WorldWideScience

Sample records for operating subsidies

  1. 75 FR 70279 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...: Allocation of Operating Subsidies under the Operating Fund. Formula: Data Collection. OMB Approval Number... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Allocation of Operating Subsidies under the Operating Fund Formula: Data Collection AGENCY: Office of the...

  2. 75 FR 16160 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Allocation of Operating Subsidies Under the Operating Fund Formula: Data Collection AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Allocation of Operating Subsidies Under...

  3. Analysis of Operating Costs of Subsidies in the Field of Agriculture of EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mics, University of South Bohemia, České Budějo vice, Czech RepublicJ. Svoboda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with comparison of agricultural subsidies in the member states of the EU in the period 2004-2012 based on the database Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. During the monitored period we found a slight increase of operational subsidies with the fact that variability shows a decreasing trend. In the structure of subsidies we can see a clear transition to payments separated from production with significant differences between original member states and new member states (NMS. With the help of cluster analysis the member states were divided into groups according to their operational subsidies, total production and costs. With the use of correlation analysis we assessed the relationships between production, costs and operational subsidies re-counted per ha of utilised agricultural area. The increase of subsidies will not occur in higher cost productivity and only very slightly will it occur in the higher share of subsidized costs.

  4. 46 CFR 281.1 - Information and procedure required under liner operating-differential subsidy agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) representing interest on vessels shall be allocated to vessels and voyages in the same ratio that depreciation... forward necessary instructions and forms to be used. (f) Current financial reports. Each operator shall prepare current financial reports as specified in this paragraph and shall submit one copy each to...

  5. 19 CFR 351.525 - Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will attribute the subsidy to multinational production. (c) Trading companies. Benefits from subsidies... corporations to the products produced by both corporations. (iii) Holding or parent companies. If the firm that received a subsidy is a holding company, including a parent company with its own operations, the Secretary...

  6. Theory and Model of Agricultural Insurance Subsidy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Kailiang; Long Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    The issue of agricultural insurance subsidy is discussed in this paper aiming to make it provided more rationally and scientifically.It is started with the connection between agricultural insurance and financial subsidy.It is really necessary and crucial to implement the financial insurance due to the bad operational performance,especially in the developing countries.But the subsidy should be provided more rationally because financial subsidy has lots of negative effects.A model in competitive insurance markets developed by Ahsan et al(1982)and a farmers'decision model arc developed to solve the optimal subsidized rate.Finally,the equation is got to calculate it.But a quantitative subsidized rate is not made here because the calculation should be under some restricted conditions,which are always absent in the developing countries.So the government should provide some subsidy for the ex ante research and preparation to get the scientific probability and premium rate.

  7. Subsidies in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gössling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little attention has been paid to the existence of subsidies in aviation. As the sector’s importance for economic development is often highlighted, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual overview of the various forms of subsidies in aviation, as a contribution to a more holistic understanding of economic interrelationships. Based on a purposive sampling strategy, existing forms of subsidies are identified and categorized along the value chain. Focus is on industrialized countries, for which more information is available. Results indicate that significant subsidies are extended to manufacturers, infrastructure providers and airlines. These contribute to global economic growth related to aviation, but they also influence capacity in global aviation markets, strengthen the market position of individual airlines, and create conflicts between airlines and the countries they are based in. While the actual scale of subsidies cannot be determined within the scope of this paper, it provides a discussion of options to empirically assess the effects of aviation subsidies on market outcomes. Finally, general conclusions regarding the impact of subsidies on the overall sustainability of the air transport sector are drawn: These include rapidly growing capacity in the aviation system, economic vulnerabilities, and negative climate change related impacts. Results call for a better understanding of the distribution, character and implications of subsidies.

  8. 'Frozen' media subsidies during a time of media change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    documents and secondary sources, I show that media subsidies have largely remained frozen in their late-20th century form. The absence of major reform means that media subsidies are increasingly subject to policy drift, a process by which the operations and effectiveness of policies change not because......Media systems around the world have changed in significant ways in the early 21st century. In this article, I analyse how various forms of media subsidies have changed in response to these transformations in a sample of six different affluent democracies. On the basis of interviews, official......) a perceived shortage of desirable, cost-effective, and governable alternatives to existing policies....

  9. Trawling for Subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2009-01-01

    In the fishing industry, the fishermen traditionally have incentives to signal too many fish in order to get access to a high short-term catch level and subsidies, whereas marine biologists have incentives to signal too few fish in the sea. Marine biologists have an incentive to maximize...... their budgets both for altruistic reasons (to restore fish stocks) and for private reasons (by increasing demand for their services). We analyze the outcome of a game where the biologists and the fishermen are informed about the true stock size while the decision-maker is not. Our model shows that interest...

  10. The Government Subsidy Strategy Choice for Firm’s R&D: Input Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To encourage enterprises to conduct technology innovation, the government needs to formulate appropriate subsidies policy. This paper compares two R&D subsidy policies in a supplier-manufacturer supply chain, in which the manufacturer conducts R&D activity for quality improvement. By means of game theory, we investigate the optimal decisions of the players under the two R&D subsidy policies, that is, input subsidy policy and product subsidy policy. Finally, we compare the profits and welfare to explore the better R&D subsidy policy and provide decision support for government to formulate subsidy policy. The results show that under input subsidy policy the optimal production output, quality improvement, profits, government subsidies, and social welfare are all lower than those of product subsidy policy. Therefore, the government should use product subsidy strategy to encourage enterprise R&D activities.

  11. Netherlands Subsidy State; Nederland Subsidiestaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhoudt, J.R.; Heemeijer, P.

    2004-09-01

    For each ministry in the Netherlands ten of the largest subsidies were analyzed by means of four criteria. Based on the results of the analysis recommendations are formulated to abolish a large number of subsidies. [Dutch] Deze brochure biedt een analyse van de tien grootste subsidies per ministerie. De ministeries van Binnenlandse Zaken, Financien en Defensie zijn, om praktische redenen, samengevoegd. Gezamenlijk beslaan de tien grootste subsidieregelingen van alle ministeries ruim 19 miljard euro. De in totaal 100 subsidieregelingen zijn getoetst aan vier criteria, en op basis van deze toetsing zijn aanbevelingen gedaan. De Edmund Burke Stichting stelt voor om bijna viervijfde (78 procent) van de ruim 19 miljard euro aan onderzochte subsidies af te schaffen. Deze besparing komt jaarlijks neer op ruim 15 miljard euro. De afschaffing van de huursubsidie en de studiefinanciering, als ook de afschaffing van subsidies aan bedrijven, dragen bij tot deze grote besparing.

  12. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  13. Subsidies to Increase Remote Pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestikova, Jana; Krizanova, Anna; Corejova, Tatiana; Kral, Pavol; Spuchlakova, Erika

    2017-04-12

    During the last decade, Central Europe became a cynosure for the world for its unparalleled public support for renewable energy. For instance, the production of electricity from purpose-grown biomass received approximately twice the amount in subsidies as that produced from biowaste. Moreover, the guaranteed purchase price of electricity from solar panels was set approximately five times higher than that from conventional sources. This controversial environmental donation policy led to the devastation of large areas of arable land, a worsening of food availability, unprecedented market distortions, and serious threats to national budgets, among other things. Now, the first proposals to donate the purchase price of electric vehicles (and related infrastructure) from national budgets have appeared for public debate. Advocates of these ideas argue that they can solve the issue of electricity overproduction, and that electric vehicles will reduce emissions in cities. However, our analysis reveals that, as a result of previous scandals, environmental issues have become less significant to local citizens. Given that electric cars are not yet affordable for most people, in terms of local purchasing power, this action would further undermine national budgets. Furthermore, while today's electromobiles produce zero pollution when operated, their sum of emissions (i.e. global warming potential) remains much higher than that of conventional combustion engines. Therefore, we conclude that the mass usage of electromobiles could result in the unethical improvement of a city environment at the expense of marginal regions.

  14. Government Preference and the Optimal Choice of R&D Subsidy Policy: Innovation Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking government preference into consideration, we consider a three-stage game model to compare the differences of innovation subsidy and product subsidy. The findings reveal that stronger preference to consumers’ welfare leads to higher subsidy rates, which benefit not only consumers but also firms. To choose between the two subsidies, the optimal choice varies with the changing preference of policymakers. According to the results of numerical simulation, product subsidy is better than innovation subsidy in most cases, while the government’s expenditure of the former one is larger than the latter one. Moreover, subsidizing firms symmetrically and asymmetrically has different effects on the consequences.

  15. Do Employment Subsidies Work? Evidence from Regionally Targeted Subsidies in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Betcherman, Gordon; Pages, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on registered employment and number of registered establishments of two employment subsidy schemes in Turkey. We implement a difference-in-differences methodology to construct appropriate counterfactuals for the covered provinces. Our findings suggest that both subs...... than boosting total employment and economic activity. This supports the theory that in countries with weak enforcement institutions, high labor taxes on low-wage workers may lead to substantial incentives for firms and workers to operate informally....

  16. 24 CFR 990.235 - PHAs that will experience a subsidy increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... increase. 990.235 Section 990.235 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... § 990.235 PHAs that will experience a subsidy increase. (a) For PHAs that will experience a gain in their operating subsidy, as determined in § 990.225, such increases will have a limit of 50 percent of...

  17. Designing an Optimal Subsidy Scheme to Reduce Emissions for a Competitive Urban Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Qin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of establishing an effective subsidy scheme to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions, this paper proposes a two-stage game for a competitive urban transport market. In the first stage, the authority determines operating subsidies based on social welfare maximization. Observing the predetermined subsidies, two transit operators set fares and frequencies to maximize their own profits at the second stage. The detailed analytical and numerical analyses demonstrate that of the three proposed subsidy schemes, the joint implementation of trip-based and frequency-related subsidies not only generates the largest welfare gains and makes competitive operators provide equilibrium fares and frequencies, which largely resemble first-best optimal levels but also greatly contributes to reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions on major urban transport corridors.

  18. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Dwelling Unit: Housing Quality Standards, Subsidy Standards, Inspection and Maintenance § 982.402 Subsidy standards. (a) Purpose. (1) The PHA...

  19. The economics of agricultural subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    PART ONE1. Agricultural subsidies have been defined as a government induced change of relative prices of goods, services and factors of production in the agricultural sector. These agricultural price changes may result from a large number of different government measures varying from direct cash tra

  20. On the Subsidy Mechanisms for Urban Public Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Guo-li; ZHU Xiao-min

    2001-01-01

    There is no doubt that the urban public traffic operations in China suffer losses and hence it isnecessary to study resonable subsidy mechanisms for the urban public traffic. On the basis of analyzing themodes of the urban public traffic management, we classify the financial losses into the policy loss and themanagement loss, according to whether the cost can be compensated or not. In addition, a series of criteriaare introduced in order to efficiently decide the amount of subsidy. Finally, this paper also examines the wayof bidding administration, which is considered to be promising in the future of urban public traffic.

  1. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  2. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  3. A welfare perspective on Nordic media subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2016-01-01

    Subsidies constitute a prominent media-policy instrument, serving to correct media-market failures. However, because they interfere in the market, and because the commercial media market is under structural pressure in the digital age, there is much debate about the role of media subsidies. Within...... this context, this article revisits the foundation of media subsidies in certain developed democracies, aiming at qualifying the current discussions. Focusing on the Nordic countries, the article explores the connection between the social-democratic welfare-state regime and the extensive public frameworks...... for media subsidies found in this region. The article argues that even though continuity rather than disruption characterises the systems of direct and indirect subsidies, the current developments point towards a recalibration of the ways the Nordic countries subsidise media in the future....

  4. ANALYSIS OF SUBSIDIES IN CROATIAN BEEKEEPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Puškadija

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping in Croatia unlike many other productions was not subsidized until mid nineties. At the time of introduction of first subsidies honey market was very inefficient, and there was hardly any market for other bee products. Several years of implementation enables first analyses. The investigation is based on two complementary data sets, quantitative data on production and subsidies and farmers attitude toward importance of various measures. Croatian beekeepers compared with their colleagues from other transitional countries make business quite well. Major characteristics of Croatian beekeeping are low density (2.7 beehives per km2, relatively high degree of concentration (22.7 beehives per beekeeper and relatively intensive production (20 kg of honey per beehive and year. Additional importance to the beekeeping gives the export being more than 1/10 of honey production. Introduction of subsidy for honey production in 1998 resulted in 12% increased annual production in 1999. Besides, a number of beehives increased by 11% in 1999, after just one year of beekeeping subsidy. According to HSSC-a in 1997 Croatian beekeepers produced 16000 queens. In 2001 they produced already 38968. Investigation of farmers’ attitude toward influence of various subsidies on their business decisions showed that more than half of beekeepers claimed they were not influenced at all. Subsidies for honey production and queen production had, partially or fully influence on decisions of 25% beekeepers. Subsidy for queen testing had partially or fully influence on decisions of 25% beekeepers. Subsidy for beekeeping was the most important for beekeepers (30.8% of beekeepers were partially or fully influenced, although implementation of this measure was difficult since there is no registry of the beekeepers.

  5. Contracts, Vouchers, and Child Care Subsidy Stability: A Preliminary Look at Associations between Subsidy Payment Mechanism and Stability of Subsidy Receipt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holod, Aleksandra; Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation's largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children's care arrangements.…

  6. A global subsidy for antimalarial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelband, Hellen; Seiter, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    In 2004, the Institute of Medicine concluded that a global high-level subsidy was the best way to make effective antimalarial drugs--currently, artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs)--widely available at affordable prices and at the same time substantially delay the emergence and spread of artemisinin-resistant strains of falciparum malaria. The subsidy would be available to manufacturers of all ACTs meeting pre-specified efficacy, safety, and quality criteria. Buyers would pay very low prices, allowing drugs to flow through existing channels, with the aim of reaching consumers at a similar price to chloroquine, the most frequently used (although no longer effective) malaria drug. Unsubsidized artemisinin monotherapies would be more expensive than subsidized ACTs (co-formulations), thereby largely eliminating their use through market forces. Conditions favoring the emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria would be greatly reduced. The global high-level subsidy is a powerful idea that is moving from economic concept to pragmatic reality.

  7. Fertilizer procurement, distribution and subsidy policies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data were analyzed using means, frequencies and percentages. ... government monopoly procurement and subsidy on the product, government partial procurement and subsidy on the procured final ...

  8. Subsidy Policy System for Agricultural Natural Disasters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; LUO; Fengxian; YAN; Jun; GE

    2014-01-01

    From theories and cases,this paper analyzed current situation of subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters in China.Improvement and perfection of subsidy policies for agricultural natural disasters need clear classification and additional special subsidy plan.It is recommended to improve and perfect subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters through attaching importance to scientific studies on reduction and prevention of agricultural disasters and gradually supplementing agricultural disaster reduction and prevention system.

  9. PENGATURAN SUBSIDI PERIKANAN DALAM WTO DAN DAMPAKNYA BAGI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton T. Putra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries subsidies have been practiced by many states in the world. Such actions are considered as one of the causes of over-fishing. Its also endanger sustainable fisheries management. There is no specific regulation on fisheries subsidies in the WTO. To date, negotiation over fisheries subsidies came out with the draft and it would be attach as Annexes VIII of SCM Agreement. The draft of fisheries subsidies specifically regulates prohibited subsidies, general exception and special and different treatment. The impact of the WTO fisheries subsidies draft will be negative to the Indonesian fisheries market, fishery resources and employment.   Subsidi perikanan telah dipraktikkan oleh negara-negara di dunia. Tindakan tersebut dianggap sebagai salah satu penyebab terjadinya eksploitasi sumber daya perikanan sehingga membahayakan pengelolaan perikanan berkelanjutan. Terkait dengan perdagangan dan subsidi perikanan, belum ada regulasi khusus tentang subsidi perikanan di WTO. Negosiasi di WTO hingga saat ini baru pada rancangan yang akan menjadi lampiran VIII SCM Agreement. Rancangan subsidi perikanan di WTO mengatur secara khusus tentang subsidi perikanan yang dilarang dan pengecualian secara umum. Dampak dari rancangan subsidi perikanan WTO tersebut apabila berhasil disahkan akan memberikan dampak negatif kepada Indonesia terkait dengan pasar perikanan, sumber daya perikanan dan lapangan pekerjaan.

  10. The Incidence of Employment Subsidies for Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses employment subsidies for vocational training under union wage bargaining. The analysis includes an investigation of the consequences of financing the subsidy by a levy on employment, which is the typical way of financing these types of subsidies in many countries. The paper...

  11. Microsimulation of Corporate Response to Investment Subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, van F.W.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents an application of microsimulation to modeling of firm behavior in an economy-wide framework. The model is used to investigate the response of industrial corporations to investment subsidies in the Netherlands and traces the effects to the macro economic level. The microsimulatio

  12. The Distributional Effects of Higher Education Subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaug, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes factors affecting whether the relationship between taxing formulas and the provision of postsecondary education subsidies in the United States results in redistribution of income from the poor to the rich or vice versa. An examination of the effects of these factors in Britain fails to resolve the question. (PGD)

  13. Reducing rebound effect through fossil subsidies reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Yang, Yingkui; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    China has committed a sharp reduction in its carbon intensity by 2020 and proposed to take integrated policy package including energy subsidy reform to achieve this goal. While energy efficiency improvement is the key influencing factor for this goal, its effectiveness is significantly determined...

  14. Should the Rich Be Given Housing Subsidies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lifan

    2010-01-01

    @@ On October 12,the Department of Human Resources and Social Security of Shenzhen,a boomtown in south China's Guangdong Province,released a list of recipients of housing subsidies for top professionals.The list entitled Ma Huateng(Pony Ma),CEO of Tencent Computer System Co.Ltd.,to receive 3,100 yuan($456)each month since July.

  15. The conflicting economic and environmental logics of North American governance : NAFTA, energy subsidies, and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roff, R.J.; Krajnc, A.; Clarkson, S.

    2003-02-14

    One of the incentives behind the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was to promote a green economy. It offered the hope that environmentally sustainable trade was possible through provisions against downward harmonization, the respect for state autonomy in environmental regulation, and the creation of the Commission for Environmental Co-operation. However, cleaner energy trade has actually been inhibited by subsidies for fossil fuel development, government's inability to regulate the rate of resource depletion, and by favoring the priorities of transnational corporations. The authors reviewed perverse subsidies and recommended a combination of environmentally sensitive policy changes, such as the elimination of perverse subsidies, the subsidization of environmentally friendly energy sources, and the imposition of carbon taxes and demand-side management initiatives. 67 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Effectiveness of Subsidies in Technology Adoption: A Case Study Involving Reverse Osmosis (RO Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Laili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of new technologies is a process that involves technological learning and penetration of new products into the market. Within the process of new technologies adoption, government usually intervened by providing incentives, in order to support the technology adoption to be succeed. This paper examines the effectiveness of incentives for the sustainability of reverse osmosis (RO membrane technology adoption. The study conducted through single case study on SWRO installation in Mandangin Island, East Java, Indonesia. Results of case study indentify the existence of government incentive in the form of direct subsidies to decrease the price of clean water. Although successful in reducing the price of water, but effectiveness of the subsidy on the sustainability of SWRO is still low, which is operates only 30% in a year. Further analysis shows that these subsidies actually be counter-productive to the sustainability of SWRO installation.

  17. A PRACTICAL STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF THE INCENTIVE SUBSIDY TO BUS NETWORK IN KUMAMOTO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Shoshi; Fujimi, Toshio; Hirano, Toshihiko

    Recently, the number of passenger of public bus services in Japan tends to decrease due to the motorization. This condition leads to a severe management situation, including in Kumamoto City. Since 1984, the deficit of bus companies operation in provision of bus services in Kumamoto has been covered by Kumamoto City Government on the basis of lines subsidy, and the city allocated a number of subsidy of about 200 million yen in 2007. Currently, The Kumamoto city government plans to reduce the amount of subsidy to bus companies by introducing the giving of incentive to bus companies in order to trim bus company deficit. This study aims to construct the mathematical model of the incentive reward and apply the model to realignment of buses lines networks in Kumamoto Metropolitan Area.

  18. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  19. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  20. The political economy of coal subsidies in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K. [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Dept. of Economics and Centre for International Economic Studies

    1995-06-01

    Both the mining and the burning of coal is polluting, so we might expect to observe taxes on coal production and consumption. Yet several countries of Western Europe subsidize coal production, and most East European countries subsidize coal consumption. The first part of this paper shows that those subsidies, which are emulated by other rich and poor countries respectively, have become enormous. Neoclassical political economy is used to examine why governments adopt such inappropriate policies when they are so wasteful of resources and damaging to the environment. Several new and offsetting political forces have been at work in Western Europe in recent years though, causing some countries to dismantle their coal producer subsidies. The paper concludes that these pressures for reform will continue to operate in the new remaining protectionist countries; if coupled with more commercial diplomatic pressure from coal exporting countries, they could be sufficient to see the end of such protection by early next century. A comment by Ewa Rabinowicz follows this article on pages 497-498. 26 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  1. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  2. NAFTA and Farm Subsidies: A Recipe for Poor Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    reengage NAFTA . A renegotiation of NAFTA may cause more problems with our other trade agreement partner, Canada . For instance, renegotiating NAFTA may...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAFTA & Farm Subsidies: A Recipe for Poor Regional Security...ABSTRACT The North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) and U.S. farm subsidies are a recipe for Mexican agribusiness failure. Removing farm subsidies

  3. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints and linearization. Case studies were conducted with a one node system and the Bus 4 distribution network......Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  4. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints and linearization. Case studies were conducted with a one node system and the Bus 4 distribution network...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  5. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  6. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy.

  7. Demand for pneumococcal vaccination under subsidy program for the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Yamamura, Mariko; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Okubo, Ichiro

    2012-09-12

    Vaccination programs often organize subsidies and public relations in order to obtain high uptake rates and coverage. However, effects of subsidies and public relations have not been studied well in the literature. In this study, the demand function of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly in Japan is estimated, incorporating effects of public relations and subsidy. Using a data from a questionnaire survey sent to municipalities, the varying and constant elasticity models were applied to estimate the demand function. The response variable is the uptake rate. Explanatory variables are: subsidy supported shot price, operating years of the program, target population size for vaccination, shot location intensity, income and various public relations tools. The best model is selected by c-AIC, and varying and constant price elasticities are calculated from estimation results. The vaccine uptake rate and the shot price have a negative relation. From the results of varying price elasticity, the demand for vaccination is elastic at municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD). Effects of public relations on the uptake rate are not found. It can be suggested that municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD) could subsidize more and reduce price to increase the demand for vaccination. Effects of public relations are not confirmed in this study, probably due to measurement errors of variables used for public relations, and studies at micro level exploring individual's response to public relations would be required.

  8. Shallow groundwater subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Jayawickreme, D.; Nosetto, M.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the world, shallow groundwater systems subsidize much higher net primary productivity (NPP) than would be expected based solely on local rainfall. Such subsidies are far more prevalent and less recognized in upland systems than in more commonly studied riparian ones. We present a quantitative framework for examining and quantifying groundwater subsidies globally, illustrating subsidies to NPP across rainfall gradients in Argentina and the southern United States, including Texas and California. In the Argentine Pampas, we determined that the presence of relatively shallow ground water increased the transpiration of forest plantations by 300 to 400 mm. Farther west, the presence of well developed Prosopis flexuosa woodlands in the Monte desert region east of the Andes has puzzled scientists for decades. We explored the vulnerability and importance of phreatic ground water for the productivity of the region, comparing the contributions of local rainfall to that of remote mountain recharge that is increasingly being diverted for irrigated agriculture before it reaches the desert. The isotopic composition of phreatic ground waters (δ2H; -137±5 ‰) closely matched the signature of water brought to the region by the Mendoza River (-137±6 ‰), suggesting that mountain river infiltration rather than in-situ rainfall deep drainage (-39±19 ‰) was the dominant mechanism of recharge. Vegetation in woodland ecosystems there relied on regionally derived ground water from Andean snowmelt located from 6.5 to 9.5 m underground. Understanding the ecohydrological coupling of surface and ground waters is vital for estimating net primary productivity and for balancing the demands of managed ecosystems with the conservation of unique natural systems.

  9. 42 CFR 423.782 - Cost-sharing subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Low-Income Individuals § 423.782 Cost-sharing subsidy. (a) Full subsidy eligible individuals. Full... income under 135 percent of the Federal poverty line applicable to the individual's family size who meet...-benefit dual eligible individuals with incomes that do not exceed 100 percent of the Federal poverty...

  10. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous…

  11. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  12. Use and Impact of a Cash Subsidy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Sandra E.

    1991-01-01

    The use and impact of a $256 monthly cash subsidy by 1,283 Michigan families with children with severe disabilities were examined. Families reported such uses as the purchase of clothing, toys, sitters, special foods, adaptive equipment, and professional services. Families indicated that the subsidy had improved family life, eased financial…

  13. The Effectiveness of Wage Subsidies for Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, John

    1990-01-01

    In 1981 the Australian government introduced a system of wage subsidies designed to induce employers to increase job offers to persons with disabilities. This article reports on the effectiveness of the wage subsidy policy and examines some supply characteristics for labor market success by the disabled. (Author/JOW)

  14. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  15. Health insurance subsidies and deductible choice: Evidence from regional variation in subsidy schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Cornel; Schmid, Christian; Boes, Stefan

    2017-08-05

    The extent to which premium subsidies can influence health insurance choices is an open question. In this paper, we explore the regional variation in subsidy schemes in Switzerland, designed as either in-kind or cash transfers, to study their impact on the choice of health insurance deductibles. Using health survey data and a difference-in-differences methodology, we find that in-kind transfers increase the likelihood of choosing a low deductible plan by approximately 4 percentage points (or 7%). Our results indicate that the response to in-kind transfers is strongest among women, middle-aged and unmarried individuals, which we explain by differences in risk-taking behavior, health status, financial constraints, health insurance and financial literacy. We discuss our results in the light of potential extra-marginal effects on the demand for health care services, which are however not supported by our data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trade Externalities of Agricultural Subsidies and World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya R. Swain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Almost every country is spending a large proportion of its income on agricultural subsidies; still the agricultural farmers of developing countries are unable to compete globally. There is increase in dependence on food imports, and a decline in food self-reliance. The aim and objectives of this study is to highlight the multiplex nature and enormity of the trade externalities of agricultural subsidies. Approach: To understand the issues and process clearly, reference has been made to GATT Agreements, WTO Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, policies of different countries in this regard, scholarly writings on the subject and the cases related to it. Doctrinaire methodology, which includes analytical, descriptive and comparative method, has been followed in this study. Results: Agricultural subsidies are cardinal facet of agriculture and have a major role to play in international trade. Even after separate Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, the World Trade Organization still failed in minimizing agricultural subsidies. Conclusion: The developing countries should unite and cooperate among themselves, which may help in advancing the cause of their own and scaling down agricultural subsidies, which has become a stumbling block to efforts to dismantle international trade barriers.

  17. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    match depends on the applicant's unemployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration of a job search, so that equilibrium unemployment increases. Like the subsidy, organizational reforms...... of a job search via the PES.......To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...

  18. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ecker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for a successful reform combines fuel subsidy reduction with direct income transfers to the poorest one-third of households during reform, and productivity-enhancing investment in infrastructure, plus fiscal consolidation. Public investments should be used for integrating economic spaces and restructuring of agricultural, industrial and service value chains in order to create a framework that encourages private-sector-led and job-creating growth.

  19. Analysis on Forest Tending Subsidies Policy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The shortage of forest tending funds in China has caused the retarded thinning for those forests that need urgently the tending thinning, which in turn has a negative impact on the implementation of forest management activities and results in the poor state of forest quality, function and healthy. This paper analyzed the necessity to implement forest tending subsidies, concluded the experience abroad, and proposed some policy recommendations on how to implement forest tending subsidies in China. It was indi...

  20. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  1. 24 CFR 990.295 - Resident Management Corporation operating subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changes in inflation, utility rates, and consumption, as well as changes in the number of units in the... characteristics when these characteristics are not shared by the project managed by the RMC. (g) Other...

  2. 77 FR 75641 - Public Housing Operating Subsidy-Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... formula income for economic hardship; (c) appeal for specific local conditions; (d) appeal for changing...) Streamlined appeal; (b) appeal of formula income for economic hardship; (c) appeal for specific...

  3. Nigeria’s Petroleum Subsidy: In Whose Interest is it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subsidy has been defined as any government intervention, in cash or kind, to private sector producers or consumers for which the government receives no equivalent compensation in return. Fuel subsidy has been a growing liability to Nigeria’s budgets, in a systematic fashion for almost four decades, hence creating vested interest. The exponential growth of cost of fuel subsidy is due to the rising cost of crude oil in the international market, exchange rate volatility and the population growth of Nigeria which resulted in increased petroleum consumption; the combination of these three variables therefore made the cost of the fuel subsidy unsustainable. Understanding the current fuel subsidies magnitude is critical for advancing reform because it underscores the potential socio-economic benefits to be realized. In addition to the burden that fuel subsidy is placing on the national budget, keeping petroleum below the market value has discouraged additional investment in Nigeria’s oil sector, because the visibility of recovering the investment under the artificially low price structure is uncertain.

  4. SUBSIDIES - CONCEPT, RECOGNITION AND TAX IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN DANCIU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if, theoretically speaking the specialty literature accepted andvalidated the concept of perfect competition, this remains, only a hypothetical issue that cannotbe met in its pure form - in the real economy. The impossibility of the market to regulate itselfas well as the anti-competition practices or unfair competition make absolute necessary theintervention of the state at the economic level in order to re-establish the market equilibriumand to relaunch the economic growth. But this intervention - both at world level as well as atEU level - or more specific at the Romanian level - takes place in a controlled way based uponsome specific regulations. Such regulations aim at the domains of state intervention, type andquantum of aid, concession conditions, as well as at the reflection in the beneficiaries’ financialsituations of the aid received and their influence upon the economic - financial results. We tryhereafter a brief presentation of the concept, recognition and fiscal implications of the mostused form of state aid in the economy: subsidies.

  5. Demand for pneumococcal vaccination under subsidy program for the elderly in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Masahide

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination programs often organize subsidies and public relations in order to obtain high uptake rates and coverage. However, effects of subsidies and public relations have not been studied well in the literature. In this study, the demand function of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly in Japan is estimated, incorporating effects of public relations and subsidy. Methods Using a data from a questionnaire survey sent to municipalities, the varying and constant elasticity models were applied to estimate the demand function. The response variable is the uptake rate. Explanatory variables are: subsidy supported shot price, operating years of the program, target population size for vaccination, shot location intensity, income and various public relations tools. The best model is selected by c-AIC, and varying and constant price elasticities are calculated from estimation results. Results The vaccine uptake rate and the shot price have a negative relation. From the results of varying price elasticity, the demand for vaccination is elastic at municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD. Effects of public relations on the uptake rate are not found. Conclusions It can be suggested that municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD could subsidize more and reduce price to increase the demand for vaccination. Effects of public relations are not confirmed in this study, probably due to measurement errors of variables used for public relations, and studies at micro level exploring individual’s response to public relations would be required.

  6. Economising subsidies for green housing features: A stated preference approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Yau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the enormous amounts of energy and resources consumed by housing development and operations, many governments have started recognising the urgent need to promote green or eco-friendly housing with the aim of achieving sustainable development. Apart from regulations, governments can offer incentives to developers to provide green features in their developments by offering subsidies in various forms. However, such subsidisation is often uneconomical. In theory, market forces can lead to green housing provision without any government intervention if the market players are willing to pay extra for the green features of housing. Against this background, this article presents the findings of a study that compared potential homebuyers’ willingness to pay (WTP for various green housing features based on findings from a structured questionnaire survey in Macau. The housing attributes under investigation included uses of green materials (e.g., sustainable forest products and construction methods (e.g., prefabrication, energy-efficient technologies (e.g., LED lighting and water-saving devices (e.g., grey-water recycling systems. Results indicate that the respondents’ WTP was mainly motivated by economic incentives. Green housing attributes that can offer direct financial benefits corresponded to greater WTP. The policy implications of the research findings then follow.

  7. Entity, Ownership, Educational Subsidies and Funding of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idialu Jeremiah Uwaifo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study is the need to save the Nigerian public tertiary institutions from going into extinction from under-funding. Funding of the institutions is currently on the basis of ownership. There is currently conflict of citizens’ right to education at whatever level at reduced cost or no cost at all and government’s inability to meet the cost of education. Government end up giving what it thinks it can afford and not what the institutions need to operate effectively. On the other hand the institutions are not given the free hand to determine what the beneficiaries of their services should pay. This study recommends that the institutions should be seen as separate entities from government and therefore be allowed to determine the price for their services. Citizens’ right should be met through educational subsidies from all levels of government. The balance fees should be picked by the beneficiaries of the services of the institutions. This is the surest way to the survival of tertiary institutions in the Nigerian environment.

  8. Empirical Analysis of China’s Direct Food Subsidy Policy Based on DEA Model: A Case Study of Direct Food Subsidy Policy in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; LIU

    2014-01-01

    The direct food subsidy is an important agricultural subsidy policy under current conditions,more efficient than grain price protection policy and other policies,and it is of great importance to the agricultural development,but this policy will not meet the interests of society in the long run. In this paper,we make an empirical study with the direct food subsidy policy in Shandong Province as an example,focusing on the analysis of the efficiency of policy implementation in different regions. Study suggests that direct food subsidy has made some achievements,but there are some problems in practice,such as low standard for direct food subsidy policy,less subsidy varieties,generally low efficiency of direct food subsidy policy,lack of unified policy implementation,serious waste of money and inefficient supervision during the subsidy policy implementation process. In order to improve the efficiency of direct food subsidy,it is necessary to raise standard for subsidy,and expand the scope of subsidy varieties; unify the policy,and make the policy suit local circumstances; improve the subsidy mechanism,regulate government behavior,and strengthen supervision.

  9. Analysis of Federal Subsidies: Implied Price of Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper; Thomas Foulke

    2010-10-01

    For informed climate change policy, it is important for decision makers to be able to assess how the costs and benefits of federal energy subsidies are distributed and to be able to have some measure to compare them. One way to do this is to evaluate the implied price of carbon (IPC) for a federal subsidy, or set of subsidies; where the IPC is the cost of the subsidy to the U.S. Treasury divided by the emissions reductions it generated. Subsidies with lower IPC are more cost effective at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while subsidies with a negative IPC act to increase emissions. While simple in concept, the IPC is difficult to calculate in practice. Calculation of the IPC requires knowledge of (i) the amount of energy associated with the subsidy, (ii) the amount and type of energy that would have been produced in the absence of the subsidy, and (iii) the greenhouse gas emissions associated with both the subsidized energy and the potential replacement energy. These pieces of information are not consistently available for federal subsidies, and there is considerable uncertainty in cases where the information is available. Thus, exact values for the IPC based upon fully consistent standards cannot be calculated with available data. However, it is possible to estimate a range of potential values sufficient for initial comparisons. This study has employed a range of methods to generate “first order” estimates for the IPC of a range of federal subsidies using static methods that do not account for the dynamics of supply and demand. The study demonstrates that, while the IPC value depends upon how the inquiry is framed and the IPC cannot be calculated in a “one size fits all” manner, IPC calculations can provide a valuable perspective for climate policy analysis. IPC values are most useful when calculated within the perspective of a case study, with the method and parameters of the calculation determined by the case. The IPC of different policy measures can

  10. Preserving Neighborhood Opportunity: Where Federal Housing Subsidies Expire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Michael C.; Reina, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Rent burdens are increasing in U.S. metropolitan areas while subsidies on privately owned, publicly subsidized rental units are expiring. As a result, some of the few remaining affordable units in opportunity neighborhoods are at risk of being converted to market rate. Policy makers face a decision about whether to devote their efforts and scarce resources toward developing new affordable housing, recapitalizing existing subsidized housing, and/or preserving properties with expiring subsidies. There are several reasons to preserve these subsidies, one being that properties may be located in neighborhoods with greater opportunity. In this article, we use several sources of data at the census tract level to learn how subsidy expirations affect neighborhood opportunity for low-income households. Our analysis presents several key findings. First, we find that units that left the project-based Section 8 program were – on average – in lower opportunity neighborhoods, but these neighborhoods were improving. In addition, properties due to expiry from the Section 8 program between 2011 and 2020 are in higher opportunity neighborhoods than any other subsidy program. On the contrary, new Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) units were developed in tracts similar to those where LIHTC units are currently active, which tend to be lower opportunity neighborhoods. PMID:28553063

  11. Livestock Subsidies and Rangeland Degradation in Central Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hostert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Marginal and unstable environmental conditions force stockbreeders in drylands to develop adaptive strategies to ensure stability of production. In intensive market-oriented pastoral systems, the partial substitution of rangeland forage production by external feed increases the influence of commodity prices in stockbreeders’ decisions, which become increasingly decoupled from environmental constraints. In Mediterranean countries of the European Union (EU, Common Agricultural Policy (CAP subsidies also influence agricultural practices, potentially increasing environmental impacts. By modeling subsidy allocation to sheep and goat breeders in Crete, we showed that livestock subsidies for Less Favoured Areas (LFA stimulated flock growth up to a point. By linking interviews of farmers to remote-sensing data in four village communities in central Crete, we tested statistically alternative hypotheses explaining the links between CAP subsidies, livestock-husbandry practices, and land degradation at the farm level. The flock growth stimulated by livestock subsidies was accompanied by the intensification of herd management, and decreasing yields and profits, with no statistical association to vegetation degradation. Farms with larger flocks became more sensitive to market fluctuations.

  12. Hard coal subsidies: a never-ending story?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel Frondel; Rainer Kambeck; Christoph M. Schmidt [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI Essen), Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    In Germany, hard coal has been subsidized for almost half a century. Despite the declining significance of hard coal production for the domestic labor market, the subsidies have continued to increase until the mid-1990s, reaching a peak at 6.7 billion in 1996. While these subsidies have been continually shrinking since then, settling at 2.7 billion euro in 2005, it is very likely that hard coal support will be extended in Germany well into the next decade and even beyond. This article questions the main arguments raised by the proponents of hard coal subsidization in Germany and other EU countries. Most importantly, in addition to the drain these subsidies impose on public budgets, substantial opportunity costs are implied, leading funds away from alternative, more beneficial public investments. From a social welfare perspective, the rapid abolition of these subsidies is recommended, not only in Germany, where in real terms the accumulated amount of subsidies has now far exceeded 165 billion euro, but also all across Europe. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Hard coal subsidies: A never-ending story?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung RWI Essen, Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: frondel@rwi-essen.de; Kambeck, Rainer [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung RWI Essen, Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany); Schmidt, Christoph M. [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung RWI Essen, Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    In Germany, hard coal has been subsidized for almost half a century. Despite the declining significance of hard coal production for the domestic labor market, the subsidies have continued to increase until the middle of the last decade, reaching a peak at Euro 6.7 billion in 1996. While these subsidies have been continually shrinking since then, settling at Euro 2.7 billion in 2005, it is very likely that hard coal support will be extended in Germany well into the next decade and even beyond. This article questions the main arguments raised by the proponents of hard coal subsidization in Germany and other EU countries. Most importantly, in addition to the drain these subsidies impose on public budgets, substantial opportunity costs are implied, leading funds away from alternative, more beneficial public investments. From a social welfare perspective, we, therefore, recommend the rapid abolition of these subsidies not only in Germany, where in real terms the accumulated amount of subsidies has now far exceeded Euro 165 billion, but also all across Europe.

  14. Factor Analysis on Subsidy Preference of Private Forest Owners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niandong; CHEN; Chunxia; ZHANG; Senwei; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Forest farmers are the basic micro-subjects in southern collectively owned forest, and their willingness towards forest management directly influences forestry development. Thus, to provide subsidies to forest farmers is an important means to encourage the farmers’ enthusiasm to manage the forest and promote the healthy and sustainable development of private forest. In order to reduce the supply-demand contradictions and improve the implementation effects of the subsidies system, the design of the system should be based on the real needs of forest farmers. On this basis, a questionnaire survey was designed in this paper to study the preferences of forest farmers to different types of subsidies in the southern collectively owned forest and the influencing factors were analysed by the Logistic Model to search for the reasonable design of the system. It was concluded that the forest farmers with different backgrounds show different preference to the subsidies, which, to a certain extent, reflects the development bottlenecks of forestry, and lays a foundation for the design of subsidies system.

  15. COBRA ARRA subsidies: was the carrot enticing enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ilana; Reed, Mary; Fung, Vicki; Dow, William H; Newhouse, Joseph P; Hsu, John

    2012-10-01

    To help preserve continuity of health insurance coverage during the recent recession, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided a 65 percent Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) premium subsidy for workers laid off in 2008-2010. We examined COBRA enrollment levels with the subsidy and the health, access, and financial consequences of enrollment decisions. Telephone interviews linked with health system databases for 561 respondents who were laid off in 2009 and eligible for the COBRA subsidy (80 percent response rate). Overall, 38 percent reported enrolling in COBRA and 54 percent reported having some gaps in insurance coverage since being laid off. After adjustments, we found that those who had higher cost-sharing, who had higher incomes, were older, or were sicker were more likely to enroll in COBRA. COBRA enrollees less frequently reported access problems or that their health suffered because of poor access, but they reported greater financial stress due to health care spending. Despite the substantial subsidy, a majority of eligible individuals did not enroll in COBRA, and many reported insurance coverage gaps. Nonenrollees reported more access problems and that their health worsened. Without a mandate, subsidies may need to be widely publicized and larger to encourage health insurance enrollment among individuals who suffer a negative income shock. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Subsidies and sustainable development. Concepts, methodology and state of the art in literature; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Concepten, methodologie en stand van zaken van de literatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 1st research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. It gives a conceptual and methodological framework on the relation between subsidies and sustainable development. In the 2nd paper attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 1e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Het geeft een conceptueel en methodologisch kader over het verband tussen subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  17. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. S.; Lesner, T. H.; Østerdal, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    of presumptive diagnosis. A global subsidy on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has recently been suggested to increase access to the most effective malaria treatment. Methods: Following the recommendation by World Health Organization that parasitological testing should be performed before treatment......, ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced...... to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. Results: Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs...

  18. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Lesner, Tine Hjernø; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-11-04

    Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice of presumptive diagnosis. A global subsidy on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has recently been suggested to increase access to the most effective malaria treatment. Following the recommendation by World Health Organization that parasitological testing should be performed before treatment and ACT prescribed to confirmed cases only, it is investigated in this paper if a subsidy on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) should be incorporated. A model is developed consisting of a representative individual with fever suspected to be malaria, seeking care at a specialized drug shop where RDTs, ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs, such as low trust in RDT accuracy and strong belief that a fever is malaria, subsidization is not sufficient to incentivize appropriate behaviour. A combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT rather than a single subsidy is likely required to improve diagnosis-treatment behaviour among individuals seeking care for malaria in the private sector.

  19. R&D Subsidies and the Surplus Appropriability Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    &D subsidies may constitute the optimal policy even when subsidies directly targeted on monopoly pricing could be applied. The result holds when dynamic effects are important relative to static effects and when governments spending is restricted. The latter characteristic arises when a government is unable...... or unwilling to use the level of spending required to implement the optimum policy. The argument is developed in a semi-endogenous growth model where the only distortion is monopoly pricing of intermediate goods.Keywords: R&D, policy instruments, welfare, market powerJEL: O38, O41...

  20. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profiling techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service and random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  1. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  2. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    ABSTRACT: To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed and profiling techniques are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service (PES) and random search. Jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy. Labour market policy has two options available. First, only the medium-term and long-term unemployed MLTU) placed by the PES are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a MLTU. We show that under both regimes equilibrium unemployment is increasing...

  3. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    ABSTRACT: To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed and profiling techniques are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service (PES) and random search. Jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy. Labour market policy has two options available. First, only the medium-term and long-term unemployed MLTU) placed by the PES are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a MLTU. We show that under both regimes equilibrium unemployment is increasing...

  4. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  5. The Effect of Subsidies on the Offer of Sea Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Pupavac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this academic discussion is to study the effect of subsidies on the offer of sea transport. Research results are based on the method of microeconomic analysis. The knowledge obtained through this academic discussion may prove to be of assistance to managers in the area of sea transport in deliberating on more efficient and market-oriented business models. The results of this work reveal that subsidies in sea transport make sense if they contribute to the improvement of the quality of transport or are of help to those for whom they are intended.

  6. Tax incentives or subsidies for R&D?

    OpenAIRE

    Busom, I.; Corchuelo, B.; Martínez-Ros, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies whether firms' use of R&D subsidies and R&D tax incentives are correlated to two sources of underinvestment in R&D, financing constraints and appropriability. We find that financially constrained SMEs are less likely to use R&D tax credits and more likely to obtain subsidies. SMEs using legal methods to protect their intellectual property are more likely to use tax incentives. Results are ambiguous for large firms. For both having previous experience in R&D increases the li...

  7. Analysis on After-effects of Direct Subsidies for Grain Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunqiang; SUN; Huixia; GENG; Ya; LI

    2013-01-01

    Long term of grain production subsidy policy can be guaranteed only with sound and sustainable development of economy,stable growth of fiscal revenues,and improvement of subsidy system.In combination with social survey,this paper analyzed after-effects of direct subsidies for grain production in China from pressure of grain production subsidies on central finance and local finance,consequence possibly brought about by classified bearing of direct subsidies for grain production,effectiveness of direct subsidies on stimulating grain production,and effect of direct subsidies on production of other agricultural products.It is concluded that direct subsidies for grain production should be shifted to direct subsides for agricultural production,which will be the reform and development trend of financial support for agriculture.

  8. Crunch time: A policy to avoid the announcement effect when terminating a subsidy

    OpenAIRE

    Gürtler, Marc; Sieg, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    If the government announces the termination of a subsidy paid for an irreversible investment under uncertainty, investors might decide to realize their investment so as to obtain the subsidy. These investors might have postponed an investment if future payment were assured. Depending on the degree of uncertainty and the time preference, the termination of the subsidy might cost the government more in toto than granting the subsidy on a continuing basis. A better strategy would be to reduce th...

  9. Inspiration of Direct Grain Production Subsidy System in Typical Countries and Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunqiang; SUN; Lu; CHEN; Ya; LI

    2014-01-01

    Through comparison of direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions,such as the United States,EU,Japan and South Korea,this paper evaluated the performance of direct grain production subsidy system. On the basis of comparison and analysis,it summed up experience of the direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions. Finally,it came up with countermeasures and recommendations for improving the direct grain production subsidy system in China.

  10. 42 CFR 423.904 - Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies... Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies. (a) General rule. The State agency must make eligibility determinations and redeterminations for low-income premium and cost-sharing subsidies in accordance with...

  11. 78 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). This request for... concerning the following information collection: Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy...

  12. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086....

  13. 78 FR 55280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (ADPs). This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected...

  14. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This is a proposed.... Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA)....

  15. How to Design a Targeted Agricultural Subsidy System: Efficiency or Equity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is “reverse redistribution” in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems...... (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined....

  16. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  17. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  18. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean en

  19. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean en

  20. Child-Care Subsidies and Child-Care Choices over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence to date on the federal child-care subsidy program's effect on preschool child-care quality is mixed. However, an as-yet untested outcome of subsidy receipt is subsequent child-care choice. Specifically, it is possible that subsidy receipt in toddlerhood increases the likelihood of attending other publicly funded preschool…

  1. What would be the effects of a carbon tax in Japan: an historic analysis of subsidies and fuel pricing on the iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Wakiyama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how a carbon tax could affect industrial-related carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in Japan. Rather than forecasting the effects of a tax, the paper employs a time-series autoregressive moving average (ARMA model to determine how past subsidies and fuel price changes affected investments in energy and carbon intensity in Japan’s iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries from 1993 to 2004. The results suggest the impacts varied greatly across industries. In the iron & steel industry, subsidies and price changes produced negligible effects on investments in energy and carbon intensity. This may be because existing iron & steel technologies have long lifetimes and substantial replacement costs. It may also be because the few large companies dominating the industry were relatively immune to subsidy provisions and pricing changes. In the chemical industry, subsidies and fuel prices gave rise to investments that improved carbon and energy intensity. This may be because the industry has relatively higher operation costs that could be cut easily given financial incentives. In the machinery industry, two of three fuel price changes (oil and gas, but not subsidy provisions, yielded improvements in carbon and energy intensity. This may reflect the heterogeneity of companies and products comprising the industry. Overall, the study underscores that policymakers need to tailor the rates and revenue recycling provisions of a carbon tax to an industry’s unique features to stimulate CO2 reductions.

  2. Wage Subsidy and Labor Market Flexibility in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Delfin S. Go; Kearney, Marna; Korman, Vijdan; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors use a highly disaggregate general equilibrium model to analyze the feasibility of a wage subsidy to unskilled workers in South Africa, isolating and estimating its potential employment effects and fiscal cost. They capture the structural characteristics of the labor market with several labor categories and substitution possibilities, linking the economy-wide resu...

  3. Child care subsidies with endogenous education and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Laurie S.M.

    2014-01-01

    What are the effects of child care subsidies on education, fertility and the sectoral allocation of the labour force? In a general equilibrium setting the availability of affordable professional child care will have an impact on the relative supplies of educated and uneducated workers and the cross-

  4. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in the annexes report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  5. 75 FR 41874 - Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations AGENCY: Office of the.... This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental... agency's estimate of the burden of the proposed collection of information; (3) Enhance the...

  6. Analyzing the Effect of the Water Reduce Subsidies on GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Hosseyni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of decrease in water subsidies (increase in the price of the water on various economic sectors in order to promote the conservation of this resource based on the actual price of water. But over the past decades, various subsidizing methods hold the cost of water down. On the other hand, the indiscriminate use of these resources led the government to impose enormous costs. Determining the economic impact of subsidy reform can be an essential factor in the determination of water price reform scenarios. The methodology that will be used to explore the implications on the economy will be a computable general equilibrium model (CGE, previously designed for an analysis of the direct taxes of the Andalusian economy (Cardenete and Sancho, 2003, but now enhanced and extended to include emissions of pollutants and the introduction of environmental taxes (André, Cardenete and Velázquez, 2005. This model has been further modified to introduce the variations in the water price that this study investigates the effect of water subsidy reform on the economy based on six scenarios using computable general equilibrium model. Results show that by decreasing subsidies, GDP will reduce in all economic sectors. Government can prevent the decrease in production by redistributing incomes.

  7. Adoption subsidy versus technology standards under asymmetric information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.V. Ossokina (Ioulia); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMarket-based instruments are believed to create more efficient incentives for firms to adopt new technologies than command-and-control policies. We compare the effects of a direct technology regulation and of an adoption subsidy under asymmetric information about the costs of technologic

  8. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...

  9. Role of seasonality on predator-prey-subsidy population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Dorian; Harrington, Heather A; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2016-05-07

    The role of seasonality on predator-prey interactions in the presence of a resource subsidy is examined using a system of non-autonomous ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The problem is motivated by the Arctic, inhabited by the ecological system of arctic foxes (predator), lemmings (prey), and seal carrion (subsidy). We construct two nonlinear, nonautonomous systems of ODEs named the Primary Model, and the n-Patch Model. The Primary Model considers spatial factors implicitly, and the n-Patch Model considers space explicitly as a "Stepping Stone" system. We establish the boundedness of the dynamics, as well as the necessity of sufficiently nutritional food for the survival of the predator. We investigate the importance of including the resource subsidy explicitly in the model, and the importance of accounting for predator mortality during migration. We find a variety of non-equilibrium dynamics for both systems, obtaining both limit cycles and chaotic oscillations. We were then able to discuss relevant implications for biologically interesting predator-prey systems including subsidy under seasonal effects. Notably, we can observe the extinction or persistence of a species when the corresponding autonomous system might predict the opposite.

  10. Labour subsidies for the cultural sector: extent and impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1997-01-01

    The job training schemes have been and still are important for the supply of labour to cultural institutions in Denmark. Particularly the young and experimental cultural manifestations are depending on labour market subsidies for their development and survival. The article discusses the clashes...

  11. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  12. Subsidies and sustainable development. Case studies in the Flemish agricultural and housing policies; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Casestudies in het Vlaamse landbouw- en woonbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 2nd research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. Attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies. In the 1st paper the concept and method are discussed. The method was used for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 2e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Aandacht wordt besteed aan een toepassing van de methodologie om subsidies in kaart te brengen. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  13. PRICE TRANSMISSION AND HOUSEHOLDS DEMAND ELASTICITY FOR FROZEN FISH UNDER FUEL SUBSIDY REFORM IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoja Felix Odemero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel subsidy removal is assumed to translate to general increase in the cost of operating business such as fish marketing.The response of price of fish and corresponding demand elasticity are welfare issues worthy of investigation in Nigeria. The present study evaluates price transmission in fish marketing system by analysing the response of fish market indices to fuel subsidy reform in Nigeria. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from purposively selected 78 frozen fish marketers, were analysed with descriptive statistics and regression model. A test of hypothesis shows a significant price transmission of about 100% (P < 0.05. Marketing cost increased by 31.8% and profitability dropped by 24.20%, confirming negative effect of new price regime. The result further revealed a 0.05% drop in quantity of frozen fish demanded by households. It was recommended that economic measures should be introduced by the government to cushion the effect of fuel policy removal.

  14. The Impacts of Subsidy Policies on Vaccination Decisions in Contact Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Often, vaccination programs are carried out based on self-interest rather than being mandatory. Owing to the perceptions about risks associated with vaccines and the `herd immunity' effect, it may provide suboptimal vaccination coverage for the population as a whole. In this case, some subsidy policies may be offered by the government to promote vaccination coverage. But, not all subsidy policies are effective in controlling the transmission of infectious diseases. We address the question of which subsidy policy is best, and how to appropriately distribute the limited subsidies to maximize vaccine coverage. To answer these questions, we establish a model based on evolutionary game theory, where individuals try to maximize their personal payoffs when considering the voluntary vaccination mechanism. Our model shows that voluntary vaccination alone is insufficient to control an epidemic. Hence, two subsidy policies are systematically studied: (1) in the free subsidy policy the total amount of subsidies is distri...

  15. The Puzzle of Simultaneous Anti-Dumping and Anti-Subsidy Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    Quite frequently an anti-subsidy investigation in the EU is paired with an anti-dumping investigation against the same non-EU producers. The final outcome may be a two-component duty where one duty addresses the ‘unfairness’ of the subsidy and the other the dumping behavior. The procedure may...... be a surprise, as the same total level of protection may be obtained by using the anti-dumping procedure exclusively. When calculating the two duties in the EU the outcome depends on whether the subsidies are export subsidies or domestic subsidies and this may also cause surprise. This paper addresses......’ competition completely and because a parallel investigation may increase the probability of a successful outcome for the petitioners. In contrast, we find that the different assumptions about the effect of export subsidies and domestic production subsidies on the dumping margin in the EU dual anti...

  16. Can Production Subsidies Explain China's Export Performance? Evidence from Firm-level Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yundan; Yu, Zhihong; Girma, Sourafel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity at the inten......This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity...... at the intensive margin, although this effect is conditional on firm characteristics. In particular, the positive relationship between subsidies and the intensive margin of exports is strongest among profit-making firms, firms in capital-intensive industries, and those located in non-coastal regions. Compared...

  17. Medicare D Subsidies and Racial Disparities in Persistence and Adherence With Hormonal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yushu; Charlson, John; Smith, Elizabeth C.; Smallwood, Alicia J.; Nattinger, Ann B.; Laud, Purushottam W.; Neuner, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of out-of-pocket cost supports through the Medicare Part D Low-Income Subsidy on disparities in breast cancer hormonal therapy persistence and adherence by race or ethnicity. Methods A nationwide cohort of women age ≥ 65 years with a breast cancer operation between 2006 and 2007 and at least one prescription filled for oral breast cancer hormonal therapy was identified from all Medicare D enrollees. The association of race or ethnicity with nonpersistence (90 consecutive days with no claims for a hormonal therapy prescription) and nonadherence (medication possession rate < 80%) was examined. Survival analyses were used to account for potential differences in age, comorbidity, or intensity of other treatments. Results Among the 25,111 women in the study sample, 77% of the Hispanic and 70% of the black women received a subsidy compared with 21% of the white women. By 2 years, 69% of black and 70% of Hispanic patients were persistent compared with 61% of white patients. In adjusted analyses, patients in all three unsubsidized race or ethnicity groups had greater discontinuation than subsidized groups (white patients: hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.70 to 1.95; black patients: HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.73 to 2.51; Hispanic patients: HR, 3.00; 95% CI, 2.37 to 3.89). Racial or ethnic persistence disparities that were present for unsubsidized patients were not present or reversed among subsidized patients. All three subsidized race or ethnicity groups also had higher adherence than all three unsubsidized groups, although with the smallest difference occurring in black women. Conclusion Receipt of a prescription subsidy was associated with substantially improved persistence to breast cancer hormonal therapy among white, black, and Hispanic women and lack of racial or ethnic disparities in persistence. Given high subsidy enrollment among black and Hispanic women, policies targeted at low-income patients have the potential to also substantially

  18. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  20. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    and excise duty reforms. The VAT reforms include subsidies of healthy products (products labelled with the Swedish National Food Administration’s healthy symbol) funded by increased VAT on ‘less healthy’ products. The excise duty reforms contain a subsidy of fibre content, funded by excise duties on either...... of the VAT reforms is therefore difficult to evaluate. With the exception of the lowest income group, the excise duty reforms seem to have a positive health effect across all other income groups, with increases in the intake of fibre and reductions in the intake of saturated fat, sugar and added sugar....... For the lowest income group we find the highest increase in the intake of fibre, but generally an increase in the intake of the other nutrients, too. The excise duty reforms also result in a more energy-dense grain diet, with increases in the intake of calories for all income groups. Both the VAT reforms...

  1. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    and excise duty reforms. The VAT reforms include subsidies of healthy products (products labelled with the Swedish National Food Administration’s healthy symbol) funded by increased VAT on ‘less healthy’ products. The excise duty reforms contain a subsidy of fibre content, funded by excise duties on either...... added sugar or saturated fat. Our results suggest that the VAT reforms have a similar impact on dietary quality across all income groups, with increases in fibre intake, but also unwanted increases in the intake of nutrients frequently overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. The impact on dietary quality....... For the lowest income group we find the highest increase in the intake of fibre, but generally an increase in the intake of the other nutrients, too. The excise duty reforms also result in a more energy-dense grain diet, with increases in the intake of calories for all income groups. Both the VAT reforms...

  2. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Lesner, Tine Hjernø; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    , ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced...... to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. RESULTS: Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs......BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice...

  3. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines the imp...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered....

  4. Subsidies, Quality, and Regulation in the Nursing Home Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gertler, Paul J

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of the Medicaid patient subsidy and Certificate of Need (CON) cost containment programs on nursing home behavior.The analysis is complicated by the fact the both proprietary and "not for profit" nursing homes exist, and by the problem that qualityis not directly observed. Medicaid pays the for the care of the financially indigent by directly reimbursing nursing homes at a predetermined rate. As a result, nursing homes can price discriminate between patients who ...

  5. Do wage subsidies enhance employability? Evidence from Australian youth

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, James

    1998-01-01

    We examine a panel of unemployed Australian youth to investigate whether participation in a wage subsidy programme offers merely a temporary respite from unemployment, or whether there are longer-lasting positive employability effects. Controlling for selection bias using a bivariate probit analysis, we estimate the effect of participation in the Special Youth Employment Training Program on the probability of being employed in subsequent waves of the data, up to an average of 26 months after ...

  6. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is able......, in this specifictypology of firm, some unexpected effects, causing, together with a positive investment process, also an increase in the share of irregularity. This finding could explain, in amicroeconomic framework, the evidence of Italian southern regions, where high incentivesare combined with high irregularity ratios....

  7. Preferential imitation of vaccinating behavior can invalidate the targeted subsidy on complex network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Tang, Ming; Small, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of inducement to vaccinate during the spread of an infectious disease on complex networks. Suppose that public resources are finite and that only a small proportion of individuals can be vaccinated freely (complete subsidy), for the remainder of the population vaccination is a voluntary behavior --- and each vaccinated individual carries a perceived cost. We ask whether the classical targeted subsidy strategy is definitely better than the random strategy: does targeting subsidy at individuals perceived to be with the greatest risk actually help? With these questions, we propose a model to investigate the \\emph{interaction effects} of the subsidy policies and individuals responses when facing subsidy policies on the epidemic dynamics on complex networks. In the model, a small proportion of individuals are freely vaccinated according to either the targeted or random subsidy policy, the remainder choose to vaccinate (or not) based on voluntary principle and update their vaccination decisio...

  8. Assessment of natural resources and the policy of subsidies in grain production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Wei; Hao Jinmin; Zhang Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the status quo of natural resources input in grain production and on the policy of grain subsidies, this paper puts forward a new idea - establishing grain subsidies through assessing the value of the natural resources in grain production. The assessment of the natural resources in grain production provides rationale and reference standard for the policy of grain subsidies, which will promote the sustainable use of natural resources accordingly. This paper concludes: (1) it is necessary for the grain subsidies to assess the full value of natural resources,including economic value, ecological value and social value; (2) the government should give farmers direct subsidies or environment subsidies according to the economic and ecological value of natural resources in grain production; (3) the social value of natural resources can be realized by establishing the country social security system, taking the social value as the criterion for the payment for part of farmers insurance.

  9. Effects of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy on hospitals competition under non-price regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-Yan

    2016-11-15

    Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation. We establish a three-stage duopoly model with quantity and quality competition. In the model, qualitative difference and asymmetric medical insurance subsidy among hospitals are considered. The government decides subsidy (or reimbursement) ratios in the first stage. Hospitals choose the quality in the second stage and then support the quantity in the third stage. We obtain our conclusions by mathematical model analyses and all the results are achieved by backward induction. The importance of medical quality to patients has stronger influence on the small hospital, while subsidy has greater effect on the large hospital. Meanwhile, the importance of medical quality to patients strengthens competition, but subsidy effect weakens it. Besides, subsidy ratios difference affects the relationship between subsidy and hospital competition. Furthermore, we capture the optimal reimbursement ratio based on social welfare maximization. More importantly, this paper finds that the higher management efficiency of the medical insurance investment funds is, the higher the best subsidy ratio is. This paper states that subsidy is a two-edged sword. On one hand, subsidy stimulates medical demand. On the other hand, subsidy raises price and inhibits hospital competition. Therefore, government must set an appropriate subsidy ratio difference between large and small hospitals to maximize the total social welfare. For a developing country with limited medical resources

  10. Econometric analysis of the effects of subsidies on farm production in case of endogenous input quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Lien, Gudbrand

    The effect of subsidies on farm production has been a major topic in agricultural economics for several decades. We present a new approach for analyzing the effects of different types of coupled and decoupled subsidies on farm production with econometric methods. In contrast to most previous...... studies, our approach is entirely based on a theoretical microeconomic model, explicitly allows subsidies to have an impact on input use, and takes linkages between the farm and the farm household into account....

  11. ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES FOR NON-PRICE EXPORT PROMOTION: THE CASE OF COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2002-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement framework was developed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate linked subsidies for non-price export promotion for US cotton. Study results show that an increase in promotion expenditure increased the dollar value and producer welfare of cotton growers. The gross gain to the domestic cotton producers from the exchange-rate linked subsidy scheme was positive. These evidences support exchange rate linked subsidies for US cotton export promotion.

  12. The Impact of Ethanol and Ethanol Subsidies on Corn Prices: Revisiting History

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock

    2011-01-01

    The rapid rise in corn prices that began in the fall of 2006 coincided with exponential growth in U.S. corn ethanol production. At about the same time, new ethanol consumption mandates were added to existing ethanol import tariffs and price subsidies. This troika of subsidies leads critics to view the ethanol industry as being beholden to subsidies, which then leads to the conclusion that ethanol subsidies lead to high corn prices. But droughts, floods, a severe U.S. recession, and two genera...

  13. Analysis of the System of Direct Subsidy for Grain Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the status quo of the system structure of direct subsidy for grain production in China,and analyses the function and essence of direct subsidy for grain production in China as follows:the function of direct subsidy for grain production in China is to protect and promote the development of food industry,ensure food supply and national food security,protect grain growers’ interests,and maintain the dominant position of national food trade;the essence of direct subsidy for grain production is the compensation for grain producers’ reasonable interests,the compensation for positive externality of grain production,and social costs of adjusting equilibrium between food supply and demand.We discuss the problems existing in the system of direct subsidy for grain production in China and put forward corresponding countermeasures as follows:first,adhere to improving synergetic system of direct subsidy for grain production;second,adjust the direct subsidy method of grain production;third,establish long-term mechanism of subsidy for grain production;fourth,promote the information-based service level of the system of direct subsidy for grain production.

  14. A Review of Different Types of Subsidies and How They Work in Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kampungu; K.Gerson; Han; Feng

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review on types of subsidies and how they work in theory.The paper identified three types of subsidies:subsidies that increase revenue,subsidies that lower the cost of production,and subsidies that are not linked to production or input.With the use of graphic examples to describe the partial effects of subsidies on supply and demand,the following findings were obtained:one,for producers to sell more,they will need to produce more,and in order to produce more,a higher input level is required,which depends on the marginal productivity of the inputs;two,the larger the elasticity for supply and demand of input(the more responsive supply and demand are to changes in the price of the input),the larger quantity of input used for a given level of support,and thereby increasing the associated environmental damage from the use of that particular input;three,for a given demand curve,a shallow supply curve(reflecting a large price elasticity of supply)will yield larger volume effects in response to a certain change in price compared to a steep supply curve and vise a verse.Finally,the study found input subsidy as an example of subsidies that lower the cost of production,and direct income support or unconditional lump sum support to an industry as an example of subsidies that are not linked to production or input.

  15. How to design a targeted agricultural subsidy system: efficiency or equity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Gang Cong

    Full Text Available In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers' incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is "reverse redistribution" in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan are presented and examined.

  16. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  17. Technological heterogeneity, technical efficiency and subsidies in Czech agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina MATULOVÁ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analysis of technological heterogeneity and technical efficiency in individual sectors of Czech agriculture after the EU enlargement in 2004. A parametric approach was used – Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA to address the research questions. Specifically, it is employed the Random Parameter Model specification, in which sector dummies are used to capture the intersectoral as well as intrasectoral differences in technology. The results show there is significant heterogeneity among the studied sectors (i.e., combined, plant, animal and other production. The analysis showed that Capital and Material are being substituted more and more for Labour in all sectors, especially in animal production. This result is to be expected, as the technology in this sector is labour-saving. However, it was found out that land elasticity is quite low in plant production and combined production; since Land is a production factor that significantly determines the level of final output, this result is quite strange. One possible explanation may be the policy of distributing subsidies among farmers, when the land is kept but used in a more extensive way. The intrasectoral differences in technology are statistically significant for all inputs. Average technical efficiency is highest in other production and lowest in animal production, while it is approximately at the same level in plant production and combined production. It was discovered that diversification (combined production of activities lowers the level of technical efficiency compared to specialisation (plant production, but on the other hand it does allow for alleviation of the negative impacts of specialization (animal production by optimizing the production program. Finally, the analysis did confirm a statistically significant positive relationship between SAPS subsidies and technical efficiency. Organic farming has a negative impact on technical efficiency and the influence of

  18. Nutrient subsidies to belowground microbes impact aboveground food web interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jes; Megonigal, J Patrick; Denno, Robert F

    2006-06-01

    Historically, terrestrial food web theory has been compartmentalized into interactions among aboveground or belowground communities. In this study we took a more synthetic approach to understanding food web interactions by simultaneously examining four trophic levels and investigating how nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) and detrital subsidies impact the ability of the belowground microbial community to alter the abundance of aboveground arthropods (herbivores and predators) associated with the intertidal cord grass Spartina alterniflora. We manipulated carbon, nitrogen, and detrital resources in a field experiment and measured decomposition rate, soil nitrogen pools, plant biomass and quality, herbivore density, and arthropod predator abundance. Because carbon subsidies impact plant growth only indirectly (microbial pathways), whereas nitrogen additions both directly (plant uptake) and indirectly (microbial pathways) impact plant primary productivity, we were able to assess the effect of both belowground soil microbes and nutrient availability on aboveground herbivores and their predators. Herbivore density in the field was suppressed by carbon supplements. Carbon addition altered soil microbial dynamics (net potential ammonification, litter decomposition rate, DON [dissolved organic N] concentration), which limited inorganic soil nitrogen availability and reduced plant size as well as predator abundance. Nitrogen addition enhanced herbivore density by increasing plant size and quality directly by increasing inorganic soil nitrogen pools, and indirectly by enhancing microbial nitrification. Detritus adversely affected aboveground herbivores mainly by promoting predator aggregation. To date, the effects of carbon and nitrogen subsidies on salt marshes have been examined as isolated effects on either the aboveground or the belowground community. Our results emphasize the importance of directly addressing the soil microbial community as a factor that influences

  19. How to Turn an Industry Green: Taxes versus Subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dröge, Susanne; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Environmental policies frequently target the ratio of dirty to green output within the same industry. To achieve such targets the green sector may be subsidised or the dirty sector be taxed. This paper shows that in a monopolistic competition setting the two policy instruments have different...... welfare effects. For a strong green policy (a severe reduction of the dirty sector) a tax is the dominant instrument. For moderate policy targets, a subsidy will be superior (inferior) if the initial situation features a large (small) share of dirty output. These findings have implications for policies...... such as the Californian Zero Emission Bill or the EU Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources....

  20. Analysis of Theoretical Basis of Direct Subsidies for Grain Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengping; SHI; Xiaorong; LUO; Hongjing; LI

    2014-01-01

    Financial distribution to compensate grain production reflects governmental macro-control on grain production and supply. With the reference of agricultural basic theory,agricultural multi-function theory,economic externality theory,public finance and other theories,this article points out that direct subsidies for grain production is reasonable and necessary with six main theoretical basis,namely fundamentality,multi-function,positive externality of grain production,particularity of grain supply and demand,grain safety being closely linked with national security and basic function of service-oriented government.

  1. How to Turn an Industry Green: Taxes versus Subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dröge, Susanne; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Environmental policies frequently target the ratio of dirty to green output within the same industry. To achieve such targets the green sector may be subsidised or the dirty sector be taxed. This paper shows that in a monopolistic competition setting the two policy instruments have different...... welfare effects. For a strong green policy (a severe reduction of the dirty sector) a tax is the dominant instrument. For moderate policy targets, a subsidy will be superior (inferior) if the initial situation features a large (small) share of dirty output. These findings have implications for policies...

  2. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new......, which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration...

  3. Subsidy policies with capital accumulation: maintaining employment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Gang, I N; Gangopadhyay, S

    1989-12-01

    The authors study a dual economy model of growth and unemployment in the presence of Harris-Todaro type labor migration. The model is a discrete time model of economic growth with a given population but endogenous migration of labor. The economy tries to reach development in the quickest possible time while not allowing unemployment to rise above a socially acceptable level. The authors also characterize situations under which maximizing the accumulation of capital in each period is optimal and study how particular taxes and subsidies affect unemployment and capital accumulation. Finally, they show that a higher initial capital stock does not necessarily mean a quicker attainment of self- sustained full employment.

  4. Apprenticeship training in Denmark : the impacts of subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Rasmussen, Anders Rue

    1997-01-01

    For years, Denmark has maintained and developed its apprenticeship system which is comparable to the German system. Today, about 40% of the youth cohorts get apprenticeship training. The paper describes the basic functioning of the labour market of apprentices. It is initially shown how the wage...... that the subsidies have had an impact on the supply of places in some industries while others are not affected at all. The total effect has been compared to the costs and it is found that the total costs per extra apprenticeship is about 54,000 DKK. Finally, the results are used to simulate the effects of changing...

  5. Consequences of Food Safety Abolishing Energy Subsidies on Iranian Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fathi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Policies of the Fifth Five-year Socio Economic Development Plan on Iran emphasize on improving factors such as air quality and food security, reduction of the risks and infections that threatens health as well as to change dietary patterns by improving food composition and safety. To this end, the government required to support measures to increase production of animal protein obtained from livestock and poultry. The Iranian targeted subsidy plan started in 2010 which increased energy prices significantly. The increase in energy price after start of targeted subsidies included gasoline (3.6-6.2 times, Kerosene (5.4 times, gas oil (8.1-18.9 and fuel oil (18.8. In terms of supply of animal protein, meat has an important role in nutrition and a major share in family food expenditure so that the willingness to consume it has been obvious in the country's consumer culture. On the other hand, according to international standards, every individual needs 70 grams of protein a day (for average body weight of 70 kg. About one-quarter of this amount (about 25 g should be animal protein. With commence the second phase of a targeted subsidy plan, it is important to get familiar with the effects of this policy on the livestock and poultry industry. A change in livestock prices due to increased production and transport costs have increased the consumer price and have led to changes in the intake of animal protein and calories. With introduction of this plan and recognition of its need in the country, there has been a need to investigate the effects of increasing energy prices on the livestock and poultry industries and to quantify the effects of these policies. This study is trying to investigate the effects of the increase in energy prices for beef, sheep and poultry meat prices, including on a farm and retail prices under various scenarios, the amount of demand and supply and ultimately the effects on food security in Iran. Materials and

  6. The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: An empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea's energy subsidy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Hyun

    This dissertation seeks to raise awareness about harmful effects of fossil fuel and nuclear energy subsidies that have blocked transition from conventional energy to a decarbonized, renewable energy system. Today, humans face daunting challenges in the form of global warming, which results mainly from the burning of fossil fuels. To avoid catastrophe, the transition to a renewable energy regime should be an urgent priority; however, the reality is that the progress of renewable energy is very slow due to the various political and economic factors when compared to conventional energy resources. A chief factor is that the energy subsidy for fossil fuel and nuclear energy obstructs the "level playing field" for renewable energy. Energy subsidies for conventional energy can be understood in the context of the commodification paradigm, which regards nature as an object of conquest and supports the principle of more is better. Although fossil fuel energy damages the environment, economy, and social equity, all countries subsidize such energy, no matter the country's state of development. This holds true as much in the U.S. and the EU as in China, India and South Korea. The oceans, which cover 71% of the earth, are threatened by the activities of conventional energy, which are underpinned by subsidies. These subsidies have contributed to the destruction of the marine ecosystem through increased GHG emissions like CO2 and NOx which cause a sea temperature increase and coral bleaching. Subsidies also significantly affect fishery overexploitation, oil pollution, and thermal pollution. In-depth empirical analysis of South Korea showed how fossil fuel and nuclear energy activities have threatened marine sustainability through thermal pollution, algae bloom (red tides), overexploitation, and oil-related marine pollution. Reforming subsidies of fossil fuel and nuclear energy should be a global priority because of imminent of global warming. As strategies for energy subsidy

  7. Application of agricultural subsidy inspection using UAV image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Das, Amrita; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    The most important parameters, should be considered during application of remote sensing techniques in agricultural sector, is to acquire image data in appropriate moment in accordance with the growth of the crop. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages over conventional remote sensing techniques. They can acquire high-resolution images quickly and repeatedly with a comparatively lower flight altitude i.e. 80 400m nullifying the effect of extreme weather and cloud. This study discussed the use of low cost-effective UAV based remote sensing application in inspection of agricultural subsidy. The study area includes 129.1km2 of Miwon town. UAV images acquired 41 times from July 17 to August 10, 2015 for 7 days. The UAV images identify a significant amount of incorrect applications for agricultural subsidy, almost 29.6% (559 of 1,889). Surveying with UAV for agricultural payment instead of field stuff can reduce the time as much as 76.7 % and increase the effectiveness of inspection methods.

  8. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green...

  9. Studying Child Care Subsidies with Secondary Data Sources. Methodological Brief OPRE 2012-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonsook; Johnson, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes four national surveys with data relevant to subsidy-related research and provides a useful set of considerations for subsidy researchers considering use of secondary data. Specifically, this brief describes each of the four datasets reviewed, highlighting unique features of each dataset and providing information on the survey…

  10. 5 CFR 792.209 - What is the definition of child care subsidy program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the definition of child care subsidy program? 792.209 Section 792.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Subsidy Program Legislation and to Whom Does It Apply? § 792.209 What is the definition of child care...

  11. Exploring a Novel Agricultural Subsidy Model with Sustainable Development: A Chinese Agribusiness in Liaoning Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the incomes of farmers in China, the Chinese government is paying increased attention to the reform of its agricultural subsidy policy. However, the effectiveness of the subsidy remains insufficient and thus fails to encourage farmers to cultivate their land and develop sustainability. Thus, there is a need for a novel model that will improve the effectiveness and efficiency of subsidies. The proposed novel agricultural subsidy model comprises four major actors: farmers, specialized farmers’ cooperatives, agribusiness and government. Furthermore, the subsidy in this novel model would no longer go directly to farmers but to the agribusiness. To develop the model, the empirical data for this study are obtained from a Chinese agribusiness in Liaoning Province that was selected as a benchmark. With this novel model, farmers receive triple rebates: the price received when the rice is initially sold; a share of the profits of the specialized farmers’ cooperatives; and a share of the profits of the agribusiness. Accordingly, exploring the optimal subsidy rate for agribusinesses is the critical task of this study, and the results demonstrate that agribusinesses must use the government subsidy policy as the basis for a dynamic subsidy model that ensures the income of farmers and encourages sustainable development.

  12. An Approach to Granting Subsidies to College Students in China Using Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    China has made great improvement on subsidizing poverty-stricken students, but the current approaches of granting subsidies is not scientific or humane. Poverty-stricken students who couldn't get sufficient subsidies in suitable ways need some new and more scientific granting approaches, which inspires me to go about this study. The approach, we…

  13. Impact of CAP Subsidies on Technical Efficiency of Crop Farms in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of CAP reforms, particularly subsidies on technical efficiency of crop farms. An output distance function is employed and estimated together with an inefficiency effects model to capture the effects of CAP subsidies and farmer characteristics on farm efficiency. The m

  14. 24 CFR 401.481 - Subsidy layering limitations on HUD funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.481 Subsidy layering limitations on HUD funds. (a) PAE subsidy layering certification required for Restructuring Plan. The PAE must certify to HUD that any... limit a PAE from presenting for approval a Restructuring Plan that includes project reconfiguration...

  15. Do Child Care Subsidies Influence Single Mothers' Decision to Invest in Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…

  16. The Carbon Subsidy Analysis in Remanufacturing Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon subsidy is an important measure for the government to encourage enterprises to reduce carbon emission. This paper analyzes the impact of carbon subsidy on remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain (RCLSC. We explore the profits and the carbon emission quantities of three types of a supply chain: forward supply chain, remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain, and RCLSC with the carbon subsidy. This paper also discusses when and how the government implements the policy of carbon subsidy to encourage an enterprises’ behavior of cutting carbon emission from the view of RCLSC. We provide the close form of the conditions under which the government should implement the carbon subsidy strategy and the carbon subsidy of government could increase the profits of agents of the supply chain and deduce the carbon emission of the whole supply chain simultaneously. It is found that the government should implement the carbon subsidy strategy only when the recycling price is within a certain range, and the carbon subsidy of government should be within a reasonable range.

  17. Evaluation of federal and state subsidies for ground-source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumsack, S.; Kleit, A. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 213 Hosler Building University Park, PA (United States); Smith, S.W. [Westcott Consulting, 110 Hosler Building, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Energy efficiency can be a powerful way to lower energy bills, as well as the external (social) costs associated with energy consumption. Previous experience and research, however, has demonstrated that consumers are often unwilling to make investments in energy efficiency, even when such investments have relatively short payback periods. Because energy efficiency can contribute to correcting negative externalities associated with energy use, subsidies and other programs have been proposed as a way to increase efficiency investments. Thus, under the right circumstances, such subsidies can improve economic efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the economics of energy-efficient space conditioning using data from an actual household in rural Pennsylvania to evaluate ground-source heat pumps (GHP). GHP technology has been advocated as a potentially appealing energy efficiency measure for rural communities. We find that with current subsidies GHP is economically viable for a wide range of electricity prices. We also find, however, that current subsidies are actually greater than those that can be economically justified. Using the efficient level of subsidies reduces, but does not eliminate, the economic case for GHP technology. We also evaluate the economics of efficiency subsidies using an ambitious program in Pennsylvania as a case study. The program, known as the Alternative Energy Investment Act (AEIA), provides subsidies for GHP among other technologies. We find that the substantial federal subsidies for GHP undercut the economic efficiency arguments for the AEIA with respect to GHP.

  18. Econometric analysis of the effects of subsidies on farm production in case of endogenous input quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Lien, Gudbrand

    The effect of subsidies on farm production has been a major topic in agricultural economics for several decades. We present a new approach for analyzing the effects of different types of coupled and decoupled subsidies on farm production with econometric methods. In contrast to most previous...

  19. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the…

  20. De Letselschade Raad, een studie over subsidiëring en zelfregulering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, J. de; Bloemhoff, C.; Schudde, L.T.; Struiksma, N.; Zee, T. van der

    2012-01-01

    Aan De Letselschaderaad (DLR) is vijf jaar (2007-2011) lang een tijdelijke subsidie toegekend. Deze subsidie had tot doel de naleving van de Gedragscode Behandeling Letselschade (GBL) te bevorderen en actueel te houden en daarmee in te bedden in de maatschappij. Uitgangspunt van deze subsidietoekenn

  1. Do Child Care Subsidies Influence Single Mothers' Decision to Invest in Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…

  2. Relationship between Fiscal Subsidies and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Cross-Country Empirical Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchidananda Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries disburse subsidies with various motivations, for example, to promote industrial development, facilitate innovation, support national champions, and ensure redistribution. The devolution of subsidies may however also encourage economic activities leading to climate change related concerns, reflected through higher greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions, if such activities are conducted beyond sustainable point. Through a cross-country empirical analysis involving 131 countries over 1990–2010, the present analysis observes that higher proportional devolution of budgetary subsidies leads to higher CO2 emissions. The countries with higher CO2 emissions are also characterized by higher per capita GDP, greater share of manufacturing sector in their GDP, and higher level of urbanization. In addition, the empirical findings underline the importance of the type of government subsidy devolution on CO2 emission pattern. The analysis underlines the importance of limiting provision of subsidies both in developed and developing countries.

  3. The measurement and regulation of cross subsidy. The case of the Scottish water industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawkins, John W. [Department of Economics, School of Management and Languages, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Reid, Scott [Stone and Webster Consultants Ltd., Witan Gate House, Witan Gate West, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK9 1BA (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    There is a widespread belief that significant cross subsidies exist in the water, gas and electricity utility industries, particularly those under public ownership. In this paper we discuss the measurement of cross subsidy and its regulatory implications in the context of a publicly owned utility on the verge of being opened up to product market competition. Using the case of the publicly owned Scottish water industry the paper outlines the definition and measurement of cross subsidy in theoretical terms before reviewing the policy debate over the desirability of cross subsidy between different customer groups and services. It then explains the approach to measurement recently adopted by the Scottish Executive. Having established the size and direction of cross subsidy the regulatory implications are considered. (author)

  4. Factors Influencing Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Plant Protection Machinery Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linping; WANG; Liangmei; CAI

    2013-01-01

    In order to have an overview of implementation of the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery in Fujian Province, based on the questionnaire data on Fujian Province, we use Logit model to conduct empirical analysis of factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery. Research results show that there are 69.4% of farmers willing to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery; farmers’ growing area has a significant impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery, and there is negative correlation; educational level, experience in planting, family farming pure income all have a significant positive impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy.

  5. On the Intensity of International Subsidy Competition for FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš HAVRÁNEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories. Three crucial scenarios (coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition are tested employing iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and dynamic Blundell-Bond estimator on the data from the World Competitiveness Yearbook. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported – although there is some weak support for cooperation –, and thus that empirical evidence is not in accordance with the tested models. There is no evidence for a significant international competition for FDI. It seems that, however, by means of FDI incentives, governments try to compensate foreign investors for high wages and low productivity of their countries’ labor force.

  6. Taxes, subsidies and unemployment - a unified optimization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bajalinov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like a linear programming (LP problem, linear-fractional programming (LFP problem can be usefully applied in a wide range of real-world applications. In the last few decades a lot of research papers and monographs were published throughout the world where authors (mainly mathematicians investigated different theoretical and algorithmic aspects of LFP problems in various forms. In this paper we consider these two approaches to optimization (based on linear and linear-fractional objective functions on the same feasible set, compare results they lead to and give interpretation in terms of taxes, subsidies and manpower requirement. We show that in certain cases both approaches are closely connected with one another and may be fruitfully utilized simultaneously.

  7. The impact of self-targeted subsidies on social welfare in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Koozehgar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Society welfare plays essential role on supporting poor and low income deciles governments normally pay subsidies on different goods to decrease the prices and as a result, increase purchasing power. However, due to lack of a good target, the relatively rich and high income deciles benefit more than the poor from subsidies do. Therefore, it seems necessary to design self-targeted safety-net programs and targeted subsidies. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the welfare consequences of self-targeted subsidies. In other words, this study tries to find out whether or not transferring one unit of subsidies paid on the subsidized goods mostly used by the rich to the nonsubsidized goods mostly used by the poor improves social welfare. For this purpose, using Atkinson social welfare function, we calculated the change in social welfare caused by self-targeted subsidies. The results show that self-targeted subsidies increase social welfare. The extent of this increase is negatively related to inequality aversion parameter, while positively related to the share of nonsubsidized goods in low income deciles budget.

  8. The impact of subsidies on the ecological sustainability and future profits from North Sea fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jacomina Heymans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the impact of subsidies on the profitability and ecological stability of the North Sea fisheries over the past 20 years. It shows the negative impact that subsidies can have on both the biomass of important fish species and the possible profit from fisheries. The study includes subsidies in an ecosystem model of the North Sea and examines the possible effects of eliminating fishery subsidies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hindcast analysis between 1991 and 2003 indicates that subsidies reduced the profitability of the fishery even though gross revenue might have been high for specific fisheries sectors. Simulations seeking to maximise the total revenue between 2004 and 2010 suggest that this can be achieved by increasing the effort of Nephrops trawlers, beam trawlers, and the pelagic trawl-and-seine fleet, while reducing the effort of demersal trawlers. Simulations show that ecological stability can be realised by reducing the effort of the beam trawlers, Nephrops trawlers, pelagic- and demersal trawl-and-seine fleets. This analysis also shows that when subsidies are included, effort will always be higher for all fleets, because it effectively reduces the cost of fishing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study found that while removing subsidies might reduce the total catch and revenue, it increases the overall profitability of the fishery and the total biomass of commercially important species. For example, cod, haddock, herring and plaice biomass increased over the simulation when optimising for profit, and when optimising for ecological stability, the biomass for cod, plaice and sole also increased. When subsidies are eliminated, the study shows that rather than forcing those involved in the fishery into the red, fisheries become more profitable, despite a decrease in total revenue due to a loss of subsidies from the government.

  9. Participation in a public insurance program: subsidies, crowd-out, and adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen H; Marquis, M Susan

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how varying the level of subsidies affects participation in a public insurance program, crowd-out of private insurance, and adverse selection. We study the experience in Washington's Basic Health program in 1997. Findings show that adverse selection is not a problem in voluntary public programs. Increasing subsidies have only modest effects on participation in subsidized programs, though the gains are not at the expense of the private market. Overall participation in the subsidized plan is also modest, even though participants benefit from it. The challenge to policymakers is to find program design characteristics, beyond subsidies, that attract the uninsured.

  10. Measuring the effects of reducing subsidies for private insurance on public expenditure for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Terence Chai

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of reducing subsidies for private health insurance on public sector expenditure for hospital care. An econometric framework using simultaneous equation models is developed to analyse the interrelated decisions on the intensity and type of health care use and private insurance. The framework is applied to the context of the mixed public-private system in Australia. The simulation projections show that reducing premium subsidies is expected to generate net cost savings. This arises because the cost savings achieved from reducing subsidies are larger than the potential increase in public expenditure on hospital care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. THE EFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATION FOR FOOD SUBSIDY IN INDONESIA: REVIEW OF COST STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASRI LAKSMI RIANI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the efficiency of food subsidy in Indonesia based on cost structure analysis. Using the comparison between cost of good of government and cost of good of National Logistics Board appointed to manage and channel the subsidy. The level of efficiency has decreased in the recent years because of increase in costs of exploitation, management cost and interest expense. It is suggested that government has to determine the cut-off point as a feasibility assessment of cost of subsidy

  12. Size, structure and distribution of transport subsidies in Europe; Die Subventionierung des Verkehrs in Europa. Umfang, Struktur und Verteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckestein, Burkhard (comp.)

    2008-06-15

    Transport contributes to several environmental problems such as climate change, air emissions and noise and is at the same time favoured by significant subsidies. An EEA report identifies European transport subsidies worth at least EUR 270 to 290 billion a year. Road transport receives EUR 125 billion in annual subsidies, most of it as infrastructure subsidies, assuming that taxes on road transport are not regarded as contributions to finance infrastructure. Aviation, as the mode with the highest specific climate impact, gets significant subsidies in the form of preferential tax treatment, in particular exemptions from fuel tax and VAT, which add up to EUR 27 to 35 billion per year. Rail is subsidised with EUR 73 billion per year and benefits the most from other on-budget subsidies. For water-borne transport, EUR 14 to 30 billion in subsidies have been identified. (orig.)

  13. An abundant biological control agent does not provide a significant predator subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical weed biological control agents, regardless of their effectiveness, may provide subsidies to predators and parasites. The chemically defended weevil Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe is a successful agent that was introduced to control the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia. Two consecutive small ...

  14. 75 FR 39561 - Administrative Guidelines; Subsidy Layering Reviews for Proposed Section 8 Project-Based Voucher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-550, approved October 28, 1992) (HCDA), allows State HCAs to perform subsidy... receiving Section 8 project-based vouchers. While Section 911 of the HCDA is a discretionary provision...

  15. Crunch time: The optimal policy to avoid the "Announcement Effect" when terminating a subsidy

    OpenAIRE

    Gürtler, Marc; Sieg, Gernot

    2006-01-01

    "We are considering for examination an Irreversible Investment under Uncertainty, subsidized by the government. If the government announces the termination of a form of subsidization, investors may decide to realize their investment in order to obtain the subsidy. These investors might have postponed an investment if future payment were assured. Depending on the degree of uncertainty and the time preference, the termination of said subsidy may cost the government more in toto t...

  16. A Forgotten Issue: Distributional Effects of Day Care Subsidies in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Spieß, Christa Katharina; Wagner, Gert G.

    2000-01-01

    In general child care subsidies are widely accepted as a means to create equal chances for mothers in the labour market as well as for children. Although there is a general consensus that the use of child care should be publicly supported, there is no consensus on how this should be done. Moreover, there is little knowledge on the distributional effects of child care subsidies. In order to assess whether public expenditures are targeted efficiently, it is, however, vital to know which social ...

  17. Upaya Optimalisasi Penghematan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM Agar Tepat Sasaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita S. Meliala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Subsidized fuel consumption continues to increase from year to year also put pressure on the state budget so that it becomes increasingly severe. This is caused by the government's energy policy tends to be adaptive and short-term oriented (myopic, so the government pays little attention to aspects of long-term autonomy of the Indonesian economy. Subsidy in the 2011 budget amounted to 33.42% of the total expenditure budget, 86% subsidy is used for energy subsidies and 64.6% the largest share of subsidies. The biggest users of fuel subsidy, is land transportation, with the classification of private vehicles, so it can be said that the subsidy is not received by the appropriate require. Related to this, the challenges that must be faced is the obligation to make a breakthrough in order to encourage domestic savings in fuel consumption and diversification in the use of non-fuel energy sources. There are three policy options as an effort to optimize the fuel subsidy savings. First, restrictions on the use of the fuel subsidy program, unfortunately the prospects of success of this policy is not good considering unprepared infrastructure and the emerging moral hazard. Second, the increase in fuel prices, the authors recommend the price increase to Rp 2000, - taking into account the effects of inflation, and financial savings, for the welfare of the people. Third, the use of CNG and new products from the fuel, this policy option can be run in the long run because it requires a longer preparation in building infrastructure.

  18. THE ROLE OF INVESTMENTS SUBSIDIES IN THE ENTITIES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA EMANUELA DOMIL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we intend to emphasize the influence of investments subsidies over the R&D activities in order to increase their economic benefits. Investments subsidies are used by the Governments as tools to reduce the market price of goods below its cost of production. The European Union instruments for cohesion are drivers for competition, convergence and social development for employment absorption on the market.

  19. Upaya Optimalisasi Penghematan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM Agar Tepat Sasaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Sembiring Meliala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsidized fuel consumption continues to increase from year to year also put pressure on the state budget so that it becomes increasingly severe. This is caused by the government's energy policy tends to be adaptive and short-term oriented (myopic, so the government pays little attention to aspects of long-term autonomy of the Indonesian economy. Subsidy in the 2011 budget amounted to 33.42% of the total expenditure budget, 86% subsidy is used for energy subsidies and 64.6% the largest share of subsidies. The biggest users of fuel subsidy, is land transportation, with the classification of private vehicles, so it can be said that the subsidy is not received by the appropriate require. Related to this, the challenges that must be faced is the obligation to make a breakthrough in order to encourage domestic savings in fuel consumption and diversification in the use of non-fuel energy sources. There are three policy options as an effort to optimize the fuel subsidy savings. First, restrictions on the use of the fuel subsidy program, unfortunately the prospects of success of this policy is not good considering unprepared infrastructure and the emerging moral hazard. Second, the increase in fuel prices, the authors recommend the price increase to Rp 2000, - taking into account the effects of inflation, and financial savings, for the welfare of the people. Third, the use of CNG and new products from the fuel, this policy option can be run in the long run because it requires a longer preparation in building infrastructure.

  20. Aquatic pollution increases use of terrestrial prey subsidies by stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pomeranz, Justin F.; Todd, Andrew S.; Walters, David M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Stream food webs are connected with their riparian zones through cross-ecosystem movements of energy and nutrients. The use and impact of terrestrial subsidies on aquatic consumers is determined in part by in situ biomass of aquatic prey. Thus, stressors such as aquatic pollutants that greatly reduce aquatic secondary production could increase the need for and reliance of stream consumers on terrestrial resource subsidies.

  1. Preferential imitation of vaccinating behavior can invalidate the targeted subsidy on complex network

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of inducement to vaccinate during the spread of an infectious disease on complex networks. Suppose that public resources are finite and that only a small proportion of individuals can be vaccinated freely (complete subsidy), for the remainder of the population vaccination is a voluntary behavior --- and each vaccinated individual carries a perceived cost. We ask whether the classical targeted subsidy strategy is definitely better than the random strategy: does targeting...

  2. Falling oil prices and sustainable energy transition: Towards a multilateral agreement on fossil-fuel subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Asmelash, Henok Birhanu

    2016-01-01

    Fossil-fuel subsidies are economically inefficient and harmful for the environment yet efforts to phase them out at the national and international levels have not been effective. The existing international legal framework is too weak and fragmented to support this process and an international agreement is essential. This paper explores the challenges and prospects of, and avenues for negotiating a binding multilateral agreement on phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies. The paper posits that the F...

  3. Employer-Paid parking: A Nationwide Survey of Employers' Parking Subsidy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Shoup, Donald C.; Breinholt, Mary Jane

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-five percent of automobile commuters in the United States park free at work. To deal with the traffic congestion and air pollution caused by parking subsidies, California law now requires many employers to offer employees the option to cash out their parking subsidies. Similar Federal legislation has been proposed. This nationwide survey found that employers in the United States off employees 84.8 million free parking spaces. Employers own 65.3 million of these free parking spaces, and...

  4. Effects of Targeted Subsidies Policy on Health Behavior in Iranian Households: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmangir, Leila; Doshmangir, Parinaz; Abolhassani, Nazanin; Moshiri, Esmaeil; Jafari, Mehdi

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of national targeted subsidies policy on health behavior of Iranian households. In this qualitative study, data were collected between January 2012 and December 2013 through face-to-face interviews (23 experts in national and provincial levels of health system and 18 household heads) and through a comprehensive and purposive document analysis. The data was analyzed using a thematic analysis method (inductive-deductive) and assisted by Atlas-ti software. Rising health care costs, removing some food subsidies and the increase in price of most goods and services due to the implementation of economic policy of targeted subsidies have led to significant changes in the demand for health services, changes in the consumption trends of goods and services affecting health as well as changes in the health habits of households. Targeted subsidies and the cash subsidy policy have some negative effects on population health behavior especially among poor people. Hence, maintaining or increasing the cash subsidy is not an efficient allocation of resources toward health care system. So, it is necessary to identify appropriate strategies and policies and apply interventions in order to moderate negative effects and enhance positive effects resulted from implementing this economic reform on population health behavior.

  5. Predator-Prey-Subsidy Population Dynamics on Stepping-Stone Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lulan; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2017-03-16

    Predator-prey-subsidy dynamics on stepping-stone domains are examined using a variety of network configurations. Our problem is motivated by the interactions between arctic foxes (predator) and lemmings (prey) in the presence of seal carrion (subsidy) provided by polar bears. We use the n-Patch Model, which considers space explicitly as a "Stepping Stone" system. We consider the role that the carrying capacity, predator migration rate, input subsidy rate, predator mortality rate, and proportion of predators surviving migration play in the predator-prey-subsidy population dynamics. We find that for certain types of networks, added mobility will help predator populations, allowing them to survive or coexist when they would otherwise go extinct if confined to one location, while in other situations (such as when sparsely distributed nodes in the network have few resources available) the added mobility will hurt the predator population. We also find that a combination of favorable conditions for the prey and subsidy can lead to the formation of limit cycles (boom and bust dynamic) from stable equilibrium states. These modifications to the dynamics vary depending on the specific network structure employed, highlighting the fact that network structure can strongly influence the predator-prey-subsidy dynamics in stepping-stone domains.

  6. 养殖场沼气工程商业化集中供气补贴分析%Analysis of subsidy for biogas plants’ commercialized concentrated biogas supply on breeding farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴进; 闵师界; 朱立志; 程静思; 李谦; 邓良伟; 雷云辉; 张敏

    2015-01-01

    The high construction cost of biogas project on China’s breeding farms and the low direct economic effect severely impede the commercialization of concentrated biogas supply. At present, there are no feasible subsidy policies such as subsidy for raw materials and end product or tax reduction despite the fact that subsidy is the effective way for biogas project investment and operation. A number of Chinese scholars study the successful experience of German biogas product subsidy which can improve profit, and propose changing the existing subsidy method and adding the subsidy content. Yet there are few researches focusing on calculating the price subsidy standard for biogas project end product. Some scholars propose the subsidy from the perspective of external effectiveness of biogas projects, which is however infeasible because of the difficulty of quantifying social and environmental effect of applying biogas projects. By the method of cost pricing, this article analyzes construction cost, operation cost, and opportunity cost of biogas projects of various sizes. The advantage of this analysis is the convenience of collecting cost data and the feasibility. When the biogas project supplies for 100 households, per capita investment is 17900 yuan/household, and when the biogas project supplies for 1 500 households, per capita investment reaches 4 100 yuan/household. According to the U-shaped curve of average cost, when supplying for more than 800 households, the concentrated biogas supply project is the optimum. This indicates that the concentrated biogas supply projects comply with the rule that the cost decreases when the project size goes up. By analyzing biogas supply cost, it is found that the change range falls into 3 different stages. When supplying for less than 200 households, the cost decreases at a sharp rate with the expansion of size. When supplying for 200-800 households, the cost goes down at a slower rate. And when supplying for more than 800

  7. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Franić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.

  8. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  9. Sources, Subsidies and Sinks: Organic Carbon in Coastal Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, William; Smeaton, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Coastal sedimentary environments such as estuaries, deltas and fjords are sites characterised by high sedimentation rates and effective burial of organic carbon (OC). Fjords in particular have been shown to be hotspots for OC burial and storage. Additionally, the unique geomorphology of fjords and their proximity to the terrestrial environment mean that they are important receptors of terrestrially-derived OC. Such natural 'trapping' mechanisms prevent OC from reaching the open shelf where much of it would potentially be lost to the atmosphere through remineralisation. Though it is well documented that terrestrial OC (OCterr) is buried in fjords, the long-term (interglacial timescale) interactions between the OC stored in the terrestrial environment and in coastal sediments is less well defined. In this review, we outline the current understanding of both OCterr and Blue Carbon sources, subsidies and sinks (i.e. sediment stores) in the coastal sediments of the United Kingdom, with a view to outlining a methodology to establish a national coastal carbon inventory.

  10. Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, David; Gakii Gatua, Josephine; Ikiara, Moses; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Mwaura, Mbutu; Whittington, Dale

    2016-06-01

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that high-income residential and nonresidential customers receive a disproportionate share of subsidies and that subsidy targeting is poor even among households with a private metered connection. We also find that stated expenditure on water, a commonly used means of estimating water use, is a poor proxy for metered use and that previous studies on subsidy incidence underestimate the magnitude of the subsidy delivered through water tariffs. These findings have implications for both the design and evaluation of water tariffs in developing countries.

  11. The Impact of the Subsidy Policy on Total Factor Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of China's Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops one model to explore the relationship between the subsidy policy and the agricultural total factor productivity (TFP. It indicates that the agricultural TFP will be lower after the subsidy policy is implemented and there exists a negative relation between the subsidy and TFP, if subsidies are associated with the acreage. Using Malmquist index, this paper measures the changes of TFP in China's cotton production before and after the subsidy policy is implemented. The results verify that the subsidy policy could not increase but decrease the TFP of China's cotton production, not only in the whole country but also in major provinces of China. Based on the positive study, some policy implications are provided in the end of this paper.

  12. Government Subsidy for Remanufacturing or Carbon Tax Rebate: Which Is Better for Firms and a Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government as a policy maker wishing to promote remanufacturing and proper disposal of hazardous old products which are harmful to environment has taken many actions, ranging from carbon regulation and financial incentives such as trade-in subsidy. However, carbon tax can result in loss of profit for firms to some degree, so the government has to give other subsidy to balance the profits and carbon emission. Thus, this article investigates two subsidy mechanisms: remanufacturing subsidy or tax rebate. The optimal pricing and production decision under these policies are examined. Our results show that carbon tax has a great impact on pricing strategies. Trade-in subsidy can encourage customers to replace their existing products with new and remanufactured products. Both remanufacture subsidy and tax rebate are beneficial to manufacturer and can further promote remanufacturing development.

  13. Considering environmental aspects of subsidies - sector study housing; Beruecksichtigung von Umweltgesichtspunkten bei Subventionen - Sektorstudie Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, R.U.; Triebswetter, U.; Behring, K.; Rave, T. [Ifo-Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    This study is linked to another study which took stock of German subsidy policy from an environmental point of view (Sprenger and Rave, 2003). However, subsidies are discussed with respect to sector-specific peculiarities of housing in this report. Due to the fact that the housing sector receives a considerable amount of subsidies on the one hand and influences the state of the environment on the other hand (especially due to land use, high energy and resource consumption, waste) this study aims to develop reform option for a subsidy policy which is committed to sustainable development. First of all the ecological impacts of housing and the subsidy intensity of the housing sector are examined more closely. Then we look at some goals of housing policy and contrast them with goals of environmental policy. Some of the subsidies are singled out to determine their potential environmental impact. For example, it can be shown that the home-owner support scheme (Eigenheimzulage) promotes new construction activites in the country side and contributes to urban sprawl. (Other negative environmental side effects occur in social housing schemes and due to tax subsidies). With respect to the home-owner support scheme we propose to lower the basic support (Grundzulage) in a multi-tier system and to introduce an ecological component. This component is based on criteria which can be administered easily (like kind of land used, amount of land designed for construction or housing, number of persons in household). Overall a policy package is proposed which contributes to a considerable reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and land use. (orig.)

  14. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  15. Which Subsidy Mode Improves the Financial Performance of Renewable Energy Firms? A Panel Data Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Companies between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of subsidies in improving the performance of renewable energy firms has aroused significant research attention in recent years. As subsidy modes may affect corporate financial performance,we have chosen companies specializing in wind and solar energy in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as samples.The relationships between the subsidy modes and financial performance of these two types of companies are investigated with a panel data model. Results of the total sample indicate that both indirect and non-innovative subsidy have significant effects on the financial performance of renewable energy companies. The regressive coefficient of the former,however, is a negative value, which illustrates that taxation, bonus, and other market-based mechanisms impair corporate profitability. Moreover, the influence of innovative subsidy is weak, which means that the subsidy used for research and development, technical demonstration, and other innovations of renewable energy enterprises have failed to effectively enhance corporate financial performance. In terms of sub-industries, the direct subsidy for wind energy companies has achieved a significant effect. Incomparison, the indirect subsidy and innovative subsidy acquired by solar energy companies have notably reduced corporate profitability. Thissuggests an urgent reform of subsidy policy for this industry is needed. The government should consider differences in the effects subsidies have for wind and solar energy companies when improving subsidy policy. In addition, market-based subsidy mechanisms should be perfected, and the structure of innovative subsidies should be ameliorated.

  16. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments.

  17. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  18. It's only a matter of time: the altered role of subsidies in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2016-09-01

    Clockwise from left: an experimental stream reach from the study, highlighting the fences used to contain fish as the apex predator; a cutthroat trout from the experiment, the only fish species in the study streams; stomach contents from a fish, highlighting the major role of the terrestrial subsidy (mealworms) in the diet. In Focus: Sato, T., El-Sabaawi, R.W., Campbell, K., Ohta, T. & Richardson, J.S. (2016) A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 1136-1146. Cross-ecosystem subsidies play a critical role in maintaining the structure and functioning of natural communities, especially if they are asynchronous with resource production in the recipient ecosystem. Sato et al. () use a large-scale field experiment to show that changes in the timing of a pulsed terrestrial subsidy can alter stream dynamics from the individual to the ecosystem level. With increasing evidence that global warming will alter the timing, magnitude and frequency of allochthonous inputs, these findings make an important contribution to our understanding of how such changes will reverberate throughout ecosystems that depend on subsidies.

  19. Does subsidy work? Price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccination among the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-ling; Okubo, Ichiro

    2009-08-01

    Subsidy for influenza vaccination is often provided to the elderly in order to encourage them to receive a flu shot in developed countries. However, its effect on uptake rate, i.e., price elasticity of demand, has not been well studied. Japan's decentralised vaccination programme allows observation of various pairs in price and uptake rate of flu shots among the elderly by the municipality from 2001/2002 to 2004/2005 season. We combine our sample survey data (n=281), which monitor price, subsidy and uptake rate, with published data on local characteristics in order to estimate price elasticity of demand with panel model. We find price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccine: nearly zero in nationwide, nearly zero in urban area, and -1.07 in rural area. The results question the rationale for subsidy, especially in urban area. There are cases where maintaining or increasing the level of subsidy is not an efficient allocation of finite health care resources. When organising a vaccination programme, health manager should be careful about the balance between subsidy and other efforts in order to encourage the elderly to receive shots with price elasticity in mind.

  20. Towards energy sustainability in the world: the implications of energy subsidy for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham [University of West Indies, W. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Augustine Campus (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    Energy subsidies are widespread around the world but they vary greatly in importance and type of fuel and country. The fossil fuel consumption rate is growing every year and in about 50 years we will have depleted most of our fossil fuel reserves, so it is necessary to find alternative sources of energy before that happens. However, the only solution to this challenge is through investment on energy conservation programmes and renewable energy source. In line with this challenge and confusion on fund appropriate for energy. This paper is aimed at examining the effect of energy subsidy on energy conservation and renewable energy in developing countries. The study intends to quantify and analysis a case study of Trinidad and Tobago energy subsidy and its implications for developing countries and energy sustainability in the world. Findings show that huge amount investments and government intervention were being expended on energy subsidy in order to lower the price of energy products for consumers. The study further identified implication of this growing subsidy for developing countries and that the funds could be used for creating renewable energy technology and energy conservation programmes.

  1. Diet shift of lentic dragonfly larvae in response to reduced terrestrial prey subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Inputs of terrestrial plant detritus and nutrients play an important role in aquatic food webs, but the importance of terrestrial prey inputs in determining aquatic predator distribution and abundance has been appreciated only recently. I examined the numerical, biomass, and diet responses of a common predator, dragonfly larvae, to experimental reduction of terrestrial arthropod input into ponds. I distributed paired enclosures (n  =  7), one with a screen between the land and water (reduced subsidy) and one without a screen (ambient subsidy), near the shoreline of 2 small fishless ponds and sampled each month during the growing season in the southern Appalachian Mountains, Virginia (USA). Screens between water and land reduced the number of terrestrial arthropods that fell into screened enclosures relative to the number that fell into unscreened enclosures and open reference plots by 36%. The δ13C isotopic signatures of dragonfly larvae shifted towards those of aquatic prey in reduced-subsidy enclosures, a result suggesting that dragonflies consumed fewer terrestrial prey when fewer were available (ambient subsidy: 30%, reduced subsidy: 19% of diet). Overall abundance and biomass of dragonfly larvae did not change in response to reduced terrestrial arthropod inputs, despite the fact that enclosures permitted immigration/emigration. These results suggest that terrestrial arthropods can provide resources to aquatic predators in lentic systems, but that their effects on abundance and distribution might be subtle and confounded by in situ factors.

  2. Functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland and other European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marks-Bielska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland. Given the profitable nature of this instrument the particular attention has been paid to the disposal of funds received by agricultural producers in the region of Warmia and Mazury in the form of subsidies. There is no doubt that the direct payments represent an important aid instrument supporting agriculture within the frameworks of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy. The survey revealed that subsidies have significantly contributed to the improvement of financial condition of farms. Funds received in the form of direct payments have been mainly spent on financing current expenditures and to purchase means of production used in the farms (72.88%.

  3. Rationality of the subsidy regime for wind power in Sweden and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    1995-12-31

    This study comprise analysis and discussion of incentives inherent in the Swedish and Danish subsidy regimes for household owned wind power. New results include an evaluation of the subsidy value of income and VAT tax breaks available to investors, and a demonstration of the importance of the choice of ownership arrangements for the profitability of wind power projects. The study outlines the complex restrictions associated with different forms of wind power ownership. These cause the investment market to be highly segmented. The discussion includes several irrational system effects of the subsidy regimes. Among these are collision with energy saving goals, excessive capital costs, dubious siting decisions, and distorted competition among technologies. In conclusion, come policy recommendations are suggested. (author)

  4. The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery Purchase Subsidies on Mechanized Crop Residue Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.

  5. The economics of gasoline subsidy cost reduction policy: Case study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaya, Muhammad I.

    A gasoline subsidy distorts the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies and takes substantial revenues that arguably could be spent elsewhere with a better impact on economic growth. Governments with such subsidies are aware of their cost yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This thesis discusses in three essays the problem faced by the government in removing the gasoline subsidy and provides an alternative policy in reducing the subsidy cost applied to the case of Indonesia. In the first essay, we examine the decision-making process from the government's perspective that has an objective of generating savings to fund other programs while maintaining political power, and the influence that the general population has over the decision. Despite the immense literature on political power, there has yet to be any research that mathematically models the decision-making process of a government with influences from the general population. Under the benchmark scenario, the equilibrium strategy is to keep the subsidy intact. However, the results are found to be very sensitive to the magnitude of the shift in political power as well as the preferences of both the government and the people. In the second essay, we estimate the cross-price elasticity of regular gasoline with respect to premium gasoline price. The importance of such knowledge is to accurately determine the impact of fuel pricing policy that tends to have different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the grade of gasoline. Using data on the Mexican gasoline market, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline is found to be -0.895, which confirms high substitutability among gasoline with different grades. In the third essay, we look at the unique case of Indonesia that

  6. A study on the effects of subsidies on market value: Evidence from Petrochemical and steel industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Norouzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s 4th development plan has enrolled the federal government to increase energy prices and remove any subsidies paid to energy sector in an attempt to increase productivity and provide better social welfare. It is, therefore, important to investigate the effects of the law on different industries and the subsequent effects on economic growth. This study investigates the impacts of subsidies on the market value of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange in Petrochemical and Steel industries. The study selects two firms, Esfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company and Fanavaran Petrochemical Co. using Auto Regressive Distributed Lags (ARDL over the period 2008-2013. The results have indicated that there was a meaningful relationships between removal of subsidies and market value of the firms.

  7. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiteras, Raymond; Levinsohn, James; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq

    2015-05-22

    Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, P = 0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, P = 0.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, P < 0.001) and their unsubsidized neighbors (+8.5 percentage points, P = 0.001), which suggests that investment decisions are interlinked across neighbors. Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (P < 0.001).

  8. Price subsidies increase the use of private sector ACTs: evidence from a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alexandra; Ward, Abigail; Moonen, Bruno; Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M

    2015-01-01

    Background Although artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in most endemic countries, they have been prohibitively expensive in the retail sector where many suspected malaria cases purchase treatment. ACT subsidies seek to stimulate consumer demand for the drugs over cheaper but often ineffective alternatives by reducing their prices. Recent evidence from eight regions implementing such subsidies suggests that they are generally successful in improving availability of the drugs and decreasing their retail prices, but it remains unclear whether these outcomes translate to improved use by patients with suspected malaria. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify reports of experimental or programmatic ACT subsidies to assess the impact of subsidies on consumer use. Relationships between price, use and potential confounding factors were examined using logistic and repeated measures binomial regression models, and approximate magnitudes of associations were assessed with linear regression. In total, 40 studies, 14 peer-reviewed and 26 non-peer-reviewed, were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The reviewed studies found a substantial increase in private sector ACT use following the introduction of a subsidy. Overall, each $1 decrease in price was linked to a 24 percentage point increase in the fraction of suspected malaria cases purchasing ACTs (R2 = 0.302). No significant differences were evident in this relationship when comparing the poorest and richest groups, rural vs urban populations or children vs adults. Conclusions These findings suggest that ACT price reductions can increase their use for suspected malaria, even within poorer, more remote populations that may be most at risk of malaria mortality. Whether a subsidy is appropriate will depend upon local context, including treatment-seeking behaviours and malaria prevalence. This review provides an initial foundation

  9. Impact of subsidies and socioeconomic status on varicella vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eNagaoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine

  10. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversityverification in Danish greening subsidy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers...... and early summer) WorldView-2 imagery (WV2) and includes the following steps: (1) automatic computation of pixel-based prediction probabilities using multiple neural networks; (2) quantification of the classification uncertainty using Endorsement Theory (ET); (3) discrimination of crop pixels and validation...

  11. A Preliminary Evaluation of Federal Dental Manpower Subsidy Program. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series, No. A5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Paul J.

    This paper suggests an approach and an analysis of the impact that federal manpower programs have had on dentistry. The main beneficiaries under health manpower subsidy programs are indicated and some policy alternatives suggested. Emphasis is placed on federal subsidies for increasing the supply of dentists including students' financial…

  12. The Efficiency of Federal Subsidies to Medical Education. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series. No.: A8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, George E., Jr.

    This paper focuses on the efficiency of federal subsidies in meeting stated public goals and gives two reasons for doing so. First, specific data on subsidies for the education function of medical schools are available. Second, Congress is now considering the entire package of federal health manpower legislation. It is difficult to escape the…

  13. Do agricultural subsidies crowd out or stimulate rural credit market institutions? The case of EU Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan and Katarina Szegenyova Pokrivcak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of agricultural subsidies granted under the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP on bank loans extended to farms. According to our theoretical analysis, subsidies may either stimulate or crowd out bank loans depending on the timing of subsidies, severity of credit constraint, type of subsidies and bank loans, and the relative cost of internal and external financing. In empirical analysis we use the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN farm level panel data for the period 1995-2007. We employ the fixed effects and generalised method of moment (GMM models. The estimated results suggest that (i big farms tend to use subsidies to increase long-term loans, whereas small farms tend to use subsidies to obtain short-term loans; (ii subsidies tend to crowd out short-term loans for big farms and long-term loans for small farms; (iii when controlling for the endogeneity, the crowding out effect becomes smaller, but the positive causal effect of subsidies on bank loans remains significant.

  14. Olive oil production and soil and water conservation in southern Spain, in relation to EU subsidy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The European Union spent about two billion ECU per year on subsidies for the olive oil sector, of which Spain received about 35%. For the rainfed areas in southern Spain the olive oil sector is crucial, and so are these subsidies. The European Commission has formulated two options to change the

  15. Olive oil production and soil and water conservation in southern Spain, in relation to EU subsidy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The European Union spent about two billion ECU per year on subsidies for the olive oil sector, of which Spain received about 35%. For the rainfed areas in southern Spain the olive oil sector is crucial, and so are these subsidies. The European Commission has formulated two options to change the subs

  16. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE... minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. (a) Introduction... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  17. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance.

  18. Determinants of farmers’ willingness to participate in subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zones - a choice experiment study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Oersted

    2011-01-01

    Danish farmers have been far less interested in agri-environmental subsidy schemes (AES) than anticipated. In order to examine how to improve the appeal of such schemes, a choice experiment was conducted concerning 444 Danish farmers’ preferences for subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zones....... A random parameter logit framework was used to capture heterogeneity among farmers. Our results indicate that 1) the vast majority of farmers are willing to trade off the size of the subsidy for less restrictive scheme requirements and that 2) the amount of the subsidy they are willing to trade off varies...... to participate in AES. While the trade off's that farmers are willing to make between subsidy size and individual scheme requirements are case specific, our results concerning increased use of farm advisors, farmers ability of valuing different types of flexibility, and our attempt to place a monetary value...

  19. Share A Fare: a user-side subsidy transportation program for elderly and handicapped persons in Kansas City, Missouri. Final report, May 1977-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosin, E.; Phillips, J.

    1979-07-01

    Documentation of the Share A Fare, Kansas City, Missouri's user-side subsidy transportation broken project for elderly and handicapped persons, during its first 20 months of operation is presented. The project was designed and implemented by the city; it is totally funded from a 1/2 cent city sales tax designated for transportation purposes. Transportation service is provided by profit and not-for-profit carriers and by city owned and operated vans. The operation of the project is described and key features and their impacts on program success are identified. Data are presented on project design and planning; operating characteristics; and on the project's impact on service providers, users, and city sponsor.

  20. 78 FR 55281 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... appropriate automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology that will reduce... subsidies. Estimation of the total number of hours needed to prepare the information collection, including... times. The software also provides for consistency check and ensures that all needed data have been...

  1. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Public Housing and Section 8 Housing Assistance subsidies. Estimation of the total number of hours needed... equipment, which are being used in part because they reduce interview times. The software also provides for... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...

  2. Do wage subsidies for disabled workers reduce their non-employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Larsen, Mona; Thomsen, Lars Stage

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the potential of wage subsidy programs for reducing non-employment of the disabled by exploiting a reform of the Danish Flexjob scheme targeted towards employing the long-term (partially) disabled. Firms received a salary reimbursement for all employees granted a Flexjob. We examine w...

  3. 75 FR 82130 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Subsidies on Wind Power Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...'s obligations under Article 3 of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM... that is inconsistent with China's obligations under Article 3 of the SCM Agreement. In addition, as it... under Article XVI:1 of the GATT 1994, Article 25 of the SCM Agreement, and Part I, Paragraph 1.2, of...

  4. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Annexes to Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in this annex report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  5. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  6. Subsidies to predators, apparent competition and the phylogenetic structure of prey communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2013-11-01

    Ecosystems are fragmented by natural and anthropogenic processes that affect organism movement and ecosystem dynamics. When a fragmentation restricts predator but not prey movement, then the prey produced on one side of an ecosystem edge can subsidize predators on the other side. When prey flux is high, predator density on the receiving side increases above that possible by in situ prey productivity, and when low, the formerly subsidized predators can impose strong top-down control of in situ prey--in situ prey experience apparent competition from the subsidy. If predators feed on some evolutionary clades of in situ prey over others, then subsidy-derived apparent competition will induce phylogenetic structure in prey composition. Dams fragment the serial nature of river ecosystems by prohibiting movement of organisms and restricting flowing water. In the river tailwater just below a large central Mexican dam, fish density was high and fish gorged on reservoir-derived zooplankton. When the dam was closed, water flow and the zooplankton subsidy ceased, densely packed pools of fish formed, fish switched to feed on in situ prey, and the tailwater macroinvertebrate community was phylogenetic structured. We derived expectations of structure from trait-based community assembly models based on macroinvertebrate body size, tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance, and fish-diet selectivity. The diet-selectivity model best fit the observed tailwater phylogenetic structure. Thus, apparent competition from subsidies phylogenetically structures prey communities, and serial variation in phylogenetic community structure can be indicative of fragmentation in formerly continuous ecosystems.

  7. Cooperation or Competition? Channel Choice for a Remanufacturing Fashion Supply Chain with Government Subsidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangzhou Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of choosing an appropriate channel for the marketing channel structure of remanufactured fashion products. To be specific, we consider a remanufacturer who has two options for selling the products: (1 provide the remanufactured products to a manufacturer, then the manufacturer sells both new products and the remanufactured products to customers, and (2 sell the remanufactured products directly to customers. Because of the relatively low acceptance of remanufactured products and environment consciousness of customers in developing countries like China, we model the two scenarios as decentralized remanufacturing supply chains, with the manufacturer being the Stackelberg leader and the government offering subsidy to the remanufacturer to incentivize remanufacturing activities. We find that the subsidy can incentivize remanufacturing activity regardless of the remanufacturer’s channel choice. A “too high” or “too low” subsidy makes the remanufacturer compete with the manufacturer, and an intermediate subsidy results in cooperation between the two members of the remanufacturing supply chain. Meanwhile, if the customers’ acceptance for remanufactured products is higher, the remanufacturer will be more likely to compete with the manufacturer. However, the remanufacturer’s optimal channel choice may be inefficient in the sense of social welfare and environmental protection.

  8. Do wage subsidies for disabled workers reduce their non-employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Larsen, Mona; Thomsen, Lars Stage

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the potential of wage subsidy programs for reducing non-employment of the disabled by exploiting a reform of the Danish Flexjob scheme targeted towards employing the long-term (partially) disabled. Firms received a salary reimbursement for all employees granted a Flexjob. We examine w...

  9. The Oil Climax: Can Nigeria’s fuel subsidy reforms propel energy transitions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osunmuyiwa, Olufolahan; Kalfagianni, Agni

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies in the field of political science and environmental resource governance suggest that oil-exporting economies have begun to implement fuel subsidy reforms. However, while most studies on this issue focus largely on the broader environmental and economic consequences of fuel su

  10. Shoreline urbanization interrupts allochthonous subsidies to a benthic consumer over a gradient of lake size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Olden, Julian D; Usio, Nisikawa

    2011-08-23

    The role of resource subsidies across ecosystem boundaries has emerged as an important concept in contemporary ecology. For lake ecosystems, this has led to interest in quantifying the contribution of terrestrial allochthonous carbon to aquatic secondary production. An inverse relationship between habitat area and the role of allochthonous subsidies has been documented on marine islands and assumed for lakes, yet there have been no tests of this pattern among benthic (lake bottom) consumers. Here, we used carbon stable isotopes to trace terrestrial allochthonous and benthic autochthonous carbon use by the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus over a gradient of lake area, productivity and urbanization. Consistent with findings from terrestrial islands, habitat size dictated the importance of allochthonous subsidies, as P. leniusculus transitioned from using predominantly terrestrial carbon in small lakes to an increased reliance on autochthonous production in larger lakes. However, shoreline urbanization interacted with this pattern, particularly for small lakes where greater urbanization resulted in reduced use of allochthonous resources. As such, we provide, to our knowledge, the first confirmation of the predicted relationship between habitat size and importance of allochthonous subsidies to lake benthic consumers, but found that urbanization can interfere with this pattern.

  11. State Labor Market Research Study: An Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Labor Subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, C. Duncan; And Others

    The report describes the construction, application, and theoretical implications of an econometric model depicting the effects of labor subsidies on the supply of workers in the U.S. Three papers deal with the following aspects of constructing the econometric model: (1) examination of equilibrium wages, employment, and earnings of primary and…

  12. Capital Controls and Foreign Investor Subsidies Implicit in South Africa's Dual Exchange Rate System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, P.C.; Schaling, E.; Huizinga, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Both in theory and practice, capital controls and dual exchange rate systems can be part of a country's optimal tax policy. We first show how a dual exchange rate system can be interpreted as a tax (or subsidy) on international capital income. We show that a dual exchange rate system, with separate

  13. Market structure and technology diffusion incentives under emission taxes and emission reduction subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, F.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares emission taxes with emission reduction subsidies regarding the incentives they create to enhance technology diffusion under imperfect competition. Finns can adopt a "dirty" technology or a "clean" abatement technology. If the clean and dirty products are perfect substitutes, and

  14. Child-Care Subsidies: Do They Impact the Quality of Care Children Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education, but little is known about whether it increases low-income children's access to higher quality child care. This study used newly available nationally representative data on 4-year-old children (N = 750) to investigate whether…

  15. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversity verification in Danish greening subsidy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferré, Ty Paul Andrew; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-07-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers' declarations to warrant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers' subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014-2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach (proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring and early summer) WorldView-2 imagery (WV2) and includes the following steps: (1) automatic computation of pixel-based prediction probabilities using multiple neural networks; (2) quantification of the classification uncertainty using Endorsement Theory (ET); (3) discrimination of crop pixels and validation of the crop diversification rules at farm level; and (4) identification of farmers who are violating the requirements for greening subsidies. The prediction probabilities are computed by a neural network ensemble supplied with training samples selected automatically using farmers declared parcels (field vectors containing crop information and the field boundary of each crop). Crop discrimination is performed by considering a set of conclusions derived from individual neural networks based on ET. Verification of the diversification rules is performed by incorporating pixel-based classification uncertainty or confidence intervals with the class labels at the farmer level. The proposed approach was tested with WV2 imagery acquired in 2011 for a study area in Vennebjerg

  16. 75 FR 54354 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... number) or e-mail Mr. McKinney at Leroy.McKinneyJr@hud.gov . Persons with hearing or speech impairments....) FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arlette Mussington, Office of Policy, Programs and Legislative..., 2010. Merrie Nichols-Dixon, Acting Deputy Assistant, Secretary for Policy, Programs and...

  17. A New Fisheries Price of Refined Oil Subsidy Payment Model%渔业成品油价格补助发放模式新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄士林; 宋杰

    2013-01-01

    以中央财政渔业成品油价格补助为切入点,建立了新的渔业成品油价格补助发放模型,探讨了模型的实际运作能力,以及对提高渔船作业效率、促进渔船安全规范生产,维护渔船良好性能的作用.结果表明新模型不仅可以产生良好的社会效益,还能够对提高渔船的综合作业能力产生积极影响.%Based on central financial refined oil price subsidy policy of fishery, a new oil price subsidy payment model was established and the actual operational capability of the model was discussed, as well as the effects of the model on improving the efficiency of fishing, promoting the safe production of fishing vessels and maintaining fishing vessels performance. The results showed the model not only can produce good social benefits, but also has positive impact on improving fishing vessels operating capability.

  18. Kerosene subsidies for household lighting in India: what are the impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Pachauri, Shonali; Purohit, Pallav; Nagai, Yu; Bates, Michael N.; Cameron, Colin; Smith, Kirk R.

    2016-04-01

    Kerosene subsidy reform is a key policy concern in India and other developing countries. As kerosene is widely used for lighting in India, any price change will likely have considerable public welfare impacts on the large fraction of the poor who do not have access to reliable electricity supply for lighting. In this study, we assess historic kerosene use for residential lighting across population groups separated by urban/rural, expenditure, and electricity service levels using data from India. Consumption trends are used to inform a service demand model and evaluate how changes in fuel price, electricity connection, and supply reliability influence environmental, health and economic outcomes. We find that users relying on kerosene for supplemental lighting—in combination (‘stacked’) with electricity—accounted for 64% of residential kerosene consumed for lighting in 2005. Tested scenarios that addressed service needs of supplemental users had the greatest welfare benefits, especially in the future. Scenarios reducing PM2.5 emissions from kerosene lighting can avert between 50 and 300 thousand disability adjusted life years relative to a baseline scenario in 2030. Lighting kerosene is highly price sensitive, resulting in a drop in demand of 97% in a scenario in which current subsidies are phased out by 2030. Deadweight loss of the subsidy in 2005 is estimated at 200-950 million, with three quarters attributable to supplemental kerosene lighting. Support for cleaner lighting technologies not reliant on fossil fuel subsidies would appear to be ‘no regrets’ or ‘co-benefits’ options for India, and could be implemented in parallel with subsidy removal.

  19. Better methods will be needed to project incomes to estimate eligibility for subsidies in health insurance exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, John A

    2012-07-01

    Under the Affordable Care Act, people who meet certain income eligibility criteria will be eligible for subsidies to offset costs of premiums and cost sharing for health insurance plans purchased through new health insurance exchanges. But determining the correct level of these subsidies will not be easy, because of several factors. These include the way in which eligibility will be calculated for participation in Medicaid or for subsidies through the exchanges; possibly inaccurate income projections; the use of different income time periods to determine eligibility; and fluctuations in income. I performed a simulation that shows that under the most likely methods to be used to determine eligibility for Medicaid or for receiving subsidies through exchanges, one-third of people with incomes initially judged to be below the Medicaid threshold would actually "churn" into an exchange at the end of the year. Other people would be wrongly deemed ineligible for advance subsidy payments because their projected income was too high, while still others judged eligible for subsidies would receive advance payments on those subsidies that were too high by $208 per year, on average. To reduce these errors, I recommend the adoption of a single eligibility standard based on income data derived from prior tax returns, along with generous accommodations during a given enrollment year for people who claim a change in circumstances, such as a change in income.

  20. The energy policy and sustainability of the subsidy mechanism for retail petroleum products consumed in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksh, Timmy

    2010-09-15

    In 1974 the Petroleum Production Levy and Subsidy Act gave effect to legislation which detailed a mechanism to implement a subsidy on all fuel consumed within, and in the territorial waters of, Trinidad and Tobago. This paper will analyse the underlying principles of this energy policy, follow how the mechanism has evolved over the years and propose new iterations to the existing model in order to reduce the Governments liability. The sustainability of the subsidy will be examined and as well as an in-depth analysis on the possible impact on inflation if this mechanism is removed.

  1. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  2. Price subsidies increase the use of private sector ACTs: evidence from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alexandra; Ward, Abigail; Moonen, Bruno; Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M

    2015-04-01

    Although artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in most endemic countries, they have been prohibitively expensive in the retail sector where many suspected malaria cases purchase treatment. ACT subsidies seek to stimulate consumer demand for the drugs over cheaper but often ineffective alternatives by reducing their prices. Recent evidence from eight regions implementing such subsidies suggests that they are generally successful in improving availability of the drugs and decreasing their retail prices, but it remains unclear whether these outcomes translate to improved use by patients with suspected malaria. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify reports of experimental or programmatic ACT subsidies to assess the impact of subsidies on consumer use. Relationships between price, use and potential confounding factors were examined using logistic and repeated measures binomial regression models, and approximate magnitudes of associations were assessed with linear regression. In total, 40 studies, 14 peer-reviewed and 26 non-peer-reviewed, were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The reviewed studies found a substantial increase in private sector ACT use following the introduction of a subsidy. Overall, each $1 decrease in price was linked to a 24 percentage point increase in the fraction of suspected malaria cases purchasing ACTs (R(2) = 0.302). No significant differences were evident in this relationship when comparing the poorest and richest groups, rural vs urban populations or children vs adults. These findings suggest that ACT price reductions can increase their use for suspected malaria, even within poorer, more remote populations that may be most at risk of malaria mortality. Whether a subsidy is appropriate will depend upon local context, including treatment-seeking behaviours and malaria prevalence. This review provides an initial foundation for policymakers to make

  3. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  4. Contributions of detrital subsidies to aboveground spiders during secondary succession, revealed by radiocarbon and stable isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Takashi F; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2013-04-01

    Prey subsidies originating from detritus add nutrients and energy to arboreal communities. Measurement of this subsidy is required in the understanding of how food web dynamics respond to changes in surrounding environments. Shrub spiders are one of the key predators involved in food web coupling. We evaluate the effects of potential changes in prey availabilities during secondary succession on the contribution of subsidy from detrital food webs to shrub spiders and how different spider feeding guilds used the subsidy of prey from detrital food webs. We measured the relative importance of the subsidy for the spider feeding guilds, using the ratios of stable isotopes of C (δ(13)C), and N (δ(15)N) and C isotope discrimination (Δ(14)C). Diet age was calculated from Δ(14)C values, because old diet ages of spiders indicate that the spiders consume prey from detrital food sources. Dominant aerial prey (Diptera) had a distinctively old diet age compared with arboreal prey, which indicates that aerial prey were subsidized from detrital food webs. Sit-and-wait spiders tended to have an older diet age than active hunting spiders, which indicates that sit-and-wait spiders depended more on subsidies. Diet age varied only slightly for spiders in stands of different ages, indicating that rates at which spiders use grazing and detrital prey are probably determined more by foraging strategies and not by stand age. A dominance of sit-and-wait predators will lead to higher detrital subsidy inputs in shrub habitats. This study highlights the effect of shrub spider community structure (feeding guild composition) on the volume of the subsidy received from the detrital food web.

  5. Cutting export subsidies, cropping domestic production: Input–output analysis of the Swiss dairy sector after abolishment of the ‘Chocolate law’ subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan KÂHYA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The `Chocolate law’ in Switzerland enables subsidies for dairy and wheat farmers, bound to the condition that their products are exported after processing (Swiss Federation, 2011. Though the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization has decided in December 2015 that this law has to be abolished by 2021 [WTO, 2015]. Cutting subsidies might lead to a demand shock and consequently a cropped domestic production (Miller and Blair, 1985. We analysed in this study the interdependence of the agro-food sectors by a Leontief input output model and their linkages to other sectors (Chereny and Watanabe, 1958, Leontief 1986 and additionally, the amount, direction and dispersion of the possible demand shock.  Hence, non-meat food processors and dairy processing were determined as key sectors as they have strong linkage effects and are rather concentrated to few sectors. Both sectors rely strongly on the output of the raw milk producers and have few sectors to sell their products. Outside of the cut sectors, these sectors will be challenged the most from this new policy.

  6. Green Subsidies and Learning-by-doing in the Windmill Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Jensen, Camilla; Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the remarkable learning-by-doing in the windmill industry since it emerged in the beginning of the 1980's. Green subsidies for producing electricity by wind power has been a precondition for the rapid growth in the production of windmills. Based on time series of prices...... by windpower has placed Denmark in a first-mover position in this market and the future has to show whether this is a successful story of an infant industrial policy....

  7. Measuring the Export Subsidy Equivalents (ESEs) through Price Discrimination Generated by Exporting State Trading Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Nobuhiko; Kinoshita, Junko; FUJII, Toshiaki; Kaise, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    The Doha Round framewoek agreements state that all forms of export sucsides should be eliminated, which includes not only export subsides through food aid and export credits, but also "consumer financed" ones through exporting STEs. Therefore, one needs a theoretical definition and practical measurements of "hidden" export subsides unregulated under the current WTO rules. This paper proposes a basic definition for the "consumer financed" export subsidy equivalent (ESE) created by STEs' price ...

  8. Green Subsidies and Learning-by-doing in the Windmill Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Jensen, Camilla; Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the remarkable learning-by-doing in the windmill industry since it emerged in the beginning of the 1980's. Green subsidies for producing electricity by wind power has been a precondition for the rapid growth in the production of windmills. Based on time series of prices of win...... by windpower has placed Denmark in a first-mover position in this market and the future has to show whether this is a successful story of an infant industrial policy....

  9. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    P>1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction.2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem...

  10. Domestic Agricultural Subsidies’ Impacts on National Security Objectives Relative to the SOUTHCOM AOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Agriculture and Trade Policy, ―Summary of Corn Prices and Yields for 2007,‖ http://www. agobservatory.org/library.cfm? refid =88122 (accessed November...commentaries.cfm? refid =100395 (accessed November 22, 2008). 30 Fitzgerald, 39. 31 Ibid. 32 Douglas A. Irwin, ―GATT Turns 60,‖ CATO Institute (April 9...library.cfm? refid =88122 (accessed January 29, 2008). 52 Timothy Wise, ―Barking Up the Wrong Tree: Agricultural Subsidies, Dumping and Policy Reform

  11. Effectiveness of subsidies in promoting healthy food purchases and consumption: a review of field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2013-07-01

    To systematically review evidence from field interventions on the effectiveness of monetary subsidies in promoting healthier food purchases and consumption. Keyword and reference searches were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane Library, EconLit, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies were included based on the following criteria: (i) intervention: field experiments; (ii) population: adolescents 12–17 years old or adults 18 years and older; (iii) design: randomized controlled trials, cohort studies or pre–post studies; (iv) subsidy: price discounts or vouchers for healthier foods; (v) outcome: food purchases or consumption; (vi) period: 1990–2012; and (vii) language: English. Twenty-four articles on twenty distinct experiments were included with study quality assessed using predefined methodological criteria. Interventions were conducted in seven countries: the USA (n 14), Canada (n 1), France (n 1), Germany (n 1), Netherlands (n 1), South Africa (n 1) and the UK (n 1). Subsidies applied to different types of foods such as fruits, vegetables and low-fat snacks sold in supermarkets, cafeterias, vending machines, farmers’ markets or restaurants. Interventions enrolled various population subgroups such as school/ university students, metropolitan transit workers and low-income women. All but one study found subsidies on healthier foods to significantly increase the purchase and consumption of promoted products. Study limitations include small and convenience samples, short intervention and follow-up duration, and lack of cost-effectiveness and overall diet assessment. Subsidizing healthier foods tends to be effective in modifying dietary behaviour. Future studies should examine its long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at the population level and its impact on overall diet intake.

  12. Canada’s northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada’s remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities. Design: Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011–2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program’s performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities. Results: NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program’s accountability. From 2011–15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program’s own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers’ pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities. PMID:28151097

  13. News Values and Information Subsidies: How Organizations Build the Agenda on Social and Traditional Media

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Kelly Tatum

    2014-01-01

    Information subsidies have been used for decades by organizations seeking media coverage. However, over the last decade, organizations are increasingly seeking to earn greater coverage by moving beyond traditional media and attempting to generate social media �[BULLET]buzz�[BULLET] about topics of significance. Agenda building theory has been used by a variety of scholars as a way to understand how sources influence, or build, the media�[BULLET]s agenda. Since the media agenda influences the ...

  14. Can Production Subsidies Explain China's Export Performance? Evidence from Firm-level Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yundan; Yu, Zhihong; Girma, Sourafel

    2009-01-01

    at the intensive margin, although this effect is conditional on firm characteristics. In particular, the positive relationship between subsidies and the intensive margin of exports is strongest among profit-making firms, firms in capital-intensive industries, and those located in non-coastal regions. Compared...... to firm characteristics, the extent of heterogeneity across ownership structure (SOEs, collectives, and privately owned firms) proves to be relatively less important...

  15. Public Transit Subsidy: from the Economics of Welfare to the Theory of Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, D.

    1995-01-01

    Public Transit is publicly managed almost all over Europe. Public intervention in this sector is due to market failures: economies of scale and misperceptions of social and private costs may cause an insufficient supply of transit services. These arguments have been thouroughly analyzed within the standard welfarist approach to the theory and practice of subsidization. Ramsey rules and cost-benefit analysis emerged as useful devices for the definition of subsidy allocation. However remedies t...

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of subsidy schemes for industrial timber development and carbon sequestration in Japanese forest plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tohru Nakajima; Hidesato Kanomata; Mitsuo Matsumoto; Satoshi Tatsuhara; Norihiko Shiraishi

    2011-01-01

    This study uses simulations to investigate the effects of implementing two different Japanese forestry subsidy systems on timber production and carbon stock, and examines the consequences for harvesting strategies. An existing Local Yield Table Construction System (LYCS), a wood conversion algorithm, and a harvesting cost model were used in the simulations to test the applicability of different subsidies to the thinning of stands. Using forest inventory data collected by local government staff, simulation output was used to calculate forestry profits,carbon stocks, subsidies, the amount of labor required, and the cost effectiveness of investing in subsidies. By comparing the output of simulations based on two scenarios, we found that both the clear-cutting area and the amount of harvested timber were larger under Scenario 2, in which the rules governing subsidy allocations are more relaxed, than under Scenario 1, in which the rules are more restrictive. Because the harvested timber under Scenario 1 was mainly produced by clear-cutting, the forestry profits and the subsidy predicted in the early period of the simulation, were larger under Scenario 1 than under Scenario 2. In contrast, the carbon stock was larger under Scenario 2 than under Scenario 1. The simulation model is likely to be useful for improving Plan-Do-Check-Act cycles implemented in Japanese forest management systems.

  17. Expert Evaluation of Subsidies for the Management of Fragmented Private Forest in Regards to National Biodiversity Goals—The Case of Kochi Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gain

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert evaluation of the subsidy scheme for private forest plantations in Kami City, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, to determine whether the twelve currently available subsidies are designed to realize national biodiversity goals. Subsidies for forestry practices are often criticized for rarely achieving planned outcomes and for environmental threats. Threats to natural balance of private forest have been observed in Kochi Prefecture, suggesting that current forestry subsidies may not be achieving national objectives. The utilization objectives, type of management, requirements, area, intensity, and subsidy rates were contrasted to the three forest multifunctionality objectives of the National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan (NBSJ 2012–2020, to identify subsidy weaknesses. Focus group discussions (FGD were conducted in the study site, as well as Bavaria, Germany and Steiermark, Austria, to get a big picture of how experts in these comparable management areas evaluate the Kochi subsidy scheme. Analyses were performed based on a combination of framework analysis and constant comparison analysis. It was found that realization of vertical multifunctionality is hindered due to lack of site-specific management. A six-point proposal for restructuring the subsidy scheme, leaned on results, and the Bavarian subsidy scheme was made. To improve vertical multi-functionality, subsidy schemes should focus on forest owner integration and site-specific, long-term oriented forest works.

  18. Premium subsidies, the mandate, and Medicaid expansion: Coverage effects of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frean, Molly; Gruber, Jonathan; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2017-05-01

    Using premium subsidies for private coverage, an individual mandate, and Medicaid expansion, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased insurance coverage. We provide the first comprehensive assessment of these provisions' effects, using the 2012-2015 American Community Survey and a triple-difference estimation strategy that exploits variation by income, geography, and time. Overall, our model explains 60% of the coverage gains in 2014-2015. We find that coverage was moderately responsive to price subsidies, with larger gains in state-based insurance exchanges than the federal exchange. The individual mandate's exemptions and penalties had little impact on coverage rates. The law increased Medicaid among individuals gaining eligibility under the ACA and among previously-eligible populations ("woodwork effect") even in non-expansion states, with no resulting reductions in private insurance. Overall, exchange premium subsidies produced 40% of the coverage gains explained by our ACA policy measures, and Medicaid the other 60%, of which 1/2 occurred among previously-eligible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Scheme of Constructing CGE Model of China’s Direct Grain Subsidy Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of China’s direct grain subsidy policy, adopts computable general equilibrium (CGE) theory, and advances the scheme of constructing the model of China’s direct grain subsidy policy. On the basis of some assumptions, such as conforming to the complete competition of market, inexistence of move of capital and labor forces among countries, unchanged exchange rate and incomplete substitution, and the main body of behavior comprising representative households, producers, local government and central government, the model established in this paper includes production module and demand module. Moreover, the model takes into account equilibrium structure, the definition of profiting and macro condition for closure, the related coefficients this CGE model needs include Armingtion substitution elasticity of intermediate composite product, investment composite product and consumption composite product between import and domestic production; substitution elasticity among production factors; conversion elasticity of total sales between domestic absorption and export; elasticity of residents’ expenditure; elasticity of price; elasticity of export demand; the relative share of all sectors in capital stock. This paper also points out the advantages and limitations of CGE model in analyzing direct grain subsidy policy.

  20. Government Resource Subsidy and its Spillover Effects: Evidence from the Excessive Oil Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaphon Wuthisatian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the consecutive consequences of government resource subsidies in a particular industry, which can lead to the excessive oil consumption by other sectors and end users. To fully illustrate the investigation, we use the subsidies in Chinese steel production as a case study and a beginning point to develop theoretical and empirical models to examine the spillover effects, going from steel industry to a rapidly increase of overall country’s oil consumption. The theoretical model applies the market equilibrium concept to demonstrate a relationship among three economic sectors; steel industry, automobile, and households. Particularly, the government subsidies in Chinese steel production will enable the steel firms to obtain resource inputs at the lower price, making the output price of steels cheaper than the market price. As steel is a required input in automobile industry, this cheaper price of steels will induce the automotive firms to increase their production capacity, producing more cars and selling them at the cheaper price, which eventually results in the excessive usage of oil and gasoline by individuals. Using the data during the period of 1980-2012, the empirical analysis involves OLS regression and cointegration test to approve the validity of the theoretical model, which emphasizes on the strong relationship between Chinese oil consumption and steel production.

  1. Evaluation of the Market introduction Energy Innovations (MEI) subsidy scheme; Evaluatie van de MEI-regeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W.; Smekens, K.; Lako, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Warmenhoven, H. [De Gemeynt, Klarenbeek (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    This report contains the outcomes of an evaluation study of the Market introduction Energy Innovations (MEI) subsidy scheme. This scheme is targeted to the horticultural sector and aims to stimulate and accelerate the early market introduction of innovative energy systems in greenhouses. The subsidy scheme was initiated in 2007 and has provided subsidies twice a year since then. Based on project and data analysis, stakeholder interviews and a workshop, the evaluation concludes that the MEI scheme has made a positive contribution to the innovation process in the sector, but that the scheme could have been implemented more efficiently [Dutch] De regeling Marktintroductie energie-innovaties (MEI) is in 2007 ingesteld door het toenmalige Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit. Het doel van de MEI-regeling is het stimuleren en versnellen van de vroege marktintroductie van innovatieve energiesystemen in de glastuinbouw. ECN en De Gemeynt hebben een evaluatie uitgevoerd van de MEI-regeling. De centrale conclusie is dat de regeling een positieve bijdrage heeft geleverd aan het innovatieproces in de glastuinbouwsector.

  2. Stream thermal heterogeneity prolongs aquatic-terrestrial subsidy and enhances riparian spider growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects from streams are important food sources for riparian predators, yet their availability is seasonally limited. Spatial heterogeneity in stream water temperature was found to spatially desynchronize the emergence timing of aquatic insects, and prolong their flight period, potentially enhancing consumer growth. While a mayfly Ephemerella maculata emergence lasted for 12-22 d in local sites along a river, mayflies emerged 19 days earlier from warmer than cooler sites. Therefore, the overall emergence of E. maculata from the river lasted for 37 d, and adult swarms were observed over that same period in an adjacent reproductive habitat. A feeding experiment with the riparian spider Tetragnatha versicolor showed that a prolonged subsidy, as would occur in a heterogeneous river, led to higher juvenile growth than a synchronous pulsed subsidy of equal total biomass, as would typify a more homogeneous river. Since larger female adult spiders produce more eggs, spiders that received prolonged subsidy as juveniles should achieve higher fecundity. Restoring spatial heterogeneity in streams may benefit not only stream communities but also riparian predators.

  3. Ending SNAP subsidies for sugar-sweetened beverages could reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Seligman, Hilary Kessler; Gardner, Christopher; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-06-01

    To reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes rates, lawmakers have proposed modifying Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits to encourage healthier food choices. We examined the impact of two proposed policies: a ban on using SNAP dollars to buy sugar-sweetened beverages; and a subsidy in which for every SNAP dollar spent on fruit and vegetables, thirty cents is credited back to participants' SNAP benefit cards. We used nationally representative data and models describing obesity, type 2 diabetes, and determinants of food consumption among a sample of over 19,000 SNAP participants. We found that a ban on SNAP purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages would be expected to significantly reduce obesity prevalence and type 2 diabetes incidence, particularly among adults ages 18-65 and some racial and ethnic minorities. The subsidy policy would not be expected to have a significant effect on obesity and type 2 diabetes, given available data. Such a subsidy could, however, more than double the proportion of SNAP participants who meet federal vegetable and fruit consumption guidelines.

  4. Multi-Layered Capital Subsidy Policy for the PV Industry in China Considering Regional Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country with huge energy consumption, China has been paying more and more attention to green growth in recent years. Several subsidy policies have been conducted to boost the photovoltaic (PV industry so far. However, as a matter of fact, there are 31 provinces and municipalities (PM in mainland China, and the economic condition, environmental resources and energy structure of each PM are all significantly different, which leads to a discrepancy of PV efficiency among regions. This paper proposes that the subsidies for the PV industry should be considered mainly from three aspects: the PM’s economic condition, energy efficiency and environmental responsibility. We built 19 evaluation indicators involving economic, environmental and energy factors, allocated weight to each indicator using the entropy weight method and sorted the 31 evaluation objects by TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution method. Additionally, through an empirical study, we obtained the subsidy proportion for each PM. The result could make much of a contribution to the green growth of different regions and to the whole country.

  5. Using private demand studies to calculate socially optimal vaccine subsidies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joseph; Jeuland, Marc; Maskery, Brian; Lauria, Donald; Sur, Dipika; Clemens, John; Whittington, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well known that vaccines against many infectious diseases confer positive economic externalities via indirect protection, analysts have typically ignored possible herd protection effects in policy analyses of vaccination programs. Despite a growing literature on the economic theory of vaccine externalities and several innovative mathematical modeling approaches, there have been almost no empirical applications. The first objective of the paper is to develop a transparent, accessible economic framework for assessing the private and social economic benefits of vaccination. We also describe how stated preference studies (for example, contingent valuation and choice modeling) can be useful sources of economic data for this analytic framework. We demonstrate socially optimal policies using a graphical approach, starting with a standard textbook depiction of Pigouvian subsidies applied to herd protection from vaccination programs. We also describe nonstandard depictions that highlight some counterintuitive implications of herd protection that we feel are not commonly understood in the applied policy literature. We illustrate the approach using economic and epidemiological data from two neighborhoods in Kolkata, India. We use recently published epidemiological data on the indirect effects of cholera vaccination in Matlab, Bangladesh (Ali et al., 2005) for fitting a simple mathematical model of how protection changes with vaccine coverage. We use new data on costs and private demand for cholera vaccines in Kolkata, India, and approximate the optimal Pigouvian subsidy. We find that if the optimal subsidy is unknown, selling vaccines at full marginal cost may, under some circumstances, be a preferable second-best option to providing them for free.

  6. Chairman’s government background, excess employment and government subsidies: Evidence from Chinese local state-owned enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiongyuan; Wang; Shan; Wang

    2013-01-01

    Local state-owned enterprises(SOEs) in China continue to face government interference in their operations. They are influenced both by the government’s"grabbing hand" and by its "helping hand." Our study examines how SOE chairmen with connections to government influence their firm’s employment policies and the economic consequences of overstaffing. Using a sample of China’s listed local state-owned enterprises, we find that the scale of overstaffing in these SOEs is negatively related to the firms’ political connections to government. However,this relationship turns positive when the firm’s chairman has a government background. Appointing chairmen who have government backgrounds is a mechanism through which the government can intervene in local SOEs and influence firms’ staffing decisions. We also find that in compensation for the expenses of overstaffing, local SOEs receive more government subsidies and bank loans.However, the chairmen themselves do not get increased pay or promotion opportunities for supporting overstaffing. Further analysis indicates that whereas the "grabbing hand" of government does harm to a firm’s economic performance, the "helping hand" provides only weak positive effects, and such government intervention actually reduces the efficiency of social resource allocation.

  7. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  8. Kajian Terhadap Faktor – Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ari Mulyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out and to analyze the factors that affecting the fuel subsidy (BBM which written in the state budget. The data has been used in this study as follows secondary data obtained from the records and reports from various agencies such as statistic bureau (BPS, Ministry of Finance, Indonesia bank, the US. Energy Information Administration (EIA, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of oil and Gas, previous journals and the results of studies. Variables has been analyzed by using path analysis to find out direct and indirect effect as well as Sobel test to find out the level of significance of intervening variable as moderator variable. Test of model validity by using the coefficient of total determination and trimming theory to find out the variation of fuel subsidy (BBM in Indonesia that it can be explained by the exogen variable. Based on the regression results found the coefficient of total determination 0.998 its means 99.8 percent explained by the model while the remaining 0.2 percent explained by other variables outside of the model. Variable of dollar rate is the dominant variable which directly affects on the fuel subsidy. While the fuel subsidized consumption variable is the dominant variable which indirect effect on fuel subsidies through fuel import. To reduce the burden of fuel subsidy in the future state budget hence the government needs to increase oil lifting to reduce fuel imports by way of exploring new wells to replace the old wells which its lifting is declining and increasing investment in the construction of oil refineries in Indonesia to maintain national energy security as well as trying to develop renewable energy instead of oil as fuel because someday oil as a source of un-renewable energy surely be depleted in number while the man and all their needs would increase from year to year. The government should provide adequate public transportation, thereby reducing private

  9. Subsidy Policy of Discharge Reduction from Drainage Pumping Stations during Dry Weather in Central Urban Area%中心城区排水泵站旱天放江污染削减的补贴政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建锋

    2014-01-01

    Discharges from pumping stations to rivers in dry weather have become an important issue which causes environmental complaints of residents and serious influence of water quality in central Shanghai. To guide the engineering and administrative measures used to reduce the volume of discharged water from pumping stations in dry weather as soon as possible,the subsidy policy needs to be implemented. The principles including water index evaluation,partial subsidies,and classified subsidies as well as encouraging and guiding to build the inspection and subsidy standards of discharges from pumping stations in dry weather were used in this paper. Tons of water to mix contact investigation and modification cost were about 1. 63 and 2. 67 yuan,respectively. The construction and modification cost of intercepting and draining water facilities were 108. 39 yuan/m3 . The combined sewer pumping station reduced the water level of pipeline operation to avoid fore-river discharges before rain weather and the cost of ton of water running increased 0. 091 5 yuan. The operation cost needed to reduce the water level of collecting basin to the lowest level in order to avoid maintenance discharges was 58. 5 yuan/104 m3 . Based on the reduction of subsidy standards of discharges from pumping stations in dry weather,it was expected to effectively reduce 19. 209 9 million volumes of discharged water in dry weather,which was 86. 58% of the total discharges amount. The basic subsidy of one-time engineering was 51. 201 2 million yuan. And the basic subsidy of annual operation cost was 0. 093 3 million yuan.%上海市中心城区泵站旱天放江已成为居民环保投诉、严重影响河道水质景观的主要问题,为引导削减泵站旱天放江量的工程性、管理性措施尽快实施,需实施资金补贴政策。该研究采用水量指标考核、分项补贴、分类补贴和鼓励引导原则,构建泵站旱天放江考核和补贴标准;估算确定吨水混接点

  10. Invasive European bird cherry disrupts stream-riparian linkages: effects on terrestrial invertebrate prey subsidies for juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.; Blanchard, Arny L.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of invasive species in riparian forests has the potential to affect both terrestrial and aquatic organisms linked through cross-ecosystem resource subsidies. However, this potential had not been explored in regards to terrestrial prey subsidies for stream fishes. To address this, we examined the effects of an invasive riparian tree, European bird cherry (EBC, Prunus padus), spreading along urban Alaskan salmon streams, by collecting terrestrial invertebrates present on the foliage of riparian trees, their subsidies to streams, and their consumption by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Riparian EBC supported four to six times less terrestrial invertebrate biomass on its foliage and contributed two to three times lower subsidies relative to native deciduous trees. This reduction in terrestrial invertebrate biomass was consistent between two watersheds over 2 years. In spite of this reduction in terrestrial prey resource input, juvenile coho salmon consumed similar levels of terrestrial invertebrates in stream reaches bordered by EBC. Although we did not see ecological effects extending to stream salmonids, reduced terrestrial prey subsidies to streams are likely to have negative consequences as EBC continues to spread.

  11. Nuclear Insurance Subsidies Cost from Post-Fukushima Accounting Based on Media Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Laureto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of nuclear liability insurance is difficult without arbitrary liability caps; however, post-mortem calculations can be used to calculate insurance costs. This study analyzes the Fukushima (Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster to quantify the cost per unit electricity ($/kWh of nuclear energy from the lifetime of the plant after accounting for the true cost of the liability needed to cover the damages from the nuclear disaster determined from news reports. These costs are then compared to the cost of electricity currently paid by Japanese consumers, and then are aggregated to determine the indirect subsidy for nuclear power providers in both Japan and the USA. The results show that the reported costs of the Fukushima nuclear disaster are $20–525 billion, which results in a real insurance cost from the lifetime of electricity produced at the plants between $0.22–5.78/kWh. These values are far higher than the current insurance costs by Japanese law of $0.01/kWh and even the total costs consumers pay for electricity. Although the spread in the input costs is large and the reported metrics are incomplete, the nuclear insurance subsidy is clearly substantial in Japan and in the USA. Ideally, energy sources should be economically sustainable without the need for a government insurance subsidy. For the electricity market to function effectively and efficiently in all other countries using nuclear power, the insurance costs should be reported accurately and included in nuclear electricity costs without arbitrary government liability caps.

  12. Modelling income group differences in the health and economic impacts of targeted food taxes and subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoaham, Kelechi E; Sacks, Gary; Rayner, Mike; Mytton, Oliver; Gray, Alastair

    2009-10-01

    To examine the effects, by income group, of targeted food taxes and subsidies on nutrition, health and expenditure in the UK. A model based on consumption data and demand elasticity was constructed to predict the effects of four food taxation-subsidy regimens. Resulting changes in demand, expenditure, nutrition, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality were estimated. Data Expenditure data were taken from the Expenditure and Food Survey; estimates of price elasticities of demand for food were taken from a report based on the National Food Survey 1988-2000. Estimates of effect on CVD and cancer mortality of changing fat, salt, fruit and vegetable intake were taken from previous meta-analyses. (i) Taxing principal sources of dietary saturated fat is unlikely to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer mortality. (ii) Taxing 'less healthy' foods (defined by the WXYfm nutrient profiling model) could increase CVD and cancer deaths by 35-1300 yearly. (iii) Taxing 'less healthy' foods and subsidising fruits and vegetables by 17.5% could avert up to 2900 CVD and cancer deaths yearly. (iv) Taxing 'less healthy' foods and using all tax revenue to subsidize fruits and vegetables could avert up to 6400 CVD and cancer deaths yearly. Few obesity-related CVD deaths are averted by any of the regimens. All four regimens would be economically regressive and positive health effects will not necessarily be greater in lower-income groups where the need for dietary improvement is higher. A targeted food tax combined with the appropriate subsidy on fruits and vegetables could reduce deaths from CVD and cancer.

  13. Stimulating household flood risk mitigation investments through insurance and subsidies: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    In the period 1998-2009, floods triggered roughly 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard in Europe. Climate change and socio/economic trends are expected to further aggrevate floods losses in many regions. Research shows that flood risk can be significantly reduced if households install protective measures, and that the implementation of such measures can be stimulated through flood insurance schemes and subsidies. However, the effectiveness of such incentives to stimulate implementation of loss-reducing measures greatly depends on the decision process of individuals and is hardly studied. In our study, we developed an Agent-Based Model that integrates flood damage models, insurance mechanisms, subsidies, and household behaviour models to assess the effectiveness of different economic tools on stimulating households to invest in loss-reducing measures. Since the effectiveness depends on the decision making process of individuals, the study compares different household decision models ranging from standard economic models, to economic models for decision making under risk, to more complex decision models integrating economic models and risk perceptions, opinion dynamics, and the influence of flood experience. The results show the effectiveness of incentives to stimulate investment in loss-reducing measures for different household behavior types, while assuming climate change scenarios. It shows how complex decision models can better reproduce observed real-world behaviour compared to traditional economic models. Furthermore, since flood events are included in the simulations, the results provide an analysis of the dynamics in insured and uninsured losses for households, the costs of reducing risk by implementing loss-reducing measures, the capacity of the insurance market, and the cost of government subsidies under different scenarios. The model has been applied to the City of Rotterdam in The Netherlands.

  14. Distribution and effect of R&D subsidies: A comparative analysis according to firm size Distribution and effect of R&D subsidies: A comparative analysis according to firm size Distribution and effect of R&D subsidies: A comparative analysis according to firm size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lliana Herrera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between the size of the firm and innovation policy. The study includes a joint analysis of distribution and the effect of R&D subsidies on inputs and outputs of the innovation process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and large firms. Although size has a significant, positive influence on firms’ propensity to obtain R&D subsidies, large firms do not always show the strongest effects and in some cases such an effect is not significant. The study likewise concludes that subsidies are effective in increasing the inputs to the innovation process of SMEs and the outputs of large firms. One must consider these differences when evaluating and designing future innovation policies.This study considers the relationship between the size of the firm and innovation policy. The study includes a joint analysis of distribution and the effect of R&D subsidies on inputs and outputs of the innovation process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and large firms. Although size has a significant, positive influence on firms’ propensity to obtain R&D subsidies, large firms do not always show the strongest effects and in some cases such an effect is not significant. The study likewise concludes that subsidies are effective in increasing the inputs to the innovation process of SMEs and the outputs of large firms. One must consider these differences when evaluating and designing future innovation policies.This study considers the relationship between the size of the firm and innovation policy. The study includes a joint analysis of distribution and the effect of R&D subsidies on inputs and outputs of the innovation process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and large firms. Although size has a significant, positive influence on firms’ propensity to obtain R&D subsidies, large firms do not always show the strongest effects and in some cases such an effect is not significant. The study likewise concludes that subsidies

  15. Buying health: assessing the impact of a consumer-side vegetable subsidy on purchasing, consumption and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Drelich, Noah

    2016-02-01

    To measure the impact of a reimbursement-based consumer subsidy on vegetable expenditures, consumption and waste. Two-arm randomized controlled trial; two-week baseline observation period, three-week intervention period. Participants' vegetable expenditures, consumption and waste were monitored using receipts collection and through an FFQ. During the intervention period, the treatment group received reimbursement of up to 50 US dollars ($) for purchased vegetables. Participants were solicited from Palo Alto, CA, USA using materials advertising a 'consumer behavior study' and a small participation incentive. To prevent selection bias, solicitation materials did not describe the specific behaviour being evaluated. One hundred and fifty potential participants responded to the solicitations and 144 participants enrolled in the study; 138 participants completed all five weekly surveys. Accounting for the control group (n 69) and the two-week baseline period, the intervention significantly impacted the treatment group's (n 69) vegetable expenditures (+$8.16 (sd 2.67)/week, Pconsumer subsidy significantly increased participants' vegetable expenditures, but not consumption or waste, suggesting that this type of subsidy might not have the effects anticipated. Reimbursement-based consumer subsidies may therefore not be as useful a policy tool for impacting vegetable consumption as earlier studies have suggested. Moreover, moderation analysis revealed that the subsidy's effect on participants' vegetable expenditures was significant only in men. Additional research should seek to determine how far reaching gender-specific effects are in this context. Further research should also examine the effect of a similar consumer subsidy on high-risk populations and explore to what extent increases in participants' expenditures are due to the purchase of more expensive vegetables, purchasing of vegetables during the study period that were consumed outside the study period, or a shift

  16. ARE THE EUROPEAN UNION CAP’S SUBSIDIES A POLITICAL RENT? AN ATTEMPT AT METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czyżewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the “induced innovation model of agricultural development” there exist mechanisms for this sector’s participation in contributing to economic development, as well as in sharing its benefits. Nonetheless, inefficiencies of the market that distort market signals, constitute a barrier of the latter process. Therefore, the so-called “surplus drainage” from agriculture takes place. The authors claim that it is possible to objectively measure a “surplus drainage” from agriculture as a result of market failure. Assuming that rural areas generate public goods (i.e. a landscape, a biodiversity, rural culture and tradition, unique food quality, food safety, food security speculative land investors have lower willingness to contribute to its creation, than family farms. This is why agrarian policy levies more duties on them (institutional barriers and favours farmers. The mentioned premises imply that the CAP’s subsidies should not be perceived as political rents according to its classical definition. Only a part of subsidies left after subtracting a value of “surplus drainage” and a compensation of public goods has a hallmark of the rent. A valuation of these values is an important scientific challenge.

  17. Evaluating Labour Market Effects of Wage Subsidies for the Disabled -The Danish Flexjobs Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving the employm......We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving...... the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We find a substantial, positive employment effect of the scheme in the 1994-2001 period within the target group compared to a control group of closely matched ineligibles, but no discernable effects on the probability of disability...... exit. For the target group employment probability is raised by 33 pct. points after the scheme is introduced relative to a mean employment rate at baseline of 44%. One explanation for a strong employment entry effect concomitant with a non-existent disability exit effect could be that subsidized jobs...

  18. Evaluating Labour Market Effects of Wage Subsidies for the Disabled – the Danish Flexjob Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving the employm......We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving...... the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We find a substantial, positive employment effect of the scheme in the 1994-2001 period within the target group compared to a control group of closely matched ineligibles, but no discernable effects on the probability of disability...... exit. For the target group employment probability is raised by 33 pct. points after the scheme is introduced relative to a mean employment rate at baseline of 44%. One explanation for a strong employment entry effect concomitant with a non-existent disability exit effect could be that subsidized jobs...

  19. Financial crisis, subsidies and climate change in the equation of sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bran, F.; Ioan, I. [Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (Romania). Faculty of Agro-Food and Environmental Economics; Popa, C.

    2011-07-01

    The challenges of sustainable development remains after more than two decades of converging efforts at high decision levels. Its environmental dimension is a great contributor in this respect with climate change at the top of the priority list. The paper examined two means to contribute in this area: changes in investment patterns due to the new growth model emerging in the aftermath of the financial crisis and the removal of subsidies for fossil fuel production and consumption. In the first case we found that the new growth model has a 'green' component stemming in green-tax reform, reforming and removing inefficient policy measures, and removing barriers of energy and transport efficiency. As long as the second component is regarded, the triple 'dividend' that could be obtained includes pushing the green agenda. However there are important barriers to overcome, such as social impact and income loss for oil exporting countries. Further research should consider the economic and social implications of this global picture in Romania and if there are measures to be applied in order to prevent revenue and GDP loss due to subsidies removal.

  20. Evaluating Additionality of an Innovation Subsidy Program Targeted at SMEs: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Radas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effectiveness of a recently introduced innovation subsidy program targeted at SMEs in Croatia. Three aspects of program additionality were evaluated: input, output and behavioral aspects. Both qualitative and survey research was employed, and four case studies with selected recipient companies were conducted. This study is a response to the policy-makers’ need for early program assessment. It attempts to show that even with early evaluation and small population of recipients it is possible to gain insight into program effectiveness. The analysis suggests that the effects of programs targeted at innovative SMEs might need to be evaluated differently than general subsidies. This is especially evident in the evaluation of input additionality. The analysis indicates that SMEs which started with a higher R&D capability tend to increase R&D intensity while participating in the program. The program raised R&D and innovation capability of the participating SMEs, but commercialization of project results remains a concern.

  1. Evaluating Labour Market Effects of Wage Subsidies for the Disabled -The Danish Flexjobs Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving the employm......We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving...... the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We find a substantial, positive employment effect of the scheme in the 1994-2001 period within the target group compared to a control group of closely matched ineligibles, but no discernable effects on the probability of disability...... exit. For the target group employment probability is raised by 33 pct. points after the scheme is introduced relative to a mean employment rate at baseline of 44%. One explanation for a strong employment entry effect concomitant with a non-existent disability exit effect could be that subsidized jobs...

  2. Evaluating Labour Market Effects of Wage Subsidies for the Disabled – the Danish Flexjob Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving the employm......We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving...... the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We find a substantial, positive employment effect of the scheme in the 1994-2001 period within the target group compared to a control group of closely matched ineligibles, but no discernable effects on the probability of disability...... exit. For the target group employment probability is raised by 33 pct. points after the scheme is introduced relative to a mean employment rate at baseline of 44%. One explanation for a strong employment entry effect concomitant with a non-existent disability exit effect could be that subsidized jobs...

  3. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  4. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, James E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability – and hence their long-term ability to provide services – and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations, and for estimating the extent to which local benefits are dependent upon other locations. We also describe a method for estimating the net payment, or subsidy, owed by or to a location that balances benefits received and support provided by locations throughout the migratory range of multiple species. The ability to quantify these spatial subsidies could provide a foundation for the establishment of markets that incentivize cross-jurisdictional cooperative management of migratory species. It could also provide a mechanism for resolving conflicts over the sustainable and equitable allocation of exploited migratory species.

  5. The Impact of Child-Care Subsidies on Child Development: Evidence from Geographic Variation in the Distance to Social Service Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of U.S. child-care subsidies on the cognitive and behavioral development of children in low-income female-headed families. We identify the effect of subsidy receipt by exploiting geographic variation in the distance that families must travel from home to reach the nearest social service agency that administers…

  6. Child Care: Multiple Factors Could Have Contributed to the Recent Decline in the Number of Children Whose Families Receive Subsidies. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-344

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kay E.

    2010-01-01

    As Congress considers reauthorization of the laws which provide funding for the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), there is interest in understanding what accounts for recent trends in child care subsidy receipt among eligible families and what research says about subsidies' effects on parents' ability to obtain and maintain employment. The…

  7. The “Cadillac Tax” on Health Benefits in the United States Will Hit the Middle Class Hardest: Refuting the Myth That Health Benefit Tax Subsidies Are Regressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2016-01-01

    U.S. employment-based health benefits are exempt from income and payroll taxes, an exemption that provided tax subsidies of $326.2 billion in 2015. Both liberal and conservative economists have denounced these subsidies as “regressive” and lauded a provision of the Affordable Care Act—the Cadillac Tax—that would curtail them. The claim that the subsidies are regressive rests on estimates showing that the affluent receive the largest subsidies in absolute dollars. But this claim ignores the standard definition of regressivity, which is based on the share of income paid by the wealthy versus the poor, rather than on dollar amounts. In this study, we calculate the value of tax subsidies in 2009 as a share of income for each income quintile and for the wealthiest Americans. In absolute dollars, tax subsidies were highest for families between the 80th and 95th percentiles of family income and lowest for the poorest 20%. However, as shares of income, subsidies were largest for the middle and fourth income quintiles and smallest for the wealthiest 0.5% of Americans. We conclude that the tax subsidy to employment-based insurance is neither markedly regressive, nor progressive. The Cadillac Tax will disproportionately harm families with (2009) incomes between $38,550 and $100,000, while sparing the wealthy.

  8. Impacts of the "transport subsidy initiative on poor TB patients" in Rural China: a patient-cohort based longitudinal study in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the financial burden on TB patients for transportation during treatment, and to evaluate the impacts of the "transportation subsidy initiative on poor TB patients" in rural China for improving poor patients' access to TB treatment. METHODS: A Case-cohort of 429 TB patients was investigated through questionnaire interviews in four counties of two provinces in China. Information on the financial burden for transportation during TB diagnosis and treatment was collected. Qualitative in-depth interviews with 26 TB patients were carried out to understand their perceptions of transportation subsidy initiative. RESULTS: The mean transportation cost of TB medical care was 97 CNY (70 CNY in median, varying from 0 to 700 CNY. About 51% of the patients spent more than 10 CNY per round trip to the TB dispensary. Of the 429 TB patients investigated, 139 had received transportation subsidies after getting TB diagnosis; 15/139 (10.9% showed dissatisfaction, mainly because the subsidy amount being insufficient. The income of patients receiving transportation subsidies was significantly lower than those not receiving the subsidies (p<0.05. The impression that an appropriate transportation subsidy enables patients to complete the required visits during their TB treatment was obtained after observation of over 80% of the patients. CONCLUSION: The transportation subsidy plays an important role in reducing financial burden on poor TB patients for the completion of treatment. However, the coverage was limited and the amount of subsidy was not enough under the present policy. Considering the poverty of rural TB patients, a universal coverage and a rational amount of transportation subsidy should be proposed.

  9. Child Care Subsidy Policies and Practices: Implications for Child Care Providers. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gina; Snyder, Kathleen; Tout, Kathryn

    This brief summarizes the report "Essential but Often Ignored: Child Care Providers in the Subsidy System," examining child care subsidy policies and practices shaping experiences of providers serving subsidized children, particularly those affecting providers' payments and their overall experience with the subsidy system. Research on the voucher…

  10. African agricultural subsidy impacts food security, poverty, drought tolerance, and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, G. L.; Palm, C.; DeFries, R. S.; Nziguheba, G.; Droppelmann, K.; Nkonya, E.; Michelson, H.; Clark, C.; Kathewera, F.; Walsh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi has spearheaded an unprecedented policy change in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2005 when it started a widespread agricultural inputs subsidy program (AISP) targeting small farmer maize production with mineral fertilizer and improved seeds. Since then, the mean N fertilizer load has increased significantly, from ~ 0 to a modest 35 kg N/ha or 7 times greater than SSA's average 5 kg N/ha average. During the tenure of AISP, Malawi has transitioned from a food aid recipient to an exporter. Maize yields each year of AISP are double the long-term average (0.8 tons/ha/yr, 1960-2005). In 2007, subsidy inputs combined with good rains led to of an unprecedented increase in national average yields of 2.7 tons/ha. National-scale assessments covering, agriculture, poverty, and environment such as this one are required to understand the trade-offs between development, climate and the environment. Environmentally, N2O emissions from fertilizer are a concern. First order estimates put emissions from AISP fertilizers at 2,600 Mg N2O/year (0.81 Tg CO2-e). While globally insignificant, these emissions may be equivalent to 16% of Malawi's annual fossil fuel and deforestation emissions. However, our partial nutrient budgets indicate that crop removal is still higher than N applied and therefore little loss of N to the environment is expected. Mineral fertilizers are a rapid first step to increase soil N after 40 years of serious depletion. Once restored, the soils will support robust agroforestry and other forms of organic inputs produced on-farm. Fertilizer use increases carbon sequestration on agricultural soils and reduces pressure to clear forests, which may partially compensate for the N2O emissions. We find evidence that AISP significantly increases food security and mitigates the impacts of drought on maize production. This is the first work linking the distribution of fertilizer subsidies to local crop yields using government records, remotely-sensed time series of

  11. Fiscal 1996 report on the results of the subsidy operation under the Sunshine Project on the development of a geothermal water use power plant, etc. Development of the binary cycle power plant (development of the measurement while drilling system for geothermal wells); 1996 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu (binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu (chinetsusei kussakuji kotei joho kenchi system no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The R and D were carried out of a detecting system for measurement of data on the bottom of geothermal well, data transmission and signal processing, and an analysis system for well drilling trajectory control and well assessment while geothermal well drilling based on the data obtained by the detecting system. The paper reported the results of the technology development in fiscal 1996. In the development of the detecting system, improvement/design were conducted on a mud pulse generator constituting sonde, well bottom signal processing equipment, mode switch and inclined information sensor, and the system equivalent to the actual one was manufactured to conduct a running test at high temperature/pressure. Moreover, a test to confirm heat resistance of electronic parts was made for further improvement in heat resistance of the sonde, in order to obtain the data. In the development of an analysis system, conducted were enhancement of operability of the planning/indication portions of the well drilling trajectory supporting system, improvement of the data intake system, etc. In relation to the well assessment supporting system, carried out were heightening of operability of the temperature analysis portion and confirmation of accuracy increase. 5 refs., 253 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. Credibility and legitimacy in policy-driven innovation networks: Resource dependencies and expectations in Dutch electric vehicle subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, F.J.; Welle, L.; Bakker, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically examine the influence of different types of credibility on the legitimacy to grant individual actors within consortia an innovation subsidy. Theorizing from the resource dependence view and the sociology of expectations, we hypothesize that four types of credi

  13. More choice in health insurance marketplaces may reduce the value of the subsidies available to low-income enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erin A; Saltzman, Evan; Bauhoff, Sebastian; Pacula, Rosalie L; Eibner, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Federal subsidies available to enrollees in health insurance Marketplaces are pegged to the premium of the second-lowest-cost silver plan available in each rating area (as defined by each state). People who qualify for the subsidy contribute a percentage of their income to purchase coverage, and the federal government covers the remaining cost up to the price of that premium. Because the number of plans offered and plan premiums vary substantially across rating areas, the effective value of the subsidy may vary geographically. We found that the availability of more plans in a rating area was associated with lower premiums but higher deductibles for enrollees in the second-lowest-cost silver plan. In rating areas with more than twenty plans, the average deductible in the second-lowest-cost silver plan was nearly $1,000 higher than it was in rating areas with fewer than thirteen plans. Because premium costs for second-lowest-cost silver plans are capped, deductibles may be a more salient measure of plan value for enrollees than premiums are. Greater standardization of plans or an alternative approach to calculating the subsidy could provide a more consistent benefit to enrollees across various rating areas. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. A simple change to the Medicare Part D low-income subsidy program could save $5 billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting; Zhou, Chao; Baik, Seo Hyon

    2014-06-01

    Medicare Part D provides a subsidy to beneficiaries with incomes below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. Enrollees with the low-income subsidy accounted for 75 percent of the $60 billion in total federal Part D spending in 2013. The government randomly assigns any new beneficiary who automatically qualifies for the subsidy, or who successfully applies for it without indicating a preferred plan, to a stand-alone Part D plan whose premium is equal to or below the average premium for the basic Part D benefit in the region. We used an intelligent reassignment algorithm and 2008-09 Part D drug use and spending data to match enrollees to available plans according to their medication needs. We found that such a reassignment approach could have saved the federal government over $5 billion in 2009, for mean government savings of $710 (median: $368) per enrollee with a low-income subsidy. Implementing that simple change to reassign beneficiaries would have also lowered the proportion of prescriptions that required utilization review from 29 percent to 20 percent, and the proportion of prescriptions with quantity limits from 27 percent to 19 percent. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Whole-farm planning under uncertainty : impacts of subsidy scheme and utility function on portfolio choice in Norwegian agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, G.; Hardaker, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the impacts of degree of risk aversion, subsidy scheme and choice of utility function on optimal farm plans in Norwegian agriculture. Data from a farm business survey (1991-1997) are combined with subjective judgements to formulate a two-stage utility-efficient programming model

  16. Credibility and legitimacy in policy-driven innovation networks: resource dependencies and expectations in Dutch electric vehicle subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijnsoever, F.J.; Welle, L.; Bakker, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically examine the influence of credibility on the likelihood to grant consortia of collaborating actors an innovation subsidy. Theorizing from the viewpoint of resource dependence theory and the sociology of expectations, we hypothesize that four types of credibilit

  17. Use of multiple modes of flight subsidy by a soaring terrestrial bird, the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, when on migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.; Turk, Philip J.; Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff L.; Brandes, David; Tremblay, Junior A.; Lemaître, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Large birds regularly use updrafts to subsidize flight. Although most research on soaring bird flight has focused on use of thermal updrafts, there is evidence suggesting that many species are likely to use multiple modes of subsidy. We tested the degree to which a large soaring species uses multiple modes of subsidy to provide insights into the decision-making that underlies flight behaviour. We statistically classified more than 22 000 global positioning satellite–global system for mobile communications telemetry points collected at 30-s intervals to identify the type of subsidized flight used by 32 migrating golden eagles during spring in eastern North America. Eagles used subsidized flight on 87% of their journey. They spent 41.9% ± 1.5 (, range: 18–56%) of their subsidized northbound migration using thermal soaring, 45.2% ± 2.1 (12–65%) of time gliding between thermals, and 12.9% ± 2.2 (1–55%) of time using orographic updrafts. Golden eagles responded to the variable local-scale meteorological events they encountered by switching flight behaviour to take advantage of multiple modes of subsidy. Orographic soaring occurred more frequently in morning and evening, earlier in the migration season, and when crosswinds and tail winds were greatest. Switching between flight modes allowed migration for relatively longer periods each day and frequent switching behaviour has implications for a better understanding of avian flight behaviour and of the evolution of use of subsidy in flight. PMID:26538556

  18. Parent Experiences with State Child Care Subsidy Systems and Their Perceptions of Choice and Quality in Care Selected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Torquati, Julia; Wang, Cixin; Shjegstad, Brinn

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated parents' experiences using Child Care and Development Fund and other state-dispersed child care subsidies, reasons for choosing their current child care program, and perceptions of the quality of child care received from their current program. A telephone survey of 659 parents receiving child care…

  19. A Profile of Border Protection in Egypt : An Effective Rate of Protection Approach Adjusting for Energy Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes, Alberto; Foster, William

    2011-01-01

    This study examines recent effective rates of protection across the Egyptian economy, using an ad valorem price wedge introduced by nontariff barriers and energy subsidies, and compares today's effective rates of protection with those of a decade ago. The study uses 23 aggregated sectors from input-output matrix information. Although trade liberalization since the late-1990s has had a cons...

  20. Does Government Subsidy Guide Private Universities towards Favorable Directions?: A Preliminary Analysis on Financial Data of Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing college-aged population and the transforming policy environment in Japan, private universities are confronted with management crises, such as bankruptcy, mergers, etc. As the second largest source of funding, government subsidies for private universities is considered to have contributed to enhancing educational conditions and…

  1. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, G.; Catenazzi, A.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing spec

  2. Land speculation and interest rate subsidies as a cause of deforestation: The role of cattle ranching in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Land speculation by cattle ranchers is considered a principal cause of deforestation in Latin America, in particular in combination with (previously) widely provided interest rate subsidies. Proof for the hypothesis that land speculation leads to inflated rates of investment in land is, however, rel

  3. Common Challenges in the Study of Continuity of Child Care Subsidy Participation. Methodological Brief OPRE 2012-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Grobe, Deana; Weber, Roberta B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss several key challenges encountered when conducting a study of the continuity of participation in the child care subsidy program. While many of these issues are familiar to those who have studied participation dynamics in other assistance programs, and to those familiar with survival analysis, we describe these challenges…

  4. Use of multiple modes of flight subsidy by a soaring terrestrial bird, the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, when on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Turk, Philip J; Duerr, Adam E; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael J; Cooper, Jeff L; Brandes, David; Tremblay, Junior A; Lemaître, Jérôme

    2015-11-01

    Large birds regularly use updrafts to subsidize flight. Although most research on soaring bird flight has focused on use of thermal updrafts, there is evidence suggesting that many species are likely to use multiple modes of subsidy. We tested the degree to which a large soaring species uses multiple modes of subsidy to provide insights into the decision-making that underlies flight behaviour. We statistically classified more than 22 000 global positioning satellite-global system for mobile communications telemetry points collected at 30-s intervals to identify the type of subsidized flight used by 32 migrating golden eagles during spring in eastern North America. Eagles used subsidized flight on 87% of their journey. They spent 41.9% ± 1.5 ([Formula: see text], range: 18-56%) of their subsidized northbound migration using thermal soaring, 45.2% ± 2.1 (12-65%) of time gliding between thermals, and 12.9% ± 2.2 (1-55%) of time using orographic updrafts. Golden eagles responded to the variable local-scale meteorological events they encountered by switching flight behaviour to take advantage of multiple modes of subsidy. Orographic soaring occurred more frequently in morning and evening, earlier in the migration season, and when crosswinds and tail winds were greatest. Switching between flight modes allowed migration for relatively longer periods each day and frequent switching behaviour has implications for a better understanding of avian flight behaviour and of the evolution of use of subsidy in flight.

  5. Current subsidies in the agricultural sector of the global trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Voronina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.

  6. FINANCIAL CRISIS, SUBSIDIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EQUATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA BRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial crisis, subsidies and climate change in the equation ofsustainable development. An irreducible situation such as the contemporary financialcrisis creates the premises of major overthrow in decision criteria. Meanwhile,significant progresses in overcoming the ecological crisis, fueled mainly by the climatechange are also in relation with such changes. This convergence is easy to be observeddue to logical connections. If its existence was noticed at decisional levels is theoverarching question that structure the paper. Since the answer is positive, there areexplored the visions and plans of measures developed within this confrontation. Thereis applied a global approach and that is why each discussion considers also theimplications of economic globalization and of global environmental action as influencefactors on the path and direction of change.

  7. A nematomorph parasite explains variation in terrestrial subsidies to trout streams in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Tokuchi, Naoko; Kamauchi, Hiromitsu; Harada, Yasushi; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites alter the behavior of their orthopteran hosts, driving them to water and creating a source of food for stream salmonids. We investigated whether nematomorphs could explain variation in terrestrial subsidies across several streams. In nine study streams, orthopterans comprise much of the stomach contents of trout (46 +/- 31% on average). Total mass of ingested prey per trout biomass positively correlated with the mass of orthopterans ingested, suggesting that the orthopterans enhanced absolute mass of prey consumption by the trout population. The orthopterans ingested per trout biomass positively correlated with the abundance of nematomorphs in the stream, but not with the abundance of camel crickets (the dominant hosts) around the streams. Streams in conifer plantations had fewer nematomorphs than streams in natural deciduous forests. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that a manipulative parasite can explain variation in the allochthonous energy flow through and across ecosystems.

  8. Effects of Detrital Subsidies on Soft-Sediment Ecosystem Function Are Transient and Source-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca V Gladstone-Gallagher

    Full Text Available Detrital subsidies from marine macrophytes are prevalent in temperate estuaries, and their role in structuring benthic macrofaunal communities is well documented, but the resulting impact on ecosystem function is not understood. We conducted a field experiment to test the effects of detrital decay on soft-sediment primary production, community metabolism and nutrient regeneration (measures of ecosystem function. Twenty four (2 m2 plots were established on an intertidal sandflat, to which we added 0 or 220 g DW m-2 of detritus from either mangroves (Avicennia marina, seagrass (Zostera muelleri, or kelp (Ecklonia radiata (n = 6 plots per treatment. Then, after 4, 17 and 46 d we measured ecosystem function, macrofaunal community structure and sediment properties. We hypothesized that (1 detrital decay would stimulate benthic primary production either by supplying nutrients to the benthic macrophytes, or by altering the macrofaunal community; and (2 ecosystem responses would depend on the stage and rate of macrophyte decay (a function of source. Avicennia detritus decayed the slowest with a half-life (t50 of 46 d, while Zostera and Ecklonia had t50 values of 28 and 2.6 d, respectively. However, ecosystem responses were not related to these differences. Instead, we found transient effects (up to 17 d of Avicennia and Ecklonia detritus on benthic primary production, where initially (4 d these detrital sources suppressed primary production, but after 17 d, primary production was stimulated in Avicennia plots relative to controls. Other ecosystem function response variables and the macrofaunal community composition were not altered by the addition of detritus, but did vary with time. By sampling ecosystem function temporally, we were able to capture the in situ transient effects of detrital subsidies on important benthic ecosystem functions.

  9. Algal subsidies enhance invertebrate prey for threatened shorebirds: A novel conservation tool on ocean beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Hutton, Briony M.; Gilby, Ben L.; Porch, Nicholaus; Maguire, Grainne S.; Maslo, Brooke; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Weston, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Birds breeding on ocean beaches are threatened globally, often requiring significant investments in species conservation and habitat management. Conservation actions typically encompass spatial and temporal threat reductions and protection of eggs and broods. Still, populations decline or recover only slowly, calling for fresh approaches in beach-bird conservation. Because energetic demands are critically high during the nesting and chick rearing phases, and chick survival is particularly low, supplementing prey to breeding birds and their offspring is theoretically attractive as a means to complement more traditional conservation measures. Prey for plovers and similar species on ocean beaches consists of invertebrates (e.g. small crustaceans, insects) many of which feed on stranded masses of plant material (e.g. kelp and seagrass) and use this 'wrack' as habitat. We added wrack to the upper beach where plovers nest and their chicks forage to test whether algal subsidies promote the abundance and diversity of their invertebrate prey. Adding wrack to the upper beach significantly increased the abundance and diversity of invertebrate prey items. At wrack subsidies greater than 50% of surface cover invertebrate assemblages became highly distinct compared with those that received smaller additions of wrack. Substantial (2-4 fold) increases in the abundance amphipods and isopods that are principal prey items for plovers drove these shifts. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of food provisioning for birds on ocean shores. Whilst novel, it is practicable, inexpensive and does not introduce further restrictions or man-made structures. Thus, it can meaningfully add to the broader arsenal of conservation tools for threatened species that are wholly reliant on sandy beaches as breeding and foraging habitats.

  10. Effectiveness of energy subsidies. Study on the cost-effectiveness of a few subsidies and fiscal regulations in the period 1988-1999 in the Netherlands. Appendices; Effectiviteit energiesubsidies. Onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van enkele subsidies en fiscale regelingen in de periode 1988-1999. Bijlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, J.G.; Kerssemeeckers, M.M.M.; Blok, K. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aalbers, R.F.T. [OCFEB, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Ossokina, J. [Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); De Groot, H.L.F. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, P. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-12-15

    The Dutch government used several financial tools (subsidies, fiscal regulations) to stimulate energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction, the so-called energy subsidies. In this report the results of a study on the cost-effectiveness of such subsidies in the period 1988-1999 are presented and discussed in detail. [Dutch] In het recente verleden zijn door de overheid diverse financiele instrumenten, zoals subsidies en fiscale regelingen, ingezet om energiebesparing en de reductie van de CO2-emissie te bevorderen. Deze financiele instrumenten worden in dit rapport aangeduid met de algemene term 'energiesubsidies'. Door de werkgroep Interdepartementaal Beleidsonderzoek (IBO) Energiesubsidies moet de vraag worden beantwoord hoe energiesubsidies zodanig vorm kunnen worden gegeven dat tegen zo laag mogelijke kosten een zo hoog mogelijk effect kan worden bereikt. De werkgroep IBO heeft Ecofys en de Erasmus Universiteit de opdracht gegeven een evaluatie uit te voeren van de effectiviteit van een aantal regelingen die van kracht waren in de periode 1988 - 1999. Er zijn zes regelingen onderzocht: Energie InvesteringsAftrek (EIA); Energie Investeringsaftrek voor de non-profit sector en bijzondere sectoren (EINP); Vrije Afschrijving milieuinvesteringen (VAMIL); Regelingen ter stimulering van de implementatie van zon-thermische systemen (SET, SES, BSET, SASZ); Regelingen ter stimulering van investeringen in warmte/krachtkoppeling (WKK) (SES, SET, BSET); en Wet Belasting op Milieugrondslag art 36 O (regulerende energiebelasting of REB)

  11. Effectiveness of energy subsidies. Study on the cost-effectiveness of a few subsidies and fiscal regulations in the period 1988-1999 in the Netherlands. A summary report; Effectiviteit energiesubsidies. Onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van enkele subsidies en fiscale regelingen in de periode 1988-1999. Samenvatting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, J.G.; Kerssemeeckers, M.M.M.; Blok, K. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aalbers, R.F.T. (OCFEB, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam); Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Ossokina, J. [Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); De Groot, H.L.F. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, P. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch government used several financial tools (subsidies, fiscal regulations) to stimulate energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction, the so-called energy subsidies. In this report the results of a study on the cost-effectiveness of such subsidies in the period 1988-1999 are summarized [Dutch] In het recente verleden zijn door de overheid diverse financiele instrumenten, zoals subsidies en fiscale regelingen, ingezet om energiebesparing en de reductie van de CO2-emissie te bevorderen. Deze financiele instrumenten worden in dit rapport aangeduid met de algemene term 'energiesubsidies'. Door de werkgroep Interdepartementaal Beleidsonderzoek (IBO) Energiesubsidies moet de vraag worden beantwoord hoe energiesubsidies zodanig vorm kunnen worden gegeven dat tegen zo laag mogelijke kosten een zo hoog mogelijk effect kan worden bereikt. De werkgroep IBO heeft Ecofys en de Erasmus Universiteit de opdracht gegeven een evaluatie uit te voeren van de effectiviteit van een aantal regelingen die van kracht waren in de periode 1988 - 1999. Er zijn zes regelingen onderzocht: Energie InvesteringsAftrek (EIA); Energie Investeringsaftrek voor de non-profit sector en bijzondere sectoren (EINP); Vrije Afschrijving milieuinvesteringen (VAMIL); Regelingen ter stimulering van de implementatie van zon-thermische systemen (SET, SES, BSET, SASZ); Regelingen ter stimulering van investeringen in warmte/krachtkoppeling (WKK) (SES, SET, BSET); en Wet Belasting op Milieugrondslag art 36 O (regulerende energiebelasting of REB)

  12. Effectiveness of energy subsidies. Study on the cost-effectiveness of a few subsidies and fiscal regulations in the period 1988-1999 in the Netherlands; Effectiviteit energiesubsidies. Onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van enkele subsidies en fiscale regelingen in de periode 1988-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, J.G.; Kerssemeeckers, M.M.M.; Blok, K. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aalbers, R.F.T. [OCFEB, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Ossokina, J. [Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); De Groot, H.L.F. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, P. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-12-15

    The Dutch government used several financial tools (subsidies, fiscal regulations) to stimulate energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction, the so-called energy subsidies. In this report the results of a study on the cost-effectiveness of such subsidies in the period 1988-1999 are presented and discussed in detail. [Dutch] In het recente verleden zijn door de overheid diverse financiele instrumenten, zoals subsidies en fiscale regelingen, ingezet om energiebesparing en de reductie van de CO2-emissie te bevorderen. Deze financiele instrumenten worden in dit rapport aangeduid met de algemene term 'energiesubsidies'. Door de werkgroep Interdepartementaal Beleidsonderzoek (IBO) Energiesubsidies moet de vraag worden beantwoord hoe energiesubsidies zodanig vorm kunnen worden gegeven dat tegen zo laag mogelijke kosten een zo hoog mogelijk effect kan worden bereikt. De werkgroep IBO heeft Ecofys en de Erasmus Universiteit de opdracht gegeven een evaluatie uit te voeren van de effectiviteit van een aantal regelingen die van kracht waren in de periode 1988 - 1999. Er zijn zes regelingen onderzocht: Energie InvesteringsAftrek (EIA); Energie Investeringsaftrek voor de non-profit sector en bijzondere sectoren (EINP); Vrije Afschrijving milieuinvesteringen (VAMIL); Regelingen ter stimulering van de implementatie van zon-thermische systemen (SET, SES, BSET, SASZ); Regelingen ter stimulering van investeringen in warmte/krachtkoppeling (WKK) (SES, SET, BSET); en Wet Belasting op Milieugrondslag art 36 O (regulerende energiebelasting of REB)

  13. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, subsidies are the amounts of government payments in order to provide all society members with minimum well-being. In several countries such as Iran, the agriculture sector is supported by different methods to achieve goals such as increasing farmers' income, supporting domestic producers and eliminating dependence on imports, preserving employment and reducing poverty. A significant part of agriculture subsidies has been allocated to energy resources, chemical fertilizers, seeds, agriculture machines, vaccines, animal toxins, the interest on bank loans, insurance fees, certain airplane services, distributing young saplings, and government guaranteed purchase of products. However, examining the subsidies system in Iran reveals that most government payments are in the agriculture sector and more specifically on energy resources. Recently, the extra low cost of energy in the agriculture sector, which has had certain government supports, has resulted in low productivity and environmental damage, and has resulted in increased demand for agricultural products due to population growth, changes in life pattern, deviation in energy cost in agricultural sector, environment destruction and influences on sustainable agriculture indicators. Moreover, among different production units, agriculture has the closest relationship with the environment. This relationship is a mutual.On the one hand, erosion and destruction of the environment along with pollution growth and shortage of water resources negatively influences the production and efficiency of agricultural products, and on the other hand, agricultural pollutants and irregular use of chemical fertilizers in this sector impose indispensable damages to the environment.This study aims to apply a partial equilibrium model in order to examine direct and indirect effects of reduction of energy subsidies on economic and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Qorveh

  14. Evaluation of the subsidy scheme for heat pumps, pellet-fuelled fireplaces and control systems; Evaluering av tilskuddsordningen til varmepumper, pelletskaminer og styringssystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernstad, Even; Grande, Jorunn; Sand, Roar; Wendelborg, Christian

    2005-07-01

    Enova's subsidy scheme for energy economising in households was carried out in 2003. Subsidies were given to investments in heat pumps, pellet-fuelled fireplaces and electric energy management systems. The primary objective for this evaluation is to build knowledge about the effect of such subsidy schemes, and determine if they contribute to the reduction of electricity consumption in households. Questions that are addressed include Enova's administration of the subsidy scheme, the effects on households, the effects on the energy market, prices and technology. It is concluded that the scheme had a varied effect for the three technologies entitled to subsidies, and heat pump applications got 92,5 percent of the total sum. The households that received subsidies are in general positive, and the households that did not are in general not so satisfied with the service. It is concluded Enova has administered the subsidy scheme well, especially considering the time-frame and the changed economical conditions given (ml)

  15. Energy Subsidy Policies and Their Reform: Providing economic incentives for climate change mitigation%能源补贴政策及其改革——为减排提供经济激励

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄贵阳

    2007-01-01

    The subsidy, as a measure, is widely applied by governments at all levels around the world as a way of policy interventions. However, there are two completely opposite opinions of subsidies on energy and environmental protection. The only reason for subsidy in existence is the internalization of external benefit. The paper firstly examines the energy subsidy policies relevant to climate change mitigation in China and their effectiveness, then points out the deficiency existing in energy conservation policies and renewable energy development policies, and finally suggests that China should exert positive role of subsidy policies and reduce negative effects in promoting climate change mitigation.

  16. Access to housing subsidies, housing status, drug use and HIV risk among low-income U.S. urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Gomez Julia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much research has shown an association between homelessness and unstable housing and HIV risk but most has relied on relatively narrow definitions of housing status that preclude a deeper understanding of this relationship. Fewer studies have examined access to housing subsidies and supportive housing programs among low-income populations with different personal characteristics. This paper explores personal characteristics associated with access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, the relationship between personal characteristics and housing status, and the relationship between housing status and sexual risk behaviors among low-income urban residents. Methods Surveys were conducted with 392 low-income residents from Hartford and East Harford, Connecticut through a targeted sampling plan. We measured personal characteristics (income, education, use of crack, heroin, or cocaine in the last 6 months, receipt of welfare benefits, mental illness diagnosis, arrest, criminal conviction, longest prison term served, and self-reported HIV diagnosis; access to housing subsidies or supportive housing programs; current housing status; and sexual risk behaviors. To answer the aims above, we performed univariate analyses using Chi-square or 2-sided ANOVA's. Those with significance levels above (0.10 were included in multivariate analyses. We performed 2 separate multiple regressions to determine the effects of personal characteristics on access to housing subsidies and access to supportive housing respectively. We used multinomial main effects logistic regression to determine the effects of housing status on sexual risk behavior. Results Being HIV positive or having a mental illness predicted access to housing subsidies and supportive housing, while having a criminal conviction was not related to access to either housing subsidies or supportive housing. Drug use was associated with poorer housing statuses such as living on the

  17. Examining the Value of Subsidies of Health Plans and Cost-Sharing for Prescription Drugs in the Health Insurance Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Mort, Jane R

    2016-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) initiated federally and state-run health insurance exchanges, or marketplaces, with health plans offering subsidies for plan members as well as coverage for essential health benefits, to help individuals, families, and small businesses find health plans that fit their specific needs. A recent study found that the value of these healthcare subsidies varied with the number of health plans in the different geographic rating areas, but that study only examined the premiums and the deductibles of those health plans. To examine the value of subsidies of health plans, including cost-sharing for prescription drugs in the health insurance marketplace. We have used publicly available health plan data from HealthCare.gov and from county population data obtained from the US Census Bureau in June 2015. The average-weighted premium; medical deductible; medical maximum out-of-pocket spending; and cost-sharing for generic drugs, preferred and nonpreferred brand-name drugs, and specialty drugs were calculated for the second lowest-cost silver plan in each geographic rating area. These were then compared across geographic areas with different numbers of plans to determine the value of the subsidies. We also compared the difference between the cost of the average silver plan and the second lowest-cost silver plan for each area to determine the cost to enrollees if they selected the average silver plan. The monetary value of the subsidies provided by health plans was lower in areas with a larger number of plans, because the second lowest-cost silver plans in these areas tended to have lower premiums and higher deductibles. For the most common type of cost-sharing for generic and for preferred brand-name drugs, plan enrollees would likely have a lower or similar copayment if they selected the average-cost silver plan instead of the second lowest-cost silver plan. However, they may end up paying approximately $8 less in copayment for nonpreferred branded

  18. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  19. Targeted subsidy for malaria control with treated nets using a discount voucher system in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, Adiel K; Schellenberg, Joanna R M Armstrong; Mponda, Haji; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-06-01

    During the last decade insecticide-treated nets have become a key strategy for malaria control. Social marketing is an appealing tool for getting such nets to poor rural African communities who are most afflicted by malaria. This approach usually involves subsidized prices to make nets and insecticide more affordable and help establish a commercial market. We evaluated a voucher system for targeted subsidy of treated nets in young children and pregnant women in two rural districts of southern Tanzania. Qualitative work involved focus group discussions with community leaders, male and female parents of children under 5 years. In-depth interviews were held with maternal and child health clinic staff and retail agents. Quantitative data were collected through interviewing more than 750 mothers of children under 5 years during a cluster sample survey of child health. The voucher return rate was extremely high at 97% (7720/8000). However, 2 years after the start of the scheme awareness among target groups was only 43% (45/104), and only 12% of women (12/103; 95% CI 4-48%) had used a voucher towards the cost of a net. We found some evidence of increased voucher use among least poor households, compared with the poorest households. On the basis of these results we renewed our information, education and communication (IEC) campaign about vouchers. Discount vouchers are a feasible system for targeted subsidies, although a substantial amount of time and effort may be needed to achieve high awareness and uptake - by which we mean the proportion of eligible women who used the vouchers - among those targeted. Within a poor society, vouchers may not necessarily increase health equity unless they cover a high proportion of the total cost: since some cash is needed when using a voucher as part-payment, poorer women among the target group are likely to have lower uptake than richer women. The vouchers have two important additional functions: strengthening the role of public health

  20. Are inland wolf-ungulate systems influenced by marine subsidies of Pacific salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.G.; Farley, Sean D.; Stricker, C.A.; Demma, D.J.; Roffler, G.H.; Miller, D.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf-prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland wolf-ungulate food webs far from the coast. We conducted stable-isotope analyses for nitrogen and carbon to evaluate the contribution of salmon to diets of wolves in Denali National Park and Preserve, 1200 river-km from tidewater in interior Alaska, USA. We analyzed bone collagen from 73 wolves equipped with radio collars during 1986-2002 and evaluated estimates of salmon in their diets relative to the availability of salmon and ungulates within their home ranges. We compared wolf densities and ungulate : wolf ratios among regions with differing salmon and ungulate availability to assess subsidizing effects of salmon on these wolf-ungulate systems. Wolves in the northwestern flats of the study area had access to spawning salmon but low ungulate availability and consumed more salmon (17% ?? 7% [mean ?? SD]) than in upland regions, where ungulates were sixfold more abundant and wolves did or did not have salmon spawning areas within their home ranges (8% ?? 6% and 3% ?? 3%, respectively). Wolves were only 17% less abundant on the northwestern flats compared to the remainder of the study area, even though ungulate densities were 78% lower. We estimated that biomass from fall runs of chum (O. keta) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon on the northwestern flats was comparable to the ungulate biomass there, and the contribution of salmon to wolf diets was similar to estimates reported for coastal wolves in southeast Alaska. Given the ubiquitous consumption of salmon by wolves on the northwestern flats and the abundance of salmon there, we conclude that wolf numbers in this region were enhanced by the allochthonous subsidy provided by

  1. Do wage subsidies for disabled workers result in deadweight loss? – evidence from the Danish Flexjob scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona; Thomsen, Lars Brink

    the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We analyse the hiring response to a shock in the wage reimbursement amount to certain firms using the program. Firms received a salary reimbursement for both current and new employees granted a Flexjob subsidy. In 2002......We evaluate the effects of wage subsidy programs for the disabled, in particular, their potential for welfare-loss reduction vs. deadweight loss creation. We do this in the context of the Danish Flexjob scheme, a large, nation-wide scheme that was implemented in 1998 and targeted towards improving......, the reimbursement to government firms was lowered while the reimbursement to municipal and regional employers remained the same. We combine the reform with unique data on whether or not a new Flexjob hiree was previously employed in a regular (unsubsidized) job at the same firm. Thus, we can investigate whether...

  2. Food security, agricultural subsidies, energy, and the environment: a process of 'glocalization' in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, P.

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)

  3. Evaluating the impact of public subsidies on a firm’s performance: a two-stage quasi-experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mediavilla

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of regional R&D public programs in Catalonia (Spain with a two-stage procedure. Firstly, we compare the performance of publicly subsidised companies (treated with that of similar, but unsubsidised companies (non-treated. We use the Propensity Score Matching (PSM methodology to construct a control group which, with regard to its observable characteristics, is as similar as possible to the treated group, and that allows us to identify firms which maintain the same propensity to receive public subsidies. Secondly, and once a valid comparison group has been established, we compare the respective performance of each firm using regression techniques. As a result, we find that recipient firms, on average, seem to increase their value added as a direct result of public subsidy programs.

  4. Agricultural subsidies in the United States and their effect on two annual Chilean crops: corn and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Osorio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The development strategies for Chile have been oriented toward a greater commercial openness. Chile and the United States signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA that has triggered controversies between producers directed to the internal market due to the production and export subsidies that this country carries out. This study analyzed the effect of subsidies granted by the United States to wheat (Tritricum aestivum and corn (Zea mays growers (Farm Bill 2002. For the study, Technical Standard sheet were drawn up, from which were determined the direct production costs and the gross margins. The variables used (market prices, subsidies, freight costs and tariffs and determining the average variable costs allowed us to do a sensitivity analysis, thus establishing the minimum level of production that national farmers must achieve in order to maintain competitiveness while a free trade is in force. The signing of a trade agreement could provoke the eventual withdrawal of many Chilean producers from the business arena while at the same time, favoring consumers with lower prices for the goods derived from these grains.

  5. Problems in Construction of Subsidy System for Agricultural Product Identification and Countermeasures——A Case Study of Xingjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yan

    2012-01-01

    In line with current situations of extension of Xinjiang’s agricultural products,the paper put forward and analyzed existing problems in extension works of agricultural product identification.The problems mainly include:(i) general identification of agricultural products is basically blank and both producers and consumers lack awareness of identification;(ii) creating(famous) brand is a weak point of agriculture in Xinjiang;(iii) certification of non-hazard,green and organic agricultural products lags behind;(iv) it neglects problem of agricultural product packaging.On the basis of these problems,the paper present our recommendations:(i) government provides financial subsidy to actively guide certification of agricultural products;(ii) it should increase financial fund input in brand construction and support(famous) brand construction of agricultural products;(iii) it should provide subsidy for those enterprises creating famous brand,to encourage agricultural producing and processing enterprises to strive for famous brands;(vi) it should stress agricultural product packaging from the source and provide subsidy for agricultural producers who have affixed the identification;(v) it should gradually promote agricultural product identification,to constantly improve the farmers’ awareness of agricultural product identification.

  6. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to recycle and dispose of all people’s expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  7. An Optimization Model for Expired Drug Recycling Logistics Networks and Government Subsidy Policy Design Based on Tri-level Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Pi, Xing

    2015-07-01

    In order to recycle and dispose of all people's expired drugs, the government should design a subsidy policy to stimulate users to return their expired drugs, and drug-stores should take the responsibility of recycling expired drugs, in other words, to be recycling stations. For this purpose it is necessary for the government to select the right recycling stations and treatment stations to optimize the expired drug recycling logistics network and minimize the total costs of recycling and disposal. This paper establishes a tri-level programming model to study how the government can optimize an expired drug recycling logistics network and the appropriate subsidy policies. Furthermore, a Hybrid Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed to search for the optimal solution of the model. An experiment is discussed to illustrate the good quality of the recycling logistics network and government subsides obtained by the HGSAA. The HGSAA is proven to have the ability to converge on the global optimal solution, and to act as an effective algorithm for solving the optimization problem of expired drug recycling logistics network and government subsidies.

  8. Importance of terrestrial arthropods as subsidies in lowland Neotropical rain forest stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Gaston E.; Torres, Pedro J.; Schwizer, Lauren M.; Duff, John H.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of terrestrial arthropods has been documented in temperate stream ecosystems, but little is known about the magnitude of these inputs in tropical streams. Terrestrial arthropods falling from the canopy of tropical forests may be an important subsidy to tropical stream food webs and could also represent an important flux of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in nutrient-poor headwater streams. We quantified input rates of terrestrial insects in eight streams draining lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. In two focal headwater streams, we also measured capture efficiency by the fish assemblage and quantified terrestrially derived N- and P-excretion relative to stream nutrient uptake rates. Average input rates of terrestrial insects ranged from 5 to 41 mg dry mass/m2/d, exceeding previous measurements of aquatic invertebrate secondary production in these study streams, and were relatively consistent year-round, in contrast to values reported in temperate streams. Terrestrial insects accounted for half of the diet of the dominant fish species, Priapicthys annectens. Although terrestrially derived fish excretion was found to be a small flux relative to measured nutrient uptake rates in the focal streams, the efficient capture and processing of terrestrial arthropods by fish made these nutrients available to the local stream ecosystem. This aquatic-terrestrial linkage is likely being decoupled by deforestation in many tropical regions, with largely unknown but potentially important ecological consequences.

  9. Linking ecosystems, food webs, and fish production: subsidies in salmonid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Physical characteristics of riverine habitats, such as large wood abundance, pool geometry and abundance, riparian vegetation cover, and surface flow conditions, have traditionally been thought to constrain fish production in these ecosystems. Conversely, the role of food resources (quantity and quality) in controlling fish production has received far less attention and consideration, though they can also be key productivity drivers. Traditional freshwater food web illustrations have typically conveyed the notion that most fish food is produced within the local aquatic habitat itself, but the concepts and model we synthesize in this article show that most fish food comes from external or very distant sources—including subsidies from marine systems borne from adult returns of anadromous fishes, from fishless headwater tributaries that transport prey to downstream fish, and from adjacent streamside vegetation and associated habitats. The model we propose further illustrates how key trophic pathways and food sources vary through time and space throughout watersheds. Insights into how food supplies affect fishes can help guide how we view riverine ecosystems, their structure and function, their interactions with marine and terrestrial systems, and how we manage natural resources, including fish, riparian habitats, and forests.

  10. Diesel Subsidies and Yemen Politics: Post-2011 Crises and their Impact on Groundwater Use and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Al-Weshali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main source of agricultural and municipal water and contributes 70% of total water use in Yemen. All aquifers are depleting at a very high rate owing to combined effects of a host of socioeconomic, institutional and climate-change factors. The government policy on diesel subsidy was largely believed to be one of the significant factors which stimulated large-scale pumping of water for irrigating water-intensive cash crops such as qat, fruits, and vegetables. A rapid field assessment was conducted between June and December 2011 in six different regions of the country to analyse the impacts of the severe diesel crisis that accompanied the political turmoil of 2011 on groundwater use and agriculture. The study highlighted winners and losers in the process of adapting to diesel shortage and high diesel prices. Farmers’ responses differed according to their social status, financial resources, and farming systems. Poorly endowed households partially or completely abandoned agriculture. Others abandoned farming of irrigated cereals and fodder, but practised deficit irrigation of fruits and vegetables, thus halving the consumption of diesel. Crop yields dropped by 40-60% in all surveyed regions. The intra-governorate transport halt due to the sharp increase in transport cost caused prices at the farm gate to drop. Only those farmers who could absorb increases in diesel prices due to high return:cost ratios, higher drought tolerance, stable prices (qat, and access to alternative sources of water could cope with the diesel crisis.

  11. Land degradation, government subsidy, and smallholders' conservation decision: the case of the loess plateau in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石敏俊; CHENKevin

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is one of the severe environmental problems in China. In order to combat land degradation, a soil conservation program was introduced since 2000 to reduce soil erosion by converting slope-cultivated land into forestry and pasture. This paper represents the first systematic attempt to investigate the impact of the soil conservation program on land degradation in the loess plateau. The results indicate that the soil conservation program to convert slope fields into forest or pasture is an effective way to combat soil erosion. However, a subsidy that is higher than profit of land use activity of slope fields before their conversion into forest and pasture is needed to encourage farmers to join the conservation program. A policy measure to encourage and assist farmers to develop sedentary livestock by using crops produced from fields as well as fodder and forage grass from the converted slope fields might contribute to combat soil erosion. Increase in off-farm job opportunities may encourage households to reduce cultivation in slope fields. That implies a policy measure to encourage rural urbanization might contribute to combat soil erosion.

  12. Vantagem competitiva nacional: a perspectiva das subsidiárias de corporações estrangeiras no Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Jr.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a perspectiva das subsidiárias de corporações multinacionais instaladas no país acerca do ambiente competitivo brasileiro. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa junto a uma amostra de 114 subsidiárias do universo das 1.000 maiores empresas de capital estrangeiro no Brasil. Segundo as empresas estrangeiras que atuam no Brasil, quando o ambiente competitivo brasileiro é comparado com outros locais de atuação das multinacionais, percebe-se que este não favorece a criação e o desenvolvimento de inovações e vantagens competitivas, embora apresente um enorme potencial a ser desenvolvido. Adicionalmente, o ambiente competitivo favorece de forma muito tímida a inserção das subsidiárias na formação e participação em redes de negócios no Brasil. Por fim, segundo as empresas pesquisadas, o governo brasileiro não é pró-ativo no apoio aos investimentos e crescimento industrial estrangeiro e credita pouco respeito e reconhecimento ao papel das subsidiárias na economia nacional. Há desafios relevantes que dependem de iniciativas governamentais e das empresas de capital estrangeiro instaladas no país para serem superados. Palavras-chave: corporações multinacionais; papel das subsidiárias; contexto competitivo. Abstract This article analyzes the perspective of the subsidiaries of multinationals corporations concerning the Brazilian competitive environment. For this, a research was carried on in a sample of 114 subsidiaries of the 1.000 largest foreign companies in Brazil. According to the foreign companies in Brazil, when compared to other countries, the Brazilian competitive environment do not favors the creation and development of innovations and competitive advantages, although expresses an important potential for that. In the same way, the competitive environment favors in a very shy way the insertion of the foreign firms in extern networks in Brazil. Finally, according to theses firms, the Brazilian

  13. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Tam, King; Veerman, Lennert; Blakely, Tony

    2017-02-01

    An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood. Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (taxes and subsidy might avert as many as 470,000 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 420,000 to 510,000) in the Australian population of 22 million, with a net cost-saving of AU$3.4 billion (95% UI: AU$2.4 billion to AU$4.6 billion; US$2.3 billion) to the health sector. Of the taxes evaluated, the sugar tax produced the biggest estimates of health gain (270,000 [95% UI: 250,000 to 290,000] DALYs averted), followed by the salt tax (130,000 [95% UI: 120,000 to 140,000] DALYs), the saturated fat tax (97,000 [95% UI: 77,000 to 120,000] DALYs), and the sugar-sweetened beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs). The fruit and vegetable subsidy (-13,000 [95% UI: -44,000 to 18,000] DALYs) was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e.g., foods high in saturated fat and salt). The study suggests that taxes and subsidies on foods and beverages can potentially be combined to achieve substantial improvements in population health and cost-savings to the health sector. However, the magnitude of health benefits is sensitive to measures of price

  14. Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Diet and Population Health in Australia: A Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Lennert

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing number of countries are implementing taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks to address the growing burden of dietary-related disease, but the cost-effectiveness of combining taxes on unhealthy foods and subsidies on healthy foods is not well understood. Methods and Findings Using a population model of dietary-related diseases and health care costs and food price elasticities, we simulated the effect of taxes on saturated fat, salt, sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverages and a subsidy on fruits and vegetables, over the lifetime of the Australian population. The sizes of the taxes and subsidy were set such that, when combined as a package, there would be a negligible effect on average weekly expenditure on food (monetary benefit at a threshold of AU$50,000 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY). The simulations suggested that the combination of taxes and subsidy might avert as many as 470,000 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 420,000 to 510,000) in the Australian population of 22 million, with a net cost-saving of AU$3.4 billion (95% UI: AU$2.4 billion to AU$4.6 billion; US$2.3 billion) to the health sector. Of the taxes evaluated, the sugar tax produced the biggest estimates of health gain (270,000 [95% UI: 250,000 to 290,000] DALYs averted), followed by the salt tax (130,000 [95% UI: 120,000 to 140,000] DALYs), the saturated fat tax (97,000 [95% UI: 77,000 to 120,000] DALYs), and the sugar-sweetened beverage tax (12,000 [95% UI: 2,100 to 21,000] DALYs). The fruit and vegetable subsidy (−13,000 [95% UI: −44,000 to 18,000] DALYs) was a cost-effective addition to the package of taxes. However, it did not necessarily lead to a net health benefit for the population when modelled as an intervention on its own, because of the possible adverse cross-price elasticity effects on consumption of other foods (e.g., foods high in saturated fat and salt). The study suggests that taxes and subsidies on foods and beverages can potentially be combined

  15. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems.

  16. Lake to land subsidies: experimental addition of aquatic insects increases terrestrial arthropod densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, David; Dreyer, Jamin; Jackson, Randall D; Townsend, Philip A; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-11-01

    Aquatic insects are a common and important subsidy to terrestrial systems, yet little is known about how these inputs affect terrestrial food webs, especially around lakes. Mývatn, a lake in northern Iceland, has extraordinary midge (Chironomidae) emergences that result in large inputs of biomass and nutrients to terrestrial arthropod communities. We simulated this lake-to-land resource pulse by collecting midges from Mývatn and spreading their dried carcasses on 1-m2 plots at a nearby site that receives very little midge deposition. We hypothesized a positive bottom-up response of detritivores that would be transmitted to their predators and would persist into the following year. We sampled the arthropod community once per month for two consecutive summers. Midge addition resulted in significantly different arthropod communities and increased densities of some taxa in both years. Detritivores, specifically Diptera larvae, Collembola, and Acari increased in midge-addition plots, and so did some predators and parasitoids. Arthropod densities were still elevated a year after midge addition, and two years of midge addition further increased the density of higher-order consumers (e.g., Coleoptera and Hymenoptera). Midge addition increased arthropod biomass by 68% after one year and 108% after two years. By manipulating the nutrient pulse delivered by midges we were able to elucidate food web consequences of midge deposition and spatial and temporal dynamics that are difficult to determine based on comparative approaches alone. Resources cross ecosystem boundaries and are assimilated over time because of life-history strategies that connect aquatic and terrestrial food webs and these systems cannot be fully understood in isolation from each other.

  17. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Srivastava, Diane S

    2010-09-01

    1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem processes (i.e. decomposition rate and nitrogen cycling). We predicted that these terrestrial predators can affect aquatic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics within water-filled bromeliads. 3. Aglaoctenus spiders reduced the richness, abundance and biomass of aquatic insect larvae via consumptive or non-consumptive effects on ovipositing terrestrial adults, but effects of the two spider species in combination were usually the linear average of their monoculture effects. In contrast, invertebrates with entirely aquatic life cycles were unaffected or facilitated by spiders. Spiders did not affect either net detritivore biomass or the flux of detrital nitrogen to the bromeliad. Instead, Corinna spiders contributed allochthonous nitrogen to bromeliads. 4. Our results provide the novel observations that predators in one ecosystem not only directly reduce taxa whose life cycles cross-ecosystem boundaries, but also indirectly facilitate taxa whose life cycles are entirely within the second ecosystem. This compensatory response between cross-ecosystem and within-ecosystem taxa may have led to an attenuation of top-down effects across ecosystem boundaries. In addition, our results add to a growing consensus that species identity is an important determinant of community structure and ecosystem functioning. Thus, the composition of both terrestrial and aquatic food webs may affect the strength of cross-ecosystem interactions.

  18. More nutritious food is served in child-care homes receiving higher federal food subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Kirkpatrick, Shannon; Johnson, Donna B

    2011-05-01

    The US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) serves 2.3 million children by providing monetary subsidies for food to participating child-care providers. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that higher reimbursement rates for food result in higher food expenditures and higher nutritional quality of foods served in family child-care homes participating in CACFP. Sixty family home child-care providers were recruited in 2008-2009 from King County, Washington. Half the sample received higher reimbursements and the other half received the lower rates. Participants provided a 5-day menu of meals/snacks served and food shopping receipts. The nutritional quality of foods served was assessed from portion-standardized menus. Nutritional quality was quantified as the mean adequacy (mean percent of dietary reference intake) for seven nutrients of concern for child health. Food expenditures were calculated by linking menus with receipts. Student's t tests for independent samples and general linear models were used to test for between-group differences. The two groups of providers were socioeconomically and demographically similar with comparable professional backgrounds. However, higher reimbursement providers had significantly greater menu expenditures than the lower reimbursement group ($2.36 vs $1.96/child/day; P=0.031). Reimbursement level was not associated with a difference in calories, but menus of higher reimbursement providers showed a significantly higher mean nutritional adequacy (64.5% vs 56.3%; P=0.033). The finding that reimbursement rates were positively associated with food expenditures and the nutritional quality of foods served suggests that raising CACFP reimbursements can improve child nutrition. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing youth unemployment beyond the Youth Wage Subsidy: A study of Simtech apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogantheran Naidoo

    2017-01-01

    the internship/workplace environment experienced by artisan apprentices rather than just on the intake number of artisan apprentices that the Youth Wage Subsidy has encouraged to date.

  20. Nearshore energy subsidies support Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates following major changes in food web structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turschak, Benjamin A; Bunnell, David B.; Czesny, Sergiusz J.; Höök, Tomas O.; Janssen, John; Warner, David M.; Bootsma, Harvey A

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic food webs that incorporate multiple energy channels (e.g. nearshore benthic or pelagic) with varying productivity and turnover rates convey stability to biological communities by providing multiple independent energy sources. Within the Lake Michigan food web, invasive dreissenid mussels have caused rapid changes to food web structure and potentially altered the channels through which consumers acquire energy. We used stable C and N isotopes to determine how Lake Michigan food web structure has changed in the past decade, coincident with the expansion of dreissenid mussels, decreased pelagic phytoplankton production and increased nearshore benthic algal production. Fish and invertebrate samples collected from sites around Lake Michigan were analyzed to determine taxa-specific 13C:12C (delta 13C) and 15N:14N (delta 15N) ratios. Sampling took place during two distinct periods, 2002-2003 and 2010-2012, that spanned the period of dreissenid expansion, and included nearshore, pelagic and profundal fish and invertebrate taxa. Magnitude and direction of the 13C shift indicated significantly greater reliance upon nearshore benthic energy sources among nearly all fish taxa as well as profundal invertebrates. Although the mechanisms underlying this 13C shift likely varied among species, possible causes include the transport of benthic algal production to offshore waters and an increased reliance on nearshore prey items. Delta 15N shifts were more variable and of smaller magnitude across taxa although declines in delta 15N among some pelagic fishes may indicate a shift to alternative prey resources. Lake Michigan fishes and invertebrates appear to have responded to dreissenid induced changes in nutrient and energy pathways by switching from pelagic to alternative nearshore energy subsidies. Although large shifts in energy allocation (i.e. pelagic to nearshore benthic) resulting from invasive species appear to have affected total production at upper trophic

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Price Subsidies on Fortified Packaged Infant Cereals in Reducing Iron Deficiency Anemia in 6-23-Month-Old-Children in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessow, Rafael; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Brunner, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in India and especially harmful in early childhood due to its impact on cognitive development and increased all-cause mortality. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of price subsidies on fortified packaged infant cereals (F-PICs) in reducing IDA in 6-23-monthold children in urban India. Materials and Methods Cost-effectiveness is estimated by comparing the net social cost of price subsidies with the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted with price subsidies. The net social costs correspond to the cost of the subsidy minus the monetary costs saved by reducing IDA. The estimation proceeds in three steps: 1) the current lifetime costs of IDA are assessed with a health economic model combining the prevalence of anemia, derived from a large population survey, with information on the health consequences of IDA and their costs in terms of mortality, morbidity, and DALYs. 2) The effects of price subsidies on the demand for F-PICs are assessed with a market survey among 4801 households in 12 large Indian cities. 3) The cost-effectiveness is calculated by combining the findings of the first two steps with the results of a systematic review on the effectiveness of F-PICs in reducing IDA. We compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that differ in the level of the subsidy and in the socio-economic strata (SES) eligible for the subsidy. Results The lifetime social costs of IDA in 6-23-month-old children in large Indian cities amount to production losses of 3222 USD and to 726,000 DALYs. Poor households incur the highest costs, yet even wealthier households suffer substantial losses. The market survey reveals that few households currently buy F-PICs, with the share ranging from 14% to 36%. Wealthier households are generally more likely to buy FPICs. The costs of the subsidies per DALY averted range from 909 to 3649 USD. Interventions targeted at poorer households are most effective. Almost

  2. SUBSIDI BUNGA MODAL YANG DITERIMA RUMAH TANGGA PETERNAK SAPI BINAAN PROGRAM CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILTY PETROCHINA JABUNG LTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Novra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk evaluasi distribusi ternak sapi bibit program Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Petrochina Jabung Ltd. Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur. Estimasi model ekonometrika bentuk triangle recursive yang terdiri dari 3 persamaan dengan 3 variabel endogen dan 3 variabel eksogen menggunakan 2SLS, sedangkan perhitungan besaran subsidi bunga modal dengan pendekatan bunga majemuk. Mayoritas RTP (79,31% penerima sapi bibit program yang telah berjalan selama 4,5 tahun sebagian besar (79,31% sudah mampu melunasi kewajibannya. Rata-rata lama waktu mendapatkan anak dan penarikan pertama masing-masing adalah 18,22 bulan dan 31,56 bulan atau dengan kata lain rataan umur ternak yang disetor mencapai 13,34 bulan. Jangka waktu pengembalian pertama signifikan ditentukan oleh jangka waktu kelahiran pertama, serta tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok RTP yang menerima 1 jantan dan 2 betina dengan yang menerima 3 induk. Jangka waktu bersama-sama dengan umur pengembalian pertama menentukan jangka waktu pelunasan tetapi dan tidak ada perbedaan signifikan antar kelompok RTP. Program CSR Petrochina Jabung LtD merupakan salah satu bentuk subsidi bunga modal (rataan 0,87%/bulan dan besarannya bervariasi antar RTP yang signifikan ditentukan faktor jangka waktu pengembalian dan pelunasan. Semakin cepat pengembalian pertama semakin rendah subsidi bunga diterima tetapi sebaliknya semakin cepat jangka waktu pelunasan maka semakin tinggi subsidi bunga modal diterima. berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pola gaduhan yang dikembangkan efektif mendorong kepemilikan ternak sapi sebagai asset yang potensial digunakan sarana untuk meningkatkan ekonomi RTP. ABSTRACT The survey research aims to evaluating the performance of the cattle breeding program under supervised on the Petrochina Jabung Ltd. CSR Program. The unit analysis was 87 household on the CSR area during three month on Geragai Sub-Regency. The sampling technique is

  3. SUBSIDI BUNGA MODAL YANG DITERIMA RUMAH TANGGA PETERNAK SAPI BINAAN PROGRAM CSR (Corporate Social Responsibilty PETROCHINA JABUNG Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Novra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk evaluasi distribusi ternak sapi bibit program Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Petrochina Jabung Ltd. Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur. Estimasi model ekonometrika bentuk triangle recursive yang terdiri dari 3 persamaan dengan 3 variabel endogen dan 3 variabel eksogen menggunakan 2SLS, sedangkan perhitungan besaran subsidi bunga modal dengan pendekatan bunga majemuk. Mayoritas RTP (79,31% penerima sapi bibit program yang telah berjalan selama 4,5 tahun sebagian besar (79,31% sudah mampu melunasi kewajibannya. Rata-rata lama waktu mendapatkan anak dan penarikan pertama masing-masing adalah 18,22 bulan dan 31,56 bulan atau dengan kata lain rataan umur ternak yang disetor mencapai 13,34 bulan. Jangka waktu pengembalian pertama signifikan ditentukan oleh jangka waktu kelahiran pertama, serta tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok RTP yang menerima 1 jantan dan 2 betina dengan yang menerima 3 induk. Jangka waktu bersama-sama dengan umur pengembalian pertama menentukan jangka waktu pelunasan tetapi dan tidak ada perbedaan signifikan antar kelompok RTP. Program CSR Petrochina Jabung LtD merupakan salah satu bentuk subsidi bunga modal (rataan 0,87%/bulan dan besarannya bervariasi antar RTP yang signifikan ditentukan faktor jangka waktu pengembalian dan pelunasan. Semakin cepat pengembalian pertama semakin rendah subsidi bunga diterima tetapi sebaliknya semakin cepat jangka waktu pelunasan maka semakin tinggi subsidi bunga modal diterima. berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pola gaduhan yang dikembangkan efektif mendorong kepemilikan ternak sapi sebagai asset yang potensial digunakan sarana untuk meningkatkan ekonomi RTP. ABSTRACT The survey research aims to evaluating the performance of the cattle breeding program under supervised on the Petrochina Jabung Ltd. CSR Program. The unit analysis was 87 household on the CSR area during three month on Geragai Sub-Regency. The sampling technique is

  4. Nutrients versus emerging contaminants-Or a dynamic match between subsidy and stress effects on stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristi, I; Casellas, M; Elosegi, A; Insa, S; Petrovic, M; Sabater, S; Acuña, V

    2016-05-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors, which might be differentiated into two types: those that reduce biological activity at all concentrations (toxic contaminants), and those that subsidize biological activity at low concentrations and reduce it at high concentrations (assimilable contaminants). When occurring in mixtures, these contaminants can have either antagonistic, neutral or synergistic effects; but little is known on their joint effects. We assessed the interaction effects of a mixture of assimilable and toxic contaminants on stream biofilms in a manipulative experiment using artificial streams, and following a factorial design with three nutrient levels (low, medium or high) and either presence or absence of a mixture of emerging contaminants (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, diclofenac, methylparaben, and sulfamethoxazole). We measured biofilm biomass, basal fluorescence, gross primary production and community respiration. Our initial hypotheses were that biofilm biomass and activity would: increase with medium nutrient concentrations (subsidy effect), but decrease with high nutrient concentrations (stress effect) (i); decrease with emerging contaminants, with the minimum decrease at medium nutrient concentrations (antagonistic interaction between nutrients subsidy and stress by emerging contaminants) and the maximum decrease at high nutrient concentrations (synergistic interaction between nutrients and emerging contaminants stress) (ii). All the measured variables responded linearly to the available nutrients, with no toxic effect at high nutrient concentrations. Emerging contaminants only caused weak toxic effects in some of the measured variables, and only after 3-4 weeks of exposure. Therefore, only antagonistic interactions were observed between nutrients and emerging contaminants, as medium and high nutrient concentrations partly compensated the harmful effects of emerging contaminants during the first weeks of the

  5. Práticas de contabilidade gerencial adotadas por subsidiárias brasileiras de empresas multinacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio de Souza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem como objeto de estudo as práticas de Contabilidade Gerencial, no contexto da sua efetiva receptividade e aplicação por parte das empresas. Circunscrita a métodos de custeio, métodos de predeterminação de custos, elaboração e uso de planos orçamentários e análise de relações custo-volume-lucro, desenvolve-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica, que expõe argumentos quanto à contribuição de tais práticas no aumento da eficácia da gestão empresarial. Além das chamadas práticas tradicionais, abordam-se também aquelas mais recentemente desenvolvidas, particularmente a do custeio baseado em atividades (ABC e a do custeio meta (target costing, tidas por alguns pesquisadores como mais adequadas ao atual ambiente operacional das empresas. Ampliando seu campo de investigação, este estudo é embasado em uma pesquisa efetuada junto a quarenta e nove subsidiárias brasileiras de empresas multinacionais, com o objetivo de identificar as práticas contábeis gerenciais atualmente usadas por tais empresas, bem como verificar o nível de reconhecimento que a gestão empresarial dedica à validade prática dos novos procedimentos recomendados. A análise e interpretação, quantitativa e qualitativa, dos dados coletados, realizada com base tanto nas práticas tradicionais como nas recomendadas pela literatura atual, consubstancia-se num conjunto de conhecimentos que, espera-se, contribui objetiva e efetivamente para melhor entendimento da ciência contábil no campo da gestão empresarial.This research studies Management Accounting practices in the context of their actual receptivity and use by the companies. Centered on costing methods, cost predetermination methods, elaboration and use of budget plans and cost-volume-profit relation analysis, a bibliographic research is realized, which gives arguments about the contribution of these practices to increased company management effectiveness. Besides the so-called traditional

  6. Production of resident fish benefits from experimental salmon subsidies via direct and indirect pathways across stream-riparian boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial additions of nutrients of differing forms such as salmon carcasses and analog pellets (i.e. pasteurized fishmeal) have been proposed as a means of stimulating aquatic productivity and enhancing populations of anadromous and resident fishes. Nutrient mitigation to enhance fish production in stream ecosystems assumes that the central pathway by which effects occur is bottom-up, through aquatic primary and secondary production, with little consideration of reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial pathways. The net outcome (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down) of adding salmon-derived materials to streams depend on whether or not these subsidies indirectly intensify predation on in situ prey via increases in a shared predator or alleviate such predation pressure. We conducted a 3-year experiment across nine tributaries of the N. Fork Boise River, Idaho, USA, consisting of 500-m stream reaches treated with salmon carcasses (n = 3), salmon carcass analog (n = 3), and untreated control reaches (n = 3). We observed 2–8 fold increases in streambed biofilms in the 2–6 weeks following additions of both salmon subsidy treatments in years 1 and 2 and a 1.5-fold increase in standing crop biomass of aquatic invertebrates to carcass additions in the second year of our experiment. The consumption of benthic invertebrates by stream fishes increased 110–140% and 44–66% in carcass and analog streams in the same time frame, which may have masked invertebrate standing crop responses in years 3 and 4. Resident trout directly consumed 10.0–24.0 g·m−2·yr−1 of salmon carcass and flux of terrestrial maggots to streams contributed 0.0–2.0 g·m−2·yr−1 to trout production. Overall, treatments increased annual trout production by 2–3 fold, though density and biomass were unaffected. Our results indicate the strength of bottom-up and top-down responses to subsidy additions was asymmetrical, with top-down forces masking bottom-up effects that required multiple years

  7. Nutrient Subsidies to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, HI From Submarine Groundwater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, K.; Santoro, A.; Street, J.; Boehm, A.; Berg, C.; Paytan, A.

    2005-12-01

    flux into Hanalei Bay may be as high as 1200 L/s, or 20 percent of the Hanalei River's average March flow rate, and that SGD may contribute more nitrate to Hanalei Bay than does the Hanalei River. These nutrient subsidies could impact nearshore ecosystems by promoting the growth of bacteria and/or algae. Further research is needed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of SGD in Hanalei Bay, the residence time of water in the Bay, nutrient limitation of bacteria and algae, and the relative importance of various nutrient sources such as cesspools, taro fields, natural soil nitrogen fixation, and urban runoff.

  8. 高校贫困生资助工作瓶颈探析%Bottleneck analysis of the college poor students' subsidy work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振霞; 林萍萍; 洪丽斯; 蔡煌镇

    2012-01-01

    The college poor students' subsidy work have produced a series of bottleneck problems in the current.Take putian university for example,according to the work of designation,the ways and effect of subsidy,by means of questionnaire survey,data and cause analysis,and then put forward optimization strategy to promote the development of the college poor students' subsidy work.%当前各高校贫困生资助工作产生了一系列瓶颈问题,以莆田学院为采点,对贫困生的认定工作、资助方式、受助效果等方面,通过大量问卷调查和数据分析,探析问题所在,提出优化策略,促进各高校贫困生资助工作的开展。

  9. 阜新地区农机购置补贴实施探讨%Discussion on the Implementation of Purchasing Subsidy of Agricultural Machinery in Fuxin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍红

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of purchasing subsidy of agricultural machinery has the guidance function to the development of agricultural mechanization in Fuxin area. The article introduces the implementation effect of subsidy policy for purchasing agricultural machinery and the main measures for it, in order to provide a reference for fulfilling the subsidy working of purchasing agricultural machinery in other areas.%农机购置补贴的实施,对于阜新地区农业机械化发展具有明显的引导作用。介绍阜新地区农机购置补贴政策的实施效果和采取的主要措施,以期为各地农机购置补贴工作顺利进行提供经验借鉴。

  10. Legal issues on subsidies of endangered animal breeds in Albania and their need for improvement in light of international and EU legislations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Kume

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian legislation treats partially and as separate matters issues related to subsidies for endangered animal breeds. In order to approximate this legislation with the international and EU member states one, these issues are to be treated and developed as integral part of agriculture and sustainable rural development legislation. This legislation should clarify specifically the concept of animal breed that may be subject to subsidise. A legal framework should be developed in order to create and update the “Red Book” for endangered animal breeds. The legislation should define the criteria and the methodological principles, according to which the subsidy measures for animal breeds at risk are to be assessed. The subsidy should aim to reduce financial losses caused by raising these breeds.

  11. Effects of Health-Related Food Taxes and Subsidies on Mortality from Diet-Related Disease in New Zealand: An Econometric-Epidemiologic Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available Health-related food taxes and subsidies may promote healthier diets and reduce mortality. Our aim was to estimate the effects of health-related food taxes and subsidies on deaths prevented or postponed (DPP in New Zealand.A macrosimulation model based on household expenditure data, demand elasticities and population impact fractions for 18 diet-related diseases was used to estimate effects of five tax and subsidy regimens. We used price elasticity values for 24 major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, and food expenditure data from national Household Economic Surveys. Changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diet-related diseases were estimated.A 20% subsidy on fruit and vegetables would result in 560 (95% uncertainty interval, 400 to 700 DPP each year (1.9% annual all-cause mortality. A 20% tax on major dietary sources of saturated fat would result in 1,500 (950 to 2,100 DPP (5.0%, and a 20% tax on major dietary sources of sodium would result in 2,000 (1300 to 2,700 DPP (6.8%. Combining taxes on saturated fat and sodium with a fruit and vegetable subsidy would result in 2,400 (1,800 to 3,000 DPP (8.1% mortality annually. A tax on major dietary sources of greenhouse gas emissions would generate 1,200 (750 to 1,700 DPP annually (4.0%. Effects were similar or greater for Maori and low-income households in relative terms.Health-related food taxes and subsidies could improve diets and reduce mortality from diet-related disease in New Zealand. Our study adds to the growing evidence base suggesting food pricing policies should improve population health and reduce inequalities, but there is still much work to be done to improve estimation of health impacts.

  12. Effects of Health-Related Food Taxes and Subsidies on Mortality from Diet-Related Disease in New Zealand: An Econometric-Epidemiologic Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Genc, Murat; Scarborough, Peter; Rayner, Mike; Mizdrak, Anja; Nnoaham, Kelechi; Blakely, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Health-related food taxes and subsidies may promote healthier diets and reduce mortality. Our aim was to estimate the effects of health-related food taxes and subsidies on deaths prevented or postponed (DPP) in New Zealand. A macrosimulation model based on household expenditure data, demand elasticities and population impact fractions for 18 diet-related diseases was used to estimate effects of five tax and subsidy regimens. We used price elasticity values for 24 major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, and food expenditure data from national Household Economic Surveys. Changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diet-related diseases were estimated. A 20% subsidy on fruit and vegetables would result in 560 (95% uncertainty interval, 400 to 700) DPP each year (1.9% annual all-cause mortality). A 20% tax on major dietary sources of saturated fat would result in 1,500 (950 to 2,100) DPP (5.0%), and a 20% tax on major dietary sources of sodium would result in 2,000 (1300 to 2,700) DPP (6.8%). Combining taxes on saturated fat and sodium with a fruit and vegetable subsidy would result in 2,400 (1,800 to 3,000) DPP (8.1% mortality annually). A tax on major dietary sources of greenhouse gas emissions would generate 1,200 (750 to 1,700) DPP annually (4.0%). Effects were similar or greater for Maori and low-income households in relative terms. Health-related food taxes and subsidies could improve diets and reduce mortality from diet-related disease in New Zealand. Our study adds to the growing evidence base suggesting food pricing policies should improve population health and reduce inequalities, but there is still much work to be done to improve estimation of health impacts.

  13. Species replacement by a nonnative salmonid alters ecosystem function by reducing prey subsidies that support riparian spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R; Fausch, Kurt D; Baxter, Colden V

    2011-10-01

    Replacement of a native species by a nonnative can have strong effects on ecosystem function, such as altering nutrient cycling or disturbance frequency. Replacements may cause shifts in ecosystem function because nonnatives establish at different biomass, or because they differ from native species in traits like foraging behavior. However, no studies have compared effects of wholesale replacement of a native by a nonnative species on subsidies that support consumers in adjacent habitats, nor quantified the magnitude of these effects. We examined whether streams invaded by nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in two regions of the Rocky Mountains, USA, produced fewer emerging adult aquatic insects compared to paired streams with native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii), and whether riparian spiders that depend on these prey were less abundant along streams with lower total insect emergence. As predicted, emergence density was 36% lower from streams with the nonnative fish. Biomass of brook trout was higher than the cutthroat trout they replaced, but even after accounting for this difference, emergence was 24% lower from brook trout streams. More riparian spiders were counted along streams with greater total emergence across the water surface. Based on these results, we predicted that brook trout replacement would result in 6-20% fewer spiders in the two regions. When brook trout replace cutthroat trout, they reduce cross-habitat resource subsidies and alter ecosystem function in stream-riparian food webs, not only owing to increased biomass but also because traits apparently differ from native cutthroat trout.

  14. The Influence of Diesel Fuel Subsidies and Taxes on the Potential for Solar-Powered Hybrid Systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bertheau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people in African countries lack access to sufficient electricity supply due to missing infrastructure of the centralized conventional power generation system. In order to provide electricity to a wider part of the population, it is necessary to exploit the vast renewable resources in African countries. Therefore, this paper scrutinizes the economic advantages of photovoltaic-based hybrid systems over fossil fuel-based power generation. A simulation model is applied in order to calculate the cost advantage of hybrid systems compared to diesel-only systems for the entire continent on a long term basis by applying two scenarios: one based on world market diesel prices and the other one based on national diesel prices. The results indicate that average power generation costs per country can be reduced by up to 0.11 €/kWh considering world market diesel prices and by up to 0.48 €/kWh considering national diesel prices. Furthermore, the effect of diesel fuel subsidies and taxes on the renewable energy potential and the respective savings are examined. These findings may ameliorate the policy development according to fossil fuel subsidies and taxes and demonstrate the advantages of decentralized renewable hybrid systems especially in rural areas of Africa.

  15. The Evolution of Italian Farms and the Role of Subsidies Paid by the European Union for Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, there has been a significant emigration from the countryside towards urban areas with negative downsides on rural communities which have suffered of socio-economic marginalization and negative effects on the environment. The Common Agricultural Policy has been a pivotal tool able to reduce the marginalization in rural territories financing farmers able to promote the multifunctionality and the production of positive externalities. By using a quantitative approach on Farm Accounting Data Network time series on Italian farmers, it has been possible to access the role of subsidies allocated by the European Union on the rural development. The results have pointed out a positive role of financial supports and subsidies allocated by the Common Agricultural Policy to guarantee an adequate level of farm income. In the next period 2014-2020, the national and local authorities should take into account to put into action the Rural Development Programme aimed to implement the socio-economic growth in the Italian countryside specifically towards farms located in less favoured areas.

  16. Species replacement by a nonnative salmonid alters ecosystem function by reducing prey subsidies that support riparian spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, J.R.; Fausch, K.D.; Baxter, C.V.

    2011-01-01

    Replacement of a native species by a nonnative can have strong effects on ecosystem function, such as altering nutrient cycling or disturbance frequency. Replacements may cause shifts in ecosystem function because nonnatives establish at different biomass, or because they differ from native species in traits like foraging behavior. However, no studies have compared effects of wholesale replacement of a native by a nonnative species on subsidies that support consumers in adjacent habitats, nor quantified the magnitude of these effects. We examined whether streams invaded by nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in two regions of the Rocky Mountains, USA, produced fewer emerging adult aquatic insects compared to paired streams with native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii), and whether riparian spiders that depend on these prey were less abundant along streams with lower total insect emergence. As predicted, emergence density was 36% lower from streams with the nonnative fish. Biomass of brook trout was higher than the cutthroat trout they replaced, but even after accounting for this difference, emergence was 24% lower from brook trout streams. More riparian spiders were counted along streams with greater total emergence across the water surface. Based on these results, we predicted that brook trout replacement would result in 6-20% fewer spiders in the two regions. When brook trout replace cutthroat trout, they reduce cross-habitat resource subsidies and alter ecosystem function in stream-riparian food webs, not only owing to increased biomass but also because traits apparently differ from native cutthroat trout. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Role of Subsidies Allocated by the Second Pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy and Diversification in Romanian Farms through Agritourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the role and the economic impact of subsidies allocated by the Common Agricultural Policy between 2007 and 2012, predominantly through the second pillar, in order to stimulate farmers to stay in the countryside and diversify their activities by agritourism. The analysis has used a quantitative approach aimed at assessing the main correlations between the growth of agritourisms and the financial supports paid by the European Union in eight Romanian administrative regions using the Farm Accountancy Data Network. Findings have pointed out that in regions where the higher has been the development of agritourism, the more significant has been the positive socio-economic impact of the funds allocated by the European Union in favour of rural development. Rural areas characterized by a low level of farmer’s income and by a high incidence of subsidies paid by the European Union in supporting rural development have brought about a considerable growth of farm diversification through agritourism. This has also corroborated the hypothesis according to which the diversification in the countryside is sensitive both to the funds allocated by the EU and to a low level of income in farms.

  18. Subsidy Policy and the Effectiveness of China's Pig Research%我国生猪补贴政策及其效用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方平; 林映丹

    2011-01-01

    探讨自2007年下半年政府出台一系列生猪补贴政策以来,补贴政策实施的有效性以及如何合理制定补贴政策。%In the second half of 2007, the government has published a series policy of live pig subsidies. This paper is committed to analyses whether the implementation of pig subsidy is effective as well as how to make a reasonable policy for pig industry.

  19. Quantitative Assessment of the Impact of China’s Direct Grain Subsidies on Grain Yield--Based on the Empirical Analysis of Panel Data Pertaining to 29 Provinces in the Period 2004-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We build the influence function empirical model of China’s grain production at the present stage in view of the factors influencing direct grain subsidies,using Cobb-Douglas production function model.And we estimate the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield,using the panel data pertaining to 29 provinces in the period 2004-2007;comparatively analyze the validity and limitation of policy factors of direct grain subsidies on China’s grain yield.The results show that at the present stage,the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield is 0.002 3,and under the existing subsidy system and level,direct grain subsidies play a positive role in increasing grain yield,but the role is limited;the elasticity coefficient of impact of the food price on grain yield is much larger than that of impact of direct grain subsidies on grain yield.Therefore,the government should strengthen and improve direct grain subsidy policies;in the mean time,pay full attention to the use of market mechanism to consolidate the basic role of the food price in promoting food security to a great extent.

  20. Relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons, including the influence of the free vaccination campaign after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Toshio; Matsuda, Naoto; Tanei, Mika; Watanabe, Yukiko; Watanabe, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Low vaccination rates with pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons in Japan are thought to be related to low levels of public subsidy. To identify strategies to increase future pneumococcal vaccination rates, we examined the relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates. We also investigated the influence of free vaccinations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures of Japan. We surveyed a total of 1742 municipalities in Japan about whether public subsidies were available and their monetary amount. Vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine were calculated as the "cumulative amount shipped to each municipality divided by the population aged ≥65 years." There were no subsidies in 773 municipalities (44.4%). In those municipalities with public subsidies, larger subsidies were significantly associated with elevated vaccination rates (p Japan, the vaccination rate was 52.1% in municipalities where the full cost was subsidized. The three prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima) most affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake ranked as the top three prefectures for vaccination rates in Japan, presumably as a result of the free vaccination campaign for disaster victims. Our findings show that public subsidies play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate. The free vaccinations given to disaster victims after the Great East Japan Earthquake helped to achieve extremely high vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures. We suggest that such public subsidies should be promoted throughout Japan.

  1. 收费公路项目Pareto有效BOT合同与政府补贴%Pareto-efficient BOT contracts for road franchising with government subsidy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志加; 杨海; 陈琼

    2013-01-01

    Private-sector participation in road construction and operations has the advantages of efficiency gains, private financing, and better identification of attractive investment projects. Such participation is generally implemented through a build-operate-transfer (BOT) contract, under which a private firm builds and operates roads in a road network at its own expense, and in return receives the revenue from road tolls for a number of years, and then these roads are transferred to the government. In a BOT toll road project, the public and private sectors have different objectives: the former cares about the social welfare and the latter wants to make more money from the project. Based on the different objectives of the two sectors, this paper analyzes the Pareto efficiency of the capacity, toll and subsidy size by adopting a bi-objective mathematical programming problem. The definition of the Pareto-efficient BOT contract is introduced for the bi-objective programming problem, and its properties are also studied theoretically. This paper conducts a further study for the current research of BOT toll road schemes, which provides a practical guidance for the public sector.%根据BOT(建设-运营-移交)项目中公共部门和私人部门的不同目标,利用双目标规划模型研究了收费公路BOT项目合同容量、通行费费率及政府补贴政策的联合决策.引入Pareto有效BOT合同的概念,并从理论上研究了Pareto有效BOT合同的性质,建立了两个必要条件用以甄别BOT合同的Pareto有效性.进一步完善目前收费公路BOT项目合同的理论研究,对公共部门制定收费公路项目补贴政策具有现实指导意义.

  2. Has equity in government subsidy on healthcare improved in China? Evidence from the China's National Health Services Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lei; Chen, Mingsheng; Palmer, Andrew J

    2017-01-10

    Monitoring the equity of government healthcare subsidies (GHS) is critical for evaluating the performance of health policy decisions. China's low-income population encounters barriers in accessing benefits from GHS. This paper focuses on the distribution of China's healthcare subsidies among different socio-economic populations and the factors that affect their equitable distribution. It examines the characteristics of equitable access to benefits in a province of northeastern China, comparing the equity performance between urban and rural areas. Benefit incidence analysis was applied to GHS data from two rounds of China's National Health Services Survey (2003 and 2008, N = 27,239) in Heilongjiang province, reflecting the information in 2002 and 2007 respectively. Concentration index (CI) was used to evaluate the absolute equity of GHSs in outpatient and inpatient healthcare services. A negative CI indicates disproportionate concentration of GHSs among the poor, while a positive CI indicates the GHS is pro-rich, a CI of zero indicates perfect equity. In addition, Kakwani index (KI) was used to evaluate the progressivity of GHSs. A positive KI denotes the GHS is regressive, while a negative value denotes the GHS is progressive. CIs for inpatient care in urban and rural residents were 0.2036 and 0.4497 respectively in 2002, and those in 2007 were 0.4433 and 0.5375. Likewise, CIs for outpatient care are positive in both regions in 2002 and 2007, indicating that both inpatient and outpatient GHSs were pro-rich in both survey periods irrespective of region. In addition, KIs for inpatient services were -0.3769 (urban) and 0.0576 (rural) in 2002 and those in 2007 were 0.0280 and 0.1868. KIs for outpatient service were -0.4278 (urban) and -0.1257 (rural) in 2002, those in 2007 were -0.2572 and -0.1501, indicating that equity was improved in GHS in outpatient care in both regions but not in inpatient services. The benefit distribution of government healthcare subsidies

  3. O Papel das Subsidiárias de Corporações Multinacionais: Um Estudo de Caso na Indústria Brasileira de Refrigerantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rocha Lima Massa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Um importante desafio para as empresas que hoje internacionalizam seus negócios é desenvolver um nível de globalização que gere concentrações adequadas das operações locais e globalizadas para a empresa. Em um cenário muito mais incerto e dinâmico que os seguros mercados regionais, o gerenciamento eficaz das subsidiárias e unidades de negócios por parte das matrizes das multinacionais pode criar vantagens competitivas aplicáveis em toda corporação. A partir do estudo de caso de uma subsidiária atuando no mercado brasileiro de refrigerantes, o presente trabalho busca reconhecer a importância estratégica das subsidiárias das corporações multinacionais, conscientizando as empresas brasileiras que internacionalizam seus negócios e as multinacionais que atuam no Brasil, do papel das subsidiárias não apenas como instrumentos para implementação ou adaptação das diretrizes globais da empresa, mas com destaque na formulação de estratégias, na identificação de oportunidades de mercado e na criação de vantagens competitivas.

  4. Optimal Fare, Vacancy Rate, and Subsidies under Log-Linear Demand with the Consideration of Externalities for a Cruising Taxi Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsiao Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Externality is an important issue for formulating the regulation policy of a taxi market. However, this issue is rarely taken into account in the current policy-making process, and it has not been adequately explored in prior research. This study extends the model proposed by Chang and Chu in 2009 with the aim of exploring the effect of externality on the optimization of the regulation policy of a cruising taxi market. A closed-form solution for optimizing the fare, vacancy rate, and subsidy of the market is derived. The results show that when the externality of taxi trips is taken into consideration, the optimal vacancy rate should be lower and the subsidy should be higher than they are under current conditions where externality is not considered. The results of the sensitivity analysis on the occupied and vacant distance indicate that the relation of the vacant distance to the marginal external cost is more sensitive than the occupied distance. The result of the sensitivity analysis on the subsidy shows the existence of a negative relationship between the marginal external cost and the optimal subsidy.

  5. Received, Understanding and Satisfaction of National Health Insurance Premium Subsidy Scheme by Families of Children with Disabilities: A Census Study in Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Ya-Wen; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chwo, Miao-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to provide the first data on utilization, understanding and satisfaction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) premium subsidy for families of children with disabilities in Taipei. Data from the 2001 Taipei Early Intervention Utilization and Evaluation Survey for Aged 0-6 Children with Disabilities were…

  6. 辽宁省农机购置补贴发展探讨%Discussion on the Development of Agricultural Machinery Purchasing Subsidy in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural machinery purchasing subsidy is one supporting measure for the development of agricultural machinery. In the article, it expounded the implementation performance of agricultural machinery purchasing subsidy during "twelve 5 years" in Liaoning, analyzed existing problems, raised implementing scheme and safeguard measures in the future, in order to provide a reference for better implementing the policy of agricultural machinery purchasing subsidy and bringing the capital of agricultural machinery purchasing subsidy into full play.%农机购置补贴是农机化发展的一项支持措施.阐述辽宁"十二五"期间农机购置补贴实施成效,分析存在的问题,提出今后的实施方案和保障措施,为更好地落实辽宁省农机购置补贴政策,充分发挥农机购置补贴资金作用提供参考.

  7. Research on the Issues of Fisheries Subsidies under the Perspective of WTO%基于 WTO 视角的渔业补贴问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海萍

    2012-01-01

      渔业补贴是促进世界各国自身渔业发展的一项重要措施,但是近年来随着全球海洋渔业资源日趋衰退以及水产品国际贸易关系扭曲,渔业补贴的作用越来越遭到许多国家和国际组织的质疑。世贸组织《多哈部长宣言》已将渔业补贴纪律列为规则谈判之一,近些年也举行了多次谈判,在WTO主要成员国的努力下,相关规则草案的出台表明了在WTO框架下解决渔业补贴问题的可行性。本文主要对渔业补贴的定义及分类,典型国家与地区的渔业补贴状况作了分析,然后基于WTO渔业补贴谈判的进展及前景,对WTO框架下我国的渔业补贴政策现状及改进方向进行了总结。%  Fishery subsidies have long been an important measure for world fishery countries to pro-mote the development of their domestic fisheries .However ,as more and more fishery resources be-come depleted and the relationship of Aquatic products international trade being distorted ,the role of fishery subsidies has been widely questioned .It was also put into agenda by Declaration of Doha and a lot of negotiations were hold .As the Doha round of negotiations of the WTO’s hard work ,a series of related rules drafts were build which suggested that the problem of fishery subsidies would be re-solved .The aim of this article is to illustrate the definition ,classification and analysis typical coun-tries and areas of the fishery subsidies condition and settling approaches on fisheries subsidies based on the progress of the negotiations fishery subsidies WTO and prospects of the fishery in China under the framework of WTO subsidies and improving direction of present situation .

  8. Worker-level and Firm-level Effects of a Wage Subsidy Program for Highly Educated Labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of a Danish wage subsidy program for highly educated workers on the performance of the persons and firms participating in the program. Using data on the population of program participants, both workers and firms, we find that the program had positive effects on employment...... and annual earnings during program participation while there are no positive effects for the years after program expiration. At the employer-level, we find statistically significant effects on the number of highly educated employees for both the period of program participation and the subsequent time period....... For the total number of employees we only find positive effects during program participation while there are no statistically significant effects for value added, net income, return on assets, wages per employee and labor productivity....

  9. On the Budget Control of Fiscal Subsidy in China%论我国财政补贴的预算控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕清正

    2015-01-01

    财政补贴是财政支出的一种类型,预算控制是控制财政补贴支出的重要途径.在预算编制过程中,我国应继续强化财政部门的主导权,控制预算支出的具体名目.在预算审议的过程中,补贴支出采取分项审议和表决,科目和金额的调整必须由立法机关审批,禁止人大对补贴支出的增额修正权.在预算执行过程中,我国立法应当规定预算的变更均属于预算调整并加以规范,建立补贴备案.此外,还应完善财政信息公开和公民参与预算决策.%Fiscal subsidy is a type of financial expenditure, while budget control is an important approach controlling the expendi-ture of fiscal subsidy. In the process of budget planning, China should continuously enhance the dominance of financial depart-ments and control the details of budget expenditure. In the pro-cess of budget approval, the subsidy expenditures are reviewed and voted in accordance with different items, and the adjustment of items and amount of money should be examined and approved by legislative organs, and the supplementary amendment right of the People's Congress in subsidy expenditure is prohibited. In the process of budget enforcement, the law should regulate that the changes of budget all belong to budget adjustment and subsidy records should be established.

  10. The effect of chronic seaweed subsidies on herbivory: plant-mediated fertilization pathway overshadows lizard-mediated predator pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Spiller, David A; Takimoto, Gaku; Yang, Louie H; Wright, Amber N; Schoener, Thomas W

    2013-08-01

    Flows of energy and materials link ecosystems worldwide and have important consequences for the structure of ecological communities. While these resource subsidies typically enter recipient food webs through multiple channels, most previous studies focussed on a single pathway of resource input. We used path analysis to evaluate multiple pathways connecting chronic marine resource inputs (in the form of seaweed deposits) and herbivory in a shoreline terrestrial ecosystem. We found statistical support for a fertilization effect (seaweed increased foliar nitrogen content, leading to greater herbivory) and a lizard numerical response effect (seaweed increased lizard densities, leading to reduced herbivory), but not for a lizard diet-shift effect (seaweed increased the proportion of marine-derived prey in lizard diets, but lizard diet was not strongly associated with herbivory). Greater seaweed abundance was associated with greater herbivory, and the fertilization effect was larger than the combined lizard effects. Thus, the bottom-up, plant-mediated effect of fertilization on herbivory overshadowed the top-down effects of lizard predators. These results, from unmanipulated shoreline plots with persistent differences in chronic seaweed deposition, differ from those of a previous experimental study of the short-term effects of a pulse of seaweed deposition: while the increase in herbivory in response to chronic seaweed deposition was due to the fertilization effect, the short-term increase in herbivory in response to a pulse of seaweed deposition was due to the lizard diet-shift effect. This contrast highlights the importance of the temporal pattern of resource inputs in determining the mechanism of community response to resource subsidies.

  11. Anthropogenic resource subsidies determine space use by Australian arid zone dingoes: an improved resource selection modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Newsome

    Full Text Available Dingoes (Canis lupus dingo were introduced to Australia and became feral at least 4,000 years ago. We hypothesized that dingoes, being of domestic origin, would be adaptable to anthropogenic resource subsidies and that their space use would be affected by the dispersion of those resources. We tested this by analyzing Resource Selection Functions (RSFs developed from GPS fixes (locations of dingoes in arid central Australia. Using Generalized Linear Mixed-effect Models (GLMMs, we investigated resource relationships for dingoes that had access to abundant food near mine facilities, and for those that did not. From these models, we predicted the probability of dingo occurrence in relation to anthropogenic resource subsidies and other habitat characteristics over ∼ 18,000 km(2. Very small standard errors and subsequent pervasively high P-values of results will become more important as the size of data sets, such as our GPS tracking logs, increases. Therefore, we also investigated methods to minimize the effects of serial and spatio-temporal correlation among samples and unbalanced study designs. Using GLMMs, we accounted for some of the correlation structure of GPS animal tracking data; however, parameter standard errors remained very small and all predictors were highly significant. Consequently, we developed an alternative approach that allowed us to review effect sizes at different spatial scales and determine which predictors were sufficiently ecologically meaningful to include in final RSF models. We determined that the most important predictor for dingo occurrence around mine sites was distance to the refuse facility. Away from mine sites, close proximity to human-provided watering points was predictive of dingo dispersion as were other landscape factors including palaeochannels, rocky rises and elevated drainage depressions. Our models demonstrate that anthropogenically supplemented food and water can alter dingo-resource relationships. The

  12. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Havik

    Full Text Available Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.

  13. The positive impact of European subsidies on soil erosion rates in orange plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Taguas, Tani; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion in orchards and vineyards has been found non-sustainable due to bare soils due to the use of herbicides and tillage (Novara et al., 2011; Taguas et al., 2015; Ochoa et al., 2016; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016a; 2016b; 2016c). Citrus plantations in sloping terrains are also non-sustainable from the soil erosion point of view due high erosion rates and the damage caused on infra-structures (Cerdà et al., 2009; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2015). This is not uncommon in Mediterranean type Ecosystems (Cerdà et al., 2010) but there is a need to reduce the soil and water losses to achieve sustainability (Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). The use of mulches, geotextiles, catch crops, and vegetation was found to be very successful as a sustainable strategy to reduce the soil losses (Giménez Morera et al., 2010; Mwango et al., 2016; Nawaz et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Nowadays, chipped branches are applied in orchards and vineyards because of European subsidies; however little scientific data is available on the impact of the chipped branches mulch on soil erosion. In an orange plantation in Eastern Valencia, at the L'Alcoleja experimental station the impact of these chipped branches was tested under 45 mm h-1 rainfall simulations on laboratory plots of 0.5 m2 under with different covers of chipped branches. The results show that with a cover of 20 % with chipped branches soil erosion reduces by 78 %. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K. 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, Cerdà, A. and M. F. Jurgensen

  14. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  15. Pengurangan Subsidi BBM dan Polusi Udara Melalui Kebijakan Program Konversi dari BBM ke BBG Untuk Kendaraan di Propinsi Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Susanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The  number  of  vehicle  that  use  oil  (BBM  is  increasing  every  year  in  Indonesia  while  national  oil  reserve become smaller, so that the oil should be imported. The impact of using oil are increasing subsidy and air pollution.  Thus, it is now becoming important to replace oil with another environmentally friendly energy, one of them is gas (BBG. Based on the number of vehicle and infrastructure in gas pipeline, part of northern West Java potentially can  be  chosen  for  the  implementation  of  conversion  program  to  gas  (BBG.  The number  of  vehicle  in  potential regions  such  as  Depok,  Cibinong,  Bogor,  Bekasi,  Cikarang,  Karawang,  Purwakarta,  Cirebon,  and  Bandung  are around 875,505 units. From these data, we simulated the potential profit to be gained each year by converting 10% for the first year and increasing it to 5% for every year. By investing 3.16 trillion for conversion, 14.9 trillion can be achieved in  the  form  of  fuel  subsidy  savings.  In  addition,  emission  reduction  converted  to  a  CDM  (clean development  mechanism  can  become  local  revenues.  Total CDM generated during 5 years predicted is of U.S $ 772,385. From this study, it can be concluded that converting oil (BBM to gas (BBG is highly beneficial. 

  16. Waste feed from coastal fish farms: A trophic subsidy with compositional side-effects for wild gadoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Jover, Damian; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Lopez Jimenez, Jose Angel; Martínez Lopez, Francisco Javier; Bjørn, Pål-Arne; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Dempster, Tim

    2011-03-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous fish species in sea-cages typically uses artificial feeds, with a proportion of these feeds lost to the surrounding environment. This lost resource may provide a trophic subsidy to wild fish in the vicinity of fish farms, yet the physiological consequences of the consumption of waste feed by wild fish remain unclear. In two regions in Norway with intensive aquaculture, we tested whether wild saithe ( Pollachius virens) and Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) associated with fish farms (F assoc), where waste feed is readily available, had modified diets, condition and fatty acid (FA) compositions in their muscle and liver tissues compared to fish unassociated (UA) with farms. Stomach content analyses revealed that both cod and saithe consumed waste feed in the vicinity of farms (6-96% of their diet was composed of food pellets). This translated into elevated body and liver condition compared to fish caught distant from farms for cod at both locations and elevated body condition for saithe at one of the locations. As a consequence of a modified diet, we detected significantly increased concentrations of terrestrial-derived fatty acids (FAs) such as linoleic (18:2ω6) and oleic (18:1ω9) acids and decreased concentrations of DHA (22:6ω3) in the muscle and/or liver of F assoc cod and saithe when compared with UA fish. In addition, the ω3:ω6 ratio clearly differed between F assoc and UA fish. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 97% of fish into F assoc or UA origin for both cod and saithe based on the FA composition of liver tissues, and 89% of cod and 86% of saithe into F assoc or UA origin based on the FA composition of muscle. Thus, LDA appears a useful tool for detecting the influence of fish farms on the FA composition of wild fish. Ready availability of waste feed with high protein and fat content provides a clear trophic subsidy to wild fish in coastal waters, yet whether the accompanying side-effect of altered fatty

  17. An Analysis on the Economical Impacts from the Establishment of Environment-friendly Taxation System I concentrating on a Subsidy for Water Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, D.K.; Cho, S.H.; Kang, M.O.; Lim, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Recently, rapid economic growth and water shortage have become of growing concern. The relationship between the economy and water resources is not seemingly apparent, but in the environmental context, there exists a close interaction. By and large, government policies emphasizing economic issues can very well be subject to neglecting environmental issues. In addition, it is a well-known fact that supply side management policies have a negative impact on the environmental sector. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of securing economic growth and improving environmental quality simultaneously by taking a static general equilibrium approach. Implementation of such policy is initiated by means of cutting environmentally unfriendly subsidies to water sector (water supply and sewage). The revenue from the reduction of subsidies is associated with indirect taxes in production sectors, which consequently reduces indirect tax rates. The study has revealed a type of double dividend effect: reduction of water supply and increase of gross domestic products (GDP). The GDP changes 0.299% - 0.561% according to variations of elasticities and the way revenue is linked with indirect taxes applied to scenarios. Meanwhile, the impacts of cutting subsidies in the water sector result in the significant increase of water prices and the reduction of water output respectively. The output reduction is proportional to values of elasticity utilized; starting a 10% for zero up to 60%. Several policy implications can be inferred from the results of this study. Taking in account the long-term effects of the subsidy-cut policy, the study predicts more output reduction in the water sector since, economically-speaking, long-term elasticities are larger than the short-term ones, like that in the present study. Hence, a current water policy that is under-priced, so as to allow over-consumption, should be changed in order for the society to achieve economic growth and

  18. The Economy-wide Impact of Fuel Oil, Gas and Electricity Pricing and Subsidy Policies as well as Their Consumption Improvement Efficiency in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Djoni Hartono; Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2006-01-01

    In Indonesia, the government determines the domestic prices of energy; namely fuel oil, such as gasoline, automotive diesel oil (ADO) and kerosene, gas and electricity. In response to the weakening of rupiah during the 1997/1998 economic crisis and the increasing of the world price of crude oil, the government tends to increase the energy subsidy on domestic prices of fuel oil, gas and electricity, rather than letting these domestic prices follows the world prices of fuel oil, gas and electri...

  19. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved.

  20. Land degradation, government subsidy, and smallholders' conservation decision:the case of the loess plateau in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Min-jun(石敏俊); CHEN Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is one of the severe environmental problems in China. In order to combat land degradation, a soil conservation program was introduced since 2000 to reduce soil erosion by converting slope-cultivated land into forestry and pasture. This paper represents the first systematic attempt to investigate the impact of the soil conservation program on land degradation in the loess plateau. The results indicate that the soil conservation program to convert slope fields into forest or pasture is an effective way to combat soil erosion. However, a subsidy that is higher than profit of land use activity of slope fields before their conversion into forest and pasture is needed to encourage farmers to join the conservation program. A policy measure to encourage and assist farmers to develop sedentary livestock by using crops produced from fields as well as fodder and forage grass from the converted slope fields might contribute to combat soil erosion. Increase in off-farm job opportunities may encourage households to reduce cultivation in slope fields. That implies a policy measure to encourage rural urbanization might contribute to combat soil erosion.

  1. Study protocol: combining experimental methods, econometrics and simulation modelling to determine price elasticities for studying food taxes and subsidies (The Price ExaM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Blakely, Tony; Nghiem, Nhung; Cleghorn, Christine L; Eyles, Helen; Genc, Murat; Wilson, Nick; Jiang, Yannan; Swinburn, Boyd; Jacobi, Liana; Michie, Jo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-07-19

    There is a need for accurate and precise food price elasticities (PE, change in consumer demand in response to change in price) to better inform policy on health-related food taxes and subsidies. The Price Experiment and Modelling (Price ExaM) study aims to: I) derive accurate and precise food PE values; II) quantify the impact of price changes on quantity and quality of discrete food group purchases and; III) model the potential health and disease impacts of a range of food taxes and subsidies. To achieve this, we will use a novel method that includes a randomised Virtual Supermarket experiment and econometric methods. Findings will be applied in simulation models to estimate population health impact (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) using a multi-state life-table model. The study will consist of four sequential steps: 1. We generate 5000 price sets with random price variation for all 1412 Virtual Supermarket food and beverage products. Then we add systematic price variation for foods to simulate five taxes and subsidies: a fruit and vegetable subsidy and taxes on sugar, saturated fat, salt, and sugar-sweetened beverages. 2. Using an experimental design, 1000 adult New Zealand shoppers complete five household grocery shops in the Virtual Supermarket where they are randomly assigned to one of the 5000 price sets each time. 3. Output data (i.e., multiple observations of price configurations and purchased amounts) are used as inputs to econometric models (using Bayesian methods) to estimate accurate PE values. 4. A disease simulation model will be run with the new PE values as inputs to estimate QALYs gained and health costs saved for the five policy interventions. The Price ExaM study has the potential to enhance public health and economic disciplines by introducing internationally novel scientific methods to estimate accurate and precise food PE values. These values will be used to model the potential health and disease impacts of various food pricing policy

  2. Perceptions of employers and unemployed youth on the proposed youth employment wage subsidy incentive in South Africa: A KwaZulu-Natal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi N. Mtembu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has high levels of unemployment and severe problem of youth unemployment. This implies that the country requires a comprehensive strategy to create more jobs for the youth. Policymaking is one of the strategies that have been introduced to encourage job creation for the youth. The youth wage subsidy is just one of the strategies proposed and this article unpacks what employers and unemployed youth say and think about this policy directive.Research purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of unemployed South African youth and employers on the proposed youth wage subsidy incentive scheme.Motivation for the study: Youth unemployment is a very important issue and the reality is that it is a concern of every government globally. South Africa is therefore not an exception as it is a country that has been experiencing high levels of youth unemployment for the last few decades. In an attempt to curb this pressing challenge of youth unemployment, a proposal to introduce a youth wage subsidy policy was made by government; (since its mention, this idea has been met with a lot of opposing opinions from those against it and applause from those who support it. This has motivated this study to probe the perceptions of the subsidy by those who will be affected by its provisions.Method: A triangulated research approach was adopted through the administration of survey questionnaires amongst the unemployed youth and semi-structured interviews with human resource managers and specialists. A sample of unemployed youth was drawn from selected communities within KwaZulu-Natal. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with human resource managers and specialists at selected organisations to determine their perceptions of the proposed scheme and any benefits or limitations they believe it might have. Non-probability sampling was used to sample 100 respondents (N = 100, 90% of whom were unemployed youths

  3. Indirect policy instruments and implementation success: the Case of the Food Subsidy Programme in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvani-Silva, Flavia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Governments all over the world face the dilemma of limited resources and increasingly tighter fiscal targets on one hand, and, on the other hand, growing pressure to deliver quality public services. The situation is particularly problematic in developing countries where the gap between resources available and demand for basic public services is much wider. Government policies, plans, targets, such as the Millennium Development Goals and the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, often remain on paper or are partially and poorly implemented for lack of resources and institutional frameworks that are weak and outmoded. In this context, governments have been searching for alternatives and experimenting with new approaches to bridge this gap and put their policies into effect. Many of the new approaches and tools being used by governments share a significant common feature: they are highly indirect, that is, they rely on third parties to deliver publicly services and pursue publicly authorized purposes - these include contracting, grants, vouchers, loan guarantees among many others. As a result, third parties are now intimately involved in the implementation, and often the management, of the public´s business and a major share of the discretion over the operations of public programmes now routinely rests outside the responsible government agency (Salamon 2002.

  4. Inovação Global de Subsidiárias Estrangeiras Localizadas em Mercados Emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that global innovation in foreign subsidiaries located in emerging markets depends directly on the international competitive context and indirectly on the national competitive context. This requires subsidiaries participate in networks external to the host country to benefit from a domestic competitive context. For this reason, the article uses foreign subsidiaries installed in Brazil as the object of research, as a representative sample of subsidiaries located in emerging markets. Structural equation modeling was applied to a survey conducted with subsidiaries in Brazil to test proposed hypotheses. The results show that foreign subsidiaries that carry out activities of global innovation while located in emerging markets use differentiated strategies to access resources in the external environment. In order to benefit from the host country’s national competitive benefits, subsidiaries need to get involved in technical networks as a means of learning to operate in an emerging market and overcome domestic market challenges. Subsidiaries integrated in global supply chains make direct use of the international competitive contexts located in developed countries.

  5. Binge eating under a complex reading: Subsidies for the praxis of food and nutrition education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Magalhães BOSI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Binge eating disorder is characterized by the consumption of large amounts of food in a short time, accompanied by the feeling of lack of control, remorse and guilt. binge eating disorder has a close interface with the obesity problem, a matter of great dimensions for health services, especially for the high comorbidity. Although this disorder is closely linked to obesity, a matter of great dimensions for healthcare, especially due to it high comorbidity, this disorder is still poorly known in its symbolic dimension, compromising actions directed to this dimension, among them those included in the scope of food and nutrition education. The purpose of this article is to delimitate the issue of binge eating disorder, under a lens based on complex thinking, in order to discuss and support the scope of the nutritional eating education, illustrating, with life experiences, the multidimensionality inherent to eating disorders. The analysis aims to highlight the challenge of working in educational practices focused on these complex disorders. Therefore, we articulated the theoretical with the empirical levels, revisiting, through a reflexive exercise, the discursive material obtained in a broad research carried out by the authors, guided by phenomenological-hermeneutics approach focusing on the understanding of binge eating disorder, with obese women who have also received this diagnosis. The analysis highlights binge eating disorder as an intense experience of suffering, which compromises the ability to innovate and reinvent behavior, in which food operates as an emotional cushion. In this context, healing requires taking an active and engaged place, feeling an active part in the self-transformation process. Thus, food and nutritional education should be conceived in the scope of a comprehensive care, as a fundamental and strategic space due to the specific nature of the practice, in potential terms.

  6. Research on Subsidy Mechanism of the Willingness of Farmers’to Adopt Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology---Taking Vegetable Waste Composting Technology as an Example in Gaocheng District of Hebei Province%农户采纳蔬菜清洁生产技术补贴机制研究--以藁城区蔬菜堆肥化处理技术为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 王丽英; 甘寿文; 魏风友; 焦兵华

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable waste composting technology is considered as an important technology of vegetable cleaner production. However the high cost of the application and time consuming resulting the existence of barriers to technology promotion. It is an effective ways of correcting the externality of technology application to incent farmers’technology adoption behavior through subsidies policy. The study applies the method of contingent valuation method (CVM) to understand the farmers’willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and cognition of environmental quality and cleaner production with 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. Then based on descriptive statistics analysis of willingness to pay and willingness to accept,this paper put forward six policy suggestions,including fully respect the willingness of farmers,improving the operating mechanism of subsidies,establishing investment and financing system, improving the education training system, setting up a system of subsidies and perfecting the management and supervision mechanism, in order to actively guide the farmers’ environmental protection production behavior and provide reference and empirical evidence for developing effective policies for cleaning production of vegetables.%以河北省藁城市142个样本为例,运用意愿价值评估方法,调查了示范区农户在实施补贴前提下,采纳蔬菜废弃物堆肥化处理技术的补贴意愿,以及对于环境质量及清洁生产的认知。在此基础上,提出蔬菜清洁生产补贴机制6点政策建议,以期为引导农户的环保生产行为、制定有效的蔬菜清洁生产技术补贴政策提供参考借鉴和实证依据。

  7. Spatial subsidies in spider diets vary with shoreline structure: Complementary evidence from molecular diet analysis and stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambäck, Peter A; Weingartner, Elisabeth; Dalén, Love; Wirta, Helena; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Inflow of matter and organisms may strongly affect the local density and diversity of organisms. This effect is particularly evident on shores where organisms with aquatic larval stages enter the terrestrial food web. The identities of such trophic links are not easily estimated as spiders, a dominant group of shoreline predator, have external digestion. We compared trophic links and the prey diversity of spiders on different shore types along the Baltic Sea: on open shores and on shores with a reed belt bordering the water. A priori, we hypothesized that the physical structure of the shoreline reduces the flow between ecosystem and the subsidies across the sea-land interface. To circumvent the lack of morphologically detectable remains of spider prey, we used a combination of stable isotope and molecular gut content analyses. The two tools used for diet analysis revealed complementary information on spider diets. The stable isotope analysis indicated that spiders on open shores had a marine signal of carbon isotopes, while spiders on reedy shores had a terrestrial signal. The molecular analysis revealed a diverse array of dipteran and lepidopteran prey, where spiders on open and reedy shores shared a similar diet with a comparable proportion of chironomids, the larvae of which live in the marine system. Comparing the methods suggests that differences in isotope composition of the two spider groups occurred because of differences in the chironomid diets: as larvae, chironomids of reedy shores likely fed on terrestrial detritus and acquired a terrestrial isotope signature, while chironomids of open shores utilized an algal diet and acquired a marine isotope signature. Our results illustrate how different methods of diet reconstruction may shed light on complementary aspects of nutrient transfer. Overall, they reveal that reed belts can reduce connectivity between habitats, but also function as a source of food for predators.

  8. Polar bear use of a persistent food subsidy: insights from non-invasive genetic sampling in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Herreman, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Remains of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) harvested by Iñupiat whalers are deposited in bone piles along the coast of Alaska and have become persistent and reliable food sources for polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The importance of bone piles to individuals and the population, the patterns of use, and the number, sex, and age of bears using these resources are poorly understood. We implemented barbed-wire hair snaring to obtain genetic identities from bears using the Point Barrow bone pile in winter 2010–11. Eighty-three percent of genotyped samples produced individual and sex identification. We identified 97 bears from 200 samples. Using genetic mark–recapture techniques, we estimated that 228 bears used the bone pile during November to February, which would represent approximately 15% of the Southern Beaufort Sea polar bear subpopulation, if all bears were from this subpopulation. We found that polar bears of all age and sex classes simultaneously used the bone pile. More males than females used the bone pile, and males predominated in February, likely because 1/3 of adult females would be denning during this period. On average, bears spent 10 days at the bone pile (median  =  5 days); the probability that an individual bear remained at the bone pile from week to week was 63% for females and 45% for males. Most bears in the sample were detected visiting the bone pile once or twice. We found some evidence of matrilineal fidelity to the bone pile, but the group of animals visiting the bone pile did not differ genetically from the Southern Beaufort Sea subpopulation, nor did patterns of relatedness. We demonstrate that bowhead whale bone piles may be an influential food subsidy for polar bears in the Barrow region in autumn and winter for all sex and age classes.

  9. Short-term degradation of terrestrial DOM in the coastal ocean: Implications for nutrient subsidies and marine microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. A.; Tank, S. E.; Kellogg, C.

    2015-12-01

    The export of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the coastal ocean provides an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia contain extensive freshwater networks that export significant amounts of water and DOM to the ocean, representing significant cross-system hydrologic and biogeochemical linkages. To better understand the importance of these linkages and implications for ecosystem structure and function, we used an experimental approach to investigate the role of microbial and photodegradation transformations of DOM exported from small coastal catchments to the marine environment. At two time periods (August 2014, March 2015), stream water from the outlets of two coastal watersheds was filtered (microbial inoculums from across a salinity gradient (i.e., freshwater, estuarine, and marine). Treatments were incubated in the ocean under light and dark conditions for 8 days. At 0, 3 and 8 days, samples were analyzed for DOC, TDN, DIN, and DON. Changes in DOM composition were determined with optical characterization techniques such as absorbance (SUVA, S, Sr) and fluorescence (EEM). Microbial community response was measured using cell counts and DNA/RNA amplicon sequencing to determine changes in bacterial abundance and community composition. General patterns indicated that microbial communities from the high salinity treatment (i.e. most marine) were the most effective at utilizing freshwater DOM, especially under light conditions. In some treatments, DOM appeared as a potential source of inorganic nitrogen with corresponding shifts in microbial community composition. Incubations using inoculum from low and mid salinity levels demonstrated smaller changes, indicating that DOM exported from these streams may not be extensively utilized until exposed to higher salinity environments further from stream outlets. These results suggest a role for terrestrial sourced-DOM as a subsidy for microbial

  10. The Analysis and Countermeasures on Agricultural Insurance Subsidy Dilemma in Our Country%我国农业保险补贴困境的因素分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林红

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural insurance is an important financial tool of developing modern agriculture,and agricultural insurance subsidies is the key to the development of agricultural insurance with the strategic background of guaranteeing nation grain safety.In order to develop adequately the promotion of agricultural insurance subsidies to agricultural insurance,improve the right route of agricultural insurance subsidy,the article analyses influencing factors that agricultural insurance subsidy get into trouble in our country,and combines with the practical situation of agriculture development,put forwards some countermeasures on resolving agricultural insurance subsidy dilemma.%在保障国家粮食安全战略背景下,农业保险是发展现代农业的重要金融手段,而农业保险补贴又是促进农业保险发展的关键。为了进一步发挥农业保险补贴对农业保险的促进作用,改善农业保险补贴的发展路径,本文分析了我国农业保险补贴陷入困境的影响因素,并结合农业发展的实际情况,提出了破解我国农业保险补贴困境的对策。

  11. Seeking an Alternative Modality to the Management of Nigeria's Fertilizer Subsidy Scheme-An Empirical Approach to the Case Study of Ondo State (1976-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Asekunowo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of Nigeria’s fertilizer subsidy scheme was to make inorganic fertilizers readily available to farmers at affordable prices in order to boost food production in the country. Shortly into the scheme, farmers complained that fertilizers were not received at the time of need and in sufficient quantities. Approach: Using Ondo State, Nigeria as a case study, to determine; inter alia, if the farmers’ complaints were founded and if so, to design alternative ways of administering the scheme such that the lofty goals for which it was established could be realized. Methodology: Primary data were collected from 596 farmers randomly selected from the state. Secondary data were collected from purposively selected NAFCON, AISC, ADP, FPDD (now FFD and a published book source. The primary data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics such as percentages and means. The secondary data were analyzed with the use of OLS and TLS regression methods. Results: The descriptive analyses showed that farmers in Ondo State did not receive their fertilizer supplies in sufficient quantities and at the time of need, despite the fact that supply surpassed adoption (demand for most years of the study period. The inferential analyses showed that a subsidy introduced into NAFCON and other producing firms’ production processes would engender increased output and induce fertilizer prices to fall in Ondo State. Conclusion: These results showed that farmers in Ondo State did not receive their fertilizer supplies at the time of need and in sufficient quantities due to leakages and diversion of the substance from the vast bureaucratic distribution channels. As an alternative, if subsidy was administered through the producing firms’ production processes, output of fertilizers would have increased making the market supply curve of fertilizers to shift to the right. This would have also caused the price of fertilizer to

  12. Uso de imagens orbitais como base de dados para projetos de reforma agrária The use of orbital images as subsidies to agrarian reform projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Fátima Vilela

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Análises técnica e econômica foram realizadas em imagens dos sensores IKONOS, TM/Landsat 5, ETM+/Landsat 7 e CCD/CBERS, objetivando a verificação da viabilidade destas como base de dados em projetos de reforma agrária. Essas análises efetuadas e a situação de mercado indicaram que a imagem IKONOS apresenta excelente desempenho técnico, mas o custo de aquisição inviabiliza sua utilização como base de dados para a reforma agrária. A imagem do Landsat 7, com baixo custo de aquisição, apresentou grande viabilidade técnica para fins de reforma agrária. No entanto, a perda do contato com a plataforma Landsat 7 inviabilizou a compra de novas imagens do sensor ETM+. A imagem CCD/CBERS apresentou a segunda maior similaridade com a verdade de campo e o menor índice Kappa para a classificação. Apesar do baixo índice de exatidão para a classificação, as análises de custo, o lançamento do CBERS-2 e a possibilidade de correção dos problemas de radiometria podem tornar as imagens da plataforma CBERS-2 concorrentes de peso no mercado e, ainda, preencher a lacuna deixada pela perda do Landsat 7. A imagem do Landsat 5 apresentou o mais baixo desempenho técnico nas análises efetuadas. Entretanto, seu potencial como base de dados é amplamente reconhecido pelo INCRA, que ainda utiliza tais imagens. O declínio da vida útil do Landsat-5 atribui mais importância ao lançamento do CBERS-2.Technical and economical analyses were performed on IKONOS, Landsat TM 5 and Landsat ETM+ 7 and CCD/CBERS data in order to verify their feasibilities to subsidy agrarian reform projects. Results showed that IKONOS data presented excellent technical viability but its high cost prevents its use. Landsat ETM+ 7 data, with low cost, presented good technical viability, however due to the problems occurring in the satellite operation, its use was also prevented . CCD/CBERS data presented the second best similarity with the ground truth data, although it

  13. Ethanol: the promise and the peril : Should Manitoba expand ethanol subsidies?[A critical analysis of the case for subsidizing ethanol production in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopuck, R.D. [Frontier Centre for Public Policy, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Rural Renaissance Project

    2002-10-01

    Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of wheat. Blending ethanol with gasoline results in an ethanol-blended gasoline (EBG). Manitoba has already established an ethanol industry in the province and the government of the province is studying the feasibility of expansion. Every year in Manitoba, approximately 90 million litres of EBG are consumed, and the province's ethanol facility also produces a high protein cattle feed called distillers dry grain. Controversies surround the ethanol industry over both the economics and the environmental benefits and impacts. At issue is the economic efficiency of the production of ethanol, where opponents claim that the final product contains less energy than that required to produce it. A small gain is obtained, as revealed by a recent study. It is difficult to quantify the environmental effects of the ethanol industry, whether they be negative or positive. The author indicates that no matter what happens, the gasoline market in Manitoba is so small when compared to the rest of the world that the effect will not be significant. The three methods for the production of ethanol are: (1) the most risky and expensive method is the stand alone ethanol production facility, (2) integrated facilities where other products are produced, such as wet mash or nutraceuticals, and (3) integrated facilities where dry mash can be exported as a high protein feed. The production of a wide range of products is clearly the best option to be considered during the design of an ethanol facility. Price collapse and the capitalizing of subsidies into prices are the main risks facing the expansion of ethanol production in Manitoba. The author states that direct subsidies and price supports should be avoided, since subsidies would encourage the conversion of more feed grain into ethanol. The feed shortage would worsen especially as Manitoba does not currently produce enough feed to support its growing livestock industry. The author concludes that

  14. 我国粮食直补政策CGE模型的构建方案%Scheme of Constructing CGE Model of China's Grain Direct Subsidy Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿

    2011-01-01

    介绍了我国的粮食直补政策模式,采用可计算一般均衡(CGE)理论,提出了我国粮食直补政策模型的构建方案.在遵循市场的完全竞争性,资本、劳动力不存在国家间的移动,汇率不变、产品的不完全替代性,行为主体为具有代表性的家庭、生产者、地方政府、中央政府所组成等假设的基础上,构建出我国粮食直补政策的CGE模型.该CGE模型需要的相关参数包括:中间合成产品、投资合成品和消费合成品在进口和国产之间的Armingtion替代弹性,生产要素之间的替代弹性,总销售在国内吸收和出口之间的转换弹性,居民支出弹性和价格弹性,出口需求弹性,以及资本存量中各部门的相对份额等.并指出CGE模型在分析粮食直补政策方面的优势及局限性.%The grain direct subsidy policy model is introduced in this paper and the computable general equilibrium (CGE) theory is used to construct the model of Chinas grain direct subsidy policy. China's grain direct subsidy policy CGE model is constructed based on the hypotheses of perfect market competitiveness, no transfer of capital and labor among nations, stable foreign exchange, incomplete replacement of products, behavior subjects including householders, producers, local governments and central government, etc. The relevant parameters of the model include the Armington substitution elasticity of semi -products, investment products and consumption products between import and domestic made, the substitution elasticity of factors of production, conversion elasticity of total sales between domestic absorption and export, expenditure elasticity and price elasticity of households, demand elasticity of export as well as the relative share of capital among various departments. In the final the paper points out the strength and limitation of using CCE model to analyze the grain direct subsidy policy.

  15. Evaluating the relative impacts of operational and financial factors on the competitiveness of an algal biofuel production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hise, Adam M; Characklis, Gregory W; Kern, Jordan; Gerlach, Robin; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gardner, Robert D; Vadlamani, Agasteswar

    2016-11-01

    Algal biofuels are becoming more economically competitive due to technological advances and government subsidies offering tax benefits and lower cost financing. These factors are linked, however, as the value of technical advances is affected by modeling assumptions regarding the growth conditions, process design, and financing of the production facility into which novel techniques are incorporated. Two such techniques, related to algal growth and dewatering, are evaluated in representative operating and financing scenarios using an integrated techno-economic model. Results suggest that these techniques can be valuable under specified conditions, but also that investment subsidies influence cost competitive facility design by incentivizing development of more capital intensive facilities (e.g., favoring hydrothermal liquefaction over transesterification-based facilities). Evaluating novel techniques under a variety of operational and financial scenarios highlights the set of site-specific conditions in which technical advances are most valuable, while also demonstrating the influence of subsidies linked to capital intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  17. Study on the Transformation of the Photovoltaic Industry Fiscal Subsidy Policy:Evolutionary Game Theory%基于演化博弈的光伏产业财政补贴政策转型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅沂

    2014-01-01

    近年来,我国光伏产业产能过剩问题日益突出,而政府财政补贴政策的不健全是产生这一问题的重要原因。文章首先分析了我国光伏产业财政补贴政策存在的事前补贴、一刀切、缺乏创新激励和缺乏事后监督等几种突出的问题的具体表现。在此基础上,文章运用演化博弈的分析工具分别对这几个问题产生的原因进行了深入分析,并据此提出了我国光伏产业财政补贴政策转型的政策建议。%PV overcapacity problems have become increasingly prominent in recent years, seriously restricted the economic growth and the government financial subsidy mechanism is not perfect, imperfect is an important cause of this problem. At present, China’ s PV industry is mostly pre-subsidy poli-cy,“one size fits all”, no special scientific research fund, monitoring mechanism is not perfect. By using a dynamic process of evolution method to study the PV industry subsidies fails, this paper from the four-pronged perspectives of government subsidy model, location choice of enterprises, corporate re-search investment vision and presence or absence of regulatory measures late to analysis the failure of financial subsidies in evolutionary game theory, find the problems, and then analyze how to transition subsidy mechanism.

  18. The theoretical model of housing subsidies and its interpretation%住房补贴的理论模型与现实解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘圣欢

    2002-01-01

    Based on the theory of price of labor force, the models of housing subsidies and market-oriented salary (including housing consumption factors) are made. With the application of these models, a new interpretation has been given to the monetization of housing distribution and the arrangement of property right of sold public housing. It is thought that when the wage of employees is set by the market, the monetization of housing distribution is naturally realized and housing subsidies do not necessarily exist. The property right of sold public housing should be defined as private property right of housing purchasers.%基于劳动力价格理论,构建了住房补贴与市场化工资模型(含住房消费因素). 运用模型对住房分配货币化、住房补贴和已售公房产权安排给出了新的解释. 认为当职工工资标准按市场化方式确立时,职工住房补贴并不需要,住房分配货币化自然形成. 已售公房产权应明确界定为购房者个人产权.

  19. Monetary Subsidies of Affordable Housing:Rizhao Case%经济适用住房货币直补改革:日照模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of social security housing can not only improve the welfare of low income groups,but also can be the important guarantee of accelerating urbanization process and maintaining sustainable economic growth.Through researching the case of monetary subsidies of affordable housing of Rizhao,this article concludes that the monetary subsidies can effectively reduce the chance of government rent-seeking,and solve the affordable housing financing problems to some extent,which achieve the Pareto Improvement and provide relative suggestions.%加快社会保障住房建设不仅能够改善中低收入群体福利,也是我国加快城市化进程和保持经济可持续增长的重要保障。日照市经济适用住房政策通过"用地市场化、补助货币化、购房自主化、运作透明化"的货币直补改革,降低了寻租机会,缓解了保障性住房建设的融资难题,相比原有的实物补贴政策具有更高的效率,实现了帕累托改进,为当前我国保障性住房建设提供了有益的借鉴。

  20. Nuclear power research funding 1956-2007: startup funding or subsidy? An update; Forschungsfoerderung Kernenergie 1956-2007: Anschubfinanzierung oder Subvention? Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Gerd [VGB Power Tech e.V., Essen (Germany); RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Weis, Michael [VGB Power Tech e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The latest outline of nuclear power research funding since 1956 was written roughly 4 years ago. This makes it appropriate to update facts and figures to the 2007 status. Another reason for doing so is the current political debate about an extension of plant life of German nuclear power stations. One objective of these debates frequently is seen to be the use of absurd figures about 'subsidies' in an attempt to discredit the economic benefit of nuclear power. The research situation has not changed much. A continued low level of funding of nuclear research, on the one hand, is opposed by a high level of electricity generation from nuclear power, on the other hand. Present nuclear power plants generating electricity have never received any subsidies. Various federal governments, most recently the Schroeder government, made this point absolutely clear. Public R and D funds were intended to be startup aids convincingly serving their purpose where the respective technologies were able to unfold. Consequently, the economic benefit of the development of nuclear power is beyond any doubt. Another wrong statement is the allegation that the demolition of nuclear power plants and the management of radioactive waste were paid for out of taxpayers' money. In fact, these costs are already included in the price of electricity, and the necessary capital outlay is posted in the appropriate provisions. (orig.)

  1. Habitat coupling in a large lake system: delivery of an energy subsidy by an offshore planktivore to the nearshore zone of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Sierszen, Michael E.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    1. We hypothesised that the autumn spawning migration of Lake Superior cisco (Coregonus artedi) provides a resource subsidy, in the form of energy-rich cisco eggs, from the offshore pelagic to the nearshore benthic community over winter, when alternate prey production is likely to be low. 2. We tested this hypothesis using fish and macroinvertebrate surveys, fish population demographics, diet and stable isotope analyses, and bioenergetics modelling. 3. The benthic, congeneric lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis) was a clear beneficiary of cisco spawning. Cisco eggs represented 16% of lake whitefish annual consumption in terms of biomass, but 34% of energy (because of their high energy density: >10 kJ g wet mass−1). Stable isotope analyses were consistent with these results and suggest that other nearshore fish species may also rely on cisco eggs. 4. The lipid content of lake whitefish liver almost doubled from 26 to 49% between November and March, while that of muscle increased from 14 to 26% over the same period, suggesting lake whitefish were building, rather than depleting, lipid reserves during winter. 5. In the other Laurentian Great Lakes, where cisco populations remain very low and rehabilitation efforts are underway, the offshore-to-nearshore ecological link apparent in Lake Superior has been replaced by non-native planktivorous species. These non-native species spawn in spring have smaller eggs and shorter incubation periods. The rehabilitation of cisco in these systems should reinstate the onshore subsidy as it has in Lake Superior.

  2. Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L M; Chriqui, J F; Khan, T; Wada, R; Chaloupka, F J

    2013-02-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks.

  3. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be −1.21, −0.52, −0.49 and −0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  4. Estratégia global e adaptação local no setor bancário brasileiro: uma análise da subsidiária brasileira do banco Citibank

    OpenAIRE

    Itamar Pacheco da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Os Bancos, com o objetivo de atender (e reter) seus clientes ao redor do mundo, se internacionalizam, implantando subsidiárias em diferentes países que possuem regulamentações, culturas e hábitos muitas vezes distintos da matriz, aumentando assim a complexidade da gestão e dos papéis que devem ser assumidos pelas subsidiárias e pela matriz. Os clientes (bancários) exigem o mesmo padrão de atendimento e qualidade, com sistemas e interface padronizados que centralizem as informações, ao mesmo t...

  5. Funding nuclear power research 1956 to 2010. Startup finance or subsidy?; Forschungsfoerderung Kernenergie 1956 bis 2010. Anschubfinanzierung oder Subvention?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Michael; Bevern, Katrin van; Linnemann, Thomas [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    In the public debate about the use and the benefits of nuclear power plants the allegation is being made again and again that nuclear power to this day had received public subsidies. That was the only reason why electricity from nuclear power plants was economically viable. That statement is wrong. Various federal governments, including the former federal government under Chancellor Schroeder and Vice Chancellor Fischer, which surely cannot be suspected of ever having supported nuclear power, said so in clear words. In actual fact, the use of nuclear power in Germany to this day, corrected for inflation and assuming an average production cost edge of euro cent 2/kWh, has saved the German economy approx. EUR 90 billion. If the 17 remaining nuclear generating units were allowed to spend also the second half of their minimum technical lifespan of 60 years, a production cost edge of 6 euro cent/kWh (no more depreciation, and rising market prices as a result of including carbon costs) again would save a calculated EUR 270 billion (in current money). The development of nuclear power and its fuel cycle of course has been supported with public funds like any other energy resource in current use. In this connection, extreme lump sum amounts are mentioned that merit more exact analysis and investigation. This was done for the first time in detail in 2004 and updated in 2008. The article constitutes another update for 2011 and contains information about the current debate. EUR 7.83 billion to date have been spent on R and D in connection with LWR technology and its fuel cycle. Another EUR 9.37 billion were spent on other reactors not used commercially in Germany, such as fast breeders, high-temperature reactors, and nuclear fusion. However, these must be separated from LWR technology and thus have not made, and are not making, any contribution to today's electricity supply from nuclear power. Again, it becomes evident that the R and D funds provided by the government

  6. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K

    1987-01-01

    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  7. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  8. Closing the access barrier for effective anti-malarials in the private sector in rural Uganda: consortium for ACT private sector subsidy (CAPSS) pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, is unaffordable and generally inaccessible in the private sector, the first port of call for most malaria treatment across rural Africa. Between August 2007 and May 2010, the Uganda Ministry of Health and the Medicines for Malaria Venture conducted the Consortium for ACT Private Sector Subsidy (CAPSS) pilot study to test whether access to ACT in the private sector could be improved through the provision of a high level supply chain subsidy. Methods Four intervention districts were purposefully selected to receive branded subsidized medicines - “ACT with a leaf”, while the fifth district acted as the control. Baseline and evaluation outlet exit surveys and retail audits were conducted at licensed and unlicensed drug outlets in the intervention and control districts. A survey-adjusted, multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the intervention’s impact on: ACT uptake and price; purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset; ACT availability and displacement of sub-optimal anti-malarial. Results At baseline, ACT accounted for less than 1% of anti-malarials purchased from licensed drug shops for children less than five years old. However, at evaluation, “ACT with a leaf” accounted for 69% of anti-malarial purchased in the interventions districts. Purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset for children under five years rose from 0.8% at baseline to 26.2% (95% CI: 23.2-29.2%) at evaluation in the intervention districts. In the control district, it rose modestly from 1.8% to 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0-7.3%). The odds of purchasing ACT within 24 hours in the intervention districts compared to the control was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.08-2.68, p=0.4) at baseline and significant increased to 6.11 (95% CI: 4.32-8.62, p<0.0001) at evaluation. Children less than five years of age had “ACT with a leaf” purchased for them more often than those

  9. Closing the access barrier for effective anti-malarials in the private sector in rural Uganda: consortium for ACT private sector subsidy (CAPSS pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talisuna Ambrose O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, is unaffordable and generally inaccessible in the private sector, the first port of call for most malaria treatment across rural Africa. Between August 2007 and May 2010, the Uganda Ministry of Health and the Medicines for Malaria Venture conducted the Consortium for ACT Private Sector Subsidy (CAPSS pilot study to test whether access to ACT in the private sector could be improved through the provision of a high level supply chain subsidy. Methods Four intervention districts were purposefully selected to receive branded subsidized medicines - “ACT with a leaf”, while the fifth district acted as the control. Baseline and evaluation outlet exit surveys and retail audits were conducted at licensed and unlicensed drug outlets in the intervention and control districts. A survey-adjusted, multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the intervention’s impact on: ACT uptake and price; purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset; ACT availability and displacement of sub-optimal anti-malarial. Results At baseline, ACT accounted for less than 1% of anti-malarials purchased from licensed drug shops for children less than five years old. However, at evaluation, “ACT with a leaf” accounted for 69% of anti-malarial purchased in the interventions districts. Purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset for children under five years rose from 0.8% at baseline to 26.2% (95% CI: 23.2-29.2% at evaluation in the intervention districts. In the control district, it rose modestly from 1.8% to 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0-7.3%. The odds of purchasing ACT within 24 hours in the intervention districts compared to the control was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.08-2.68, p=0.4 at baseline and significant increased to 6.11 (95% CI: 4.32-8.62, p Conclusions These data demonstrate that a supply-side subsidy and an intensive communications campaign

  10. Schwartz operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  11. Transition Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock-Zeilinger, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the transition operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of SU(N), using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in a companion paper. We show that the Hermitian Young projection operators together with their transition operators constitute a fully orthogonal basis for the algebra of invariants of $V^{\\otimes m}$ that exhibits a systematically simplified multiplication table. We discuss the full algebra of invariants over $V^{\\otimes 3}$ and $V^{\\otimes 4}$ as explicit examples. In our presentation we make use of various standard concepts such as Young projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan operators, and invariants (in birdtrack notation). We tie these perspectives together and use them to shed light on each other.

  12. Savings, lending rate and skill improvement in micro-finance operating through public-private cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, micro-finance programme through joint liability credit contract is explained with the help of two-stage game when the programme is operated by a non-motivated NGO with the help of commercial bank and government. We find that even in the presence of public-private cooperation and back ended subsidy provided by the government, both individual sanction as well as social sanction plays an important role of security against credit for proper functioning of the programme. Non-homogen...

  13. FARMERS' SATISFACTION OF DIRECT GRAIN SUBSIDY AND INFLUENCING FACTORS%农户对粮食直接补贴的满意度及影响因素分析——以湖北省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷俊磊; 王畅

    2012-01-01

    The effect of grain direct subsidy policy depends largely on farmers' satisfaction to it,so it is of important reference value for government to formulate and arrange grain subsidy policy in the future in studying the satisfaction of the grain subsidy and finding impact factors from the farmers' perspective.Based on the survey results of satisfaction to the food subsidy policy of 323 farmers in 7 cities of Hubei Province in 2011,the impact factors has been empirically researched by ordered Logistic model.The analysis results show that in Hubei Province,farmers' satisfaction to grain direct subsidy is higher,reaching 46.4% and having a particular expertise or not,the understanding level of food subsidy policy,suffered from floods or drought or not,and terrain of the villages have notable and more notable effects on farmers' satisfaction to the food subsidy policy.%粮食直接补贴政策的作用效果很大程度上取决于农户对该政策的满意程度,因此,从农户视角分析研究其对粮食直补的满意度并查找影响因素,对于政府今后粮食补贴政策的制定和安排具有重要的参考意义。基于2011年对湖北省7个市323户农户对粮食直接补贴满意度的实地调查,运用Logistic模型实证分析了农户影响满意度的主要因素。分析结果表明,湖北省农户对粮食直补政策满的意度较高,达到了46.4%,同时是否具备某项专业技能、对粮食补贴政策的了解程度、是否遭受水旱灾害和村庄地形等4个因素对粮食直接补贴农户的满意度具有显著和较为显著的影响。

  14. 节水器具推广财政补贴标准测算方法%Research of the Standard Calculation Method of Financial Subsidies on the Promotion of Water-Saving Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可任; 左其亭

    2012-01-01

    针对我国水资源异常短缺的严峻形势和居民日常生活用水严重浪费的事实,实施全国范围内的节水器具推广财政补贴制度势在必行.但财政补贴标准测算作为节水器具推广财政补贴制度构建工作的核心内容却尚不明确.现结合国家相关文件精神和现阶段国情的基础,选定财政补贴标准测算的影响因素,在考虑影响因素和国家政策的条件下确定财政补贴标准分区.最后,在充分考虑节水器具自身特性的基础上,提出各分区补贴标准测算系数和测算表达式.将该测算方法应用于现阶段我国节水器具推广财政补贴计算,经对比分析,认为结果是合理的.%The serious contradiction between the shortage of water resources and extravagant use of domestic water in China prompts the urgent application of the financial subsidy system for promoting the nationwide use of the water-saving devices. However,the financial subsidy standard is not clear as the key of the financial subsidies on the promotion of the water-saving devices. Based on the national spirit of the relevant documents and the current national conditions, the influencing factors affecting the standard of the financial subsidies are selected and the partitions of the financial subsidies are determined in light of the influence factors and national policies. Finally, the standard calculation coefficient and calculation equation for each partition of the subsidy standard are proposed on the basis of fully considering the features of the water-saving devices. The calculation method is then applied to the calculation of the financial subsidies on the promotion of the water-saving devices at the present stage in China,and the results are reasonable based on the comparative analysis.

  15. Research on the Peasant Benefited Effects of Fiscal Subsidy Guaranteed Loans%放大直补资金担保贷款惠农政策效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙龙云

    2012-01-01

    This article takes the Agricultural Bank of China,Jilin Branch’s fiscal subsidy loans as an example,analyzing the peasant benefited effects of the loan.It also explores new modes of financial support for the issue of "three rural" development,and gives some suggestions in the end.%本文以中国农业银行吉林省分行发放财政直补资金担保贷款为例,全面分析了财补资金担保贷款所产生的巨大惠农效应,深入探讨金融支持"三农"经济发展的新模式,进一步提出推动财补资金担保贷款发展的政策建议。

  16. The inadequacy between the photovoltaic subsidy mode and its technological maturity; L'inadequation du mode de subvention du photovoltaique a sa maturite technologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2008-12-15

    The author criticizes the current French program which aims at developing the photovoltaic (PV) sector through the development of highly subsidized markets. He states that the high purchase tariff is not the right instrument with respect to the PV technology development stage, and that it would be better to strengthen the R and D effort, notably in the thin-layer sector. Secondly, he criticizes the French approach for its too long tariff commitment, the absence of decreasing purchase tariff over 20 years, the useless addition of other aids (tax credits, VAT lowering, etc.), the absence of tariff decrease for new installations, the absence of distinction between variously mature technologies. Finally, he states that this programme will not reach the objective of building up a French photovoltaic sector because of the global competition context. According to him, an ambitious programme of subsidies for the R and D and some targeted technologies, and in favour of French manufacturers would be a better solution.

  17. Suggestions on Improving the Policy of Agricultural Machinery Purchasing Subsidy%完善农机购置补贴政策的几点建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2015-01-01

    农机购置补贴是一项支农、惠农政策。为了使农机购置补贴政策的实施与管理更加廉洁、高效、便民,针对当前的农机购置补贴政策提出几项调整建议,以期为这一政策的不断完善和更好落实提供参考。%The purchasing subsidy of agricultural machinery is a policy of supporting and benefiting the agriculture. In order to make the implement and the management of the policy more honest, efficient and convenient, it raised several adjusting suggestions according to present policy, in order to provide a reference for constantly improving and implementing the policy.

  18. Congruências entre posicionamentos estratégicos e redes de negócios: estudo de caso de uma subsidiária brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Roberto Moran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Na pesquisa exploratória aqui relatada, realizada em 2009 e guiada por uma extensa revisão bibliográfica e pelo emprego do método de estudo de caso, busca-se identificar congruências entre o posicionamento estratégico adotado pela subsidiária brasileira de uma corporação multinacional e o tipo de rede de negócios por ela integrada. Apoiando-se em dois modelos específicos da literatura acadêmica sobre os temas mencionados (posicionamento estratégico e redes, as conclusões dessa investigação sugerem que as Redes Verticais de Demanda e Fornecimento (MOLLER e RAJALA, 2007 são adequadas para operacionalizar o posicionamento definido como Melhor Produto no Modelo Delta (HAX e WILDE II, 1999; 2001.

  19. Long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI income: Creating health-promoting contexts for families experiencing housing instability with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendening, Zachary S; McCauley, Erin; Shinn, Marybeth; Brown, Scott R

    2017-08-26

    Though disability and housing instability are discussed separately in public health literature, few studies address families at their intersection. As a result, little is known about families who experience both homelessness and disability, how many receive disability benefits like SSI and SSDI, or the influence of those benefits on health-promoting outcomes like housing stability and self-sufficiency. Moreover, no previous research compares the ability of different housing and service interventions to increase disability benefit access. We examine relationships between disabilities and SSI/SSDI income reported when families enter emergency shelters and later health-promoting outcomes (housing stability and self-sufficiency) and how housing interventions affect SSI/SSDI receipt. Families in the (name removed) Study (N = 1857) were interviewed in emergency shelters, randomly offered of one of three housing interventions or usual care (i.e., no immediate referral to any intervention beyond shelter), and re-interviewed 20 months later. A third of families reported a disability at shelter entry. SSI/SSDI coverage of these families increased nearly 10% points over 20 months but never exceeded 40%. Disabilities predicted greater housing instability, food insecurity, and economic stress and less work and income. Among families reporting disabilities, SSI/SSDI receipt predicted fewer returns to emergency shelter, and more income despite less work. Offers of long-term housing subsidies increased SSI/SSDI receipt. Many families experiencing homelessness have disabilities; those receiving SSI/SSDI benefits have better housing and income outcomes. Providing families experiencing homelessness with long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI could improve public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  1. 46 CFR 251.1 - Applications for construction-differential subsidy under Title V, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the owner for engineering review and plan approval will be subsidized within a ceiling. The owner's... cost of construction. (5) Estimated revenues and cost of operation; and with respect to wage cost, the...

  2. Operation REDWING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-07-31

    only 16mm cinemascope films would be available after 1 August 1956t Act- tion was taken to modify the screens of the Terrace and Starlite theaters...approximately 900, was in operation throughout the interim and operational period. The Starlite Theater, which seats approximately 600, opened in

  3. OPERATION ASKARI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    operation using conventional arms against Swapo Plan, while they were still massed in their .... stationed there was no real threat to our planned operation. the idea was to sow confusion in the minds ...... A four by four transport vehi- cle, based ...

  4. Operational Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rosendal; Hustvedt, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    by Bakhtinian theory, Brian Edmiston developed a solution to this in the 1990s: the principle of ‘dialogic sequencing’. Aiming to escape the conflict between relativism and absolutism, we present an alternative to Edmiston’s approach, based on Niklas Luhmann’s theory of ‘operational closure’: operational...

  5. Business & Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  6. Operation crosscheck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, F. C.

    1964-11-06

    This report consists of three sections covering the three major areas of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s participation in Operation Crosscheck. These areas are: Diagnostic Aircraft; Radiochemical Sampling; and Device Assembly and Handling, Barbers Point. The information contained in these sections has been extracted from Crosscheck post-operation reports.

  7. Operational Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  8. Study On the Relationship Between Grain Subsidy Policies and Farmer's Behavior of Non-agricultural Employment%粮食补贴政策与农户非农就业行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴连翠; 柳同音

    2012-01-01

    Grain subsidy policies aimed at improving farmers' enthusiasm for growing grain and increasing grain production and family income. With increasing the inputs of grain subsidy year after year, greatly improving farmers' enthusiasm for growing grain and the allocation of family labor time is likely to be adjusted. This paper firstly constructs theoretical model of farmers' behavior in allocating labor time with grain subsidy embedded in to analyze the impact of grain subsidy policies on farmer's behavior of non-agricultural employment. Then using Tobit model and household survey data in Anhui Province, the paper empirically studies the impacts of grain subsidy policies on family off-farm labor supply. The results show that grain subsidy policies have significant negative effect on family off-farm labor supply; to some extent, it thus helps to improve Earners' enthusiasm for engaging in agriculture and food production. However, in the case of agricultural internal wage lower than the non-agricultural equilibrium wage, the negative effect on family income induced by the change of subsidy policies on farmer' s behavior of employment will exceed the current level of transfer payments. If the grain subsidy policies designed to stabilize or increase farmers' income, thus the current subsidy policies require fundamental adjustment.%粮食补贴政策旨在提高农民种粮积极性,促进粮食增产和农民增收,随着国家粮食补贴资金投入力度的逐年加大,农民种粮积极性不断提高,家庭劳动时间分配很可能因此而产生调整.本文首先通过构建嵌入粮食补贴政策的农户劳动分配决策行为模型,理论分析粮食补贴政策对农户非农就业行为的影响,然后基于粮食主产区安徽省农户的实地调查数据,采用Tobit模型分析方法,实证分析粮食补贴政策对农户非农劳动时间供给的影响.研究结果显示:粮食补贴政策对农户非农劳动时间供给具有显著的负面影响,

  9. Optimal Subsidy of SLCP in China from the Perspective of Carbon Sequestration Benefit%基于碳汇效益视角的最优退耕还林补贴标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金娜; 姚顺波

    2012-01-01

    考虑到当前世界气候变化大背景下各国政府对碳汇的重视,本文基于碳汇效益内部化和农户与政府行为的相关假设,设计了一个决定最优退耕还林补贴标准的框架,以实现社会效益的最大化.本研究首先建立了碳汇效益函数,并将其纳入土地期望收益模型,计算出社会效用最大化条件下的林木最优轮伐期;同时,将造林补贴纳入农户退耕还林决策模型之中,探索激励林农在最优轮伐期内不砍伐条件下,使政府财政支出净现值最小的退耕还林补贴标准;最后用黄土高原常见的退耕树种刺槐为例进行实证模拟,实证结果表明:黄土高原区的最佳退耕还林补贴年限为16年,补贴标准的原则是每年给予退耕补贴3985.93元/hm2,这说明了现有的退耕还林年限还是合理的,但其实际补贴额度则低于研究中的最优补贴额度,说明现有的退耕还林政策对于农户的激励作用有限.因此,建议政府可以适当提高黄土高原区的补贴标准,这样从考虑碳汇效益的角度出发,可以同时实现农户、政府与社会的三方共赢.%Considering the significance of carbon sequestration emphasized by governments in the context of global climate change, this paper is designed to determine the optimal subsidy for the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) that achieves the best social benefit, on the basis of the internalization of carbon sequestration benefits and certain assumptions of households' and governments' behaviors. Firstly, a carbon sequestration benefit function is simulated in this paper and added to the land-expected value model to calculate the optimal rotation of forests under the maximal social utility. Meanwhile, subsidy is added to the households' decision model of participating in SLCP to determine the very subsidy, which minimizes the NPV of financial expenditure, given households keeping forests during the optimal rotation. Finally, acacia as the

  10. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  11. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a

  12. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a work

  13. Net Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 吴哲辉

    1992-01-01

    Two kinds of net operations.addition and Cartesian production of P/T nets,are introduced.They are defined on the set of underlying net of P/T systems.The conditions for preserving structural properties of Petri net after these operations are discussed.It is shown that the set of P/T nets forms and Abelian group for net addition operation and the inverse net of a P/T net in usual meaning of net theory is exactly the inverse of this P/T net as an element of the P/T net group;and that the set of P/T nets forms an Abelian ring for net addition and Caresian product operations.

  14. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  15. Operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

  16. Comparative analysis on impacts of two innovation subsidies on innovation mode selection%两种创新补贴对创新模式选择影响的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春辉; 陈继祥

    2011-01-01

    为获取竞争优势,企业在资源和能力有限的条件下需要对创新模式作出合理的选择。本文运用演化博弈理论,对企业在创新投入补贴和创新产品补贴条件下的创新模式选择进行了探讨,在此基础上分析和比较了两种创新补贴对创新模式选择的影响。结果表明:无论是创新投入补贴还是创新产品补贴,补贴标准的提高均会导致企业选择颠覆性创新模式的可能性增大,选择渐进性创新模式的可能性减小,反则反之;在不同产品价格与边际成本差额条件下,两种创新补贴对创新模式选择影响的显著性存在差异。%To gain competitive advantages, enterprises need to make a rational decision on innovation mode selection under the condition of limited resources and competence. With an evolutionary game theory, the innovation mode selection of enterprises under innovation input subsidy and subsidy for innovative products is discussed, based on that, the impacts of two innovation subsidles on innovation mode selection are analyzed and compared. The results show that regardless of innovation input subsidy or subsidy for innovative products, increasing standards of these two innovation subsidies will cause enterprises select radical innovation mode with the higher probability and select incremental innovation mode with the lower probability, otherwise the results are reverse; under the condition of difference between product price and marginal cost, there is a different caused by the impact significance of two innovation subsidies on innovation mode selection.

  17. 基于可持续发展视角的财税补贴绩效研究%A Study of the Performance of Fiscal and Tax Subsidies from the Perspective of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 高诚

    2012-01-01

    This paper carries out an empirical analysis of the economic performance and social performance resulted from the application of the fiscal and tax subsidies from the perspective of sustainable development. The result implicates that fiscal and tax subsidies have no significant effect on the improvement of the economic performance of the enterprises, except that they can improve the corporate liquidity and profitability in a short term, without much influence on the corporate growth. While the social performance is relatively significant, that is to say, the fimds of the subsidies are helpful to the enterprises in carrying out their social responsibilities, such as employment increase, environmental protection etc.. Therefore, it is suggested to innovate the use of fiscal and tax subsidies, to detail the items and directions of the subsidy funds, to strengthen the follow-up management and supervision on the funds, and so on, so as to boost the improvement of the performance of the fiscal and tax subsidies.%基于可持续发展视角对财税补贴运用产生的经济绩效与社会绩效进行实证分析。实证结果表明:财税补贴资金对提高企业经济绩效并不显著,仅在短期内提高公司的偿债能力与盈利能力,对成长性影响并不明显;社会绩效相对较为显著,即补贴资金有助于企业增加就业和保护环境等社会责任的履行。因此,要创新财税补贴资金的运用方式,细化补贴资金名目与落实方向,加大对补贴资金使用的后续管理和监督等,促进财政补贴绩效的提高。

  18. Applied Operations Research: Operator's Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operates high value critical equipment (HVCE) that requires trouble shooting, periodic maintenance and continued monitoring by Operations staff. The complexity HVCE and information required to maintain and trouble shoot HVCE to assure continued mission success as paper is voluminous. Training on new HVCE is commensurate with the need for equipment maintenance. LaRC Research Directorate has undertaken a proactive research to support Operations staff by initiation of the development and prototyping an electronic computer based portable maintenance aid (Operator's Assistant). This research established a goal with multiple objectives and a working prototype was developed. The research identified affordable solutions; constraints; demonstrated use of commercial off the shelf software; use of the US Coast Guard maintenance solution; NASA Procedure Representation Language; and the identification of computer system strategies; where these demonstrations and capabilities support the Operator, and maintenance. The results revealed validation against measures of effectiveness and overall proved a substantial training and capability sustainment tool. The research indicated that the OA could be deployed operationally at the LaRC Compressor Station with an expectation of satisfactorily results and to obtain additional lessons learned prior to deployment at other LaRC Research Directorate Facilities. The research revealed projected cost and time savings.

  19. Using a community-based definition of poverty for targeting poor households for premium subsidies in the context of a community health insurance in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadogo, Germain; Souarès, Aurelia; Sié, Ali; Parmar, Divya; Bibeau, Gilles; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2015-02-06

    One of the biggest challenges in subsidizing premiums of poor households for community health insurance is the identification and selection of these households. Generally, poverty assessments in developing countries are based on monetary terms. The household is regarded as poor if its income or consumption is lower than a predefined poverty cut-off. These measures fail to recognize the multi-dimensional character of poverty, ignoring community members' perception and understanding of poverty, leaving them voiceless and powerless in the identification process. Realizing this, the steering committee of Nouna's health insurance devised a method to involve community members to better define 'perceived' poverty, using this as a key element for the poor selection. The community-identified poor were then used to effectively target premium subsidies for the insurance scheme. The study was conducted in the Nouna's Health District located in northwest Burkina Faso. Participants in each village were selected to take part in focus-group discussions (FGD) organized in 41 villages and 7 sectors of Nouna's town to discuss criteria and perceptions of poverty. The discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed in French using the software NVivo 9. From the FGD on poverty and the subjective definitions and perceptions of the community members, we found that poverty was mainly seen as scarcity of basic needs, vulnerability, deprivation of capacities, powerlessness, voicelessness, indecent living conditions, and absence of social capital and community networks for support in times of need. Criteria and poverty groups as described by community members can be used to identify poor who can then be targeted for subsidies. Policies targeting the poorest require the establishment of effective selection strategies. These policies are well-conditioned by proper identification of the poor people. Community perceptions and criteria of poverty are grounded in reality, to better

  20. 政府不同研发补贴政策下的企业市场绩效%Firm's Market Performance Analysis under Different Government R&D Subsidy Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方海燕; 达庆利; 朱长宁

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the analysis of the effect of government research and development ( R&D) subsidy policies on the firm' s performance in a duopoly market, a three-stage game model is established. The first stage is for the government R&D subsidy situation, including: 1) the government gives the subsidy for the R&D investment of a firm; 2) the government gives the subsidy to encourage a firm for R&D in product innovation. They are called the first and second subsidy policies. In this stage, the government determines the R&D subsidy rate to maximize the total social welfare. The second stage models the R&D cooperation between enterprises and the enterprises determine the R&D level to maximize the total profit. The third stage is for product competition and the enterprises determine the output level to maximize their profit. Bascd on the model, by means of backward induction, the Cournot-Nash equilibrium solutions under R&D cartel strategy are acquired. It shows that, when the cartel R&D strategy is applied, the government subsidy rate resulting from the second policy is much greater than that resulting from the first policy. Thus, the second R&D subsidy policy is superior to the first one, for it makes the firms to invest less but create more output, profit, and social total welfare.%为了研究政府的研究与开发(R&D)补贴政策,建立了双寡头市场中面向R&D工艺的三阶段博弈模型.第一阶段为政府补贴阶段,分为两种情况:一是政府对企业进行R&D投入补贴;二是对企业进行产品创新补贴.政府以社会总福利最大为目标选择R&D补贴率;第二阶段为R&D合作阶段,两企业以它们的总利润最大为目标选择R&D投入水平;第三阶段为产品市场竞争阶段,企业选择产品产量在市场上进行古诺竞争.用逆向归纳法求出了研发卡特尔策略下的古诺—纳什均衡解.研究表明,当企业采用研发卡特尔策略时,政府对产品创新的补贴力度要远高于对R&D

  1. 基于全寿命周期的生态补贴政策研究--以北京市为例%Ecological Subsidies Policy Research Based on Life Cycle:Taking Beijing as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛果; 侯懿

    2016-01-01

    屋顶绿化的成本高是屋顶绿化推广的主要阻碍因素。根据国外的实践经验,采用政府补贴的形式进行解决,然而补贴是否充分,能否有效地促进屋顶绿化的建设还有待解决。文章通过对北京市屋顶绿化的建设成本和效益的全寿命周期分析,并且考虑资金时间价值和通货膨胀的影响,采用经济学的方法说明北京市现行的补贴政策不充分,不能有效地推进屋顶绿化的建设。同时,给出一个最低的合理补贴值。%The high cost of green roof is a major obstructive factor to promote green roof. According to practical experience abroad, use the form of government subsidies to resolve it, but it is yet to be resolved whether subsidy is adequacy, and can effectively promote the construction of green roofs. Based on life-cycle cost and benefits analysis of green roofs in Beijing, this article takes into account the time value of money and the effect of inflation, and uses the methods of economics to prove that Beijing's current subsidy policy is not sufficient and can not effectively promote the construction of green roofs. Meanwhile, it gives a reasonable and minimum subsidy.

  2. EXPERIENCE AND INSPIRATION OF EXTERNAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS QUALITY AND SAFETY SUBSIDIES%国外农产品质量安全补贴的经验和启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修文彦; 李庆江; 侯丽薇; 廖超子

    2013-01-01

    安全农产品的生产由于采用了安全优质的投入品和更多生产经营方面的努力而需要更多的支持.我国农业生产和食品生产加工的分散性导致产品的质量存在更多的不可控因素,需要以建立农产品质量安全补贴机制来引导农民和食品生产企业提供安全食品.欧美等发达国家已经在农产品质量安全补贴方面付出了一些行动.该文分析了欧美等国在农产品质量安全补贴方面的基本做法和特点,提出我国尝试建立食品安全补贴机制的建议.%The production of agricultural product with safe and high quality needed more supports because it needed more inputs and efforts. China agricultural products producing and processing have more uncontrollable factors due to the dispersibility. Therefore, it is necessary to establish agriculture quality and safety subsidies mechanism to guide farmers and food-producers to provide safe food. The developed countries such as European Union and US etc. have adopted actions in agricultural production quality and safety subsidies. The article analyzed the experiences and features of subsidies in these countries and put forward some suggestions on establishing food safety subsidy mechanism in China.

  3. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  4. Operative links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2010-01-01

    as networks: second, a semantic perspective on discourses and concepts of health, and, third, a health pedagogical perspective on participation, intervention, and roles. This paper argues for the importance of 'operative links' between different levels in health strategies. It is proposed that such links...

  5. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  6. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD After Your Operation Back to Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD Welcome Your Lung ...

  7. 医院财政项目补助资金收支核算%The Revenue and Expenditure Accounting of Hospital Financial Project Subsidy Funds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌云; 万晓霞

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨对医院财政项目补助资金收支的核算。方法:分直接(授权)支付方式,一次(多次)完工建成固定资产的核算处理。结果:清晰地反映了医院财政补助项目资金的来源与支出。结论:全方位地展示了财政项目资金形成医院资产的过程,满足了财政预算资金管理和医院会计核算的需要。%Objective: Discuss the revenue and expenditure accounting of hospital finance project subsidy funds. Methods: The methods can be divided into direct ( authorization) payment, a ( multiple) completed fixed assets accounting processing. Results:Clearly reflect the sources and spending of hospital’s financial aid project funding. Conclusion:An all-round finance process of hospital assets of project funding is presented to meet the budget funds management and the needs of hospital accounting.

  8. On Innovation of Local Government Subsidy for New Rural Medical Insurance%新农保地方财政补贴方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华黎; 唐小静

    2013-01-01

    The process of implementation the new style pension in rural there are some problems in local financial support, such as, level of subsidies“reverse adjustment”, subsidies did not reach the pre-policy effects, etc. This paper studies to improve it, discuss the ways of improvement and their theoretical basis, practical basis. Hope that through the improvement the way of the financial support of local government to the new style of pension in rural so that the fairness, sustainability has increased, to promote the healthy development of the new agricultural insurance.%目前新农保实施中地方财政支持存在一些问题,如补贴水平“逆向调节”、补贴方式没达到预先的政策效应等。本文论述了其改进方式及其理论依据、现实依据,希望通过对地方政府财政支持方式的改进,使新农保在养老保障公平性、可持续性等方面有所提高,促进新农保健康发展。

  9. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  10. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-11-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procurement policies (for increasing healthful or reducing unhealthful choices), and worksite wellness programs (especially when comprehensive and multicomponent). Evidence was inconclusive for food and menu labeling (for consumer or industry behavior) and changes in local built environment (e.g., availability or accessibility of supermarkets, fast food outlets). We found little empiric evidence evaluating marketing restrictions, although broad principles and large resources spent on marketing suggest utility. Widespread implementation and evaluation of evidence-based policy strategies, with further research on other strategies with mixed/limited evidence, are essential "population medicine" to reduce health and economic burdens and inequities of diet-related illness worldwide.

  11. Operation Poorman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-03-18

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  12. Joint Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-17

    Unified Task Force (UNITAF) Somalia was formed with forces from France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, Egypt , Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the United States...military presence, open-source intelligence ( OSINT ) may be the best immediately available information to prepare US forces to operate in a foreign...country. OSINT from radio broadcasts, newspapers, and periodicals often provide tip-offs for HUMINT and other intelligence and information collection

  13. Evaluation on Performance of China's Fiscal Policy of Direct Subsidy to Grain Farming%我国财政对粮食直接补贴的政策绩效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荐华; 刘培生

    2015-01-01

    本文结合我国粮食财政直接补贴的政策实践,通过构建粮食财政直接补贴政策绩效的评价指标体系,对评价指标体系做出标准化处理,再运用层次分析法(AHP 方法)计算出各指标的权重,然后通过 AHP 模型对我国粮食财政直接补贴政策的绩效做出综合评价。结果显示:国家实施粮食财政直补前后的政策绩效差异较为明显,粮食直补政策对粮食产量和农民增收具有显著的正相关;因此,未来的粮食安全与农民稳定增收问题仍亟须补贴政策的加强及相关政策的配套和完善。%Combined with the practice of fiscal policy of direct subsidies to grain farming in China,this paper sets up an AHP model (analytic hierarchy process)to evaluate China's fiscal policy of direct subsidies to grain farming by establishing an indica-tors system,standardizing evaluation system and calculating the weight of each indicator.The result shows that there is a differ-ence in the fiscal policy performance between direct and indirect subsidies to grain farming and a positive correlation between fis-cal policy of direct subsidies to grain farming and grain farming production and farmers'income.Therefore,grain farming security and farmers'income growing in the future still need strengthening of fiscal policy of direct subsidies and the support of better rele-vant policies.

  14. 连带责任、财政补贴与农村小额团体贷款%Joint liability、 fiscal subsidy and rural micro-group-lending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周苹逢; 孟卫东; 熊维勤; 江丽梅

    2012-01-01

    Using the mechanism design theory, this paper designs collusion-proof group lending contracts with asymmetric information, and studies the effect of the government subsidies of MFIs and rural house-holds on collusion-proof group lending contracts. The results show that collusion-proof group contracts which are designed by MFIs can avoid adverse selection and moral hazard, and farmers of high-efficiency teams could obtain some information rents but this contract would extract all rents to maintain farmers of other teams at their zero status quo utility level. If the villages' composition and project revenue make MFIs' maximum expected payoff below zero, government should provide fiscal subsidy to MFIs for stim-ulating them to provide group contracts to those villages, and the subsidy must make MFIs' maximum expected payoff to be no less than zero. Also government should provide fiscal subsidy to rural house-holds for avoiding them to choose strategic default, while the subsidy should equal to the value that rural households' repayment minus their profit.%运用机制设计理论,在信息不对称条件下设计了团体贷款防合谋契约,研究了政府补贴小额信贷机构和农户对团体贷款防合谋契约的影响.研究表明:小额信贷机构为规避逆向选择与道德风险设计团体贷款防合谋契约,基于该契约,高效率团队中的农户可获得一定信息租金,而其它借款团队中的农户仅获得保留效用;当小额信贷机构在部分村庄的期望收益小于0时,政府应补贴小额信贷机构以激励其提供团体贷款契约,补贴额至少需使其获得正的期望收益;政府为防止农户策略性违约需给予农户财政补贴,补贴额为还款额超过项目成功收益的部分.

  15. WTO框架下可再生能源补贴的制度困境与消解路径%Predicament and Solutions to the Subsidy Rules of Renewable Energy under WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙法柏; 唐洪霞

    2015-01-01

    在全球应对气候变化和能源结构调整的背景下,可再生能源迅速发展,各国的补贴政策也随之而生。但是,当前的WTO规则并无法容许可再生能源补贴之例外,再加上各国的贸易保护,于是争端不断,阻碍了可再生能源相关贸易的有序竞争和发展。为摆脱这一困境,国家需要进行补贴政策的改革,合理利用既有规则,避免武断的贸易歧视政策;WTO需要顺应时代需求,在SCM协定中规定专门的可再生能源补贴制度,并注意规避补贴的滥用,防止可再生能源贸易的入侵或霸权。%Under the background of the global response to climate change and energy structure adjustment, the renewable energy development goes rapidly with the supportive subsidies by the state government.But the current WTO rules have no exceptional space for renewable energy subsidies.Also owing to the national trade protection,trade disputes related to the renewable energy have occurred repeatedly,leaving little space for the orderly competition and the development of trade related to the renewable energy.In order to get rid of this pre-dicament,it is important for the governments to reform the subsidy policy to avoid arbitrary trade discrimination policy.And for WTO,a specific system for renewable energy subsidies should be established in SCM,while trying to avoid the abuse of subsidies to prevent the invasion or hegemony of renewable energy trade.

  16. Geotechnical mapping of the urban perimeter of Chapada dos Guimarães: subsidies to the city master plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ximenes de Tavares Salomão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cartographic prediction, characterization, and documentation of geological processes and hazard areas have fundamentalimportance for land-use regulation and planning, respecting the potentials and limits of the lands. Geotechnical mappingis an effective tool, which provides local authorities with such information, as demonstrated in the elaboration of thegeotechnical mapping of the urban area of Chapada dos Guimarães, in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The morphopedologicalapproach was used, and it allowed the integrated interpretation of physical components and deductions of water shed operations.It also allowed the boundary identification of areas of relative homogeneity, as far as physical processes, geotechnicalattributes, potentialities and restrictions of land use are concerned. Six geotechnical units were defined and characterized.One was favorable for using without restrictions; two others were restricted but subject to control by Civil Engineeringworks and the remaining three ones presented geological risks associated with mass movement and erosion. The latter wasconsidered non favorable for human occupation, therefore of restricted use, and specific planning conditions.

  17. Public transport subsidies. The impacts of regional bus cards on the travel demand and energy use in Finish urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Pekkarinen, S. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This study is a part of a larger Finnish project financed by the Ministry of Transport and Communications concerned with evaluating the impacts of new integrated fare and ticket policies. The objective of the policy is to encourage a modal shift from cars to public transport, thereby reducing energy use and the harmful environmental effects of transport. The regional bus card systems (RBC) provide the opportunity to purchase a monthly ticket, at a substantial discount of normal fares, which is valid on all buses in an area covering a city centre and the smaller independent communities surrounding. RBC systems are subsidized by both Local Authorities and the state government and are currently operating in over ten urban areas in Finland. The objectives of this research project are: (1) to estimate the fare elasticities of the demand of bus services and the price elasticities of RBC demand, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted subsidizing policy and (3) to assess the consequences of the fares policy on energy use in transport. This paper deals specifically with the latter two issues. (EG)

  18. Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.

    2004-12-01

    Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

  19. 基于系统动力学的政府补贴与企业回收能力的相关性研究%Study on the Relationship between Governmental Subsidy and Corporate Recycle Ability: a System Dynamics Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 崔胜辉

    2011-01-01

    将政府补贴作为扰动变量,引入系统动力学“Vensim”仿真平台,动态模拟补贴政策对企业回收能力的影响,结果表明:政府补贴的变化对企业回收能力的影响甚微,随后,建立政府和企业之间的“委托—代理”模型对此结论进行了剖析:在信息不对称条件下,在补贴方程中没有和企业的努力水平相联系的“激励补贴”,企业的回收决策不受补贴的诱导,同时,即使理论上存在最优补贴量,但面临种类繁多的企业,使得制订这一最优补贴面临着几乎难以克服的困难.因此,提升企业回收能力,补贴政策并非首选.%As a disturbance variable, governmental subsidy was introduced to the Vensim simulation platform, dynamically simulating its effect on the corporate recycle ability, and the result indicated very weak relationship between subsidies and recycle ability. And then principal-agent model was established to analyze the results, which indicated, under asymmetrical information, the subsidy equation without the encouragement subsidy that was close to corporate endeavor, and corporate decisions were not affected by subsidy, meanwhile, although the theoretical optimization subsidy existed, it was hardly put into practice in various corporations, consequently, in order to better the corporate recycle ability, government subsidy is not the first option.

  20. Suspended Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A ship from China’s State Oceanic Administration (SOA) evaluates ConocoPhillips’s clean-up efforts in the Bohai Bay on September 2.That day, the SOA ordered the U.S. oil giant to cease all operations on the Penglai 19-3 Oilfield after the company failed to plug leaks in the oilfield by the administration’s August 31 deadline.The oil leaking from the oilfield caused by ConocoPhillips at the Penglai 19-3 Oilfield in the Bohai Bay was first spotted in June. The oil has since spread to beaches in China’s Hebei and Liaoning provinces, causing huge losses in the provinces’ tourism and aquatic farming industries.On September 7, ConocoPhillips said it will establish a fund to compensate victims of the oil spill in line with Chinese laws and to benefit the general environment of the Bohai Bay.

  1. Allochthonous subsidies of organic matter across a lake-river-fjord landscape in the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for marine zooplankton in inner fjord areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Martinez, Rodrigo A.; San Martin, Valeska; Aguayo, Mauricio; Silva, Nelson; Torres, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystems can act as both sources and sinks of allochthonous nutrients and organic matter. In this sense, fjord ecosystems are a typical interface and buffer zone between freshwater systems, glaciated continents, and the coastal ocean. In order to evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter across fjord ecosystems, we characterized particulate organic matter along a lake-river-fjord corridor in the Chilean Patagonia using stable isotope (δ 13C) and lipid (fatty acid composition) biomarker analyses. Furthermore, estimates of zooplankton carbon ingestion rates and measurements of δ 13C and δ 15N in zooplankton (copepods) were used to evaluate the implications of allochthonous subsidies for copepods inhabiting inner fjord areas. Our results showed that riverine freshwater flows contributed an important amount of dissolved silicon but, scarce nitrate and phosphate to the brackish surface layer of the fjord ecosystem. Isotopic signatures of particulate organic matter from lakes and rivers were distinct from their counterparts in oceanic influenced stations. Terrestrial allochthonous sources could support around 68-86% of the particulate organic carbon in the river plume and glacier melting areas, whereas fatty acid concentrations were maximal in the surface waters of the Pascua and Baker river plumes. Estimates of carbon ingestion rates and δ 13C in copepods from the river plume areas indicated that terrestrial carbon could account for a significant percentage of the copepod body carbon (20-50%) during periods of food limitation. Particulate organic matter from the Pascua River showed a greater allochthonous contribution of terrigenous/vascular plant sources. Rivers may provide fjord ecosystems with allochthonous contributions from different sources because of the distinct vegetation coverage and land use along each river's watershed. These observations have significant implications for the management of local riverine areas in the context of

  2. Prevalence of malaria parasitemia and purchase of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs among drug shop clients in two regions in Tanzania with ACT subsidies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Throughout Africa, many people seek care for malaria in private-sector drug shops where diagnostic testing is often unavailable. Recently, subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs, a first-line medication for uncomplicated malaria, were made available in these drug shops in Tanzania. This study assessed the prevalence of malaria among and purchase of ACTs by drug shop clients in the setting of a national ACT subsidy program and sub-national drug shop accreditation program. METHOD AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey of drug shop clients was performed in two regions in Tanzania, one with a government drug shop accreditation program and one without, from March-May, 2012. Drug shops were randomly sampled from non-urban districts. Shop attendants were interviewed about their education, training, and accreditation status. Clients were interviewed about their symptoms and medication purchases, then underwent a limited physical examination and laboratory testing for malaria. Malaria prevalence and predictors of ACT purchase were assessed using univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. Amongst 777 clients from 73 drug shops, the prevalence of laboratory-confirmed malaria was 12% (95% CI: 6-18%. Less than a third of clients with malaria had purchased ACTs, and less than a quarter of clients who purchased ACTs tested positive for malaria. Clients were more likely to have purchased ACTs if the participant was 5 years, experience (aOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.2-6.3. Having malaria was only a predictor of ACT purchase in the region with a drug shop accreditation program (aOR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.5-7.4. CONCLUSION: Malaria is common amongst persons presenting to drug shops with a complaint of fever. The low proportion of persons with malaria purchasing ACTs, and the high proportion of ACTs going to persons without malaria demonstrates a need to better target who receives ACTs in these drug shops.

  3. 金融机构在水库移民直补资金中的金融功能探讨——以江西省黎川县为例%Function of financial institutions in subsidy funds of reservoir immigrants: case study of Lichuan County of Jiangn Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春美; 康卫国

    2012-01-01

    以水库移民直补资金为切入点,描述了当前金融机构在直补资金发放中承担的支付媒介功能,分析了在直补资金发放中金融机构的金融功能受制因素.借助案例得出以下结论:信用贷款存在有效需求,金融机构应为有融资需求且享受直补资金的移民提供融资服务;直补资金转为小额贷款模式能够发挥金融机构的金融功能,提高直补资金的使用效益.%Based on the subsidy funds of reservoir immigrants, the payment function of the current financial institutions in providing the subsidy funds is introduced, and the constraint factors for their Financial function are analyzed. The following conclusions are drawn with the aid of a case study: the credit loan has effective demand, and the financial institutions should provide financial services for immigrants with financial demand and in possession of subsidy funds. The mode of subsidy funds transformed into microcredit loan can enhance the function of financial institutions and improve the utility efficiency of the subsidy funds.

  4. 闭环供应链的再制造补贴政策比较研究%A Comparative Study on Remanufacturing Subsidies of Closed-loop Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍; 赵阳

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a game model which consists of two manufacturers, one is the traditional manufacturers that produce the new product; the other is the remanufacturer that produces the remanufactured products. Assuming that both of the manufacturers provide warranty services and advertising for their products, and the two kinds of products are of the same price. The paper studies the government subsidies considering service and recycling rate, and analyzes the impact of subsidies on traditional remanufacturer’s service level and output as well as profits. Based on the numerical simulation, this paper provides advice and suggestions for the government’s policy-related subsidies.%论文建立了包含制造商和再制造商的博弈模型,两个制造商都为他们的产品提供包括保修和广告在内的服务;在两种产品具有相同销售价格的假设条件下,通过研究政府对再制造品的服务谁以及原产品利用率进行补贴这两种情况,分析补贴政策对新产品和再制造品的服务水平、产量以及利润的影响,并用数值仿真对其进行数量方面的证实,从而为政府出台相关补贴政策提供意见和建议。

  5. The egg-sharing model for human therapeutic cloning research: managing donor selection criteria, the proportion of shared oocytes allocated to research, and amount of financial subsidy given to the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human therapeutic cloning made by Hwang and colleagues have opened up new avenues of therapy for various human diseases. However, the major bottleneck of this new technology is the severe shortage of human donor oocytes. Egg-sharing in return for subsidized fertility treatment has been suggested as an ethically justifiable and practical solution to overcome the shortage of donor oocytes for therapeutic cloning. Because the utilization of shared oocytes in therapeutic cloning research does not result in any therapeutic benefit to a second party, this would necessitate a different management strategy compared to their use for the assisted conception of infertile women who are unable to produce any oocytes of their own. It is proposed that the pool of prospective egg-sharers in therapeutic cloning research be limited only to younger women (below 30 years of age) with indications for either male partner sub-fertility or tubal blockage. With regards to the proportion of the shared gametes being allocated to research, a threshold number of retrieved oocytes should be set that if not exceeded, would result in the patient being automatically removed from the egg-sharing scheme. Any excess supernumerary oocyte above this threshold number can be contributed to science, and allocation should be done in a randomized manner. Perhaps, a total of 10 retrieved oocytes from the patient may be considered a suitable threshold, since the chances of conception are unlikely to be impaired. With regards to the amount of subsidy being given to the patient, it is suggested that the proportion of financial subsidy should be equal to the proportion of the patient's oocytes being allocated to research. No doubt, the promise of future therapeutic benefit may be offered to the patient instead of financial subsidy. However, this is ethically controversial because therapeutic cloning has not yet been demonstrated to be a viable model of clinical therapy and any promises made to

  6. 基于消费者补贴的供应链碳减排优化%A Research on Optimal Emission Reduction Decisions in Supply Chain based on the Subsidies for Consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仕辉; 付菊

    2015-01-01

    针对低碳产品两级供应链中上游制造商主导的情境,应用Stackelberg博弈理论分别建立了制造商和零售商在有无消费者补贴时的分散决策和集中决策博弈模型。通过对政府补贴消费者的政策效果和供应链成员企业相应的定价和减排优化策略的分析,采用罗宾斯坦讨价还价模型设计了使供应链协调优化的契约机制。求解和比较分析发现,政府实施消费者补贴政策,供应链企业也间接从补贴政策中获得利益,间接实现了补贴供应链企业政策的目的,且企业合作策略更优;当单位减排率补贴额满足一定条件时,能够实现供应链碳排放总量的降低和供应链的协调。最后用数值分析验证了结论的有效性。%In the situation that the two-echelon supply chain of a low-carbon product which is domina-ted by the upstream manufacturer,this paper respectively constructed decentralized and centralized decision models on the theory of Stackelberg game when manufacturer and retailer facing subsidies for consumers or not. It aimed at analyzing the effect of such a policy as well as the relevant pricing and emission reduction optimal strategies of the member firms in the supply chain,and designing a contract mechanism which realized the co-ordination of supply chain with Rubinstein bargaining model. By solving and comparatively analyzing,it was found that the policy of subsidies for consumers carried out by government can not only benefit the enterprises, but also realize the purpose of policy of subsidies for enterprises indirectly. Moreover,cooperation is the better strategy . And it is possible to reduce the total carbon emissions and to achieve the coordination of supply chain when the subsidy of unit emission reduction rate satisfies certain conditions. Finally,a numerical analysis was applied to verify the validity of the results.

  7. A controladoria sob a perspectiva da teoria da contingência: a influência dos fatores contingenciais na área de controladoria divisional em subsidiárias de uma organização multinacional

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Edna Yayoi Hirakawa

    2013-01-01

    A abordagem contingencial estabelece que algo é verdadeiro somente sob condições específicas. A Controladoria atua no sentido de mensurar, controlar e integrar os esforços para assegurar a otimização do resultado econômico das organizações. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo delinear as características dos fatores contingenciais: tamanho, estratégia, tecnologia, estrutura e ambiente presentes nas subsidiárias de uma organização multinacional. Procurou-se identificar de que modo estes aspectos i...

  8. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Resources About the Patient Education Program The Recovery Room Choosing Wisely Educational Programs Educational Programs Educational ... Lung Operation After Your Operation Your Discharge and Recovery Complete Video After Your Operation Guidance for after ...

  9. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Safety Conference MBSAQIP News Contact Us ... College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD After Your Operation ...

  10. Operator theory, operator algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lebre, Amarino; Samko, Stefan; Spitkovsky, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    This book consists of research papers that cover the scientific areas of the International Workshop on Operator Theory, Operator Algebras and Applications, held in Lisbon in September 2012. The volume particularly focuses on (i) operator theory and harmonic analysis (singular integral operators with shifts; pseudodifferential operators, factorization of almost periodic matrix functions; inequalities; Cauchy type integrals; maximal and singular operators on generalized Orlicz-Morrey spaces; the Riesz potential operator; modification of Hadamard fractional integro-differentiation), (ii) operator algebras (invertibility in groupoid C*-algebras; inner endomorphisms of some semi group, crossed products; C*-algebras generated by mappings which have finite orbits; Folner sequences in operator algebras; arithmetic aspect of C*_r SL(2); C*-algebras of singular integral operators; algebras of operator sequences) and (iii) mathematical physics (operator approach to diffraction from polygonal-conical screens; Poisson geo...

  11. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Participate Resources Webinars for Young Surgeons YFA E-News Resident and Associate Society Resident and Associate ... ACS Leader International Exchange Scholar Program Resources RAS E-News Operation Giving Back Operation Giving Back Operation ...

  12. Accessibility, availability and affordability of anti-malarials in a rural district in Kenya after implementation of a national subsidy scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simiyu Chrispinus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor access to prompt and effective treatment for malaria contributes to high mortality and severe morbidity. In Kenya, it is estimated that only 12% of children receive anti-malarials for their fever within 24 hours. The first point of care for many fevers is a local medicine retailer, such as a pharmacy or chemist. The role of the medicine retailer as an important distribution point for malaria medicines has been recognized and several different strategies have been used to improve the services that these retailers provide. Despite these efforts, many mothers still purchase ineffective drugs because they are less expensive than effective artemisinin combination therapy (ACT. One strategy that is being piloted in several countries is an international subsidy targeted at anti-malarials supplied through the retail sector. The goal of this strategy is to make ACT as affordable as ineffective alternatives. The programme, called the Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria was rolled out in Kenya in August 2010. Methods In December 2010, the affordability and accessibility of malaria medicines in a rural district in Kenya were evaluated using a complete census of all public and private facilities, chemists, pharmacists, and other malaria medicine retailers within the Webuye Demographic Surveillance Area. Availability, types, and prices of anti-malarials were assessed. There are 13 public or mission facilities and 97 medicine retailers (registered and unregistered. Results The average distance from a home to the nearest public health facility is 2 km, but the average distance to the nearest medicine retailer is half that. Quinine is the most frequently stocked anti-malarial (61% of retailers. More medicine retailers stocked sulphadoxine-pyramethamine (SP; 57% than ACT (44%. Eleven percent of retailers stocked AMFm subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (AL. No retailers had chloroquine in stock and only five were selling artemisinin

  13. 事业单位财政补助现状与改革的思考%Pondering on Public Institution Financial Subsidy Status Quo and Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青

    2015-01-01

    事业单位作为我国政府部门的组成部分,行使着为公众服务的重要使命,在社会服务和管理等方面都起着非常重要的作用。自改革开发以来,我国政府相继出台了一些政策刺激事业单位的改革并取得了较大成绩。即便如此,事业单位经费供给模式并未改变。事政不分、事企不分、资金利用效益低、工作效率差、本位主义严重与地区发展不平衡等问题依然存在。针对事业单位财政补助现状及存在的问题,提出相应的建议:进行事业单位人事制度改革,重新核定事业单位编制;多方筹措资金,保障分流职工权益;完善社会保障体系;优化事业单位的资源配置并建立预算与编制相适应的管理制度。%The public institution is a part of government sector in the country. It performs important mission of serve the public, plays very important role on aspects of social services and management. Since the reform and opening to the outside world, our government have induced a number of policies successively to stimulate the reform of public institutions and made great achievements. Even so, fund apply mode for public institutions have not been changed. Thus leading issues to confound institution with government, institution with enterprise, low efficiency of capital utilization, low work efficiency, serious departmentalism and imbalanced regional development are still existed. In allusion to public institution financial subsidy status quo, corresponding advises have been put forward:carrying out institution reform of personnel system, recheck and ratify organization;many-sided financing, ensuring diversion staff rights and inter⁃ests;improving social security system;optimizing public institution resources allocation, establishing managerial system corresponding to budget and organization.

  14. A Combined Monitoring and Modelling Approach to Maximise Environmental, Social and Economic Outcomes from Agri-environment Subsidies at a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, B.; Anthony, S.; Chadwick, D.; Cross, P.; Swetnam, R.; Jackson, B. M.; Smart, S.; Skates, J.

    2014-12-01

    Planning, delivery and monitoring of integrated environmental, social and economic outcomes from agri-environmental payments to land owners has rarely been attempted at a national scale. Wales has launched one of the most ambitious projects ever within the EU to frame both delivery of payments and ongoing integrated assessment of outcomes within an ecosystem framework. Payment and evaluation activities are running simultaneously, which when combined with scenario analysis from a suite of biophysical and landscape quality models, allows for adaptive management as the scheme progresses. Social and economic benefits and constraints to uptake of scheme measures and desired outcomes are embedded within the project to ensure benefits to the wider population are realised. Initial modelling results in the first year of the monitoring and evaluation programme quantified potential benefits from a range of management options offered under the subsidy scheme. At a national scale these ranged from: 1 to 9% improvement in flood mitigation; 5 to 10% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; increased accessible land for 'generic' broadleaf focal species by 3 to 12%, increased national carbon storage by ca. 0.4%, and reduced eroded soil and phosphorus delivery by up to 15% due to reduced connectivity of erodible land to rivers and lakes. Results at local / farm scales could be as high as 80% in some locations. A 75% improvement in habitat for selected 21 indicator plant species was also projected. The inter-dependency between outcomes is being explored through a major integrated rolling monitoring programme taking co-located measurements of soil, vegetation, landuse, soils, water, birds and pollinators, GHG fluxes, landscape and historic features and farmer / landowner surveys using a stratified sampling approach across the country. In addition to scenario analysis, modelling is being used to upscale and integrate findings and to explore the extent of co-benefits and trade

  15. Optimal Economic Operation of Islanded Microgrid by Using a Modified PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal economic operation method is presented to attain a joint-optimization of cost reduction and operation strategy for islanded microgrid, which includes renewable energy source, the diesel generator, and battery storage system. The optimization objective is to minimize the overall generating cost involving depreciation cost, operation cost, emission cost, and economic subsidy available for renewable energy source, while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. A novel dynamic optimization process is proposed based on two different operation control modes where diesel generator or battery storage acts as the master unit to maintain the system frequency and voltage stability, and a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to get faster solution to the practical economic operation problem of islanded microgrid. With the example system of an actual islanded microgrid in Dongao Island, China, the proposed models, dynamic optimization strategy, and solution algorithm are verified and the influences of different operation strategies and optimization algorithms on the economic operation are discussed. The results achieved demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  16. Approach to Issues in Planning and Operation of Railway BOT Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xianghong; Chen Min

    2009-01-01

    As an internationally popular mode of public infrastructures' investment,construction and operation,BOT (build-operate-transfer) has been successfully applied in some countries and regions of the world for their infrastructures' construction and playing an important role in promoting the construction of public infrastructures.The Ministry of Railways clearly proposed in its Suggestions for Implementation of Encouraging,Supporting and Guiding Participation of Non-public-owned Economy in Railway Construction and Operation that it was necessary to study and take for reference multiple modes of public infrastructures'investment,construction and operation including BOT.It is more complicated and risky for the process of planning and operation of BOT projects.The paper takes for reference the domestic and foreign experiences in the operation of BOT projects,analyzes the issues that will arise such as risk control in implementing railway BOT projects,employment of professional consultants,financing coordination,tariff making,non-commercial subsidy,as well as operation and management,and puts forward corresponding suggestions for these issues.

  17. Ideological leaning and praxis of housing co-operatives in South Africa: Matters arising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jimoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social movements came about as a result of dissatisfaction felt by society from the status quo. They present their grievances through demonstrations, strikes, riots, occupation of land, boycott of business or by the development of social and economic alternatives such as self-help schemes or saving clubs. In South Africa, people join housing co-operatives because it takes a long time to wait for the Reconstruction Development Project (RDP houses promised by the Government. The leaning of 5 housing co-operatives was examined within the context of ideology and praxis that are components of triad model. This was done through multi-case study whereby the chairpersons of the housing co-operatives were interviewed using structured interview format. Findings from the study indicated that all the housing co-operatives were not open and voluntary; also, the housing co-operatives were not administered the same way. In all, efforts were put in by the housing co-operatives in engendering the ideology of co-operatives on one hand and the government on the other hand in providing the necessary subsidy so that the gap in the housing deficit could be bridged since this fitted its policy on housing. 

  18. Hidden Agricultural Export Subsidies in the WTO Framework and Implications for China%WTO体系下的隐蔽性农产品出口补贴及对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓冰; 李晓玲

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguay Round negotiations failed to establish substantive obligations for hidden agricultural export subsidies. Since the establishment of the WTO, the members have been resorting to the dispute settlement mechanism to interpret and enforce existing soft rules, and on the other hand, negotiating new rules in the Doha Round negotiations. This thesis explores the current situations and especially the development of negotiations of the hidden export subsidies, and analyses China' s interests and stance on this topic.%由于乌拉圭回合谈判未对隐蔽性农产品出口补贴规定实质义务,WTO成立之后,成员一方面借助争端解决机制,解释和实施抽象的现有规则,另一方面通过新一轮农业谈判,制定新规则。文章探讨了WTO体系下隐蔽性农产品出口补贴的现状与谈判进展,阐述了中国在此问题上的立场与利益。

  19. The Research of Higher Educational Subsidy System Based on Educational Cost Sharing and Compensation Theory%基于教育成本分担与补偿理论的高等教育资助体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红柳; 王飞通

    2015-01-01

    为体现教育公平,根据教育成本分担与补偿理论,我国建立了高等教育资助体系,但资助体系尚存在资助方式不科学、资金来源不广泛,监督机制不健全等问题。因此,要进一步完善资助体系,改进高等教育资助方式,既实现成本分担,又体现教育公平。%We have established higher educational subsidy system based on educational cost sharing and compensation theory to relfect the educational equity. There are still some questions, such as unscientiifc funding formula, without extensive funding and unsound monitoring mechanism. Therefore, we have to improve the subsidy system and the higher educational funding formula to achieve cost-sharing and education fairness.

  20. Customer Lifetime Value: Value Analysis of Customers for a Cellular Phone Operator - The Vivo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brantes Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate customer value for a mobile operator (VIVO, based on the Customer Lifetime Value model (CLV, with the purpose of analyzing how the Brazilian mobile operators‟ industry evaluates its customers and the impact this evaluation might have on retaining customers, especially among those considered to be highly valuable. Supported by the company's annual report and internally collected data, CLV calculations were developed in order to understand how the company's handset subsidies policy could be structured around customer value. The results of this case study show clear differences in value between customer segments, indicating that visions of value and customer management present in the literature are important steps to increase a firm's value strategic management. 

  1. Analysis of gasoline and diesel prices and subsidies in Mexico, 2007-2011; Analisis de los precios y de los subsidios a las gasolinas y el diesel en Mexico, 2007-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepach M, Reyes [LXI legislatura, Camara de Diputados (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    Beginning in December 2009, the federal government reinitiated monthly changes in gasoline and diesel prices in order to reduce subsidies, shifting responsibility to the nation's consumers. From December 2009 to July 2011, Premium gasoline rose from 9.57 to 10.38 pesos per liter, Regular gasoline (Magna) increased from 7.77 to 9.32 pesos per liter and diesel from 8.16 to 9.68 pesos per liter. Gasoline and diesel subsidies in the year 2011 had the following behavior: in December 2009, Premium gasoline in Mexico was 27 cents per liter more expensive than in the United States, and in July 2011 it was 1.12 pesos less expensive per liter in our country. For Regular (Magna) gasoline in December 2009 a subsidy of 64 cents per liter was maintained, and in July 2011 it was 1.33 pesos less expensive per liter in our country. Finally, the subsidy for Diesel was maintained at 1 peso per liter in December 2009, increasing 2.11 pesos per liter in July 2011 with respect to the price observed in the United States. The monetary estimate of income losses by the gasoline industry due to these price differences was 41,421.27 million pesos (mp) during 2010, corresponding to -21,246.55 mp for Regular, 597.22 mp for Premium and -20,771.94 mp for Diesel. For the period January to July 2011, the total income loss experienced by the industry was 48,976.19 mp, corresponding to -28,400.9 mp for Regular, -1,707.6 mp for Premium and -18,867.8 for Diesel. Note that 57.99% of the loss in income was generated through the consumption of Regular gasoline since demand by automobiles continues to be high in the country; Premium was 3.49% and Diesel represented 38.52% of the total subsidy. With regard to the fiscal impact of the subsidy for gasoline and Diesel, during fiscal year 2007 and 2008, there was a transfer to the consumers of 48,324 and 217,609.1 mp, respectively. In fiscal year 2009, a positive balance was collected in IEPS of 3,203.1 mp in federal public funds. For fiscal year 2010 the

  2. Analysis of gasoline and diesel prices and subsidies in Mexico, 2007-2011; Analisis de los precios y de los subsidios a las gasolinas y el diesel en Mexico, 2007-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepach M, Reyes [LXI legislatura, Camara de Diputados (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    Beginning in December 2009, the federal government reinitiated monthly changes in gasoline and diesel prices in order to reduce subsidies, shifting responsibility to the nation's consumers. From December 2009 to July 2011, Premium gasoline rose from 9.57 to 10.38 pesos per liter, Regular gasoline (Magna) increased from 7.77 to 9.32 pesos per liter and diesel from 8.16 to 9.68 pesos per liter. Gasoline and diesel subsidies in the year 2011 had the following behavior: in December 2009, Premium gasoline in Mexico was 27 cents per liter more expensive than in the United States, and in July 2011 it was 1.12 pesos less expensive per liter in our country. For Regular (Magna) gasoline in December 2009 a subsidy of 64 cents per liter was maintained, and in July 2011 it was 1.33 pesos less expensive per liter in our country. Finally, the subsidy for Diesel was maintained at 1 peso per liter in December 2009, increasing 2.11 pesos per liter in July 2011 with respect to the price observed in the United States. The monetary estimate of income losses by the gasoline industry due to these price differences was 41,421.27 million pesos (mp) during 2010, corresponding to -21,246.55 mp for Regular, 597.22 mp for Premium and -20,771.94 mp for Diesel. For the period January to July 2011, the total income loss experienced by the industry was 48,976.19 mp, corresponding to -28,400.9 mp for Regular, -1,707.6 mp for Premium and -18,867.8 for Diesel. Note that 57.99% of the loss in income was generated through the consumption of Regular gasoline since demand by automobiles continues to be high in the country; Premium was 3.49% and Diesel represented 38.52% of the total subsidy. With regard to the fiscal impact of the subsidy for gasoline and Diesel, during fiscal year 2007 and 2008, there was a transfer to the consumers of 48,324 and 217,609.1 mp, respectively. In fiscal year 2009, a positive balance was collected in IEPS of 3,203.1 mp in federal public funds. For fiscal year 2010 the

  3. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals Trauma Systems Consultation ... Your Operation Guidance for after the operation including review of attached equipment and ways for you to ...

  4. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scholar Program Resources RAS E-News RAS-JACS Journal Club Medical Students Operation Giving Back Operation Giving ... Conference Schedule Conference App Conference Objectives Claim CME Credits Claim CNE Credits Keynote Speaker 2017 Presentations Education ...

  5. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scholar Program Resources RAS E-News RAS-JACS Journal Club Medical Students Operation Giving Back Operation Giving ... the ACS Catalog Find a Product Contribute Education Journal of the American College of Surgeons About JACS ...

  6. 农村教育"两免一补"政策的理论价值与实践效应分析%Study on the Practice and Theory Value of Policy of Exempt and Subsidy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫思祺

    2011-01-01

    "两免一补"政策的实施不仅较好的诠释了义务教育的纯公共产品属性,较好地体现了教育均衡发展,教育资源公平、合理的分配理论在农村教育领域的发展与应用,而且也正是公共财政理论的应有之意,是教育正义理论中平等与差别原则在基础教育实施过程的内在要求.运用数据辅证、理论推理的方法,论证"两免一补"政策的实施,对营造农村教育的新氛围、改变农民读书无用论的错误认识;减轻农民家庭经济负担,对消除农村辍学率;提高劳动生产率、增加经济效益都起到了良好地效果.因此,政府应进一步完善"两免一补"政策、丰富教育理论价值、增强其实践效应.%practicing on policy of exempt and subsidy not only has annotated a predicable commonality product of compulsory education, and has materialized development and application that the theory of balanced development of compulsory education, equity of resource of education, reasonable distribute have done in rural education, but also is meaning of public finance theory and principle of equality and difference in education justice puts in practice on demand of the compulsory education.According to data and theory , actualizing of the policy of exempt and subsidy has better effect on the building on new atmosphere of rural education,changing on error means for studying in school; and lightening on burden of farmer domestic economy,dispelling dropout ratio in rural; developing of lab productivity increase ratio, increasing economy benefit.Thus government should consummate policy of exempt and subsidy, enrich value of education theory, increase domino effect.

  7. O  papel das subsidiárias e a internacionalização das atividades tecnológicas pelas Empresas Transnacionais (ETNs The subsidiary mandate and the internationalization of technological activities by Transnational Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se propõe a analisar os mandatos das subsidiárias de empresas transnacionais (ETNs no estrangeiro por intermédio dos mecanismos de alocação das atividades de pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D entre os centros descentralizados de pesquisa. Iniciamos o trabalho com a apresentação de uma síntese das diferentes perspectivas encontradas na literatura econômica sobre a subordinação (ou condicionamentos da autonomia administrativa e tecnológica das filiais. Tal síntese permite estabelecer uma hierarquia entre as subsidiárias e uma tipologia para evolução (retrocesso de mandatos construída, principalmente, para as ETNs estruturadas em forma de rede corporativa. A seguir, a partir de pesquisas realizadas sobre as atividades dos laboratórios de P&D da indústria de equipamentos de telecomunicações no Brasil, procuramos mostrar que: a a descentralização das atividades tecnológicas é um fato que não está restrito apenas aos países centrais; b as tecnologias de informação permitiram que as subsidiárias no país se integrassem aos laboratórios centrais das ETNs, dando-lhes condições de desenvolver e participar de outras atividades tecnológicas, além das tradicionais funções de adaptação de processo e de produtos.This paper tries to analyze mandates of Transnational Enterprises (TNEs subsidiaries in the foreigner through the mechanisms of allocating activities of R&D (Research and Development between decentralized centers of research. We initiate the work by presenting a synthesis of the different perspectives found in economic literature on the subordination (or conditionings administrative and technological of the subsidiaries. Such synthesis allows us to establish a hierarchy between subsidiaries and a typology for evolution (retrocession of mandates constructed, mainly, for the TNEs that are structuralized in form of a corporative network. Then, from researches on the activities of laboratories of R&D in the

  8. A Research on the Issues of Two Subsidy Systems for the Disabled People through Perspective of Policy Implementation%政策实践视角下残疾人两项补贴制度相关问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤

    2014-01-01

    我国的残疾人两项补贴制度是在吸收国际经验的基础上,提出各地结合实际开展试点探索。将困难残疾人生活保障和重度残疾人康复护理优先纳入制度化政策保障有着深刻的社会发展背景,是基于残疾人群体与社会平均水平的明显差距和残疾人中尤为困难的群体需求。由于政府的大力支持,两项补贴制度的实施得到了较快的发展。当前推进残疾人两项补贴制度建设,存在的问题主要包括在制度设计和实施上尚不完善、在补贴标准和补贴范围上不同地方差距较大、尚未普遍达到预期效果等方面,需要进一步加大推进力度。%Based on international experience, China’s Two subsidy system is piloted in accordance with local conditions. There are profound social development backgrounds to take living securities of the troubled disabled people and rehabilitation nursing of the severely disabled as the priorities of safeguarding system:the obvious gap between the disabled people and the social average as well as the needs of the most troubled disabled people. The two subsidy systems have developed rapidly due to the strongly supports from the CPC and government. But there are still plenty of rooms to improve in terms of system design and implementation. The regional disparity is relatively large in terms of subsidy standards and ranges. It has not achieved the ideal results yet which requires much more dynamics to promote these policies.

  9. Formação de competências para o desenvolvimento de produtos em subsidiárias brasileiras de montadoras de veículos Building competencies for product development in Brazilian subsidiaries of the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amatucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O Desenvolvimento de Produtos (DP em subsidiárias de multinacionais traz enormes ganhos para o país em termos do amadurecimento de fatores de produção avançados, aproveitamento e alavancagem de especialização de mão-de-obra, e inserção estratégica do país na divisão internacional do trabalho. Este trabalho analisa as condições de capacitação de subsidiárias de montadoras de veículos para o DP e apresenta um modelo explicativo do desenvolvimento desta capacitação. O estudo foi feito em duas montadoras que desenvolveram carros no Brasil, a GM e a VW, com a utilização de Grounded Theory. O modelo mostra que a capacitação é resultado de uma combinação da estratégia da matriz com a estratégia da subsidiária, tendo em vista fatores ambientais globais, a saber: a necessidade de adaptação de modelos globais e a impossibilidade de fazê-lo centralizadamente; e fatores locais, a saber, fatores locais do ambiente brasileiro, aprendizado gradualista por adaptação e as ligações com fontes de competências. Implicações para a teoria e para a prática são indicadas.Product Development (PD carried out in subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs located in countries with emerging economies provides advances in factors of production, creates high-quality jobs, increases specialisation of the workforce, and it is favourable to a strategic insertion of the host country in the international division of labour. This paper analyses the overall conditions of Product Development competence building at subsidiaries of automotive companies located in Brazil, and puts forward an aexplanatory model of this competence building process. The study was held at two Brazilian subsidiaries that had effectively developed new products - General Motors do Brasil and Volkswagen do Brasil - with the use of Grounded Theory. The model shows that competence building is caused by global factors such as the need for adapting global models and

  10. Poly-infix operators and operator families

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.; Ponse, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Poly-infix operators and operator families are introduced as an alternative for working modulo associativity and the corresponding bracket deletion convention. Poly-infix operators represent the basic intuition of repetitively connecting an ordered sequence of entities with the same connecting primitive.

  11. 市场压力、财政补贴与上市高新技术企业双元创新投资%Market Pressures, Fiscal Subsidy and Ambidextrous Innovation Invest-ment of Listed High-tech Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟淑萍; 毕晓方

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how the listed high-tech enterprises make use of fiscal subsidy re-sources to implement the ambidextrous innovation investment, and further analyses the modera-ting effect of market pressure on fiscal subsidies promoting ambidextrous innovation invest-ment. The study finds that: ( 1 ) The fiscal subsidy has incentive effect on enterprise innovation investment, further more, the incentive effect of fiscal subsidy for exploratory innovation invest-ment is stronger than exploitative innovation investment. (2) The increase of capital markets ex-pected pressure significantly facilitates the incentive effect of fiscal subsidies promoting explorato-ry innovation investment. (3) When the enterprise is facing the dual pressure of product market competition and capital market expectations, the fiscal subsidy has stronger incentive effect on exploratory innovation investment. This article’s research conclusion has a certain theoretical and practical significance for guiding enterprise reasonable al ocation of fiscal subsidies resources, re-ducing the innovation investment myopia behavior, improving enterprise’s capacity for independ-ent innovation and competitive advantage.%探讨上市高新技术企业如何利用财政补贴资源实施双元创新投资,并进一步分析市场压力对财政补贴激励双元创新投资的调节作用。研究发现:(1)财政补贴对企业创新投资具有激励效应,相对开发式创新投资,财政补贴对企业探索式创新投资具有更强的激励效应;(2)资本市场业绩预期压力的增加会显著促进财政补贴对企业开发式创新投资的激励效应;(3)当企业面临产品市场竞争与资本市场业绩预期双重压力时,财政补贴对企业开发式创新投资的激励效应更明显。研究结论对于引导企业合理分配财政补贴资源、减少创新投资的短视行为、提升企业自主创新能力和竞争优势具有一定的理论与现实意义。

  12. Fiscal Subsidies, Agency Problem and Technological Innovation---Based on R & D Heterogeneity%财政补贴、代理问题与企业技术创新--基于R & D投资异质性视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾群; 谷靖; 吴宗耀

    2016-01-01

    利用深圳证券交易所2008~2013年上市高新技术企业的数据,基于第二类委托代理问题,研究政府财政补贴对创新投入与创新模式的影响。研究结果显示:财政补贴对高新技术企业的创新投入具有正向促进作用;财政补贴对创新模式的影响存在差异,即财政补贴对探索式创新有激励作用,而对开发式创新没有作用;控制权私有收益对财政补贴与创新投入之间有负向调节作用;控制权私有收益对财政补贴与探索式创新产生正向调节作用,而控制权私有收益对财政补贴与开发式创新之间的关系不起作用。%Taking listed Hi-tech Enterprises in Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2013 as samples, this paper analyzes the impact of fiscal subsidy on enterprises’ technological innovation and innovation mode based on the 2 nd type agency prob-lem. Results show that, firstly, the fiscal subsidy has stimulating effect on Hi-tech Enterprises’ technological innovation. Secondly, fiscal subsidy has different impact on innovation mode. The fiscal subsidy has promoting effect to the exploratory innovation, but does not work for the exploitative innovation. Thirdly, private benefits of control negatively moderate the re-lationship between fiscal subsidy and technological innovation. In the end, Private benefits of control positively moderate the relationship between fiscal subsidy and exploratory innovation. However, private benefits of control does not play a role in the relationship between fiscal subsidy and exploitative innovation.

  13. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  14. 最优环境研发补贴及技术溢出的效应分析%An Effect Analysis of Optimal Environmental R﹠D Subsidy and Technology Spillover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仕辉; 王麟凤

    2015-01-01

    考虑生产同质产品的两个企业,企业投入环境研发以减少温室气体排放,并通过技术溢出免费从竞争企业学到环境研发技术。但由于市场机制会导致企业的环境研发水平低效率,政府通过补贴引导企业环境研发。通过构建三阶段的动态博弈模型、数理推导和数值模拟,对最优环境研发补贴政策和技术溢出效应进行分析。结果表明:在最优环境研发补贴政策实施后,企业的环境研发水平和社会福利是关于技术溢出程度增加的。此外,企业的环境研发水平和社会福利都有所提高,单位产出所排放的有害气体有所减少。因此,政府可以通过补贴政策提高环境研发水平,改善国家福利。%The duopoly model proposed in this paper considers two firms producing the homogeneous goods. Apart from investing in environmental R﹠D to reduce greenhouse gas emission,a firm can also learn the environmental R﹠D technology from its competitor for free through technology spillover. However,because the market economic system will lead to inefficiency of the level of environmental R﹠D,the government guides the environmental R﹠D of the enterprises by offering subsidy. With the help of a three-stage dynamic game model,mathematical deduction and numerical simulation,this paper analyzes the effect of the optimal environmental R﹠D subsi-dy and technology spillover. The result shows that after the implementation of the subsidy,the R﹠D level and social welfare of enterpri-ses increase in relevance to the degree of R﹠D spillover. Whatˊs more,the R﹠D level and social welfare of enterprises have increased accompanied by less emission of harmful gases per unit of output. Therefore,government can improve social welfare by raising the level of environmental research and development through the subsidy policy.

  15. A Study of Fairness of the Impoverished College Students' Subsidy Policy%高校贫困生资助政策执行中的公平性问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄惠娜

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure the poor college students finish their studies, our country has published the subsidy policy, but the funding policy implementation is unfair, manifested in funding opportunities, the funding process and son on. The main reason is that the system is not perfect, diversified standards, funding shortages, difficulties in management and poor students" psychological problems. In order to solve the problem, we should construct the macro financial aid policy, refine the subsidy regulation, establish poor college students' file system, increase the work - study job and es- tablish poor students' feedback system.%为保证高校贫困生顺利完成学业,国家出台了对高校贫困学生的资助政策,但目前资助政策执行中出现了不公平现象,突出体现在资助机会、资助过程、资助结果等方面。导致这种不公平现象产生的原因主要有认定制度不完善、认定标准难统一、资助资源短缺、资助后管理困难、贫困生的心理问题得不到重视等。为解决这一问题,我们应该构建宏观资助体系政策,完善贫困生资助法规,建立高校贫困生的档案制度,增加高校的勤工助学岗位,建立贫困生资助反馈制度。

  16. 日本农业补贴政策的历史考察--以昭和初期为对象%A Historic Investigation of Agricultural Subsidies in Japan-Taking Early Showa Period as a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国华

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural protecting system in Japan was formed after the World War II, but prior to it, the concepts and policies of pro-tecting agriculture had emerged already. As the most commonly used policy instruments in the national agricultural supporting system, agricultural subsidies had nearly a hundred years of history in Japan. This paper is oriented towards early Showa, analyzes various char-acteristics of the scale, contents and goals of agricultural subsidies under the influences of different fiscal policies. Also it points out that the nation uses subsidizes as means to strengthen the intervention on rural policies, so as to govern rural areas.%日本农业保护体系成型于二战后,但农业保护的理念和部分政策手段早在二战前即已出现。农业补贴作为对本国农业支持与保护政策体系中最常用的政策工具,在日本有着近百年的发展历史。本文以昭和初期为考察对象,分析在不同财政政策的影响下日本农业补贴规模、内容和目标的阶段性特征。同时指出经济危机和战争时期,国家以补贴为手段加强政策对农村的介入,达到了统制农村的目的。

  17. Subsidiária de TI como alternativa estratégica para economia dos custos de transação: estudo de caso em um grupo financeiro multinacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thálita Anny Estefanuto Orsiolli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar como uma subsidiária de Tecnologia da Informação (TI pode contribuir para a economia dos custos de transação de um grupo financeiro multinacional.  Para melhor compreender essa relação e identificar se há ou não economia nos custos de transação, foi feito um estudo de caso com a intenção de buscar evidências das cinco dimensões da teoria dos custos de transação: oportunismo, racionalidade limitada, incerteza, especificidade de ativos e frequência da transação. Os dados utilizados para a pesquisa foram obtidos por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, e entrevistas com funcionários das duas empresas de um grupo financeiro multinacional. Os resultados demonstram que a capacidade de centralização das informações, com o intuito de desenvolver competências para inovar ou para a customização dos serviços prestados pela empresa mãe, foi um dos fatores que motivaram a manutenção de uma estrutura própria de TI. Além disso, em virtude dos pressupostos comportamentais, das características das transações e dos ativos envolvidos, manter a estrutura de TI integrada na dimensão hierárquica, na forma de uma subsidiária, pode garantir à organização principal economia nos custos de transação. Os resultados deste estudo ratificam os princípios sobre a Teoria dos Custos de Transação. 

  18. Communicating the AMFm message: exploring the effect of communication and training interventions on private for-profit provider awareness and knowledge related to a multi-country anti-malarial subsidy intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm), implemented at national scale in eight African countries or territories, subsidized quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and included communication campaigns to support implementation and promote appropriate anti-malarial use. This paper reports private for-profit provider awareness of key features of the AMFm programme, and changes in provider knowledge of appropriate malaria treatment. Methods This study had a non-experimental design based on nationally representative surveys of outlets stocking anti-malarials before (2009/10) and after (2011) the AMFm roll-out. Results Based on data from over 19,500 outlets, results show that in four of eight settings, where communication campaigns were implemented for 5–9 months, 76%-94% awareness of the AMFm ‘green leaf’ logo, 57%-74% awareness of the ACT subsidy programme, and 52%-80% awareness of the correct recommended retail price (RRP) of subsidized ACT were recorded. However, in the remaining four settings where communication campaigns were implemented for three months or less, levels were substantially lower. In six of eight settings, increases of at least 10 percentage points in private for-profit providers’ knowledge of the correct first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria were seen; and in three of these the levels of knowledge achieved at endline were over 80%. Conclusions The results support the interpretation that, in addition to the availability of subsidized ACT, the intensity of communication campaigns may have contributed to the reported levels of AMFm-related awareness and knowledge among private for-profit providers. Future subsidy programmes for anti-malarials or other treatments should similarly include communication activities. PMID:24495691

  19. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  20. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...