dedicated and parasitic modes are suitable for macromolecular structure experiments.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  17. Sloshing motion dynamics of a free surface in the draft tube cone of a Francis turbine operating in synchronous condenser mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, Elena; Andolfatto, Loïc; Favrel, Arthur; Avellan, François

    2016-11-01

    The penetration of the electrical grid by intermittent renewable energy sources induces grid fluctuations which must be compensated in order to guarantee the stability of the grid. Hydropower plants can supply reactive power to ensure the grid stabilization by operating in condenser mode. In this operating mode, the turbine operates with the tail water depressed to let the runner spin in air to reduce the power consumption. Pressurized air is injected in the draft tube cone to maintain the water level below the runner and this induces air-water interaction phenomena which cause important power losses. Flow visualization and pressure fluctuation measurements are performed in a reduced scale physical model of a Francis turbine operating in condenser mode to investigate the dynamics of the air-water interaction in the draft tube cone which causes the sloshing motion of the free surface. An image post-processing method is developed, enabling a quantitative description of the sloshing motion. The latter depends on the Froude number. By increasing the value of the Froude number, the amplitude of the sloshing motion decreases, as well as the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations. The frequency of the sloshing motion corresponds to the first natural frequency of the water volume.

  18. “农超对接”供应链运作模式研究%Study on Operational Mode of Farmland-supermarket Direct Docking Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永钊

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we pointed out some of the bottlenecks of the operational modes of the farmland-supermarket direct docking practice in China, introduced some of the classis modes, and at the end, through analyzing the supply chain mode of the practice, proposed the measures for its optimization.%指出了我国发展“农超对接”运作模式面临的一些瓶颈,提出了几种典型的“农超对接”运作模式,最后通过对“农超对接”的供应链模式分析,提出了实施农产品供应链优化的措施。

  19. Generation of stationary for the APS in other operation modes of NPPs Asco and Vandellos; Generacion de estacionarios para los APS en otros modos de operacion de las CCNN Asco y Vandellos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, I. J.; Martin Garcia, M.; Sol Sevillano, I.; Gonzalez Pindado, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    As part of the process of maintenance and continuous improvement of the probabilistic safety analysis by ANAV, the AP are being used to simulate sequences from all modes of operation, from full load to stop charging and the rear boot. In order to provide different starting points to begin the analysis, stationary have been generated for each mode of operation and with different operational States of the plant, according to General operating procedures in the simulation. (Author)

  20. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  1. Towards low timing phase noise operation in fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes at 1.5 µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kan; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Qi Jie; Shum, Perry Ping; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-12

    We investigate the timing phase noise of fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively, integrated in a linear cavity fiber laser in the reflecting operation. Due to the shorter decay time of the GO and CNTs, weaker slow saturable absorber effects are expected and mode-locked lasers based on these two saturable absorbers exhibit low excess timing phase noise coupled from the laser intensity noise. Compared with a reference laser mode locked by semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), GO based laser obtains a timing phase noise reduction of 7 dB at 1 kHz and a timing jitter reduction of 45% experimentally whereas CNTs based laser obtains a timing phase noise reduction of 3 dB and a timing jitter reduction of 29%. This finding suggests that saturable absorbers with short decay time have the potential for achieving mode locking operation with low timing phase noise, which is important for applications including frequency metrology, high-precision optical sampling, clock distribution and optical sensing.

  2. Thermal instability explanation of similar density limits in gas fueled, DIII-D H-mode shots with different operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.; Petrie, T. W.; Leonard, A. W.

    2002-03-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, F. Batty, C. Baxi et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] examined the effect of different operating conditions ("open" and "closed" divertor geometry, active pumping, fueling location) on the maximum achievable density in gas fueled H-mode (high confinement mode) discharges. Several phenomena observed at these higher densities (≈0.8 the Greenwald density)—degradation in energy confinement, detachment of the core plasma from the divertor plate, multifaceted asymmetric radiation from edge formation—are found to be correlated with the predicted onset of various thermal instabilities in the plasma edge or divertor regions. The similarity of the maximum achievable densities under the different operating conditions can be related to a similarity of edge thermal instability characteristics.

  3. Cyclostationarity and the cepstrum for operational modal analysis of MIMO systems—Part II: Obtaining scaled mode shapes through finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D.; Randall, R. B.; Antoni, J.; Waters, T. P.; Thompson, D. J.; Ford, R. A. J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a new technique for scaling mode shapes, obtained from cepstrum-based operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques, such as that described in the companion paper, using finite element model updating. This OMA technique estimated frequency response functions (FRFs) between a cyclostationary input and response measurements. If the input is frequentially white, the resulting FRFs can be obtained up to an overall scaling constant using the in-band poles and zeros identified in the OMA process and employing the response autospectrum as a reference to correct for the effect of out of band modes. In this way, the mode shapes would be scaled correctly relative to each other but would still have arbitrary overall magnitude. If the input is not white, then no reference is available to correct FRF regenerated from in-band poles and zeros, and so these FRFs will exhibit both an overall slope resulting from the effect of out-of-band poles and zeros, and an arbitrary magnitude. This overall slope will differ between measurement locations so even the relative scaling between the mode shapes will be lost. This paper describes a simple technique for recovering both the relative and overall scaling of the FRFs, and hence the mode shapes, based on finite element model updating.

  4. Optimal hysteretic control for a B M A P / S M / 1 / N queue with two operation modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Alexander N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider B M A P / S M / 1 type queueing system with finite buffer of size N . The system has two operation modes, which are characterized by the matrix generating function of B M A P -input, the kernel of the semi-Markovian service process, and utilization cost. An algorithm for determining the optimal hysteresis strategy is presented.

  5. Generalized coupling resonance modeling, analysis, and active damping of multi-parallel inverters in microgrid operating in grid-connected mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhiyong; Chen, Yandong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper firstly presents an equivalent coupling circuit modeling of multi-parallel inverters in microgrid operating in grid-connected mode. By using the model, the coupling resonance phenomena are explicitly investigated through the mathematical approach, and the intrinsic and extrinsic resona...... to attenuate coupling resonance, and the most salient feature is that the optimal range of the damping parameter can be easily located through an initiatively graphic method. Finally, simulations and experiments verify the validity of the proposed modeling and method....

  6. Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode at λ ≈ 7.6 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinchuan, Zhang; Lijun, Wang; Wanfeng, Liu; Fengqi, Liu; Lihua, Zhao; Shenqiang, Zhai; Junqi, Liu; Zhanguo, Wang

    2012-02-01

    Distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in continuous-wave (CW) mode emitting at λ ≈ 7.6 μm are presented. Holographic lithography was used to fabricate the first-order distributed feedback grating. For a high-reflectivity-coated QCL with 14.5-μm-wide and 3-mm-long cavity, CW output powers of 300 mW at 85 K and still 10 mW at 270 K are obtained. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of about 30 dB and a wide tuning range of ~300 nm in the temperature range from 85 to 280 K is observed.

  7. Single mode operation and extended scanning of anti-reflection coated visible laser diodes in a Littrow cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, D. J.; Andrews, D. A.; King, T. A.

    2004-05-01

    A method to increase the mode-hop-free tuning range is presented that is suitable for application with visible and short wavelength laser diodes, and relaxes the requirement on high tolerance mechanical components. Depending on the diode and cavity, the theory predicts an improvement of up to eight times the FSR of the extended cavity. In our system, an anti-reflection coated AlGaInP laser diode showed a mode-hop-free scan of 8 GHz, which is characteristic for the wavelength used in the device. Greater scanning ranges are predicted for shorter wavelength sources.

  8. 微电网动态电压恢复器运行模式研究%Research on Operation Modes of Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Microgrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成瑞芬; 韩肖清; 王鹏; 秦文萍; 张东霞

    2013-01-01

    针对微电网中存在的电压质量问题,提出了基于光蓄发电单元的动态电压恢复器(dynamic voltage restorer,DVR).DVR以光蓄发电单元为储能单元,通过整流器串联接入到低压配电网与微电网公共连接处.提出了DVR的动态电压恢复方式、不间断供电方式和微电源方式的3种运行模式.通过对系统开关信号进行合理控制,实现3种模式的有效切换,提高DVR设备的利用率.DVR的动态电压恢复方式可有效抑制电压暂降或骤升,改善微电网电压质量;不间断供电方式可提高对负荷的供电可靠性;微电源方式可以减少主网的电能供给,实现节能减排.算例结果验证了DVR的有效性.%In allusion to dissatisfied voltage quality of microgrid,a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) based on photovoltaic (PV) generation/battery units is proposed.Utilizing PV generation/battery units as energy storage component and via rectifier,the proposed DVR is connected in series with the point of common coupling (PCC),where the microgrid low-voltage is connected to distribution network.Three operating modes of DVR,namely the dynamic voltage restoration mode,the uninterruptible power supply mode and the micro-source mode,are put forward.Through reasonably control strategy,the switching-over among the three operation modes can be effectively implemented to improve the utilization rate of DVR.The dynamic voltage restoration mode of DVR can suppress voltage sag and voltage swell effectively,thus the voltage quality is improved; the uninterruptible power supply mode can improve the reliability of power supply; using the micro-source mode,the power supply from power grid can be reduced and it is favorable for energy conservation and emission reduction.The effectiveness of the proposed DVR is verified by results of simulation based on Matlab/Simulink.

  9. A Low Noise Planar-Type Avalanche Photodiode using a Single-Diffusion Process in Geiger-Mode Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Byoungwook; Yoon, Sunwoong; Hong, Jung-ho; Yang, Kyounghoon

    2013-07-01

    We report the performances of a planar-type Geiger-mode InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode (APD) using a single-diffusion process based on a single wet recess-etching technique at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. The recess-etched window region is found to have a smoothly etched sidewall with a large slope width of 0.9 µm. The Geiger-mode characteristics have been measured at 240-280 K for a 20 µm diameter device. The fabricated Geiger-mode APD shows a low dark count probability (DCP) per gate pulse of 2.8×10-3, a high photon detection efficiency (PDE) of 17.4%, and a low noise equivalent power (NEP) of 1.74×10-16 W/Hz1/2 at 240 K. The results are the first demonstration of a planar-type single-diffused Geiger-mode APD using a single wet recess-etching.

  10. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  11. The Thermal State Computational Research of the Low-Thrust Oxygen-Methane Gaseous-Propellant Rocket Engine in the Pulse Mode of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Vorozheeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently promising development direction of space propulsion engineering is to use, as spacecraft controls, low-thrust rocket engines (RDTM on clean fuels, such as oxygen-methane. Modern RDTM are characterized by a lack regenerative cooling and pulse mode of operation, during which there is accumulation of heat energy to lead to the high thermal stress of RDTM structural elements. To get an idea about the thermal state of its elements, which further will reduce the number of fire tests is therefore necessary in the development phase of a new product. Accordingly, the aim of this work is the mathematical modeling and computational study of the thermal state of gaseous oxygen-methane propellant RDMT operating in pulse mode.In this paper we consider a model RDTM working on gaseous propellants oxygen-methane in pulse mode.To calculate the temperature field of the chamber wall of model RDMT under consideration is used the mathematical model of non-stationary heat conduction in a two-dimensional axisymmetric formulation that takes into account both the axial heat leakages and the nonstationary processes occurring inside the chamber during pulse operation of RDMT.As a result of numerical study of the thermal state of model RDMT, are obtained the temperature fields during engine operation based on convective, conductive, and radiative mechanisms of heat transfer from the combustion products to the wall.It is shown that the elements of flanges of combustion chamber of model RDMT act as heat sinks structural elements. Temperatures in the wall of the combustion chamber during the engine mode of operation are considered relatively low.Raised temperatures can also occur in the mixing head in the feeding area of the oxidant into the combustion chamber.During engine operation in the area forming the critical section, there is an intensive heating of a wall, which can result in its melting, which in turn will increase the minimum nozzle throat area and hence

  12. Nanoparticle Filtration Characteristics of Advanced Metal Foam Media for a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Engine in Steady Engine Operating Conditions and Vehicle Test Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha-Lee Myung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the particle formation and reduction characteristics at the engine-out position, after a three-way catalyst (TWC and a metal foam gasoline particulate filter (GPF, were evaluated for a gasoline direct-injection (GDI engine under part-load operating conditions. The vehicle tests were performed under the Federal Test Procedure-75 (FTP-75 and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET modes. Particle number (PN concentrations, size distributions, and the filtering efficiency with the GPF were evaluated with a condensation particle counter (CPC and a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS500. Under steady engine operating conditions, the PN concentrations at the engine-out position were 9.7 × 105–2.5 × 106 N/cc. While, the PN concentrations after the GPF were 9.2 × 104–3.5 × 105 N/cc, and the PN was reduced by 77%–96%. The PN filtering efficiency with the GPF-GDI vehicle reached approximately 58% in the FTP-75 and 62% in the HWFET mode. The PN concentration of the GPF-GDI vehicle was significantly reduced to 3.95 × 1011 N/km for the FTP-75 and 8.86 × 1010 N/km for the HWFET mode. The amount of nucleation mode particles below 23 nm was substantially reduced with the GPF-GDI vehicle. The fuel economy, CO2, and regulated emissions of the GPF-GDI vehicle were equivalent to those of the base GDI vehicle under the vehicle certification modes.

  13. Study of modes of operation water system movement with bypass system towers cooling by Ecosimpro; Estudio de modos de operacion del sistema de agua de circulacion con sistema de bypass de las torres de refrigeracion mediante Ecosimpro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, J.; Molina, M. C.; Gavilan, C.; Molina, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    The present paper is based on the thermodynamic study of the system of water circulation of the Central Nuclear de Cofrentes. The objective of the study is the operation of the system through different modes of operation, with the aim of analyze the impact of these modes over the operation of the same. For a complete analysis, it has created a computer model of the system through the EcosimPro software, which is the simulation of the operation modes system and through the results, is the analysis of their feasibility.

  14. Low-timing-jitter, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser with tunable repetition rate and high operation stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanshan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guofu; Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jing

    2010-09-01

    We design a low-timing-jitter, repetition-rate-tunable, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser by using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM), a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and a tunable optical delay line in the laser configuration. Low-timing-jitter optical pulses are stably produced when a SESAM and a 0.16 m dispersion compensation fiber are employed in the laser cavity. By inserting a tunable optical delay line between NALM and SESAM, the variable repetition-rate operation of a self-starting, passively mode-locked fiber laser is successfully demonstrated over a range from 49.65 to 50.47 MHz. The experimental results show that the newly designed fiber laser can maintain the mode locking at the pumping power of 160 mW to stably generate periodic optical pulses with width less than 170 fs and timing jitter lower than 75 fs in the 1.55 µm wavelength region, when the fundamental repetition rate of the laser is continuously tuned between 49.65 and 50.47 MHz. Moreover, this fiber laser has a feature of turn-key operation with high repeatability of its fundamental repetition rate in practice.

  15. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  16. 医疗联合体运行模式探析%Medical Consortium Operating Mode Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晶晶

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the medical consortium operating mode. Methods The selection of a medical association in anhui province as research object, it contains a total of 10 members of the unit, stratified sampling investigation, now materials is re-viewed.Results 400 cases selectived examination subjects, nursing staff, 120 cases, accounting for 30%; The doctor 240 cases, ac-counting for 60%;Management personnel 40 cases, accounting for 10%.Male 260 cases, accounting for 65%;Women, 140 (35%). Senior titles, 100 cases, accounting for 25%; Secondary vocational 260 cases, accounting for 65%; Primary 40 cases, accounting for 10%.Tertiary hospital in 200 cases, 100 cases of both secondary and primary hospital. A basic understanding of 230 cases, ac-counting for 57.5%;Association of unclear concepts and 170 cases (42.5%). Identification of regional health resources integration 225 cases, accounting for 56.3%;Don't agree with 135 cases, accounting for 33.8%;There is no 40 cases, accounting for 10%.Ac-cording to association of medical work and alleviate the situation of difficulty and high cost of the public open, press 1 to 5 points, general average by the statistics for (3.85±0.52). Different job title, occupation, the hospital level object ratings, have obvious dif-ference (P<0.05). Conclusion At present, the medical staff of medical association of identity is not strong, poor condition, should focus on the bottleneck problem set solutions, a unified standard referral, establishing the medical level, further improve the medi-cal association medical level, attaches great importance to the informatization construction, and better service to the public.%目的:探讨医疗联合体运行模式价值。方法该研究选取安徽省一家医疗联合体作调查对象,其含有的成员单位共10个,分层抽样调查,现就资料加以回顾。结果共抽查研究对象400例,护理人员120例,占30%;医生240例,占60%;管理人员40例,占10%。男260

  17. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  18. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  19. 旅游文化营销运作模式探讨%Discussion of the Operation Mode of Tourism Cultural Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓星

    2014-01-01

    随着我国经济水平的提高,旅游业得到了迅速发展,其中旅游文化营销模式在旅游业发展中占有重要地位。本文首先阐述了旅游文化营销的内涵和特征,并对旅游文化营销运作模式进行了探讨。%Along with raising the level of our economy, the tourism industry has been developing rapidly, and the marke-ting mode of tourism culture plays an important role in the development of tourism. This paper expounds the connotation and characteristics of tourism cultural marketing, and discusses the operation mode of the tourism cultural marketing.

  20. Modelling and Control Strategies of Microgrid in Grid-Connected and Islanded Operation Modes - Part I: Active Power Sharing and Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lu; Hu, Yanting; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    at distributed voltage level. However, when a large number of DGs were connected to the AC power grid, it can cause power quality, grid security and stability issues. This paper presents an improved P-f droop control strategy using the reciprocal characteristic to improve the stability performance. Based......In recent years, the utilization of renewable energy resources has promoted more and more microgrid developed. The microgrid consists of distributed generations (DGs) associate with distributed energy resources (DERs), which are normally located next to the customer and provide electric power...... on simulation analyses with Matlab/Simulink, the results show that the presented droop control strategy has good effects in grid-connected and islanded mode, and during operation mode transitions....

  1. 全波升压式C-dump变换器发电运行时两种工作模式的分析与比较%Simulation and Comparison of Separate Operating Mode and Combining Operating Mode of Full-Wave Boosting C-dump Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪昉; 周波; 穆新华

    2001-01-01

    为使无刷直流电机减小体积、减轻重量、降低成本,选择了电容储能型(C-dump)变换器作为飞机起动/发电系统主电路,考虑发电运行的性能要求对变换器拓扑作了改进。改进得到的全波升压式C-dump变换器可作为双向功率流变换器,应用于无刷直流电机起动/发电系统,具有重要的实用价值。全波升压式C-dump变换器 由两级功率变换电路构成,发电运行时有两种工作模式:单级工作模式和两级工作模式。本文分析了C-dump变换器发电运行的原理和特性,介绍了这两种工作模式的原理和特性,详细分析了两种工作模式的输出电压纹波、主开关管占空比、发电效率与电机转速的关系,最后进行了仿真分析与比较。%Considering the trend of reducing the volume, weight and cost of brushless DC motors, Cdump topology is used as the power stage of airplane-starter/generator system, with some improvements on the topology to achieve better performance in regenerating mode. Operation principles and characteristics of the regenerating mode are analyzed. The basic principles and operating characteristics of two operating modes (separate operating mode and combining operating mode) applied for generative operating mode of full-wave boosting C-dump converter are introduced. The relationship between rotor speed and the voltage ripple, duty ratio of power switch and efficiency of generator is discussed in detail. In conclusion, the simulating analysis and the comparison based on C-dump converter and electric machine of airplane of brushless starter/generator double function mode are made.

  2. Stable single-mode operation of injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser by sine voltage modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfei Gao; Junxuan Zhang; Huaguo Zang; Xiaolei Zhu; Yingjie Yu; Weibiao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Based on the modified ramp and fire technique,a novel injection seeding approach with real-time resonance tracking is successfully demonstrated in a single-frequency Nd:YAG pulsed laser.Appling a high-frequency sinusoidal modulation voltage to one piezo actuator and an adjustable DC voltage to another piezo actuator for active feedback,single-mode laser output with high-frequency stability is obtained,and the effect of the piezo hysteresis on the frequency stability can be eliminated for a laser diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a repetition rate of 400 Hz.

  3. Analysis on the Regional Brand Operation Mode for Carya Cathayensis——A Case Study of Lin’an in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling; TU; Yueli; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Lin’an City has a long history of growing,processing and selling Carya Cathayensis,a traditional special local product for which the city is well known.In recent years,Lin’an Carya Cathayensis gives full play to the industry cluster advantages and gains the reputation of"regional name brand of Zhejiang".However,it faces the predicament of regional brand operation,so industry transformation and upgrading as well as intensive farming for this brand are inevitable and necessary.This paper analyzes the current regional brand operation mode of Carya Cathayensis in Lin’an to find out that the growth of this brand is constrained by messy business entities,weak brand protection effect,significant lemon market effect,insufficient industry association efforts and wanting brand culture construction,thus it puts forward the conception of a business alliance based regional brand operation mode for the Carya Cathayensis in Lin’an.The results of this study shall provide theoretical guidance and empirical basis for the marketing practice of the regional brand of Carya Cathayensis in Lin’an.

  4. Application of Graded Nursing Mode in Operation Management%分级护理模式在手术管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 王晶

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察分级护理模式在手术管理中的应用效果。方法本次研究选取我院60名护理人员(2012年12月~2014年12月),随机分2组。对照组实施常规护理工作模式,观察组实施分级护理模式。分析对比两组护理人员的综合素质评分。结果观察组护理人员综合素质各项评分较高,均优于对照组(P <0.05)。结论实施分级护理模式能够大幅度提高护理人员的综合素质评分,全面提高护理质量。该管理模式效果良好,在临床上具有较高的可行性。%Objective To observe the application effect of grading nursing mode in operation management. Methods This study selected 60 nursing staff in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2014,and randomly divided into 2 groups. The control group was given routine nursing mode,and the observation group was implemented in nursing mode. Analysis and comparison of the two groups of nursing staff's comprehensive quality score. Results The scores of comprehensive quality of nursing staff in the observation group were higher than those in the control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion The implementation of grading nursing mode can greatly improve the comprehensive quality of nursing staff,and comprehensively improve the quality of nursing. The management mode has good effect,and it has high feasibility in clinic.

  5. Spatial distribution and dose-response relationship for different operation modes in a reaction-diffusion model of the MAPK cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Yi, Ming; Liu, Yan

    2011-10-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a critical role in the control of cell growth. Deregulation of this pathway contributes to the development of many cancers. To better understand its signal transduction, we constructed a reaction-diffusion model for the MAPK pathway. We modeled the three layers of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions and diffusion processes from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Based on different types of feedback in the MAPK cascade, four operation modes are introduced. For each of the four modes, spatial distributions and dose-response curves of active kinases (i.e. ppMAPK) are explored by numerical simulation. The effects of propagation length, diffusion coefficient and feedback strength on the pathway dynamics are investigated. We found that intrinsic bistability in the MAPK cascade can generate a traveling wave of ppMAPK with constant amplitude when the propagation length is short. ppMAPK in this mode of intrinsic bistability decays more slowly than it does in all other modes as the propagation length increases. Moreover, we examined the global and local responses to Ras-GTP of these four modes, and demonstrated how the shapes of these dose-response curves change as the propagation length increases. Also, we found that larger diffusion constant gives a higher response level on the zero-order regime and makes the ppMAPK profiles flatter under strong Ras-GTP stimulus. Furthermore, we observed that spatial responses of ppMAPK are more sensitive to negative feedback than to positive feedback in the broader signal range. Finally, we showed how oscillatory signals pass through the kinase cascade, and found that high frequency signals are damped faster than low frequency ones.

  6. The Effect of Different Operations Modes on Science Capabilities During the 2010 Desert-RATS Test: Insights from the Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey E.; Rice, James W., Jr.; Garry, W. Brent

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert RATS field test utilized two Space Exploration Vehicles (prototype planetary rovers) and four crewmembers (2 per rover) to conduct a geologic traverse across northern Arizona while testing continuous and twice-per-day communications paired with operation modes of separating and exploring individually (Divide & Conquer) and exploring together (Lead & Follow), respectively. This report provides qualitative conclusions from the geologist crewmembers involved in this test as to how these modes of communications and operations affected our ability to conduct field geology. Each mode of communication and operation provided beneficial capabilities that might be further explored for future Human Spaceflight Missions to other solar system objects. We find that more frequent interactions between crews and an Apollo-style Science Team on the Earth best enables scientific progress during human exploration. However, during multiple vehicle missions, this communication with an Earth-based team of scientists, who represent "more minds on the problem", should not come at the exclusion of (or significantly decrease) communication between the crewmembers in different vehicles who have the "eyes on the ground". Inter-crew communications improved when discussions with a backroom were infrequent. Both aspects are critical and cannot be mutually exclusive. Increased vehicle separation distances best enable encounters with multiple geologic units. However, seemingly redundant visits by multiple vehicles to the same feature can be utilized to provide improved process-related observations about the development and modification of the local terrain. We consider the value of data management, transfer, and accessibility to be the most important lesson learned. Crews and backrooms should have access to all data and related interpretations within the mission in as close to real-time conditions as possible. This ensures that while on another planetary surface, crewmembers are as

  7. 工况模态分析的EMD方法%Operating Modal Analysis with Empirical Mode Decomposition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海明; 沈涛虹; 宋汉文

    2002-01-01

    EMD(Empirical Mode Decomposition)算法1995年由NASA海洋水波实验室提出,本质上是一种将时域信号按频率尺度分解的数值算法,对于线性时不变系统,它可以从时域信号中直接提取具有不同特征时间尺度的内禀模式函数(IMF,Intrinsic Mode Function),分解得到的IMFs之间具有正交性,且分解唯一.本文以此为基础,将NExT(Natural Excitation Technique)方法推广到多点随机激励下的复模态情况,对多自由度线性系统实测响应信号的互相关函数进行EMD分解,并进而实现模态参数的辨识.

  8. Scale-up of counter-current chromatography: demonstration of predictable isocratic and quasi-continuous operating modes from the test tube to pilot/process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2009-12-11

    Predictable scale-up from test tube derived distribution ratios and analytical-scale sample loading optimisation is demonstrated using a model sample system of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol in a heptane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water phase system with the new 18 L Maxi counter-current chromatography centrifuge. The versatility of having a liquid stationary phase with its high loading capacity and flexible operating modes is demonstrated at two different scales by separating and concentrating target compounds using a mixture of caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone using a quasi-continuous technique called intermittent counter-current extraction.

  9. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Rieker, G.B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spe...

  10. Ultrafiltration (UF Pilot Plant for Municipal Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: Impact of the Operation Mode on Process Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Falsanisi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Following increasing interest in the use of UltraFiltration (UF membrane processes as an alternative advanced disinfection technique, the performance of a UF pilot plant was investigated under two opposite operating conditions (“stressed operating condition” versus “conventional operating condition”. The results indicate that for both conditions, the reclaimed effluent complied with the Italian regulations for unrestricted wastewater reuse (i.e., Total Suspended Solids (TSS < 10 mg/L; Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD < 100 mg/L and Escherichia coli < 10 CFU/100 mL. On the other hand, when compared with the Title 22 of the California Wastewater Reclamation Criteria, only the effluent produced under the “conventional operating condition” met the stipulated water quality standards (i.e., TSS and turbidity undetectable and total coliforms < 2.2 CFU/100 mL. It should be noted that, in spite of the nominal cut-off size, total coliforms breakthrough was indeed occasionally observed. A localized membrane pore micro-enlargement mechanism was hypothesized to explain the total coliforms propagation in the ultrafiltered effluent, as monitoring of the membrane permeability and transmembrane pressure highlighted that gel/cake formation had only a minor contribution to the overall membrane fouling mechanism with respect to pore plugging and pore narrowing mechanisms.

  11. Thermal Optimized Operation of the Single-Phase Full-Bridge PV Inverter under Low Voltage Ride-Through Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of 98% has been reported on transformer-less photovoltaic (PV) inverters and the penetration of grid-connected PV systems is booming as well. In the future, the PV systems are expected to contribute to the grid stability by means of low voltage ride-through operation and grid suppo...

  12. Demonstration of ultra-broadband single-mode and single-polarization operation in T-Guides

    CERN Document Server

    Chiles, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Silica-based anchored-membrane waveguides (T-Guides) are fabricated and characterized from the visible to infrared with streak imaging. It is numerically shown that the T-Guides can have wideband single-mode and single-polarization (SMSP) properties over a span of 2.6 octaves. Experimentally, a polarization-dependent loss difference of up to 90 dB/cm is measured between orthogonal polarizations, and a record SMSP window of >1.27 octaves is observed, limited only by the available measurement equipment. These measurements make a strong case for T-Guides for SMSP photonics, particularly on high-index materials such as our previous demonstration on silicon.

  13. Demonstration of ultra-broadband single-mode and single-polarization operation in T-Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan

    2016-08-15

    Silica-based anchored-membrane waveguides (T-Guides) are fabricated and characterized from the visible to infrared with streak imaging. It is numerically shown that the T-Guides can have wideband single-mode and single-polarization (SMSP) properties over a span of 2.6 octaves. Experimentally, a polarization-dependent loss difference of up to 89±19 dB/cm is measured between orthogonal polarizations and a record SMSP window of >1.27 octaves is observed, limited only by the available measurement equipment. These measurements make a strong case for T-Guides for SMSP photonics, particularly in high-index materials such as those in our previous demonstration on silicon.

  14. Effects of SF$_{6}$ on the avalanche mode operation of a real-sized double-gap resistive plate chamber for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Ito, M; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S; Kang, T I

    2005-01-01

    We present the design and the test, results for a real-sized prototype resistive plate chamber by using cosmic-ray muons for the forward region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In particular, we investigate the effects of adding SF/sub 6/ to the gas mixture for the avalanche mode operation of a resistive plate chamber. A small fraction of SF/sub 6/ is very effective in suppressing streamer signals in a resistive plate chamber. The shapes of the muon detection efficiency and the muon cluster size remain similar, but are shifted to higher operating voltage by SF/sub 6/. The noise cluster rate and size are not influenced by SF/sub 6/.

  15. Operating Modes and Cooling Capabilities of the 3-Stage ADR Developed for the Soft-X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theo; DiPirro, Michael J.; Letmate, Richard V.; Sampson, Michael A.; Bialas, Tom G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is used on the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument on Astro-H to cool a 6x6 array of x-ray microcalorimeters to 50 mK. The ADR is supported by a cryogenic system consisting of a superfluid helium tank, a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler, and additional 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers that pre-cool the JT cooler and cool radiation shields within the cryostat. The ADR is configured so that it can use either the liquid helium or the JT cryocooler as its heat sink, giving the instrument an unusual degree of tolerance for component failures or degradation in the cryogenic system. The flight detector assembly, ADR and dewar were integrated into the flight dewar in early 2014, and have since been extensively characterized and calibrated. This paper summarizes the operation and performance of the ADR in all of its operating modes

  16. Research on operation mode and risk of crowd-funding in China%中国股权众筹运作模式及风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 王璐瑶

    2015-01-01

    近年来,互联网金融凭借着运营风险低、交易成本低、运作效率高的特点成为各地经济发展的重要手段,为世界金融发展注入了新的活力. 从分析股权众筹概念入手,研究国内股权众筹运作模式的发展和创新,采用二元Logit模型分析"领投+跟投"模式对股权众筹运营的促进作用,同时从法律风险和项目运营风险两方面对股权众筹运作模式进行风险分析并提出相应的防范措施,以便于更好地保护投资者的利益,促进股权众筹模式的发展.%In recent years, internet finance has become an important means of local economic development owing to its lower operational risk, lower transaction costs and higher efficiency, which has injected new vitality into the world financial development. Starting from the analysis of the definition of stock crowd-funding, the development and innovation of the operation mode of stock crowd-funding are researched. The binary Logit model is used to analyze the promoting effect of the mode of "leader+follower" on the operation of stock crowd-funding. At the same time, the risk analysis is carried out from the perspectives of legal risk and project operational risk, and the corresponding preventive measures are proposed, so as to better protect the interests of investors, and promote the development of stock crowd-funding.

  17. Load Sharing Using Droop Control for Parallel Operation of Matrix Converters as Distributed Generator Interfaces in Isolated Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    or load is connected to the current source side. During grid fault or intentional islanded operation, the DGs need to supply local loads with high quality voltage and share the loads proportionally to their power ratings. This paper proposes droop control strategy for two parallel MCs with two separate......Matrix converter (MC) can be used as ac type distributed generator (DG) interface in microgrid. Reverse power flow operation of MC can be implemented to meet voltage boost requirement, where the input ac generator is connected to the converter's voltage source side and the output utility grid...... be controlled coordinately to make sure that the generator side active power reference is derived from the load side power consumption in a single MC. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the control schemes for the proposed parallel MC system....

  18. The new progress of circumcision operation mode%包皮环切术手术方式新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骏

    2015-01-01

    As people living standard rise, They put forward higher requirements?for atient's effect on male circumcision and beautiful.In this paper,the author sums up 11 kinds of different operative methods of circumcision, and each has different characteristics, to provide more choices for surgeons.In the actual clinical operations, doctor can use them flexiblely.%目的:随着人们生活水平的提高,患者对包皮手术效果及外观提出更高的要求。本文总结归纳了11种包皮环切的不同术式,各有不同的特点,为外科医师提供了更多的选择,在实际的临床操作中,可以因地制宜地灵活运用。

  19. Helicity-based particle-relabeling operator and normal mode expansion of the dissipationless incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Keisuke

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of an incompressible, dissipationless Hall magnetohydrodynamic medium are investigated from Lagrangian mechanical viewpoint. The hybrid and magnetic helicities are shown to emerge, respectively, from the application of the particle relabeling symmetry for ion and electron flows to Noether's first theorem, while the constant of motion associated with the theorem is generally given by their arbitrary linear combination. Furthermore, integral path variation associated with the invariant action is expressed by the operation of an integrodifferential operator on the reference path. The eigenfunctions of this operator are double Beltrami flows, i.e., force-free stationary solutions to the equation of motion and provide a family of orthogonal function bases that yields the spectral representation of the equation of motion with a remarkably simple form. Among the double Beltrami flows, considering the influence of a uniform background magnetic field and the Hall term effect vanishing limit, the generalized Elsässer variables are found to be the most suitable for avoiding problems with singularities in the standard magnetohydrodynamic limit.

  20. Assessment of duration of the drive operation in the mode of kinetic energy recovery under power supply voltage sags in electrical grids of mechanical engineering enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, O. B.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Voltage sags in electric grids of mechanical engineering enterprises may lead to disconnection of important power consumers with variable frequency drives from the power grid and further interruption of the production process. The paper considers a sensorless V/f control system of еру induction motor drive under normal conditions and under voltage sags on the basis of a computer model of the drive and derivation of a formula for assessment of possible duration of the drive operation in the mode of controlled recovery of kinetic energy accumulated in rotating mass of the drive. Results of simulations have been used to validate results of calculations of the rotor velocity deceleration made in a closed form obtained from the equation reflecting the balance of torques. It is shown that results of calculations practically coincide with results of simulations in the range up to 5% of the velocity initial value. The proposed formula may be useful for estimation of the duration of the drive operation in the mode of recovery of kinetic energy depending on parameters of the motor and driven mechanisms.

  1. 1030-nm diode-laser-based light source delivering pulses with nanojoule energies and picosecond duration adjustable by mode locking or pulse gating operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klehr, A.; Liero, A.; Wenzel, H.; Bugge, F.; Brox, O.; Fricke, J.; Ressel, P.; Knigge, A.; Heinrich, W.; Tränkle, G.

    2017-02-01

    A new compact 1030 nm picosecond light source which can be switched between pulse gating and mode locking operation is presented. It consists of a multi-section distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, an ultrafast multisection optical gate and a flared power amplifier (PA), mounted together with high frequency electronics and optical elements on a 5×4 cm micro bench. The master oscillator (MO) is a 10 mm long ridge wave-guide (RW) laser consisting of 200 μm long saturable absorber, 1500 μm long gain, 8000 μm long cavity, 200 μm long DBR and 100 μm long monitor sections. The 2 mm long optical gate consisting of several RW sections is monolithically integrated with the 4 mm long gain-guided tapered amplifier on a single chip. The light source can be switched between pulse gating and passive mode locking operation. For pulse gating all sections of the MO (except of the DBR and monitor sections) are forward biased and driven by a constant current. By injecting electrical pulses into one section of the optical gate the CW beam emitted by the MO is converted into a train of optical pulses with adjustable widths between 250 ps and 1000 ps. Peak powers of 20 W and spectral linewidths in the MHz range are achieved. Shorter pulses with widths between 4 ps and 15 ps and peak powers up to 50 W but larger spectral widths of about 300 pm are generated by mode locking where the saturable absorber section of the MO is reversed biased. The repetition rate of 4.2 GHz of the pulse train emitted by the MO can be reduced to values between 1 kHz and 100 MHz by utilizing the optical gate as pulse picker. The pulse-to-pulse distance can be controlled by an external trigger source.

  2. Induction of anoxic microenvironment in multi-phase metabolic shift strategy during periodic discontinuous batch mode operation enhances treatment of azo dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Naresh Kumar, A; Annie Modestra, J; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    Variation in anoxic microenvironment (multi-phase (MP) metabolic shift strategy) during cycle operation of periodic discontinuous batch/sequencing batch (PDBR/SBR) mode operation showed enhanced degradation of recalcitrant azo dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) at higher dye load (1250mg/l). The process performance was evaluated by varying anoxic phasing period during cycle operation. Before multiphase (BMP) operation with 2.1% of anoxic period showed color/COD removal efficiency of 41.9%/46.3%. Increment in anoxic period responded favorable in enhancing treatment efficiency [AMPI (16.2%), 49.4%/52.4%; AMPII (26.6%), 54.7%/57.2%; AMPIII (34.9%), 58.4%/61.5%]. Relatively higher bio-electrochemical activity, persistent reductive behavior (redox catalytic currents, 0.26/-0.72μA), prevalence of redox shuttlers (Fe-S proteins, cytochromes, quinones) facilitating enhanced electron transfer by minimization of associated losses and higher enzyme activities were observed with induction of anoxic phase. Anoxic condition shifts system microenvironment between oxidation and reduction assisting reduction of dye to its intermediates followed by their mineralization.

  3. Compatibility of separatrix density scaling for divertor detachment with H-mode pedestal operation in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-08-01

    The midplane separatrix density is characterized in response to variations in upstream parallel heat flux density and central density through deuterium gas injection. The midplane density is determined from a high spatial resolution Thomson scattering diagnostic at the midplane with power balance analysis to determine the separatrix location. The heat flux density is varied by scans of three parameters, auxiliary heating, toroidal field with fixed plasma current, and plasma current with fixed safety factor, q 95. The separatrix density just before divertor detachment onset is found to scale consistent with the two-point model when radiative dissipation is taken into account. The ratio of separatrix to pedestal density, n e,sep/n e,ped varies from  ⩽30% to  ⩾60% over the dataset, helping to resolve the conflicting scaling of core plasma density limit and divertor detachment onset. The scaling of the separatrix density at detachment onset is combined with H-mode power threshold scaling to obtain a scaling ratio of minimum n e,sep/n e,ped expected in future devices.

  4. Single mode operation with mid-IR hollow fibers in the range 5.1-10.5 µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Kriesel, Jason M; Tittel, Frank K; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-12

    Single mode beam delivery in the mid-infrared spectral range 5.1-10.5 μm employing flexible hollow glass waveguides of 15 cm and 50 cm lengths, with metallic/dielectric internal layers and a bore diameter of 200 μm were demonstrated. Three quantum cascade lasers were coupled with the hollow core fibers. For a fiber length of 15 cm, we measured losses down to 1.55 dB at 5.4 μm and 0.9 dB at 10.5 μm. The influence of the launch conditions in the fiber on the propagation losses and on the beam profile at the waveguide exit was analyzed. At 10.5 µm laser wavelength we found near perfect agreement between measured and theoretical losses, while at ~5 µm and ~6 µm wavelengths the losses were higher than expected. This discrepancy can be explained considering an additional scattering loss effect, which scales as 1/λ(2) and is due to surface roughness of the metallic layer used to form the high-reflective internal layer structure of the hollow core waveguide.

  5. Evaluation of Energy Saving Operational Modes for Industrial Fracture Connected Processes on the Basis of Incubation Time Fracture Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bratov Vladimir; Petrov Yuri

    2008-01-01

    A problem for a central crack in a plate subjected to plane strain conditions is investigated.Mode Ⅰ crack loading is created by a dynamic pressure pulse applied at a large distance from the crack.It was found that for a certain combination of amplitude and duration of the pulse applied,the energy transmitted to the sample has a strongly marked minimum,meaning that with the pulse amplitude or duration moving away from the optimal values,minimum energy required for initiation of crack growth increases rapidly.The results obtained indicate a possibility to optimise energy consumption of different industrial processes connected with fracture.Much could be gained in,for example,drilling or rock pounding where energy input accounts for the largest part of the process cost.Presumably further investigation of the effect observed can make it possible to predict optimal energy saving parameters,i.e.frequency and amplitude of impacts,for industrial devices,e.g.bores,grinding machines,and hence significantly reduce the process cost.The prediction can be given based on the parameters of the media fractured (material parameters,prevalent crack length and orientation,etc.).

  6. A Coupled Field Multiphysics Modeling Approach to Investigate RF MEMS Switch Failure Modes under Various Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Sadek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the reliability of capacitive shunt RF MEMS switches have been investigated using three dimensional (3D coupled multiphysics finite element (FE analysis. The coupled field analysis involved three consecutive multiphysics interactions. The first interaction is characterized as a two-way sequential electromagnetic (EM-thermal field coupling. The second interaction represented a one-way sequential thermal-structural field coupling. The third interaction portrayed a two-way sequential structural-electrostatic field coupling. An automated substructuring algorithm was utilized to reduce the computational cost of the complicated coupled multiphysics FE analysis. The results of the substructured FE model with coupled field analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the outcome of previously published experimental and numerical studies. The current numerical results indicate that the pull-in voltage and the buckling temperature of the RF switch are functions of the microfabrication residual stress state, the switch operational frequency and the surrounding packaging temperature. Furthermore, the current results point out that by introducing proper mechanical approaches such as corrugated switches and through-holes in the switch membrane, it is possible to achieve reliable pull-in voltages, at various operating temperatures. The performed analysis also shows that by controlling the mean and gradient residual stresses, generated during microfabrication, in conjunction with the proposed mechanical approaches, the power handling capability of RF MEMS switches can be increased, at a wide range of operational frequencies. These design features of RF MEMS switches are of particular importance in applications where a high RF power (frequencies above 10 GHz and large temperature variations are expected, such as in satellites and airplane condition monitoring.

  7. Enhanced efficiency in the excitation of higher modes for atomic force microscopy and mechanical sensors operated in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penedo, M., E-mail: mapenedo@imm.cnm.csic.es; Hormeño, S.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Luna, M.; Briones, F. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Raman, A. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47904 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media.

  8. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymenko, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); Klein, M. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Levine, R. D. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging and Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-14

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  9. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Klein, M.; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, F.

    2016-07-01

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  10. Evaluation of Mixed-Mode Data-Link Communications for NextGen 4DT and Equivalent Visual Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Arthur, Jarvis, J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    By 2025, U.S. air traffic is predicted to increase 3-fold and may strain the current air traffic management system, which may not be able to accommodate this growth. In response to this challenge, a revolutionary new concept has been proposed for U.S. aviation operations, termed the Next Generation Air Transportation System or NextGen. Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the use of data-link communications. Because NextGen represents a radically different approach to air traffic management and requires a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck, there are numerous research issues and challenges that must be overcome to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system. Flight deck display and crew-vehicle interaction concepts are being developed that proactively investigate and overcome potential technology and safety barriers that might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen. The paper describes simulation research examining data-link communications during 4DT and equivalent visual surface operations.

  11. Optimization of the GOSAT global observation from space with region-by-region target-mode operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Kawakami, S.; Nakajima, M.

    2013-12-01

    Since its launch in 2009, the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has continued its grid observation and acquired about 20,000 samples per day. Now that more than 10 programs are planned or proposed to monitor greenhouse gases from space. TANSO-FTS is the only instrument that uses a Fourier transfer spectrometer. It is not an imaging spectrometer but has a symmetrical instrument line shape function (ILSF) that can be expressed to high precision for all wavelengths with a simple analytical function and can reduce fitting errors for atmosphere remote sensing. Therefore, other future instruments can cross-calibrate their data with accurate and precise GOSAT spectra. Since August 2010, TANSO-FTS has selected 3-point cross-track scan mode, which has the current best pointing stability and observes a single point three times in 14 sec. Column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) and CH4 (XCH4) have been well validated at the TCCON sites, where surface albedo is not high and aerosol optical thickness is small. Long term GOSAT data show seasonal and latitudinal variation and annual increase accurately and precisely. JAXA has been processing and providing all the Level 1B spectra data that were acquired on-orbit. Thus the distribution of the Level 1B is spatially equal. The Level 2 users are retrieving XCO2 and XCH4 from the Level 1 by filtering cloud contaminated, aerosol thick, and low signal-to-noise ratio scenes. As a result, the yield rate at cloudy area such as Amazon, south-east Asia, and Central America, low surface albedo area such as snow and ice, bay and channels is very low. Aerosol thick area such as Sahara also has larger errors. Now that GOSAT demonstrated accurate XCO2 and XCH4 remote sensing, demand for emission source measurements of mega cities, power plants, gas fields, and volcanos has increased. In addition to grid

  12. The Membrane-anchoring Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands Dictates Their Ability to Operate in Juxtacrine Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jianying; Opresko, Lee; Chrisler, William B.; Orr, Galya; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Wiley, H S.

    2005-06-01

    All ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are synthesized as membrane-anchored precursors. Previous work has suggested that some ligands, such as EGF, must be proteolytically released to be active, whereas others, such as heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can function while still anchored to the membrane (i.e., juxtacrine signaling). To explore the structural basis for these differences in ligand activity, we engineered a series of membrane-anchored ligands in which the core, receptor-binding domain of EGF was combined with different domains of both EGF and HB-EGF. We found that ligands having the N-terminal extension of EGF could not bind to the EGFR, even when released from the membrane. Ligands lacking an N-terminal extension, but possessing the membrane-anchoring domain of EGF still required proteolytic release for activity, whereas ligands with the membrane anchoring domain of HB-EGF could elicit full biological activity while still membrane anchored. Ligands containing the HB-EGF membrane anchor, but lacking an N-terminal extension, activated EGFR during their transit through the Golgi apparatus . However, cell-mixing experiments and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies showed that juxtacrine signaling typically occurred in trans at the cell surface, at points of cell-cell contact. Our data suggest that the membrane-anchoring domain of ligands selectively controls their ability to participate in juxtacrine signaling and thus, only a subclass of EGFR ligands can act in a juxtacrine mode.

  13. Design of Σ-ΔADC with multiple operating mode%多工作模式Σ-Δ型ADC的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁千红; 黄建军; 李桂祥; 金加根

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at the drawbacks that the precision of Σ-Δ ADC chips now available is fixed and its internal waveforms are unable to be measured and other drawback, this paper analyzes the operating principles ofΣ-ΔA/D converter and presents a design scheme ofΣ-ΔADC circuit with multiple operating modes by selecting proper parameters. In this scheme, the medium and small scale ICs are used for implementing the first orderΣ-Δmodulator, FPGA is used for implementing digital filter and the PIC for implementing the waveforms and data display, the operating mode can be set by users using jumpers, and the waveforms at key points can be observed by using the oscilloscopes. The test results show that this circuit is of stable performance and achieves the design standards.%针对现有Σ-Δ型ADC芯片精度固定、无法测量内部波形,分析了Σ-Δ型A/D转换电路的工作原理,选择合适的参数,提出了一个多工作模式的Σ-Δ型ADC电路设计方案.该方案采用中小规模集成电路实现一阶Σ-Δ调制器、FPGA实现数字滤波器、单片机开发板实现波形和数据显示,用户可通过跳线设置其工作模式,并且可以用示波器观测关键点的波形.测试结果表明,该电路性能稳定,达到了设计要求.

  14. 风电场的主接线、并网和运行方式分析%Analysis of Wind Farm's Connection modes,Grid Connection and Operation Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁静蔚

    2012-01-01

    Three different wind farms have been built in the "Eleven-five year" period at Nanhui Distract in Shanghai.They are 35 kV Nanhui wind farm,110 kV Donghai Bridge wind farm and 35 kV Lingang New City wind farm.Firstly,comparison the connection and operation modes of three wind farms has been made.Then the paper analyzes the operation of grid connection and LVRT.Finally,suggestion to optimize the technical measures of wind farm is proposed.%"十一五"期间,上海南汇地区先后建造了35kV南汇风电场、110kV东海大桥风电场和35kV临港新城风电场。通过对南汇地区3个风电场的建设回顾,比较了风电场的主接线形式和运行方式,分析了风电场的并网操作和低电压穿越等问题,并提出了有待改进的技术措施和相关建议。

  15. Standard Practice for Exposure of Cover Materials for Solar Collectors to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Operational Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a procedure for the exposure of cover materials for flat-plate solar collectors to the natural weather environment at temperatures that are elevated to approximate operating conditions. 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors or photovoltaics. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. 国内外移动虚拟运营商业务模式与经验探讨%Discussions on Business Mode and Operating Experience of Domestic and Overseas Mobile Virtual Network Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周代卫; 高瑞; 周宇; 孙向前; 沈雅琴

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, business features of mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) are firstly introduced. Then, several types of business modes and cooperative strategies of MVNOs with mobile network operators (MNO), as well as the basic network architectures and features of MVNOs in specific business mode are expounded. Finally, combined the status of domestic telecommunication industries with the successful cases of overseas MVNOs, several experiences are summarized and corresponding suggestions are put forward for domestic MVNOs to develop business.%首先介绍了移动虚拟运营商的业务特点,然后阐述了虚拟运营商的几种业务模式和基础运营商合作策略以及基于特定业务模式下的虚拟运营商网络架构和特点,最后结合国内电信业现状和国外成功的虚拟运营商案例,为国内虚拟运营商的业务发展归纳出若干经验并提出相关建议。

  17. Effect of Fed-Batch vs. Continuous Mode of Operation on Microbial Fuel Cell Performance Treating Biorefinery Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannell, Tyler C.; Goud, R. Kannaiah; Schell, Daniel J.; Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2016-12-15

    Bioelectrochemical systems have been shown to treat low-value biorefinery streams while recovering energy, however, low current densities and anode conversion efficiencies (ACE) limit their application. A bioanode was developed via enrichment of electroactive biofilm under fed-batch and continuous feeding conditions using corn stover-derived waste stream. The continuously-fed MFC exhibited a current density of 5.8 +/- 0.06 A/m2 and an ACE of 39% +/- 4. The fed-batch MFC achieved a similar current density and an ACE of 19.2%, however, its performance dropped after 36 days of operation to 1.1 A/m2 and 0.5%, respectively. In comparison, the ACE of the continuously-fed MFC remained stable achieving an ACE of 30% +/- 3 after 48 days of operation. An MFC treating a biorefinery stream post fuel separation achieved a current density of 10.7 +/- 0.1 A/m2 and an ACE of 57% +/- 9 at an organic loading of 12.5 g COD/L-day. Characterization of the microbial communities indicate higher abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and lower abundance of Bacteriodetes and a higher level of Geobacter spp. (1.4% vs. 0.2%) in continuously-fed MFC vs. fed-batch MFC. The results demonstrate that limiting substrate to the equivalent maximum current that the anode can generate, maintains MFC performance over a long term for high strength wastewaters, such as those generated in the biorefinery.

  18. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhe, E-mail: lizhe1212@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ouyang Minggao, E-mail: ouymg@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: > Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. > Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. > Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. > Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. > The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  19. Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K. H.; Barada, K.; Chen, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Muscatello, C. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Petty, C. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon et al., in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] have led to the discovery of a means of modifying edge turbulence to achieve stationary, high confinement operation without Edge Localized Mode (ELM) instabilities and with no net external torque input. Eliminating the ELM-induced heat bursts and controlling plasma stability at low rotation represent two of the great challenges for fusion energy. By exploiting edge turbulence in a novel manner, we achieved excellent tokamak performance, well above the H98y2 international tokamak energy confinement scaling (H98y2 = 1.25), thus meeting an additional confinement challenge that is usually difficult at low torque. The new regime is triggered in double null plasmas by ramping the injected torque to zero and then maintaining it there. This lowers E × B rotation shear in the plasma edge, allowing low-k, broadband, electromagnetic turbulence to increase. In the H-mode edge, a narrow transport barrier usually grows until MHD instability (a peeling ballooning mode) leads to the ELM heat burst. However, the increased turbulence reduces the pressure gradient, allowing the development of a broader and thus higher transport barrier. A 60% increase in pedestal pressure and 40% increase in energy confinement result. An increase in the E × B shearing rate inside of the edge pedestal is a key factor in the confinement increase. Strong double-null plasma shaping raises the threshold for the ELM instability, allowing the plasma to reach a transport-limited state near but below the explosive ELM stability boundary. The resulting plasmas have burning-plasma-relevant βN = 1.6-1.8 and run without the need for extra torque from 3D magnetic fields. To date, stationary conditions have been produced for 2 s or 12 energy confinement times, limited only by external hardware constraints. Stationary operation with

  20. Research on Operation Modes of Personnel Leasing%人才租赁运营模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马黎

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, personnel leasing industry has developed by leaps and bounds in our country. It has become an indispensible way for China to realize labor market flexible management of human resources. Personnel leasing in China in the past two years has been recognized by the relevant government departments. The personnel leasing business has been in existence for many years, and leasing is becoming as important recruitment of personnel services. Employee leasing can enable organizations to reduce costs, increase efficiency, diversion from the cumbersome enterprise, focus on core competitiveness and conserve resources. Based on the present situation of talented person industry in China, this article takes the object of study of company operation patterns, probes into the reason and the rent - a - talent company operation pattern. It points out the essence of the risk of talented person rents, thus proposes the related solution and the countermeasure, promotes the talented persons to obtain the considerable development to meet the need of the market competition environments.%近年来人才租赁业在我国有了跨越式发展,成为我国劳动力市场实现人力资源柔性化管理的必要途径。我国的人才租赁业务在近几年才得到有关政府部门的认可,租赁正成为与招聘同样重要的人才服务方式。人才租赁可以使企业降低成本,提高企业效率,把企业从繁琐的事务中脱离出来,节约资源,将有限的资源集中到创造核心竞争力的业务上去。本文基于人才租赁业的现状,结合我国特有的实际情况,以人才租赁运营模式作为研究对象,旨在探讨总结人才租赁产生的原因及人才租赁运营模式存在问题和风险,指出人才租赁风险的本质,从而提出具有针对性的解决方法和对策,使人才租赁在宏观调控形势和市场竞争环境下取得长足发展,以更好地适应时代的需求。

  1. 风力发电远程运行的模式探讨%Discussion on the Remote Operation Mode for Wind Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪茹

    2012-01-01

    The wind power is a very important component of Chinese new energy strategy.In recent years,Chinese goverment put extremely huge inverstment on wind power generation unit for large-scale wind field of Inner Mongolia and so on.However,the characteristics of wind power generation unit itself result difficult problems in operation management,operation maintenance and personnel management,too dispersible and so on.On the basis of this,the article discusses these problems and analyzes the remote operation mode in wind power generation management application.%风力发电是我国新能源战略的一个非常重要的组成部分。近年来在内蒙古等大型风场,我国对风力发电机组的投入非常巨大。然而,由于风力发电机组自身的特性,造成了运营管理、运行维护以及人员管理等过于分散的难题,文章对此进行探讨,并在此基础上分析了远程运营方法在风力发电管理中的应用。

  2. Frequency-tuning radiofrequency plasma source operated in inductively-coupled mode under a low magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Nakano, Yudai; Ando, Akira

    2017-07-01

    A radiofrequency (rf) inductively-coupled plasma source is operated with a frequency-tuning impedance matching system, where the rf frequency is variable in the range of 20-50 MHz and the maximum power is 100 W. The source consists of a 45 mm-diameter pyrex glass tube wound by an rf antenna and a solenoid providing a magnetic field strength in the range of 0-200 Gauss. A reflected rf power for no plasma case is minimized at the frequency of ˜25 MHz, whereas the frequency giving the minimum reflection with the high density plasma is about 28 MHz, where the density jump is observed when minimizing the reflection. A high density argon plasma above 1× {{10}12} cm-3 is successfully obtained in the source for the rf power of 50-100 W, where it is observed that an external magnetic field of a few tens of Gauss yields the highest plasma density in the present configuration. The frequency-tuning plasma source is applied to a compact and high-speed silicon etcher in an Ar-SF6 plasma; then the etching rate of 8~μ m min-1 is obtained for no bias voltage to the silicon wafer, i.e. for the case that a physical ion etching process is eliminated.

  3. On-chip frequency compensation with a dual signal path operational transconductance amplifier for a voltage mode control DC/DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Ye; Jie, Liu; Bing, Yuan; Xinquan, Lai; Ning, Liu

    2012-04-01

    A novel on-chip frequency compensation circuit for a voltage-mode control DC/DC converter is presented. By employing an RC network in the two signal paths of an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), the proposed circuit generates two zeros to realize high closed-loop stability. Meanwhile, full on-chip integration is also achieved due to its simple structure. Hence, the number of off-chip components and the board space is greatly reduced. The structure of the dual signal path OTA is also optimized to help get a better transition response. Implemented in a 0.5 μm CMOS process, the voltage mode control DC/DC converter with the proposed frequency compensation circuit exhibits good stability. The test results show that both load and line regulations are less than 0.3%, and the output voltage can be recovered within 15 μs for a 400 mA load step. Moreover, the compensation components area is less than 2% of the die's area and the board space is also reduced by 11%. The efficiency of the whole chip can be up to 95%.

  4. [The validation of kit of reagents for quantitative detection of DNA of human cytomegalovirus in biological material using polymerase chain reaction technique in real time operation mode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil'veĭstrova, O Iu; Domonova, É A; Shipulina, O Iu

    2014-04-01

    The validation of kit of reagents destined to detection and quantitative evaluation of DNA of human cytomegalovirus in biological material using polymerase chain reaction technique in real time operation mode was implemented. The comparison was made against international WHO standard--The first WHO international standard for human cytomegalovirus to implement measures the kit of reagents "AmpliSens CMV-screen/monitor-FL" and standard sample of enterprise DNA HCMV (The central research institute of epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor) was applied. The fivefold dilution of international WHO standard and standard sample of enterprise were carried out in concentrations of DNA HCMV from 106 to 102. The arrangement of polymerase chain reaction and analysis of results were implemented using programed amplifier with system of detection of fluorescent signal in real-time mode "Rotor-Gene Q" ("Qiagen", Germany). In the total of three series of experiments, all stages of polymerase chain reaction study included, the coefficient of translation of quantitative evaluation of DNA HCMV from copy/ml to ME/ml equal to 0.6 was introduced for this kit of reagents.

  5. Calculation of the operation mode of the emergency condenser (EC) of the INKA test facility with ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschuetz, H.G. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Leyer, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Kruessenberg, A.K.; Schaefer, F. [FZD Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    On 4{sup th} of April 2008 AREVA and E.ON signed a cooperation agreement. An essential part of this is the Final Basic Design Contract SWR 1000. On 28{sup th} of November 2008 AREVA and E.ON have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to develop a commercially viable product and to focus on the successful deployment of the SWR 1000 in a collaborative manner. Meanwhile a rebranding was conducted: the new name of this evolutionary boiling water reactor of the Generation III+ is KERENATM trademark. It is the common intention of AREVA and E.ON to complete the basic design until the end of 2010 so as to reach a design ready for bid and ready for licensing for a construction primarily in a European country. The KERENA trademark is not a completely new plant concept, it is a proven further developed design, based on Gundremmingen NPP and the whole accumulated German BWR operating experience. The design shall fulfill the following major safety items: - further reduction of core damage frequency, - control of postulated core melt accident by in-vessel melt retention without emergency response actions, - introduction of passive safety systems (principle of diversity and redundancy), and - long grace periods for manual intervention (> 3 days). Especially for the newly introduced passive safety systems, which are described in detail, not only an experimental testing and validation is needed, but also thermal-hydraulic system codes have to be qualified, to be able to consider the mostly gravity driven 3D-flow phenomena correctly. Since in some countries the code ATHLET is well established, it is useful to prove its capabilities or to enhance the capabilities, if necessary. Therefore the FZD (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf) is performing a model development and calculations for code validation of the test results from INKA (INtegral test facility in KArlstein, Germany). This paves the way for licensing procedures later on. (orig.)

  6. Modeling and characterization of a magneto-rheological fluid based damper and analysis of vibration isolation with the damper operating in passive mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Saikat; Chakraborty, G.

    2015-09-01

    A physical model of a type of commercially available magneto-rheological fluid based damper has been developed to study the input-output response characteristics. The impedance of the nonlinear device has been analyzed based on equivalent linearization method. The capability of isolating vibration with the help of such a damper has also been studied analytically. The damper is operated in passive mode while the excitation is kept harmonic. A novel method of obtaining the steady-state response of a damped oscillator is presented that uses a combination of harmonic balance method and the method of averaging. The isolating property of the damper has been measured by transmissibilities derived for equivalent linear system.

  7. Discuss on the Operation Mode of Group Purchase Websites in our country%我国团购网站的运营模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向红

    2012-01-01

    互联网技术的快速发展,催生了许多新的电子商务运营模式,团购网站的兴起,OTO的普及,使得网上团购成为时下最流行的购物方式,团购网站带给消费者更低的价格,更自由、更个性化的商品或服务,大量的消费者喜爱团购也给商家和团购网站带来了极大的名气和快速增长的销量,但网络团购异常繁荣的背后也隐藏着若干问题。本文探讨我国团购网站的运营模式,分析目前存在的问题,并提出解决问题的建议对策。%The rapid development of Internet technology,has spawned a lot of new e-commerce operation mode,group purchase websites arisen,the popularity of OTO,making online group purchase became the most popular way of shopping,group purchase websites bring lower prices,more free and more personalized commodity or service for consumers,many consumers'group purchase has also brought great fame and the rapid growth of sales for merchants and group purchase websites,but the network group purchase abnormal prosperous backside hidden problems.This paper discusses group purchase websites operating mode in our country,the analysis of the existing problems,and put forward suggestions and countermeasures to solve the problems.

  8. Reduction of RF accelerating voltage of Pohang Light Source-II superconducting RF cavity for stable top-up mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Y.; Yu, I.; Park, I.; Chun, M. H.; Sohn, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) is currently providing a top-up mode user-service operation with maximum available beam current of 400 mA and a beam emittance of below 10 nm-rad. The dimension of the beam bunch shortened to accomplish a low beam emittance of below 10 nm-rad from a high beam current of 400 mA increases the bunch charge density. As a result, the electron beam lifetime is significantly degraded and a high gradient of power is lost in the vacuum components of the storage ring. A study on how to reduce the bunch charge density without degrading beam emittance found that reducing the RF accelerating voltage (Vacc) can lower the bunch charge density by lengthening the bunch in the longitudinal direction. In addition, the Vacc required for stable operation with beam current of 400 mA can be reduced by lowering the external cavity quality factors (Qext values) of the superconducting cavities (SCs). To control the Qext values of SCs gradually without accessing the accelerator tunnel, a remote control motorized three-probe-tuner was installed in the transmission line of each SC. The optimum installation position of the three-probe-tuner was determined by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and by experimenting on various installation positions of the three-probe-tuner. The Qext values of all the SCs were lowered to 1.40 × 105, and then, the Vacc required to store the beam current of 400 mA was decreased from 4.8 MV to 4.2 MV, which corresponds to 10% lengthening of the beam bunches. The stable operation with the reduced Vacc was confirmed during a 400 mA ten-day top-up mode user-service. Currently, the RF system of the PLS-II storage ring delivers the user-service operation with lowered Qext values to reduce the power loss at the vacuum components as well as the cryogenic heat load of SCs, and no significant problems have been found. This method of reducing the Vacc may also be applied in other synchrotron facilities.

  9. Research of Deep Tillage Operation Mode Application in Liaoning Province%辽宁省深松作业模式应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉萍

    2015-01-01

    深松是旱地保护性耕作的主要环节之一,是通过改善土壤耕层质量,从而提高土地产出率的现代农业耕作技术.对辽宁省深松模式进行实践调研与分析,结合各类深松机械的作业特点,提出优化方案与建议,以期为深松作业提供技术指导.%Deep tillage is one of main links for protective tillage in dry land, it is a modern agricultural tillage technique of increasing land yield by improving the quality of soil plough layer. In the article, it studied and analyzed deep tillage mode in practice in Liaoning province, raised optimized plan and suggestions combined operating features of various deep tillage machinery, in order to provide tech-nical guidance for deep tillage operation.

  10. Design of Incremental Conductance Sliding Mode MPPT Control Applied by Integrated Photovoltaic and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell System under Various Operating Conditions for BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehun Hahm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an integrated photovoltaic (PV and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC system for continuous energy harvesting under various operating conditions for use with a brushless DC motor. The proposed scheme is based on the incremental conductance (IncCond algorithm combined with the sliding mode technique. Under changing atmospheric conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a PV array is very low, leading to significant power losses. Consequently, increasing efficiency by means of maximum power point tracking (MPPT is particularly important. To manage such a hybrid system, control strategies need to be established to achieve the aim of the distributed system. Firstly, a Matlab/Simulink based model of the PV and PEMFC is developed and validated, as well as the incremental conductance sliding (ICS MPPT technique; then, different MPPT algorithms are employed to control the PV array under nonuniform temperature and insolation conditions, to study these algorithms effectiveness under various operating conditions. Conventional techniques are easy to implement but produce oscillations at MPP. Compared to these techniques, the proposed technique is more efficient; it produces less oscillation at MPP in the steady state and provides more precise tracking.

  11. 氧化沟的优缺点及发展应用型式%The Advantages and Disadvantages and Developmental Operation Mode of Oxidation Ditch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭昌梓; 程飞; 陈雪梅

    2011-01-01

    阐述氧化沟工艺的发展、特点及主要运行型式:交替工作式氧化沟、半交替工作式氧化沟、连续工作分建式氧化沟、连续工作合建式氧化沟及微曝氧化沟等;介绍氧化沟不同运行型式的发展优势、运行方式及用途;分析氧化沟工艺设计和应用中存在的缺点和问题;提出氧化沟处理生活污水和工业废水的完善措施和发展趋势.%The development, characteristic and main operation forms of oxidation ditch were introduced, which included alternating oxidation ditch , half-alternant oxidation ditch, continuous working individually-built oxidation ditch, continuous working jointly-built oxidation ditch and fine bubble-aerated oxidation ditch. The development advantages, operation process and application of different mode were respectively described. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and application of oxidation ditch process were analyzed, and more appropriate measures and development directions were brought up to promote the more widely application of the oxidation ditch in treating sewage and industrial effluents.

  12. Dark current studies on a normal-conducting high-brightness very-high-frequency electron gun operating in continuous wave mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements and analysis of a field-emitted electron current in the very-high-frequency (VHF gun, a room temperature rf gun operating at high field and continuous wave (CW mode at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. The VHF gun is the core of the Advanced Photo-injector Experiment (APEX at LBNL, geared toward the development of an injector for driving the next generation of high average power x-ray free electron lasers. High accelerating fields at the cathode are necessary for the high-brightness performance of an electron gun. When coupled with CW operation, such fields can generate a significant amount of field-emitted electrons that can be transported downstream the accelerator forming the so-called “dark current.” Elevated levels of a dark current can cause radiation damage, increase the heat load in the downstream cryogenic systems, and ultimately limit the overall performance and reliability of the facility. We performed systematic measurements that allowed us to characterize the field emission from the VHF gun, determine the location of the main emitters, and define an effective strategy to reduce and control the level of dark current at APEX. Furthermore, the energy spectra of isolated sources have been measured. A simple model for energy data analysis was developed that allows one to extract information on the emitter from a single energy distribution measurement.

  13. Operating modes and cooling capabilities of the 3-stage ADR developed for the Soft-X-ray Spectrometer instrument on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theodore; DiPirro, Michael J.; Letmate, Richard V.; Sampson, Michael A.; Bialas, Tom G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2016-03-01

    A 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) (Shirron et al., 2012) is used on the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument (Mitsuda et al., 2010) on Astro-H (Takahashi et al., 2010) [3] to cool a 6 × 6 array of X-ray microcalorimeters to 50 mK. The ADR is supported by a cryogenic system (Fujimoto et al., 2010) consisting of a superfluid helium tank, a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler, and additional 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers that pre-cool the JT cooler and cool radiation shields within the cryostat. The ADR is configured so that it can use either the liquid helium or the JT cryocooler as its heat sink, giving the instrument an unusual degree of tolerance for component failures or degradation in the cryogenic system. The flight detector assembly, ADR and dewar were integrated into the flight dewar in early 2014, and have since been extensively characterized and calibrated. This paper summarizes the operation and performance of the ADR in all of its operating modes.

  14. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  15. Integration Mode and Optimization Operation of Digital Publishing Industry Chain%数字出版产业链的整合模式与优化运营

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曙

    2013-01-01

    我国在建设数字出版产业产业链时,信息技术平台商、数字终端设备商、传统出版社都按照自身主导模式进行整合运营。虽然这三种整合模式给我国传统出版业转型带来一定程度的进步,但当前我国数字出版存在着版权方面不健全、数字平台间杂乱无章、利益分配不完善等问题,必须针对版权、平台、利益分配优化几个角度去实现运营优化。%When our country constructs digital publishing industry chain,It's necessary for us information tech-nology flat business, digital terminal equipment business, traditional publishing houses do integrate operation according to their own dominant mode. Although these three kinds of integrated model bring a certain degree of progress for China's traditional publishing transformation. But there are problems of copyright of digital publishing imperfect, digital platform desultorily, distribution of interests imperfect at present. We must achieve operation optimization according to the copyright, platform, interest distribution optimization.

  16. Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

  17. Stable mode-locked operation of a low repetition rate diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser by combining quadratic polarisation switching and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Christoph; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick; Couderc, Vincent; Leproux, Philippe

    2006-08-07

    In this paper, we present the mode-locked operation of an ultra-robustly stabilised Nd:GdVO(4) laser with low repetition rate by combining quadratic polarisation switching and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). In addition, similar experiment was also done with Nd:YVO(4). For Nd:GdVO(4), 16-ps pulses at 1063 nm with a repetition rate of 3.95 MHz have been obtained for a laser average output power of 1.4 W. For Nd:YVO(4), the performance was 2.5 W of average power for 15-ps pulses at 1064 nm. Moreover, we demonstrate experimentally the advantage of combining these two passive mode locking techniques in terms of stability ranges. We show how the dual mode-locking technique is crucial to obtain a stable and long-term mode-locked regime in our case of a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) laser operating at low repetition rate and more generally how this dual mode-locking technique improves the stability range of the mode-locked operation giving more flexibility on different parameters.

  18. Simulation on advanced operation mode for the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor%紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆先进运行模式的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 吴斌

    2012-01-01

    Reversed shear (RS) operation mode is simulated with Jsolver and TSC codes on some important issues, such as RS Plasma configuration, bootstrap current fraction and RS operation mode discharge simulation etc.. To some degree, the modeling results show that the RS operation mode is advanced and feasible for the compact Fusion-fission hybrid reactor.%使用Jsolver程序及托卡马克模拟程序TSC对紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆系统的反剪切平衡位形、自举电流份额及放电模拟进行数值模拟研究,以此探讨该混合堆的可行性和先进性.

  19. 我国中小型金融机构运作模式探析%Our country small and medium-sized financial institutions operating mode analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪; 熊英

    2015-01-01

    当前中小金融机构已经成为我国金融体系中不可替代、不可或缺的重要组成部分。在我国,中小金融机构对保持宏观经济的持续稳定增长、鼓励创新、稳定就业、增加税收等方面都发挥着极其重要的作用。但是通过解读中小金融机构运作模式内涵,发现了中小金融机构运作模式存在资产运营效率低下、人力资源管理机制不完善、市场定位不准确、分业经营制度抑制金融创新等问题。而导致这些问题的原因在于中小金融机构缺乏对内部控制的正确认识、缺少良好的外部环境、政府政策扶持力度小以及社会征信体系不完善等。因此,我们提出了完善中小金融机构金融法律法规、准确定位市场和客户、完善金融业统一的征信平台、加大政府支持力度等对策,希望能够促进我国中小金融机构的健康发展。%Small and medium-sized financial institutions has become the financial system of our country can not be replaced, the indispensable important component. In our country, small and medium-sized financial institutions play an extremely important role to maintain macroeconomic steady growth, encourage innovation, stable employment, raise taxes. But through the interpretation of the connotation of the small and medium-sized financial institutions operating mode, discovered the existence of small and medium-sized financial institutions operating mode assets operation efficiency is low, human resources management mechanism is imperfect, the market localization is not accurate, separate operation system restrain the financial innovation and so on. The reason of these problems lies in the lack of a correct understanding of internal control of small and medium-sized financial institutions, the lack of a good external environment, the government's policy support is insufficient, imperfect social credit system. As a result, we put forward countermeasures to

  20. 现代烟草循环农业园区运行模式探索%RESEARCH ON THE OPERATION MODE OF MODERN TOBACCO CIRCULAR AGRICULTURAL PARK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素云; 吴一平

    2012-01-01

    随着烟草业生产方式转变,适应生态保护的要求,传统烟区纷纷尝试建设现代烟草循环农业园区.在运行模式上,目前主要有“烟草公司+农户”、“有限责任公司+农户”和“合作社+农户”模式,但这三种模式未能较好的兼顾各方利益.“政府引导、企业主导、合作社经营、农户参与、科研机构支持”的“五位一体”运行模式或能很好地推动园区现代烟草循环农业的发展,达到提升烟叶品质、改善生态环境和促进烟农增收的目标.%With intensification of environmental destruction and resources shortage, tobacco production had transformed from traditional area to modern tobacco circular agricultural farm. Three main operation modle of modern tobacco circular agricultural farm, i. e. , " tobacco - company + farmers" , " company + farmers" and " cooperative society + farmers" , cannot accommodate the interests of all parties. The operation mode of " five in one" , i. e. , government guidance, enterprise dominant, cooperative society management and scientific institution supporting , can promote the development of modern tobacco circular agricultural farm for promoting tobacco quality, improving ecological environment and increasing the income of tobacco fanners.